And Outlook Their Oil-And-Gas-Bearing Capacities
Leningrad Mineral Resources The Leningrad Compartment 1987
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Oil Research and Development (Scientific Research)
The Kurile-Kamchatsky trough has young (late Eocene) age also , although not excluded, is Oligocene and younger (early Eocene) age.
Probably, later formation of Kurile-Kamchatsk and Aleuts trough puts a severe problem before mobilize, as in Paleogene and the significant part of Miocene, probably, was not trough and zones of subduction capable to countervail spreading Tikhookeansk bed. Drozdovskij and Tjushevskij flysh bending flexures not because they were not deep-water, not subducted (continued cut-away), were curbed on east by upheavals.
In a completing phase of a geosynclinal mode in Etolonsk-Ermanovsk time Koryak bow system has entered epoch formation, and in the Kamchatka system proceed communal upheaval, reduced floor area of the inherited bending flexures both growth of amount and floor space of superimposed depressions and bending flexures. However differential and contrast of moves did not achieve a high level supplying sedimentation within the peninsula limits. Begins essentially to have an effect-influencing basis of erosion instituted by a Okhotsk and Bering seas levels. The seas act as a terrigenous material trap, and its suppliers - large rivers by virtue of heavy gradients and deficiency of onsite depressions - traps bear a sea material and partially disperse it on multiple water currents.
In the Sakhalin system the communal, inverse as well as on Kamchatka, was exhibited also at the end of Middle Miocene, hardly earlier in west (upper Dujskaya is carboniferous coal-bearing, coal-measures molasse), a little bit later in east and northeast (under molasse) -- Schmidt. The upheaval of an island was tracked by heavy-lift buckling fringe of system. On boundary with a massive "Okhotiya" the pattern of a rear bending flexure was here again formed.
In late Miocene and Pliocene, mainly, the marine Yaponomorsk-Tatar basin Here was generated, as well as in the Kamchatka system, the large sedimentary traps have appeared in water areas environmental an island, where the thick bottom molasse exceeds many kilometers. The folding terminating geosynclinal progressing late Cenozoic was exhibited, apparently, at the end of middle Pliocene.
In post Eocene time and Quaternary period, Kamchatka and Sakhalin bow systems were developed in conditions of an orogenic mode concept I "orogenic" and "continental" are not identical.
It is necessary to refer marine sediments collecting in marginal parts of systems, to marine upper molasse, formed in conditions of active upheaval and formation of continental blocks of Kamchatka and Sakhalin. Within the limits of a land of a stratum continental molasse are reshaped in depressions of two types.
The first type encompasses areas of upbuilding of gravel sediments in apron plains of the rivers. The serials of the pulled together sedimentary apron plains separated by small watersheds form more area of sedimentation. The thickness of formations in such depressions is significant - up to 50 m.
The second type of sedimentary depressions aggregates basins and bending flexures with the close set overlying strata, well advanced on the significant floor space of deposits. As a rule, it is basins developed the thickest molasse is inherited with geosynclinal stage 300 m. Volcanics of the Central field here reaches 100m - is located basically on the floor space of the median -Kamchatka massive and has basalt structure. East volcanic field distinguishes the significant contents of acid rocks, explosive nature volcanics.
3.2.1. Anadyr basin
Anadyr oil-and-gas-bearing basin occupies on land of lower Anadyr lowland. In the administrative regard, this territory is referred to Anadyr and Bering areas.
Figure 3.1, Anadyr Basin a Tectonic schema;
- b stratigraphy and formation structure of a jacket.
1 - exits of folded basement on surface; 2 - igneous formations of Mesozoic age; 3, 4 - boundary: 8 - basins, 4 - large structural members inside of basin; 5 - iso-height of a base surface of a sedimentary jacket, km; 6 - tectonic disturbances; 7 - patterns taking place in boring and prepared for boring (1 - West Lake, 2 -Yagel'naya, 3 - Izmennaya, 4 - Rotary, 5 -Mejninuksk, 6 -Izmajlovsk, 7 - East - lake); 8 - revealed patterns; 9 - field: ? - oil, - gas, gas condensate; 10 - appearance in wells: and - oil, - gas, in - gas condensate.
Structural members inside of basin. 1 - Krasnoozersk basin; II-VII - bending flexures: II - Kanchalansk - Onemensk, III - Predrarytkinsky, IV - Central, V - Majnitsk, VI - Limansk, VII - Lagoon; VIII-XII - upheaval: VIII - Kargonajsk, IX - Dionisiya, X - Ozerninsk, XI - Chirynajsk, XII - Tymninsko -Tumansk; PT Povorotno - Telekajskaya zone of anticlinal patterns.
Fields.1 -VerhneEchinsk; 2 - Verhnetelekajsk.
Chukotsky, is an autonomous district of the Magadan area. The basin represents an intermountain a basin, in western continental part overlapped on the dislocated Jurassic-chalk basis. From the south, the basin is bounded to Koryak anticlinorium, from west - Rarytkinsk, from north - patterns of Chukotsky bow system (fig. 3.1).
On land, the basin is traced west-to-east on 200-225 kms, from north on the south on 200 kms. Its floor space 26,4 thousand km2. Flow arguments of a basin results in tab. 3.1.
On territory of a basin the works of KMPV were conducted a gravimetric and aeromagnetic filming, with the purpose of areal learning of a relief surface of the foundation and its interior constitution. Abroad between a physical jacket and physical foundation the refracting boundary F, put together with a roof lower of chalk depositions was accepted structural boring has shown impossibility of stratigraphic identifying of boundary "F", and in 1967 these works ceased.
THE TABLE 3.1
The basic arguments of Anadyr and Penzhinsk basins
The boring has shown impossibility of stratigraphic identifying of boundary "F", and in 1967, these works were ceased. The experienced works of MOV were delivered in 1960. In 1964, this method is basic for areal studies and for opening-up of patterns for boring. The method is effective enough up to depths 2,0-2,5 kms. The studies of MOV learned well the Neogene complex, Paleogene terrigenous is worse - and practically is nothing learned by Paleogene effusives and chalk. In 1960s and beginning 1970 years, the basic works were ordered in the central basin part, and then were displaced to western part and on the south.
In 1980s, all works were concentrated in the south basin, in the Majnitsk bending flexure.
Since 1981, seismographic of work are executed under the method of application of OGT and partially NP of OGT. MOGT has revealed discrepancies in the earlier held constructing on horizons in middle - bottom Eocene, Paleogene and chalk depositions the local patterns of the south and central part of Anadyr basin were refresher courses in deep drilling. Gravity network of MOGT was prepared in 1981-1986. Patterns achieves four kms / km2. The Electro-trial of works on territory south of Anadyr basin was conducted in 1977 and 1982-1985.
Within the limits of land, Anadyr basin is drilled one important hole (depth 2,550m), 15 structural (mean depth 1058 m), 18 parametric (mean depth 2527m) and 12 exploration wells (mean depth 2200 m).
Core drilling was conducted in 1962-1966, 1970-1975 and 1982, in the central part of Anadyr basin for binding profiles of KMPV and MOV, and parametric - in 1969-1980.
Also, encompassed territory of the central and southern parts of Anadyr basin (one skv. R-19 is drilled on Vahrushkinsk area, in its northern part).
Prospect drilling is carried out since 1980 and Telekaisky zone (southern part of the basin) is wholly massed on patterns of Povorotno- Telekaisky. Depths of wells varied from 1602 to 3007m.
The foundation for friable chalk - Cenozoic depositions - are complex dislocated Mesozoic and, probably, Paleozoic formations observed on upheavals, framing the Anadyr basin. The heterogeneous nature of its constitution is supposed.
In the south of this basin the foundation are the bowed formations of Jurassic-chalk rocks, in north - igneous depositions chalk.
The most ancient formations of the foundation open wells (East - Lake area), are by tufaceous sandstones with hardpans of tuff both tuffite and overlying strata of andesite-basalts basal- chalk [13, 60]. In seismic survey of MOGT, these depositions are allocated on East - Lake and West - Lake upheavals on depths 1,3 - 1,7 kms. In boundary with these upheavals bending flexures these horizons occurrence are deeper 5-6 kms. On a survey profile of MTZ held through Majnitsk bending flexure in its middle part, the availability of friable depositions up to depth of 10 kms is supposed.
The stratigraphic schema of depositions jacketing Anadyr basin repeatedly vary. We adhere to alternative proposed by D. I. Agapitovym in 1982. In a jacket the following suites (from below upslope) are allocated: Amochinsk and Rarytkinsk (K2) by drilling discovery a thickness up to 2400m; Tanjurersk (Pal 1-Pal 2) - up to 2041m; mouth - Chirynajsk (Pal 2) 0-527m; Majnitsk (Pal 2-3) 0-2200m; Sobol'kovsk (N11) - up to 1450m; Gagarinsk strata (N11) up to 1447m; Avtatkul'sk (N12)58-285m; Eliseevsk (N12) 70-330m; Ozerninsk (N1 2-3) -151-587m, Echinsk suite and Aleksandrovsk stratum (N13 - N2) - 277 - 780 m (fig. 3.1).
Thus, the total thickness of the sedimentary jacket changes from five up to 13 kms. However its substantial thickness, in many respects depending from an extent of fluid wash of this or that suite, compounds from 1,3 kms on East - Lake upheaval located in the central part of a hollow, up to 7 - 8 kms in Majnitsk bending flexure.
In a sedimentary jacket, three complexes divided by unconformity surfaces are allocated.
The bottom complex includes terrigenous depositions upper chalk (late Cenonian - Danish), sediments on igneous lower chalk depositions with an unconformable dip.
The thickness demonstrated by boring the complex exceeds 1 km, on the data of MTZ in the central part of Majnitsk bending flexure it can achieve three kms.
The mean complex includes igneous formations of Tanjurersk suite and terrigenous - Ust'- Chirynajsk and Majnitsk of suites. Complex thickness (1,5 - 3,0 kms) and its structure are changeable. The igneous depositions of Tanjurersk suite are advanced only in north of Anadyr basin and edge away to the south. The terrigenous depositions Ust'- Chirynajsk and Majnitsk suites are advanced in the central and southern parts and edge away to north and east.
Upper complex occurrence is by fluid wash on deposition over the middle and bottom of various suites. This complex comprise itself Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary depositions. As a whole, the upper sedimentary complex is more sustained on thickness, than lay below. Nevertheless, the thickness of its separate parts is inflected by significant limits. The bottom depositions - Middle Miocene (Sobol'kovsk, Gagarinsk, Avtatkul'sk) are absent in north of Anadyr basin. And, on a large part of other territory of their thickness compound 200 - 300m, growing more than in 10 times in Majnitsk and, probably, in the Central bending flexures.
The formations mid-upper Miocene (Eliseevsk and Ozerninsk of suite) are abundant everywhere within the limits the basin.
Their maximum thickness of 750 - 832m are marked in Majnitsk bending flexure and on East - Lake Upheaval. The depositions of upper Miocene and Pliocene Quaternary (Echinsk and Aleksandrovsk of suite) are advanced everywhere, their mean thickness is 500 - 600m.
Anadyr basin is anisometric (single ended) patterns with - steeper southern bead and flat by northern. In its constitution the following patterns II about are allocated (west-to-east): Krasnoozersk, Kanchalansk -Onemensk, Predrarytkinsk, Central, Limansk, Majnitsk, and "Lagoon" bending flexures;
Kargonajsk, Dionisiya, Chirynajsk, Ozerninsk, Tymninsk-Tumansk upheaval.
The form of these patterns is largely supervised by patterns of the foundation. Practically all of them are located on embedded under formations of jacket continuations of large patterns of a frame. The upheaval of Dionisiya is continuation Zolotogorsk anticlinal, Kargonajsk - Rarytkinsk -- anticlinal. Chirynajsk and Ozerninsk upheaval are located on submergence of Tamvatnejsk anticlinoria. Predrarytkinsk and Majnitsk bending flexures are located on submergence accordingly Velikorechensk and Kerkerveemsk of sinclinoria.
These patterns are subdivided into more small-sized. So, in the most learnt pattern II about - Majnitsk bending flexure are allocated with Majnitsk, Oleninsk and Flowing Mul'dy and sectioning them Povorotno - Telekajsk zone of anticlinal patterns
In Predrarytkinsk bending flexure - Podgornensky both Velikorechensk Mul'dy and sectioning them Ust'- Chirynajsk upheaval.
The local patterns of mapped horizon are affirmed by a reflection seismic by MOGT and 14 by boring. They are abundant on the floor space non-uniformly; their basic part is massed on Ozerninsk upheaval and in Povorotno-Telekajsk zone. The floor space of local patterns changes from 3-7km2 up to 75 km2, but mainly from 17 up to 38 km2. Angle of leans of wings from 4-5o up to 30-33o. The amplitude of patterns is from 50-60m up to 800m, more commonly 100-200m.
Patterns of cartography on horizons in depositions mid-upper Miocene and less often than lower Miocene, Oligocene, upper chalk. For "beskornevyh" patterns south of Povorotno-Telekajsk zone introduced a two-dome of brachia-anticlinal folds (upper Echinsk, upper Telekajsk). The amplitudes, offset of the set of rules to north and north-west, decay with depth of explosive disturbances are characteristic decrease with depth of the floor space, angle of leans of wings. Northeast part of Povorotno - Telekajsk of zone is formed by linear anticlinal folds (Mejninuksk, Povorotno, Izmennaya) Subshirotno and width of a direction of strata. Along of set of rules of such patterns, there passes a system of over thrusts by amplitude from several tens meters up to 1.1 kms, on which one north Apadna and northern the parts of patterns are pulled on southern for elongated folds. The magnification with depth of their floor spaces and amplitudes is characteristic; the angle of leans of wings compound 25-35o. Upslope on a cut-away of pattern; observed their set of rules is offset to a southwest.
In Neogene depositions by strata of fluid deposition, report arenaceous sandstones and siltstones of bottom of Echinsk suite (Lignitova member) and Eliseevsk suite. Good collective properties have the sandstones waterborne both Avtatkul'sk suites and Gagarinsk stratum [Ivanov V.V. et al, 1975].
In Paleogene depositions of fluid are the argillaceous sediments lower Majnitsk horizon, headers - sandstones both siltstones upper Majnitsk and middle Majnitsk horizon and Ust'- Chirynajsk suite. The latter is observed only in the central part of the basin.
The upper chalk depositions opened in individual wells, and in rather minor amounts, that does not produce an opportunity with sufficient completeness to characterize their collective property. They are introduced as inter-layering of sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and coal, among which one the sandstones and siltstones with satisfactory collective by properties are sometimes observed.
The indication of oils and gas are observed on all cut-away Mesozoic-Cenozoic, observed by wells. Industrial oil inflows are received from a 25m bench of sandstone (depths 1400 - 1500m), Avtatkul'sk, taking place in top of oil horizon, of suite Upper Echinsk field. The oil flowrate achieves 26m3/day (on choke diameter of 10 mm). On nearby patterns (Upper Telekajsk) these depositions are also oil and gas bearing, but not in commercial quantities.
Four benches of sandstone from Sobol'kovsk of suite at rate of 177 m3/day are industrially oil-bearing (oil producing).
The commercial inflow of gas and gas condensate are received from a 100--m bench of calcareous sandstone of a roof of Sobol'kovsk of suite (from depths 1700 - 1800m) Upper Telekajsk of gas condensate field. At trial in a string the gas by a rate of yield up to 136.57 thousand-m3/day and gas condensate by a maximum rate of yield, 7.8 m3/day (choke diameter of 10 mm) is received. From the basis of a bench, the inflow of local water is received.
Significant inflow of gas (4-20 thousand m3/day) was observed from a bench of arenaceous sandstone - Echinsk suite - and from an inter-layering of sandstones and siltstones in top of oil horizon lacustrine of suite upper Echinsk pattern. The inflow of gas is received by a rate of yield of 19 thousand m3/day (on choke diameter 9 mm) from depositions of Gagarinsk stratum from depths 900-1140m upper Telekajsk pattern.
Minute oil inflows and significant inflow of gas (up to 100 thousand m3/day) were observed from sandstones in top of oil horizon and in a base surface upper Majnitsk horizon on Sobol'kovsk, Rotary and Juchinsk patterns (from depth 1600-2400 m). The oil inflows and gas condensate from middle Majnitsk horizon on Izmennoj pattern have compounded 400 m3/day (from depths 2034-2810 m).
Minute oil inflows (about 0,8 m3/day) are received from a member of an inter-layering of siltstones and sandstones of Rarytkinsk suite upper chalk on West - Lake pattern (from depth 2253-2270 m).
Underground waters of chalk depositions lightly cemented, with mineralizing 1,2-8,0 g/l, sodium hydrocarbonate of a type, hydrocarbonic - sodium chloride and hydrocarbonaceous sodic of structure.
Underground waters of Paleogene depositions, opened by wells, located near to coast, were saline, with mineralizing 18 - 20 g/l, calcium chloride type, and sodium chloride structure. At center of the basin, on Sobol'kovsk floor space, on depths 2700-2980 m opened of water with mineralizing 5,0 - 8,8 g/l, sodium hydro carbonate type. Further to the south, on the Rotary area, the mineralizing of underground waters is again augmented, reaching 17.55 g/l, water calcium chloride of a type. The contents of chloride of calcium in them achieves 55 % -ekv.
The underground waters of Miocene depositions are very miscellaneous both on mineralizing, and on chemical composition. Waters open up at shallow depths (up to 1 km), are infill transitional to marine. Their mineralizing reaches 30 g/l, contents of micro-reductants heightened (iodine up to 51, bromine up to 64,2 mg/l), Water calcium chloride type, chloride of magnesium, alkaline-sodium and chloride calcium-sodium structure. For more deep levels in Neogene depositions, the water is less mineralized (up to 12 g/l) calcium chloride type. To oil and oil/gas to containing benches of Miocene are dated calcium chloride waters such as with mineralizing from 2 (VerhneEchinsk field) up to 12 g/l (Verhnetelekajsk).
Gas structure of underground waters up to depths of 1-km nitric-hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon (methane). More deeply, 1 km, in zone stagnant water of an interchange, occurs TUV. With depth, their quantity is augmented, and Nitrogen content in gas is moderated.
On the data V. V. Ivanov and V. E. Glotov , the sweet waters dive into mineral resources of Anadyr basin up to depths 0.3 – 0.4 kms. The zone of slowed water interchange encompasses upper Miocene of deposition and 1.5 kms reach depths 1.2-1.5 km. The zone of rather slow water interchange encompasses upper-middle Eocene, Eocene-Oligocene and Cenonian complexes. This zone occupies depths of more than 1.5 kms. It is also characterized by conditions favorable for conservation of ancient sedimentary waters.
In a cross section jacket of the Anadyr basin, three floors of oil/gas generation are allocated: upper (Miocene), mean (Eocene-Oligocene) and bottom (upper chalk).
The upper floor includes depositions of Miocene, partially Pliocene, and is observed on all territory of the basin. In its limits, is allocated a little under the floor. From depositions lacustrine and Echinsk suites (upper under the floor) the significant inflow of gas on patterns of Povorotno-Telekajsk zone of upheavals, Ozerninsk upheaval and in column wells sparse on all territory basin are received. Mean under a floor encompasses depositions of Avtatkul'sk suite (bottom - mid-Miocene), oil-and-gas bearing on patterns of Povorotno-Telekajsk zone, Ozerninsk and Chirynajsk upheavals.
Two bottoms under a floor encompass depositions (bottom Miocene) and Sobol'kovsk of suites (bottom Miocene), oil-and-gas bearing on patterns of Povorotno-Telekajsk of zone and is perspective oil-and-gas bearing on all territory of Majnitsk of a bending flexure.
The mean floor includes depositions of top of Majnitsk suite (Eocene-Oligocene), oil-and-gas bearing on south territory of the basin. The large inflow of gas, oil inflows and gas condensate are received on patterns of Povorotno - Telekajsk of zone and Central bending flexure.
The bottom oil-and-gas-bearing floor includes the upper chalk depositions opened only in the central basin part on patterns of Ozerninsk upheaval. The oil inflows here are received only from one well (P-15) on West - Lake Upheaval.
In Anadyrsk basin of operated oilfields and the gas is not present. However, per the last years are opened by VerhneEchinsk oil and Verhnetelekajsk of oil/gas-condensate field. The basic types of traps are arched and tectonic screened. Valuing the nature of a cross section, it is possible to expect discovery of lithologic and stratigraphic traps. All wells with significant oil inflows, gas condensate and gas, are located in the set of rules of patterns (Upper Echinsk skv. 9, 13, 16; upper Telekajsk skv. 1, 2); near to large explosive disturbances (Izmennaya skv. 11, Rotary skv. 26), in under oncoming to zone (Rotary skv. 25).
3.2.2. Penzhinsk basin
The basin occupies depressions r. Penzhinsk and mean current r. Anadyr. The southern part of basin administratively enters the Kamchatka area, northern - Magadan. Penzhinsk basin is introduced an intermountain by a bending flexure of the same name. Length of basin up to 525, width, 55-90 km; the floor space 25,2 thousand km2. In northwest and north, it borders on Murgal'sk by upheaval, on southeast - with Talovsko-Majnskim. In southwestern direction, the basin is traced up to Penzhinsk lip (fig. 3.2). The tectonic arguments are given in tab. 3.1.
The constitution of basin is poorly known. On territory the Electro-trial of works (MTZ and VjuZ) and seven profiles of KMPV communal stretch more than 350 km are held average staff geologic, gravimetric and magnetic filming, in the south of a bending flexure: In north bending flexure, in southeast part of Markovsk basin in 1976-1980. The reflection seismic is implemented. In total is held 1980 km of profiles (for Markovsk of a hollow gravity of seismic-profile 0,3 km/km2). In 1980-1981, In Markovsk basin the parametric well (Grinevetsk 40) depth 2645 m is drilled. Now in basin, the explorations are not conducted.
The foundation of basin are difficulty discuss of deposition Valanshin-Goterivsk age in northeast part of bending flexure and alt-Albian - in southwestern. The maximum occurrence depth of the foundation (on gravimetric data) compounds more than 6 kms for a northeast part of basin (Markovsk basin) and 3-4 kms for southwestern (Chernorechensk, Kondyrevsk, Ust' - Penzhinsk basin). On the data of Electro seismic survey of KMPV of an occurrence depth of the foundation, compound 2.5-3.0 kms for southwestern areas of basin. On upheavals sectioning hollow, the foundation is on depths in some hundreds meters.
The jacket of basin is folded upper chalk depositions and insignificant smaller extent of Cenozoic. Upper Albian-Cenonian deposition is introduced formations bottom molasse group and differs by a variety of structures (from marine up to paralicheskih carbonic and continental). Their cross section thickness' of a frame changes from 1.5 in southwest) to 5.8 kms (in northeast), considerably varying at the expense of truncations in sedimentation and fluid washes, especially between Turonian and Cenonian formations (fig. 3.2).