The cornerstone of this Pro-Cathedral Church, dedicated under the title of Mary,
Mother of God, Virgin conceived without the primal stain,
and destined to adorn the City of Minneapolis, was laid with solemn rite
on the thirty-first day of May in the year of Our Lord, 1908.
 Basilica_of_Saint_Mary_Minneapolis_Index_1955  James M Reardon Basilica of Saint Mary Links    Monsignor_James_Michael_Reardon_PA  partial history
Johannes Gregorius Murray
Archiepiscopus Sancti Pauli
Paulopoli die 1 a Decembris, 1955

Basilica of Saint Mary

Historical and Descriptive Sketch
James Michael Reardon, P.A.


to the
Who Laid the Foundation of the Catholic Church
and especially to
Crowning the Achievements of Their Forefathers
Adorned the City of Minneapolis


IT WAS my pleasure during the twelfth annual meeting of the American Catholic Historical Association at Minneapolis (December 28-30, 1931) to read the manuscript of Fathel Reardon's description of the Basilica of Saint Mary in that city. The historical account of the planting of our Faith in Minne­sota and the architectural explanation of the Basilica itself are so exceptionally well written and in such ideal conformity with the canons of criticism that it is an honor to pen these lines of appreciation.

The research involved in the establishment of the historical facts and traditions which Father Reardon has woven into his narrative can easily be surmised from the bibliography of archival and printed sources appended to his brochure. It is greatly to Father Reardon's credit that, amid the many de­mands upon his time as pastor of the Basilica of Saint Mary, he has succeeded not only in giving his readers an accurate account of the rise and progress of the Church in Minneapolis but also in creating what will undoubtedly become a model for this type of historical study.

Future historians of the Church in the United States must base their narratives upon well-written and well-documented diocesan and parochial histories; and when there is added to the text, as in Father Reardon's essay, an architectural descrip­tion of the Basilica itself, we reach a perfection of design which places the work among those of permanent value in American Catholic historiography.

The metropolis itself as well as the Catholic citizenship of Minneapolis may well be proud of Father Reardon's interesting and scholarly production.


Catholic University of America Washington, D. C.


THE FOLLOWING pages tell the story of the Parish of the Immaculate Conception of Minenapolis from shed­church to Basilica.

They preface the history of its origin and growth with a brief account of the first parish founded in St. Anthony, now part of "the City by the Falls," whence came the pioneer priests who ministered to the spiritual needs of the Catholic settlers on the west bank of the Mississippi. They trace the development of the parish, under devoted pastors, from humble beginnings, through decades of progress, to the culminating glory of the present.

The story is taken from official records and unpublished doc­uments, supplemented by information obtained from men and women who knew the pioneers, and shared the labors and triumphs of their successors. The writer is grateful for their cooperation in making more complete than otherwise this per­manent record of notable achievement.

To the historical part of the narrative is added a description of the Basilica of St. Mary and its appointments, to serve as a guide for parishioner and visitor interested in its architectural details and the symbolism incorporated in them.

The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to His Excellency, the Most Reverend John G. Murray, S.T.D., Arch­bishop of St. Paul, for scholarly reading of the manuscript and many valuable suggestions and criticisms.  The present volume is a re-issue augmented by a description of the principal events and incidents in the history of the parish during the twenty-three years between 1932 and 1955.

Feast of the Immaculate Conception. December 8, 1955.

James M. Reardon

The Basilica of Saint Mary

The Falls of St. Anthony

Father Hennepin and his companions sojourned in this vicin­ity until the beginning of July when they accompanied a band of Indians on a buffalo hunt down the Rum River, named the St. Francis by Hennepin, and encamped for a time at what is now Anoka. Father Hennepin and Auguelle were permitted to continue the journey down the Mississippi in search of supplies while Accault was detained as a hostage for their return. They glided into the waters of the Mississippi, but had not gone many miles before they were forced to seek the shore because of a cataract "forty or fifty feet high divided in the middle by a rocky island of pyramidal form." They paused in admiration before the falling water which they were the first white men to view. "I called it," writes Father Hennepin, "St. Anthony of Padua's in gratitude for the favors done me by the Almighty through the intercession of that great saint."
The Falls of St. Anthony, then in the midst of a primeval wilderness, is now within the corporate limits of the City of Minneapolis. For many decades it was naught but a name on the crude maps of the western world. In the course of time it was destined to become a landmark in fixing the location of places which were eventually to surpass it in importance. But for more than a century no colonists came to take possession of the fertile prairies that billowed inland from its foaming waters.

The Pioneer Missionaries
On November 4, 1727, nearly fifty years after the discovery of the Falls of St. Anthony, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was offered up for the first time on Minnesota soil in the log chapel dedicated to St. Michael within the stockade of Fort Beauhar­no is, on the northwestern shore of Lake Pepin; but no con­certed effort was made to convert the Indians or to bring spirit­ual succor to the hardy pioneers, who had braved the dangers of an unknown land and penetrated into the neighborhood of St. Anthony Falls, until after the visit of Bishop Loras of Dubuque to St. Peter's (now, Mendota) in the early summer of 1839.


The Catholics of St. Peter's, one hundred and eighty-five in number, had never before seen a priest or bishop in these re­mote regions. After baptizing fifty-six persons, confirming eight, administering Holy Communion to thirty-three and im­parting the nuptial blessing to four couples, Bishop Loras promised to send a priest to minister to their spiritual needs. Accordingly, on April 26, 1840, the Reverend Lucien Galtier, born in France in 1811 and ordained in Dubuque on January 5, 1840, was appointed first resident pastor in Minnesota with headquarters at St. Peter's whence he ministered to the Cath­olics of what is now St. Paul, for whose convenience he built a log chapel, 18 by 20, dedicated to St. Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles, on All Saints Day of the following year. On his depart­ure for a new field of labor on May 25, 1844, the Reverend Augustine Ravoux became the lone sentinel of Rome in the vast territory north of the Iowa line in the Diocese of Du­buque.

Father Ravoux, who was born in Langeac in Auvergne, France, January 11, 1815, and came to the United States in October, 1838, was ordained with Father Galtier, and began his apostolate among the Sioux Indians of Minnesota in 1841. He was reluctant to leave the redmen when Bishop Loras as­signed him to St. Peter's and its missions, in the future Diocese of St. Paul, where he was destined to spend the rest of his life in yeoman service for the nascent church in the Northwest. To him more than to anyone else must be given credit for laying its foundations. He labored with unwearying zeal amid the privations and hardships of these primitive days; and lived to reap a rich harvest from the seed he planted, and to see, not in vision but in reality, the dawning glory of the golden age of Catholicism in the Province of St. Paul. He died in 1906.

Frontier Movement Westward

For a score of years prior to the appointment of Father Ravoux as pastor of St. Peter's - with a roving commission to minister to aborigines and colonists


 - the tide of immigration had borne settlers into the valley of the upper Mississippi. From South and East they came in ever-increasing numbers, brought up the river by the "Virginia" on her maiden voyage to St. Paul in 1823 and on subsequent trips. Their ranks were swelled with refugees from the fur-trading posts north of the Canadian border - settlers from the Selkirk colony in Manitoba­bands of hardy pioneers and daring adventurers who took pos­session of the land and paved the way for the commercial supremacy of the Twin Cities of the future. Among them were many Catholics - Irish and French traders, half-breeds, cour­eurs de bois, soldiers of fortune -lured by the hope of wresting riches from untilled prairie and primeval forest and from barter with the nomadic Indian who followed the lumbering buffalo across the grassy plain.


Where the Pioneers Prayed

To THESE Catholic settlers, as occasion offered, Father Ravoux preached the gospel, administered the Sacraments and furnished opportunities for the practice of their reli­gion. The only available chapels were those of St. Peter's and St. Paul; and to them the settlers flocked from the surrounding territory. In his Reminiscences, Memoirs and Lectures he says that "a great portion of the membership of the Catholic Church who overcrowded the Chapel (of St. Paul) on Sundays were not only those living in St. Paul, but many from Little Canada, St. Anthony and Mendota." From time to time he visited the Cath­olics in the vicinity of St. Anthony Falls, where a village had sprung up. Indeed, St. Anthony Falls was better known than St. Paul. In the Metropolitan Catholic Almanac for 1844, we find mention of St. Paul's Church "near the Falls of St. An­thony" ; of the Sioux Mission "above the Falls of St. Anthony" ; and of St. Peter's Church "near the Falls of St. Anthony." Fa­ther Ravoux foresaw that the neighb9rhood of the Falls was the natural location for a town, and that a church would soon have to be provided for the growing congregation.
First Church of St. Anthony

As early as 1848 the Town of St. Anthony had been platted.

It had neither store, hotel nor church. When the Territory of Minnesota was organized in 1849, Father Ravoux realized that the time had come to make provision for a parish. Among the pioneer settlers were several Catholic families and, no doubt, Father Ravoux said Mass for them occasionally in private homes. From time to time they also assisted at Mass in the log chapel of St. Paul. He prevailed upon Pierre Bottineau to donate a suitable block in the "upper town" as a site for the proposed church. "In 1849 he (Father Ravoux) commenced 
the erection of the first church within the present limits of Min­neapolis." It was to be built of limestone, of which there was an unlimited supply in the vicinity; but when the foundation was laid it was discovered that the cost of a stone church would be too great a tax on the meager resources of the parishioners. A frame superstructure was built, the exterior of which was completed by July, 1851. It was the first house of worship to lift its beneficent cross within the confines of what was to be

the City of Minneapolis. Father Ravoux personally supervised its construction, paddling up the river from St. Peter's frequently for that purpose.

Organized Parish Life

One of the first acts of Bishop Cretin after his installation as Bishop of St. Paul, was to appoint the Reverend Dennis Ledon (1824-1881) resident pastor of St. Anthony Falls, as the settlement was then called. Father Ledon, ordained in France in 1848, and curate in the parish of Nantua in the Diocese of Belley, had accompanied the Bishop on his return to America after his consecration by Bishop Devie of Belley on January 26, 1851, for the newly-erected diocese in the Territory of Minne­sota


Father Ledon came to the parish about the middle of July ­the first baptismal entry, that of Bridget Delaney, is dated July 22, 1851 - and immediately took steps to finish the interior of the church and provide meager furnishings. He also built a two-­room addition to the rear to serve as a residence for the pastor .

A year later, on July 20, Bishop Cretin made his first official visit to St. Anthony Falls, dedicated the church and preached to the congregation. This was the second church dedication in the dio­cese, the first being that of the Cathe­dral on the corner of Wabasha and Sixth Streets, St. Paul, in the autumn of the previous year. The Bishop made another visit to the parish in August, 1853, when he consecrated a new bell before it was hung in a belfry erected near the church

In the meantime the congregation had increased rapidly and now numbered nearly a thousand souls. The Bishop decided that the time had come to open a parochial school, and he requested the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, who had come to St. Paul from St. Louis in November, 1851, to provide the teachers. The story of that school and its vicissitudes in told elsewhere in this booklet 

Rt. Rev. J. Cretin. D.D. (1851-1857)
Second Church of St. Anthony
In a few years the Church of St. Anthony became too small for the congregation and, early in the summer of 1855, it was decided to undertake the erection of a stone church, 140x60x30 feet in size; but before actual work began Father Ledon, forced

to resign the parish because of ill-health in November of that year, was assigned to the St. Paul Cathedral and the Reverend John Fayolle, assistant to Father Belcourt of St. Joseph and Pembina, who had accompanied Bishop Cretin from France, succeeded him. His first baptismal entry was made on Novem­ber 22, 1855. Father Fayolle was born in Le Puy, on July 2, 1809, and ordained in St. Paul on September 29, 1851. His first appointment was to Little Canada until 1854.

Under the direction of the new pastor plans for a stone church were prepared, and the work of construction began in 1857. During the next two years the foundation was completed and the walls carried up to the roof. The strain of parish duties and of building operations proved too much for Father Fayolle, and his health, never very robust, began to fail perceptibly. His physical illness, aggravated by a melancholy disposition, brought about a mental collapse, necessitating his removal from the parish in April, 1860, by Bishop Grace who had succeeded Bishop Cretin. Father Fayolle died in St. Vincent's Sanitarium, St. Louis, Mo., in 1883.

He was succeeded by the Reverend John McDermott, born in Clifton, County Galway, Ireland, in 1816, and ordained in Little Rock, Arkansas, about 1840. He came to the Diocese of St. Paul in 1860 and assumed charge of the parish a few weeks after Father Fayolle's departure. His first baptismal entry was on June 14.

His first task was to finish the church. It was found necessary to tear down the walls almost to the water-table and rebuild them before the roof could be put on with safety. Butdespite the delay the sacred edifice was ready for dedication on July 21, 1861. It was a very imposing structure for those days. It was built of limestone from a neighborhood quarry. A square tower of generous proportions, rising a few feet above the rooftree and surmounted by a cross, projected beyond the fa«ade, of which it formed part, and provided a vestibule into which the main door opened. An additional entrance was lo­cated on each side of the tower. At the front corners stone buttresses ending in miniature turrets rose above the eaves and
added to the pleasing appearance of the church. This building, with the exception of the brick facade and twin spires added in 1887 and replaced by a new stone front in 1946, is the St. Anthony Church of today on Ninth Avenue and Main Street, Northeast Minneapolis. 

The influx of Germans into St. Anthony led to the establish­ment of the parish of St. Boniface in 1858 in the immediate

neighborhood of the pioneer church. There was considerable rivalry between the two congregations manifested by after­school clashes between the pupils of the parochial schools. To avoid these encounters the pupils of the German school were released half an hour before the dismissal of the fighting Irish, as they were called. In time the belligerents became friends and intermarried, and the northeast section of the city became a melting-pot of the nations.

The people of St. Anthony Church were chagrined because they had a French priest for pastor between 1866 and 1886, when one of their own nationality was placed in charge and became the Soggarth Aroon* of the people until his elevation to the episcopal dignity brought about his transfer to another field of labor.


* John Banim  Poet, dramatist, novelist, b. 3 April, 1798, at Kilkenny, Ireland; d. 31 August, 1842. Together with his brother Michael, were consindered the first national Poets of Ireland:  The Banims may be justly called the first national novelists of Ireland. They knew their countrymen not as the strange, grotesque caricatures too often portrayed in fiction, but as members of the great human family with noble impulses and generous traits. Their work, however, is notably free from patriotic bias. Their Irishmen have their faults. Though naturally sympathetic, tender-hearted, and forgiving, these typical Celts could become stern, bitter, and revengeful. Ignorance, poverty, and cruelty are shown to exist among the peasantry. But the reader cannot fail to see the cause of all this—the natural working out of religious persecution and political oppression.
Also the poems“Soggarth Aroon” [‘Loyal and brave to you, / Soggarth Aroon / Yet be not slave to you / Soggarth Aroon / Nor, out of fear to you, / Stand up so near to you- / Och, out of hear to you / Soggarth Aroon! // ... Knelt by me, sick and poor ... on the marriage day ... friend only ... And for this I was true to you / Soggarth Aroon / In love they’ll never shake, / When for Old Ireland’s sake / We a true part did take, / Soggarth Aroon!’];“Aileen” [‘And I go to brave a world I hate, / And woo it o’er and o’er, / And tempt a wave and try a fate, / Upon a stranger shore, / Aileen; / Upon a stranger shore.//Oh, when the bays are all my own, / I know a heart will care, / Oh, when the gold is wooed and won, / I know a brow shall wear ../; and ‘He Said that he was not Our Brother’, styled a ‘ferocious attack provoked by some utterance of Wellington about Ireland’ [JMC], and continuing: ‘The mongrel! he said what we knew. / No, Eire! our dear mother-island, / He ne’er had his black blood from you!’ Stanza 2 of the same ‘tarnishes’ various English kings and conquerors in Ireland; Stanza 3 explains the conquest, ‘No! falsehood and feud were our evils, / While force not a fetter could twine’ and ends with the asservation, ‘[...] And no traitor among us or nigh us- / Let him come, the Brigand! let him come!’
New Outpost of the Faith

IN THE years following the boom of 1849, St. Anthony Falls grew in numbers and importance, even though it did not fulfill the prediction of its leading citizens in the matter of population. When it was incorporated as a city in 1855, it had an estimated population of two thousand, about one-fifth of the forecast. The increase came largely from immigration. Many of the new arrivals finally settled on the west side of the river, and soon a village sprang up which, when it cast off the swad­dling clothes of infancy, formed the nucleus of the City of Minneapolis.

Among the new-comers were many Catholics who were obliged to assist at Mass in the Church of St. Anthony and re­ceive spiritual ministrations from its pastor. At first they crossed the river on a ferry; later on they used the suspension bridge - "one of the wonders of America" - opened for traffic in 1855, paying a toll for the privilege. In winter they took advantage of the ice. After the admission of Minnesota to statehood in 1858, Minneapolis, as the new settlement had been named five years before, grew rapidly in size and population and threatened to outstrip, as it did eventually, its elder sister across the river.

From the beginning of his pastorate Father McDermott realized the necessity of making special provision for the Cath­olics of Minneapolis, and arranged to say Mass for them every Sunday and to instruct the children in catechism. The Catholic Directory for 1861 notes the fact that Minneapolis "is attended every Sunday from St. Anthony Falls. Mass at 8 a. m. Cate­chism at 21h p. m., 50 children attending."

Such an arrangement could be but temporary. Father Mc­Dermott foresaw that at an early date it would be necessary to 
build a church for the accommodation of the Catholics in the new town and a school for the children who were obliged to attend St. Anthony's.

First School and Church

On December 29,1865, he purchased from Franklin Beebe two lots, each 66x150 feet, in Block 56 of the Town of Minne­apolis and Haag's Addition thereto, for the sum of fifteen hundred dollars. They were located on the east side of Third Street at the intersection of Third Avenue, North. This action was taken with the approval of Bishop Grace who realized that be­fore long a new parish would have to be established in that locality.

In the summer of 1866 Father McDermott began the erection of a frame building on the second lot from the corner to be used as a school and temporary church. To finance the project he had to give a mortgage on the property to  William Gavin for six hundred dollars. Before McDermott was transferred to Austin, Minnesota, and on November 12, 1866, deeded the property, subject to the mort­gage, to his successor, Reverend Felix Tissot, who put the fin­ishing touches on the school and opened it for the admission of pupils on December 10 of that year. To defray the cost he borrowed six hundred dollars from John Sullivan, giving a second mortgage on the property. Both mortgages were satis­fied on March 21, 1868, by Father Tissot, who had deeded the property to Bishop Grace on December 20, 1866. The school was placed in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph who lived at St. Mary's Convent in St. Anthony. (For further details turn to page 106) 

The school was "used for the double purpose of church and school ... on Sundays Mass was said and catechism taught; during the week the building was used as a school." This was the arrangement until the first resident pastor was appointed in the person of the Reverend James McGolrick who came in the autumn of 1868.


First Resident Pastor

  Father McGolrick had already spent a year in the Diocese as assistant pastor of the Cathedral of St. Paul where he won golden opinions from all. "Few men," says the Northwestern Chronicle, "possess the charming single-mindedness that has endeared the Reverend Gentleman to us all .... May success crown his efforts in the pioneer Catholic Church of Minneap­olis."
Bishop Grace wanted him to take charge of Byrnesville (near the present Savage), but he asked to be sent to Minne­apolis, and the Bishop granted his request 

 The announcement of Father McGolrick's appointment was received with unfeigned joy by the Catholics of Minneapolis. It meant the beginning of a new era in their religious life. As resident pastor his presence would give the Catholics a feeling of solidarity with the Universal Church, coordinate their spirit­ual efforts and direct them into nor­mal channels. The result more than justified the hopes of the congrega­tion. No better choice could have been made of a pastor to do the pio­neering work and officially represent the Catholic Church in a non-Catho­Iic community. Youthful, energetic, learned and devoted, Father McGol­rick entered upon his new duties with unbounded enthusiasm. He soon established himself as a leader in the town and became the friend of all, regardless of class or creed. Naturally reserved and of a retiring disposition he, neverthe­less, knew how to mingle with his fellowmen, to win their respect and confidence.  It is needless to add that he soon foun a secure niche in the affections of his flock, and the passage of years served only to make more intimate and personal the bond between pastor and people. 


The "Shed Church"

  Father McGolrick said his first Mass in the new parish on October 4, 1868, and just a week later administered baptism to Catherine Teresa McHale, the first of a long series of baptisms  during his pastorate of more than twenty-one years, culminating in the honors of the episcopate. He saw at once that more room was needed for the congregation than the temporary church afforded and he put a long shed-like addition to the building to provide the necessary accommodation. The new section was built at the rear of the school, but extended about ten feet beyond its sides to provide entrances for the people. Double doors in the east wall of the school made provision for an overflow congregation to hear Mass from its ground floor. The enlarged structure extended back parallel to Third Avenue and was provided with altar, benches and furnishings of the most primitive kind. This "shed church," as it was called, was the original Church of the Immaculate Conception, the fore­runner of the Basilica of St. Mary, and was ready for occupancy about the middle of November, 1868. There is no record of any celebration to commemorate its dedication to the service of God and religion. For five cold winters the congregation wor­shipped in it on Sundays and holydays of obligation, but only a few assisted at week-day Masses.  

Coincident with the opening of the "shed church" Father McGolrick organized a St. Vincent de Paul Conference to care for the needy members of the flock, and a Rosary Society to take charge of the altar and sanctuary and to bring its members to Holy Communion at least once a month.
Father Mathew Society
But it was the founding of the Father Mathew Total Ab­stinence Society in February, 1869, and the great good it im­mediately accomplished which was the most important event in the early history of the parish. The Total Abstinence move­ment inaugurated by Bishop Cretin flourished during his epis­copate but was allowed to languish during the Civil War. After the war it was revived in the Cathedral parish by the pastor, Reverend John Ireland, and the society established by Father McGolrick was the first offshoot of the parent organization. Its officers were: Spiritual Director, Reverend James McGolrick; President, Maurice Gleason; Vice-President, Michael Ken­nedy; Secretary, Stephen McBride; Treasurer, Michael Mur­phy.

It happened that some who were known to be hard drinkers joined the Father Mathew Society and faithfully kept the pledge. This produced a profound impression on Catholics and non-Catholics, and over night, as it were, Father McGolrick became one of the most prominent men of the town; and wen did he sustain the part. He joined many civic organizations, kept in touch with the nascent State University, and made his own the interests of the citizens. He was soon regarded as an author­ity on nearly an subjects and was consulted by every one. Even the non-Catholics who were far from sympathetic with his religious views were forced to admit that he was a veritable asset to the community. Nor did he overlook the intellectual needs of his people. He founded a parish circulating library, which soon had five hundred volumes on its shelves, and he encouraged the parishioners to read and study. James Byrne, father of the late Monsignor Byrne of St. Paul, was librarian for many years and through his efforts the library grew in popu­larity. From time to time Father McGolrick gave public lec­tures on historical and scientific topics which were listened to by large and appreciative audiences
Two Masses on Sunday - at 8: 30 and 10: 00 - were neces­sary to accommodate the people. At noon the St. Vincent de Paul Conference met; and at 3 o'clock the children assembled for catechism. The pastor's time was fully occupied in visiting his people; counselling them in their difficulties; consoling them in their grief; rejoicing with them in their happiness; do­ing all that he could to alleviate distress and make them self­respecting and self-sustaining.

Early in the new year preparations were made for a bazaar in Harrison's Hall, comer of Nicollet and Washington Ave­nues, which was held the week prior to March I 7. The Rosary Society, St. Vincent de Paul Conference, Altar Society, Sunday School Teachers and the Catholic Young Men's Association had charge of the booths. The hall was decorated and festooned in a creditable manner, prominence being given to the Stars and Stripes and the "Sunburst" of Erin. The prize table, it was declared, would have done honor to the Paris Exposition! During the festival a paper called the "Shamrock" appeared every evening and was eagerly read by all. It was edited by William Louis Kelly who, for nearly thirty-nine years prior to his lamented death on January 26, 1926, was a distinguished Judge of the District Court of Ramsey County.

Every year the congregation entered with great enthusiasm into the celebration of St. Patrick's day. For weeks ahead the Sisters were busy making shamrocks. The festivities began with a High Mass and sermon, followed by a procession through the principal streets of the town, in which all the societies of the parish participated in full regalia. In the evening there was a play at the Pence Opera House at which "Handy Andy," "Kathleen Mavourneen" or some production of a similar character was the piece de resistance.

The Church of the Immaculate Conception
DURING these years the parish continued to grow. Newcomers flocked to the church and added to the burdens of the devoted pastor, who was ever ready to spend him­self and be spent for souls. It became increasingly evident that a new and more commodious church was imperative to house the congregation, and in July, 1869, he began its erection on the site between the school and Third Avenue. The plans were drawn by Alden and Howe, and called for a church which, when completed, would be "not only the handsomest but the largest church in Minneapolis" and "the finest edifice of the kind in Minnesota."
The cornerstone of the second Church of the Immaculate Conception was laid on July 9, 1871. Bishop Grace, accompanied by Father Ravoux, V.G, drove over from St. Paul for the function. The carriage was met at the suspension bridge by the Father Mathew  societies of the parish and of St. Anthony, the local St. Vin­cent de Paul Conference and, preceded by the Emerald Band, escorted to the church. After the Mass celebrated by Father McGolrick the Bishop and his assistants repaired to the site of the new edifice, the foundation of which had been floored and decorated for the occasion.

From a temporary pulpit the Bishop preached a sermon on "Truth" to a congregation of nearly three thousand persons, after which the cornerstone was blessed and placed in position. It was a large block of Minnesota limestone, bearing the incised inscription, "Ecclesia Immaculatae Conceptionis, 1871." In a tin box sealed in the stone were placed an assortment of silver and of copper coins, copies of current newspapers, Catholic and non­Catholic, and a parchment with the following inscription writ­ten by Fath er McGolrick:
Right Reverend Thomas L. Grace, Bishop of St. Paul, on the ninth day of July, 1871, blessed and laid the cornerstone of this church of the Immaculate Conception - Pius IX ruling the Church, this year having happily attained the number of the reigning years of Peter - U.S. Grant, President of the United States - Horace Austin, Governor of Minnesota - J. McGolrick, parish priest.

Dedication Ceremony December 8, 1872

The work of completing the superstructure progressed so rapidly that the first Mass was said in it by the pastor on the patronal feast, December 8, 1872, and the solemn dedication took place the following New Year's day. Bishop Grace had promised to officiate, but when the time came he refused to attend the ceremony because of the manner in which the town had been placarded with posters announcing the event - a form of publicity to which he seriously objected. In his absence Father Tissot of St. Anthony blessed the church. Father Venn of Henderson celebrated the Solemn High Mass, with Father Tissot as deacon, Father Murphy of Stillwater as subdeacon, and Father Ireland of St. Paul, master of ceremonies. Masters Byrne and Danehy again acted as acolytes. The choir, under the direction of Owen J. McCartney, and assisted by a group of singers from the Cathedral, and Seibert's Orchestra, ren­dered Lambillotte's Paschal Mass in D., to the delight of a con­gregation that taxed the available capacity of the church.
The sermon was preached by Father Ireland, who congrat­ulated pastor and people on having "such a grand edifice for divine worship," and then dwelt on the attributes of the un­changing Church. His peroration closed with the famed quota­tion from Macaulay.

In the excitement of the moment he forgot to announce the collection - a serious oversight! When he stepped from the pulpit Father McGolrick rushed to him and called his attention to the fact, and Father Ireland returned to the pulpit and made adequate amends for the omission.

Description of the New Church

The new church was, without doubt, "in the first degree creditable to pastor and people ... a structure at once hand­some and massive." It was 137 feet long by 64 wide, with transepts 84 feet in width, and was built of blue limestone from the quarries at 81. Anthony, with cut stone trimmings, galvan­ized iron cornices and a remarkably elaborate and handsome interior finish. The walls rose 22 feet above the water-table and the vault of the ceiling was 40 feet above the floor. There was a gallery over the vestibule for the choir, and two rows of col­umns supported the roof. To the north of the main entrance a square tower ending in a spire lifted its crowning cross 110 feet above the grade. The edifice was, according to the Evening News, "elegantly proportioned, graceful in appearance and an ornament to our city." It cost about forty thousand dollars, ex­clusive of furnishings
Important Parish Events
In November, 1875, the first mission given in Minneapolis was preached in the church by the Paulist Fathers of New York, under the direction of Father Deshon, assisted by Fa­thers Dwyer and Elliot. "The crowded church bore testimony to their zeal and the living faith of the people." During the mission two thousand two hundred Communions were dis­tributed, one hundred and thirty new members joined the Young Ladies Sodality, eleven converts were added to the fold, three hundred and fifty-seven men took the total 
abstinence pledge and four hundred and five persons were confirmed. The Total Abstinence Society became the most prosperous in the state with a membership of seven hundred.

A campaign to payoff an indebtedness of ten thousand dollars was inaugurated in the same year when an effort was made to induce every parishioner to subscribe five dollars an­nually, payable in installments. In the course of time this "penny collection," as it was called, helped to reduce the debt materially, although not all could be persuaded to pledge the specified amount.

During the lenten season of 1876, permanent Stations of the Cross were purchased and solemnly erected on April 5, the Wednesday of Passion Week. Ten days previously a beautiful statue of the Blessed Virgin, patroness of the church, was dedicated after the vesper service. It now occupies a pedestal in the Basilica of St. Mary.

On Sunday, January 7, 1877, a new bell was consecrated by Bishop Ireland after vespers. It weighed 3000 pounds, cost $900 and was donated by the total abstinence socities of Min­neapolis. On its exterior is inscribed, in Latin, the prayer "May thy people called by me to this house of prayer be strengthened in the Lord." The parish societies attended in regalia. The bell now hangs in the eastern tower of the Basilica.

A statue of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was blessed by Father McGolrick on Friday, June 8, of the same year, and now occupies the niche above the altar of the Sacred Heart in the Basilica of St. Mary.

The Holy Name Society was established on the first Friday of Lent, 1879, by Bishop Ireland, who preached a sermon on reverence for the sacred name of the Savior. The organiza­tion was a potent force for good in the parish for many decades.

The church was incorporated under the title of the Im­maculate Conception January 14, 1882, the incorporators being-in addition to the Bishop of the Diocese and his Vicar
General-Father McGolrick, Anthony Kelly and P. W. Tobin. It retained the name until September 21, 1921, when it was changed to the Pro-Cathedral of St. Mary. It became the Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis on January 1, 1926.

Father McGolrick took an active part in the formation and functioning of the Minnesota Colonization Company organ­ized by Bishop Ireland in 1876, and helped to draft its constitution and by-laws. It had for object to induce Catholic immigrants to settle in the state on farms sold to them on the most favorable terms. He was also one of the sponsors for the Catholic Immigration Convention held in Harrison's Hall on May 15, 1877, at which the method of operating the com­pany was fully outlined and plans made for the sale of stock in the corporation, the proceeds to be used for the purchase of land suitable for farming in Swift, Nobles, Big Stone, Mur­ray and other counties. As a result of the work done by the Company over a period of years many settlers were brought to Minnesota and flourishing colonies established at Grace­ville, DeGraff, Currie, Avoca and elsewhere.
Trips Across the Ocean
In September, 1877, Father McGolrick left for an extended vacation in Europe, the objective point being his birth-place, Borrisokane, in County Tipperary, Ireland, where he was born on May 1, 1841. He was accompanied by four students whom he placed in the preparatory seminary at Meximieux in France to study the classics and test their vocation to the priesthood. On their arrival at night-fall they were met by Reverend Joseph Guillot, a subdeacon, and a member of the teaching staff, who mistook the youthful-looking priest for a last-minute addition to the group of students for whom they had been asked to prepare. They were given the customary evening repast and then ushered into the dormitory for the night. The next morning when Joseph Guillot went to summon the boys for Mass, he found one of them sitting on a bed, saying the breviary! A frank apology was offered and accepted
in Latin-the only language common to both-and Father McGoIrick was ceremoniously escorted to the chapel to say Mass, and thereafter he occupied the Bishop's room in the institution.

Six years afterwards when Father Guillot came to the Dio­cese of St. Paul he met Father McGolrick who reminded him of the incident at Meximieux and they had a hearty laugh over it. What became of the boys? One of them, Edward McKay of DeGraff, died the following year and was buried at Meximieux; another, Edward Fallon of St. Paul, returned home at the end of his classical course. The other two were Timothy Corbett of Minneapolis, who died Bishop of Crook­ston, Minnesota, on July 20, 1939, and James Fitzpatrick of St. Paul, who passed away on April 30, 1901, as pastor of the Church of St. Stephen in this city.

On a subsequent visit to the homeland, in 1888, Father McGolrick procured a sacrarium of carved stone from the Abbey of Lorrha in County Tipperary, and had it built into the sanctuary wall of the church on the epistle side, where it remained until it was removed to the Basilica of St. Mary when the old church was demolished in 1922. Old Irish records place the founding of the Abbey of Lorrha as early as 550, A.D.

On more than one occasion Father McGolrick was called upon to enter the lists in defense of the Church against those who wilfully or ignorantly misstated or misinterpreted her doctrines. From pulpit and platform as well as through the press he refuted false teachings in regard to Catholicism and challenged his adversaries to substantiate their statements, offering a large reward for convincing proof. Needless to say no claimants for the reward ever appeared. His defense of the Church bore fruit in numerous conversions and in a more tolerant attitude on the part of non-Catholics towards their Catholic neighbors.

Interest in the Young

Father McGolrick was keenly alive to the value of the school as an asset to the parish. He was vitally interested in

its welfare. He visited the rooms frequently and encouraged the pupils to apply themselves diligently to study as a prepara­tion for after life. He took advantage of every occasion to urge parents to send their children to a Catholic school. He himself taught Latin to the older boys who showed signs of a vocation to the priesthood. Masters Byrne and Danehy were his first pupils. He spent long hours in training the altar boys to serve Mass and to assist in the services of the Church. Every year he gave the children of the parish a picnic which usually took the form of an excursion to some point of in­terest such as Mendota, Minnetonka or other near-by place. On these occasions the boys from the orphanage were not forgotten. For several years it was customary for the Catho­lic children of the two cities to meet for a union picnic either on "Hennepin Island" or the "Dacota Hills." That meant an excursion by train from one city to the other-an important event in the lives of the little ones. The priests and sisters accompanied them, and not infrequently Bishop Grace visited the grounds to greet the children and to witness the games and other amusements. Each group had its own band and the day was a memorable one for the children.

The Boys' Orphanage

From the beginning of organized parochial life in Minne­apolis the question of founding a Catholic orphanage was fre­quently discussed, but no definite move was made until 1878 when, on February 18, a meeting was held in the parish school to consider the matter. It was presided over by Bishop Ireland, who pointed out the need for such an institution, and declared that Catholics should assume part of the burden of supporting the orphans of the community. It was resolved to undertake the project, and a committee was formed to de­termine the mode of procedure and devise ways and means to finance it. To raise funds for immediate use it was voted to organize a Catholic Orphan Asylum Association, the mem­bers of which would contribute two dollars a year.

At a meeting in March it was decided to rent for three hundred and fifty dollars a year a wing of the Winslow House

located in St. Anthony on the site subsequently occupied by the Exposition Building (now, the Coca-Cola plant) and it up for an orphanage with accommodations for two hundred inmates. The receipts of the Association, amounting to seven hundred and four dollars and fifty cents, were disbursed in renovating the building, leaving an indebtedness of two hundred twenty-two dollars and twenty-eight cents. As. soon as it was ready for occupany it was placed temporari under the care of Mother Angela Smythe, Superior of St. Mary's Convent.

In June a Board of Directors was chosen and the following officers elected: President, Bishop Ireland; First Vice-President, Father McGolrick; Second Vice-President, Micha Lyons; Secretary, O. J. McCartney; Treasurer, Timothy Corbettt, senior.

Meetings were held from time to time and before the end of the year it was voted to transfer the orphanage to the west side of the river. With that in view the Day homestead, ( Sixth Avenue, North, and Third Street, was purchased fro Annie Kelly for four thousand two hundred seventeen dollars and thirty-one cents, plus the cost of the repairs made since she acquired the property. The building was renovated and enlarged to provide class rooms and dormitories for the little ones, the grounds were sodded and landscaped and fence erected, making the property "in every way worthy the Catholic generosity of Minneapolis."

The boys from the orphanage on the east side were transferred to the new home as well as the boys from the orphanage in St. Paul, which was thenceforth reserved exclusively for girls. The institution was incorporated May 7, 1879, und the name of "The Minneapolis Catholic Orphan Asylum."

In the autumn of 1878, Sister Mary James, Directress the Immaculate Conception school, was placed in charge, position she retained until 1884, when she was succeeded by Mother Priscilla.

In 1885, a new site for the orphanage was purchased from

James Stanchfield for sixteen thousand dollars. It comprised a forty-acre tract in the Town of Richfield, adjacent to the West Side Catholic Cemetery (now, St. Mary's). In March, 1886, excavations were begun for a new building the corner­stone of which was laid on July 4. It was formally dedicated on the third Sunday of July, 1887. Mother Mary Xavier Car­roll who had succeeded Mother Priscilla in 1887 as Superior of the down-town orphanage moved to the new institution with the boys in the spring of that year and retained active direction of it until her death in 1906.

While the orphanage was located in the Immaculate Conception parish Father McGolrick was indefatigable in his ef­f:orts to promote its welfare. Nor did his interest cease after it was removed to the new location. He was Vice-President of the Board of Directors as long as he lived in the city and was active in its affairs. He pleaded for support for it and planned ways and means of assisting it. He was indeed a f:ather to the orphans and lived to reap the reward of his n:oble work in the knowledge of the good it accomplished.

Curbing the Liquor Traffic

Father McGolrick's interest in the Total Abstinence movement never flagged during his residence in Minneapolis. He was high in its councils in state and nation. By voice and pen he proclaimed its necessity and efficacy as a remedy for the ravages of intemperance in the individual and the community. His success was evidenced by the results. "In ten years," says a writer in the Northwestern Chronicle of August 9, 1383, "the temperate Irishmen of Minneapolis have made a wonderful increase. They fill important positions, own profitable real estate, build elegant homes, bring up their children. in a respectful manner and are highly respected themselves"

Father McGolrick played an important role in the agitation for high license in Minneapolis as a means of reducing the number of saloons and freeing the traffic from most of its at-
tendant evils by keeping it within the bounds of law. In the beginning of 1884, there were in the city five hundred and thirty-seven saloons of which fifteen were owned by Irishmen. A spirited campaign in favor of high license was brought to a successful close on April 24, when the City Council passed an ordinance raising the license fee to five hundred dollars, and otherwise providing for the regulation of the traffic. The ordinance went into effect on the first Monday of May and the immediate result was the closing of all but two hundred of the saloons theretofore in operation. The worst class of saloons was put out of business and, consequently, most of the immoral features of the traffic were eliminated. Question­able resorts were closed, the indiscriminate sale of liquor prohibited and the traffic placed under stricter police sur­veillance. The liquor element appealed to the Supreme Court, but the Court sustained the high license law in every respect. Later the license fee was raised to one thousand dollars.
First Priests from the Parish
On Christmas day, 1881, the Reverend Patrick J. Danehy, ordained in the Sulpician Seminary, Montreal, on December 16, celebrated his first Solemn High Mass in the church, with Fathers James McGolrick as deacon, John Hand as sub­deacon and William McGolrick as master of ceremonies. Father James McGolrick preached the sermon on the festive occasion, the first of the kind in the parish, for Father Danehy was "the first offering of Minneapolis to the Priesthood of the Diocese." The second "offering" was the Reverend James C. Byrne who, after ordination in the Eternal City on Feb­ruary 17, 1883, returned to his native parish in the following June and for a little more than a year was assistant to his former pastor and instructor. Father Byrne was the first native-born Minnesotan to be ordained for priestly service in the Diocese of St. Paul and, with one exception-his class­mate, the late Father Howard of Springfield, Illinois-the first ordained for any diocese.
Sacred Relics Enshrined
On Sunday, October 24, 1884, the congregation attending High Mass witnessed a ceremony never before seen in the northwest-the solemn deposition of sacred relics of the Pas­sion in a shrine at the epistle side of the main altar. The relics, brought from Rome by Father Byrne, comprised a portion of the True Cross, of the Crown of Thorns, of the Nails, of the Crib, and of the Holy Sepulchre, enclosed in a glass-cov­ered case sealed with wax and studded with precious stonee whole enshrined in a costly reliquary of beautiful design, representing the high altar of St. Peter's, Rome.

At the gospel Reverend James C. Byrne preached a sermon on the veneration of sacred relics, and after Mass the Litany of the Saints was chanted in which the congregation joined the procession of school children, Total Abstinence Crusaders in regalia, altar boys and priests marched round the interior of the church. Father McGolrick carried the reliquary and placed it in the elaborate and beautiful shrine made for it by a member of the congregation, and which cost a thousand dollars. The shrine and reliquary were taken to Duluth when Father McGolrick was installed as Bishop of that See, and were consumed in a fire which destroyed the Sacred Heart C:thedral in 1892. It is interesting to note that, when news of this disaster reached Father Byrne, who had succeeded Bishop McGolrick as pastor of the Immaculate Conception parish, he immediately telegraphed an invitation to take up a collection in the church. Father Corbett, pastor of the Cathedral came and, in response to his appeal, the sum of six hundred and twenty-five dollars was contributed by the congregatio:n-a generous donation which greatly encouraged Bishop McGolrick in the work of building a new Cathedral.

Father Byrne's Pastorate
Father McGolrick remained in charge of the parish until he was con­secrated first Bishop of Duluth, De­cember 27, 1889, where he resided until his death on January 23, 1918. He was succeeded as pastor by the Reverend James C. Byrne, born in Byrnesville, Minnesota (now, Sav­age), who had spent his boyhood in the parish, attended the parochial school, taken his first lessons in Latin from its devoted pastor and completed his studies for the priesthood in Rome, where he was ordained on February 17, 1883. On his return to the diocese, he spent about a year as assistant in the parish before his appointment as Secretary to Bishop Ireland who, in 1875, had been named Coadjutor to Bishop Grace whom he suc­ceeded in July, 1884, and in May, 1888, was elevated to the archiepiscopal dignity.

Father Byrne's tenure of office as pastor was brief; but in the two years spent in the parish he accomplished a great deal for its temporal and spiritual well being. The Northwestern Chronicle of February 7, 1890, says,
The joy of the people of Minnesota was great indeed when it became known that he was appointed to succeed Bishop McGol­rick.
The grief felt at the departure of the Bishop is considerably lessened by the appointment of one so gentle and so learned as Father Byrne.

Rt. Rev. J. C. Byrne          (1890-1892)

He organized the parish in accordance with the statutes of the diocese by electing to the Board of Directors two promin­ent laymen to assist in the management of its temporalities. Theretofore there had been no members of the corporation toassist the pastor in this work.
The men selected for the office were Anthony Kelly and William McMullen, the former being elected Treasurer and the latter Recording Secretary. Meet­ings of the board were held at stated times and minutes of the business transacted faithfully kept.

In September, 1891, Father Byrne was named Permanent Rector of the parish - a title which, apparently, lapsed with his departure the following year.
Parochial Improvements
  When Father Byrne came to the parish on January 26, 1890, he found the church encumbered with a debt of five thousand dollars which he took steps to pay. Anthony Kelly, one of the most substantial members of the congregation, who had always evinced the keenest interest in the welfare and progress of the parish, offered to give fifteen hundred dollars on condition that the congregation raise the balance. This was done in the course of the year; and for the first time in its history the church was free from debt. But this happy con­dition did not last long. The building was in need of extensive repairs. The leaking roof needed to be re-shingled, the gal­lery enlarged, the heating system overhauled and amplified, a soundin -board placed over the pulpit, and other im­provements made. Then, too, the old altars had to be re replaced with ones more in keeping with the surroundings. Three wooden altars of Gothic design, delicately carved and decorated, were ordered from the Hirscher firm in Shakopee. The plain altar, 14 feet wide and 32 feet high, cost six hundred dollars and the two side altars three hundred and fifty each. Finished in white and gold the main altar rose gracefully towards the ceiling in a series of arches, niches, columns and turrets. Above the tabernacle was enthroned a large wooden cross with a life-sized figure of Christ in natural colors. To heighten the effect of the ensemble a skylight of amber glass was set in the roof of the sanctuary and on bright days the sun bathed the main altar in a flood of golden light. Before the church was demolished in 1922, the altars were sold to
the new Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Minne­apolis, except the large crucifix of the main altar, which is now in the cafeteria of the parochial school.

The Church of the Immaculate Conception was built with­out a full basement, in accordance with the wishes of Bishop Grace who would not permit a full basement under any church authorized by him. All that was allowed was an ex­cavation for a hot-air furnace. In winter it was difficult to heat the church. Additional furnaces had to be provided, ex­cavations made for them and tunnels dug to connect them with the coal bin. These tunnels caused the stone bases on which the pillars in the church rested to sag and thus en­danger the roof. Provision had to be made to overcome this; but in spite of all that was done the pillars remained some­what out of alignment. However, the roof was so securely braced when it was put on that all danger of collapse was practically eliminated. The school, likewise, had to be re­paired and improved by transforming the gymnasium into classrooms and by additions to the heating system. The total cost of the repairs was about ten thousand dollars; but be­fore Father Byrne left the parish the full amount was paid and once more the church was out of debt.

On Sunday, May 24, 1891, a group of students from the University of Minnesota called on Father Byrne to discuss the advisability of forming a literary and social club. They found him not only in sympathy with, but enthusiastic about, the project. He hailed it as an important step in the right direction and, in a spirit of cooperation, offered the use of a room in the parish house for the meetings. The story of the growth and development of this project is told in the Centen­nial History of the Diocese published in 1952 (pages 318-­321).

When Father Byrne severed his connection with the parish of the Immaculate Conception in September, 1892, to assume the Presidency of the Seminary of St. Thomas Acquinas, St. Paul, he was replaced by the Reverend James J. Keane who had been in charge of the institution.
Father Keane's Pastorate

Most Rev. J.J.Keane Bishop of Cheyenne here

Father Keane, like his predecessor, was a scholarly priest, but stern, strict, masterful. He was a good administrator, devoted to his work, and upheld the traditions of the parish. Although naturally reserved he won the affection of his flock by daily devotion to duty, and especially by his solicitude for the poor and the wayward, and made many warm friends who remembered him with affectionate gratitude till the day of his death.

He found the physical properties in good condition, developed the spiritual and educational ideals of his predecessors, and took a great interest in civic affairs. During his pastorate he frescoed the church, laid an inclined foor, removed the inner wall of the vestibule to provide additional seating room, installed new pews and a steam heating system, cleaned and burnished the stained glass windows, renovated and remodeled the school rooms, increasing their seating capacity, and made other improvements at a cost of about three thousand dollars. The formal reopening of the church took place on the patronal feast, 1894. The right Reverend L. E. Caillet, V.G., Rector of St. Paul seminary, celebrated the Mass and Father Keane preached the sermon, in which he reviewed the history of the parish and emphasized the duties of Catholics to the church.

Site for New Church
During the latter years of his residence in the parish he became convinced of the need of a new and more modern church in another locality. The growth of the city and the
changes necessitated by commercial expansion made it evident that the new edifice would have to be built at some distance from the old site. The locality about the church was more and more given over to wholesale houses and manufacturing plants; and the people who resided therein we forced to move to outlying districts and, perforce, the church must follow them.

In seeking a site for the proposed church he was impressl with the accessibility of a piece of property on the northern corner of Ninth Street at Mary Place, now LaSalle Avent which he purchased, on September 16, 1901, from the Minnesota Loan and Trust Company for thirty thousand dollars. As a matter of fact, this property was found to be inadequate for the larger project on which the parish embarked a few years aftewards, and it was sold to the Patterson Land Company of St. Paul, on April 16, 1907, at an advance of five thousand dollars.

Father Keane's connection with the parish ended with his consecration as Bishop of Cheyenne, Wyoming, on October 28, 1902. He was promoted to the Archiepiscopal See Dubuque, August 11, 1911, and died August 2, 1929.

It is a matter of regret that there are no existing record of Father Keane's pastorate. There are no parish announcement books nor other documents in the archives and few references to him in the local papers, Catholic and non-Catholic. And yet he did effective work in the parish. He was a good administrator, an exemplary and scholarly priest and a preacher of more than ordinary ability and distinction. He was, however, reserved, aloof, stern and strict with himself and with others. He had many loyal friends in the parish who were convinced that few, if any, priests could fill his shoes. They naturally resented the appointment, as his Sucessor, of Father Cullen, the senior assistant, who was ordained less than a year, and who added fuel to their resentment by being so undiplomatic as to announce that the treasury was depleted and no funds available to pay the arrears of his

predecessor's salary, amounting to several hundred dollars. That, they asserted, just could not be possible under good Father Keane, but facts were facts.

There was a tradition in the parish, whether well-founded or not, that Father Keane did not invite the parishioners to his consecration as Bishop of Cheyenne. The writer does not recall whether or not the Bishop offered his first Pontificall Mass in the church of which he had been pastor for more than a decade of years; but he does know that the first confirmation ceremony at which the new prelate officiated was for a class of pupils from the parochial school at which the writer was master of ceremonies, though he cannot assert that any priests were present except those of the parish.

Bishop Keane never visited the parish after his installation as Bishop of Cheyenne though he did call on his friends in Miinneapolis occasionally; but, as Archbishop of Dubuque, he lectured at the civic opening of its successor in the month of November, 1913, and preached at the funeral of Archbishop Ireland on October 2, 1918.

He wanted to make The Catholic Bulletin the official organ of the Archdiocese of Dubuque but was dissuaded by his counsellors because the Catholic Tribune, owned and edited Mr. Gonner, was already in the field. Some years later he founded "The Witness".
Father Cullen's Pastorate
When Father Keane entered the ranks of the episcopate his place was taken by the Reverend Thomas E. Cullen, who was ordained in St. Paul Seminary on November 8, 1901, and who had served as assistant pastor of the parish since August of the follow­ing year. His pastorate was destined to be exceded in length only by that of Father McGolrick and of Father Reardon. It was during his incumbency that the Basilica of St. Mary was planned, built and dedicated. His youthful enthusiasm enabled him to disregard or surmount difficulties which would have daunted his predecessors. His energy, activity and zeal for God's glory ever
sought new channels for expression.
Rev. T. E. Cullen
(1902-1921) He devoted himself to the spiritualities of the congregation with so much energy that the people caught his enthusiasm and responded to his appeals. He made the promotion of frequent communion the object of his pastoral solicitude and the num­ber of daily communicants increased very rapidly. He organ­ized literary societies for the young men and women, provided recreational facilities for them, and won recognition as a preacher especially to the little ones of the flock. The chil­dren's Mass became the most attractive of the Sunday services and crowds flocked to the church to hear him.

Nor did he lose sight of the temporalities. He was aware of the agitation for a new church which had attained con­siderable momentum. He was not fully convinced, however, that the proposed site was the most suitable for the purpose, and he was on the lookout for a more central and desirable location.

New Church Project

The first public announcement of the project for a new

church was made by Archbishop Ireland on Christmas day, 1903, when, in the course of his sermon, he outlined the plan and asked the cooperation of the parishioners in providing Minneapolis with a church which would stand in somewhat the same relation to the city as the proposed new Cathedral to the Archdiocese-an edifice which would be a striking symbol of the value and significance of religion to the individual and the community.

Early in the new year the undertaking received earnest consideration. Committees were appointed to sell the project to the people, to formulate plans, to decide on the probable cost, to secure the most favorable site, to plan the financial campaign.

The first choice of a location for the church was the Wilson property at the corner of Hawthorne Avenue and Thirteenth Street. Six lots in Block 22, Wilson, Bell and Wagner's Addition, were purchased on May 11, 1904, for thirty thousand dollars. Later on they were deemed unsuitable and sold to the Holy Angels' Academy, July 1, 1905. The buildings on them are now used as a high school for girls under the name of St. Margaret's Academy.

The final choice was the commanding knoll at Sixteenth Street and Hennepin Avenue where this arterial thoroughfare curves gracefully to the south. No more happy selection could have been made. In perspective, elevation, ac­cessibility and other external qualities of beauty it is without a peer in the city as a site for a majestic church such as that which now crowns it.

The selection of an architect was left to the Most Reverend Archbishop and he chose Mr. E. L. Masqueray who was then designing the new Cathedral of St. Paul.

The first estimate of the cost of the new church was two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and many thought the amount altogether too large. Not so the Archbishop who envsioned the growth and importance of the Minneapolis of the future and finally prevailed on the committee to authorize a church to cost not less than half a million dollars, part of
which would be contributed by the parishes of Hennepin County which were to be exempted from any contribution towards the new Cathedral. The record shows that the total of this contribution was about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. As a matter of fact, before the plans were finally approved the cost of the exterior alone was not much under a million dollars.
The first step in the actual inauguration of the project was taken on June 21, 1905, when Lawrence S. Donaldson, a prominent merchant and a member of the parish, deeded to the Church of the Immaculate Conception seven lots in Auditor's Subdivision No. 20, as a site for the proposed church. These lots had been purchased from different owners for the sum of forty thousand two hundred and fifty dollars and were donated to the corporation.
History of the Site
The site chosen for the new church had an interesting history. In the Middle Ages it was an infinitesimal part of the vast hunting grounds of the aboriginal Indians who had migrated from their Asian fatherland and spread over the continent in distinctive tribal groupings. After the discovery of the western world by Columbus in 1492 it was Spanish territory. By exploration and colonization it came under the domination of France. In 1803, through the Louisiana Purchase, it was added to the United States. In 1856 it passed into private ownership.

The Minneapolis area west of the Mississippi was included  in the Fort Snelling Indian Reservation opened for settlement by the whites in 1855. One of the first to file on a claim was Allen Harmon who arrived in St. Anthony in 1851. He selected the quarter section bounded by Grant Street, Nicollet and Lyndale Avenues, Kenwood Parkway, Chestnut and Hawthorne Avenues and Ninth Street, and received his patent  on January 16, 1856.

He divided the land into building lots and houses were  erected as early as 1870. That part of his claim on which the Basilica stands was purchased in the early sixties by Chandler 

  Hutchins who built the only house and barn ever erected on the premises and sold them, with three and a half acres, to William Tomlinson who, in 1871, disposed of them to Thomas H. Powers of the Powers and Weightman Drug Company of Philadelphia for $6,500. Before his death in 1878 Powers conveyed to his cousin, Charles H. Wiltberger, and wife, a life interest in the property which they relinquished in 1891 for certain life annuities, and a clear title to the property was given to the Thomas H. Powers estate from which Mr. Donaldson bought the site for the proposed church.  After the Wiltbergers left the property it was rented on a month to month basis to Robert Fremont Jones, a New Yorker who came to Minneapolis in 1876, and opened a fish market at 308 Hennepin Avenue, whence he moved to the new location and established a zoo. When the lease was cancelled by the sale of the property the house was taken down and re-built in the Longfellow Gardens adjacent to Minnehaha Park, to which he transferred his menagerie. He was known locally as "Fish" Jones in reference to his first occupation. He always dressed in a top hat and Prince Albert coat as an advertisement.  In the early days it was not unusual to see prairie schooners filled with men, women, children and a motley assortment of household goods camped in the grove of white oak trees across the street from the Basilica site. They were on the way to the Dakotas where land was to be had for the formality of filing a claim. Their camp fires were a great lure for the boys of the neighborhood.
Cornerstone Laying
The plan finally adopted for the new edifice called for a granite church in modern Renaissance style, with a massive rectangular dome surmounting the sanctuary and twin towers flanking the main entrances. It was at first decided to use Minnesota granite for the whole building, but finally Hardwick White Granite quarried at Bethel, Vermont, at a cost of $311,250, was substituted for the superstructure. The circular dome of the original design was discarded in favor of a rectangular one and the six bays of the lateral walls were reduced to five.
Archbishop Ireland
On August 7, 1907, ground was broken for the foundation by Archbishop Ireland, who turned the first sod in presence of the building committee and invited guests; and so rapidly was the work carried on that all was in readiness for the laying of the cornerstone on May 31, of the following year. The event was one of the most notable in the history of Minneapolis. It took place in presence of an imposing assembly of bishops and clergymen from all parts of the country and an immense gathering of people, Catholic and non-Catholic. More than twenty thousand men from every walk of life marched in the procession, bearing American flags, papal Most Rev. J. lreland, D.D. colors and parish banners, while numerous bands lent variety, beauty  and life to the impressive line. Five hundred uniformed students of the College of St. Thomas took part in the parade. Twenty prelates in official robes of purple, more than three hundred priests and seminarians, the Governor of the State,

         Civil War chaplaincy counted Father Ireland among its ranks
 By Nikki Rajala For The Catholic Spirit
           In 1861, President Abraham Lincoln called for priests to serve as Civil War hospital chaplains. Twenty-two answered, among them a young Minnesotan.
           At the Battle of Corinth, Miss., Oct. 4, 1862, a badly wounded Catholic boy called out to the Minnesota priest. Though the soldier had hardly attended Mass, he had, as a 9-year-old, promised his mother on her deathbed to recite a daily Hail Mary~ the sum of his faith.
           After the priest ministered to him, the soldier “received the sacraments” and died.
The priest — 24-year-old chaplain Father John Ireland, ordained less than a year — was ministering to soldiers hardly older than he was in the Fifth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. In 1862, the chaplaincy corps had only 472 chaplains, Catholics and Protestants.
         In his own words
           This year marks the 150th anniversary of the start of the War Between the States. In 1892, Archbishop Ireland jotted memories of his wartime chaplaincy in a letter to Holy Cross Father Peter Cooney, who proposed compiling a history of the Civil War chaplains’ corps. The letter,  “Archbishop Ireland’s Experiences as a Civil War Chaplain,” reprinted in an article published by Catholic University of America Press in 1953, is found in papers housed at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul. He referred to himself for most of the letter as “he.”
           Archbishop Ireland recalled that in 1862 Bishop Thomas Grace of St. Paul, noting that Irish Catholics were well represented in Minnesota’s regiments and comprised a third of the Fifth Minnesota, requested a state chaplain to be appointed for all Minnesota regiments.
           Fresh from seminary study in France, then-Father Ireland joined the Fifth Minnesota in Mississippi shortly after the Battle of Pittsburg Landing [Shiloh] and took over as chaplain on June 23, 1862.
           “Numberless thousands of Catholics scattered through the army never saw a priest during the war,” he wrote. “No one was near them at moment [sic] of death.  The chaplains actually put into the field were a mere handful.”
           Regiments without priests, he wrote, became reckless and indifferent to religion.  So his mission was to celebrate Mass on Sundays and offer brief homilies.
           Impassioned, he served his own regiment and others if needed, he wrote, “visiting hospitals — riding 10, 20 miles or more across country” to reach them. He ministered in stifling heat with men suffering from battle wounds as well as typhoid, malaria and other diseases.
           A Catholic soldier, he wrote in the letter, was sick in a Tennessee hospital, having eaten only crackers and water every Friday for two years, unaware that servicemen had been exempted from such privations during wartime.
           Treated with respect from all, regardless of their religion, he recalled “Protestants vieing [sic] with Catholics to make him feel comfortable — to divide with him their last cracker.”
           On battlefields and in hospital tents he called out to Catholics. He regularly heard their confessions, especially when rumors of a battle were brewing, as on the eve of the Battle of luka, Miss., Sept. 18-19, 1862, when he sat all night under a tree hearing confessions. Catholics were unburdened of their sins, he jotted, and non-Catholics received into the church as well.      
           “. . . On one occasion, an officer was dying — shot in the face — blood pouring out. He wrote on a slip of paper: ‘Chaplain,’ and the slip, red with blood, was carried around by a soldier, seeking for a chaplain. I hurried: the man was conscious— dying fast. ‘Speak to me,’ he said, ‘of Jesus.’ He had been baptized — there was no time to talk of Church. I talked of the Savior; and of sorrow for sin. The memory of that scene has never been effaced from my mind. I have not doubted the salvation of that soul.”
           He maintained his fervor through Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana, suffering drudgery, dirt, loneliness, bad food and sickness with the men.  However, explaining to his bishop the reduced number of Catholics in his regiment, he resigned the appointment on April 3, 1863.
           At an 1891 reunion of the regiment, Minnesota and the Civil War: 1861-1866, Archbishop Ireland wrote in the reminiscence, “Two soldiers he had not met since the days of war took affectionately his  [my] hand. One of them had been in 1862 taken down with Small-pox, near German-town, Miss. — and had been placed under cover of a small tent at safe distance from the camp. Another soldier had volunteered and had been allowed to stay with him to nurse him. For many weary days they were alone — their spirits drooping; the one cheering circumstance was the occasional visit of their young chaplain. Both soldiers were Protestants.”
           Though short, his ministry in the war was important for the church. Father Ireland ended his letter to Father Cooney with: “My years of chaplaincy were the happiest and most fruitful years of my ministry.”

the Mayor of the City and other distinguished guests viewed the procession from the grand stand erected in front of the structure. The occasion was graced by the presence of the Most Reverend Diomede Fa1conio, Titular Archbishop of Larissa and Apostolic Delegate, who officiated at the laying of the cornerstone, and the sermon was preached by the Most Reverend Archbishop Ireland, who took for his text: "Jesus Christ, yesterday, and today, and the same forever" (Hebrews XIII-8).
In the sealed copper box set into the cornerstone were placed a parchment with a Latin inscription giving a history of the project from its inception, a resume of the ceremonies, and the names of the committees; current newspapers and periodicals; year books of Catholic institutions; silver and copper coins and other historical documents.
The following is a translation of the Latin inscription on t he easterly cornerstone:

The cornerstone of this Pro-Cathedral Church, dedicated under the title of Mary, Mother of God, Virgin conceived without the primal stain, and destined to adorn the City of Minneapolis, was laid with solemn rite on the thirty-first day of May in the year of Our Lord, 1908.
On the westerly cornerstone is inscribed in Latin a tribute to Father Hennepin, discoverer of the Falls of St. Anthony, which is translated as follows:
In the year of Our Lord, 1680, Louis Hennepin, the pioneer standard-bearer of the Christian faith, whilst traversing regions hitherto untrodden by the footstep of civilization, paused in admiration at the leaping waters hard by the city of the future and adorned them with a saintly name transmitted on the pages of history.
In the year of grace, 1908, the faith of Louis Hennepin gloriously ripened into this magnificent temple.

At the conclusion of the religious ceremony addresses were delivered by Governor Johnson for the State, Mayor Haynes for the City, James J. Hill for the Northwest, W. P. Devereux and F. A. Gross for the Catholic laity.

This event marked "the passing of pioneer days and the dawn of a new epoch for the Church in the Northwest."
The following were members of the Pro-Cathedral building committee:  W. P. Devereux, Vice Chairman, L. S. Donaldson, Treasurer, P. J. Downs, Secretary, W. J. Murphy, M. J. Scanlan, P. J. Kennedy, Hubert Kelly, Anthony Huhn, Morris McDonald, E. J. l'Herault, James Byrnes, J. M. Regan, T. E. Cooty, F. E. Murphy, John Mahoney, James Shannessy, E. A. Prendergast, W. J. Von der Weyer, J. M. Schultz, J. W. Pauly, P. L. Clarity, Francis A. Gross, Michael Gerber, Frank J. Williams, Reverends J. O'Reilly, J. M. Cleary, Othmar Erren, O.S.B., Francis Jaeger, Thomas E. Cullen.
The Civic Dedication
For six years building operations were carried on before the superstructure was completed and the iron cross raised above the coppered dome. As the work drew to a close it was deemed advisable to have what was called a civic dedication before the edifice was formally opened for divine worship. Accordingly, on the Sunday evenings of November, 1913, a program of public lectures was given in the auditorium of the church by men prominent in national affairs and in the religious world. The series was opened by Archbishop Ireland with an address on "Why Churches and Church-Going People?" He was followed by the Honorable John Barrett, of Washington, Director of the Pan-American Union, whose subject was "America and Her Sister Republics." The Honorable Bird S. Coler of New York, chose for his topic "The Hour and Its Opportunities," and the Most Reverend James J. Keane of Dubuque gave an entertaining lecture on "The Social Problem." The Paulist Choristers of Chicago, under the direction of Father Finn, gave two concerts on Thanksgiving Day; and the series was brought to a close with an address on "Universal Peace" by Professor Talcott Williams, LL.D., of Columbia University, New York.

The general trend of the discourses was in harmony with the purpose of the civic celebration. The speakers emphasized the necessity of civic righteousness as the characteristic of the highest type of American citizenship. The learned and highly
interesting lectures alluded to the new church as a centre of civic betterment even before it was dedicated to the religious purpose for which it was erected. They were listened to with rapt attention by an audience which filled the immense auditorium every Sunday evening.  In the course of his address at the opening of the civic celebration the Most Reverend Archbishop Ireland apostrophized the new church under the name of "Pro-Cathedral of St. Mary," and thus it was known until February 1, 1926, when His Holiness Pope Pius XI was graciously pleased to elevate it to the rank and dignity of a Minor Basilica, the first in the United States. The name was officially and legally changed to "The Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis" on January 1 of that year.
Informal Opening
After the civic festival the work of preparing the sacred edifice for the religious dedication went on apace and everything was ready for the informal opening on Pentecost Sunday, May 31, 1914, when the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was offered up for the first time in its sanctuary. The celebrant was the pastor, Rev. Thomas E. Cullen, assisted by Reverends Henry J. Scherer as deacon, James Hickey as subdeacon, and Michael A. McRaith as master of ceremonies. The responses of the Mass were sung by an augmented choir with organ and orchestral accompaniment. The Most Reverend Archbishop Ireland preached the sermon, thanking the people for their generous cooperation-the reward of which was becoming more and more apparent every year-and urging them to make further sacrifices, if necessary, in order that the completed edifice might stand forth in all its beauty, an ornament to the city and a tribute to the Church of Ages and the God of Truth. The Te Deum which brought the service to a fitting close voiced the joy of the congregation and its gratitude to the Almighty for the happy fruition of long years of patient waiting, sustained labor and generous sacrifice.

In the evening a sacred concert was given by the choir and a sermon preached by the Reverend William Patton, O.M.L, pastor of St. Mary's Church, Winnipeg, Canada, who dwelt  on the necessity of a definite religious creed and code of morals.
Solemn Dedication 
A little more than a year elapsed before the solemn dedication took place. The day chosen for it was Sunday, August 15, 1915, the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the tutelary saint and patroness of the church. The ceremony, at three o'clock in the afternoon, was attended by several prelates, about fifty priests and a large concourse of the faithful. The Most Reverend Archbishop Ireland who officiated was assisted by Father Othmar Erren, O.S.B., and Father Wilbee with Father Ziskovsky as master of ceremonies. He blessed the exterior of the building while the choir of priests who accompanied him around the church chanted the Miserere and the Litany of the Saints. The interior was then sprinkled with holy water and sanctified by the solemn prayers prescribed by the ritual, after which the procession returned to the sanctuary. The people were admitted and the Archbishop preached from the text: "Behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed" (Luke 1, 48). He explained the significance of the ceremony just witnessed and dwelt on the honor and veneration due the Saints and especially the Queen of the heavenly host, the patroness of the parish, through whose intercession they had petitioned her Divine Son to extend His gracious protection over the building, that it might be separated from all profane uses and made the house of God, the gate of Heaven, the tabernacle of the Eternal.
The ceremony was brought to a close with Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament at which Father Cullen officiated, assisted by Fathers McRaith and Burns. Supper was then served to the visiting prelates and priests in the school cafeteria.  The church, it is true, was far from complete. The exterior alone was finished; the interior walls of sanctuary and nave were unadorned; a wooden altar and pews were the only furnishings; an undecorated ornamental plaster ceiling the sole embellishment. But the pastor and people took legitimate pride in what had been accomplished in a decade of years.
 The parish possessed a magnificent church which attracted universal attention and evoked most favorable comment because of its architectural beauty, its massive granite walls, its towering dome and heaven-pointing cross. The City of Minneapolis was proud, and rightly so, of this latest addition to its skyline.  For several years after the opening of the Pro-Cathedral, Mass was said on Sundays and at midday during Lent in the old Immaculate Conception Church; but gradually the need for such accommodation ceased and the original plant was abandoned. 
New Parish School 
As the work on the church progressed it became evident that a new parochial school in the vicinity was necessary. A site in the rear of the church, fronting on Laurel Avenue at Sixteenth Street, consisting of four lots in Block 34 of Wilson, Bell and Wagner's Addition, was purchased in January, 1911, for $40,200. The first announcement of the project was made by Archbishop Ireland at a meeting of the trustees on March 18, 1912, and plans and specifications therefor were prepared by the architect. Bids for its construction were opened on August 26 of that year. That of Splady and Albee for $102,659, exclusive of heating, plumbing, furnishings, etc., was the lowest and was accepted at a meeting held on August 29 when it was voted that the contract be signed as soon as a bond for $50,000 was furnished by the contractor. The building was to be completed by August, 1913. The sum of $22,559.49 was paid on the new school before December 31,1912. A contract for desks and also for sixty dozen chairs at $7.70 per dozen for the school hall was awarded to the Minneapolis School Desk and Furniture Company on August 5, 1913. On the next day the contract for the electric light fixtures was given to the Western Electric Company. The building was ready for occupancy in August, 1913. It is described elsewhere in this brochure. During the year 1913 the sum of $100,677.43 was paid on it and the balance of $4,216.48 in 1914. The Rosary Society installed the school kitchen and cafeteria in 1915. 
The Parish and World War One
When, on April 6, 1917, Congress declared that a state of war existed between the United States and the Imperial German government, the Pro-Cathedral parish entered seriously and whole-heartedly into the task of aiding Uncle Sam in his efforts to further the cause of the Allies. Father Cullen exhorted the people from pulpit and platform to do all they could to sustain the morale of the boys who joined the colors.  The available records for the first World War show a roster of 490 men in the different branches of the service and four nurses. Many of the former sealed their patriotism with the stamp of death on the fields of France and elsewhere, while others came through the fiery ordeal with maimed bodies and shell-shocked minds-mere wrecks of the vigorous manhood and buoyant strength with which they marched away so proudly at their country's call.  These hopeless invalids will never forget the horrors of war as they pass their monotonous days in hospital or sanitarium, awaiting the end of a life sacrificed for their country's weal just as truly as that of those who met death in the front trenches or on No Man's Land.  A center for organized war work, under the direction of the Red Cross, was established in the parish school and there the women met to do their bit. They prepared surgical dressings, hospital garments, comfort kits, knitted articles-sweaters, socks, caps, etc.-and sent packages to the boys in service at home and "over there." They furnished garments for refugees, adopted French war orphans and participated in the food conservation campaign.  The parishioners, both men and women, bought Liberty Bonds, Thrift and War Saving Stamps, contributed to the War Chest and Knights of Columbus fund, and actively participated in "drives" for these and other purposes. Not a few took part in the program for Americanization in the schools and elsewhere and helped to educate foreign groups in the  principles of American citizenship.
Thus, by man-power, money, supplies and personal service did the people of the parish help the United States to "make the world safe for democracy."  At the end of the first World War the people of the parish gave of their gold ornaments and precious stones to be incorporated into the "Liberty Chalice" as a thanksgiving offering. On December 21, 1932, it was enriched by the addition of two diamonds from earrings donated by Mrs. Mary McLaughlin, matron of the cafeteria for many years. 
Archbishop Ireland Educational Fund 
In the fall of 1920, a campaign for five million dollars to meet the educational needs of the Archdiocese by subsidizing existing institutions and building new ones as needed was carried on under the direction of Archbishop Dowling. An appeal for cooperation was made to clergy and laity and special collectors were deputed to make a thorough canvas of the parishes in an effort to secure cash donations or pledges payable over a period of five years.  The Pro-Cathedral congregation responded very generously to a fervid appeal by the pastor and 2,746 pledges totalling $366,990, according to the records in the chancery office, were secured as of January 1, 1924. About one-third of this amount was pledged by people from different parts of the state and from many sections of the country who happened to be in the church on the Sunday set apart for that purpose and were moved by Father Cullen's emotional appeal to pledge fairly large amounts which they never paid. In justice, therefore, the grand total should not have been charged against the parish. Moreover, before the five-year period came to a close, the financial condition of many who made substantial pledges changed to such an extent that it was necessary for them to ask for cancellation in whole or in part. Nevertheless, the total paid contribution of the parish to the educational fund on December 31, 1930, amounted to $266,990. 
Inspiring Leadership
No one is deserving of more credit than Father Cullen for the work done in completing the exterior of the Basilica. From the very inception of the project he was indefatigable in his efforts to make it a success. His unbounded enthusiasm, untiring energy and prudent zeal inspired and encouraged the parishioners who vied with one another in their efforts to respond to his every appeal for financial and moral support. Without obtruding his leadership he directed the people in the work of building a church worthy of their sterling faith and self-sacrificing generosity; and his achievements will never be forgotten by those who labored with him or under his enlightened guidance.
The Pro-Cathedral, it is true, was only an outward shell of enduring granite, but it was destined to enshrine the beauty of the King's Daughter. Those who entered its portals could not envision the inner glory that was to make it a temple of surpassing grandeur and loveliness to tabernacle the Eucharistic Lord born of the Virgin Mary to whom it was dedicated.  It was incomplete except for the exterior walls, the towering dome, the permanent pews and the vaulted ceiling. The other furnishings were temporary. It had cost $774,646.83. The receipts amounted to $460,923.67 made up of $215,801.42 contributed by the parish; $155,637.25 from the other parishes in Hennepin County; $44,485.00 in special gifts; and $45,000.00 paid by L. S. Donaldson for the site. The indebtedness amounted to $313,723.16.  The finishing of the interior and the erection of the sacristy and the parochial residence, between 1922 and 1928, involved an expenditure of more than a million dollars. During the depression, from 1929 to 1940, the parish paid $690,105.00 on the principal of the debt and $229,381.86 in interest, a total of $919,486.86, in addition to the running expenses. The final installment of the debt was paid on April 1, 1940.  A reputable contractor assured the pastor a few years ago that he would not guarantee to replace the Basilica of St. Mary for $5,000,000. 

Father Reardon's Pastorate
In the meantime a change of pastors had taken place. In August, 1921, Father Cullen, who had served the parish with distinction for nineteen years, was named President of the College of St. Thomas, and the Reverend James M. Reardon, pastor of the Church of St. Mary, St. Paul, and Editor-in-Chief of The Catholic Bulletin, was placed in charge by the, Most Reverend Archbishop Dowling.
There was still much to be done before the Pro-Cathedral, as it was then called, crystallized the artist's ideal of a temple worthy of the Most High. It lacked the full vesture of architectural beauty and splendor to which it was born, and with which its sponsors vowed to enrich it. The stately grandeur of its imposing exterior postulated an interior loveliness unsurpassed by anything in the land. "The beauty of the King's daughter is from within"; and beauteous, indeed, must be the adornment of sanctuary and nave to realize the ideal suggested by the entrancing sweep of granite wall and high-flung cross outlined against the sky to tell to worshipping throngs the sublime purpose of its being.  The church itself rises from the centre of a plat of ground, 300 by 400 feet in dimensions, fronts on the chief thorough:fare of the city and lifts wall and tower and dome high above its surroundings, so as to be seen from afar as one approaches or leaves the business district.  Like a queen the noble edifice sits enthroned on the one one in Minneapolis carved out by nature, as it were, for a glorious tabernacle to enshrine the Savior of mankind-a city  block extensive enough to provide grassy swards from a way to sidewalk and to give assurance that, in days to come building will encroach upon it and mar its matchless setting


Completing the Interior

Many who saw its foundation stone laid deep and secur the bosom of mother earth did not live to gaze upon heaven-pointing cross. Many who were enraptured with external grandeur closed their eyes to things of earth witt seeing the beauty of the completed structure. Much had be done, it is true, but much remained to be done. Several years were to elapse after the dedication before the task of completing the interior was undertaken. Work was not resumed until the first World War had passed into history.  Before anything was done an evaluation of the property belonging to the Pro-Cathedral was made on the basis what it cost to buy the land, erect and equip the building together with the abandoned site of the Immaculate Conception Church, and the appraisers fixed the amount $1,167,876.64. This did not take into consideration the increased value of the property nor what it would cost to place the buildings.  Before actual finishing operations began the pastor nounced that, if one-third of the parishioners would pledge a dollar a Sunday for four years, the total cost would be paid in full without recourse to assessments, special collections bazaars, festivals, bingo or pink teas. The suggestion was not accepted and as a result the indebtedness was not paid for nearly twenty years.  The receipts from all sources from September 1, 1921 to  December 31, 1941, amounted to $2,399,384.78, a yearly average of $118,002.53, without a personal demand on any member of the congregation for even a quarter or the purchasing of a ticket for any purpose whatsoever. 
The Soul of the Church
In finishing the church the major problem was, of course, the main altar. On its solution everything else depended; for the altar would give meaning and tone to all the rest. It must be massive enough not to be dwarfed by the surroundings, artistic enough to dominate the setting. For that the finest marble that money could procure must be available, and the most skillful sculptors commissioned to chisel it into life. It must uprise from the centre of the sanctuary and lift its graceful dome high in air to attract the attention of worshipper and visitor before they would note any other feature. In other words, the altar must be one of the finest in America in material, design and workmanship.
Toward the close of the first World War, plans for finishing the interior had been drafted by McGinnis and Walsh of Boston, but nothing in the way of the major building operation necessary to execute them could be thought of till Armistice Day, November 11, 1918, brought about a cessation of hostilities. For several years thereafter conditions did not warrant the inauguration of the work. Only when the first World War had passed into history and a new pastor had been appointed to the parish was it deemed opportune to begin the work of finishing the interior in such a way as to duplicate, if not improve upon, the imposing grandeur of the exterior. The task was not an easy one. There was a diversity of opinion about the details of material and ornamentation. Some declared marble the only sheathing worthy of nave and transept, while others preferred stone. Some would have the interior rich in gold, mosaic, elaborate carving and artistic decoration; others maintained that its beauty should be found in solidity, strength and symmetry. 
Razing Old Parish Plant 
But before anything definite was decided on it became necessary, early in 1922, to dispose of the original parish plant, unoccupied for several years. The old church, school and residence of the Immaculate Conception parish had deteriorated to such an extent that they were condemned by the State Fire Marshal as a public menace and ordered razed. The contract therefore was awarded to the Cleveland Wrecking Company which offered the stone to prospective homebuilders for carting it away.
The cornerstone was uncovered on April 28 and Father Reardon took from its cavity an iron box, rusty and rather the worse for wear from the water that had seeped into it. This box and its contents had been placed in the cornerstone on July 9, 1871, when Bishop Grace blessed it and placed it in position. When opened it was found that the parchment had been reduced to pulp. The local papers of '71 rustled and crackled with age as they were unfolded, but most of the printed pages were legible and from them was learned the wording of the inscription written on the parchment before it was deposited in the box fifty years before. The coins-a three-cent piece, a two-cent piece and a half -dime-were dusty and tarnished.
The cornerstone and the five stone crosses that topped the facade and the four corners were brought to the Basilica school. The cornerstone was buried in the school yard against the wall of the Basilica between the sanctuary apse and that of the Cure of Ars chapel, and the largest cross was erected over it to mark the spot; but it was broken off during the intervening years and removed. (Announcement Book, 1, pp. 23-8.)
An important relic taken from the old church was the sacrarium brought from Ireland by Father McGolrick in 1888 from the Abbey of Lorrha in County Tipperary (Diocese of Killaloe) founded by St. Ruadhan in 550. Within its walls was written the famous Stowe Missal, now in the library of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin.
From the crumbling ruins of the monastic church Father McGolrick was permitted to take the sacrarium, a stone basin with carved ornamental stonework surrounding it, and bring it to Minneapolis in 1888.
 It was built into the sanctuary wall on the epistle side and served as a receptacle for the holy oils, holy water etc., poured into it after use. A sacrarium is found in every church, reserved exclusively for the disposal of matter of a sacramental character, and is connected by a drain pipe with the absorbent soil beneath the building.
 This sacrarium is now preserved in the basement of the Basilica school.

After the demolition of the church, school and rectory the property became subject to taxation and was leased for an oil station and parking place from which the parish derived sufficient revenue to pay the taxes. However, it cost the parish $10,000 over and above the rental to hold the property until it was sold, on August 28, 1937, to John Wunder for $13,000, the first and only offer made for it. At one time the three lots, 66 by 150, were appraised at $100,000.
Erection of Main Altar

The first announcement of the intention to finish the interior of the new church was made by the pastor on December 3, 1922, when pledges were asked for the erection of the main altar. Before the end of the year 1,357 pledges, totalling $54,640.60 were received and others brought the total subscription to nearly $60,000.
Changes were deemed necessary in the plan already officially approved, the most important being the re-location of the main altar which had been placed at the rear of the sanctuary instead of in the center as had been planned by Mr. Masqueray, the architect of the church. His Boston successors and the Most Reverend Archbishop Dowling finally agreed to the proposed change and the subsequent modification of the plan paved the way for an early resumption of the work. All this took time and it was not till the close of the year 1922 that definite arrangements could be made.  Many plans were submitted before a decision was reached.  On March 18, 1923, a design prepared by McGinnis and Walsh was finally approved, and the contract awarded to Benziger Brothers of New York on May 13 for $40,000, exclusive of furnishings.
It called for an altar of white Italian marble with a massive baldachin located in the center of the sanctuary on the substructure prepared for it when the church was built. The first shipment of marble from the quarries at Pietrasanta, Italy, reached New York about December 15, 1923, and was immediately forwarded to Minneapolis. The workman sent to erect it was not accustomed to building such a massive altar and delays were caused by his incompetency. Under another supervisor the work, actually begun on January 2, 1924, was carried to completion early in July. The unveiling was deferred several weeks to permit workmen to finish the interior of the apse. After confessions on Saturday evening, August 2, the altar was made ready for Mass by the priests of the parish aided by a few workmen. The Blessed Sacrament was placed in the tabernacle by Father Reardon who, at six o'clock the following morning, said the first Mass under its magnificent baldachin. The seven o'clock Mass was said by Reverend J. H. Reilly of Louisville, Ky. (a visitor). The Reverend E. P. Murphy of the Pro-Cathedral staff said the eight o'clock Mass; Father Green, C.M., of St. Louis (a visiting priest) , the nine o'clock Mass; and Reverend M. E. Casey, one of the assistant pastors, the ten and eleven o'clock Masses. Benediction was given in the evening by Reverend Geo. W. Keefe, assistant pastor. The first Requiem High Mass was sung at nine o'clock next morning by Father Keefe over the remains of Gustave Callaghan.  The altar and furnishings cost about $45,000, including the six-foot bronze crucifix, the candlesticks and extensions priced at $2,500, made by Benziger Brothers from designs furnished by the architects.    Most Rev. A. Dowling, D.D. (1919-1930) 
The altar is the gift, not of any society or group, but of about fifteen hundred parishioners whose names are sealed in a glass tube enclosed in a bronze reliquary embedded beneath the sepulchre of the mensa, or altar table, containing the relics of Saints Aurelia and Victoria, martyrs. The steel tabernacle with bronze doors in front and rear "is the gift of the pupils of the parish school; the statue of Our Lady of Grace was donated by the Rosary Society; the crucifix, candlesticks, etc., were given by members of the congregation.  The first Pontifical Mass on the new altar was celebrated by the Most Reverend Austin Dowling on Christmas day, 1924, and every year thereafter, when his health permitted, he said these three Masses at this altar.  At the request of the pastor Archbishop Dowling declared the main altar a privileged altar in perpetuity.  The altar cards used at this Mass were the gift of the Right Reverend Francis Clement Kelley, Founder and first President of the Catholic Church Extension Society of the United States, Chicago, Illinois. The prayers are printed on parchment and the decorative work and the framing were done by Thomas J. Gay tee, President of the Gay tee Studios, who, a few years later, designed and installed the stained glass windows in the Basilica.  With the erection of the main altar the first step towards completing the interior of the church was successfully taken and the people were encouraged to continue the work. A final decision regarding the kind of material to be used in facing wall and pier had already been made. A native stone from the quarries of Mankato was the choice, and plans were made to undertake the work even before the altar was unveiled for use. 
Sanctuary Completed 
In the month of February, 1924, the contract for facing the pier and transept walls was entered into with the C. H. Young Co. of St. Paul for the sum of $124,800. It called for  a substantial covering, four inches thick, of Mankato stone of varying hues from buff to grey, giving color and warmth to the interior and blending harmoniously with the decorations of the ceiling and with the marble and wrought iron works of art which adorn the sanctuary. The walls are capped with massive cornices of solid stone securely anchored to the masonry, and relieving the severity of the ashlar work. So expeditiously was the work carried on that it was completed before November 1 of that year. The contract did not include the marble and wrough iron grille enclosing the sanctuary.
The new pulpit attached to the front pier of the sanctuary on the gospel side was occupied for the first time during the Holy Hour on Thursday, November 13, 1924; and the one in use for a decade of years was presented to the chapel of the College of St. Thomas on March 19 of the following year at the request of the President, Father Cullen. That venerable pulpit had a unique history. It was built for the Cathedral of St. Paul which stood on the corner of Sixth and St. Peter Streets from 1858 till 1914, and was occupied by Bishop Grace, Archbishop Ireland and many other distinguished preachers. From it Archbishop Ireland made many of his most important pronouncements on civic and religious topics.
The wooden scaffolding for the decorating of the dome ceiling of the sanctuary, the installing of twelve stained glass windows and the setting in place of the paintings on tapestry of the four evangelists, was erected by Libbey and Libby of Minneapolis in September, 1924; and the work completed before the end of the year under the supervision of Thomas J. Gaytee. The life-size crucifix, the central figure of the Calvary group, was carved in position on the front pier of the sanctuary on the epistle side by John Garratti of St. Paul, and the marble sanctuary rail was erected in December. In the meantime a four manual organ had been contracted for, and the foundations for choir stalls and organ chambers laid in apse and ambulatory during Easter week of the year 1925.

Nave Finished and Furnished
Early that year it was decided to continue the work of finishing the interior and contracts were awarded to the C. H. Young Co. for covering the nave walls and incasing the piers with Mankato stone at a cost of $199,840; and, early in March, for the stained glass windows of the clerestory, apse, and transepts. In the following May a contract for the chapel altars, confessionals, baptismal font and Stations of the Cross, all of marble, was signed with the McBride Co. of New York for $24,690, exclusive of millwork, bronze and hardware. In the autumn the ceiling of the nave was decorated by the Thomas J. Gaytee Studios to harmonize with the work done in the sanctuary dome. Before the end of the year the superb marble and wrought iron grille surrounding the sanctuary and forming a pedestal for the statues of the Apostles was installed and added much to the beauty of the setting for the main altar. The marble portion was imported from Italy and the iron sections were made by the Flour City Ornamental Iron Co. of Minneapolis. About the same time the stained glass windows in the apse and in the transepts were put in place and further accentuated the beauty of the altar and its adjuncts. The remaining windows were installed the following year and gave an added charm and glory to the entire church.
Early in the new year workmen came to erect the altars of the Sacred Heart, St. Joseph, St. Anne, and St. Anthony, the Stations of the Cross, confessionals and baptismal font. The confessionals were ready for occupancy during Holy Week; and soon thereafter the magnificent chandeliers of bronze and aurine glass were hung in the side aisles, vestibule and portico. The baptismal font was used for the first time on Sunday, June 6,1926, the Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi.
As soon as St. Anthony's statue was transferred to the completed chapel, the wooden shrine which it had occupied for many years was given to the College of St. Thomas as a shrine for its patron, St. Thomas Aquinas; and the wooden altars and confessionals were donated to churches in the Twin Cities and elsewhere.

Sacristy and Residence
While the final touches were being put on the interior of the Basilica, plans were being prepared for completing the parish plant by the addition of two new units - a sacristy and a residence for the clergy. In the summer of 1926, preliminary sketches were prepared for these new structures by Slifer and Abrahamson of St. Paul, who, after the erection of the main altar, succeeded McGinnis and Walsh as architects, and on August 8, official announcement was made that building operations would begin the following spring. During the winter the architectural details were completed, and in the week of June 20, 1927, the contract was awarded to McGough Bros. of St. Paul for approximately $140,000, exclusive of furnishings. The buildings were to be erected as a unit - the residence facing Seventeenth Street, North, and the sacristy between it and the Basilica, all three connected by a corridor leading from the front entrance through the sacristy into the church. Ground was broken in July, and the buildings were ready for occupancy the following May. The new units harmonize as far as possible with the Basilica in design and material, the residence of greyish brick with stone trim and the sacristy of Bedford stone.
The cornerstone of the sacristy was laid on September 12, 1927, by Father Reardon with simple ceremony. A sealed copper box containing records of the parish and other documents - many of which were taken from the boxes in the cornerstones of the Immaculate Conception Church and the school - was placed within it.
On Sunday, April 29, 1928, the new sacristy and residence were blessed by the pastor, and on Friday, May 11, the clergy moved from the old home to the new. The buildings were inspected by the parishioners and their friends on the afternoon and evening of May 28, and the following evening was set apart especially far the members af the Knights af Colomrbus, and of the Minneapolis League af Catholic Women. On bath occosians there was a musical program with organ and orchestral accompaniment.
Requiem for Marshal Foch

Amang histaric events in the Basilica may be mentianed the memorial service for Marshal Ferdinand Fach, Generalissimo of the allied farces in the first Warld War. It was held an Tuesday, March 26, 1929, the very day an which his absequies took place in Natre Dame Cathedral in Paris. A Solemn High Mass af Requiem was celebrated by the pastar, Father Reardon, assisted by Father Cullen af St. Stephen's parish, as deacon, Father Dunphy of the Ascension parish, as subdeacon, and Father Brand af the Basilica parish, as master of ceremonies. The serman was preached by Father Reardon.
The Mass was attended by Gavernar Christianson, Mayor Leoch, Colonel Sweeny af Fort Snelling, and their respective staffs; representatives af the American Legion Pasts; Veterans af Foreign Wars; Red Cross Nurses; Boy Scouts; Knights of Columbus (of which Marshal Foch was an honorary member) and a congregatian conservatively estimated at upwards of four thousand persons. Hundreds were unable to obtain admission. The responses af the Mass were sung by the Basilica Choir under the direction of Father Missia, with Professor Beck at the organ.
The church was appropriately draped far the occasion.
Above the main altar the Stars and Stripes and the Tricalar,af France were displayed and an the nave piers the flags af the allied nations. The lenten purple an crucifix and statue added a solemn note to the function.
At the head af the center aisle, a catafalque was erected covered with a French flag an which rested a draped saber and a French helmet. In front af the catafalque a picture of Marshal Foch, taken sixty days after the signing af the Armistice, was displayed on an easel.
A guard of honor from the Third Infantry stood at attention beside the catafalque during the Mass and presented arms at the consecration. In front of the sanctuary the flags of the American Legion Posts were prominently displayed. Before the Mass the organ played the Marseillaise. As far as we are aware this was the only Memorial Mass celebrated in the United States for the repose of the soul of this great Catholic and patriot on the very day on which his remains were laid to rest in the Hotel des Invalides in Paris, near the tomb of Emperor Napoleon. A souvenir booklet, "In Fond Memory," bound in leather, artistically tooled, containing photographs and a description of the ceremonies, was sent to Paris and presented to the widow of Marshal Foch by General Pershing. It bore the signatures of Mayor Leach with the seal of the City of Minneapolis, of the officiating clergymen, of Frank H. Bellew, Chairman of the American Legion Foch Memorial Committee, and the official seal of the organization.
Father Hennepin Memorial
The year 1930 was the 250th anniversary of the discovery of the Falls of St. Anthony by Father Louis Hennepin, a Belgian missionary and explorer. In commemoration of the event the Knights of Columbus of Minnesota dedicated a monument, consisting of a heroic copper statue of the discoverer holding aloft a crucifix and resting on a granite pedestal of artistic design. This memorial, erected on a site donated by the Basilica Corporation, was unveiled on Sunday, October 12, "Columbus Day."
The ceremony began with Pontifical Mass in the Basilica at 10 o'clock. In the absence of Archbishop Dowling of St. Paul, who was ill- he died six weeks later - the Most Reverend Francis C. Kelley, Bishop of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, was the celebrant and the sermon was preached by Father Reardon. The Most Reverend Archbishop Sinnott of Winnipeg, Monsignors Cleary of Minneapolis, Byrne of St. Paul, Peschges of Winona, and a score of priests were seated in the sanctuary.
The church was literally packed with people and thousands waited outside during the Mass and sermon brought to them by loud speakers. Among the distinguished laymen at the Mass were Count Lantsheere of the Belgian Embassy in Washington, representing His Majesty the King of the Belgians; Governor Christianson and his staff; Mayors Kunze of Minneapolis and Bundlie of St. Paul; Mr. Safford, the Belgian Consul; representatives of the Civic and Commerce Association; state and local officers of the Knights of Columbus; Fourth Degree members of the Order in regalia, and men prominent in the commercial and professional life of the city and state.
After the Mass the Fourth Degree Knights formed in line and led the procession to the monument, where the statue was unveiled by Reverend Cyrinus Schneider, O. F. M., pastor of the Church of the Sacred Heart, St. Paul, and a member of the religious order to which Father Hennepin belonged. The memorial was blessed by Archbishop Sinnott, after which the dignitaries of church and state assembled on a platform decorated with American, French, Belgian and Papal flags, where an address was delivered by the Honorable Thomas D. O'Brien of St. Paul, first State Deputy of the Knights of Columbus in Minnesota. He was introduced by Father Reardon, Chairman of the Executive Committee, who presided. After the ceremony the prelates and other distinguished guests were entertained at luncheon in the Basilica residence.
As a sequel to the celebration, His Majesty, the King of the Belgians, by Royal Decree of December 8, 1930, conferred the decoration of "Officer of the Order of Leopold Jr' on F ather Reardon and Mr. Edward C. Gale, chairman of the civic group sponsoring a public meeting in the municipal audi:orium on the afternoon of the day on which the memorial '.'"as dedicated. The decorations were conferred, in the name ,)f King Albert, by Mr. Orren E. Safford, Belgian Consul for :\linnesota, at a meeting held in the Elks' Club on March 9, 1931, under the auspices of Hennepin-Minneapolis Council, rillights of Columbus, and presided over by J. Earle Lawler, State Deputy of the Order in Minnesota.
Through the courtesy of a dear friend, the late Canon Paul Halflants of Brussels, we learn that the Order of Leopold II was instituted on August 24, 1900, by decree of Leopold II of Belgium, as sovereign of the independent state of the Congo, to reward disintersted service in connection therewith.
Prior to 1908 the Congo was the personal property of King Leopold. In that year it became a Belgian colony; and it was decreed that the Order of Leopold II should become a national decoration ranking next to the Order of Leopold I.
The decoration is now conferred for meritorious service rendered the Belgian nation. The soldiers who died from wounds received in battle are granted the posthumous title of Knights of the Order of Leopold II.
Nominations for the Order are made by royal decree; and the administration of it is in the hands of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
The Order comprises six classes or grades: Grand Cross; Grand Officer; Commander; Officer; Knight; Medalist.
The decoration consists of a bifurcated Maltese Cross with eight rounded points, the arms of which are joined together by a garland of palm leaves. In the center is shown the Belgian lion rampant on a field of black enamel surrounded by a circle of blue enamel bearing the national device: "L'Union Fait La Force", ("In Union There Is Strength"), and on the reverse
L.    L. (Leopold) interlaced and supporting a small crown.
The Cross is surmounted by the Royal Crown, to which it is hinged, and this, in turn, is suspended from a dark blue ribbon with a black central stripe and an attached rosette of the same color.
The decoration is of gold for the first four classes and of silver for the fifth. A Medal is substituted for the Cross for the sixth grade.
Priestly Sons of the Parish
It was to be expected that Father McGolrick, who "allured to brighter worlds and led the way," would inspire many of the boys of the parish with the desire to follow in his footsteps.
Such, indeed, was the case. From the beginning of pastorate he devoted special attention to the boys who sho signs of a vocation to the priesthood. He selected them fl service at the altar, gave them special lessons in Latin encouraged them to persevere in their laudable ambition serve God in the sanctuary. In the early days two of most promising boys-Patrick J. Danehy and James C. Byrne -entered the seminary and reached the goal of the priesthood, the former in 1881, the latter in 1883. These fruits of his ministry were followed by others, the most noteworthy being Timothy Corbett and James A. Duffy, both whom became members of the hierarchy. The former Bishop of Crookston, Minnesota (1910-1939), and the late Bishop of Grand Island, Nebraska, from 1913 until his retirement on account of ill health in 1931. Bishop Duffy also the first alumnus of the St. Paul Seminary to be eleva to the episcopal dignity.
The following is a list of the prelates and priests who the parish of the Immaculate Conception and its successor. the Basilica of St. Mary, may rightfully claim as spitual sons, together with the dates of ordination and of death the case of those who have passed away:
Rev. Patrick J. Danehy, Dec. 16, 1881 .March 5, 1904
Right Rev. James C. Byrne, Feb. 17, 1883 .. June 11, 1942
Most Rev. Timothy Corbett, June 12, 1886 .. July 20, 1939
Rev. Thomas F. Gleeson, June 14, 1888     March 3, 1929
Rev. J. H. Prendergast, May 30,1896     Sept. 17, 1947
Most Rev. James A. Duffy, May 27, 1899
Rev. William A. Dobbin, May 27,1899     Jan. 6, 1929
Rev. Marshall J. Le Sage, C.M., July 9, 1899
Rev. Daniel J. Byrne, Aug. 31, 1900 ... .March 25, 1903
Rev. James E. Doyle, June 13, 1904.  ... , .Dec. 27.1953
Right Rev. John J. Cullinan, June 7, 1912
Rev. Leo Gleason, June 10, 1913     Oct. 8, 1941
Rev. William G. Coughlin, June 12, 1917     Dec. 8. 1925
Rev. W. Joseph Gibbs, June 1, 1919

Rev. Edmund M. Coughlin, June 6, 1920 .... Feb. 9, 1952
Rev. J. Harold Brennan, June 19, 1921
Rev. R. Emmet Cogwin, June 10, 1922
Rev. Thomas H. Diehl, June 9, 1930
Rev. William Nightingale, May 22, 1929     July 6, 1931
Rev. R. A. Cahill, S.J., June 25, 1933
Rev. Maurus F. Cook, O.S.B., Dec. 18, 1935
Rev. Leo J. White, Oct. 3, 1937
Rev. M. Clement Breen, O.P., June 16, 1938
Rev. John J. O'Hara, S.J., June 12, 1938
Rev. Alfred Longley, June 3, 1939
Rev. Raymond A. Gaspard, M.M., June 11, 1939
Rev. Joseph Kuncl, May 31, 1941
Rev. Paul Murray, June 6, 1942
Rev. Robert G. Dillon, Sept. 26, 1942
Rev. Eugene J. McCarthy, May 22, 1943
Rev. Leo R. Sovada, O.S.C., May 29, 1943
Rev. Fredrick Vickstrom, C.S.S.R., June 29, 1940
Rev. Jeremiah J. Rodell, June 3, 1947
Rev. Hermes Kreilkamp, O.F.M., Cap., June 3, 1949
Rev. W. J. Wiggins, S.J., June 14, 1949
Rev. James R. Deneen, April 4, 1954
All the diocesan priests named on this list, with five exceptions, were ordained for the Archdiocese of St. Paul and labored, or are laboring, within it in one capacity or another. The Reverend Daniel Joseph Byrne, younger brother of the late Monsignor Byrne, V.G., was ordained for the Diocese of Fargo and ministered there until his untimely death in 1903; Father Nightingale passed his priestly life in the Diocese of Sioux Falls; Father McCarthy is stationed in the Diocese of Gallup; Father Rodell in the Archdiocese of Chicago, and Father Deneen in the Diocese of Evansville.
It would be interesting to have a roster of other members of the parish who embraced the religious life and, as Sisters or Brothers, helped to make the world better by teaching example. Unfortunately, no such list is available.

In this connection it may not be uninteresting to record since Nazareth Hall Preparatory Seminary opened in tember, 1923, the parish has sent thither forty graduates the eighth grade as aspirants to the priesthood, six of wb have been ordained.
Between 1925 and 1940 the Basilica parish established three burses of $6,000 each for the support of students Nazareth Hall, with the understanding that graduates of school will be the beneficiaries whenever possible.
Burses have been established by members of the congregation for themselves or as memorials to deceased relations by Mrs. Cora Cootey; Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Famechon; Mr. Mrs. George F. Piper, Jr.; Miss Elizabeth C. Quinlan; Regan Brothers; Peter J. Schroeder; Miss Mary Ryan of Cincinnati, in memory of A. J., Teresa R. and Richard F. Leah Mrs. McGolrick in memory of James McGolrick.
Visit of Most Reverend Archbishop Murray
On Sunday, January 31, 1932 - the Sunday following installation as Archbishop of St. Paul- the Most Reve John Gregory Murray, S.T.D., celebrated Pontifical Mass the Basilica at 11 o'clock in presence of a congregation w' . taxed every foot of available space in the auditorium and bulatories of the sacred edifice. Nearly all the priests of ~ •. neapolis and the Christian Brothers of De La Salle High School occupied seats in the sanctuary, and representatives several sisterhoods were present in the church. The resposes of the Mass were sung by the Basilica choir under the direction of Father Missia, with Professor Beck at the organ.
The Most Reverend Archbishop was assisted at the by Father Reardon, as archpriest, and Fathers Cullen Dunphy, as deacons of honor. Fathers Jennings, Brand Hauer of the Basilica staff, were deacon and subdeacon of Mass and master of ceremonies, respectively.

 After the last gospel His Excellency was welcomed by Father Reardon on behalf of the priests and people of the parish, and by the Right Reverend Monsignor Cleary, Pastor of the Church of the Incarnation, in the name of the clergy of Minneapolis.  Father Reardon spoke as follows:  YOUR EXCELLENCY,  It gives me great pleasure, on behalf of the priests and people of the Basilica of St. Mary parish, to greet you with words of welcome and to thank you for the signal honor conferred on us by your presence in this sanctuary.  A few days ago you were formally installed by apostolic mandate as Archbishop of this Diocese in the Cathedral of St. Paul; and today you come to enthrone yourself in the hearts of the faithful in Minneapolis.  A week ago prayers and tears sped your departure from the East where you lived and labored up to the present; and a few days ago prayers and smiles greeted your advent to the West whither you have come to begin a new career fraught with weighty consequences for the Church in this diocese.  You come well recommended. We recognize in Your Excellency the official representative of the Supreme Pontiff, sent with the high commission of an apostle to carry on the work for religion so auspiciously begun in your new jurisdiction by Bishop Cretin in 1851, and so successfully promoted by Bishop Grace and Archbishops Ireland and Dowling.  You come into a goodly inheritance - a diocese young in years, it is true, but old in noble traditions of outstanding service for Church and Country; a diocese well known throughout the world because of the fame of the great prelate whose name is so inseparably linked with the golden era of its prosperity and progress. Upon your shoulders has fallen the mantle of your apostolic predecessors who wrought so mightily for the welfare of religion; and in the discharge of the sacred duties entrusted to your care, you may rely with confidence on the support and prayers not only of the people of this parish, but of all the Catholics of Minneapolis and their priestly leaders in every project you may be pleased to inaugurate for the glory of God and the salvation of souls.
We pray the great High Priest whom you represent among us to grant you health and strength and length of days to meet the demands of your exalted office; breadth of vision and spiritual insight to chart the course of the Church in your new field of labor. May you be dowered with the wisdom of a Solomon to plan new conquests for the faith in the name of an all-wise Father; the courage of a Caesar to capture new outposts for the Church in the name of an all-conquering Son; and the heart of a Madonna to rule with gentleness in the name of an all-loving Spirit the faithful, priests and people, entrusted to your shepherding. Prospere precede et regna ad multos ac faustissimos annos!
His Excellency replied in a felicitous address in which he expressed his pleasure at meeting the clergy and laity of Minneapolis, congratulated the parishioners on their magnificent church, stressed the necessity and value of cooperation in parochial and diocesan affairs, and exhorted all to cultivate the things of the spirit as the most appropriate expression of loyalty to God and Holy Church.
The pastors of the parishes in Minneapolis met the Most Reverend Archbishop informally at dinner in the Basilica residence after the Mass. His Excellency took advantage of the occasion to speak to them in the most paternal manner, assuring them of his desire to be helpful to them in every way, and asking their prayers and cooperation in promoting the welfare of the Church in the Archdiocese and throughout the country.

Silver Jubilee of Cornerstone Laying
On May 28, 1933, Archbishop Murray celebrated a Pontifical Mass to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the laying of the cornerstone of the then Immaculate Conception church, and Father Cullen, its pastor at the time, preached the jubilee sermon in which he recounted the incidents connected with that function which was performed by Archbishop (later, Cardinal) Falconio, Apostolic Delegate to the United States, stressed the generosity and faith of the congregation, who built the church, more than five times as costly as they felt able to undertake, and urged his hearers to translate all their activities into Catholic Action.
Father Reardon was archpriest, Fathers Gregory of the Chancery Office, and Donahoe of St. Bridget's, deacons of honor, and Fathers Brand and Hauer of the Basilica staff, deacon of the Mass and subdeacon respectively.
His Excellency congratulated the people on the achievements of twenty-five years, praised their zeal and cooperation in responding so generously to the leadership of their pastors during this period.
Vested Boys' Choir
Early in August, 1933, John Jacob Beck, organist since 1922, was authorized to organize and train a choir of boys from the upper grades of the Basilica school and its graduates to replace the adult choir of men and women so long a feature of the Sunday services. Since then the vested boys' choir has sung the responses at the High Masses, chanted the psalms and lamentations during Holy Week and built up a large and varied repertory of Masses and motets. From time to time the members have broadcasted very acceptably over a national or local hook-up from the Basilica sanctuary and from the studios of the network granting the privilege. Professor Beck devoted all his musical ability to the Basilica choir for twenty-seven years before his untimely death on May 30, 1949. A bronze tablet commemorating his memory and achievements was erected in the choir by the Minnesota Chapter, American Guild of Organists, on October 15, 1954.
On June 22, 1942, he was officially notified that he had successfully passed the examination for Associate membership in the American Guild of Organists, a national organization of 5000 musicians, with Chapters in all the states of the Union.
The examination consisted of two parts - a practical test of organ-playing ability before a group of local judges, and a seven-hour written test on the history and theory of music, the latter including counterpoint, harmony, and fugue. The questions were sent from New York and the papers returned for evaluation by the official Board of Examiners. The result made Mr. Beck an Associate of the American Guild of Organists, entitled him to put A.A.G.O. after his name and wear the official gown and insignia. He was the only Catholic in the Minnesota Chapter.
The present organist and choir director is Geo. A. Bussmann.
American Legion Post Honors Basilica School
For more than twenty years Calhoun Post, No. 231, of the American Legion, Department of Minnesota, has presented bronze medals and certificates to outstanding pupils of the seventh grade of the Basilica school. For the first three years the awards were for boys only, but since 1936 a boy and a girl have been singled out each year for the distinction. The choice is made by their classmates with the concurrence of the Sister in charge, and is based on the possession of the qualities enumerated in the citation which reads as follows:
"This certifies that N.N. of the Basilica of St. Mary School is selected for this award because he is found to possess, among others, those high qualities of character - Honor, Courage, Scholarship, Leadership and Service - which are necessary to the preservation and protection of the fundamental institutions of our government and the advancement of Society."
When the recipient is a girl the qualities enumerated are:
Courage, Character, Service, Companionship and Scholarship. The citations are signed by the Post Commander and attested by the Post Adjutant.
The medals are of bronze. The one for a boy is three inches in diameter; the one for a girl two and a half inches. On one side of the former is a bas-relief of a soldier and a  marine, fully-equipped, with the motto in raised letters: "For God and Country,"
 and the distinctive qualities in smaller letters; the latter shows a young woman holding the Stars and Stripes, with the same motto and modified wording. On fhe reverse of each is the inscription, "American Legion School Award." In addition to the medals a lapel button of the same material, design and workmanship is presented to the boy and a similar button, with pin attachment, to the girl, together with an engraved certificate containing the name of the recipient and the date of presentation.
The following pupils have received the award: 1933 Robert Bain; 1934--August Zuccaro; 1935-Donald Kreilkamp; 1936-Reno Ciatti and Marylin Comer; 1937-Harry Mangan and Margaret Mary Jebb; 1938-DonaJd Reitsma and Lucille Rouse; 1939-Charles Schwartz and Marcia Stemmer; 1940-Frank Williams and Rita Ann Barry; 1941-Robert Mrsich and Joanne Theirl; 1942-Robert Moran and Donna Mae Van der Velden; 1943-John Williams and Patricia Cassidy; 1944-Richard Graziano and Betty Lou Steinback; 1945- Vincent DeLisi and Rita Battaiola; 1946-Joseph Mayer and Louanne Howard; 1947James Kanz and Irene Blass; 1948-John Ballaiola and Darlene Poeschel; 1949-Clark B. Forcier and Anna Cao]a; 1950-John Sewall and Judith Simonet; 1951-Jerome Pischke and Katherine Dooley; 1952-Timothy Kernan and Eleanor Egan; 1953-Michael Caron and Marcia McNulty; 1954--Thomas Kernan and Josephine Bolduc; 1955-William Quinn and Carol Piazza.
A unique gift was made to the Basilica by Pope Pius XI in May, 1931, a paschal candle of purest beeswax from the apiary of the Trappist monks in charge of the Church of St. Paul at Tre Fontane, the site of the martyrdom of St. Paul, on the outskirts of Rome. It stood four and a half feet high, was two and a half inches in diameter and was blessed by His Holiness. Among the hand-painted decorations embedded in it and covering its entire length was the coat-of-arms of the Holy Father.

The gift was transmitted through the courtesy of Count Edward L. Hearn, the overseas representative of the Knights of Columbus in Rome.
The first religious broadcast from a Catholic church in Minneapolis was heard on Good Friday, March 26, 1931 when WCCO broadcast part of the Three Hours devotion conducted by Father Reardon and the choir in the Basilica of St. Mary. On Easter Sunday of that year the Solemn High Mass was broadcast from 11 to 12 o'clock.
Vesper Services for Boy Scouts
The first vesper service for the Boy Scout troops of Minneapolis was held in the Basilica of St. Mary at 8 P.M. on October 27, 1935. Nearly 500 uniformed scouts from eighteen parish troops, fifty scout masters and as many committee members assembled in the Basilica school and marched to the pews reserved for them in the nave of the church, while the vested choir, altar boys and clergy proceeded to the sanctuary. After a musical program the Most Reverend Archbishop in his sermon asked the Boy Scouts and their friends to cooperate in bringing the enrollment in the Twin Cities to ten thousand. After renewal of the Scout Oath the ceremony was brought to a close with Solemn Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and the singing of "Holy God."
Among the distinguished visitors present in the sanctuary were Bishop Liston and Monsignor Ormond of Auckland, N.Z., and Monsignor Delany, V.G., of South Dunedin, N.Z., who were guests of Father Reardon.
The second annual Boy Scout service on February 7, 1937, brought 300 Boy Scouts to the Basilica where the sermon was preached by Father Gormley, Principal of St. Thomas Military Academy, and the Scout Oath renewed before Benediction.
The third Boy Scout vesper service, on March 23, 1941, was made memorable by the presence of the Most Reverend Francis Clement Kelley, Bishop of Oklahoma City-Tulsa, and Episcopal Chairman of the National Committee of the Hierarchy on Scouting, who gave the principal address.
 The meeting was arranged to take advantage of his presence in the city as the principal speaker at the Christian Man Power meeting in the municipal auditorium that afternoon. To give the scout executives an opportunity to meet him a dinner was prepared in the school cafeteria to which were invited the Most Reverend Archbishop, chaplains of the scout troops, members of the Archdiocesan Committee on Scouting and officers of the Twin Cities scout area. More than 800 scouts from twenty-five parishes in the Twin Cities and vicinity, carrying American nags and troop colors assembled in the church. Father Reardon gave the address of welcome; His Excellency presented the Archbishop Ireland streamers to the winning troops; and Father Nolan of Hastings, Diocesan Chaplain, led the troops in the renewal of the Scout Oath. Bishop Kelley delivered the formal address in which he traced the scout movement to its organization by General Baden-Powell of England, and pointed out that many of the first stones laid in the basic structure of scouting were of Catholic origin. On this foundation was built an additional edifice of spiritual values. Solemn Benediction brought the service to a close.
Another vesper service for Catholic boy scouts, cubs and explorers was held in the Basilica on Sunday, February 7, 1954, at 3:30 p.m. at which Archbishop Murray presided, preached and presented "Ad Altare Dei" awards to those entitled to them. It was attended by 1500 scouts, their leaders, parents and friends. The Basilica choir sang and the ceremony ended with Benediction.
A similar function was held on Sunday, February 6, of the following year at which the Most Reverend Archbishop presided and preached and conferred "Ad Altare Dei" awards on 46 successful candidates for the honor from 14 parishes in the city and vicinity, after which the Archbishop and the two priests and the six laymen of the official committee on Catholic Scouting were given a dinner in the Curtis Hotel.
The Basilica Boy Scout Troop No. 111, in existence for thirty years, was disbanded early in September, 1945, because of the impossibility of securing a competent Scout Master and a parish committee interested in the work.
Ordinations in the Basilica
The first ceremony of ordination to the priesthood ever witnessed in Minneapolis took place on Sunday, October 3, 1937, at the 11 o'clock Mass, when Reverend Leo J. White was elevated to priestly rank by the Most Reverend Archbishop Murray, assisted by Very Reverend William O. Brady, S.T.D., Rector of St. Paul Seminary, and Very Reverend John J. Cullinan, Rector of Nazareth Hall, with Father Ziskovsky of St. Paul Seminary as master of ceremonies, assisted by Father McNamara of the Basilica staff. Father White, a member of the Basilica parish, was ill when his classmates were ordained in June, 1936, and did not fully recover for a year. He said his first Mass in the Basilica on Sunday, October 10, at 11 o'clock and the sermon was preached by Father Reardon.
The Reverend Eugene J. McCarthy of the parish was ordained to the diaconate on Friday, May 21, 1943, in the Basilica by Archbishop Murray and the following day promoted to the priesthood for the Diocese of Gallup. He said his first Mass the next day, Sunday May 23, at 11 o'clock, assisted by Monsignor Reardon as archpriest, Father Brand as deacon, Father Quinlan as subdeacon and Father Gearty as master of ceremonies. The sermon was preached by Monsignor Reardon.
Centennial of Archbishop lreland's Birth

Sunday, September 11, 1938, was tlle one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Archbishop Ireland in Burnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ireland. On that day an artistic bronze tablet was solemnly blessed and formally dedicated by Archbishop Murray before the Pontifical Mass at 11 o'clock. The Very Reverend T. E. Cullen, pastor of St. Stephen's Church, was archpriest, Fathers Reardon and Dunphy deacons of honor, and Fathers Brand and Thissen of the Basilica stall, deacon and subdeacon of the Mass.
 The sermon was preached by the Most Reverend John J. Lawler, D.D., Bishop of Rapid City, S.D., former pastor of the Cathedral of St. Paul, and Auxiliary to Archbishop Ireland from 1910 to 1916. He reviewed the career of the distinguished prelate, recounted some of his more notable achievements as a recognized leader in church and state, and especially as the builder of the Cathedral of St. Paul and the Basilica of St. Mary, two of the most imposing churches in America.
The memorial tablet, attached to the front pier of the nave on the gospel side of the church, is thus described in a souvenir folder issued to commemorate the occasion.
The bronze plaque measures 3 feet 6 inches by 5 feet 9 inches, weights 268 pounds, and was designed by Fred A. Slifer, architect, of St. Paul.
It is an artistically executed panel with a decorated cresting bearing the words, "In Memoriam," and an ornamental scroll ending in finials, the whole surmounted by a freestanding cross on a globe.
It shows a life-like three-quarter face and bust of the Archbishop in bas-relief on a sunken panel garlanded with laurel leaves. The head is well poised; the features strong and expressive; the whole bearing suggestive of physical strength and intellectual vigor. The pectoral chain is modeled after the one worn by him on ceremonial occasions.
In the upper corner on the right is his coat-of-arms, the excutcheon displaying a figure of St. Paul, patron of tbe Diocese, with the left hand resting on the hilt of a naked sword, the right holding aloft a cross, and beneath it the mollo, "Omnibus Omnia Factus Sum" (I became all things to all men). The crook of the crozier above the shield is copied from the pastoral staff carried by the Archbishop in religious functions during his episcopal career.
In the upper left is the coat-of-arms of the Basilica of St. Mary with its distinctive emblem, a half-opened umbrella of twelve alternate red and yellow stripes and pendants above the shield which marshals the heraldic device or the Immaculate Conception, the original name or the parish, and of Minneapolis, "the City by the Falls", and under it tbe motto, "Omnia in Christo" (All things in Christ).
Below the medallion are two flags with stafTs crossed-the Stars and Stripes and the Church Flag of the Army-the former a symbol of the Archbishop·s devotion to American ideals, the latter recalling his services in the Civil War as Chaplain of the 5th. Minnesota regiment.
The lower half of the memorial chronicles the chief events in his life: his birth in Ireland in 1838; his ordination to the priesthood in St. Paul in 1861; his consecration to the episcopate in 1875; his elevation to archiepiscopal rank in 1888; and his death on September 25,1918.
Then follows a succinct summary, in scriptural phraseology, of the dominating ideals of his long and crowded years of consecrated service: "A great prelate who in his days pleased God and wrought wonderful things for the church."
The memorial is the gift of the Basilica of St. Mary parish to perpetuate the name and achievements of its illustrious Founder and to commemorate the distinguished service to Church and Country of the first Archbishop of St. Paul.
"A sower of infinite seed was he, A woodman who hewed towards the light."
Reverend Henry J. Scherer of New Ulm, Minnesota, who was deacon at the first Mass, Father Brand as subdeacon, and Father McNamara as Master of Ceremonies. The Right Reverend Monsignor Humphrey Moynihan and Father Reardon attended the Most Reverend Archbishop who presided at the throne and preached the sermon.
The commemorative plaque, similar in design and size to the Archbishop Ireland Memorial, bears the following inscription beneath a bas-relief of the Basilica:
    1914     1939
"I have chosen and have sanctified this place that my name may be there for ever"
(2 Paralipomenon VII-16)
Silver Jubilee of First Mass
The twenty-fifth anniversary of the first Mass celebrated in the then Pro-Cathedral of St. Mary on the feast of Pentecost, May 31, 1914, was observed on Sunday, June 4, 1939, when the Most Reverend Archbishop Murray blessed a bronze memorial plaque attached to the first pier on the epistle side of the nave before the Solemn High Mass celebrated by Father Cullen, who officiated at the first Mass a quarter of a century before. He was assisted by the Very
Daily Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament
With the permission and approval of Most Reverend Archbishop Murray, daily exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, from 6 A.M., to 8 P.M., was inaugurated in the Basilica of St. Mary on May 1st, 1940, with a triduum of High Masses celebrated by Father Reardon. Preparations for this new venture began early in March when Archbishop Murray approved the project, and the people were asked to pledge at least a quarter of an hour a week of adoration before the Blessed Sacrament exposed on the main altar.
Cards were distributed and they were asked to designate the day and hour selected for their visit. As a result nearly seven hundred hours of adoration were pledged before the first of May and many hours added after that date. Booklets with prayers for a visit to the Blessed Sacrament and other appropriate devotions were provided in the book racks and procured by the people as aids to recollection and meditation. The Blessed Sacrament is exposed every morning before the six o'clock Mass and returned to the tabernacle every evening after devotions at 8 o'clock, later advanced to 7, except during Lent. Before the reposition the Rosary and Litany of the B.V.M. are recited, and the congregation sings the Tantum Ergo and, after Benediction, the Divine Praises are said, followed by "Holy God, We Praise Thy Name."
One hundred percent bees wax candles, to the number of fourteen, burn continuously during the exposition and two clusters of three vigil lights each rest beside the Monstrance. No collection is ever taken up and no appeal for funds made in connection with the devotion, but so many people make voluntary offerings for candles to be burned for their intentions that sufficient funds to defray the cost of the exposition have always been available.
The following rescript authorizing the devotion hangs in the sacristy:
Nos, perspectis litteris supplicibus Admodum Reverendi Rectoris Basilicae Minoris Sanctae Mariae Minneapolitanae hujus Archidiocesis Sancti Pauli quibus petitur licentia exponendi in altare majori praedictae Basilicae omnibus diebus totius anni praeter sacrum triduum in hebdomade sancta Sacratissimum Sacramentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, eamdem Iicentiam tenore praesentium concedere ita ut praedicta expositio locum habeat inde ab hora sexta antemeridiana usque ad horam octavam vespertinam dummodo adsint omni tempore exposition is fideles adoratores et omnia a rubricis praescripta serventur.
Datum Palliopoli de Minnesota anno Domini millesimo nongentesimo quadragesimo die vero prima mensis Maii.
Diocesan Seal.
 Joannes Gregorius Archiepiscopus Sancti Pauli
Parochial Eucharistic Day
For ten years after the inauguration of daily exposition on May 1, 1940, an annual Eucharistic Day was held on the first Friday of May of each year, in thanksgiving for the graces flowing from the daily exposition. The program of exercises was substantially the same each year: High Mass and sermon at 8 o'clock, sermon and prayers at 11 A.M. and 2 P.M. followed by a procession of the Blessed Sacrament around the block on which the Basilica stands. Boys bearing American and Papal flags led the way followed by the girls of the parochial school, the pupils of St. Margaret's Academy, the boys of the parish school, cross-bearer, acolytes, vested choir and altar boys, forty girls in white, two of whom strewed flowers along the way, four acolytes with lighted torches, two censer-bearers, the canopy carried by four boys from De La Salle High School, under which the Blessed Sacrament was borne by Monsignor Reardon, accompanied by the priests of the parish. Behind the canopy walked the members of the congregation. During the procession Latin hymns were sung by the choir, the rosary and other prayers recited by the marchers. The procession was viewed by a large number of persons attracted by the unusual sight for these were the only occasions on which the Blessed Sacrament was borne outdoors on the border of the business  district.
Solemn Benediction brought the devotions to a close. The final procession was held on May 6, 1951. The parish Eucharistic Day yielded to the public procession and recitation of the rosary on the first Sunday of May which ended with Benediction from a temporary altar erected on the front steps of the Basilica.
Father Reardon Honored

On December 12, 1940 the Most Reverend Archbishop appointed Father Reardon General Chairman for the Ninth National Eucharistic Congress to be held in the Twin Cities during the week of June 22, 1941. In the midst of the immediate preparation for it, on June 9, 1941, he was notified by the Archbishop that he had been raised to the rank of Protonotary Apostolic by His Holiness Pope Piux XI and appointed a member of the official suite of His Eminence Cardinal Dougherty, Papal Legate to the Congress. The Apostolic Brief was signed by Cardinal Maglione, Secretary of State to His Holiness, on June 18 and reads as follows in its English translation.
Pius XII Pope and Bishop
Beloved Son, Health and Apostolic Benediction.
The Most Reverend Archbishop of St. Paul, Minnesota, has made known to Us that you, a priest distinguished for piety, zeal for the salvation of souls and a spirit of charity, are the efficient General Chairman of arrangements for the Ninth National Eucharistic Congress of the United States to be held in the Twin Cities.
Since, therefore, he has petitioned Us to bestow upon you a special ecclesiastical dignity as a suitable recognition of your labors and merits, and as a fitting public testimonial of Our good will, We, by these letters and Our own authority, choose, make and proclaim you a PROTONOTARY APOSTOLIC ad instar participantium, and We grant you, Beloved Son, all the rights, privileges, honors, prerogatives and induIts which otber prelates raised to this dignity use and enjoy by virtue especially of the Constitution of Our predecessor Pope Pius X of blessed memory "Concerning the College of Protonotaries", issued on the twenty-first day of the month of February, in the year 1905, a printed copy of which is herewith sent you.
Moreover, whilst We have decreed that a notice of this dignity conferred on you be officially recorded among the Acts of the College of Protonotaries Apostolic, We order that, before you make use of the benefits of the foregoing grant, you make a profession of faith, in the manner prescribed by the Apostolic See, in presence of your Archbishop who, in this instance, takes the place of the Dean of the College; that you understand the words of the oath of fidelity in the printed form which We order sent to you; and that you religiously observe whatever else is prescribed by the aforesaid Constitution. All things to the contrary notwithstanding.
Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, under the seal of the Fisherman, on the eighteenth day of the month of June, in the year 1941, being the third of Our Pontificate.
To Our Beloved Son
James Michael Reardon, Priest.
Luigi Cardinal Maglione Secretary of State.

The formal investiture of the new prelate took place privately on Christmas morning, 1941, after a low Mass celebrated by Archbishop Murray at St. Teresa's Altar, when he took the prescribed oath of fidelity to the Holy See and made a profession of faith before His Excellency, vested in cope and miter and holding the crozier, as the personal representative of the Dean of the College of Protonotaries Apostolic. The Archbishop then clothed him with the lace rochet and purple mantelletta and placed the black biretta with its distinctive red pompon on his head. The ceremony was made imperative by tbe Apostolic Brief, and was witnessed by fewer than a dozen persons.

Monsignor Reardon said his first Pontifical Mass on Sunday, June 29, the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, at 11 o'clock The sermon was preached by the Most Reverend James Morrison, D.D., Bishop of Antigonish, Nova Scotia, who preached at Father Reardon's first Mass in St. Dunstan's Cathedral, Charlottetown, P. E. Island, on June 12, 1898, and at his golden jubilee in the same church on June 13, 1948. Two bishops and a number of priests were present in the sanctuary. After Mass the celebrant thanked all who honored him with their presence on that occasion. The visiting prelates and clergy were guests at dinner in the Basilica residence.
On September 30, 1940, the Very Reverend Thomas E. Cullen, for nineteen years prior to 1921, pastor of the Basilica parish, died in St. Mary's Hospital after a brief illness. His funeral took place from St. Stephen's Church of which he had been pastor for thirteen years, on October 4. The Most Reverend Archbishop officiated at the Pontifical Requiem and Father Reardon preached. Burial was in St. Mary's cemetery.
He was a native of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, ordained in St. Paul Seminary on November 8, 1901, and appointed assistant pastor of the Immaculate Conception Church, Minneapolis, in September, 1902. After the consecration of Bishop Keane the following month he was promoted to the pastorate. During his incumbency the new church, now known as the Basilica of St. Mary, was built and dedicated. In 1921 he was made President of the College of St. Thomas, a position he occupied for six years prior to his assignment to St. Stephen's Church in 1927. R.I.P.

Second World War
During the second World War the record of the Basilica parish was not less impressive than during the previous war. Archbishop Murray wished the Catholic women to function as a group and receive credit for what they did. The Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women established units in Minneapolis to carryon its program under the direction of the American Red Cross and selected the Basilica school as the center for organized war work which began on June 18, 1940. The meetings were held on Tuesday of each week from 10 A.M. to 4 P.M.
Women came from many of the other parishes in the city to sew and knit till January 8, 1941, when parish units began to be established and, within two years, thirty-one were functioning. A temporary shortage of materials at the Chaptcr Headquarters in Dayton's department store, caused many of the women to become interested in other Red Cross activities, such as First Aid, Home Nursing, Nurses' Aid, Nutrition, Canteen, Motor Corps, etc., and many merited certificates in these department.
Mrs. Frederick E. Murphy of the Basilica parish was General Chairman of the Catholic Red Cross work in Minneapolis, with Mrs. William Swick of Incarnation parish as her able assistant. Owing to ill health Mrs. Murphy rarely attended the meetings, but she paid the rental for the sewing machines used in the Basilica headquarters for the whole period, and provided automobile, chauffeur and gas for the use of Mrs. Swick who supervised the program, through whom all supplies were secured from the Chapter Headquarters, distributed to the parish units, and the completed product checked and returned. Mrs. Swick attended regularly and overlooked no detail that would contribute to the success of the work. Her efficient service cannot be too highly commended. During the year ending May, 1942, with 22 active units and 8 surgical dressing stations, the number of sewed garments, coats, dressing robes, etc., amounted to 6,366, of knitted garments, sweaters, scarfs, socks, gloves, etc., to 1,114; and of surgical dressings to 55,276.
The following year these units had a total output of 8,127 sewed and 1,086 knitted garments. The number of women sewing in the Basilica unit was 101 who worked 3,171 hours and 25 knitters for 1,976 hours.
The grand tolal for the year for all units was 864 sewers with 38,245 hours of labor and 8,127 garments, and 96 knitters with 10,248 hours and 1,086 garments, while the surgical dressings numbered 211,725. In addition, there was a 100% enrollment in the parochial schools and $1,500 was contributed by the pupils to the war fund.
During the year ending May, 1944, there were 333 sewers working 17,280 hours and preparing 8,338 garments, besides 70 knitters for 9,725 hours and 520 garments. In addition, 1,878 women put in 12,109 hours making 168,936 surgical dressings. Of these the Basilica unit furnished 10 workers with a total of 2,420 hours and 1,133 garments.
Units were organized to do mending for the veterans in Fort Snelling hospital and for the sailors in Old Union Hall on the campus of the University of Minnesota, and the naval officers and men were most appreciative of the service. Six hundred women donated blood, some of them several times.
The following year five Basilica unit workers won the five-year pin presented by the Red Cross as a token of appreciation for faithful attendance and excellent work, and nine from other parishes were honored in a similar way. Many women servcd as nurses' aids, grey ladies in the hospitals, canteen workers, staff assistants, nutritians and dietitians. The total output for the year amounted to 9,179 pieces of which 8,938 were sewed and 241 knitted garments, besides 230,946 surgical dressings. 379 women put in 25,206 hours at the work.
In the last period of the war, from May, 1945, to September, 1946, 201 women sewed 2,223 garments in 8,316 hours; 30 knit 197 sweaters, etc., in 2,894 hours; and 158 prepared 24,120 surgical dressings in 2,493 hours.
Six years and four months of work ended in October, 1946, and the summarized report covering this period tells a story of devoted and self-denying activity that established an enviable record for the Catholic parish units.
During these years in the sewing department 1,830 workers gave 93,204 hours to the making of 35,175 garments, and 300 gave 31,450 to the knitting of 3,210 sweaters, etc., and 699,398 surgical dressings were made by 3,215 workers in 54,968 hours.
The Red Cross officials complimented the women of the parish units most highly and declared the work done by them eminently satisfactory in quantity and quality. When the war emergency ended with V-Day many of the units continued to work during the polio epidemic in the summer of 1946.
Commemorative Bronze Plaques

Early in the year 1941 six commemorative bronze plaques, shaped like monstrances, were securely fastened to the piers of the nave. They are dedicated to Pope Pius XI, who raised the church to the rank of a Minor Basilica on February 1, 1926; to His Eminence Dennis Cardinal Dougherty, Archbishop of Philadelphia, Papal Legate to the Ninth National Eucharistic Congress, who consecrated the church and the main altar on June 27, 1941; to the Right Reverend James McGolrick, founder and first pastor of the parish (1868-1889); to the Right Reverend Joseph Cretin, first Bishop of St. Paul (1851-1857); to the Right Reverend Thomas L. Grace, second Bishop of St. Paul (1859-1884); to the Most Reverend Austin Dowling, second Archbishop of St. Paul (1919-1930) .
In addition, four bronze memorial tablets are bolted to the inner surface of the vestibule wall on the epistle side to commemorate the deceased pastors of the parish: Bishop McGolrick, Monsignor Byrne, V.G., Archbishop Keane and Father Cullen. All were designed by Slifer and Cone, architects, of St. Paul and cost $2,184.00.
During May and June, 1941, new furnishings were installed in the Basilica in preparation for its solemn consecration on June 27. Three sets of brass candlesticks (twelve in all) and three crucifixes were added to the furnishings of the altars dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, St. Joseph and the Cure of Ars, at a cost of $500.
A hand-forged wrought iron grille enclosing the baptistery, similar in design and workmanship to the sanctuary grille, was erected; sanctuary rails of the same material and craftmanship were installed in the chapels of Ste. Anne, Cure of Ars, St. Teresa and St. Anthony; twelve bronze crosses with attached candle holders were fastened to the interior walls as permanent evidence of the consecration; and a bronze shelf to hold the marble bust of Archbishop Ireland was put in place beneath the northern rose window of the sacristy. All were made from plans furnished by Slifer and Cone and cost $1,535.00.
A five-foot statue of St. John Vianney, Cure of Ars, the patron saint of diocesan priests, was enthroned on a pedestal on the altar dedicated to him in the rear of the sanctuary. It was carved from a small statue brought by Father Reardon from the town of Ars where Father Vianney was pastor till his death in 1859. The statue cost $400.
Solemn Consecration of the Basilica
The solemn consecration of the Basilica of St. Mary on Friday, June 27, 1941, was a fitting sequel to the Ninth National Eucharistic Congress. During the Congress it had been the scene of impressive functions-the Holy Hour for Sisters on June 25 and the Byzantine-Slavonic Mass on June 26.
In preparation for the consecration small metal boxes were procured to receive the relics of the martyrs, Saints Victoria and Aurelia, to be sealed in the sepulchre of each altar, together with grains of incense and a parchment scroll, signed by Archbishop Murray, containing the name of the consecrator, the date of consecration, the names of the martyrs whose relics were enclosed, and the name of the saint to whom the altar is dedicated. In addition to the relics of the martyrs, a relic of St. Anne, of the Cure of Ars, of the Little Flower, of St. Anthony and of St. Joseph was placed in the receptacle for their respective altars. The legend "Consecrated June 27, 1941" was carved on the front of each mensa, or altar table.

His Eminence Cardinal Dougherty, Archbishop of Philadelphia, Papal Legate to the Ninth National Eucharistic Congress, consecrated the church and the main altar dedicated to the Blessed Virgin under the title of her Immaculate Conception, assisted by Reverends Patrick W. Gearty, deacon, Bernard Bauer, subdeacon, S. Burgio, C.M., master of ceremonies, George Ziskovsky and Joseph Quinlan, assistant masters of ceremonies.
The other consecrators were:
For the Sacred Heart Altar-His Excellency the Most Reverend Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, D.D., Apostolic Delegate to the United States, assisted by Reverends Joseph M. Kuncl, deacon, Alfred Weiers, subdeacon, Right Reverend Leo Binz and Reverend S. N. Hauer, masters of ceremonies.
For the St. Joseph Altar-The Most Reverend John Gregory Murray, S.T.D., Archbishop of St. Paul, assisted by Reverends John O'Neil, deacon, Paul Murray, subdeacon, Henry F. Egan, master of ceremonies.
For the Ste. Anne Altar-the Most Reverend John J. Lawler, D.D., Bishop of Rapid City, S.D., assisted by Reverends Thomas Robertson, deacon, Bernard Schreiner, subdeacon, Francis J. Schenk, master of ceremonies.
For the St. Anthony Altar-the Most Reverend James Morrison, D.D., Bishop of Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada, assisted by Reverends Michael Gutter, deacon, Ludwig Heitzer, subdeacon, Thomas J. McNamara, master of ceremonies.
For the Cure of Ars altar-the Most Reverend Francis C. Kelley, D.D., Bishop of Oklahoma City-Tulsa, Oklahoma, assisted by Reverends Ambrose Siebenand, deacon, Roman Schaeffer, subdeacon, Brian Keany, master of ceremonies.
For the Little Flower Altar-The Most Reverend Francis M. Kelly, D.D., Bishop of Winona, Minnesota, assisted by Reverends William Sweeney, deacon, Francis Fleming, subdeacon, Robert Vashro, master of ceremonies.
For the Assumption of the B.V.M. Altar (rear of the main altar) the Most Reverend Aloisius J. Muench, D.D., Bishop of Fargo, N. D., assisted by Right Reverend A. D. Rheaume, deacon, Reverends John Fleming, subdeacon, Charles F. Doran, master of ceremonies.
Each prelate, with one exception, celebrated low Mass on the altar consecrated by him. His Eminence found it necessary to leave Minneapolis at midday and was unable to pontificate at the main altar, as had been arranged. His place was taken by Archbishop Murray who was assisted by Reverends M. J. J. Griffin, archpriest, John Dunphy and Joseph A. Corrigan as deacons of honor, Theodore Krebsbach, O.S.B., deacon, D. Richard, subdeacon and George Ziskovsky as master of ceremonies.
After the gospel the Archbishop preached to an overflow congregation that had witnessed the impressive ceremony, the first of its kind in Minneapolis and one of the largest and most elaborate ever staged in the United States.
The choir for the consecration was directed by Reverend Edward Gleason of Nazareth Hall; John J. Beck presided at the organ and directed the choir for the Pontifical Mass. Students or the St. Paul Seminary, of Nazareth Hall and altar boys of the parish served as acolytes and other ministers for the ceremony.

Archbishop Murray made a brief address expressive of his gratitude to all who had helped to make the event memorable in the history of the Archdiocese of St. Paul.
Cardinals visit the Basilica
The following members of the College of Cardinals visited the Basilica of St. Mary, usually in company with the Archbishop of St. Paul. Their Eminences
Vincent Cardinal Vannutelli of Rome, on September 21, 1910.
Bonaventure Cardinal Cerretti of Rome, on December 28, 1928.
Patrick Cardinal Hayes of New York, on October 8, 1930.
Dennis Cardinal Dougherty of Philadelphia, on June 27, 1941.
Conrad Cardinal Von Preysing of Berlin, on March 1, 1947.
Eugene Cardinal Tisserant of Rome, on May 29, 1947.
James Francis Cardinal McIntyre, Archbishop of Los Angeles, on August 27, 1955.
The following Archbishops arc listed as visitors before their elevation to cardinalatial rank:
Most Reverend Diomede Falconio, Apostolic Delegate, of Washington.
Most Reverend Pietro Fumasoni-Biondi, Apostolic Delegate, of Washington.
Most Reverend John J. Glennon, Archbishop of St. Louis.
Most Reverend James Charles McGuigan, Archbishop of Toronto.
Right Reverend Camillo Caccia-Dominioni, of Rome.

Parochial Diamond Jubilee
The seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding of the parish of the Immaculate Conception, the forerunner of the Basilica parish, was commemorated on Sunday, October 3, 1843, with a Pontifical Mass celebrated by Archbishop Murray at eleven o'clock. The ministers of the Mass were former priests of the parish. Reverend James Donahoe was assistant priest; Fathers Keefe and Doran deacons of honor; Fathers Brand and Hauer deacon and subdeacon of the Mass; and Father Quinlan, master of ceremonies.

The sermon was preached by Reverend F. T. J. Burns, S.T.D., formerly of the parish, who traced its history from 1868 and praised the parishioners for all they had accomplished in three quarters of a century. A large congregation was present among them the Mother Provincial and many Sisters of St. Joseph as well as representatives of other communities.
The next morning a Solemn Requiem Mass was sung for the deceased members of the parish at which the pupils of the school and many others were present.
In connection with the Jubilee a souvenir was issued giving the names of all on ceremonies, a list of the pastors of the parish and photos of the three churches.
Joan of Arc Statue Presented
In October, 1942, the Minneapolis League of Catholic Women presented to the Basilica school a statue of St. Joan of Arc-a replica of the original in the Louvre in Paris by the renowned sculptor Schapu, and a duplicate of one in St. Catherine's College, St. Paul. This statue was presented to the League some years before by friends and when St. Mary's Hall for girls on Hawthorne Avenue was sold there was no place to keep it. It was re-finished in August, 1943, and rests on a pedestal in the main corridor of the school inside the Laurel Avenue entrance.
Ciboria Covers War Relics
Two ciboria covers made of white silk from a parachute that fell or was shot down near the Visitation Convent, Les Abys, Paliseul, Belgium, during the second world war were blessed and placed on the ciboria in the tabernacle by Monsignor Reardon on February 27, 1947. The silk was forwarded to him by Sister Marguerite Marie de Vaulx, then residing at Paliseul, but back in her convent at Crainhem-lez-Bruxelles, as a thank-offering for the preservation of herself and her community during the war. The covers were made and embroidered by the Sisters of the Visitation in St. Paul, where Sister Marguerite Marie once resided. There was enough for a third cover retained by the Visitation Sisters.
Stainless Steel Cross on Dome
On August 23, 1945, a new cross of stainless steel was hoisted into place on the dome of the Basilica and welded to a substructure securely anchored inside. It rises thirteen feet and one inch above the apex of the dome. It replaces the original sixteen foot cross of structural iron found to be so corroded as to render renewal necessary. A lightning arrester, with a platinum point extending ten inches above the top of the cross, was attached to it in the rear and carried to the ground by two conductors of pure copper, one connected with the water system, the other embedded in a sixty foot well sunk below the water level of this area.
Representation in Armed Forces
During the second World War, as of November 1, 1945, the parish was represented in the armed forces of the nation by the following: Army, 391; Navy, 182; Marines, 37; Coast Guard, 10; a total of 620. Women: Wacs, 8; Waves 9; Spars, 2; Nurses, 8; Marine auxiliary, 6; a total of 33, making a grand total of 653. Of these the records of 609 were sent to the Chancery Office. Of the remaining 44 we have only the names. There were 3 chaplains: Fathers McNamara, Gearty and Keany. 27 made the supreme sacrifice. They are:
Private Paul M. Sheehy, in Camp Raan, California, June 7, 1941
Lieutenant James M. Cassidy, in Columbia, South America, March 2, 1943
Staff Sergeant John J. Hutterer, in Tunisia, North Africa, May 8, 1943

Staff Sergeant Charles P. Scanlon, in North Africa, June 13, 1943
Sergeant Joseph 1. Donahue, in the Philippine Islands, July 1, 1943
Seamen, 2nd. Class, Gerald P. Sullivan, in Salerno, Italy, September 11, 1943
Estanslas Ancheta, in Army Hospital, Santa Fe, New Mexico, January 19, 1944
Private Leo A. Campbell, in Italy, January 17, 1944
Private Robert J. Bendsten, in Italy, March 25, 1944
William T. Grosbusch, at sea, August ]9, 1943
Seamen Marcus 1. Cavanaugh, at sea, April, 1944
Lieutenant Vincent Kaminski, in Germany, May 20, 1944
Private Martin Notaro, in New Guinea, June 22, 1944
Private W. Lee Gillies, in Camp Sutton, North Carolina. August 29, 1944
Sergeant William R. Ralls, in Guam, July 27, 1944
Jerome Zalusky, at sea, near Hong Kong, September 17, 1944
Corporal Robert V. Murphy, in Germany, December 25, 1944
Lieutenant Arnold Elchlepp, in Germany, December 26, 1944
William Rocllford, Jr., in the Battle of the Bulge, Belgium, January 21, 1945
Signalman James G. Cummins, in the South Pacific, January 24, 1945
Corporal Stanley Sianga, in Iwo Jima, February 22, 1945
Lieutenant Harry Holm, in Luzon, P. I., April 15, 1945
Marine Pfc. Michael H. Shout, in Okinawa, May, 1945
Jolm Trautz, in Tokyo, Japan, May 24, 1945
Corporal John J. Huebner, in Panama City, Florida, July 13,1945
Staff Sergeant George Tyminiski, in European Area, September 15, 1945
Lieutenant William D. Regan, in Philippine Islands, January 12, 1946

Benedictine Sisters take Charge oj Housekeeping
On January 2, 1943 Sister M. Paschal, O.S.B., and Sistcr M. Agnes, O.S.B., from St. Martin's Convent, Sturgis, S. D., took charge of the Basilica rectory housekeeping and occupied the north end of the third floor where they had private rooms with baths, a community foom and a dining room. Sister Agnes was replaced by Sister Elaine, O.S.B., on July 11, 1943, and Sister Paschal by Sister Norbert, O.S.B., on Sept. 18, 1946, before they were recalled on January 31, 1947, because of a dearth of sisters in the community.
Early in April, 1946, the nine-foot replica of the official Monstrance of the Ninth National Eucharistic Congrcss which crowned the high altar in the State Fair grounds was transferred to the Basilica of St. Mary school from the Brioschi-Minuti Studios in St. Paul, where it had reposed since June, 1941, erected in the main corridor, repaired and repainted where it attracts the attention of the Sisters, pupils and visitors.
Bronze Doors Dedicated
During the month of November, 1954, eight double bronze doors were installed in the Basilica of St. Mary by the Flour City Ornamental Iron Company of Minneapolis at a cost of $65,000, and dedicated by the Most Reverend Archbishop Murray after a High Mass on Wednesday, December 8, the feast of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, at which he presided in Cappa Magna and preached on the Queenship of Mary.
The Mass was sung by Father Fleming and His Excellency was assisted at the throne by Fathers Burns of St. Clement's parish and Forrey of Our Lady of Grace. Fathers Martineau and Murphy were masters of ceremonies. Present in the sanctuary with Monsignor Reardon, the pastor, were Monsignor Dunphy and Father Donahoe.
At the end of the Mass the Archbishop vested in cope and miler, carrying the crozier, and preceded by twenty-five Fourth Degree Knights of Columbus in regalia,
the choir and altar boys, and accompanied by the clergy, marched in procession from the sanctuary to the side door on the gospel side of the church which, after the ritualistic prayer, he sprinkled with holy water and then, by way of the side ambulatory, proceeded to the front of the church where he repeated the prayer and blessiug for each of the five doors opening on Hennepin Avenue, and thence by the outer aisle, to the door on the epistle side and, by way of the sanctuary ambulatory, to the rear door which he likewise sprinkled with holy water after the prescribed prayer, and returned to the sacristy through double lines of knights with drawn swords. During the procession the choir, under the direction of the choirmaster, George A. Bussmann, sang hymns in honor of the Blessed Mother, the patroness of the church.
This function was the final tribute of the parish to the Mother of God on the closing day of the Marian Year.
The installation of the bronze doors completed the structural unit of the Basilica a little more than forty years after the first Mass was said in its sanctuary on May 31, 1914.
The bronze doors are fabricated on both sides of a steel frame, the interior of which is filled with anti-vermin cork. They can be locked and unlocked only from the inside.
In the upper section of the recessed central panel of each door is a shatter-proof semi-transparent plastic known as "Plexiglass", 16 by 30 inches in size, which admits an amber light and is protected on the outside by an emblem in bronze securely anchored in place. Smaller panes of the same material are set in the transoms at the sides of the coats-of-arms and protected by bronze emblems-the Monogram of the Blessed Virgin and the Crescent Moon and Stars above the front doors; and the Pierced Heart and the Fleur-de-lis above the side doors. Two pebble-surfaced sheets of plexiglass are placed back to back and the edges sealed by waterproof tape. The amber color harmonizing with the bronze of the doors, is achieved by lacquer sprayed on the smooth sides before the two pieces are assembled and taped. The sashes in which the plexiglass is mounted are removable for cleaning.
The delicate sheen of the doors will not be affected by climatic conditions. The symbolism displayed on the bronze doors is signifi­cant and instructive and merits more than a casual glance from the passerby.
There are sixteen doors in all, each seven by three feet in size, weighing about 350 pounds. Fourteen of them bear symbols of the Apostles and Evangelists, two, the American and Papal flags. Beneath each symbol is the name of the person or thing it represents.

In the transom of the central front door is depicted in colors the seal of the Basilica of St. Mary in vitrified enamel and bearing the legend, "The Seal of the Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis". On the left, when one faces it, is the Monogram of the Blessed Virgin, and on the right the Crescent Moon surrounded by twelve Stars significant of her Immaculate Conception.

The door on the left has the coat-of-arms of Archbishop Ireland who founded the church and dedicated it in 1914. The next door on the left has the coat-of-arms of Pope St. Pius X in whose pontificate the church was built.

The door on the right shows the coat-of-arms of Cardinal Dougherty of Philadelphia who consecrated the Basilica in 1941; and the next door the coat-of-arms of Pope Pius XI who raised it to the rank of a Minor Basilica in 1926, the first in the United States.

The door on the Sixteenth Street side is dedicated to Archbishop Dowling whose coat-of-arms is displayed on the transom. It was during his episcopate that the interior was finished. He celebrated Pontifical Mass at its main altar every Christmas morning at five o'clock until ill-health pre­vented his doing so. The transom of the farther door on the same side, dedicated to the Evangelists, Saints Mark and Luke, carries a scroll on which is engraved, "Salus Exeunti­bus", salvation to all who go forth from this church.

The door on the Seventeenth Street side bears the coat­of-arms of Archbishop Murray who completed the struc­tural unit of the Basilica by dedicating the bronze doors. For lllany years he, too, pontificated in its sanctuary on Christmas morning and said a second Mass at the altar of the Little Flower.
On the inside frame of each door are fifteen emblems.
Three of them, on the lintel, represent the Persons of the Blessed Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost; the twelve on the architrave symbolize the four Major Prophets of the Old Testament - Ezechiel, Isaias, Daniel and Jeremias; Moses and Aaron, the leaders of the Jewish people during the exodus from Egypt; the Ark of the Covenant; the Fiery Sword of the expelling Angel; the Tree of Knowledge of the Garden of Eden; the Ark built by Noah to escape the Deluge; the Tables of the Law; and the Seven-branched Candlestick.

In addition to these there is in tile center of each transom the symbol of the Blessed Trinity-the circle, the triangles and the words, Holy, Holy, Holy.
Site for Basilica           L. S. Donaldson, Sr.
St. Anne's Chapel           Mrs. Edmund Pennington
St. Anthony's Chapel ..           Mrs. Charles E. Wales
St. Joseph's Altar           Mrs. L. S. Donaldson
Sacred Heart Altar           Elizabeth C. & Annie E. Quinlan
Statues of Sacred Heart and of Our Lady .. Immaculate Conception Parish (1876)
Statue of St. Anne (marble) Pro-Cathedral Congregation
 Statue of Our Lady of Grace (on Baldachin)       ProCathedral Rosary Society
Statue of St. Joseph (marble) ...............................Mrs. L. S. Donaldson                  .
Statue of St. Teresa ....Mrs. Grace M. Gnnn
Statue of St. Anthony ................Mr. & Mrs. F. E. Murphy
Victory Chalice (1919)  Jewelry donated by parishioners

 Chalice (Inscribed)           Mrs. Val P. Starkey
 Chalice (Inscribed)           Miss Anna McCarthy

Tabernacle of main altar. Parish school pupils (1924)
Rose Window (East Transept) in memory of Archbishop Ireland .... Minneapolis League of Catholic Women
Rose window (West transept) Mr. & Mrs. F. E. Murphy
Stained glass windows (Clerestory) Mr. & Mrs. G. F. Piper, T. G. McCarthy, C. F. Grinde, Mrs. Margaret Breslauer, Mrs. W. J. Murphy
Stained glass windows (Sanctuary)    Regan Brothers  (J. J. & J. M.) Miss Amelia Wintheiser, Miss Lillian D. Mayer, Mrs. J. M. Nortncr
Stained glass windows (Nave)   Mrs. L. S. Donaldson, Frances & Richard J. Horgan, Mrs. Grace M. Gunn, Mr. & Mrs. W. H. McGrath, Mr. & Mrs. G. F. Piper, Mrs. C. C. Massie, Mrs. Margaret Sarazin, H. M. Hurl­burt, Miss Nell Clair, Elizabeth & G. C. Ryan, Mr. & Mrs. F. R. Stocker, Felix Trainor family, John Reed Estate, Thomas Kelly Estate.
Bronze crucifix, altar cards (Main altar) .... Mr. & Mrs. M. R. Drennen
Bronze candlesticks (Main altar) .. Mr. & Mrs. J. M. Shelley, Mr. & Mrs. L. A. Carr, Miss Margaret Shelley
Bronze candlesticks (St. Teresa's altar) Miss E. M. Malerich

Crucifix, candlesticks, etc. (St. Joseph's Altar) ......................... L. S. Donaldson, Jr.
Crucifix, candlesticks, etc. (St. Anthony's Chapel) .. Mr. & Mrs. F. E. Murphy
Crucifix, candlesticks (St. Anne's chapel) .. Mr. & Mrs. J. S. Nolan
Bapistery (sheathing) .' Merritt Coughlan, Mankato, Minn.
Second Station of Cross . Mrs. Margaret Sarazin and family
Diamond earrings (Victory Chalice) ................................ Mrs. Mary McLaughlin
Gothic Vestment (White) ....Mrs. Blanche Famechon
Altar cards ............................. Rt. Rev.F.C. Kelley Extension Society, Chicago

Altar cards (hand-lettered in gold), and Ciborium cover, (duplicate of one presented to Cardinal Mercier of Belgium) .. Visitation Sisters, Brussels, Belgium
Altar cloths (three, hand-embroidered) .. Mrs. J. B. Kelly
Altar cloths (five, hand-embroidered)               Mrs. W. C. Bleakley
Lace (hand-crocheted for three altar cloths) ..... Mrs. J. Mollen & Miss Sovada
Cover for credence table          Mrs. Gertrude Kress
Stole collars (linen, hand-made)          Mrs. J. A. Thompson
Epistle and Gospel book          Archbishop Dowling
Marble head of Archbishop Ireland (sacristy)    J. B. Garratti, St. Paul
Bronze candlesticks         Miss Veronica Wintheiser, Mr. & Mrs. C. A. Woolsey
Crucifix (Sacristy)          Rev. C. F. Doran
Cope (white) & veil           Visitation Sisters, St. Paul

Ciborium          Anna Hughes
Ciborium, white vestment, ornamented glass cruets and metal plate .. Rev. J. M. Reardon
Candelabra (two, small)           Miss Lucy Scanlan
Flowers (weekly)           Mrs. F. L. Stierman
Miscellaneous (Altar Cards, etc.)           Agnes & Clara Murhpy, Miss Gertrude Hartmann, Catholic Daughters of America, Mrs. W. Lavelle, Rose and Helen Taufen
Iron ladders to organ lofts          Leo Trainor
Iron handrails for side entrances           Miss Annie C. Quinlan
Carpet strip for predella           Mrs. C. R. Lemme
Madonna ancl Child (antique) Elizabeth C. Quinlan Foundation
Crucifix, bronze Mrs. A. L. DuBose, Mrs. M. A. Ryan
Statue of Joan of Arc (School) .... Minneapolis League of Catholic Women.
Radio (School)           Mrs. F. E. McNally
Piano (School)           Mrs. C. E. Moran

Tapestry and pictures (School)  Mrs. Helen O'Halloran 
Large framed picture of George Washington on horseback (School) ............................................ Mrs. Laura H. Barrett
Chalice and organ for Immaculate Conception church ....Mr. & Mrs. Anthony Kelly
3-piece set of furniture (residence) ...Mr. & Mrs. A. J. Leahy
Oil painting of Last Supper (for rectory dining room) Thomas J. Gay tee
Bookcase and two upholstered chairs (for rectory) ... Mrs. J. T. Hurley
Two brass candelabra, 7 feet high, 25 candle sockets in each ........................... In memory of Florence Anne Corrigan
Sanctuary bell ............................................................ Andrew Beckey
Bequests to Basilica  John Halloran Estate (1905)           $ 4,000.00

Mrs. Thomas Cootey Estate (1923)           5,000.00
William J. Murphy Estate (1924)           25,000.00
Mrs. Anna Gammon Estate (1926)           8,177.86
Mrs. Edmund Pennington Estate (1926)           1,000.00
Tillman Knapp Estate (1935) (St. V. de Paul) 1,134.87
Michael Ford Estate (1936-48)          '               10,214.79
Mrs. Teresa R. Leahy Estate (1939)                                 1,000.00
Paul P. Langner Estate (1939)                           1,000.00
Anonymous (1952) (St. V. de Paul)                                 992.82
Lieutenant J. M. Cassidy Estate (1944)                           10,500.00
William T. Murphy Estate (1947)                     1,000.00
Annie E. Quinlan Estate (1948) (St. V. de Paul) 4,548.00
Mrs. C. C. O'Brien Estate (1949)          3,000.00
Mrs. L. Nelson Estate (1951)          2,000.00
John Thomas Cook Estate (1954)           2,879.88

Joseph F. Palen Estate (1955)          1,000.00
Mrs. Margareth Wilson Estate (1955)           200.00
Total .............................................................................. $82,648.22

Parish Boundaries and Population
The Basilica parish includes the greater part of the busi­ness district of Minneapolis.,

With the exception of St. Olaf's the Basilica is the only down-town Catholic church easily reached from all sections of the city. Naturally, it is the mecca of tourists and other visitors who would assist at Mass on Sundays and Holydays.

The parish is bounded on the South by West Lake Street; on the East by Grand, Franklin and La Salle Avenues, Grant Street, Second Avenue and the Mississippi river; on the North by Twelfth Avenue; and on the West by the city limits (France, Chestnut and Xerxes Avenues). It comprises a territory about three miles square and encloses half a dozen lakes and parks, some of them quite large.

It has a Catholic population of, approximately, .seven thousand souls, besides "the strangers within our gates" and others who come to the Basilica of St. Mary to fulfill their religious obligations.
Trustees of the Parish
Before bringing to a close this brief history of the parish it is fitting that we add a word of grateful appreciation for the distinguished services rendered by the lay members of the corporation who, since 1890, when the first two were chosen, have assisted the pastors in the admininstration or the tem­poralities of the parish. Their wise counsel, loyal support and unwavering cooperation are largely responsible for the suc­cess of the work done during more than sixty years. They gave generously of their time, ability and substance in order that the building program of the parish might be crowned with success, and by their unselfish devotion they have merited the undying gratitude of the congregation.

The following is a list of the trustees from the beginning of the corporate existence of the parish and the date of ap­pointment of each one .

TREASURER                                             ELECTED
 Anthony Kelly                                         February           24, 1890
John 1. Regan                                           October           24, 1899
Jamcs E. Shannessy                               November           19, 1902
Anhur 1. Leahy                                                  July           2, 1919
Luke.J. Dillon                                        September           10, 1943

 SECRETARY                              ELECTED

               William McMullen                   February          24, 1890

               Thomas 1. Keating                   October            10,] 894

               Edmund A. Prendergast            November       19, 1902

               John K. Woolsey                     January              1, 1950

Renovation of Basilica Exterior

Just before this booklet came from the press the exterior of the Basilica of St. Mary was given a thorough renovation. The soot and dust and climatic changes of more than two score years caused discoloration of the granite and de­terioration of the caulking. After raking out the loose mortar the surface of the granite was sandblasted to restore its original color, the caulking was renewed and grouting mor­tar containing a small percentage of pulverized iron applied with a stiff brush to make the joints watertight, and then two coats of high-grade organic silicone transparent waterproof­ing, containing no wax or paraffin, was sprayed on the clean surface of the granite penetrating deep into the pores. A similar treatment was given the sacristy and rectory and all were treated with a repellent to ward off pigeons and other birds. The cost was upwards of $51,000.

Future Adornment of the Basilica
On May 29, 1955, the Most Reverend Archbishop Murray approved the project to adorn the exterior of the Basilica with twelve bronze statues, namely, of Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul, its founder, and of Archbishop Carroll of Baltimore, father of the Catholic Church in America, to be erected on the pedestals in front of the church; of Christ, the King, and of Mary, the Queen, to be placed in the niches under the portico; of the four Doctors of the Western Church-Saints Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome and Gregory the Great-to crown the pedestals above the door and the projecting chapel on the western side of the church; of the four Doctors of the Eastern Church--Saints Athanasius, Basil, Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzen-in similar positions on the eastern side. This program is to be carried out as soon as possible in three sections: the statues of the Archbishops; the statues of Christ and of His Blessed Mother; and the statues of the eight Doctors of the Church. It may be discontinued by the Most Reverend Archbishop of St. Paul when any one of the series is completed but not while it is in progress.


                                       REV. JAMES MCGOLRICK                       October,          1868, to December, 1889

                                        REV. JAMES C. BYRNE -                         January,          1890, to September, 1892

                                                                REV. JAMES 1. KEANE - September, 1892, to October,         1902

                                                           REV. THOMAS E. CULLEN November, 1902, to August,            1921

                                                     REV. JAMES M. REARDON        August,           1921.

ASSISTANT PASTORS; Rev. William McGolrick Rev. Daniel .I. McMullan Rev. Daniel F. Hayes ­Rev. Patrick Kenny

Rev. William McGolrick Rev. Joseph O'Keefe ­Rev. Henry McGolrick Rev. John J. Hand -

Rev. James C. Byrne Rev. Patrick O'Neill

Rev. Robert 1. Fitzgerald Rev. Joseph V. Tracy ­Rev. Timothy Corbett Rev. Daniel A. Reilly ­Rev. Patrick Ryan

Rev. Lawrence Cosgrove Rev. Thomas F. Gleeson Rev. James J. Treanor ­Rev. Jeremiah O'Connor Rev. Charles Corcoran Rev. William Timothy ­Rev. Patrick A. McCarron Rev. Michael Mcfntyre ­Rev. Martin .T. Egan

Rev. Robert Polasek ­Rev. M. Power -

Rev. Martin Mahoney

Rev. Francis 1. T. MacEwan ­Rev. Jeremiah M. Prendergast Rev. Joseph Legardcur

Rev. John Walsh

Rev. James A. Duffy ­Rev. Marcel Masl -

Rev. Charles Cavanaugh


October, September, June, February, November, August, November, February, July, October, August, October, August, July, August, October, June, April, September, November, December, March, October, January, April, June,

July, September, April, December, October, July, October, Pebruary,

1874, to September, 1876

                      1876, to June,    1877

                 1877, to January,    1878

] 878, to November, 1878 1878, to August, 1883 1881, to November, 1881

                     1881, to May,    1890

                     1882, to May,     1883

1883, to September, 1884 1884, to July, 1885 1885, to October, 1886

                  1886, to August,    1887

                    1886, to April,    1889

1887, to November, l887 1887, to September, 1887 1887, to November, 1888 1888, to September, 1889

                  1889, to August,    1889

                1889, to October,    l889

1889, to February, 1890 ] 889, to January, 1890 1890. to September, 1892 1891, to September, 1899

                  1893, to March,    t 894

                     ] 894, to May,    1894

                      1894, to July,    1894

1894, to September, 1894 1894, to April, 1895 1895, to October, 1897

                     1897, to June,     1898

                    1898, to April,    1899

                  1899, to August,    1902

                      1899, to June,    1900

1901, to September, 1901

Rev. Joseph F. Hovorka ­Rev. Martin I. J. Griflin ­Rev. Stephen J. Cassidy Rev. David J. Moran-

Rev. James Donahoe ­Rev. Mathew Sampson Rev. Jeremiah O'Callaghan Rev. Benjamin F. Audus Rev. William Keavey .

Rev. Wenceslaus J. Jiracek­Rev. Henry 1. Scherer -

Rev. Michael A. McRaith Rev. James Hickey -

Rev. Francis J. T. Burns ­Rev_ Joseph L. O'Nei] ­Rev. Joseph A. Kern·

Rev. Timothy D. O'Connell ­Rev. John M. Pilger -

Rev. Philip H. Hartmann Rev. Thomas R. T.lIbot ­Rev. George W. Keefe ­Rev. Charles F. DOfan

Rev. Maurice E. Casey ­Rev. Edwaru P. Murphy ­Rev. Leon L. Klein -

Rev. Thomas R. Ta]bot

Rev. Joseph G. Esser -

Rev. George A. Rogan

Rev. Robert M. Bastyr ­Rev. Edward F. Jennings ­Rev. William A. Brand ­Rev. Si]verius N. Hauer ­Rev. Michael J. Lawler ­Rev. A]berlus B. Thissen Rev. Maurice A. Keeler ­Rev. Brian Keany -

Rev. Marion D. Casey ­Rev. Derham Ryan

Rev. Richard T. Doherty Rev. L. R. Morin -

Rev. M. Cook, O.S.B. Rev. T. J. McNamara ­Rev. Brian Keany

Rev. Joseph J. Quinlan Rev. P. W. Gcarty ­Rev. Paul Judge

Rev. Robert G. Dillon Rev. D. J. Eichinger ­Rev. David A. Roney


July, September, January, April, August, October, Seplember, July, October, September, September, June, December, July. August. June, August, August. May, March_ June.

July, January. August, October, January, July. September, February, Ju]y,


Ju]y, January. October, October. June.

June, September, June, Februar}'. June,

June, October, August., June,



May, August,

1901, to September, 1902 1902, to September, 1904

                 1903, to March,     1904

                    1904, to June,      1908

               1904, to October,      1908

                 1904, to August,      1905

                    1905, 10 May,     1912

1907, 10 November, 1913

                 1908, 10 January,     1909

                 1909, to August,     1910

                      1910, to July,     1914

1912, to November, 1915

                     1913, to June,     1914

                 1914, to August,     1917

                 1914, to March,     1917

1915, to February, 1916 1915, to November, 1918 1917, to May, 1924 1918, to October, 1918 1919, to November, 1919

               1919, to October.     1928

                1920, to January.     1932

1921, to September, 1924 1924, to November, 1925

                     1924, to June,     1927

                 1926, to August,     1926

                1927, to January,     1928

                1927, to January,     1928

                     1928, to June,     1929

19'28, to October, 1932

                 1928, to August,     1939

                 1929, to August,     1934

1932, to October, 1932 1932, 10 February, 1941

                     1932, to June,     1934

                  1934, 10 August,      (935

                     1934, to June,     1936

                1935, to January,     1936

                 1935, to August,      1935

                     1936, to June,     1936

               1936, to October,     1936

                 1936, to March,     1942

                   1936, 10 May,      1943

1939, to September, 1944 1941, to May, 1943 1943, to February, 1944 1943, to August, 1943 1944, to September, 1945 1945, to June, 1952

            Rev. David B. Schuck                    September,    1945, to  May,        1950

            Rev. Karl M. Wiuman -                 June,              1946, to September, 1948

            Rev. Frank J. Fee - -                     June,              1949, to         June,  1950

            Rev. Gerald J. Kenney -                June,              1950, to          June,  1951

            Rev. W. J. Martineau -                  June,              1950,                   

            Rev. J. M. Murphy - -                   June,              1951,               June 1957

            Rev. M. P. Fleming - -                  June,              1952,                June 1958
            Rev. Edward Kohler                     June,              1957,                June 1958
Of the foregoing only Father Thissen died while connected with the parish

Baptisms: October, 1868, to December, 1954 ........................ .

Marriages: October, 1868, to December, 1954
Deaths: January, 1922, to December, 1954
First Communions: 1922 to 1955
Boys: Basilica school
                                  Public schoo] ......................... .
                    Girls: Basilica school ...................... .
                                  Public school ............... .
Conflrmations: 1922 10 1955
                    Boys: Basilica school ................................. , .•..
Public school Girls: Basilica school
Public school
                   Men ................. .
                    Non-parishioners ................................................... .
                    Converts (men & women, confirmed) ............................. .
Communion and sick calls:
                    May, 1941, to December, 1954 .....................-...14,198
Holy Communions (in church):
                    January, 1939, to December, 1954 .................1,337,200
                     Average for 16 years-----------------------------83,575
1.080 344
1,095 426

812 290
832 413






432 819
117 924


The Parish Schools

ON THE occasion of a visit to St. Anthony Falls in 1853, Bishop Cretin requested the pastor, Father Ledon, to establish a convent for the Sisters of St. Joseph and open a school for the children of the parish. During the preceding year Father Ledon had purchased from Pierre Bottineau for two thousand dollars a piece of land in the vicinity of the church as a site for a convent and academy. On November 5, 1853, the Sisters arrived and took possession of their temporary convent, an old frame house that had been used as a store by fur-traders. They were Sister Philomene Vilaine, the Superior, Sister Ursula Murphy, and Miss B. Maloney from Dubuque, a postulant for admission to the congregation.
   Sister Philomene was one of the six Sisters who left France for Carondelet, Mo., in l836, and one of the four pioneer Sisters who came to St. Paul in November, 1851, at the request of Bishop Cretin.
   The first floor of a rented house on Ninth Avenue and Marshall (then, First) Street was fitted up as a school with two rooms-one for the boys, taught by Sister Ursula, and the other for the girls in charge of Miss Maloney. Such the humble beginning of the first Catholic School in Minneapolis!
Pioneer Convent and School
   In 1854, the Sisters moved into the new convent, a twoand-a-half-story frame building with ten rooms, five on each floor. On the first floor were two class rooms, a music room, a parlor and a kitchen; and on the second floor the living quarters of the Sisters. The "Female Academy" was blessed by Father Ledon and named St. Mary's Convent. It occupied the site of the present St. Anthony Convent on the corner of Eighth Avenue and Second Street, Northeast.
    The convent was little more than a shell with unfinished interior, rough walls and floors and primitive furnishings. As a matter of fact, the four common chairs, bureau and centre table in the community room were the property of a neighbor who loaned them for a few months while he and his family were on a claim. On his return to the village he took back the furniture, and the Sisters had to do without chairs until the pastor sent half a dozen from his scantilyfurnished rooms.
   Each school room had four long desks with corresponding benches. Three of the desks were ranged against the walls and the fourth placed in the middle of the floor, leaving the space near the door for the teacher's desk and chair.
   At the beginning of the school year the pupils were transferred to the convent. The receipts for the first year were as meager as the furnishings-one hundred ninety-seven dollars and fifty-eight cents, while the expenses amounted to two hundred and three dollars and seventy-seven cents. The people were poor, and even fifty cents a month tuition was more than many could afford. For several years the deficits had to be made up by St. Joseph's Academy in St. Paul out of its very limited resources.
   During the summer of 1854, Sister Scholastica Vasques succeeded Mother Philomene as Superior, Sister Euphemia Murray replaced Sister Ursula as teacher of the boys and Sister Gregory Lemay took charge of the domestic affairs of the convent. Miss Maloney continued to teach the girls until June, 1855, when she returned to Dubuque, and her place was taken by Sister Ignatius Loyola Cox. About the same time Sister Pauline Lemay, a cousin of Sister Gregory, came to the convent to recuperate from illness.
   In the fall of 1855, Sister Euphemia was appointed Superior and Sister Scholastica and Sister Gregory returned to St. Paul. A year later Sister Scholastica came back to St. Anthony to complete her term as Superior; and on February 7, 1858, she gave place to Mother Xavier Husey, who improved the building and beautified the grounds.
   Sister Cyril was Directress of the school for a few months, and at her departure, December 15, 1858, Sister Celestine Howard was appointed her successor. From motives of economy one elass room was closed in 1859, and the boys and girls came under the supervision of Sister Celestine. The hard times continued throughout the year; and on January 16, 1860, the school was closed and Mother Xavier, Sisters Celestine and Pauline returned to St. Joseph's Academy in St. Paul. II1ness had forced Sister Ignatius to leave in 1856.
   At the urgent solicitation of Father McDermott, who became pastor of the parish in May, 1860, the Sisters consented to return, and in September the school was reopened in an old store which had been bought and hauled to the block on which the new church was located, and two rooms made ready for occupancy. Sister Celestine was named Directress, and when the increased number of pupils made larger accommodations imperative the old frame church, which had been replaced by a stone edifice in J 861, was moved to a new site and remodeled for school purposes.
Historic Monuments
When St. Mary's Convent was built 110 provision was made for a chapel for the Sisters. They had to assist at Mass and other devotions in the parish church. In 1871, an addition, about one-half the size of the convent, was erected, the upper floor of which was used as a chapel and the lower as a class room.
This residence served the needs of the community until Thanksgiving day, 1888, when the Sisters took possession of the present St. Anthony Convent. The original portion of the old building was sold to John McGowan who moved it to the corner of Tenth A venue and Main Street, Northeast, and remodeled it into an apartment house which has since been stuccoed. The addition was sold separately and removed to another location.
The original Church of St. Anthony had an interesting history. It served as a school (or the parish from 1861 to 1886, when it was sold to the newly-organized Polish con-
gregalion of the Holy Cross and occupied as a church until the brick edifice on the corner of Fourth Street and Seventeenth A venue, Northeast, was opened for divine worship in 1902. In the meantime the building had been made more church-like by the addition of a square tower, with tapering spire, in the center of the fa\;Hde.
Following the dedication 01' the new Church of the Holy Cross the old building was used as a parish school until 1906, when the original brick school was opened, after which it was destined to serve once more as a temporary church for a new parish. It was bought by St. John (Greek, Uniate) congregation and removed to a site on Third Street near Twentysecond A venue, Northeast. It was beautified by the addition of stained glass windows-five in each side and two in frontand occupied as a house of worship until 1927, when the present brick Church of St. John was dedicated. The old church again reverted to use as a parochial school in charge of a lay teacher.
Despite the vicissitudes of four score years this venerable building was in a fairly good state of preservation. It was a link, almost the only one, with the pioneer days when Minneapolis was represented by a straggling village above St. Anthony Falls, a precious monument of a Catholic past that should have been preserved for future generations. But alas! the inroads of time and of three migrations caused it to deteriorate to such an extent that it became a public menace and was condemned by the fire marshal. The cost of repairs was too great to be borne by St. John's Greek Catholic congregation which owned it at the time and, as no funds were forthcoming from any other source, it was dismantled in the fall of 1933.
An editorial in the Minneapolis Daily Star o( September 18, 1933, refers to it in the following terms:
The Church has been condemned. It is in danger of collapsing and an effort is being made to raise sufficient funds 10 preserve it.
If Minneapolis values its own history, if it has an affectionate regard for its oldest relics, it will come forward to save what is unquestionably one of the rarest survivals from its earliest infancy.
This appeal went unheeded and a priceless relic of the dim past, when Minneapolis was not even a name on the map of Minnesota, disappeared under the hammer of the destroyer. The loss is irreparable.
First Catholic Schools West of the River
It was during the pastorate of Father Tissot, who succeeded Father McDermott in 1866, that a school was opened in the settlement west of the Mississippi to accommodate the children living in that locality who had been attending St. Anthony's. This school, a "tasty, two-storied structure," located at Third A venue North and Third Street, was begun by Father McDermott and almost completed before he left the parish. Father Tissot finished and furnished it and opened it for the admission of pupils on December 10, 1866, when it was placed in charge of Sister Celestine who had for companion Sister 19natius. In less than two months there was an enrollment of one hundred and twenty-nine pupils, and a third teacher, Sister Cecelia Delaney, was added to the staff. A visitor to the school, none other than the Editor of the recently-founded Northwestern Chronicle of St. Paul, was "very favorably impressed with the appearance and general deportment of the children." This was the pioneer school of what was destined to be the parish of the Immaculate Conception. It also served as a temporary church until the arrival of Father McGolrick, who put an addition to it to accommodate the increased congregation.
It was attended exclusively by girls aCter the opening of a school for boys of all ages, about 1870, and continued to be so used until the "shed church" was enlarged and remodeled (after the dedication of the stone church) by the addition of a second story, to provide four class rooms-two on each noor. Every vestige of the original school building has disappeared, and no picture of it seems to have escaped the ravages of time.
In the Basilica school there is a picture of the "shed church" erroneously labeled the "first school" In reality it was the second school.
The Sisters who taught in it resided at St. Mary's Convent on the east side and made the trip across the river every day. "Timmy" Corbett (later, Bishop of Crookston) drove them back and forth most of the time.
Sister Celestine continued in charge until 1875, when she was made Directress of St. Joseph's Academy and Sister St. John Ireland was appointed to succeed her.
The school for boys, above mentioned, was opened by Father McGolrick in a vacant store on First Street, between Bridge Square and First Avenue, South, and placed under the direction of Peter McCormick. He was succeeded by Owen J. McCartney, who was also the leader of the choir and who met a tragic death in the railroad yards on October 8, 1878. Early in its career the school was transferred to a better location on Ninth Street and Sixth Avenue, South, where it was conducted until the rebuilt frame school (the enlarged shed church) was ready for use after the fire which destroyed it on January 3, 1879, when the boys and their teacher migrated to the new building. The girls, taught by Sisters, occupied the upper class rooms, and the rooms on the ground floor were reserved for the boys-one for those under twelve, in charge of a sister, and the other for the older boys under the supervision of a male teacher.
In the meantime Mr. McCartney had been succeeded in turn by J ohn Woods, John Dineen and P. J. Butler who was in charge when the frame school was burned. After the fire teacher and pupils returned to the old school on Ninth Street, where work was carried on until the brick school between the church and the rectory on Third Street, North, was ready for occupancy early in 1880. Thereafter boys and girls were taught under the same roof, the older boys by a male teacher. In the autumn of 1880, Mr. Butler was succeeded by Peter Hilary who, in turn, gave place to Mr. Hickey, James McDonnell and Mons Baker until 1889, when the Christian Brothers opened a school for boys in the old orphanage on Third Street and Sixth Avenue, North. When this school

was closed in 1891, boys and girls were taught by the sisters in the parish school.
In 1877, Sister Mary James Mernaugh succeeded Sister St.
John as Directress of the parochial school and the teachers thenceforth resided in the recently opened Holy Angels Academy. The following year Sister St. James Doyle was placed in charge; and it was during her tenure of office that the brick school above mentioned was erected to replace the frame building destroyed by fire.
The plans, prepared for it by Haglin and Corser, called for a building, 84x43 feet in dimensions, two stories in height with full basement. The foundation was of cut stone and the superstructure of colored brick with ornamental stone trim. The basement was divided into two large meeting halls;
the school occupied the first story, and the upper floor was one large hall suilable for fairs, society reunions, etc. The building cost about fifteen thousand dollars.
Ground was broken for the foundation in August, 1879, and the cornerstone was blessed and place in position on Sunday afternoon, September 28, by Bishop Ireland, who preached a sermon on the Church as thc Teacher of Truth. The cornerstone bore the inscription, "Catholic Association Hall", indicative of ~ .. ~ d the fact that the building was
    .     to serve not only as a school
lllll/wct/late ConceptlOlI School
    (1880-1913)     but as a meeting-place for
parish organizations. In the cornerstone was place a sealed tin box containing copies of the local daily papers, of current Catholic publications and fragments of stone from the Grotto
of Lourdes, the seven churches of Glendalough and the Rock of Cashe!. The Father Mathew Society and the Crusaders in full regalia formed a bodyguard for the Bishop and his assistants, and the ceremony was witnessed by a large concourse of people.
Some years after the new school was opened the Total Abstinence Crusaders built an addition to the rear of it for a gymnasium and equipped it with all that was necessary for athletics. For a while the gymnasium was well patronized; but dissensions arose in the ranks of its sponsors and many allowed their membership to lapse. Athletic activities waned through lack of interest, and Father Byrne closed the gymnasium and remodeled it for school purposes.
This school served the needs of the parish until 1913, when the more modern school on Laurel A venue and Sixteenth Street in the rear of the Basilica, was ready for occupancy. A detailed description of the Basilica School is given elsewhere in this booklet.
First Christian Brothers School
When the orphans were transferred to their suburban home in the spring of 1887, the orphanage on Third Street and Sixth A venue, three blocks north of the church, was secured by the parish for a boys' school to be taught by the Christian Brothers. At the urgent request of Father McGolrick the Christian Brothers of St. Louis agreed to come on condition that, at the end of two years after their arrival, a new school erected by the congregation, would take the place of the old orphanage which was poorly adapted to the purpose of a school.
Accordingly, in September, 1889, Brother Lewis, Director, anel Brother Gideon opened the school. On December 27, of that year Father McGolrick was consecrated first Bishop of Duluth, and after his departure the parish was subdivided and two new parishes established before his successor, Father Byrne, took charge. Under these circumstances the congregation felt that it was not in a position to comply with

its part of the original agreement and, at the close of the school year in June, 1891, the Brothers withdrew. The class register showed a list of 108 pupils, among whom were many destined to hold important positions in the business and professionallife of the city. There was only one graduation.
Repeated eflorts were made in succeding years to prevail on the Brothers to return and open a select school for boys, but without avail until 1899, when a site was bought for a high school on Nicollet Island and a building erected near the King mansion which was purchased as a residence for the Brothers. This new development was made possible by a bequest of ten thousand dollars from Anthony Kelly for that purpose, supplemented by a contribution of fifteen thousand dollars from the parishes of Minneapolis. The Christian Brothers opened De La Salle High School in October, 1900.
/mmaculate Conception School 1866-1875 Sister Celestine Howard 1875-1877 Sister St. John Ireland 1877-1878 Sister Mary James MernaLlgh 1878-1885 Sister St. James Doyle 1885-1890 Sister Clara Carr
1890-1891 Sister Mary Joseph Kelly 1891-1893 Sister Eugenia Maginnis 1893-1895 Sister Evangelista Melady 1895-1900 Sister Rosalia Hays 1900-1903 Sister Sebastian Cronin 1903~1906 Sister Geraldine Cavanaugh 1906-1913 Sister Dorothea Yanikowski
Basilica of St. Mary School \913-1916 Sister Dorothea Yanikowski 1916-1922 Sister Febronia Corcoran 1922-1929 Sister Grata Powers 1929-1930 Sister Lamberta Haggerty 1930-1932 Sister Francis Xavier Carroll 1932-1935 Sister Agnes Clare Rickard 1935-1936 Sister Alma Rita Triggs 1936-1939 Sister Rosanna Devereaux
    1939-     Sister Bernard Dunphy
ReSidence for Teaching Sisters
THE need of a local residence for the Sisters teaching in the parish school was felt for many years before a convent was available for that purpose. The Northwestern Chronicle of January 13, 1877, announced that the Sisters of St. Joseph had recently established themselves in West Minneapolis, and added that "the Immaculate Conception parish, so numerous and so wealthy, will soon commence building a residence for the good Sisters"-a prophecy never ful6Jled.
Towards the end of 1876, the Sisters of St. Joseph rented the Merritt house on Third Street, North, directly opposite the church. It was known as the "White Convent" and was placed in charge of Mother St. John Ireland, Directress of the parish school. On January 29 of the following year it was named the "Holy Angels," and thereafter served as a residence for the Sisters in charge of the parochial school who followed it in its migrations. In 1878, the Ankeny home, or "Brown Convent," was bought, and a one-story addition made to it for a study hall. It was from this institution that the first graduation from Holy Angels' Academy took place in 1880. Shortly afterwards the Sisters moved to the Skyles house, north of the West Hotel, then on Hennepin A venue at Filth Street, where they built a frame school with three class rooms on the lower floor and a study hall on the u ppef. When they acquired the Bassett property on Fourth Street, North, and Seventh Avenue, in 1882, they hauled this building to the new location, and used it lIntil the Holy Angels' Academy was abandoned in 1928. Here the Sisters who taught in the Immaculate Conception school resided until

19l3, when they took up their abode at St. Margaret's Academy. The name and purpose of this pioneer school for girls are perpetuated in the new Academy of the Holy Angels on Nicollet A venue at Sixty-sixth Street, opened for the admission 01' pupils in September, 1931.
Parochial Residences

WHEN Father McGolrick was appointed to the pastoral charge at MmneapolIs, he was confronted wIth the task of organizing the parish and erecting the necessary buildings to carryon the works of religion in a new locality. A small frame school was the sole equipment oE the parish. He set to work to build a temporary church, and later on had the happiness of dedicating a more pretentious structure that served the needs of the congregation for two score years.
Not until he attained that goal did he think of a pcnnanent residence for himself and his successors. At that time he was living in rented quarters inadequate for the requirements of a growing parish. After his appointment as pastor of Minneapolis in 1868, he "resided with Father Tissot for a time, while getting acquainted with the Catholics of the west side", When he moved across the river, he rented a hOllse on Fourth Avenue, North, at Second Street; later on he took up residence on Ttaska Street (Third A venue, North) where the National Biscuit Company is now located, whence he moved to the home of Anthony Kelly on Second Street, between Second and Third Avenues, South, where he lived until March, 1872. He then rented a dwelling at 252 Second A ven ue, North, though he continued to dine at Anthony Kelly's.
In 1874, an opportunity presented itself to purchase a lot adjacent to the school and, on October 16, he bought it from John F. Ouhren for five thousand dollars. On the premises there was a substantial dwelling which became the official residence o[ the lmmaculate Conception parish. Fatber McGolrick enlarged the hOllse by the addition of a dining room and kitchen on the lower IlOOf, and a bedroom above, and veneered the whole structure with brick. This was the parish

tar and crushed rock guaranteed to eliminate dust and provide a hard surface with ample drainage facilities. Two sets of modern playground equipment were installed, one for the boys and one for the girls, and the yard enclosed by an ornamental iron fence which enhances the beauty of the property, making it one of the most up-to-date playgrounds in the city.
A description of the present parochial house is found elsewhere in this volume .
..Cii. ·;::';~:.·::tet~!l JJ T~~~"~
First Parish Rectory (1874-19/4)

rectory until June, 1914, when the clergy moved to a new house on Laurel Avenue, in the rear of the so-called ProCathedral of St. Mary. The old house was razed with the church and school in 1922.
The new property-comprising lots 5 and 6 of Block 34, Wilson, Bell and Wagner's Addition-was purchased from Joseph M. Regan on May 6, 1911, for $21,000. Two houses -one brick and the other frame-occupied the site and were used as a pastoral residence from 1914 to 1928. When the transfer was made to the present rectory on Seventeenth Street, North, the old houses were demolished and the site merged in the school yard, which was further enlarged by extending the terrace on Sixteenth Street to the rear wall of the church, and the whole was levelled and covered with crushed stone: A few years later it was re-surfaced with a mixture of
Pastoral Residence (1914-1928)

tar and crushed rock guaranteed to eliminate dust and provide a hard surface with ample drainage facilities. Two sets of modern playground equipment were installed, one for the boys and one for the girls, and the yard enclosed by an ornamental iron fence which enhances the beauty of the property, making it one of the most up-to-date playgrounds in the city.
A description of the present parochial house is found elsewhere in this volume.

The Basilica of St. Mary
THE Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis, Minnesota, enjoys the distinction of being the first church in the United States to be raised to the dignity of a Minor Basilica by the Holy See. The honor was conferred by Pontifical Brief dated February 1, 1926, and signed by Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of State to His Holiness, Pope Pius XI, of blessed memory.
It may be well to put on record the reasons for petitioning the Holy See for such a favor. The church had been known as the Pro-Cathedral of St. Mary since it was so named by Archbishop Ireland at the civic dedication. As a matter of fact it was never a Pro-Cathedral in the ecclesiastical meaning of the word, that is, a church which some day would be replaced by a Cathedral. All it meant was that it was to be the Archbishop's church in Minneapolis in the sense that he would officiate in it on some of the more important liturgical feasts of the year. It made the parishioners feel that they were an important part of the diocese, with a church of Cathedral proportions, notwithstanding the fact that the Cathedral was in the sister city. The Holy See maintained, and rightly so, that the Archbishop had no authority to call it a Pro-Cathedral and that caused considerable delay in granting the request for a change of name.
Then, too, the church came to be known by Catholic and non-Catholic as "The Pro", a very undignified name for so magnificent an edifice. Archbishop Dowling did not like the name any more than the pastor did; but he thought it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to have the church made a Minor Basilica. He had no objection to the pastor's taking steps towards that end. Through a friend of the latter then residing in Rome, the Right Reverend Monsignor A. E. Burke, first President of the Canadian Catholic Church Extension Society, who was Familiar with the Church, the matter was brought to the attention of Pope Pius XI personally who very graciously granted the favor but requested that it be allowed to go through the ordinary channels. Monsignor Burke appealed to his Friend, Cardinal Sbarretti, who prepared a formal petition in Italian to be signed by the pastor of the parish, visaed by the Archbishop of the diocese and then sent to the Preleet of the Congregation of Rites. This was done in April, 1925, but, for one reason or another or no reason at all, the matter dragged along until February first of the next year bcfore the official rescript was signed by Cardinal Gasparri, Secretmy of State.

In the mcantime the name of the church had been legally changed to the Basilica of St. Mary as of January 1, 1926. and the parishioners rejoiced in the new dignity conferred on their church for a whole month before Rome made the recognition ofricial. The rescript, in Latin and in English, occupies prominent places in the sacristy of the church, and a translation is herewith appended.

P. Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of State.
Origin and Development of Basilicas
The name, Basilica, applied to a church was new in America and as its meaning is not well understood even now, it may not be uninteresting to explain its significance, trace its history, and specify the privileges it connotes.
Tn pre-Christian times buildings erected in the form of pillared halls were used for public assemblies and for the administration of justice. They were called Basilicas, or "kingly" halls. The usual plan was an oblong rectangle with a broad central nave separated from side aisles, or ambulatories, by rows of columns. The walls of the nave rested on these columns and were carried up above the roofs of the side aisles to form a clerestory pierced with windows to admit light to the building. At one end of tbe structure was the entrance consisting, usually, of several doors under a portico, and at tlle other a semi-circular vaulted niche, or apse, separated from the main building by a screen of columns or a low balustrade, and occupied by the tribune of the judge, and an altar for sacrifice to be offered before the transaction of business.
Many buildings of this arcbitectural type graced the Roman Forum in the second century before Christ; and when the religious persecutions of the first three centuries centuries under the Emperor Constantine, they were either transformed into Christian churches or served as models for sllch edifices. They were not unsuited for that purpose. The semi-circular niche was readily converted into a sanctuary, and the high altar, usually covered with a baldachin, occupied the place of the raised platform of the judge. Transepts were often added between the apse and the nave for practical purposes and, on account of their symbolism, giving the whole a cruciform appearance. Under the altar was the confessio, or shrine, of the titular saint or martyr.
The dedication of these Basilicas to the worship of the true God present in the tabernacle gave them a new significance as the audience-chamber of the King of Kings, and the use
Conspicuous jn the City of Minneapolis, within the territory of the Archdiocese of Sl. Paul, stands the church dedicated to Sl. Mary, right noble in its structure and specimens of art, the building whereof, as well as of a Catholic school for boys and girls erected at considerable expense, was undertaken and completed by the late lamented John Ireland, Archbishop of Sl. Paul, a prelate most worthy of remembrance and renown, This Church of Sl. Mary is rightly and deservedly reckoned among the leading churches of the Arch* diocese of Sl.Paul.
Whereas, Our Beloved Son, James M. Reardon, its prescnt Rector, has made humble rcquest of Us that We vouchsafe to raise the sacred edifice in question to the dignity of a Minor Basilica, thereby superseding its present title of Pro*Cathedral, We, of Our full knowledge that the aforesaid church is wholly worthy of this dis* tinction, both by reason of the piety of its worshippers as well as by the splendor of its ritual and the richness of its adornment, have deemed it well to accede to the wishes expressed in this regard. And We arc further moved thereto by the crowning approval and high recommendation of Our Venerable Brother, Austin Dowling, Archbishop of 51. Paul, Minnesota, as well as of Our Beloved Son, Donatus Sbarretti, Cardinal Priest of the Holy Roman Church.
Wherefore, having given the matter most careful and seriolls consideration along with Our Venerable Brother, Anthony Cardinal Vico, Bishop of Porto nnd San RuHna and Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Riles, We, of Our own proper motion, after sure knowl~ edge and mature deliberation and [rom the fullness of Our Apostolic power do, by tenor of these presents, raise to the singular tille and dignity of a Minor Basilica Sl. Mary's Church in the City of Minneapolis and Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota, hereby superseding the title of Pro-Cathedral hitherto in current use; and We grant umo it all the privilcSes and tokens of honor which pertain to Minor Basilicas as of right.
This, then, is Our behest and decree, that these presents be and continue to be always sound, valid and effective; that they obtain and maintain their effect whole and entire; that they be, both now and hereafter, ample authorization for those whom they concern or shall concern; that thus it must be duly judged and denned; and that if ought else over and above these presents should happen to be attempted by any person or by any authority whatsoever, whether knowingly or unknowingly, the same shall be null and void-everything to the contrary notwithstanding.
Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, under the Fisherman's Seal, on the first day of February in the year J 926, being the fourth of Our Pontificate.

Major and Minor Basilicas
Scarcely anything remains of the Basilicas adapted to Christian worship in the early centuries; and but few remnants are to be found of the numerous Basilicas erected lIl1e1er Constantine. The most important ones-the Vatican Basilica, enshrining the remains of St. Peter; the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, erected over the hody o[ the Apostle of the Gentiles; tbe Basilicas o[ St. Lawrence and St. Agnes in Rome; the Basilicas of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, of the Nativity in Bethlehem and of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople-arc no longer the original churches. There are many Basilicas in Rome and elsewhere dating from the fifth
and sixth centuries, modified and restored from time to time during the intervening years.
In the liturgical sense a Basilica is a church upon which, on account of its importance, special distinction has been bestowed. These Basilicas are distinguished as Major and Minor, not because of their size but because of their dignity. To the Major Basilicas belong the (our Patriarchal churches of Rome: St. John Lateran; St. Peter's; St. Paul Outside the Walls; and St. Mary Major. All others are known as Minor Basilicas, of which there arc nine in Rome, and a large number throughout the world. To the lalter class belongs the Basilica o( St. Mary of Minneapolis.
No church may arrogate to itself the title of Basilica. The distinction is bestowed only by Apostolic Leller, bearing the Seal of the Fisherman, and carries with it certain rights and privileges. The granting of such a title is WitJlOut reference to the architectural style, size, or antiquity of t1le church. It signifies thal the church so honored is worthy of special veneration, either because of its origin and historical association or, as in the present instance, in virtue of an exercise of apostol ie power by the Sovereign Pontiff.
Rights and Privileges of Basilicas
Churches so honored enjoy certain rights and privileges.
In the rescript elevating St. Mary's Church of Minneapolis to the dignity of a Minor Basilica we read, "We grant unto it all the privileges and tokens of honor which pertain to Minor Basilicas as of right." What are these "privileges and tokens of honor"?
For centuries there was question of the real meaning of this phrase. The ollicial interpretation was given by the Sacred Congregation of Riles on August 27, 1836, when it declared that the privileges belonging to Minor Basihcas from tin,e immemorial comprise preeminence of rank, the use of the pavilion and bell and the wearing of the Cappa Magna by the Canons. By time-honored custom a Basilica also has the right to a coat·of-arms and a corporate seal.
of the word, Basilica, as a name for a Christian Church, became quite general. ]t was natural that in time these kingly churches should take on rich ornamentation, usually in mosaic and gold. While the exterior of the Basilica was extremely plain, the interior was resplendent with glass mosaic on a blue or golden background. Especially rich were the half-dome of the apse and the wall space surrounding its arch and called the triumphal arch. Next in decorative importance came the broad band of wall beneath the clerestory windows. In the t1fth century square towers came into vogue and modifications of the general plan added to the number of naves.
From the time of Constantine the name, Basilica, was used in the writings of t.he Fathers of the Church and in oflici,l! documents to signify the Christian Church. "Once," says St. Isidore, "they called the Basilica the dwelling-place of the kings, but now the churches of the Lord are so named, because therein to the King of Kings, to God Himself, are olTered up adoration and sacrifice."
The exterior of a Basilica is usually without special architectural ornamentation. The monotony of the walls is broken by simple cornices, entablaturcs and mural offsets; and a low gable roof of tile or metal covers the main slructure.

The preeminence of a Minor Basilica has reference to the ranking of its corporate clergy in public functions, processions, etc. In their own diocese the basilical clergy are entitled to precedence over all the other clergy of the diocese, except those of the Cathedral; and, in a diocese not their own, they outrank all others except the Cathedral clergy of that diocese and, if such there be, the clergy of a Basilica older than their own.
The origin of the privilege granting a Basilica the use of two distinctive insignia, namely, the pavilion and the bell, is lost in the twilight of history. The pavilion or canopy is a large umbrella so constructed that it cannot open more than half way. It is made of twelve alternate stripes of red and yellow silk with pendants braided and fringed in yellow and so arranged tbat to each stripe is attached a pendant of the opposite eolor-the whole supported by ribs fastened to a wooden handle topped with a ball and eross of gilded metal. Originally the pavilion was held over the hcad of the Supreme Pontiff to shield him from rain or sun, whenever he visited a Basilica. It was borne by the clergy when they went in procession to meet the Pontiff at the door, and the bearer held it half open and ready for instant use. In the course of time the custom fell into desuetude; hut the pavilion has been retained as a symbol of honor distinctive of Basilicas.
The origin of the other mark of dignity is traceable to the custom of ringing a bell to announce the starting of the clerical procession to meet the Pope at the entranee of the Basilica. The beH is not more than six inches in diameter at its lowest part and is mounted on an elaborate framework, or belfry, of metal or carved wood designed according to the architecture of the ehurch and fixed on top of a banner pole.
The pavilion and bell arc carried in procession, not by the clergy, but by prominent members of the congregation-the bell immediately behind the processional cross and the pavilion following it. When not in use they are prominently displayed in the sanctuary. The right to use them, being a pon-
tiiical concession, cannot be curtailed, much less abolished, by diocesan custom or ordinance. The Basilica of St. Mary is not yet provided with these insignia.
The Cappa Magna is a choir-vestment of purple with an ermine cape and folded train worn by the Canons of the Basilica during the recitation of the Divine Office. This privilege is in abeyance in the United States since there arc no Canons connected with any of these churches.
The other insignia of a Basilica are, by immemorial custom, a coat-of-arms and a corporate seal. A coat-ot-arms differs from a seal, although the latter may, and usually does, embody the former as one of its main features. The seal with the nallle of the church engraved on it is used to authenticate written documents and to attach waxen seals. In the coatof-arms of a Basilica the distinctive heraldic device is the pavilion or umbrella so placed that the pole or handle is behind the shield on which are emblazoned the armorial bearings of the church, its patron, the city in which it is located and the diocese to which it belongs.
The coat-of-arms of the Basilica of St. Mary is a striking example of ecclesiastical heraldry, simple yet expressive in design and in the best tradition. The lower half of the shield symbolizes Minneapolis, "the City by the Waterfall," the alternate, horizontal, wavy stripes of blue and silver representing the waters of the Mississippi and St. Anthony Falls. Above these is a broad silver band typifying the indented battlements of a city. The upper half of the shield is blue with a silver crescent moon in the center of the field-the heraldic device of the lmmaculate Conception, the original name of the ehurch. Blue and white are the characteristic colors of the Blessed Virgin Mary, its patroness.
We may, tllereCore, interpret this coat-of-arms as that of a Basilica dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of her Immaculate Conception, in a city by the waterfall. The wavy lines of blue and silver constitute part of the coatof-arms of tlle Archdiocese of St. Paul in which the Basiliea is located.
The coat-of-arms is usually sculptured on the front of the church, parochial residence, other parish buildings and their furnishings; engraved on the sacred vessels of the altar, silverware, etc.; embroidered on vestments and banners; and engraved on the official stationery and documents.
The bell is not a part of basilical heraldry but is purely a processional ornament.
Spiritual Privileges
By virtue of its elevation to basilical rank a church is not necessarily dowered with spiritual privileges above the ordinary. That it may be so enriched a petition [or such favors, approved by the Ordinary of the diocese, must be sent to those who have faculties to grant them.
The Basilica of St. Mary is one of the most highly indulgenced churches in the United States.
By virtue of a Pontifical Brief, dated March 5, 1927, and signed by Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of State to His Holiness, Pope Pius XI-a translation of which is hereto appended -the faithful who visit the Basilica of St. Mary can gain a Plenary Indulgence on the first Sunday of every month in perpetuity on the usual conditions of confession and communion and prayers for the intention of the Holy Father.
The Reverend Pastor of the Parish Church of St. Mary, in the City of Minneapolis, in the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota, humbly petitioned Us to grant said Church the privilege of a Plenary Indulgence in perpclUity. We have looked with favor upon this request, inspired by charity, because by this means the faith of the Christian people will be strengthened, and the salvation of souls promoted, by applying to them graces ever abundantly at the disposal of the Church. We, having taken counsel with the Major Penitentiary, a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, and trusting in the mercy of God, and relying upon the authority of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, grant and concede a Plenary Indulgence, on the first Sunday of every month, to all the faithful who receive the Sacraments of Penance and Holy Communion, visit in a spirit of devotion the parish church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and pray for peace and harmony among christian rulers, the extirpation of
heresy, the conversion of sinners, the exaltation of Holy Mother Church.
We decree that this document shall remain in force, have its effect, and retain its value in perpewity, and that it applies now and shall apply in the future in its entirety to said Church of the Blessed Virgin in Minneapolis. This decree shall be understood and interpreted in the sense that anything shaJI be null and void, now and in perpetuity, that may be attempted otherwise than here decreed, by anyone, no matter by what authority, knowingly or unknowingly -everything to the contrary notwithstanding. This shall remain in force for all future times.
Given in Rome, at St. Peter's, under the Seal of the Fisherman, the fifth day of March, nineteen hundred and twenty-seven, the sixth year of Our Pontificate.
P. Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of State.
Affiliation with St. John Lateran
Only a few churches in this country are affiliated with St. John Lateran, the Mother and Head of all the churches in Rome and in the world. On his first visit to Rome, November, 1926, to March, 1927, Father Reardon presented the following petition to Monsignor Straniero, Dean of the Canons of the Lateran Basil ica.
To the Chapter and Canons of the Holy Lateran Church
I, the undersigned, Reverend James M. Reardon, pastor of the Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis, in the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota, humbly petition the Chapter and Canons of the Holy Lateran Basilica to affiliate, unite and incorporate the said Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis, Minnesota, with the Holy Lateran Church, in such a manner as to communicate to it all the indulgences and spiritual favors granted to your venerable Basilica by papal concession.
I make this request for the following reasons:
l-The Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis, Minnesota, enjoys the distinction of being the first church in the United States raised to the dignity of a Minor Basilica.
2-lt is one of the finest churches in America, built in the Renaissance style of architecture, of magnificent proportions,

artistic in exterior design and interior beauty, the erection and completion of which cost nearly two million dollars.
3-Its sanctuary is adorned with replicas in marble of the statues of the twelve Apostles in the nave of the Holy Lateran Basilica, the only exact reproductions in the world of this famous group.
4- The granting o[ such a favor will redound to the spiritual welfare of the people o[ the parish, numbering about six thousand souls who, by their generosity, have accomplished so much for the glory of God and the good of religion in America.
S-It will bring the people of the parish and, through them, the faithful o[ the Archdiocese o[ St. Paul into closer union with "The Mother and Head o[ all the Churches in Rome and in the World," and thus bind them closer to the See of Peter.
6-The granting of our request will meet with the august approval of the Most Reverend Austin Dowling, Archbishop of St. Paul, who has always shown a sympathetic interest in the development and progress o[ the Basilica of St. Mary.
And, as in duty bound, your petitioner will ever pray God's blessing on your august body.
James M. Reardon.
by the Apostolic See, especially as they will promote the glory of God and the salvation of souls.
The request you have made to Us is a manifest indication that you cherish a deep devotion for Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, as well as for Our Lateran Basilica, dedicated to them. Inspired by this devotion you desire that the Parish and Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis, in the Archdiocese of St. Paul, be aggregated, affiliated, united and incorporated with Our Lateran Basilica, to the end that We may grant and communicate to your Basilica all the indulgences and spiritual privileges accorded to Our Basilica by Papal concession.
We have decreed to look with favor on your request, as We are convinced that it is now, and, in future, will be, highly conducive to the salvation of souls. We, therefore, in union with His Eminence Basil Pompili, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Vicar of His Holiness Pius XI in the City of Rome, by the mercy of God, Bishop of Veliterno, and Archpriest of Our Holy Lateran Basilica, in chapter assembled, in accordance with the regulations of Our Roman Papal Lateran Patriarchate, by Our ordinary powers, which We enjoy by Apostolic Induits and Privileges, and now administer, and particularly by virtue of the faculties conferred on Us by Pope Benedict XlV, of happy memory, on the fourth day of May, 1751, beginning with the words, "Assidme Solicitudinis," grant and permit, in the fullest measure possible, the aforesaid aggregation, affiliation, union and incorporation of the Basilica of St. Mary in the City of Minneapolis, in the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota.
We, likewise, declare the aforesaid Basilica of St. Mary an associate of Our Holy Lateran Basilica according to the faculties granted Us by the Roman Pontiffs and the decrees of the Council of Trent, and by virtue of the constitution of the Sovereign Pontiffs, in such manner that the faithful of both sexes, visiting the aforesaid Basilica of St. Mary, rightly disposed, may enjoy, receive and participate in all the above-mentioned indulgences, privileges and spiritual favors, in the same measure as if they personally visited Our Lateran Basilica ...
By virtue of the foregoing faculties We grant and communicate the indulgences and privileges enjoyed by the Lateran Basilica to the Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis, Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota, with the consent of the local Ordinary. Similar privileges will not be granted to any other church in lhat city.
Moreover, We declare that all these indulgences are applicable to the souls in Purgatory, in accordance wilh the Rescript of Pope Pius VJ.
We decree that, for the future, every fifteen years, computed from the date of this letter, You or your successors shall renew this request and thus obtain from Us the confirmation of this aggregation, union, association and affiliation; otherwise, at the end of this period; if the renewal or confirmation of the above-mentioned letter be not
Rome, Italy,
February twenty, Nineteen twenty-seven.
The petition was favorably acted on as evidenced by the subjoined translation of the official rescript.
The singular devotion which you have manifested towards Our Holy Lateran Basilica merits adequate recognition on Our part, and induces Us to grant you those spiritual favors which are permitted

asked and granted, the Basilica of St. Mary will cease to enjoy the aforesaid spiritual favors and after that this letter shall be null and void.
In testimony of these, one and all, We have had this letter signed by the Most lllustrious and Most Reverend Chamberlains and the Reverend Secretary of the Canons, and fortified by the Grand Seal of Our Chapter, as prescribed in such cases.
Given at the Lateran, February twenty-seven, in the nineteen hundred and twenty-seventh year after the Birth of Our Lord, the sixth year of the Pontificate of Our Holy Father in Christ, Pius XI, by Divine Providence, Pope.
Joseph Quadrini, Canon. Pius Paschini, Canon.
V. Misuraca, Canon, Secretary. Germanus Straniero,
Dean of Canons of the Lateran Basilica Seen and approved, May 5, 1927,
Augustinus Dowling, Archbishop of St. Paul.

Owing to the second World War the renewal of the rescript was not obtained till 1949 and then, through the courtesy of the Most Reverend James J. Byrne, D.D., Auxiliary Bishop of St. Paul, who visited the Eternal City in that year.
The second rescript differs from the first in as much as Pope Pius XII, by Apostolic Letter of November 9, 1939, suppressed all the spiritual favors and indulgences theretolore granted to the Archbasilica of the Lateran and promulgated new ones, enumerating the feasts of the year on which, by visiti'ng it and praying for the intention of the Holy Father, one can gain a plenary indulgence. They are the Nativity, Circumcision, Epiphany, Transfiguration, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, Immaculate Conception, Nativity, Annunciation, Purification and Assumption of Ule B.Y.M., the Nativity and Beheading 01 John the Baptist, the feast of St. Joseph and his Patronage, the feasts 01 Saints Peter and Paul and of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist. All these indulgences can be communicated to the churches which, by virtue of a privilege granted by Pope Benedict XIV on May 4, 1751, the Archbasilica may affiliate to itself throughout the world. Partial and stational indulgences are also listed.
Affiliation With 51. Mary Major
The Basilica of St. Mary was the first church in the United States-and is the only one, as far as we are aware,-to become affiliated with Sl. Mary Major in Rome. The following is a translation of the official decree.
The filial and striking devotion which you cherish towards the Sacred Image of the Virgin Mother of God, painted by the hand of St. Luke, the Evangelist, which had been enshrined for many centuries in Our Liberian Basilica, and becomes more resplendent every day by reason of the miracles which God deigned to work througll it at all times even to the present, fittingly merits that We grant YOll the favors conceded to Us by apostolic dispensation.
Wherefore, you have petitioned Us that, because of the singular devotion you profess towards the Mother of God and Our Liberian Basilica, specially dedicated to her, We deign to unite, affiliate and incorporate the Basilica of St. Mary of Minneapolis, in the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota, with the sacred Basilica of St. Mary Major, by which the aforesaid church may participate and share in the favors, indulgences, privileges and apostolic induIts conceded to Us and to the said Liberian Basilica by the Supreme Pontiffs.
Desirous of acceding to your pious request, as far as We are able in the Lord, by virtue of Our ordinary faculties which We enjoy by the tenor of the aforesaid apostolic induits, and especially by reason of the faculties graciously granted by Pope Clement Xli, of blessed memory, under the Seal of the Fisherman in the Apostolic Brief of June 8, 1736, We grant you the desired affiliation, so that all the faithful of both sexes who visit the said church, with proper dispositions, may gain, share in and enjoy all the indulgences, spiritual privileges and favors, according to the mind of the Church, described in the above-mentioned rescripts of Clement XII.
These indulgences, spiritual privileges and favors arc summarizeu as follows:
PLENARY INDULGENCES on the feasts of the Immaculate Conception (December 8), Nativity (September 8), Annunciation (March 25), and Assumption (August 15), of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
PARTIAL INDULGENCES of Iwenty-five years and as many quarantines (forty days) on the feast of the Purification (February 2); five years and five quarantines on the feast of the Visitation (July 2); four years and four quarantines on the feast of the Presentation ('November 2 I); three years and three quarantines on the

feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (September 14); two years and two quarantines on the feast of the Dedication of St. Michael the Archangel (September 29).
STATIONAL INDULGENCES: First Sunday in Advent; Vigil of Christmas; the Nativity; Second Sunday in Lent; Wednesday of Holy Week; Easter Sunday; Rogation Monday; Feast of the Dedication of Our Lady of the Snow (August 5); Wednesday of Ember Weeks. (A "station" is a church to which the clergy and laity of Rome go in procession on stated days to say special prayers).
In testimony whereof, We have ordered this document to be signed by Our Reverend Secretary and attested by the Grand Seal of the Chapter.
Given in the Office of Our Chapter at St. Mary Major on the ninth day of January, in the year nineteen hundred and twenty~seven.
+ Vincenti us Cardinal Vannutelli,
Archpriest of the Patriarchal Liberian Basilica Marcus Canon Martini, Secretary of the Chapter.
Mission Dolores Basilica, San Francisco, California. Basilica of the Assumption, Covington, Ky.
Basilica of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Roxbury, Mass. Basilica of St. Vincent, Latrobe, Pa.
To the Reverend James M. Reardon, Pastor of the Basilica of 51. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Seen and approved, May 21, 1927.
+ Augustinus Dowling, Archbishop of 51. Paul.
The Basilica of St. Mary is, likewise, affiliated with the Basilica of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in the Holy Land; but the spiritual privileges thereto annexed are in abeyance until a Confraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel is officially established in the parish, and the Pious Union under the title of St. Theresa of the Child Jesus is canonically erected and aggregated to the Primary Union under the direction of the Carmelite Order.
Minor Basilicas in the United States Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Basilica of Our Lady of Victory, Lackawanna, N. Y. St. Josephat's Basilica, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Basilica of the Assumption of the B.v.M., Baltimore, Md. Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, Conception, Mo. Basilica of Our Lady of Gethsemani, Louisville, Ky.

The Basilica of Saint Mary
Modern Renaissance Architecture
The Basilica of St. Mary is a striking example of Modem Renaissance architecture, a development of the neo-classic of the fifteenth century. One of the manifestations of the revival of classic learning and art in Europe following the Middle Ages was a new type of architecture produced by a fusion of medieval and antique forms. It was evidenced by a break in the orderly evolntion of architecture along the lines of Romanesque, Gothic and Byzantine, and for centuries the Renaissance idea dominated the architectural world. The new style was based on the classical Roman, but columns, pilasters, entablatures and other details were applied in a novel and pleasing form. It was "characterized by finely wrought arabesques, strings and cornices of classic profile, delicate pilasters and pediments and a great profusion of surface color and ornamentation. "
Florence was the cradle of the art, but from the sixteenth century Rome became the centre; and in St. Peter's Ille Renaissance style reached its culmination. It is the outstanding monument of this structural mode.
The Renaissance architects followed the Byzantine treatment of the dome, but increased its importance by lifting it bodily from its sub-structure and placing it on a drum pierced by windows, thus making it a dominant external characteristic. It is worthy of note that a massive, square lantemcrowned dome is one of the striking features of the Basilica of St. Mary.
The material used in the construction of the Basilica of St. Mary is granite-from Minnesota quarries in the foundation, from the quarries of Vermont in the superstructure. The foundation goes deep down into tbe earth, especiaJly the four massive piers which support the dome which rises to a height of one hundred and eighty-seven feet above the grade, and the smaller piers that bear the weight of the clerestory walls.
The dimensions of the building are: Length, exclusive of  The Basilica of St. Mary stands almost in the centre of tbe large block of ground fronting on Hennepin A venue between Sixteenth and Seventeenth Streets and extending back to Laurel Avenue. ]n the foreground, one block distant, is Loring Park with its grassy undulations, shaded walks, rustic bridges and recreational area. Not far to the south is the broad, level sward of the Parade with its stadium, seating 21,000 persons, its ample facilities for games and amusements; and beyond it lies the sweeping slope of Lowry Hill with its fine residences, art gallery and splendid churches. The graceful cu rve of Hennepin Avenue in front of the Basilica adds to the attractiveness of its location, and affords travellers approaching the down-town section a charming view of the church as they converge towards it by way of Hennepin, Lyndale, and Superior A venues.
This was the one site in Minneapolis destined, it would seem, by nature herself, to be the setting for a magnificent temple dedicated to the Most High. It is not so elevated as to make the church seem remote from the people whose spiritual welfare it is intended to promote, nor so low as to cause it to lose its identity and individuality in the midst of the surroundings in which it lifts its glittering cross of stainless steel to proclaim its mission. Fortunate, indeed, it was that those in cbarge of the project bad vision to foresee the possibilities dormant in the location.
Upon this site a great Basilica has arisen as a result of the combined efforts of priests and people-a Basilica which compares very favorably, in architectural design and symbolism, with the 1110St renowned churches in the Old World, and challenges the noblest edifices which religion has called into being in the New.

front steps, 278 feet; width, 120 feet; height from grade to nave ridge, 95 feet; dome 61 feet square outside and 48 inside; height to foot of cross, 187 feet; cross 13 feet; front towers, 133 feet high and 22 feet square; height from nave floor to ceiling 75 feet; height from sanctuary floor to dome ceiling, 138 feet; nave, inside piers, 140 x 82 x 75 feet; ambulatories in nave 155 x 10 x 20 feet; sanctuary ambulatories, 62 x lOx 67 feet; vestibule, 84 x 10 x 20 feet; chapels, 8 x 12 feet; baptistery, 11 x 14 feet; sacristy, 28 x 45 feet.
The Main Altar
The main altar is one of the finest in the country and cost upwards of fifty thousand dollars. It is to the church what the soul is to the body-the centre and source of religious life, of the spiritual activity radiating from the sanctuary to all parts of the parish and to each parishioner whose soul is not impervious to grace. It evokes the admiration of all who visit the church for devotion or sight-seeing. Everything in the sacred edifice converges towards the sanctuary and focuses attention on the altar which, like a diamond encircled by other jewels, dominates the setting.
The platform on which the altar stands is 24 feet square and rests on two immense walls of reinforced concrete deeply em bedded in the foundation and upholding the sanctuary floor and sustaining the weight of the structure. The altar proper, the table of sacrifice, is beautiful in its severe simplicity of outline and chaste decoration. It is of white Italian statuary marble relieved by a few dark veins. The mensa (table) is 11 feet, 8 inches in length, 23 inches in width and 39 inches above the predella. On the front of the tomb-like base which supports it, a carved wreath surrounds the monogram I.R.S. in the centre of the panel and the inscription, "Tabernaculum Dei Cum Hominibus" (the Tabernacle of God with men), is a scriptural reference to the purpose which the altar serves. The inscription on the base of the panel, "Allare Privilegiatum, Quotidianum, Perpetuum," declares

that the altar is a "privileged" altar for daily Masses in perpetuity, that is to say, a plenary indulgence can be gained for and applied to the deceased for whom the Holy Sacrifice is offered. The platform on which the altar rests is of buff Botticino marble as well as the massive square pedestals from which rise the four polished monoliths of Breche opal, each 15 feet in height, which support the baldachin, or canopy, of cream Botticino with its carved entablature, adoring angels, tapering finials, engraved panels and graceful dome-all serving as a pedestal, forty feet high, to lift the nine-foot statue of Our Lady of Grace above the environing grilles of the sanctuary and bring it into bold relief against the decorated background of the apsidal ceiling. The domed ceiling of the baldachin is brilliant with Venetian mosaic threaded with golden rays from the figure of a dove in a vault of azure illumined by electric lights concealed in a chamber above the opening which pierces the dome at the apex. From the soffit 01: the baldachin a mellow light is shed on the altar to enable the celebrant to read without other artificial aids. The predella, 14 x 61/2 feet, reached by five steps from the sanctuary floor, is ample enough for pontifical ceremonies of all kinds.
The tabernacle rises majestically from the centre of the altar, its capstone divided into two parts, one of which serves as a pedestal for the bronze crucifix that crowns it and the other as a throne for the ostensorium which call be placed thereon without leaving the predella. It encloses a steel safe, lined with cedar and silk and provided with two bronze doors, the rear for use in sick ca1ls. There is a seven-foot mensa behind the altar which can be used for the celebration of Mass, making the main altar a double altar.
The candlesticks, twelve in number-six large and six small -rest on broad, low gradines and conform in design, material and workmanship to the crucifix which, with its chaste silver corpus, rises six feet above the summit of the tabernacle. The large candlesticks are provided with extensions to hold the wax candles.
The Spacious Sanctuary
The sanctuary is easily one of the finest in America. It is sixty-two feet square on the outside of the dome piers and spaciou·s enough for the most elaborate liturgical functions. Some one has well said that it could "accommodate a canonization." There is ample room for all practical purposes between the altar and the stalls and between it and the communion rail. The floor of the sanctuary is elevated three feet above the floor of the nave and the ceremonies can be witnessed without difficulty by thc largest congregation. The field of the floor is of rose pink Tennessee marble, richly veined, bordered with verd antique. It is worthy of note that practically one-third of the church is behind the sanctuary rail. The sanctuary has a seating capacity of seventy-six on the benches.
The communion rail of Botticino marble, upheld by balusters of Swiss Cipolin, is sixty-eight feet in length and separates the sanctuary from the nave of the church. The bronze gates jn the centre open on the communion platform, two and a half feet below the sanctuary level, the field of which is, likewise, of rose pink Tennessee marble. The steps mounting to the sanctuary are of verd antique. In the sanctuary rail on the gospel side, near the bronze gate, is embedded a relic of the True Cross and on the other side a relic of the Holy Table of the Last Supper. They can bc seen through plastic glass.
The sanctuary is separated from the ambulatories by twelve monoliths of full-veined Swiss Cipolin marble supporting an entablature of Botticino marble at a height of eighteen feet, the spaces between them being filled with grilles of handforged wrought iron, high-lighted, and artistic in design and finish, the nine major sections of which contain panels depicting traditional scenes in the life of our Blessed Lady after the crucifixion, done with all the delicate tracery of a steel engraving. Beginning on the gospel side behind the front pier they are, in order, the Return from Calvary; the Descent of the Holy Ghost;
 the Angel Announcing Her Death; Her Last Meeting with the Apostles; Her Death; Her Body Borne to the Grave; Her Burial; Her Assumption into Heaven; Her Coronation in Heaven. Entrance to the sanctuary is through gates in the middle section of the rear grille.
The sanctuary benches provide sittings for thilty-six clergymen and forty choir boys besides the ministers of the Mass, Stools are available for the servers and acolytes .The stalls are of black walnut artistically hand-carved, with the coat-ofarms of the Basilica in the center, roomy and comfortable, with kneelers upholstered in brown leather and inclined arm and book rests, The credence tahle is furnished with a substantial marble top and a shelf for the missal-stand, bell, altar cards, etc., when not in use.

Greater; St. Paul; St. Peter; St. Andrew; St. John; St. James the Less; St. Bartholomew; St, Simon. Each one has his distinctive symbol. They are life-like in apperance and posture, and give the impression of a vigor and activity befitting the first preachers of the gospel.

Four of the original statues-Sts. Matthew, James the Greater, Andrew and John-were sculptured by Camillo Rusconi of Milan (1658-1728); two-Sts. Thomas and Bartholomew-by Pierre Le Gros of Paris (1666-1719); two -Sts. Peter and Paul-by Pierre Monnot of Besan<;on (16581733); one-St. Jude-by Lorenzo Ottoni of Rome; oneSt. Phillip-by Giuseppe Mazzuoli of Volterra (1644-1725); one-St. James the Less-by Angelo de Rossi of Genoa (1671-1715); one-St. Simon-by Francesco Moratti of Padua. The statue of St. James the Less is considered the finest of the twelve and when the Pope saw that of St. James the Greater he is said to have exclaimed "This statue is walking,"
ROsconi was made a Chevalier for his work. The cost of the statues was borne by the Pope, prelates and foreign princes. When all were installed the Pope had a special medal struck with a symbol of faith pointing at the Basilica and an appropriate motto around it.
Three Sets of Inscriptions
Each section of the entablature of the sanctuary screen has three incised inscriptions emphasized in gold leaf on its inner surface. Those on the gospel side refer to the Blessed Sacrament: "Adoremus in Aeternum SS. Sacramentum" (Let us forever adore the Most Blessed Sacrament); "Hie Est Panis Qui De Crelo Descendit" (This is the bread that came down from Heaven); "Qui Bibit Meum Sanguinem in Me Manet" (Whosoever drinketh my blood abideth in me). The texts behind the altar refer to the Church: "Domum Tuam Domine Decet Sanctltudo" (Holiness becometll Thy house, a Lord); "Sedes Tua Deus in Sreculum Sreculi" (Thy throne,
Statues of the Apostles
The columns supporting the entablature form the pedestals for six-foot marble statues of the Apostles-exact duplicates, except in height, of the statues of the Twelve in the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Rome, and the only replicas ever made, as far as we can learn, of that remarkable group which attracts the attention of connoisseurs of art in the Mother Church of Christendom. In each statue is incorporated a symbol of the Apostle it represents. The originals of these statues were ordered by Pope Clement XI, who occupied the Papal Throne from 1700 to 1721. They were chiseled from the finest white marble by the most famous sculptors of the day, and cost about $5,000,00 each-an enormous sum for those limes. They are about twelve feet high, and occupy niches in the central nave of the Lateran Basilica between magnificent columns of rare verd antique marble from Greece with the immense piers as a background. The statues in St. Mary's Basilica are of cream-colored marble, and are arranged in the same order as the originals. Beginning behind the front pier on the epistle side they are, St. Jude (Thaddeus); St. Mattllew; St, Philip; St. Thomas; St. James the

Episcopal Throne and Canopied Pulpit
No church, except the Cathedral of the Diocese, is entitled to a permanent throne. A canopied throne for episcopal functions is erected in the Basilica whenever the Archbishop presides in the sanctuary. It replaces a massive throne of handcarved oak which, because of its size and weight, was a permanent fixture. The latter was designed originally for St. Mary's Chapel in the St. Paul Seminary, but had to be removed before the work of finishing the sanctuary and installing a new marble altar was undertaken. It was purchased for the Pro-Cathedral in July, 1922, and used in episcopal ceremonies until September, 1928, when it was disposed of to the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, where it has since served as the throne of the Most Reverend Archbishop of that See.
The pulpit, located in front of the sanctuary pier on the gospel side, is elevated six feet above the floor of the nave, and commands a full view of the auditorium, unobstructed by pillar or chandelier. It is of pink ledge Mankato stone, artistically carved, and adorned with symbols-a dove typifying the Holy Ghost, an open Bible representing the Word of God,
a hand from the clouds signifying the traditional teaching of the Church, the official sources from which the preacher draws his sermon material. On the front of the pulpit is the inscription: "Prredicate Evangelium Omni Creaturre" (Preach the gospel to every creature), the divine commission given to the Apostles and their successors by the Savior Himself. An artistic wrought iron rail guards the steps to the pulpit, and a canopy of stone lined with wood forms a sounding-board, above the preacher. In addition, a sound-amplifying apparatus carries his voice to all parts of the nave, sanctuary and choir. A lapel microphone admits of free movement in any direction.
The corresponding pier on the epistle side offers an ideal background for a striking Calvary group. The crucifix, modeled after the miraculous crucifix of Lympias in Spain, is sculptured from a single block of stone anchored to the masonry when the wall was built. The model was made by the Brioschi-Minuti Co. of St. Paul, and John Garratti was the sculptor. The statues of the Sorrowful Mother and of St. John are chiseled from the same material. Beneath is the legend: "Consummatum Est" (It is consummated). The weeping Magdalen is not represented. Her place is taken by the faithful who pray before the shrine.
a God, is forever and ever); "Domus Mea Domus Orationis Vocabitur" (My house shall be called the house of prayer). On the epistle side the inscriptions refer to the Blessed Mother: "Macula Originalis Non Est in Te, Maria" (There is no stain of original sin in thee, 0 Mary); "Beat am Me Dicent Omnes Generationes" (All generations shall call me blessed); "Ora Pro Nobis San eta Dei Genetrix" (Pray for us, a Holy Mother of God).
A metal box lined with cedar and silk is set into the inner surface of the rear pier on the gospel side as a receptacle for the Holy Oils used in the administration of the Sacraments and other religious rites. This ambry is provided with a bronze door inscribed "Olea Sancta" (Holy Oils), and is kept securely locked.
The Choir and Organ
In the apse behind the sanctuary, from which it is separated by an ambulatory enclosed by iron grilles with gates, the choir is located. The semi-circular tiers of seats rise one above another in the form of an amphitheatre, so that all the singers are under the direct supervision of the choirmaster, who is also the organist. The present organ which replaces an older one, is a four-manual instrument of excellent and pleasing tone with sufficient volume to fill the vast auditorium. It was dedicated on Sunday evening, October 15, 1950, with a sacred concert by Mario Salvador, organist of St. Louis Cathedral, St. Louis, Mo., the opening event of Centennial

Week, commemorating the one hundredth anniversary of the erection of the Diocese of St. Paul.
The ceiling of the apse serves as a sounding-board. There are three organ chambers practically disposed so as to give the best sound effects. The great and the swell organs are located in galleries on either side of the apse at the junction of the rear and side aisles, and the choir and echo sections are at the back of the apse in artistic chambers which harmonize in color and design with the surroundings. Provision is made for seventy-five choir members. In a room beneath the seats on the epistle side is the library of liturgical musicone of the largest and best in the country; and on the opposite side a supply room and entrance to the basement. Twin iron ladders, with platforms, are attached to the rear of the piers to enable one to reach the organ chambers.
The Nave and Ceiling
The nave, said to be the widest of any church in the world, not excluding 51. Peter's in Rome, is a wonderfully imposing auditorium, free from everything that could obstruct the view of sanctuary and altar from the pews. The ceiling is one of its most impressive features. It springs from a stone cornice forty-three feet above the floor, and rises to a height of seventy-five feet in a beautiful ellipse. It is suspended from six immense iron girders which support the concrete roof, each weighing seventeen tons and having a span of eight-five feet from pier to pier.
The ceiling of nave and sanctuary is an unusually fine specimen of plastic art, that is, of the art of modeling architectural details in plaster or stucco. This new style of decoration, peculiarly adapted to interior finishing, originated in the seventeenth century, and became an accepted medium for the delineation of Renaissance ornamentation.
I n the Basilica ceiling some of the mouldings have a depth of twelve inches. The five broad panels extending from wall to wall are broken by richly-interlaced centerpieces and entwined symbols. The more one studies the ceiling, the more
one is impressed with its wealth of detail, its richness of design and its massive proportions. It was re-decorated between Iuly and October, 1953, at a cost of $40,000.
The beauty of the ceiling is emphasized and enhanced by this chaste decoration. Painting and sculpture are twin handmaids of religion, and the Church employs them in her liturgy and in the decoration of her temples.
The Color Scheme
To understand the color scheme in the ceiling of the Basilica and in its windows, it must be borne in mind that the church is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of her Immaculate Conception, and her distinctive colors are employed-white, blue, gold, and red-the white of purity, the blue of truth, the gold of glory and the red of love. The color scheme had to harmonize with the bue of tbe walls, and tbe color of tbe windows, This was effected by the use of old ivory stippled with sienna and grey applied to tbe flat surfaces of tbe panels. Gold leaf was introduced conservatively to highlight all ornaments, and give individuality to scroll and leaf. A background of blue was painted in the deep fissures of the stucco work, and red was used on the shields and cartouches.
In the sanctuary ceiling, blue, the tint of the firmament, is shown ligbted by golden rays of glory, This is supplemented by four large paintings of the Evangelists on tapestry, each eight feet in diameter, applied to tbe walls in frames above the windows.
In the ceiling of the apse the same color harmony is carried out with tbe one tbougbt in mind of binding tbe whole structure in a glorious ensemble of religious reverence in which one part is not more conspicuous than another. The varying tones of the stone walls and the superb coloring of tbe windows heighten the effect and lead tbe thoughts of the onlooker in worshipful homage to tbe Divine Tenant of tbe altar Whose presence is the raison d'etre of the church as a whole.

The Marble Confessiollals
Into the interior stone work on each of the side walls of the church are bonded four confessionals and an altar. The confessionals are of polished Tavernclle marble with interior wood trim, and are equipped with reading and pilot lights, self-closing side doors, circular slides, perforated domes for ventilation and an inscription above the front door of each one. These biblical texts are all different and so arranged that, beginning in the rear of the church, they express a consciousness of personal guilt, a sense of sorrow for sin, gradwIlly relieved, as onc approaches the altar, by a realization of God's mercy in the Sacrament of Penance.
Beginning at the rear on the gospel side, these mottoes are: "A pcccata meo munda me" (Cleanse me from my sin); "Prenitentiam agile" (Do penance); "Remittuntur tibi peccata" (Thy sins are forgiven thee); "Facite fructus prenitenti"," (Bring forth fruits worthy of penance).
From the rear on the epistle side: "Pater peccavi coram te" (Father, I have sinned before thee); "Convertimini ad me" (Be converted to me); "Confitemini peccata vestra" (Confess your sins); "Facite vobis cor novlIlll" (Make to yourself a new heart).
The word "Pax" (Peace) is carved in bas-relief above the side doors of the confessionals, indicative of the peace of soul found within. The top panel of each door is of leaded glass. Those in the front doors are ornamented with the shiclds of eight Doctors of the Church.
On the epistle side, from the rear-St. Gregory the Great; St. Jerome; St. Bonaventure; St. Gregory Nazianzen.
On the gospel side St. Bernard; St. Augustine of Hippo; St. Ambrose; St. Thomas Aquinas.
The marble altars above referred to are surmounted by mosaic-domed niches, sheltering statues of the Sacred Heart and of St. Joseph to whom they are dedicated. The Sacred Heart altar is equipped with a tabernacle used as a repository on Holy Thursday. A predella and a curved communion rail of marble complete the structural appointments.
The walls of nave, ambulatory and piers are faced with Mankato stone in a pleasing variety of shades. The piers supporting the clerestory wall and prolonged in pilasters to the ceiling form a series of five bays on each side of the nave, with an elliptical span eighteen and a halC feet wide, above which is a window divided in halves by a stone mullion, each onc seventeen and a hal[ feet high and five and a half feet in width. In the centre 01' the carved frieze beneath the sills of these windows are symbols of the Blessed Virgin: Dove, Tower aT David, Pomegrnnate, Sun, Lily, Fleur-de-lis, Rose, Star, Three Lilies and Pierced Heart. On the front of the balcony over the vestibule are, from left to right, Gate of Heaven, Lilies, Ark of the Covenant, Seven-branched Candlestick and Jacob's Ladder. In the semi-circular panels above the inner doors the symbols are, a Chalice with Wheat and Grapes, a Lamb (the Son of God), a Triangle and Hand (the Father), a Dove (the Holy Ghost), and an open Bible.
The auditoriulll is furnished with oaken pews, with cllshioned kneelers, substantial and comfortable. It has a seating capacity of ] 600. When occasion requires, provision can be made for more than twice that number of persons. Near the doors are two artistic book-racks stocked with Catholic literature.
The lighting system is unique and efTective. A series or metal reflectors, set in plaster moulds concealed in the masonry at the base of the clerestory windows, throws a flood of mellow light on the windows and ceiling, rendering the scenes depicted in the leaded glass visible from the exterior at night, and difIusing throughout the auditorium the even glow of sunlight. The side aisles are lighted by smaller windows during the day and at night by lamps set in artistic fixtures of bronze and 3urine glass, in the form of censers, suspended from the ceiling by triple chains. Above the glass are reflector bulbs which light the row of pews next to the piers while similar bulbs on the piers at one end of the bays shed radiance on the pews beyond the side aisles.

The Stations of the Cross, recessed in the outer walls beside the confessionals, are of cream Botticino marble with figures carved in bas-relief. The incised inscriptions follow a uniform plan. Light is focussed on each group from a bulb concealed within a bronze cherub at the base. The attached shield bears the number of the station; and fastened to the wall above the group is a black walnut cross, the essential feature of each station.
above it is the inscription, "Conceptio Immaculata Sum" (I am the Immaculate Conception).
Vestibule and Portico
The walls of the vestibule are lined with pink ledge Mankato stone, hone finished, on a polished pink Kasota base. The vaulted ceiling is richly tinted: above the doors are semi-circular stone panels bearing symbols of OUf Lord and of the Evangelists, and different types of crosses. Four 111Urble fonts at convenient points on the inner wall are supplied with holy water from a large tank in the balcony; and two fountains of polished Tavernelle marble in elaborately carved niches at either side of the main entrances provide drinking water. Opposite them are doors opening on circular stairways leading to basement and balcony.
The double doors between vestibule and nave are covered with Spanish leather, studded with bronze-headed nails and pierced by a circular opening filled with glass. They can be fastened on the inner side to control traffic from the vestibule.
Five new door of bronze give access to the church in front. Three of them are under a magnificent pillared portico forming part of an attractive fa,ade, the decorative feature of which is a superb rose window fifteen feet in diameter. The portico is 491/2 feet in length by 17Y2 feet in depth and 29 feet to the parapet. The pylons are 8 feet square and rise to a height of II feet above the parapet.
At the apex of the fa,ade is a magnificent group representing the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin into heaven, carved after the granite was placed in position. The entrances are flanked by square twin towers 133 feet in height. Four additional doors-two at the ends of the vestibule and two in the lateral walls in front of the sanctuary rail-provide entrances and exits for the congregation.
The Baptismal Font
The baptistery is located at the western end of the vestibule. The floor of polished rose Tavernelle marble blends
The Encircling Chapels
At the sanctuary ends of the nave aisles are chapels dedicated to St. Anne (on the gospel side), and to St. Anthony of Padua (on the epistle side), with marble altars and walls and decorated plaster ceilings. Behind the arches are concealed lights which flood the altars and chapels, and resting on each altar is a statue of its patron.
Two other chapels are located at the rear ends of the sanctuary ambulatories-the one on the epistle side is dedicated to the Little Flower of Jesus (with corresponding statue), and the other on the gospel side to St. John Baptist Vianney, Cure of Ars, patron of parish priests. They, likewise, have marble altars and walls and Venetian mosaic ceilings with symbols-the Lamb and the Pelican-all flood-lighted.
The Founders' chapel, in front of the baptistery, at the western end of the vestibule, will be equipped with an altar which, when erected, will enshrine a casket of bronze containing the names of the contributors to the erection and completion of the Basilica. Above it is a window with a majestic figure of St. John the Baptist and the inscription in gold lettering, "Laudem Eorum Nuntiet Ecclesia" (Let the Church declare their praise).
At the opposite end of the vestibule is a chapel, tentatively dedicated to Our Lady of Lourdes, the walls and floor of which have been completed. Neither altar nor furnishings have yet been provided. The large window opening on the ambulatory represents Our Lady of Lourdes, crowned, and

beautifully with tile soft tones of the walls. The font, in the center of the chapel, is of Siena marble varying in color from a rich golden hue at the base to a lighter shade nt the top. The bowl has two compartments-one for baptismal water, the other a sacrarium whence the water used in the ceremony drains to the soil. The shaft expanding into the bowl is octagonal with engaged columns at the corners and panels between them. Two panels in the rear are titted with bronze doors opening into cabinets for the ritual, stoIc, candies, linens, etc., used in the administration of baptism. The cover, a single piece of hand-forged bronze, hemispherical in form, with symbols of the Evangelists in the panels and surmounted by a cross, swings easily on a pivot and is kept in position by a small lock. Tn the rear wall of the chapel provision is made for a bas-relief, not yet sculptured, of the baptism of the Savior in the Jordan, and the ceiling lends itself to appropriate decoration at some time in the future. The baptistery is enclosed by a hand-forged wrought iron grille similar in design and workmanship to the sanctuary grille.
colored glass. From the original working sketches they lay out a blueprint showing where each tiny piece fits into the whole. Then they exercise their true artistry by painting the designs and outlines on thousands of individual pieces which are put together with strips of lead to make the beautiful ensemble.
Stained glass painting is just the opposite of oil painting. [n the latter the picture is built up by the addition of paint; in tbe former the black pigment with which the glass is coated is removed bit by bit to permit the light to shine through in just the right shading. This is done sometimes by a stiff brush, but usually' by the little finger which removes the paint in varying shadings and a sharp stick which traces the outlines of the figure or design.
Tn the Basilica windows there are hundreds of thousands of individual pieces of stained glass, some quite large, others small. The figures are life size. They preach a sermon in glass. From the floor the faithful experience no difficulty in viewing the scene as a whole and interpreting its meaning. The clerestory windows, twenty in all, depict scenes, biblical and traditional, in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary to whom the Basilica is dedicated.
In describing the technique used in the making of the windows of the Basilica, we must go back to the tenth century when a colony of Venetian glass workers, following their craft at Limoges, France, experimented with metallic pigments and found that, when fired in a kiln, they fused with the glass and were not affected by climate or other conditions. This new method gradually took the place of mosaic in the manufacture of windows. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries-the golden age of Christianity-the art of the glass-worker flourished, but the method used was that of the craftsmen of the tenth century. The outline of the ornament or figure is painted or traced on glass in deep black, and OVCI' it a much thinner mixture is used as a mat, covering the entirc surface with a semi-transparent monochrome, evenly blended
Stained Glass Technique
Stained glass is the result 01' a process. Tt is produced by covering the glass with oxide of silver which, when subjected to heat, penetrates the glass and gives a yellow reaction. The glass usually used is known as pot metal, a glass thoroughly mixed with coloring matter while in a molten state. This is ornamented with designs or figures in vitritlable pigments which are fused to the surface or incorporated into the glass in an oven under high temperature. Glass stained in this way is used in the manufacture of colored windows. In the beginning they were made by arranging small pieces of pot metal in a mosaic secured by strips of lead.
The manufacture of stained glass windows is a science with a tradition harking back to the fifth and sixth centuries. To make them the craftsmen must use thousands of bits of
I ~ I

This mat, when dry, becomes the background of lhe painting. Certain parts of the design, which show through the mat, are stippled with a still' bristle brush which permits more light to sift through the paint. To bring into relief the ornament or the anatomy and drapery of the figure, this is further emphasized by rubbing the paint entirely away in certain places and scratching out other highlights with a sharp-pointed stick. The shadows, originally taken care of by the mat, arc strengthened, wherever necessary, by the addition of more pigment; and glass and pigment are fnsed several times in a kiln at a high degree of temperature. This process was used in the making of the windows for the Basilica of St. Mary.
The Sanctuary Windows
In the dome are twelve pUfe grisaille windows containing symbols of the Virgin Mary in medallion form as follows: the Ark of the Covenant; the Tower of David; the Enclosed Garden; the Sealed Fountain; the Lofty Cedar; the Fleur-de-lis; the Mystical Rose; the Gate of Heaven; the City of God; the Fountain of Living Water; the Pomegranate; the Pierced Heart.
Above the dome windows are the paintings of the Evangelists, already referred to. set in moulded plaster frames richly ornamented.
In the apse are five windows, 17% feet high by 4 reet wide, the upper parts of which are filled with angels playing on musical instruments, representing the heavenly choirs singing the praises of God, while the lower portions of four of them (the fifth is hidden by the organ chamber) are occupied by figures of the Evangelists (Saints Malthew, Mark, Luke and John) and of four great Doctors of the Church, namely, St. Augustine, St. Gregory the Great, St. Ambrose, and Sl. Jerome.
The rose windows in the transept consist of a central section, fifteen feet across, surrounded by twenty-four circular lights, sixteen inches in diameter, each of which h~s a cross
as the chief feature of the art design. The outer portion of the main window shows three of the nine choirs of angelsSeraphim, Cherubim and Thrones-representing the heavenly hosts nearest the Blessed Trinity. They form an appropriate setting for the felli-sized figure of the Immaculate Conception surrounded by adoring angels (on the gospel side), and of the Coronation of Our Blessed lady by the Eternal Father, the Divine Son and the Holy Spirit (on the epistle side).
Directly below eaeh of these arc three windows (8 feet 8 inches by 2 feet 4 inches) with Old Testament personages depicted in stained glass. Those on the epistle side are Esther and Ruth, prototypes of the Blessed Virgin, and King David of her ancestral line. On the gospel side Gideon, Ezechiel and Daniel are represented. A suitable biblical text in English is inscribed under each figure.
The Windows of the Nave
Between the two events pictured in the rose windows of the transept is traced the life-story of the Blessed Virgin, the patroness of the Basilica, in the twenty scenes depicted in the derestory windows. Beginning on the gospel side they are: her Marriage to St. Joseph~ the Annunciation; the Visit to St. Elizabeth; the Nativity of Our Lord; the Adoration of the Magi; the Presentation in the Temple; the Flight into Egypt; the Holy Family at Nazareth; the Finding in the Temple; the Death of St. Joseph; the Marriage at Cana; the Meeting on the Way to Calvary; the Crucifixion; the Removal of Christ from the Cross; the Deposition; the Burial; the Return from Calvary; the Apparition of the Risen Lord to His Mother; the Descent of the Holy Ghost; the Death of the Blessed Virgin. In most of these scenes Christ and His Mother are shown and in all of them the Blessed Virgin is easily recognized by the distinctive shade of blue reserved for her. The figures are life-sized and the scenes readily interpreted.
Surmounting these scenes is a canopy of winged angels, fully vested, upborne on fleecy clouds, each holding a reli-

gious emblem connected, for the most part, with the Passion. Above this group in each window is an angel with a ribbon on which is inscribed in Latin an invocation from the Litany of Loreto; and crowning all, in the ten topmost circular windows, each fifty-two inches in diameter, are angels exhibiting scrolls on each of which is a verse from the Magnificat in Latin.
The windows in the side aisles show full-sized figures of historic personages from the Old Testament and the New, together with scriptural texts in English, linking each one with the scene depicted in the clerestory window directly above. Beginning on the gospel side they are: Raguel (Tobias VII-15); Isaias (Isaias VII-14); Anna (1 Kings II-I); Micheas (Micheas V-2); Balaam (Numbers XXIV-I?); Malachias (Malachias III-I); Jacob (Genesis XLVI-3, 4); Moses (Exodus XX-12); St. Luke (Luke II-46); Solomon (3 Kings VIII-56); St. John (John II-5); Rachel (Matthew II-IS); Amos (Amos VIII-9); Zacharias (John XIX37); Jeremias (Lamentations 1-12); Jonas (Jonas II-7); Joseph of Arimathea (John XIX-27); Abraham (Genesis XVII-I); Judith (Judith XV-IO); St. Peter (1 Peter V-4).
Over the entrances at the corners of the nave Archangels are on guard. On the gospel side above the communion rail stands St. Michael (who is like unto God) armed with sword and shield, and opposite him St. Raphael (the medicine of God) with trident and fish. The front entrances are presided over by four Archangels-Jophiel (the beauty of God), with a flaming sword in his right hand; and Uriel (the light of God), holding the book of knowledge, at the southwest corner; Gabriel (the strength of God), holding a staff topped with orb and cross; and Chamuel (one who sees God), with staff in the right hand and chalice in the left, at the northwest.
The rose window of the front portrays the Madonna and Child enthroned and surrounded by choirs of adoring angels.
In the rear walls of the baptistery and of Our Lady of Lourdes chapel are four pure grisaille windows with medallions.

All the windows are lightsome and glorious especially when the sun shines through them. They admit sufficient light to enable a person to read on an ordinary bright day without artificial aid.
Confessional and Windows

The Basilica Sacristy
THE sacristy measures 28 by 45 feet, and consists of a rectangular room with a niche, 10 by 52/3 feet, at the front end, an elliptical ceiling of ornamental plaster and a marble and terrazzo floor. The exterior is of Bedford stone and the interior walls of pink ledge Mankato stone, relieved by twin fluted pilasters with gilded ornamental caps. The doorways are enriched at the top by an entablature and a broken pediment which projects somewhat from the wall, and is supported at each side of the opening by console brackets. Circular panels, framing an electric clock on one side and an emblem (crown and cross) on the other, are set in the spandrels formed by the broken pediments and the lintels.
The sacristy is lighted by two rose windows in the ends, four large windows in the sides, and two smaller ones in the niche of the fayade, which contains a double vestment case of bJack walnut with tabernacle to permit of its use as an altar, if necessary. Four additional vestment cases of similar design, richly hand-carved and provided with the latest conveniences, complete the equipment.
Each of these cases comprises a central section containing shallow drawers for single sets of vestments in the liturgical colors, deeper ones for altar linens and laces, and a tall cabinet at each end bordering a large window. ]n the cabinets are .located a sacrarium, lavabo, pier glass, receptacles for individual linens and Mass supplies, apartments for albs, cinctures, surplices, copes, etc., and shelves for missals and altar cards.
Artistic electric light fixtures adorn the walls of the sacristy, and from the ceiling are suspended elegant chandeliers of bronze and aurine glass. The windows duplicate the rich-

ness of coloring and design of those in the church. The front rose window, six feet in diameter, shows Christ the King enthroned with adoring angels, and the opposite one represents the three High Priests-Christ, Aaron and Melchisedec -with the insignia of their sacrificial office. The side windows above two vestment cases contain a crucifix and the Latin prayers said by the priest while vesting for Mass. The other windows are dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and of Mary, and the ones opening into the niche have candlestioks and lighted candles. The radiators are recessed in the walls behind hand-forged wrought iron grilles.
On the sides of the passage leading into the church are located a vault for the sacred vessels, relics, reliquaries, altar cards, etc.; a confessional for deaf-mutes and the hard of hearing; a foom for the censer cabinet and supplies; and onc for the switchboard that controls the lighting of the church and sacristy.
The sacristy is connected with the residence by a passage lighted by leaded glass windows containing the coat-of-arms of the Basilica. An automatic fire door separates it from the house, thus preventing the spread of fire from the one to the other.
North of the sacristy and abutting it is a double garage of Bedford stone, plastered, steam-heated, and elecric-lighted. It is reached by a driveway from Seventeenth Street leading into a yard paved with concrete and large enough for all practical purposes. A single door electrically-controlled guards the entrance to the garage.

The Basilica Residence
THE parochial residence is one of the finest in the United States in practical arrangement and equipment. It is a three-storied building with full basement and attic. It is built of greyish brick with Bedford stone trimmings to harmonize with the sacristy and Basilica. It is an H-shaped structure, 108 feet long by 44 feet wide. The main entrance motif on Seventeenth Street, North, comprises a door, with leaded glass side lights, under a balcony and balustrade of Bedford stone supported by monoliths of the same material, and a window above with Bedford stone trim, at the apex of which the coat-of-arms of the Basilica is sculptured in bas-relief.
The first floor is set apart entirely for parish purposes. It contains the executive office, 21 by 44 feet in size, with private entran::;e and modern equipment; seven offices for the clergy; attendant's room; reception parlor; and the lib-

rary and study of the pastor connected with his apartments on the second floor by a private stairway. The upper panel of each door contains the head of Our Lord or of a saint set in a leaded glass frame. On the second floor are located the private apartments of the clergy of the parish-each suite comprising a study, bedroom and bath-a community room (with sun parlor) opening on a balcony in the rear for recreational purposes.
The third floor contains guest rooms; dining rOOI11 and breakfast alcove; kitchen, butler's pantry, and supply room; maids' dining room, sun parlor, living quarters, and bedrooms. Every bedroom is provided with shower, lavatory nnd clothes closet. In the attic is loented the blower room which draws odors from kitchen and bath rooms and ample space for recreation when the weather is inclement. Half of the basement is set apart for a boys' sacristy-with lockers, settees and a wash room-connected with the main sacristy by a stairway between the rear entrances. The remainder contains laundry and drying-room, storage room, trunk room, boiler room, and a vault for sacram.ental wine with a unique arrangement for storage. An underground tunnel connects the house, church, school and boiler room. An electric elevator runs from the basement to the third floor and can carry seven persons of normal dimensions. An iron stairway, with terrazzo treads, hammered iron balustrade, and wooden handrail, affords easy flccess to the different floors, while a stairway of similar construction runs from the rear entrance to the basement and to the attic, with fllllple landings on each floor. The floors of the corridors are of polished terrazzo with cove base; and all bath rooms are wainscoted in colored tile with floors of varying patterns. The woodwork throughout is of oak, richly carved in mantel and book case~ and the walls of the rooms, offices and corridors are of rough plaster finish, pninted in pleasing tints. The furniture is of mahogany and oak, and the furnishings har~ monize to produce a very pleasing elTect. AU the lighting is
indirect and the fixtures are of simple but elegant design and add a note of distinction to the ensem ble. Beside the rear entrance is the door of the dumb waiter by which supplies are taken to the basement store room anel to the kitcben on the third floor.

The Basilica School
THE Basilica grade school is of cream-colored brick with terra cotta trim, three-storied, with full basement. Sixteen large, airy, high-ceilinged and well-lighted rooms with spacious wardrobes, are located on the first and second stories and open on wide, central corridors with terrazzo Iloors. They are fully equipped with modem desks for teacher and pupils. An auditorium, accommodating six hundred persons and provided with stage and dressing-rooms, occupies the third story; and in the basement are located a wellequipped cafeteria, lunch rooms, assembly rooms for meetings of parish organizations, wash rooms for boys and for girls. On each floor, likewise, there are lavatories and drinking fountains. The stairways at the ends of the main corridors are furnished with iron balustrades and Kasota stone treads, the whole building is fireproof, and equipped with a modern fire alarm system.
The school is in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph who reside at St. Margaret's Academy a few blocks away. As it stands, it represents an outlay of about $165,000.00. It was opened for the admission of pupils in September, 1913, when the children attending the old Immaculate Conception school were transferred thereto.
During the first year the pupils assisted at Mass on Sundays at 9 A.M., in the auditorium of the school building. On May 31, 1914, the day the church was dedicated, the pupils heard Mass in the church at 9 A.M., which was really the first Mass in the sacred edifice. One of the pupils, Timothy D. O'Connell (later, Father O'Connell), served the Mass.
The location of the central heating plant erected at a cost of $16,006.50, is indicated by the tapering brick chimney

which rises above the western end of the school to the wall of which it is securely bonded. This chimney and the concrete slab at its base are the external evidence of the underground boiler room that supplies heat for the parish buildings. Three large boilers, equipped with modern appliances, generate the steam which heats the school directly and the other buildings indirectly-the church by hot air propelled by motor-driven fans through openings in wall and floor; and the residence and sacristy by hot water kept in circulation by a motor in the basement of the house. The boilers are fed by oil and gas automatically supplied and controlled. The oil is contained in a 10,000 gallon tank enclosed in one of the former coal bins and the gas is piped in from the city main on Laurel A venue, insuring even temperature in all kinds of weather at a minimum of fuel consumption.



\ I)


J. Manuscript and Archival Material

Archives of the Diocese of 51. Paul: Chancery Office, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Archives of the Sisters of St. Joseph: SL Joseph Provincial HOllse, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Archives of Christian Brothers: Dc La Salle High Schoo], Min­neapolis, Minnesota.

Corporation Books: Church of the Immaculate Conception (1890­1921); Basilica of Saint Mary (1921·1955); Pro-Cathedral Building Society (1904-1909); Minneapolis Catholic Boys Home (1878-1931)_

                                Parochial Anllouncement Books: (1874-1888                                 1906·1955).

(Archives of the Basilica of St. Mary).

Sapti.mUlI Registers; The Church of St. Anthony (1851-1866). (Archives, Church of St. Anthony, Minneapolis, Minne­sOla). The Church of the Immaculate Conception; the Pro­Cathedral of Sl. Mary; The Basilica of 51. Mary (1868~ 1955).

Cox, Sister Ignatius Loyola: St. Anthon)' Falls or East Minneapolis (1853-1878). (Archives, College of 51. Catherine, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Gay tee, Thomas J.: Christian Emblems, Symbols and Attributes, in

                10 Yols.                 (Author's Manuscript in Basilica archives).

Abstracts of Title to ProperlY: (Archives, Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota).

Wiltberger, F. W.: "Facts and Fancies About the Site of the Basilica" (Author's manuscript in Basilica Archives).

2. Books

Nainfa, Rev. John A., 5.5.: "Minor Basilicas", The Ecclesiastical Ueview, January, 1928, pp. 1-19.

Gietmann, G.: "Basilica", Catholic Encyclopedia, Yol. 11, p. 325. Jakob: "Basilica" (in architectural sense), Wetzel' und Welte's Kirchen-Lexikoll, 2nd Ed., Vol. ] I, pp. 14-19. Freiburg, 1883.

Hauser: "Basilica" (in liturgical sense), Wetzel' und Welte's Kirch~ ell-Lexikoll, 2nd Eel., pp. 19 & ft. Freiburg, 1883.

Catholic Directorie.\': (1834-1955). (Archives, St. Paul Catholic Historical Society, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota).

Savage, Sister Mary Lucida, Ph. D.: The Congregation of St. Joseph of Carondelet. A Brief Account of Its Origin and Work ill the United States (1650-1922). St. Louis, Missouri, 1923.

The Diocese of Sf. Paul. The Golden Jubilee (1851-1901). St.

Paul, Minnesota.



Reardon, Rt. Rev. James M., P.A.: The Catholic Church in the Diocese of St. Palll. North Central Publishing Co., Saint Paul, Minnesota, 1952.

Ireland, Most Reverend John: A Catholic Sisterhood ill the North­west. elr. The Church and Modem Society. Vol. 11, pp. 279-301. St. Paul, Minnesota, 1904.

Ireland, Most Reverend John: Fifty Years of Catholicity in the Northwest. Cfr. The Church and Modem Society. VoL 11, pp. 251·278. St. Paul, Minnesota, 1904.

Ravoux, Right Reverend Augustine: Reminiscences, Memoirs and Lectures. Sr. Paul, Minnesota, 1890.

McNulty, Reverend Ambrose: The Chapel of St. Paul and the Be­ginnings of the Catholic Church in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Collections (1900-1904), Vol. X, Part 1, p. 233.

Stevens, John H.: Personal Recollections of Minnesota and Its Peo­ple and Early History of Minneapolis. Minneapolis, 1890.

Holcombe, Maj. R. I.) Compendium of History and Biography of

                 and                  ) Minneapolis and Hennepin County, Minne~

                                Bingham, Wm. H.                                 ) sota. Chicago, 1914.

Minneapolis City Directories: (1867; 1869; 1871·72; 1873~4; 1874; 1875). Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Hamline, A.D.F.: A Text-Book of the History of Architecture.

New Edition, Revised. New York, 1928.

Fletcher, Sir Banister: A History of Architecture. New York, 1924. Lubke, Dr. Wilhelm: Outlines of the History of Art. Vol. 11, Edi­ted by Russell Sturgis. New York, 1904.

Clement, Clara Erskine: Handbook of Legendary and Mythological Art. New York, 1895.

Jameson, Mrs.: Sacred and Legendary Art. Vol. I, London and New York, 1891.

Byrne, Rt. Rev. J. c., V.G.: "Sowing the Seed" (a series of weekly articles in the Catholic Bulletin from June 21 to July 19. 1941).

3. l)criodic •. l1 Literature Acta et Dicta, Vols. t-5 (1908-1918).

(Archives, Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota).

Northwestern Chronicle (1866-1900).

(Archives, St. Paul Catholic Historical Society, St. Paul Seminary, 51. Paul, Minnesota).

St. Anthony Express (1851-1861).

(Archives, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minne­sota).

Irish Standard (1885-1900).

(Archives, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minne­sota.)

The Catholic Bulletin (1911-1955).

(Archives, Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota).


\ I)
J. Manuscript and Archival Material
Archives of the Diocese of 51. Paul: Chancery Office, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Archives of the Sisters of St. Joseph: SL Joseph Provincial HOllse, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Archives of Christian Brothers: Dc La Salle High Schoo], Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Corporation Books: Church of the Immaculate Conception (18901921); Basilica of Saint Mary (1921·1955); Pro-Cathedral Building Society (1904-1909); Minneapolis Catholic Boys Home (1878-1931)_
    Parochial Anllouncement Books: (1874-1888     1906·1955).
(Archives of the Basilica of St. Mary).
Sapti.mUlI Registers; The Church of St. Anthony (1851-1866). (Archives, Church of St. Anthony, Minneapolis, MinnesOla). The Church of the Immaculate Conception; the ProCathedral of Sl. Mary; The Basilica of 51. Mary (1868~ 1955).
Cox, Sister Ignatius Loyola: St. Anthon)' Falls or East Minneapolis (1853-1878). (Archives, College of 51. Catherine, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Gay tee, Thomas J.: Christian Emblems, Symbols and Attributes, in
    10 Yols.     (Author's Manuscript in Basilica archives).
Abstracts of Title to ProperlY: (Archives, Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota).
Wiltberger, F. W.: "Facts and Fancies About the Site of the Basilica" (Author's manuscript in Basilica Archives).
2. Books
Nainfa, Rev. John A., 5.5.: "Minor Basilicas", The Ecclesiastical Ueview, January, 1928, pp. 1-19.
Gietmann, G.: "Basilica", Catholic Encyclopedia, Yol. 11, p. 325. Jakob: "Basilica" (in architectural sense), Wetzel' und Welte's Kirchen-Lexikoll, 2nd Ed., Vol. ] I, pp. 14-19. Freiburg, 1883.
Hauser: "Basilica" (in liturgical sense), Wetzel' und Welte's Kirch~ ell-Lexikoll, 2nd Eel., pp. 19 & ft. Freiburg, 1883.
Catholic Directorie.\': (1834-1955). (Archives, St. Paul Catholic Historical Society, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota).
Savage, Sister Mary Lucida, Ph. D.: The Congregation of St. Joseph of Carondelet. A Brief Account of Its Origin and Work ill the United States (1650-1922). St. Louis, Missouri, 1923.
The Diocese of Sf. Paul. The Golden Jubilee (1851-1901). St.
Paul, Minnesota.
Reardon, Rt. Rev. James M., P.A.: The Catholic Church in the Diocese of St. Palll. North Central Publishing Co., Saint Paul, Minnesota, 1952.
Ireland, Most Reverend John: A Catholic Sisterhood ill the Northwest. elr. The Church and Modem Society. Vol. 11, pp. 279-301. St. Paul, Minnesota, 1904.
Ireland, Most Reverend John: Fifty Years of Catholicity in the Northwest. Cfr. The Church and Modem Society. VoL 11, pp. 251·278. St. Paul, Minnesota, 1904.
Ravoux, Right Reverend Augustine: Reminiscences, Memoirs and Lectures. Sr. Paul, Minnesota, 1890.
McNulty, Reverend Ambrose: The Chapel of St. Paul and the Beginnings of the Catholic Church in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Collections (1900-1904), Vol. X, Part 1, p. 233.
Stevens, John H.: Personal Recollections of Minnesota and Its People and Early History of Minneapolis. Minneapolis, 1890.
Holcombe, Maj. R. I.) Compendium of History and Biography of
    and     ) Minneapolis and Hennepin County, Minne~
    Bingham, Wm. H.     ) sota. Chicago, 1914.
Minneapolis City Directories: (1867; 1869; 1871·72; 1873~4; 1874; 1875). Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Hamline, A.D.F.: A Text-Book of the History of Architecture.
New Edition, Revised. New York, 1928.
Fletcher, Sir Banister: A History of Architecture. New York, 1924. Lubke, Dr. Wilhelm: Outlines of the History of Art. Vol. 11, Edited by Russell Sturgis. New York, 1904.
Clement, Clara Erskine: Handbook of Legendary and Mythological Art. New York, 1895.
Jameson, Mrs.: Sacred and Legendary Art. Vol. I, London and New York, 1891.
Byrne, Rt. Rev. J. c., V.G.: "Sowing the Seed" (a series of weekly articles in the Catholic Bulletin from June 21 to July 19. 1941).
3. l)criodic •. l1 Literature Acta et Dicta, Vols. t-5 (1908-1918).
(Archives, Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota).
Northwestern Chronicle (1866-1900).
(Archives, St. Paul Catholic Historical Society, St. Paul Seminary, 51. Paul, Minnesota).
St. Anthony Express (1851-1861).
(Archives, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota).
Irish Standard (1885-1900).
(Archives, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.)
The Catholic Bulletin (1911-1955).
(Archives, Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis, Minnesota).