Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles_BLay Saints 
Miracles
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1250-1350(?) Blessed Peter Ghisengi many miracles were reported at his tomb OSA (AC).
(also known as Peter of Gubbio) Born at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy; died c. 1250-1350(?); cultus confirmed by Pope Pius IX. Blessed Peter was a scion of the distinguished Ghisleni family. He became an Augustinian hermit and later the provincial of his congregation. He is venerated at Gubbio, where his relics rest and where many miracles were reported at his tomb (Attwater2, Benedictines).

1250? BD PETER OF GUBBIO
No particulars have been preserved about the life of Bd Peter, a member of the Ghisengi family of Gubbio, who joined the Brictinian Hermits of St Augustine and is said to have become provincial. Attention was directed to him because of the wonders which were reported to have taken place at his tomb. During the night office a voice was heard chanting the alternate verses of the Te Deum, and when the community traced the sound and discovered that it proceeded from the vault where he was buried, they found his body in a kneeling posture with open mouth and joined hands. It was translated to a more honourable resting-place, where it remained incorrupt. Hence pilgrims, even from distant places, flocked to Gubbio to venerate his relics. The last translation of his body took place in 1666. Pope Pius IX confirmed his cultus.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii.
14th v. Silvanus (Silouan) of the Kiev CavesThe Holy Schemamonk, zealously preserved purity of both soul and body; subdued his flesh with fasting and vigils, and he cleansed his soul with prayer and meditation on God:  Lord granted him an abundance of spiritual gifts: a prayerful boldness towards God, constant joy in the Lord, clairvoyance and wonderworking
1300 Nov 07 BD MATTHIA OF MATELICA, VIRGIN Miracles incorrupt in 1756; Miracles became so frequent at her grave that the body was soon moved to a tomb beside the high altar of the chapel, where her veneration was continued without interrup­tion. In 1756 the tomb had to be moved on account of repairs, and the Bishop of Camerino took the opportunity to examine the relics; the body was found to be incorrupt and giving off a pleasant smell. It was re-enshrined under the altar of St Cecilia, and since then miracles have again been reported there.
1300 April 26 Blesseds Dominic & Gregory Dominican preachers died in cavein cave surrounded by lights and angelic music
        Miracles surrounded burials and tombs at Besians diocese of Barbastro  OP (AC)
1301 Bd James Of Bevagna Auf 23 St Dominic appeared to him and said, "Do it! According to God's will I choose
        you, and will be ever with you ".
1302 February 17 BD ANDREW OF ANAGNI was held in great veneration both in life and after death for the miracles
        he was believed to work

1304 BD RAINERIUS OF AREZZO Nov 12 town had an altar set up in his honour record kept of attributed Miracles
1304 July 07 Blessed Benedict XI, OP Pope he had "a vast store of knowledge, a prodigious memory, a penetrating genius, and (that) everything about him endeared him to all." In 1295, he received the degree of master of theology As papal legate Nicholas travelled to Hungary to try to settle a civil war there He worked to reconcile warring parties in Europe and the Church and to increase spirituality. His reign, short though it was, was noted for its leniency and kindness Many miracles were performed at his tomb, and there were several cures even before his burial (RM)

1305 Saint Nicholas of Tolentino Patron of Holy Souls in Purgatory, and, with St. Joseph, Patron of the Universal
        Church hundreds of miracles.
1306 BD CONRAD OF OFFIDA; is said to have had the same guardian angel as St Francis, and to have often conversed with him about the seraphic founder; the chief companion of his life was Bd Peter of Treja, who accompanied him in his preaching journeys and was present in the woods on that Candlemas-day when our Lady appeared to Conrad and laid the Child Jesus in his arms; “marvellous zealot of gospel poverty and of the Rule of St Francis, of so religious a life and so deserving before God that Christ, the Blessed One, honoured him in life and in death with many miracles”.
1306 July 23 Blessed Jane of Orvieto a Dominican tertiary her life was one of unwearied devotion to God, attention to the poor; it was known that she bore particular good will towards those who were unkind to her, doing penance for their sins; miracles would happen after her death
1307 St. Albert of Trapani miracles; aug 7 Carmelite hermit and missionary entered a monastic hermitage near Messina where he successfully devoted himself to the conversion of the Jews
Messanæ, in Sicília, sancti Alberti Confessóris, ex Ordine Carmelitárum, miráculis clari.     At Messina in Sicily, St. Albert, confessor of the Carmelite Order, renowned for miracles.
1307  JANE of Segna nov 17 Shepherdess in her youth. Tertiary solitary 40 years; Her reputa­tion for miracles was great, and people came from all the surrounding country to consult her and bring their sick and afflicted. Immediately after her death on November 9, 1307, a cultus sprang up, which was greatly enhanced in 1348 by the attribution of a sudden cessation of an epidemic to her intercession.
1309 April 26 Bl. Angela of Foligno Franciscan tertiary and mystic Many miracles  January 08
1310 St. Alexis Falconieri Founder mystic 1233 on the Feast of the Assumption group experienced a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary
1312 BD CHRISTINA. OF STOMMELN, VIRGIN; dying at the age of seventy, in 1312, with a great reputation of sanctity. Thirty years after her relics were translated to Niedeggen   in the Eifel, and again in 1569 to Jülich, where they still repose and receive the veneration of the people. Nor does anything which has been said above reflect on the credit of Bd Christina or suggest that that veneration is misplaced; for heroic virtue, which is the condition of holiness, is entirely independent of abnormal physical phenomena or extraordinary divine favours, and the first of these are not inconsistent with a life far from holy. The Holy See has recognized that the evidence touching the personal virtue of Bd Christina justifies the continuation of her age-long local cultus.
1314 Aug 19  Blessed Emily Bicchieri; frequent ecstasies, visions, miracles.
1315 Blessed Ubald Adimari converted by Saint Philip Benizi, who admitted him to the Servite institute model to
        penitent souls OSM (AC)

1315 St. Andrew Dotti Sep 3 mystic granted visions Servite missionary; He was buried in the church at Borgo San Sepolcro, where the popular veneration for his holiness was confirmed by miracles, and in 1806 Pope Pius VII approved the ancient cultus.
1315 Dec 14 Bd Bonaventure Buonaccorsi; a leader of the Ghibellines and notorious as a desperate character. This Bonaventure was so moved by St Philip’s exhortations to peace and concord that he went to him and accused himself of being a prominent fomenter of disorder and a cause of much misery and injustice. So penitent was he that he asked to be admitted among the Servite friars; even in his lifetime he was known as il Beato, and miracles were reported both before and after his death
1315 June 10 Bd Henry of Treviso; 276 miracles, wrought by his relics, recorded within days of death by notaries appointed by the magistrates: they occupy thirty-two closely printed columns of the Acta Sanctorum.
1317 April 20 St. Agnes of Montepulciano april 20 Nun foundress in Tuscany noted for visions (of Christ the Blessed
         Virgin and angels) levitations performed miracles for the faithful (1435 - incorrupt)
1319 Blessed Simon Ballachi nov 3 Dominican lay-brother at age 27 visitors came to him in the silence of the night: Saint Catherine of Alexandria, to whom he had a special devotion, Saint Dominic and Saint Peter Martyr, and sometimes the Blessed Virgin herself. His little cell was radiant with heavenly lights, and sometimes angelic voices could be heard within OP (AC)
1319 March 12 Blessed Justina Bezzoli Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and  still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death
1320 April 13 Blessed Margaret of Città di Castello born blind abandoned then adopted very holy favored with
        heavenly visions;  many miracles V (AC)
1322 April 20 Blessed Simon Rinalducci famous preacher; Bd Simon died at Bologna many cures took place at his
        tomb.
OSA (AC) BD SIMON OF TODI
1322 Bd John Of Alvernia; frequent ecstasies and visions of our Lord and saints; on All Souls' day while offering Mass he saw numberless souls released from Purgatory; for 3 months he was conscious of his guardian angel, who conversed with him.
1323 August 03 Blessed Augustine Gazotich of Lucera fought the Manichæen heresy; in Sicily, Islam; in Hungary both Several charming miracles are related OP B (AC)
1325 Sainted Nikodim, Archbishop of Serbia, was hegumen of the Khilendaria monastery elevated to the dignity of
        bishop in 1316 translated into the Slavonic language and ordered into use in Serbia the Typikon (Ustav) of Saint
        Sava the Sanctified, of Jerusalem  wonderworking relics
1331 February 03 BD ODORIC OF PORDENONE IT would not be easy to find in secular literature a more
        adventurous career than that of the Franciscan Friar Odoric of Pordenone. Miracle worker

1333 May 13 Blessed Imelda Lambertini patron of first communicants died of love on her first Communion day Saint Agnes came in a vision she saw a brilliant light shining above Imelda's head, and a Host suspended in the light OP V (AC)
1336 July 08 St. Elizabeth of Portugal exercises of piety, including daily Mass, but also through her exercise of charity, by which she was able to befriend and help pilgrims, strangers, the sick, the poor—in a word, all those whose need came to her notice
Stremótii, in Lusitánia, natális sanctæ Elísabeth Víduæ, Lusitanórum Regínæ, quam, virtútibus et miráculis claram, Urbánus Octávus, Póntifex Máximus, in Sanctórum númerum rétulit.  Ejus tamen celébritas octávo Idus mensis hujus recólitur, ex dispositióne Innocéntii Papæ Duodécimi.
    At Estremos in Portugal, the birthday of St. Elizabeth the Widow, queen of Portugal, whom Pope Urban VIII, mindful of her virtues and miracles, placed among the number of the saints.  Pope Innocent XII ordered her feast to be kept on the 8th of July.
1336 March 20 Blessed Maurice Csaky earnest, pious priest gift of prophecy; miracles of healing reported at his grave OP (PC)
1338 Saint Daniel of Serbia gift of wonderworking and healing  built  Ascension of the Lord at Dechani the finest
        Christian monuments in Serbia
1338 Blessed James Benfatti Nov 26 a master in theology and a holy priest & Bishop; 150 years after his death, when
        repairs were being made in the church where he was buried, an accident opened his tomb, and people were
       startled to find his body completely incorrupt. Again in 1604, the same phenomenon was noted.
 worked many
        miracles among his flock. At his death in 1338, many remarkable miracles occurred
OP B (AC)
1338 Anna of Kashin The Holy Right-believing Princess; withdrew into Tver's Sophia monastery and accepted tonsure with the name Euphrosyne. Later, she transferred to the Kashin Dormition monastery, and became a schemanun with the name Anna; Miracles at St Anna's grave began in 1611
1340 June 19 St Juliana Falconieri birth answer to prayers of old childless couple they built magnificent church Annunciation at Florence founded Third Order of Servites; Austere. zealous. charitable. sympathetic to all, OSM V (RM)
Floréntiæ sanctæ Juliánæ Falconériæ Vírginis, quæ Sorórum Ordinis Servórum beátæ Maríæ Vírginis fuit Institútrix, et a Cleménte Duodécimo, Pontífice Máximo, in sanctárum Vírginum númerum reláta est.
    At Florence, St. Juliana Falconieri, virgin, foundress of the Sisters of the Order of the Servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who was placed among the holy virgins by the Sovereign Pontiff, Clement XII.
1342 Antony (Kukley) Eustace (Nizilon) and John (Milhey) martyred for their faith relics found incorrupt MM (AC)
1343 May 04 Blessed Gregory Celli monk  received by the Franciscans of Monte Carnerio, near Rieti, OSA (AC)
1343 June 23 Blessed Thomas Corsini a Servite lay-brother, who spent his live collecting alms for the abbey. He was favored by many visions (Benedictines), OSM (AC).
1345 May 01 Peregrine Laziosi received a vision of Our Lady who told him to go to Siena, Italy, and there to join the
        Servites  healed by Jesus incorrupt fervant preacher, excellent orator, and gentle confessor
1345 BD GERARD CAGNOLI cult to this follower of St Francis confirmed 1908; simplicity and devotion admiration of all; many miracles of healing before a little shrine of his patron St Louis; assisted cooking by angel; ecstasy levitating
1347 St. Flora oct 5  Patron abandoned converts single laywomen betrayal victims many miracles worked & at her tomb
1348 June 09 Blessed Silvester Ventura age of 40 he joined the Camaldolese at Santa Maria degli Angeli at Florence as a lay brother cook favored with ecstasies heavenly visions, angels were wont to come and cook for him spiritual advice was in great demand, OSB Cam. (AC)
1348 BD SILVESTER OF VALDISEVE
1350 Bd John Of Rieti; Aug 9; joined Hermits of St Augustine (Austin friars) at Rieti ever at the service of his neighbour, especially sick, strangers, delighted to wait on guests who came to the monastery; spent long hours in contemplation; especially valued opportunities provided serving Mass in friary church; for loving converse with God; had gift of tears, not only for his own faults but for those of others; when walking in the garden he would say, "How can one not weep? For we see all around us trees and grass and flowers and plants germinating, growing, producing their fruit, and dying back again into the earth in accordance with the laws of their Creator: while men, to whom God has given a reasoning intelligence and the promise of a transcendent reward, continually oppose His will." his holy life and the miracles taking place at his tomb were the cause of a cultus which persisted
1350 January 28 BD ANTONY OF AMANDOLA commended for his patience and for his charity towards the poor,
        and a great number of miracles are reported to have been wrought at his intercession

1350 Chukhloma Icon of the Mother of God of Galich appeared in the year 1350 to St Abraham of Galich, who came
      there from the north
1350 St. Francis of Pesaro Aug 13; miracle worker known for his holiness. He founded the Confraternity of Mercy, a
         hospice
Franciscan tertiary of Pesaro, Italy.
1358 Jan 06 BD GERTRUDE OF DELFT, VIRGIN stigmata knowledge of people’s thoughts, distant and future events
1361 May 29 BD PETER PETRONI he is said to have been favoured by God with marvellous graces and with
        preternatural knowledge
; wonders reported at his tomb threatened to disrupt the peace of the monastery so they
        ceased.

1365 Mar 02 BD HENRY SUSO have preached for thirty-seven years, converting many sinners and working miracles
1366 May 22 Hemming of Finland canon of Abo cathedral in Helsinki bring peace to the Hundred Years War between England and France and to end the Avignon papacy; miracles were reported at his tomb BM.
1367 April 17 Blessed James of Cerqueto Many miracles occurred at his tomb OSA (AC)
1367 March 01 Bd Roger Le Fort, Archbishop Of Bourges immediately after death tomb a place of pilgrimage many
        miracles worked.

1367 March 23 Blessed Sibyllina Biscossi blind (at 12) but saw Saint Dominic in ecstasy worked MANY GOOD
        miracles an anchorite for 67 years OP Tert. (AC)

1370 Blessed Pope Urban Dec 19 deeply spiritual Benedictine monk canon lawyer reformer
1373 Jan 06 St. Andrew Corsini regarded as prophet and thaumaturgus; miracles were so multiplied at his death that
        Eugenius IV permitted a public cult immediately
His feast is kept on 4 February.
1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards  OP M (AC) His tomb was the scene of miracles
1377 Bl. Villana hideous demon in mirror wonderful visions olloquies our Lady and saints gift of prophecy
1378 St Rocks born at Montpellier; nursed sick during a plague in Italy; performed many miracles when dead and alive
1379 ST JOHN OF BRIDLINGTON Many miracles wrought through his intercession
1380 February 25 St. Aventanus; Carmelite, mystic lay brother, gift of ecstasies, miracles, and visions
1380 April 29, 30 St. Catherine of Siena illiterate; one of the most brilliant theological minds of her day mystical experiences when only 6 visions of Christ Mary and the saints gift of healing Stigmata visible after her death Doctor of the Church
1380 Blessed John of Vallumbrosa monk;  Saint Catherine of Siena, often appeared to him, OSB Vall. (AC)
1387 BD PETER OF LUXEMBURG, BISHOP OF METZ AND CARDINAL "Contempt of the world, contempt of yourself: rejoice in your own contempt, but despise no other person."  tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage, miracles were reported there, and he was eventually beatified, by the true Pope Clement VII, in 1527. Bd Peter was only eighteen at his death.
1392 Saint Demetrius of Priluki, Wonderworker combined prayer and strict asceticism with kindliness fed the poor and hungry  took in strangers conversed with those in need of consolation gave counsel loved to pray in solitude Miracles from the relics began in 1409
1392 January 19 Blessed Nicholas Konchanov, Novgorod Fool-for-Christ; July 27 The Lord glorified Blessed Nicholas
        with the gift of miracles and clairvoyance
.

1300 BD MATTHIA OF MATELICA, VIRGIN Miracles incorrupt in 1756; Miracles became so frequent at her grave that the body was soon moved to a tomb beside the high altar of the chapel, where her veneration was continued without interrup­tion. In 1756 the tomb had to be moved on account of repairs, and the Bishop of Camerino took the opportunity to examine the relics; the body was found to be incorrupt and giving off a pleasant smell. It was re-enshrined under the altar of St Cecilia, and since then miracles have again been reported there.
AT the town of Matelica in the March of Ancona there is a monastery of Poor Clare nuns whose origin is said to go back to about the year 1233, when St Clare was still living; this ancient convent was dedicated in honour of St Mary Magdalene, but since 1758 has been known as Bd Matthia’s. This beata was born in Matelica about the same time as the convent was founded, the only child of Count Gentile Nazzarei, who naturally wished his daughter to marry and perpetuate his house. She, however, was called to be a nun and offered herself to the abbess of Santa Maria Maddalena, who was related to Count Gentile and refused to receive her without her father’s consent. According to an old tradition Matthia thereupon went into the convent chapel, changed her secular clothes for a religious habit, cut off her hair, and there offered herself to Christ before a crucifix. Count Gentile found her thus, and was reluctantly persuaded to give his permission. Nothing is known of the life in religion of Bd Matthia except vague generalities. She filled the office of abbess for forty years, and died on December 28, 1300. Miracles became so frequent at her grave that the body was soon moved to a tomb beside the high altar of the chapel, where her veneration was continued without interrup­tion. In 1756 the tomb had to be moved on account of repairs, and the Bishop of Camerino took the opportunity to examine the relics; the body was found to be incorrupt and giving off a pleasant smell. It was re-enshrined under the altar of St Cecilia, and since then miracles have again been reported there. In particular, the body is said to have exuded from time to time a sweet-smelling, blood-like liquid, especially when a member of the community is going to die. The cultus of Bd Matthia was confirmed in 1765. It must be added that it is said by some that the Matelica convent was founded for Benedictine nuns and became Franciscan only after the lifetime of Bd Matthia, which is put earlier.
Full accounts of the beata are available in nearly all the Franciscan chroniclers. Mazzara commemorates her in June; see the Leggendario Francescano, pt I (1676), pp. 875—876. There are Italian lives by G. Baldassini (1852), and by Vincent de Porto San Giorgio (1877). See also Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. i, pp. 332—338; and cf. A. M. Zimmer­mann, Kalendarium Benedictinum, vol. iii (1937).
1301 Bd James Of Bevagna St Dominic appeared to him and said, "Do it! According to God's will I choose you, and will be ever with you ".
Mevania, now called Bevagna, is a small town in Umbria, and here this James was born in the year 1220, of the family of the Bianconi.  His future holiness was foreshadowed in his childhood, and a reconciliation of the Bianconi to the Alberti, with whom they had quarrelled, was attributed to his youthful prayers.  When he was sixteen, two Dominicans came to Bevagna to preach during Lent, and the boy was attracted by what he heard of the life of the preachers and by their discourses; he considered the matter over and over and when, after his communion on Maundy Thursday, he was saying Psalm 118, the appositeness of the thirty-third verse struck him, "Set before me for a law the way of thy justifications, 0 Lord, and I will always seek after it."  He went to one of the friars and opened his mind, and was recommended to watch all that night before the Blessed Sacrament in the Easter sepulchre, asking for light, and to await the will of God.   This he did, and as he slept on the eve of Holy Saturday St Dominic appeared to him and said,  "Do it! According to God's will I choose you, and will be ever with you".  
  When the friars returned to their house at Spoleto James went with them.  In due course he was given permission to establish a house of his order at Bevagna, of which he became prior.  The neighbourhood gave ample scope for the labours of the friars, and after the town had been sacked by the Emperor Frederick II in 1248 Bd James more than ever endeared himself to the people by his solicitude for them in their misfortunes. This was a time of recrudescence of Manichean errors, and a particularly pestilential sect of antinomians was active in Umbria; James set out to combat it with great energy, and succeeded in inducing one of its leaders to make a public repudiation of his heresy at Orte.  Bd James was very strict in his observance of his vow of poverty, and when his mother gave him some money to buy a new habit, which he badly needed, he got permission from his superior to buy a crucifix for his cell instead.  When his mother saw the worn-out habit again, she remonstrated with him, but he answered with a smile, "I have done as you wished.  St Paul tells us to 'put on the Lord Jesus`, and that is the habit I have bought."  But that crucifix was to clothe him in a way he never thought of, for praying before it one day in great dryness and fear of spirit, almost despairing of his salvation, it is said that a spurt of blood miraculously sprang from the image over his face, and he heard a voice saying, "Behold the sign of your salvation".   Another marvel, reported at his death, is recounted in the notice of Bd Joan of Orvieto, under July 23.  Pope Boniface IX approved the cultus of Bd James of Bevagna.

The Bollandists in giving an account of this beatus (August, vol. iv) deplore, and not without reason, the lack of any early biography.  The narrative of Father Taigi is certainly full of legendary matter neither can one feel any more confidence in the Vita del B. Giacomo Bianconi by Father Piergili (1729) or in that compiled by F. Becchetti or in the summary given in Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints. For a fuller bibliography see Taurisano, pp. 23-24.
14th v. Silvanus (Silouan) of the Kiev CavesThe Holy Schemamonk, zealously preserved purity of both soul and body; subdued his flesh with fasting and vigils, and he cleansed his soul with prayer and meditation on God:  Lord granted him an abundance of spiritual gifts: a prayerful boldness towards God, constant joy in the Lord, clairvoyance and wonderworking
The monk lived at the end of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth centuries. His relics rest in the Caves
1302 BD ANDREW OF ANAGNI was held in great veneration both in life and after death for the miracles he was believed to work
IN the Franciscan supplement to the Roman Martyrology this servant of God is described as “Beatus Andreas de Comitibus”; but it would seem that the more accurate form of his name is Andrea dei Conti di Segni (Andrew of the Counts of Segni). In Mazzara he is called Andrea d’Anagni, from his birthplace. As we learn from these designations he was of noble family, nephew of the Roland Conti who became Pope Alexander IV and a near kinsman of another native of Anagni, Benedict Gaetani, Pope Boniface VIII.

Laying aside all thought of worldly advancement he gave himself to the Order of Friars Minor, in which he remained a simple brother, not even aspiring to the priesthood.

His reputation for holiness was great, and it is probably true that a cardinalate was at some time offered him, and that he definitely declined to be so honoured. Our sources of information, however, do not seem very trustworthy. One is consequently a little disposed to be sceptical about some incidents recounted in the legend of Bd Andrew. For example “Wadding relates that one day when he was ill and unable to take his ordinary food, a friend brought him some roasted birds. The saint, touched with pity at the sight of the innocent creatures, would not eat, but, making the sign of the cross over them, commanded them to resume their feathers and fly away. He was instantly obeyed, and the little birds, restored to life, took flight with chirps of joy” (Leon, i, 134). There is no doubt that Andrew was held in great veneration both in life and after death for the miracles he was believed to work. He breathed his last on February 1, 1302, and his cult us was formally approved in 1724.

See Léon, L’Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. i Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano (1676), vol. i, pp. 155-156.
1300 Blesseds Dominic & Gregory Dominican preachers died in cavein cave surrounded by lights and angelic music Miracles surrounded burials and tombs at Besians diocese of Barbastro  OP (AC)
cultus approved by Pope Pius IX in 1854. Very little is known about these two Dominican preachers. Their legend tells us that they evangelized the mountainous Somontano region of Moorish Spain near Barbastro, Aragon. One day they were caught in a storm as they travelled from one village to another. The storm loosed the rocks of the cave in which they had sought shelter and they were buried in a landslide. The bells of Perarúa rang out of their own accord, indicating that something remarkable was afoot, and villagers, who ventured out after the storm, found the cave surrounded by lights and angelic music. Digging into the rubble, they found the two Dominicans crushed to death. Miracles surrounded their burials and their tombs at Besians in the diocese of Barbastro, where pilgrims came to pray, especially against the danger from storms. Formerly on Rogation days, and in times of drought, their relics were carried in procession (Benedictines, Dorcy).
1304 Blessed Benedict XI, OP Pope he had "a vast store of knowledge, a prodigious memory, a penetrating genius, and (that) everything about him endeared him to all." In 1295, he received the degree of master of theology As papal legate Nicholas travelled to Hungary to try to settle a civil war there He worked to reconcile warring parties in Europe and the Church and to increase spirituality. His reign, short though it was, was noted for its leniency and kindness Many miracles were performed at his tomb, and there were several cures even before his burial (RM)
Bd Benedict XI, Pope Nicholas Boccasini was born at Treviso in the year 1240. He was educated there and at Venice, where at seventeen years of age he took the habit of St Dominic. In 1268 he was appointed professor and preacher at Venice and Bologna, where he fruitfully communicated to others those spiritual riches which he had treasured up in silence and retirement, while always advancing in the way of perfection himself.   He composed a volume of sermons, and wrote commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, which are still extant.  He was chosen prior provincial of his order for Lombardy and, in 1296, elected ninth master general of the whole Order of Preachers.   Two years later Brother Nicholas was created cardinal and soon after bishop of Ostia, and he went as legate a latere to Hungary to endeavour to compose the differences which divided that nation; he had some temporary success, for his learning, prudence and selflessness everywhere gained respect:  but his services were urgently required in Rome.

Trouble had long been brewing between the Holy See and King Philip of France, who had been heavily taxing ecclesiastical persons and property to help carry on his war with England; the king entered into an alliance with the Colonna cardinals against Pope Boniface VIII who, the French king having circulated a forged document in the place of his statement of the pope's prerogatives, in 1302 issued the famous bull "Unam sanctam", in which, inter alia, the relationship between the spiritual and temporal powers were set out.
  In the following year Philip appealed to a general council to judge the pope on a number of astounding charges, as infamous as they were false, preferred by the royal councillor William of Nogaret and a knight, William du Plessis.* [* These gentlemen were experts in such work, and later played a similar part in the arraignment of the Knights Templars on terrifying charges.]  A storm was raised against Boniface, who withdrew to Anagni, deserted by all who should have supported him, excepting only the cardinal-bishop of Sabina and the cardinal-bishop of Ostia, Nicholas Boccasini. With their advice and assistance Boniface acted with vigour and promptness, and prepared a bull of excommunication against Philip.  But the very day before its promulgation Nogaret and the Ghibelline leader, Sciarra Colonna, broke into the papal residence with a rabble of hired troopers and seized the person of the pontiff, on September 7.  Three days later he was released by the citizens of Anagni, returned to Rome, and on October 11 he died.
  To such a troubled heritage did Cardinal Nicholas Boccasini succeed, for within a fortnight he was elected to the apostolic chair, and took the name of Benedict.  He set himself straightway to deal with the situation, with the confidence engendered by trust and submission to God and unimpeachable personal upright- ness : but his pontificate was too short for him to do more than take the first steps towards restoring peace; Bd Benedict's policy was one of conciliation without compromising the memory of his predecessor.  He favoured the mendicant friars, and all three cardinals created by him were Dominicans; two, moreover, were Englishmen: William Makiesfield of Canterbury, who died at Louvain before he heard of his elevation, and Walter Winterburn of Salisbury.
  In his private life Benedict continued the mortifications and penances of a friar, and abated none of his humility and moderation; when his mother came to see him at the papal court and dressed herself up for the occasion, he refused to see her until she had changed into the simple clothes which she ordinarily wore.  But he only ruled for eight months and a few days, in which short space, as the Roman Martyrology says, he "wonderfully promoted the peace of the Church, the restoration of discipline, and the increase of religion"; he died suddenly at Perugia on July 7, 1304.  His cultus was confirmed in 1736.
Various short lives of Blessed Benedict are mentioned in BHL., nn. 1090-1094, including a notice by Bernard Guy incorporated in the Liber Pontificalis, vol. ii, pp. 471-472.  See also Mortier, Maître, Généraux OP., vol. ii; H. Finke, Aus, den Tagen Bonifax VIII (1902); the Regesta of Benedict, edited by C. Grandjean; and A. Ferrero, B. Benedetto XI (1934).
Born in Treviso, Italy, 1240; died in Perugia, Italy, April 25, 1304; beatified by Pope Clement XII in 1736. Nicholas Boccasini was born into a poor family of which we know little else, though there are several different traditions concerning it. One claims that his father was a poor shepherd. Another that he was an impoverished nobleman. Whichever he was, he died when Nicholas was very small, and the little boy was put in the care of an uncle, a priest at Treviso.
The child proved to be very intelligent, so his uncle had him trained in Latin and other clerical subjects. When Nicholas was ten, his uncle got him a position as tutor to some noble children. He followed this vocation until he was old enough to enter the Dominican community at Venice in 1254. Here, and in various parts of Italy, Nicholas spent the next 14 years, completing his education. It is quite probable that he had Saint Thomas Aquinas for one of his teachers.
Nicholas was pre-eminently a teacher at Venice and Bologna. He did his work well according to several sources, including a testimonial from Saint Antoninus, who said that he had "a vast store of knowledge, a prodigious memory, a penetrating genius, and (that) everything about him endeared him to all." In 1295, he received the degree of master of theology.
The administrative career of Nicholas Boccasini began with his election as prior general of Lombardy and then as the ninth master general of the Order of Preachers in 1296. His work in this office came to the notice of the pope, who, after Nicholas had completed a delicate piece of diplomacy in Flanders, appointed him cardinal in 1298.
The Dominicans hurried to Rome to protest that he should not be given the dignity of a cardinal, only to receive from the pope the mystifying prophecy that God had reserved an even heavier burden for Nicholas. As papal legate Nicholas travelled to Hungary to try to settle a civil war there.
Boniface VIII did not always agree with the man he had appointed cardinal-bishop of Ostia and dean of the sacred college. But they respected one another, and in the tragic affair that was shaping up with Philip the Fair of France, Cardinal Boccasini was to be one of only two cardinals who defended the Holy Father, even to the point of offering his life.
Philip the Fair, like several other monarchs, discovered that his interests clashed with those of the papacy.
His action was particularly odious in an age when the papal power had not yet been separated completely from temporal concerns.

The French monarch, who bitterly hated Boniface, besieged the pope in the Castle of Anagni, where he had taken refuge, and demanded that he resign the papacy. His soldiers even broke into the house and were met by the pope, dressed in full pontifical vestments and attended by two cardinals, one of whom was Cardinal Boccasini. For a short time it looked as though the soldiers, led by Philip's councilor William Nogaret, might kill all three of them, but they refrained from such a terrible crime and finally withdrew after Nicholas rallied the papal forces and rescued Boniface from Anagni.
Cardinal Boccasini set about the difficult task of swinging public opinion to the favor of the pope. Successful at this, he stood sorrowfully by when the pontiff died, broken-hearted by his treatment at the hands of the French soldiers. On October 22, 1303, at the conclave following the death of Boniface, the prophesied burden fell upon the shoulders of the cardinal-bishop of Ostia, who took the name Benedict XI.
The reign of Benedict XI was too short to give him time to work out any of his excellent plans for settling the troubles of the Church. Most of his reign was taken up with undoing the damage done by Philip the Fair. He lifted the interdict on the French people that had been laid down by his predecessor and made an uneasy peace with Philip.
He worked to reconcile warring parties in Europe and the Church and to increase spirituality. His reign, short though it was, was noted for its leniency and kindness.

There are few personal anecdotes regarding Benedict, but at least one worth telling. Once, during his pontificate, his mother came to the papal court to see him. The court attendants decided that she was too poorly dressed to appear in the presence of the Holy Father, so they dressed her up in unaccustomed finery before allowing her to see her son. Benedict, sensing what had happened, told them he did not recognize this wealthy woman, and he asked them where was the little widow, pious and poorly dressed, whom he loved so dearly.
Benedict XI died suddenly in 1304. He had continued to the end with his religious observances and penances. Some people believed that he had been poisoned, but there has never been any evidence that this was the case. Many miracles were performed at his tomb, and there were several cures even before his burial (Benedictines, Delaney, Dorcy).
In art, Pope Benedict wears a Dominican habit and papal tiara, while holding the keys. He is venerated in Perugia (Roeder).
1304 BD PETER OF TREIA After a long life of labour, adorned by miracles and the gift of prophecy.
THIS Peter was one of the early Franciscans and received the habit from St Francis himself.
He was born at Montecchio, near Treia, of poor parents, and he entered the order when still quite young. He received holy orders, after which he was most devoted in carrying out the duties of the sacred ministry. He preached boldly against licentiousness and converted many sinners. It is related that once, when he was praying in the church of the convent of Ancona, his superiors saw him rapt in ecstasy and lifted from the ground; our Lady, St John the Evangelist and St Francis all manifested themselves to him in visions. He had a particular veneration for the Archangel St Michael, who appeared to him on the last day of the special Lent which he used to keep in his honour and talked with him a long time, promising him the remission of his sins.

He was united by a great bond of friendship to Bd Conrad of Offida, who lived with him for some years in the convent of Torano which St Francis had founded. They worked and preached together and roused each other in noble emulation to higher and higher stages of sanctity, until the fame of their holiness shed a glow of distinction over their simple little community on the feast of the Purification one year Peter had a wonderful vision in which he saw our Lady place her Son in the arms of Bd Conrad. After a long life of labour, adorned by miracles and the gift of prophecy, Bd Peter died at the convent of Sirolo in the Marches. Popular devotion, which had gathered about him from the hour of his death, was sanctioned in the year 1793.

There is a pronounced atmosphere of legend in the accounts given of Bd Peter by Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano, vol. i, pp. 245—246, and the Léon, L’Auréole Séraphique of Fr Léon (Eng. trans.), vol. i. They all derive from Wadding, and Wadding used, without discrimination, almost any materials that came to hand. Cf. also A. Canaletti Gaudenti, Il b. Pietro da Treja (1937).

1304 BD RAINERIUS OF AREZZO town had an altar set up in his honour and record kept of attributed Miracles.
INFORMATION is lacking about the details of the life of this early Franciscan beatus. He was born at Arezzo, of the Mariani family, and gave up a secular career to join the Friars Minor. He was a companion of Bd Benedict of Arezzo, who had been received into the order by St Francis himself. Miracles were attributed to Bd Rainerius during his life, and immediately after his death, at Borgo San Sepoicro on November I, 1304, the municipality of the town had an altar set up in his honour and record kept of his miracles. His cultus was confirmed in 1802.
Bd Rainerius is dealt with by the Bollandists on November 1. They found no record of his life beyond such brief notices as were supplied by Wadding and other annalists, but they print from manuscript sources a record of miracles worked at his tomb.  See further Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano (1680), vol. iii, pp. 295-296 and Léon Aureole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iv, pp. 34-35.
September 10 1305 Saint Nicholas of Tolentino; Patron of Holy Souls in Purgatory, and, with St. Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church hundreds of miracles. Born, 1245
Italian Augustinian monk with visions of Purgatory, miracle-worker, resurrected over 100 children, Patron of Holy Souls in Purgatory, and, with St. Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church. The two arms incorrupt.
His middle-aged parents, were childless until a prayerful visit to a shrine of the original Saint Nicholas at Bari, Italy. In gratitude, they named their son Nicholas

1305 Saint Nicholas of Tolentino Patron of Holy Souls in Purgatory, and, with St. Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church hundreds of miracles
 Tolentíni, in Picéno, deposítio sancti Nicolái Confessóris, ex Ordine Eremitárum sancti Augustíni.
    At Tolentino in Piceno, the departure from this life of St. Nicholas, confessor, of the order of the Hermits of St. Augustine.
B, 1245
Italian Augustinian monk with visions of Purgatory, miracle-worker, resurrected over 100 children, Patron of Holy Souls in Purgatory, and, with St. Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church. The two arms incorrupt.
His middle-aged parents, were childless until a prayerful visit to a shrine of the original Saint Nicholas at Bari, Italy. In gratitude, they named their son Nicholas.
1305 ST NICHOLAS OF TOLENTINO
THIS saint received his surname from the town which was his residence for the most considerable part of his life, and in which he died. He was a native of Sant’ Angelo, a town near Fermo in the March of Ancona, and was born in the year 1245. His father lived many years in happiness with his wife, but when both had reached middle age they were still childless. Nicholas was the fruit of their prayers and a pilgrimage to the shrine of St Nicholas at Ban, in which his mother especially had earnestly begged of God a son who should faithfully serve Him. At his baptism he received the name of his patron. In his childhood he would go to a little cave near the town and pray there in imitation of the hermits who then lived among the Apennines. People now go to pray there in honour of St Nicholas of Tolentino. While still a boy he received minor orders, and was presented to a canonry in the collegiate church of St Saviour at Sant’ Angelo; and there were not wanting those who were willing to use their influence for his pro­motion within the ranks of the secular clergy. Nicholas, however, aspired to a state which would allow him to consecrate his whole time and thoughts directly to God, and it happened that he one day went into the Augustinian church and heard a friar preaching on the text: “Love not the world nor the things which are in the world...The world passeth away... This sermon finally determined him absolutely to join the order of that preacher. This he did so soon as his age would allow, and he was accepted by the Augustinian friars at Sant’ Angelo. He went through his novitiate under the direction of the preacher himself, Father Reginald, and made his profession before he had completed his eighteenth year.

Friar Nicholas was sent to San Ginesio for his theology, and he was entrusted with the daily distribution of food to the poor at the monastery gate. He made so free with the resources of the house that the procurator complained and reported him to the prior. It was while discharging this labour of love that his first miracle was recorded of St Nicholas, when he put his hand on the head of a diseased child, saying, “The good God will heal you, and the boy was there and then cured. About 1270 he was ordained priest at Cingoli, and in that place he became famous among the people, particularly on account of his healing of a blind woman, with the same words which he had used to the child above. But he did not stay there long, for during four years he was continually moving from one to another of the friaries and missions of his order. For a short time he was novice-master at Sant’ Elpidio, where there was a large community which included two friars who are venerated as beati among the Augustinians today, Angelo of Furcio and Angelo of Foligno. While visiting a relative who was prior of a monastery near Fermo, Nicholas was tempted by an invitation to make a long stay in the monastery, which was comfortable and well off compared with the hard poverty of the friaries to which he was accustomed. But while praying in the church he seemed to hear a voice directing him: “To Tolentino, to Tolentino. Persevere there.” Shortly after to Tolentino he was sent, and stopped there for the remaining thirty years of his life.

This town had suffered much in the strife of Guelf and Ghibelline, and civil discord had had its usual effects of wild fanaticism, schism and reckless wickedness. A campaign of street-preaching was necessary, and to this new work St Nicholas was put. He was an immediate success. “He spoke of the things of Heaven”, says St Antoninus. “Sweetly he preached the divine word, and the words that came from his lips, fell like burning flame. When his superiors ordered him to take up the public ministry of the gospel, he did not try to display his knowledge or show off his ability, but simply to glorify God. Amongst his audience could be seen the tears and heard the sighs of people detesting their sins and repenting of their past lives.”

His preaching aroused opposition among those who were unmoved by it, and a certain man of notoriously evil life did all he could to shout down the friar and break up his audiences. Nicholas refused to be intimidated, and his perseverance began to make an impression on his persecutor. One day when the man had been trying to drown his voice and scatter the people by fencing with his friends in the street, he sheathed his sword and stood by to listen. After­wards he came and apologized to St Nicholas, admitted that his heart had been touched, and began to reform his ways. This conversion made a strong impression, and soon Nicholas had to be spending nearly whole days in hearing confessions. He went about the slums of Tolentino, comforting the dying, waiting on (and sometimes miraculously curing) the sick and bed-ridden, watching over the chil­dren, appealing to the criminals, composing quarrels and estrangements: one woman gave evidence in the cause of his canonization that he had entirely won over and reformed her husband who for long had treated her with shameful cruelty. Another witness gave evidence of three miracles due to the saint in his family. “Say nothing of this was his usual comment after these happenings (and they were numerous), “give thanks to God, not to me. I am only an earthen vessel, a poor sinner.”

Jordan of Saxony (not the Dominican beatus, but an Austin friar) in his Life of St Nicholas, written about 1380, relates a happening which has the distinction of being referred to by the Bollandists as the most extraordinary miracle which they find attributed to the saint. A man was waylaid by his enemies at a lonely spot on Mont’ Ortona, near Padua, and, disregarding his entreaties in the name of God and St Nicholas [of Ban] for mercy, or at least a priest to shrive him, they killed him and threw his body into a lake. A week later his body was recovered by one wearing the habit of an Austin friar, who led him back alive and well to his family. He asked for a priest, received the last sacraments, and then, declaring that he had been brought back to make a good end in response to his desperate appeal to St Nicholas, he again died. His flesh at once shrivelled up and dropped off, leaving only his bare bones for Christian burial. Many of the marvels attri­buted to the intercession of St Nicholas are in connexion with the bread blessed on his feast by the friars of his order. In his later years when he was ill and weak his superiors wished him to take meat and other strengthening food, and St Nicholas was troubled between the obligation of obedience and his desire not to give in to his body. One night it appeared to him that our Lady was present and that she told him to ask for a small piece of bread, to dip it in water and eat it, and he would recover. So it fell out, and Nicholas in grateful memory would afterwards bless pieces of bread and give them to the sick, thus originating the Augustinians’ custom.*[ * The spirit in which the Church desires her children to make use of such things, is illustrated by the prayer to be said by those who use St Nicholas’s bread: “Grant, we beseech thee, Almighty God, that thy Church, which is made illustrious by the glory of the marvels and miracles of blessed Nicholas, thy confessor, may by his merits and intercession enjoy perpetual peace and unity, through Christ our Lord. Amen.”]

The final illness of St Nicholas lasted nearly a year, and in the last months he got up from bed only once, to absolve a penitent who he knew intended to conceal a grievous sin from any priest but himself. The end came quietly on September 10, 1305. His last words to the community gathered round his bed were: “My dearest brethren, my conscience does not reproach me with anything—but I am not justified by that.”
A commission was appointed which at once began to collect evidence for his heroic virtues and miracles, but the
transfer of the papacy to Avignon intervened and canonization was not achieved till 1446.

There is a life of St Nicholas by a contemporary, Peter of Monte Rubiano. This is accessible in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. iii. Of the later lives none seem to have treated this work and the other materials there provided in a very critical spirit. The most copious biography is that of Philip Giorgi, Vita del taumaturgo S. Niccolô da Tolentino (1856—1859, in 3 vols.). The others are for the most part of a popular character: for example, two in French, by A. Tonna-Barthet (1896), and by “H.P.” (1899). At Tolentino itself, in view of the centenary kept in 1905, a sort of periodical was brought out, beginning in 1899, under the title of Sesto Centenario di San Nicolâ da Tolentino. This includes copies of certain documents preserved in the archives of the city, but it is mainly interesting for the information it provides concerning the later cultus of the saint. It must be remembered that the accounts of miracles and wonders belong for the most part to a very uncritical age. Several little booklets, notably one by N. G. Cappi (1725), were published in Italy concerning the alleged bleeding of St Nicholas’s severed arms. A short English biography by E. A. Foran was issued in 1920. See also a life in Italian by N. Concetti (1932).

Augustinian Friar at age 18, and a student with Blessed Angelus de Scarpetti. Monk at Recanati and Macerata. Ordained at age 25. Canon of Saint Saviour's. Had visions of angels reciting "to Tolentino"; he took this as a sign to move to that city in 1274, where he lived the rest of his life.

 Worked as a peacemaker in Tolentino, a city torn by civil war. Preached every day, wonder-worker and healer, and visited prisoners. He always told those he helped, "Say nothing of this." Received visions, including images of Purgatory, which friends ascribed to his lengthy fasts. Had a great devotion to the recently dead, praying for the souls in Purgatory as he traveled around his parish, and often late into the night.

The "Seven Tolentine Masses" come after an apparition of Virgin Mary who told him to offer them for the Souls of Purgatory. In the first Mass he had a vision of thousands of people in Purgatory suffering horrible torments. In the the seventh Mass he had the same vision but the thousands of people were in Heaven, very joyful singing the glories of God

Once, when severely ill, he had a vision of Mary, Augustine and Monica. They told him to eat a certain type of roll that had been dipped in water. Cured, he began healing others by administering bread over which he recited Marian prayers. The rolls became known as Saint Nicholas Bread, and are still distributed at his shrine.

Holy Mass and Purgatory
Reported to have resurrected over one hundred dead children, including several who had drowned together.
Legend says that the devil once beat Nicholas with a stick; the stick was displayed for years in the his church.
A vegetarian, Nicholas was once served a roasted fowl; he made the sign of the cross over it, and it flew out a window.
Nine passengers on ship going down at sea once asked Nicholas' aid; he appeared in the sky, wearing the black Augustinian habit, radiating golden light, holding a lily in his left hand; with his right hand he quelled the storm.
An apparition of the saint once saved the burning palace of the Doge of Venice by throwing a piece of blessed bread on the flames.

Three hundred and one miracles were recognized during the process.
His tomb has become renowned by many more, despite the fact that his relics have been lost, save for the two arms from which blood still exudes when the Church is menaced by a great danger. This occurred, for example, when the island of Cyprus was taken over by infidels in 1570.
Like Saint Joseph, virginal father of Jesus, has been declared a Patron of the Universal Church.

Born 1245 at Sant'Angelo, March of Ancona, diocese of Fermo, Italy Died 10 September 1305 at Tolentino, Italy following a long illness; relics rediscovered at Tolentino in 1926; in previous times they were known exude blood when the Church was in danger Canonized 5 June (Pentecost) 1446 by Pope Eugene IV; over 300 miracles were recognized by the Congregation.

Augustinian Friar at age 18, and a student with Blessed Angelus de Scarpetti. Monk at Recanati and Macerata. Ordained at age 25. Canon of Saint Saviour's. Had visions of angels reciting "to Tolentino"; he took this as a sign to move to that city in 1274, where he lived the rest of his life.

 Worked as a peacemaker in Tolentino, a city torn by civil war. Preached every day, wonder-worker and healer, and visited prisoners. He always told those he helped, "Say nothing of this." Received visions, including images of Purgatory, which friends ascribed to his lengthy fasts. Had a great devotion to the recently dead, praying for the souls in Purgatory as he traveled around his parish, and often late into the night.

The "Seven Tolentine Masses" come after an apparition of Virgin Mary who told him to offer them for the Souls of Purgatory. In the first Mass he had a vision of thousands of people in Purgatory suffering horrible torments. In the the seventh Mass he had the same vision but the thousands of people were in Heaven, very joyful singing the glories of God

Once, when severely ill, he had a vision of Mary, Augustine and Monica. They told him to eat a certain type of roll that had been dipped in water. Cured, he began healing others by administering bread over which he recited Marian prayers. The rolls became known as Saint Nicholas Bread, and are still distributed at his shrine.

Holy Mass and Purgatory
Reported to have resurrected over one hundred dead children, including several who had drowned together. Legend says that the devil once beat Nicholas with a stick; the stick was displayed for years in the his church.  A vegetarian, Nicholas was once served a roasted fowl; he made the sign of the cross over it, and it flew out a window.  Nine passengers on ship going down at sea once asked Nicholas' aid; he appeared in the sky, wearing the black Augustinian habit, radiating golden light, holding a lily in his left hand; with his right hand he quelled the storm.  An apparition of the saint once saved the burning palace of the Doge of Venice by throwing a piece of blessed bread on the flames.

Three hundred and one miracles were recognized during the process.
His tomb has become renowned by many more, despite the fact that his relics have been lost, save for the two arms from which blood still exudes when the Church is menaced by a great danger. This occurred, for example, when the island of Cyprus was taken over by infidels in 1570.
Like Saint Joseph, virginal father of Jesus, has been declared a Patron of the Universal Church.
1306 BD CONRAD OF OFFIDA; is said to have had the same guardian angel as St Francis, and to have often conversed with him about the seraphic founder; the chief companion of his life was Bd Peter of Treja, who accompanied him in his preaching journeys and was present in the woods on that Candlemas-day when our Lady appeared to Conrad and laid the Child Jesus in his arms; “marvellous zealot of gospel poverty and of the Rule of St Francis, of so religious a life and so deserving before God that Christ, the Blessed One, honoured him in life and in death with many miracles”.
CONRAD became a friar minor when he was fourteen years old, and was afterwards associated both with the friary founded by St Francis himself at Forano in the Apennines and with the great convent of Alvernia. Before he was ordained priest and became a preacher he was employed for years as cook and questor, and several remarkable stories are told of him.
He is said to have had the same guardian angel as St Francis, and to have often conversed with him about the seraphic founder.

 Throughout his life Conrad had only one religious habit, he always went barefoot, and his love of poverty impelled him to that party in his order which at first was
known as the Spirituals or Zelanti. He was closely associated with Peter John Olivi, and in sympathy with Angelo Clareno and Fra Liberato, the leaders of the “Celestine” hermits; Bd Conrad’s own ideas were more moderate, though he gave credence and circulation to the legend that St Francis had risen from the dead to encourage the Spirituals, having, it was said, been told it by Brother Leo.

But the chief companion of his life was Bd Peter of Treja, who accompanied him in his preaching journeys and was present in the woods on that Candlemas-day when our Lady appeared to Conrad and laid the Child Jesus in his arms. It was said of these two that they were “ two shining stars in the province of the Marches, like dwellers in Heaven; for between them there was such love as seemed to spring from one and the same heart and soul, so that they bound themselves, each to the other, by an agreement that every consolation that the mercy of God might vouch­safe them they would lovingly reveal the one unto the other”. The author of the Fioretti further calls Brother Conrad a “marvellous zealot of gospel poverty and of the Rule of St Francis, of so religious a life and so deserving before God that Christ, the Blessed One, honoured him in life and in death with many miracles”.

When he was sixty-five years old Bd Conrad died while preaching at Bastia, near Assisi, and was buried there. Some years later his relics were carried off to Perugia, and they now rest in the cathedral of that city beside those of Brother Giles. His cultus was confirmed in 1817.

The main outlines of his life are sketched by Bartholomew (Albizzi) of Pisa and other Franciscan chroniclers. See, for example, Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano (1680), vol. ii, Pt 2, pp. 678—681. The biography compiled by B. Bartolomasi as far back as 1807 was published by M. Faloci-Pulignani in the Miscellanea Francescana, vol. xv—xvii, but it tells us very little of Bd Conrad’s relations with the Zelanti, the great point of interest. See, however, the Historisches Jahrbuch for 1882, pp. 648—659, and for 1929, pp. 77—81, as also the Archivum Franciscanum historicum, vol. xi (1918), pp. 366—373. There is an account of Bd Conrad in Léon, Aureole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iv, pp. 174—177.
1306 Blessed Jane of Orvieto a Dominican tertiary her life was one of unwearied devotion to God, attention to the poor; it was known that she bore particular good will towards those who were unkind to her, doing penance for their sins; miracles would happen after her death
Also known as Giovanna, Vanna) Born at Carnajola, near Orvieto, Italy; cultus approved in 1754. Blessed Jane was a Dominican tertiary (Benedictines) OP Tert. V (AC)
Joan was a peasant girl of Carnaiola, and was, and is at Orvieto, commonly called Vanna.  She was left an orphan at the age of five, and her companions tried to frighten her by telling her that now she would have no one to look after her and she would starve.    This did not disturb her and she retorted on them that " I've got a better father than you have!"  When asked what she meant she led them to the church and pointed triumphantly to an image of a guardian angel: "He will look after me!"   Her trust was justified, for she was adopted by a family in Orvieto, who brought her up and arranged a marriage for her.  But Joan had different ideas.   She ran away to the house of a friend and joined the third order of St Dominic. Henceforward her life was one of unwearied devotion to God and attention to the poor; it was known that she bore particular good will towards those who were unkind to her, doing penance for their sins, and it became a byword in Orvieto that anyone who wanted Sister Joan's prayers should do her a bad turn. 
Numerous ecstasies and other unusual occurrences were reported of her.
For some years she was under the spiritual direction of Bd James of Mevania, stationed at the Dominican priory in Orvieto;
there is a remarkable story told of Joan confessing to him at Orvieto, when he was in fact lying dead at Bevagna.

Joan predicted among other things some of the miracles that would happen after her own death, but made every effort to conceal the supernatural favours that were accorded her; her detachment from the world, her humility and her sweetness she could not hide.  She always maintained great devotion to the holy angels, and died in their care on July 23, 1306.  Her cultus was approved in 1754.
Bd Joan is lmown to us primarily by a Latin life that was written by James Scaiza this was edited in 1853, and other editions in Italian were issued by L. Furni and by L.mPassarini. See also Procter, Dominican Saints, and M. C. Ganay, Les bienheureuses Dominicaines (1913).
Blessed Jane of Orvieto, OP Tert. V (AC) (also known as Giovanna, Vanna) Born at Carnajola, near Orvieto, Italy; cultus approved in 1754. Blessed Jane was a Dominican tertiary (Benedictines).
1307 St. Albert of Trapani miracles; Carmelite hermit and missionary entered a monastic hermitage near Messina where he successfully devoted himself to the conversion of the Jews
Messanæ, in Sicília, sancti Alberti Confessóris, ex Ordine Carmelitárum, miráculis clari.
    At Messina in Sicily, St. Albert, confessor of the Carmelite Order, renowned for miracles.
He was born in Trapani, Sicily, joined the Carmelite Order. After ordination, he was sent to nearby Messina, where he gathered thousands with his preaching and miracles. After serving as a missionary, Albert entered a monastic hermitage near Messina where he successfully devoted himself to the conversion of the Jews (Benedictines).
He remained there until his death.
Albert of Trapani, OC (RM) Born in Trapani, Sicily; died 1306; cultus confirmed in 1454. At a very young age, Saint Albert enter the Carmelite monastery of his hometown. After his priestly ordination, he was transferred to the house at Messina, where he successfully devoted himself to the conversion of the Jews (Benedictines).
1307  JANE of Segna Shepherdess in her youth. Tertiary solitary 40 years; Her reputa­tion for miracles was great, and people came from all the surrounding country to consult her and bring their sick and afflicted. Immediately after her death on November 9, 1307, a cultus sprang up, which was greatly enhanced in 1348 by the attribution of a sudden cessation of an epidemic to her intercession.
1307 Bd Joan Of Signa, Virgin
A Number of miracles are related of this Franciscan tertiary, but very few particulars of her life are available. Signa is a village on the Arno, near Florence, and Joan was born there about the year 1245. Her parents were very poor peasants, and at an early age she was sent out to look after sheep and goats. She would collect other herdsfolk round her and talk to them of the truths of faith, and urge them to live a Christian life, to which her own example was an even better inducement than her simple heart-felt words. Her ability to keep dry in wet weather was much talked of, but this seems to have been due to the simple expedient of sheltering under a large and thick tree when it rained. At the age of twenty-three Bd Joan, possibly inspired by the tales she had heard of St Verdiana of Castelfiorentino, who died about the time Joan was born, became a solitary in a cell on the banks of the Arno, not far from her native place. Here she lived for forty years.

   Her reputa­tion for miracles was great, and people came from all the surrounding country to consult her and bring their sick and afflicted. Immediately after her death on November 9, 1307, a cultus sprang up, which was greatly enhanced in 1348 by the attribution of a sudden cessation of an epidemic to her intercession. This cultus was confirmed in 1798.

An anonymous Latin life is in existence that must have been written about the year 1390. It has been printed by Fr Mencherini in the Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, vol. x (1917), pp. 367—386, and also in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. iv. Two other accounts of later date in Italian verse add nothing to our knowledge. Not only the Fran­ciscans, but also Vallombrosan monks, the Carmelites and the Augustinians have claimed that the recluse was attached to their respective orders. On the Vallombrosan case see F. Soldani, Ragguaglio istorico della B. Giovanna do Signa (1741). The Franciscan claim can be gathered from Mencherini as above, who supplies a bibliography. In the opinion of the Bollandists evidence is lacking that the recluse had a definite connection with any order. An account of Bd Joan is given by Fr Léon, Aureole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iv, pp. 160—164.

Profile  Shepherdess in her youth. Tertiary, though records disagree if Franciscan or Vallumbrosan.  Born  at Segna, Italy  Beatified  1798 (cultus confirmed)
1310 St. Alexis Falconieri Founder mystic 1233 on the Feast of the Assumption group experienced a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary
 Floréntiæ natális sancti Aléxii Falconérii Confessóris, e septem Fundatóribus Ordinis Servórum beátæ Maríæ Vírginis; qui, décimo supra centésimum vitæ suæ anno, Christi Jesu et Angelórum præséntia recreátus, beáto fine quiévit.  Ipsíus tamen ac Sociórum festum prídie Idus Februárii celebrátur.
       In Florence, the birthday of St. Alexis Falconieri, confessor, one of the seven founders of the Order of the Servites of the Blessed Virgin Mary.  In the one hundred and tenth year of his age, he ended his blessed career in the consoling presence of Christ Jesus and the angels.  His feast, with that of his companions, is kept on the 12th of February.
One of the first Servants of Mary or Servites. The son of a wealthy merchant in Florence, Italy, Alexis and six companions joined the Confraternity of the Blessed Virgin in Florence in 1225.

Gathered together on the Feast of the Assumption in 1233, the group experienced a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary which inspired them to found a new religious community dedicated to prayer. They founded such a group at La Camarzia, near Florence, moving eventually to Monte Senario, on the outskirts of the city.

Another vision inspired Alexis and his companions to form the Servites, or the Servants of Mary. All in the group were ordained priests, except for Alexis, who believed he was not worthy of such an honor. He helped build the Servite church at Cafaggio, and he managed the day-to-day temporal affairs of the congregation. The Servites received papal approval from Pope Benedict XI in 1304. Alexis was the only founding member still alive. He died at Monte Senario on February 17, 1310, recorded as 110 years old. Alexis and his companions are called the Seven Holy Founders. They were canonized by Pope Leo XIII in 1888.

1310 7 Gründer, Alexius Falconieri Gründer des Servitenordens 1888 wurden die sieben Servitengründer, Bonfilius, Bonajuncta, Manettus, Amideus, Hugo, Sosteneus und Alexius, "als ob sie eine Person wären", von Leo XIII. heiliggesprochen
Katholische Kirche: 17. Februar
Sieben befreundete Kaufleute in Florenz, die einer marianischen Bruderschaft angehörten, beschlossen 1233 ein gemeinsames Leben im Dienst der Armen und Kranken zu führen. Sie versorgten ihre Familien, verschenkten ihre Habe und lebten in einem einfachen Haus am Rande der Stadt Florenz. Sie wurden allgemein Diener Mariens - Servi Mariae - genannt.

1241 gründeten die sieben ein Kloster auf dem Monte Senario nahe Florenz. Sie beschlossen, hier nach der Regel Augustins zu leben und ein schwarzes Ordensgewand zu tragen. Der Orden fand großen Zulauf. 1299 gab es in Deutschland bereits vier Klöster. 1304 wurde der Orden von Papst Benedikt XI. bestätigt. Im Bestätigungsschreiben heißt es: "Ihr pflegt eine besondere Hingabe an die glorreiche und selige Jungfrau Maria; von ihr nahmt ihr euren Namen, indem ihr euch demütig ihre Diener nanntet."

Bei der Anerkennung des Ordens lebte nur noch einer der sieben Gründer, Alexius Falconieri, der am 17. Februar 1310 im Alter von 110 Jahren starb. 1888 wurden die sieben Servitengründer, Bonfilius, Bonajuncta, Manettus, Amideus, Hugo, Sosteneus und Alexius, "als ob sie eine Person wären", von Leo XIII. heiliggesprochen. Diese Heiligsprechung ist ein - bisher - einmaliger Vorgang in der Kirchengeschichte.

1309 Bl. Angela of Foligno Franciscan tertiary and mystic Many miracles.  
Born in Foligno, Italy, in 1248, Angela married and had several children. Wealthy, she took part in the social events of the city until 1285, when she had a vision. Following that mystical experience, Angela became a member of the Franciscan Third Order. When her husband died, she gave away her possessions and started a community of tertiaries devoted to the care of the needy. Her visions, which were recorded by her confessor, demonstrated a mature mystical union with Christ and the gift of revelation. She is sometimes called "the Mistress of Theologians."
Her tomb is in the church of St. Francis in Foligno. Many miracles have been recorded there.

1312 BD CHRISTINA. OF STOMMELN, VIRGIN; dying at the age of seventy, in 1312, with a great reputation of sanctity. Thirty years after her relics were translated to Niedeggen  in the Eifel, and again in 1569 to Jülich, where they still repose and receive the veneration of the people. Nor does anything which has been said above reflect on the credit of Bd Christina or suggest that that veneration is misplaced; for heroic virtue, which is the condition of holiness, is entirely independent of abnormal physical phenomena or extraordinary divine favours, and the first of these are not inconsistent with a life far from holy. The Holy See has recognized that the evidence touching the personal virtue of Bd Christina justifies the continuation of her age-long local cultus.

DURING her life and from the time of her death until to-day Christina Bruso was venerated as a saint in her native village of Stommeln, near Cologne, and at Jülich, where she was eventually buried; and on account of this uninterrupted local veneration Pope Pius X confirmed the cultus in 1908, just on 600 years after her death. Were it not for the large amount of contemporary, eyewitnesses’, and personal testimony to the phenomena which make her one of the most extraordinary cases in all hagiology, she would have to be dismissed as a devout but mentally diseased young woman who suffered from hallucinations on a very large scale indeed or whose biographers were either hopelessly deceived or unscrupulous liars.
   Even as it is, some of the Catholic scholars who have studied the documents are of the opinion that many statements of experiences were made by her when she was not mistress of herself; and, as one of them has put it,
it is easier to believe that the whole story was a romance concocted, letters and all, by Peter of Dacia and that no such person as Christina ever existed” than to believe the extravagances recorded in her letters written by the hand of the village schoolmaster.

Christina’s father was a prosperous peasant, and the girl had some soft of school­ing, for she learned to read the psalter, but not to write. In the short account of her early life that she dictated to her parish priest, John, she says that she affianced herself to our Lord when He appeared to her in vision at the age of ten. When she was thirteen she ran away from home and became a beguine at Cologne. She lived with such austerity and extravagance of devotion that the beguines thought her mad, and already she thought herself singled out for attention by supernatural powers, both divine and diabolical: Satan, for example, disguised as St Bartholomew, tempted her to suicide. After some time she left the beguinage, where she had been treated with scant sympathy as a hysterical subject, and returned home. When she was twenty-five Christina made the acquaintance of Father Peter of Dacia (i.e. Scandinavia and Denmark), a pious and capable young Dominican, and at their first meeting she was, in the presence of others as well, thrown about the room and pierced with wounds in her feet by invisible agency. For the next two years or so Father Peter kept a record of what he saw in connection with Christina, between whom and the Swedish friar there was a warm personal friend­ship. The numerous remarkable happenings, which he narrates, include long ecstasies and temporary stigmata that bled copiously during Holy Week. On one occasion Christina was found up to her neck in mud in a pit without knowing how she got there, and on another Satan tormented her by fixing to her body hot stones, which the bystanders could see and touch. But the manifestation of which Father Peter gives the most careful and detailed account was of so repulsive a nature that no particulars of it can be given here. It is sufficient to say that on numerous occasions for weeks on end Christina and those who visited her, Father Peter himself and other Dominicans, other clergy, and lay people of both sexes, were covered with showers of filth that came apparently from nowhere.

   After Father Peter left Cologne in 1269 Christina corresponded with him through the parish priest, John, who sometimes added to her dictation comments of his own. From these letters it appears that the visitations, which Christina attributes to the malice of the Evil One, continued unabated, though in ever-varying forms. These violent happenings were not confined to Christina herself. Her father was hit with stones on the head and arms, her friend the Benedictine prior of Brauweiler was badly bitten by invisible teeth, and a skull, after moving about in the air, tied itself about the neck of the Brusos’ servant.

A Dominican wrote to Father Peter from Cologne that’ “[The devil] gnaws her [Christina’s] flesh like a dog, and bites out great pieces; he burns her clothes next her skin while she is wearing them, and shows himself to her in horrible forms.” Thrice, says John the Priest, she was dragged from her bed, once on to the roof of her house and twice to a tree in the garden to which she was left bound. John himself untied her, in the presence of her mother and others. In 1277 John the Priest died and Master John, a young schoolmaster at Stommeln, took his place as amanuensis. He filled this office over a period of eight years, and the contents of the letters exceed anything previously reported by or of Christina. “The accounts of Christina’s experiences between 1279 and 1287”, says the writer quoted at the beginning of this article, “which reached her Dominican friend through the intermediary of Magister Johannes are so preposterous that, if they really emanated from herself, one can only regard them as the hallucinations of a brain which, for the time being at least, was completely unhinged.” All the paraphernalia used by the medieval artist in depicting Hell and its denizens is brought into play, and Christina over and over again is physically tormented in corresponding ways. Sometimes the powers of Heaven come to her aid, our Lord or His Mother or angels, and restore her from the harms that she has suffered. For what is related in these letters there is no shred of corroborative evidence, and from two very significant passages therein it is argued that their incredible extravagances were communicated by Christina (if Master John did not deliberately invent, which in all the circumstances he seems unlikely to have done) when in trance or other abnormal states, and were filled out and rounded off by the schoolmaster.

Father Peter of Dacia died about 1288 and Christina’s known history ends at that time, but she lived for another twenty-four years, dying at the age of seventy, in 1312, with a great reputation of sanctity. Thirty years after her relics were translated to Niedeggen in the Eifel, and again in 1569 to Jülich, where they still repose and receive the veneration of the people. Nor does anything which has been said above reflect on the credit of Bd Christina or suggest that that veneration is misplaced; for heroic virtue, which is the condition of holiness, is entirely independent of abnormal physical phenomena or extraordinary divine favours, and the first of these are not inconsistent with a life far from holy. The Holy See has recognized that the evidence touching the personal virtue of Bd Christina justifies the continuation of her age-long local cultus.

The material collected by Peter of Dacia for his projected book on “The Virtues of the Bride of Christ Christina” were printed for the first time in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv; but Father Papebroch had to use a copy which was in places becoming illegible. A better text, which, however, does not include all the documents, is provided in the Scriptores latini medii aevi Suecani, vol. i, Pt 2, pp. 1-257, by J. Paulson. See also Th. Wollersheim, Das Leben der ekstatischen und stigmatisirten Jungfrau Christina von Stommeln (1859); E. Renan, Nouvelles etudes d’histoire religieuse (Eng. trans.), pp. 353—396; H. Thurston in The Month, October and November, 1928, pp. 289—301 and 425—437; Douleur et stigmatisation (1936), pp. 44-49, in the series “Études Carmélitaines”; and Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lvii (1939), pp. 187—189.
1314 Blessed Emily of Vercelli;  Bicchieri frequent ecstasies visions miracles
Born at Vercelli in 1238, and having lost her mother at an early age, put herself under the special protection of the all-holy Mother of God. She refused her father's plans for her to marry and convinced him to build a convent, the first of Dominican regular tertiaries, of which she became abbess when twenty. Having been elected prioress against her will, Blessed Emily governed with tact and ability, and was careful to tell no one to do what she would not do herself. She was noted for her frequent communions (uncommon in those days), her ecstasies and visions, and the miracles attributed to her. She died on her birthday, May 3, at the age of seventy-six, and her cult was approved in 1769
1315 Blessed Ubald Adimari converted by Saint Philip Benizi, who admitted him to the Servite institute model to penitent souls OSM (AC)
1315 BD UBALD OF FLORENCE He had the gift of miracles
ONE of the most prominent leaders of the Ghibelline party in Florence in the year 1276 was the young Ubald Adimari. Well favoured by nature and fortune and belonging to a distinguished family, he had up to the age of thirty led a turbulent life with dissipated companions. One day, however, as he was listening to the preaching of St Philip Benizi, he was struck to the heart with shame for the past, and, with one of those sudden impulses to which generous souls are prone, he then and there vowed that he would never again bear arms. Attaching himself to St Philip, who admitted him into the Servite Order, he undertook severe penances to atone for his sins and to tame his proud and haughty spirit.
In after years those about him noted that he had grown so gentle that when he appeared in the garden of the monastery of Monte Senario the birds would perch upon his head and hands and shoulders. He had the gift of miracles, and it is recorded that once, when it was his turn to fetch water from the spring to serve to the brethren in the refectory and accidentally broke the pitcher, he filled his scapular with water and carried it safely home. There was enough, we are told, to satisfy the thirst of all.
St Philip dearly loved his devoted disciple. Not only did he make him for several years the companion of his journeys, but he chose him for his confessor. As Philip lay sick at Todi, Ubald was warned by a supernatural premonition that his master was dying and hastened to his bedside. When the saint asked for his “book”, eager hands offered the Bible, the Breviary and the rosary; but Ubald knew better, and gave him the book from which he had learnt all his wisdom—the crucifix and on that “book” he fixed his failing eyes until they finally closed in death. Ubald survived him for thirty years at Monte Senario. His cultus was confirmed in 1821.

See Gianni-Garbi, Annales Ordinis Servorum B.V.M., vol. i, pp. 228—229 Spörr, Lebensbilder aus dem Servitenorden, pp. 437 seq. Most of the lives of St Philip Benizi (e.g. that of P. Soulier) also contain some mention of Bd Ubald.
Born in Florence, Italy, in 1246; cultus confirmed in 1821. Born into Ghebelline nobility, Ubald was notorious for his wild and dissolute life. In 1276, he was converted by Saint Philip Benizi, who admitted him to the Servite institute. Ubald spent the rest of his life on Mount Senario, a model to penitent souls (Benedictines).
1315 Bd Bonaventure Buonaccorsi; a leader of the Ghibellines and notorious as a desperate character. This Bonaventure was so moved by St Philip’s exhortations to peace and concord that he went to him and accused himself of being a prominent fomenter of disorder and a cause of much misery and injustice. So penitent was he that he asked to be admitted among the Servite friars; even in his lifetime he was known as il Beato, and miracles were reported both before and after his death
In the year 1276 St Philip Benizi came to Pistoia to preside at a general chapter of the Servite Order, and took the opportunity to preach to the people of the place, which was torn by factions. Among his hearers was a man, some thirty-six years old, belonging to the noble Buonaccorsi family, who was a leader of the Ghibellines and notorious as a desperate character. This Bonaventure was so moved by St Philip’s exhortations to peace and concord that he went to him and accused himself of being a prominent fomenter of disorder and a cause of much misery and injustice. So penitent was he that he asked to be admitted among the Servite friars.
  St Philip was naturally a little doubtful about so sudden and complete a change, and tested the aspirant by imposing a public penance: Bonaventure had openly to make reparation for his misdeeds and personally ask the pardon of all whom he had wronged or caused to oppose him. This he did with such thoroughness and goodwill that St Philip took him from Pistoia to Monte Senario to make his novitiate at the headquarters of the order.
   Bonaventure persevered in his good resolutions, and after his profession was joined to St Philip as socius and admitted to the priesthood. For the next few years he was constantly with the prior general, who with the papal legate Cardinal Latino was trying to bring peace to Bologna, Florence and other distracted cities. The spectacle of the reformed Ghibelline going about in the habit of a mendicant friar and preaching brotherly love made a deep impression.

In 1282 Bd Bonaventure was made prior at Orvieto, but on the death of St Philip was called to the side of his successor, Father Lottaringo, and was eventually made preacher apostolic, with a commission to preach missions throughout Italy, which he did with great effect. In 1303 he was made prior at Montepulciano for the second time, and there assisted St Agnes in the foundation of her community of Dominican nuns, whose director he was. From thence he was moved to his native Pistoia, where civil war had again broken out and the Florentines threatened the enfeebled city. By the diffusion of confraternities and of the Servite third order, called Mantellate, Bd Bartholomew endeavoured to bring back the people to a sense of their responsibilities as Christians, and was tireless in his preaching on behalf of peace and civic unity. He died at Orvieto on December 14, 1315, and was buried in the Servite church in the chapel of our Lady of Sorrows as a testimony of the respect in which his brethren held him. This was also testified by the fact that even in his lifetime he was known as il Beato, and miracles were reported both before and after his death. The cultus of Bd Bonaventure Buonaccorsi was confirmed in 1822.

There seems to be no mention of any separate medieval life of Bd Bonaventure, but Poccianti in his Chronicon (1567) provides the outlines of a biography, which is developed by A. Giani, Annales Ordinis Servorum, vol. i, pp. 118 seq. and passim. See also Sporr, Lebensbilder aus dem Servitenorden (1892), p. 621. Further reference should be made to the early volumes of the Monumenta Ordinis Servorum B.M. V., which began to be published in 1892.
1315 St. Andrew Dotti mystic granted visions Servite missionary.
1315 Bd Andrew of Borgo San Sepolcro
Andrew Dotti was born at Borgo San Sepolcro in Tuscany about the year 1250. His family was distinguished (Andrew's brother was a captain in the bodyguard of King Philip the Fair), and the young man was brought up accordingly, with no thought of the religious life.  When he was seventeen he became a secular tertiary of the Servites, and when, a few years afterwards, a general chapter of that order was held at Borgo San Sepolcro, Andrew naturally went to hear the prior genetal, St Philip Benizi, preach. His text was, "Every one of you that doth not renounce all that he possesseth cannot be my disciple", and his eloquence and fire touched Andrew's heart; he offered himself to St Philip, was accepted, and became a Servite friar. After he was ordained he was attached to a monastery governed by St Gerard Sostegni, one of seven founders of the order, and from thence he preached with success throughout the surrounding country and accompanied St Philip Benizi on several of his missionary journeys. Bd Andrew prepared a number of hermits who were living a rather go-as-you-please life at Vallucola to affiliate themselves to the Servites and submit to their discipline, and over these he was appointed superior, until his services were again required for preaching and as prior of various houses. In 1310 he was present at the death of St Alexis Falconieri, the principal founder of the Servites, at Monte Senario, and so great was the impression made on him that he asked permission to retire to a hermitage and prepare for his own end, though he was barely sixty.
   Bd Andrew lived with great penance and was the recipient of many visions, including a forewarning of his own death;  when the day came he was apparently in good health, and he went out to a certain rock where he was wont to give conferences to his brethren.  When they assembled there they found their beloved father kneeling motionless on the rock apparently in ecstasy;  but he was dead.  He was buried in the church at Borgo San Sepolcro, where the popular veneration for his holiness was confirmed by miracles, and in 1806 Pope Pius VII approved the ancient cultus.
A full account is given in A. Giani, Annales Ordinis Servorum B.V.M., vol. i, especially pp. 230-231; see also DHG., vol. ii, c. 1663; and P. Battini, Vita del b. Andrea Dotti (1808).
Companion of St. Philip Benizi  He was born in San Sepolcro, Tuscany, Italy, to a noble family, becoming a Servite religious at the age of seventeen and later one of the Seven Founders of the congregation of St. Gerard Sostengi Monastery. He also accompanied St. Philip Benizi on his monastery journeys. Andrew served as a superior of several Servite monasteries but retired in 1310 to a hermitage at Montevecchio. He was a mystic and was granted visions .
1315 Bd Henry of Treviso; 276 miracles, wrought by his relics, recorded within days of death by notaries appointed by the magistrates: they occupy thirty-two closely printed columns of the Acta Sanctorum
Henry of Treviso, or San Rigo as he is often called in Italy, was born at Bolzano in the Trentino. His parents were very poor, and he never learnt to read or write. He went as a young man to Treviso, where he supported himself as a day labourer, secretly giving away to the poor whatever he could save from his scanty wages. Throughout his whole life his one object was the service of God. He heard Mass daily, frequently making his communion, and every day he went to confession—not from scrupulosity, but to preserve the utmost purity of conscience. All the time that was not employed in labour and in necessary duties he spent in devotion, either at church or in private; the penitential instruments he used for the discipline of his body were preserved after his death in the cathedral. Men marvelled at his extraordinary equanimity, which nothing could ever ruffle. Foolish people and children sometimes mocked or molested the shabby, thick-set little man, with his sunken eyes, long nose, and crooked mouth, but he never resented their treatment or replied to it, except to pray for them.

When he could no longer work, a citizen called James Castagnolis gave him a room in his house and, when necessary, food. Usually, however, Bd Henry subsisted on the alms of the charitable, which he shared with beggars, never holding anything over from one day to the next. Even extreme bodily weakness in ad­vancing age could not keep him from God’s house and from visiting all the churches within walking distance of Treviso. He died on June 10, 1315. His little room was immediately thronged with visitors eager to venerate him and to secure some fragment of his possessions, which consisted of a hair-shirt, a wooden log which had been his pillow, and some cords and straw that had served as his bed. Extra­ordinary scenes were witnessed after his body had been removed to the cathedral. The people broke into the basilica at night, and the bishop and the podestà, roused from their sleep, were obliged to go and protect the body by putting a wooden palisade round it. No fewer than 276 miracles, said to have been wrought by his relics, were recorded within a few days of Bd Henry’s death by the notaries appointed by the magistrates: they occupy thirty-two closely printed columns of the Acta Sanctorum. The cultus of Bd Henry was confirmed by Pope Benedict XIV.

A life of Bd Henry, by his contemporary Bishop Pierdomenico de Baone, has been printed by the Bollandists, June, vol. ii. See also R. degli Azzoni Avogaro, Memorie del Beato Enrico (2 vols., 1760); A. Tschöll (1887); Austria Sancta, Die Heiligen und Seligen Tirols, vol. ii (1910), pp. 41 seq. ; and Il B. Enrico . . . (Treviso, 1915).
1317 St. Agnes of Montepulciano Nun foundress in Tuscany noted for her visions (of Christ the Blessed Virgin and angels) levitations performed miracles for the faithful (1435 - incorrupt)
In Monte Politiáno, in Túscia, sanctæ Agnétis Vírginis, ex Ordine sancti Domínici, miráculis claræ. At Monte Pulciano, St. Agnes, a virgin of the Order of St. Dominic, celebrated for her miracles.

1317 St. Agnes of Montepulciano Nun foundress in Tuscany noted for her visions (of Christ the Blessed Virgin and angels) levitations performed miracles for the faithful (1435 - incorrupt)
In Monte Politiáno, in Túscia, sanctæ Agnétis Vírginis, ex Ordine sancti Domínici, miráculis claræ. At Monte Pulciano, St. Agnes, a virgin of the Order of St. Dominic, celebrated for her miracles.
1317 ST AGNES OF MONTEPULCIANO, VIRGIN
IN the little Tuscan village of Gracchiano-Vecchio, some three miles from Montepulciano, there was born about the year 1268 to a well-to-do couple a little girl who was destined to become one of the great women saints of the Order of Preachers. When she was nine years old she induced her parents to place her in a convent at Montepulciano, occupied by a community of austere nuns who were popularly nicknamed Sacchine, from the coarse material of their habits. Her religious formation was entrusted to an experienced old sister called Margaret, and she soon edified the whole house by her exceptional progress. Moreover she was wise beyond her years and was made housekeeper when she was only fourteen.
   One day there arrived at the convent a request from Procena that a nun might be sent to take charge of a new convent in their town. Sister Margaret, who was selected for the purpose, stipulated that she should have Agnes as her assistant, and as soon as it became known that Agnes was at Procena, a number of girls offered themselves to the new foundation, and before long she was elected abbess. A special dispensation had to be obtained from Pope Nicholas IV to authorize the appointment of a girl of fifteen to such a post. From that moment Agnes redoubled her austerities. For fifteen years she lived on bread and water, sleeping on the ground with a stone for a pillow. It was only when she was overtaken by a very severe illness which she bore, with exemplary patience that she consented to mitigate her penances.
   Numerous were the extraordinary graces conferred upon Mother Agnes. Once, in a vision, she was allowed to hold the Infant Saviour in her arms, on several occasions it was reported she received holy communion from an angel, and her nuns declared that they had many times seen her in ecstasy uplifted from the ground. They also bore testimony to the miracles she had wrought, notably the supernatural provision of bread and oil for the convent when food ran short. One of the most curious manifestations recorded of her was that on certain occasions after her raptures her cloak and the place where she was kneeling were covered with white “manna”. She looked, we are told, as if she had been out of doors in a heavy snow-storm.
  In the meantime the inhabitants of Montepulciano were becoming anxious to bring back to their town a fellow citizen whose fame had by now become widespread. It was ascertained that Agnes was favourably disposed towards a proposal to build a convent for her; and as she had by this time realized the lack of permanence inherent in communities like her own attached to no great order though practising the Rule of St Augustine, it was decided at her suggestion that the new convent should be placed wider Dominican patronage. The building was erected on the site previously occupied by several houses of ill fame which had been a disgrace to the town, and as soon as it was completed Agnes bade farewell to Procena.
   Upon her arrival at Montepulciano Agnes was installed as prioress, a post she continued to fill until her death. Several remarkable prophecies and cures attributed to the saint belong to this period of her life, and the priory at Montepulciano flourished greatly under her rule. A painful illness afflicted her later days, but she never allowed it to interfere with her usual occupations. It had been preceded by a vision in which an angel had led her under an olive tree and had offered her a cup, saying, “Drink this chalice, spouse of Christ: the Lord Jesus drank it for you. In compliance with the entreaties of her anxious daughters she resorted to some medicinal springs in the neighbourhood—the convent was not enclosed—but she derived no benefit from them and returned to Montepulciano to die. To the weeping nuns who surrounded her death-bed she said with a sweet smile, “If you loved me, you would be glad because I am about to enter the glory of my Spouse. Do not grieve over much at my departure: I shall not lose sight of you. You will find that I have not abandoned you and you will possess me for ever.” She had reached the age of forty-nine.
Amongst the countless pilgrims who visited the tomb of St Agnes may be mentioned the Emperor Charles IV and St Catherine of Siena, who held her in great veneration. When St Catherine visited the shrine it is recorded that as she stooped to kiss the foot of the incorrupt body, the foot lifted itself to meet her lips:  the incident has been made famous by several painters.  St Agnes was canonized in 1726.
Owing to the comparatively late date at which St Agnes was canonized, the main docu­ments of the process are accessible in printed form. The principal item is a biography by Bd Raymund of Capua, who some fifty years after her death was confessor to the convent. This is also printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii. There are some lives, mostly Italian, of later date, e.g. that by G. Bartoli, Istoria di S. Agnese di Montepulciano (1779), and one in German by A. Walz (1922). See also Künstle, Ikonographie, vol. ii, pp. 42—43 and Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints, pp. 100—103.
She was born circa 1268 and at the age of nine entered the monastery of Montepulciano, near her home in Gracchiano-Vecchio. Four years later she was commissioned by Pope Nicholas IV to assist in the foundation of a new convent in Procena. At fifteen she became the head of the nuns there. About 1300, the people of Montepulciano built a new convent in order to lure Agnes back to them. She established a convent under the Dominican rule and governed there until her death in 1317.
Agnes was noted for her visions. She held the infant Christ in her arms and received Holy Communion from an angel. She experienced levitations and she performed miracles for the faithful of the region. She is still revered in Tuscany.
Agnes of Montepulciano, OP V (RM) Born in Gracchiano-Vecchio, Tuscany, Italy, in 1268; died at Montepulciano, Tuscany, on April 20, 1317; canonized by Benedict XIII in 1726.

Agnes was not a child martyr like her Roman patroness but she exhibited the same simplicity, and some of her best-known legends concern her childhood. Her birth into the wealthy de Segni family was announced by great lights surrounding the house where she was born. From her infancy she was especially marked for dedication to God: she would spend hours reciting Pater Nosters and Ave Marias on her knees in the corner of some room.  By the time Agnes was six, she was already urging her parents to let her enter the convent. When they assured her that she was much too young, she begged them to move to nearby Montepulciano, so she could make frequent visits to the convent.
Because of the local political instability, her father was unwilling to move from his safe haven but did allow his little girl to visit with the sisters occasionally.

On one of these visits an event occurred that all the chroniclers record as being prophetic. Little Agnes was traveling in Montepulciano with her mother and the women of the household, and, as they passed a hill on which stood a bordello, a flock of crows swooped down and attacked the girl. Screaming and plunging, they managed to scratch and frighten her badly before the women drove them away. Upset by the incident, but devoutly sure of themselves, the women said that the birds must have been devils, and that they resented the purity and goodness of little Agnes, who would one day drive them from that hilltop.
Agnes did, in fact, build a convent there in later years.
When she was nine, Agnes insisted that the time had come to enter the convent del Sacco. She was allowed to go to a group of Franciscans in Montepulciano, whose dress was the ultimate in primitive simplicity: they were known, from the cut of the garment, as the Sacchine or 'sisters of the sack.' The high-born daughter of the Segni was not at all appalled at the crude simplicity with which they followed their Father Francis; she rejoiced in it. Her religious formation was entrusted to an experienced older sister named Margaret, and Agnes soon edified the whole house by her exceptional progress. For five years she enjoyed the only complete peace she would ever have; she was appointed bursar at the age of 14, and she never again was without some responsibility to others.
During this time Agnes reached a high degree of contemplative prayer and was favored with many visions. One of the loveliest is the one for which her legend is best known: the occasion of a visit from the Blessed Virgin. Our Lady came with the Holy Infant in her arms, and allowed Agnes to hold Him and caress Him. Unwilling to let Him go, Agnes hung on when Our Lady reached to take Him back. When she awakened from the ecstasy, Our Lady and her Holy Child were gone, but Agnes was still clutching tightly the little gold cross He had worn on a chain about His neck. She kept it as a precious treasure.
Another time, Our Lady gave her three small stones and told her that she should use them to build a convent some day. Agnes was not at the moment even thinking about going elsewhere, and said so, but Our Lady told her to keep the stones--three, in honor of the Blessed Trinity--and one day she would need them.
Some time after this, a new Franciscan convent opened in Procena, near Orvieto, and the sisters there asked the ones of Montepulciano to send them a mother superior. Sister Margaret was selected, but stipulated that Agnes must be allowed to come to help her in the foundation of the new community. There Agnes served as housekeeper -- a highly responsible position for a 14-year-old! Soon many other girls joined the convent at Procena simply became they knew that Agnes was there.
To the distress of young Agnes, she was elected abbess. Since she was only 15, a special dispensation was needed--and provided by Pope Nicholas IV--to allow her to take the office. On the day when she was consecrated abbess, great showers of tiny white crosses fluttered down on the chapel and the people in it. It seemed to show the favor of heaven on this somewhat extraordinary situation.
For 20 years, Agnes lived in Procena, happy in her retreat and privileged to penetrate the secrets of God in her prayer. She was a careful superior, as well as a mystic; several times she worked miracles to increase the house food supply when it was low. The nun's self-discipline was legendary. She lived on bread and water for fifteen years. She slept on the floor with a stone for a pillow. It is said that in her visions angels gave her Holy Communion.
Once her visions of Christ, the Blessed Virgin, and angels had become known, the citizens of Montepulciano called her back for a short stay. She went willingly enough, though she hated leaving the peace of her cloister for the confusion of travelling. She had just settled down, on her return, with the hope that she had made her last move and could now stay where she was, when obedience again called her back to Montepulciano--this time to build a new convent. A revelation had told her that she was to leave the Franciscans, among whom she had been very happy, and that she and her future sisters should become Dominicans.
In 1306, Agnes returned to Montepulciano to put the Lord's request into action: she was to build a convent on the former site of the brothels. All she had for the building of the convent were the three little stones given her by the Blessed Virgin, and Agnes--who had been bursar and knew something about money--realized that she was going to have to rely heavily on the support of heaven in her building project.
After a long quarrel with the inhabitants of the hilltop she wanted for her foundation, the land was finally secured, and the Servite prior laid the first stone, leaving her to worry about from where the rest of the stones would come. Agnes saw the project to its completion. The church and convent of Santa Maria Novella were ready for dedication in record time, and a growing collection of aspirants pleaded for admittance to the new convent.
Agnes had become convinced that the community must be anchored in an established Rule in order to attain permanence. She explained that the rule was to be Dominican, not Franciscan. All the necessary arrangements were made, she was established as prioress, the Dominicans agreed to provide chaplains and direction, and the new community settled down. They had barely established the regular life when one of the walls of the new building collapsed. It was discovered that the builders had cheated, and that the whole convent was in danger of falling on top of them. Agnes met the new problem with poise. She had many friends in Montepulciano by this time, and they rallied to rebuild the house.
When the convent was once again completed, and had become, as hoped, a dynamo of prayer and penance, Agnes decided to go to Rome on pilgrimage. It is interesting to note that Second Order convents of the 14th century were so flexible in the matter of enclosure. She made the trip to Rome and visited the shrines of the martyrs. The pope was at Avignon, so she did not have the happiness of talking to him. But she returned to Montepulciano full of happiness for having seen the holy places of Rome.
At the age of 49, Agnes's health began to fail rapidly. She was taken for treatment to the baths at Chianciano--accompanied, as it says in the rule, by 'two or three sisters'--but the baths did her no good. She did perform a miracle while there, restoring to life a child who had fallen into the baths and drowned.
Agnes returned to Montepulciano to die in the night. When she knew she was dying after a long and painful illness, Agnes told her grieving nuns that they should rejoice, for, she said, "You will discover that I have not abandoned you. You will possess me for ever." The children of the city wakened and cried out, "Holy Sister Agnes is dead!" She was buried in Montepulciano, where her tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage.
One of the most famous pilgrims to visit her tomb was Saint Catherine of Siena, who went to venerate the saint and also, probably, to visit her niece, Eugenia, who was a nun in the convent there. As she bent over the body of Saint Agnes to kiss the foot, she was amazed to see Agnes raise her foot so that Catherine did not have to stoop so far!
In 1435, her incorrupt body was translated to the Dominican church at Orvieto, where it remains today. Clement VIII approved her office for the use of the order of St. Dominic, and inserted her name in the Roman Martyrology (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Dorcy, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth, Walsh).
In art, Saint Agnes is a Dominican abbess (white habit, black mantle) with a lamb, lily, and book. She might also be portrayed (1) gazing at the Cross, a lily at her feet, (2) with the Virgin and Child appearing to her; (3) with the sick healed at her tomb (Roeder); (4) with Saint Catherine of Siena; or (5) as patroness of Montepulciano, of which she holds a model in her hand. Tiepolo presents Agnes as one of the saints surrounding the Blessed Virgin in the Jesuit church at Venice, Italy (Farmer). She is venerated at Montepulciano (Roeder).
1319 Blessed Simon Ballachi  Dominican lay-brother at age 27 visitors came to him in the silence of the night: Saint Catherine of Alexandria, to whom he had a special devotion, Saint Dominic and Saint Peter Martyr, and sometimes the Blessed Virgin herself. His little cell was radiant with heavenly lights, and sometimes angelic voices could be heard within OP (AC)
1319    BD SIMON OF RIMINI

SIMON BALLACHI at the age of twenty-seven offered himself to God as a lay-brother in the Dominican friary of Rimini, his native place. Not content with this humble position he still further mortified himself by volunteering to do all the lowliest tasks, and he disciplined his body with an iron chain, offering his pain for the conversion of sinners. He is said to have suffered greatly from diabolical visitations. Simon was principally employed in the garden, but he was also entrusted with the cultivation of young human plants, and would go through the streets with a cross in his hand calling the children to catechism. When he was fifty-seven he was stricken with blindness, and so lived for twelve years, during the last few of which he had to keep to his bed entirely. Bd Simon bore these afflictions with courage and cheerfulness, and was rewarded with the gift of miracles, so that from the day of his death he was venerated as a saint. This cultus was confirmed in 1821.

See the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol ii, where a brief account has been compiled from the very slender materials available and cf. Procter, Liver of Dominican Saints, pp. 306-309. 
Born at Sant'Arcangelo near Rimini, Italy, 1250; died November 3, 1319; declared blessed in 1817 (cultus confirmed in 1821?).
The son of Count Ballachi, nephew of two archbishops of Rimini, and brother of a priest, Simon Ballachi became a Dominican lay-brother at age 27. His family was none too happy about this decision because he was supposed to administer the family property and had been trained as a soldier. They couldn't understand why he would abandon the many opportunities life had provided for him. Not only was he throwing away a prestigious position in society, he was not even becoming a priest, which would provide him with a chance for ecclesiastical preferences.
Oblivious to the criticism of his family, Simon readily undertook the life of a lay brother. His principal work, to his great delight, was tending the garden. Having been preoccupied with military training, Simon may never have seen a garden prior to entering the Dominicans. He probably had to learn all the details of the art by trial and error.
But while he tended the friary garden, he continued to plant prayers for his soul. He was adept at seeing God in everything. It is written that he meditated on every act, "so that, while his hands cultivated the herbs and flowers of the earth, his heart might be a paradise of sweet-smelling flowers in the sight of God." He tried to find in everything he handled in the garden some lesson it could teach him about the spiritual life. When the weather was too bad for him to work outside, he swept and cleaned the monastery. Wherever his work took him, he tried to do it well and to efface himself completely, so that no one would even notice that he was there.

Under the placid exterior of a gardener, Simon concealed a spiritual life of extraordinary austerity and prayer. He worked hard during the day yet he never excused himself from rising for the night office, nor from severe penance. For 20 years he wore an iron chain around his waist. In Lent, he lived on bread and water. He found extra time for prayer by foregoing sleep. Like Saint Dominic, he scourged himself every night. Of course, all this growth in holiness attracted the devil, who would attempt to distract Simon.
Other visitors came to him in the silence of the night: Saint Catherine of Alexandria, to whom he had a special devotion, Saint Dominic and Saint Peter Martyr, and sometimes the Blessed Virgin herself. His little cell was radiant with heavenly lights, and sometimes angelic voices could be heard within.

Simon was blinded at age 57 and became helpless for the last years of his life, yet he never despaired (Benedictines, Dorcy).
1319 Blessed Justina Bezzoli Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death
(also known as Blessed Francuccia) Born at Arezzo, Italy; cultus confirmed in 1890. At the age of 13, Francuccia entered the Benedictine monastery of Saint Mark in her hometown and took the name Justina. After a time she moved to All Saints Convent. For a time she lived as a recluse at Civitella before returning to the community at All Saints (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1319 BD JUSTINA OF AREZZO, VIRGIN Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death.
JUSTINA OF Arezzo, whose name in the world appears to have been Francuccia Bizzoli, was only thirteen years old when she entered the Benedictine convent of St Mark in Arezzo. When the nuns overflowed into the convent of All Saints she accompanied them and continued to live there for many years, ever advancing in the paths of holiness. Then she left the convent with the permission of her superiors and made her way to a cell near Civitella, where she joined a holy anchoress called Lucia. This cell was so narrow and low that they could not both stand upright in it. When Lucia fell ill, Justina nursed her day and night for over a year without giving up any of her devotions and austerities. After Lucia’s death Justina remained all alone in the cell, in spite of the wolves that howled around and leaped on to the roof, until she developed a painful affection of the eyes which ended in total blindness. She was then taken from the hermitage back to Arezzo, where she and several other sisters lived in great self-abnegation and from midnight to midday served God in unbroken prayer. Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death. She died in 1319 and her cultus was approved in 1890.
All that we know of Bd Justina is contained in the short life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii.
1320 Blessed Margaret of Città di Castello born blind abandoned then adopted very holy favored with heavenly visions many miracles V (AC)
also known as Margaret of Metola) Born in at Meldola (or Metola, diocese of S. Angelo), Umbria, Italy, in 1287; cultus approved in 1609.

Margaret was born blind into a poor, mountain family, who were embittered by her affliction. When she was five years old, they made a pilgrimage to the tomb of a holy Franciscan at Castello to pray for a cure. The miracle failing, they abandoned their daughter in the church of Città-di-Castello and returned to their home.
Margaret was passed from family to family until she was adopted by a kindly peasant woman named Grigia, who had a large family of her own.
Margaret's natural sweetness and goodness soon made themselves felt, and she more than repaid the family for their kindness to her. She was an influence for good in any group of children. She stopped their quarrels, heard their catechism, told them stories, taught them Psalms and prayers. Busy neighbors were soon borrowing her to soothe a sick child or to establish peace in the house.
Her reputation for holiness was so great that a community of sisters in the town asked for her to become one of them. Margaret went happily to join them, but, unfortunately, there was little fervor in the house. The little girl who was so prayerful and penitential was a reproach to their lax lives, so Margaret returned to Grigia, who gladly welcomed her home.
Later, Margaret was received as a Dominican Tertiary and clothed with the religious habit. Grigia's home became the rendezvous site of troubled souls seeking Margaret's prayers. She said the Office of the Blessed Virgin and the entire Psalter by heart, and her prayers had the effect of restoring peace of mind to the troubled.
Denied earthly sight, Margaret was favored with heavenly visions. "Oh, if you only knew what I have in my heart!" she often said. The mysteries of the rosary, particularly the joyful mysteries, were so vivid to her that her whole person would light up when she described the scene. She was often in ecstasy, and, despite great joys and favors in prayer, she was often called upon to suffer desolation and interior trials of frightening sorts. The devil tormented her severely at times, but she triumphed over these sufferings.
A number of miracles were performed by Blessed Margaret. On one occasion, while she was praying in an upper room, Grigia's house caught fire, and she called to Margaret to come down. The blessed, however, called to her to throw her cloak on the flames. This she did, and the blaze died out. At another time, she cured a sister who was losing her eyesight.
Beloved by her adopted family and by her neighbors and friends, Margaret died at the early age of 33. From the time of her death, her tomb in the Dominican church was a place of pilgrimage. Her body, even to this day, is incorrupt.
After her death, the fathers received permission to have her heart opened. In it were three pearls, having holy figures carved upon them. They recalled the saying so often on the lips of Margaret: "If you only knew what I have in my heart!" (Attwater2, Benedictines, Dorcy).
In art, Margaret is pictured as Dominican tertiary holding a cross, lily, heart with 2 flames offered to the crucifix (Roeder).
1322 Bd John Of Alvernia; frequent ecstasies and visions of our Lord and saints; on All Souls' day while offering Mass he saw numberless souls released from Purgatory; for 3 months he was conscious of his guardian angel, who conversed with him
This John is sometimes called “of Fermo” in the Marches, where he was born in 1259, but usually “of Alvernia” because he lived for many years and died on the mountain of La Verna. In 1272 desire for a life of greater perfection caused him to join the Friars Minor, and after his profession he was sent to La Verna, where St Francis had received the stigmata. Here he lived in a cell formed in a cave in the mountain-side, sleeping only a few hours, and then on the bare ground with a stone for pillow. In this solitude of penance and contemplation he spent some years, and frequent ecstasies and visions of our Lord and of the saints are recorded of him; one All Souls’ day while offering Mass he saw numberless souls released from Purgatory, and for a space of three months he was conscious of the habitual presence of his guardian angel, who conversed with him.
   After a time his austerities became excessive and St Francis himself in vision ordered him to moderate them lest he unfit himself for the active service of his neighbour to which he was soon to be called.  This took the form of preaching and pastoral work, first in the towns and villages around La Verna and then throughout central and northern Italy. He had the gifts of infused knowledge and of reading souls, and his exhortations brought back many who were sinners to Christ and excited the admiration of good and learned men. He never wrote out his sermons, and when it was pointed out to him that this had its disadvantages he replied, “When I go into the pulpit I just remind myself that it is not I, a poor sinner, who is to preach, but God Himself who will teach divine truth through my mouth. Do you suppose, dear brethren, that God can ever fail in His words?”
    Bd John was a close friend of the poet Bd Giacopone da Todi and gave him the last sacraments as he lay dying on Christmas day 1306; and John himself is alleged to be the author of the proper preface sung by the Friars Minor in the Mass of St Francis. He was at the friary of Cortona when he felt death approaching he therefore hurried to La Verna, and there died on August 10 1322.
 To the brothers who were present he said, as his last message, If you would have a good conscience, wish to know Jesus Christ only, for He is the way. If you would have wisdom, wish to know Jesus Christ only, for He is the truth. If you wish to have glory, wish to know Jesus Christ only, for He is the life.”
The cultus of Bd John of Alvernia was approved in 1880. The Friars Minor keep his feast with Bd Novellone~ (above), and join with it that of BD VINCENT OF AQUILA, a lay-brother who died at San Giuliano in 1504: “a man of great humility, of prayer, temperance and patience, adorned with the spirit of prophecy.” His cultus was confirmed in 1785.
There is more than one sketch of the life of Bd John printed in the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. ii, and there is another early account which has been edited in the Analecta Franciscana, vol. iii (1879), pp. 439—447. See also Léon, Aureole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 553 seq., and more especially L. Oliger, Il b. Giovanni della Verna (1913). For Bd Vincent, see the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. ii; and G. Rivera, Il b. Vincenzo dall’ Aquila (1904).
1322 Blessed Simon Rinalducci famous preacher; Bd Simon died at Bologna and many cures took place at his tomb. OSA (AC)
1322 BD SIMON OF TODI
SIMON RINALDUCCI of Todi joined the Hermits of St Augustine in the year 1280. He was a distinguished preacher and became prior of several houses of his order besides being at one time provincial of Umbria. In a general chapter grave accusations were made against him in his absence by some of his brethren. Although he could have cleared himself, he chose rather to suffer in silence than to court an inquiry which would certainly have caused scandal and might have led to dissensions in the order. Bd Simon died at Bologna and many cures took place at his tomb.

See the notice in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii, where an account is printed of the miracles alleged to have been worked at his intercession. The confirmatio cultus was accorded in 1833.
Born in Todi, Italy; cultus confirmed in 1833. The Augustinian friar Simon Rinalducci became a famous preacher. For a time he was provincial in Umbria. He kept silence under an unjust accusation rather than cause scandal among his brothers (Benedictines).
1323 Blessed Augustine Gazotich of Lucera fought the Manichæen heresy; in Sicily, Islam; in Hungary both Several charming miracles are related OP B (AC)
BD AUGUSTINE, BISHOP OF LUCERA  (A.D. 1323)  
AUGUSTINE GAZOTICH was born at Trogir in Dalmatia about the year 1260 and before he was twenty received the habit of the Friars Preachers. After profession he was sent to Paris, to study at the university, and on his way thither nearly came to an untimely end: while passing through the district of Pavia with a fellow Dominican, Brother James, they were set on by footpads; James was killed and Brother Augustine recovered only after some weeks' nursing in a near-by country-house.
He preached fruitfully in his own country and established several new houses of his order, to which he gave as their motto the words of his patron, St Augustine of Hippo: "Since I began to serve God, as I have hardly ever seen better men than those who live a holy life in monasteries, so I have never seen worse than those in monasteries who live not as they should."
After missions in Italy and Bosnia, missions wherein he confirmed his reputation for great charity and prudence, Bd Augustine was sent to Hungary, where the people had been reduced to a bad state of misery and irreligion by continual civil wars. Here he met Cardinal Nicholas Boccasini, the papal legate, who was to become Bd Benedict XI, and attracted his favourable notice, and when Cardinal Boccasini became pope in 1303 he sent for Bd Augustine and consecrated him bishop of Zagreb in Croatia.
His clergy, and in consequence the whole diocese, was badly in need of reform, and he held disciplinary synods whose canons he enforced and supported in frequent visitations, and he encouraged learning and the study of the Bible by establishing a Dominican priory in his cathedral city. He was present at the general council at Vienne in 1311-12; and on his return he suffered persecution at the hands of Miladin, governor of Dalmatia, against whose tyranny and exactions he had protested. Bd Augustine had in a marked degree the gift of healing (he had cured of rheumatism the hands that gave him episcopal anointing) and there is a pleasant story told of how he rebuked those who flocked to him for this reason: he planted a lime tree, and suggested that its leaves would be more efficacious than his hands.
God and the people took him at his word, and even the invading Turks respected the wonder-working tree.
After ruling the diocese of Zagreb for fourteen years Bd Augustine was translated to the see of Lucera in the province of Benevento. Here his great task was to eradicate the religious and moral corruption which the Saracens had left behind them; the remainder of the Moslems had been more or less converted in a body in 1300. King Robert of Naples gave him the fullest support and endowed a monastery of Dominicans who zealously assisted their bishop, and within five years the face of the country was changed. Bd Augustine was venerated by all, from the royal family downwards, and when he died on August 3, 1323, a cultus began which was formally confirmed in 1702.
The principal source seems to be a Latin life written as late as the seventeenth century by Thomas Marnavich, Bishop of Bosnia; in this the family name, figures as Gozottus. It is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. i. See also Taurisano, Calalogus Hagiographicus a.p., pp. 27-28, in which inter alia a reference is given to Mortier, Maîtres Generaux O.P., vol. iv, pp. 461-467: the pages in question, however, have nothing to do with this Bd Augustine, but with another Augustine of Zagreb, who lived a century later.
Born in Trau, Dalmatia, c. 1260-1262; cultus reconfirmed by Pope Clement XI in 1702. Augustine was born into a wealthy family who provided him with an excellent education. At 18, he and an Italian friend headed to the Dominican novitiate in France. Near Pavia, Italy, they were attacked by enemies of his family, who left the bodies of the two boys in the snow by the side of the road. Augustine was badly injured; his friend died. When he recovered from his injuries, Augustine continued to the novitiate. Augustine spent most of his life battling heresy: In his native Dalmatia, he fought the Manichæen heresy; in Sicily, Islam; in Hungary both.
In every situation in which he found himself, Augustine gave proof of his virtue and good judgment. When Cardinal Boccasini came to Hungary as legate, he noted the wisdom and tact of his brother Dominican, and when he himself ascended the papal throne as Benedict XI, he appointed Augustine bishop of Zagreb in Croatia in 1303.
This diocese was in chaos when Augustine assumed the cathedra. His three predecessors had all tried, but failed, to repair the ravages of heresy, plague, and schism. The new bishop began by reforming the clergy. He finished building the cathedral and made a complete visitation of his diocese. His work was to bring him into violent conflict with the government, but, spiritually, he restored the entire see during his episcopacy.
Several charming miracles are related about Augustine. The river water of Zagreb was unfit to drink, so the Dominican fathers asked Augustine to pray for a new supply. At his prayer a fountain sprang up in the yard of the convent, abundantly supplying their needs. Another time he planted a tree in a little village and the leaves turned out to have healing properties. On one occasion, when Bishop Augustine was dining with Benedict XI, the pope, feeling that a missionary bishop must eat well to preach well, had a dish of partridge set before Augustine, who never ate meat. Because he did not want to offend the pope, he prayed for a resolution to the situation. The legend says that God turned the partridges into fish!
Augustine was transferred from Zagreb to Lucera (Nocera), Sicily. Here he continued his holy government, using his characteristic gentleness and his gift of healing. He promoted devotion to Saints Dominic, Thomas Aquinas, and Peter Martyr--all brother Dominicans. Feeling that he was near death, he returned to the Dominican convent in Nocera to die among his brethren. Under his statue in the cathedral of Nocera is the legend, "Sanctus Augustine Episcopus Lucerinus Ordinis Praedicatorum," an indication of the veneration in which he is held (Benedictines, Dorcy) .
1325 Sainted Nikodim, Archbishop of Serbia, was hegumen of the Khilendaria monastery elevated to the dignity of bishop in 1316 translated into the Slavonic language and ordered into use in Serbia the Typikon (Ustav) of Saint Sava the Sanctified, of Jerusalem  wonderworking relics
Especially noteworthy is this, that in the year 1319 he translated into the Slavonic language and ordered into use in Serbia the Typikon (Ustav) of Saint Sava the Sanctified, of Jerusalem.  Sainted Nikodim died in the year 1325.

St Nicodemus, Archbishop of Pec  (May 11)  SerbianOrthodoxChurch.net
This great hierarch was a Serb by birth. He lived in asceticism on the Holy Mountain, and was abbot of Hilandar. After the death of Sava the Third, he was chosen as archbishop of `all the Serbian lands and those bordering the sea', in 1317. He crowned King Milutin in 1321. He also translated the Jerusalem Typikon* into Serbian. In the Preface of this book he says: `Almighty God, who knows our weak-nesses, will give us spiritual strength, but only if we first make an effort.' He sincerely loved the ascetic life, and laboured to deepen it in the land of Serbia. He laboured tirelessly to uproot the Bogomil heresy and confirm the Orthodox faith. He entered into rest in the Lord in 1325 and his wonderworking relics are preserved in the monastery at Pec.
*A Typikon is a book of rubrics for the ordering of church services and of monastic life -Translator. 
 SerbianOrthodoxChurch.net
* From "The Prologue from Ochrid", by Bishop Nikolai Velimirovic - Lazarica Press - Birmingham 1985 Four Book Edition - Translated by Mother Maria - Dates based on old church calendar
1331 BD ODORIC OF PORDENONE IT would not be easy to find in secular literature a more adventurous career than that of the Franciscan Friar Odoric of Pordenone. Miracle worker
IT would not be easy to find in secular literature a more adventurous career than that of the Franciscan Friar Odoric of Pordenone. He was a native of Friuli, and his family name is said to have been Mattiussi. About the year 1300, when he was fifteen, he received the habit of St Francis at Udine, and his later biographers expatiate upon the extreme fervour with which he gave himself to prayer, poverty and penance. After a while he felt called to serve God in solitude, and he obtained the permission to lead the life of a hermit in a remote cell. We are not told how long he spent in this close communion with God, but he seems to have been guided to return to Udine and to take up apostolic work in the surrounding districts. Great success followed his preaching, and crowds gathered from afar to hear him. But about 1317, when he was a little over thirty, there came to him an inspiration of a somewhat different kind, and it is difficult from the documents before us to decide how far he was influenced in his subsequent career by a simple spirit of adventure and how far by the burning desire of the missionary to extend God’s kingdom and to save souls. We shall probably not be wrong in assuming that there was a mixture of both.

It is not easy to give precise dates, but according to Yule and Cordier he was in western India soon after 1322, he must have spent three of the years between 1322 and 1328 in northern China, and he certainly died at home among his brethren at Udine in January 1331.

With regard to the route he followed in his wanderings we are better informed. His first objective was Constantinople, and from thence he passed on to Trebizond, Erzerum, Tabriz and Soltania. There were houses of the order in most of these cities, and he probably made a considerable stay in each, so that this part of his journey may well have occupied three years. From Soltania he seems to have wandered about very irregularly, but eventually he came south through Baghdad to Hormuz at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, where he took ship and sailed to Salsette. At Tana, or possibly Surat, he gathered up the bones of his four brethren who had been martyred there shortly before, in 1321, and carried them with him on his voyage eastward. He went on to Malabar and Ceylon, and then probably rested for a while at the shrine of St Thomas at Mailapur, by the modern Madras. Here he again took ship for Sumatra and Java, possibly also visiting southern and eastern Borneo.

China was his next goal. Starting from Canton, he travelled to the great ports of Fo-kien, and from Fu-chau he pro­ceeded across the mountains to Hang-chau, then famous under the name of Quinsai as the greatest city of the world, and Nan-king. Taking to the water again upon the great canal at Yang-chau, he made his way to Khanbaliq, or Peking, and there remained for three years, attached apparently to one of the churches founded by Archbishop John of Montecorvino, another heroic Franciscan mission­ary, now in extreme old age. There Odoric turned his face homewards, passing through Shen-si to Tibet and its capital, Lhasa, but we have no further record of the course by which he ultimately reached his native province in safety. It is interesting to note that during the latter part at least of these long journeys Odoric had for his companion an Irish friar of the same order, one Brother James. The fact is known to us from a record preserved in the archives of Udine, which tells us that after Odoric’s death a present of two marks was made “for the love of God and the blessed Brother Odoric” to Brother James, the Irishman, who had been his companion on his journey.

The account which has been left us of Odoric’s travels, which unfortunately was not written down by himself at the time but dictated to one of his brethren after his return, says practically nothing of any missionary labours on his part. It is, therefore, not certain how far we may credit the wonderful stories which were current in later times regarding the success which attended his preaching. Luke Wadding, the annalist, declares that he converted and baptized 2o,ooo Saracens, but he gives us no idea of the source of his information. It is also stated that Odoric’s purpose in leaving China and returning to Europe was to obtain fresh supplies of missionaries and to conduct them himself to the Far East. At Pisa, however, St Francis appeared to him and bade him return to Udine, declaring that he himself would look after those distant missions about which Odoric was anxious. On his deathbed the worn-out apostle said that God had made known to him that his sins were pardoned, but that he wished, like a humble child, to submit himself to the keys of the Church and to receive the last sacraments.

He died on January 14, 1331. Many miracles are said to have been wrought after his death, and in one of these we hear again of Brother James the Irishman, for a certain Franciscan who was a preacher and doctor of theology at Venice, and had suffered cruelly from a painful malady of the throat, asked Brother James to recommend him to his late fellow traveller, and was immediately cured. The cultus long paid to him was approved in 1755.

The narrative of his journeys, as dictated in Latin by Bd Odoric, will be found printed in the Acta Sanctorum for January 14, but the fullest account, with translation and notes, will be found in Yule-Cordier, Cathay and the Way Thither (1913), vol. ii. See also Wadding, Annales, sa. 1331 ; M. Komroff, Contemporaries of Marco Polo (1928) ; and H. Matrod, L’itinéraire . . . du b. Odoric de Pordenone (1936). There is a fifteenth-century Welsh version of the voyages, ed. S. J. Williams, Ffordd y Brawd Odrig (1929). Fuller biblio­graphies in Yule and in U. Chevalier, Bio-Bibliographie.
1333 Blessed Imelda Lambertini patron of first communicants died of love on her first Communion day Saint Agnes came in a vision she saw a brilliant light shining above Imelda's head, and a Host suspended in the light OP V (AC)

1333 BD IMELDA, VIRGIN
THE
patroness of fervent first communion, Bd Imelda, came of one of the oldest families in Bologna: her father was Count Egano Lambertini, and her mother was Castora Galuzzi. Even as a tiny child she showed unusual piety, taking delight in prayer and slipping off to a quiet corner of the house, which she adorned with flowers and pictures to make it into a little oratory. When she was nine she was placed, at her own wish, in the Dominican convent in Val di Pietra, to be trained there by the nuns. Her disposition soon endeared her to all, whilst the zeal with which she entered into all the religious life of the house greatly edified the sisters. Her special devotion was to the eucharistic presence of our Lord at Mass and in the tabernacle. To receive our Lord in holy communion became the consuming desire of her heart, but the custom of the place and time had fixed twelve as the earliest age for a first communion. She would sometimes exclaim: “Tell me, can anyone receive Jesus into his heart and not die?”

When she was eleven years old she was present with the rest of the community at the Ascension-day Mass. All the others had received their communion: only Imelda was left unsatisfied. The nuns were preparing to leave the church when some of them were startled to see what appeared to be a Sacred Host hovering in the air above Imelda, as she knelt before the closed tabernacle absorbed in prayer. Quickly they attracted the attention of the priest, who hurried forward with a paten on which to receive it. In the face of such a miracle he could not do otherwise than give to Imelda her first communion, which was also her last. For the rapture with which she received her Lord was so great that it broke her heart: she sank un­conscious to the ground, and when loving hands upraised her, it was found that she was dead.

The Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, inserted a notice of Bd Imelda on the ground of a long-established cultus, though the formal papal confirmation did not occur until 1826. Many devotional booklets—notably those by Lataste (1889), Corsini (1892), Wilms (1925), and T. Alfonsi (1927)—have been published concerning her; but see more especially M. C. de Ganay, Les Bienheureuses Dominicaines (1913), pp. 145—152. There is also a short account in Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints, pp. 259—262, and a devotional sketch, R. Zeller, Imelda Lambertini (1930).

Blessed Imelda, came from one of the oldest families in Bologna; her father was Count Igano Lambertini and her mother was Castora Galuzzi. Even as a tiny child she showed unusual piety, taking delight in prayer and slipping off to a quiet corner of the house, which she adorned with flowers and pictures to make it a little oratory. When she was nine, she was placed, at her own wish, in the Dominican convent in Val di Pietra, to be trained there by the nuns.
Her disposition soon endeared her to all, while the zeal with which she entered all the religious life of the house greatly edified the nuns. Her special devotion was to the Eucharistic presence of Our Lord at Mass and in the tabernacle.
To receive Our Lord in Holy Communion became the consuming desire of her heart, but the custom of the place and time had fixed twelve as the earliest age for a first communion. She would sometimes exclaim: "Tell me, can anyone receive Jesus into his heart and not die? " When she was eleven years old she was present with the rest of the community at the Ascension Day Mass. All the others had received their communion: only Imelda was left unsatisfied. The nuns were preparing to leave the church when some of them were startled to see what appeared to be a Sacred Host hovering in the air above Imelda, as she knelt before the closed tabernacle absorbed in prayer.
Quickly they attracted the attention of the priest who hurried forward with a paten on which to receive It. In the face of such a miracle he could not do otherwise than give to Imelda her first communion, which was also her last
For the rapture with which she received her Lord was so great that it broke her heart: she sank unconscious to the ground, and when loving hands upraised her, she was dead.
1336 St. Elizabeth of Portugal exercises of piety, including daily Mass, but also through her exercise of charity, by which she was able to befriend and help pilgrims, strangers, the sick, the poor—in a word, all those whose need came to her notice
Stremótii, in Lusitánia, natális sanctæ Elísabeth Víduæ, Lusitanórum Regínæ, quam, virtútibus et miráculis claram, Urbánus Octávus, Póntifex Máximus, in Sanctórum númerum rétulit.  Ejus tamen celébritas octávo Idus mensis hujus recólitur, ex dispositióne Innocéntii Papæ Duodécimi.
    At Estremos in Portugal, the birthday of St. Elizabeth the Widow, queen of Portugal, whom Pope Urban VIII, mindful of her virtues and miracles, placed among the number of the saints.  Pope Innocent XII ordered her feast to be kept on the 8th of July.
ST ELIZABETH OF PORTUGAL, WIDOW (A.D. 1336)
THIS Elizabeth was daughter of Peter III, King of Aragon. She was born in 1271, and received at the font the name of Elizabeth, from her great-aunt, St Elizabeth of Hungary, but she is known in her own country by the Spanish form of that name; Isabella. Her birth was an omen of that title of "the Peacemaker" which she was to earn in after-life, for by it was established a good understanding between her grandfather James, who was then on the throne, and her father, whose quarrelling had divided the whole kingdom. The young princess was of a sweet disposition, and from her early years had relish for anything that was conducive to devotion and goodness. She desired to emulate every virtue which she saw practised by others, for she had been already taught that mortification of the will is to be joined with prayer to obtain the grace which restrains our tendency to sin. This is often insufficiently considered by those parents who excite the wilfulness and self-indulgence of their children by teaching them a love of worthless things and giving in to every whim and want. Certainly, fasting is not good for them; but submission of the will, obedience, and consideration for others are never more indispensable than at this time; nor is any abstinence more fruitful than that by which children are taught not to drink or eat between meals, to bear little denials without impatience, and never to make a fuss about things. The victory of Elizabeth over herself was owing to this early training.
At twelve years of age she was married to Denis, King of Portugal. That prince admired her birth, beauty, riches and personality more than her virtue; yet he allowed her an entire liberty in her devotion, and esteemed her piety without feeling called on to imitate it. Elizabeth therefore planned for herself a regular distribution of her time, which she never interrupted unless extraordinary occasions of duty or charity obliged her. She rose early every morning, and recited Matins, Lauds and Prime before Mass; in the afternoon she had other regular devotions after Vespers. Certain hours were allotted to her domestic affairs, public business, or what she owed to others. She was abstemious in her food, modest in her dress, humble and affable in conversation, and wholly bent upon the service of God. Frequent attempts were made to induce her to modify her life, but without success. Charity to the poor was a distinguishing part of her character. She gave orders to have pilgrims and poor strangers provided with lodging and necessaries, and made it her business to seek out and relieve persons who were reduced to necessity. She provided marriage dowries for girls, and founded in different parts of the kingdom charitable establishments, particularly a hospital at Coimbra, a house for penitent women at Torres Novas, and a refuge for foundlings. Nor with it all did Elizabeth neglect any of her immediate duties, especially those of respect, love and obedience to her husband, whose neglect and infidelity she bore with much patience.
For Denis, though a good ruler, was a bad subject: just, brave, generous and compassionate in public life, devoted to his realm, but in his private relations selfish and sinful. The queen used all her endeavours to reclaim him, grieving deeply for the offence to God and the scandal given to the people; she never ceased to pray for his conversion. She strove to gain him by courtesy and constant sweetness, and cheerfully cherished his natural children and took care of their education.
St Elizabeth had two children, Alfonso, who afterwards succeeded his father, and a daughter, Constance. This son when he grew up showed a very rebellious spirit, partly due to the favour in which his father held his illegitimate sons. Twice he rose in arms and twice his mother brought about a reconciliation, riding out between the opposing forces. But evil tongues suggested to the king that she secretly favoured her son and for a time she was banished from the court. Her love for concord and qualities as a peacemaker were indeed very notable; she stopped or averted war between Ferdinand IV of Castile, and his cousin, and between that prince and her own brother, James II of Aragon.
Her husband Denis became seriously ill in 1324, and Elizabeth gave all her attention to him, scarcely ever leaving his room unless to go to the church. During his long and tedious illness the king gave marks of sincere sorrow for the disorders of his life, and he died at Santarem on January 6, 1325. After his burial the queen made a pilgrimage to Compostela, after which she wished to retire to a convent of Poor Clares which she had founded at Coimbra. However, she was dissuaded, and instead she was professed in the third order of St Francis, and lived in a house which she built near to her convent, leading a life of great simplicity.
The cause of peace that had been so dear to her all her life was the occasion of Elizabeth's death, which came about on July 4, 1336 at Estremoz, whither she had gone on an errand of reconciliation in spite of her age and the great heat. She was buried in the church of her monastery of Poor Clares at Coimbra, and honoured by miracles; and eventually in 1626 her cultus was crowned by canonization.
The Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. ii, have printed a life of the queen which seems to be of almost contemporary date, and a good deal of information may also be found in the chronicles of the period. See also P; de Moucheron, Ste Elisabeth d'Aragon (1896); and a short sketch by Fr V. McNabb (1937). The story (told by Butler in company with many others) of the innocent page saved miraculously from death in a lime-kiln is a mere fiction which can be traced back to the folk-lore of ancient India. See Cosquin in the Revue des Questions historiques, vol. lxxiii (1903), pp, 3-12, with vol. lxxiv, pp, 207-217; and Formichi in Archivio delle tradizioni popolari, vol. xxii (1903), pp. 9-30. It is only in 1562 that we find it christianized and told in connection with St Elizabeth.

Elizabeth is usually depicted in royal garb with a dove or an olive branch. At her birth in 1271, her father, Pedro III, future king of Aragon, was reconciled with his father, James, the reigning monarch. This proved to be a portent of things to come. Under the healthful influences surrounding her early years, she quickly learned self-discipline and acquired a taste for spirituality. Thus fortunately prepared, she was able to meet the challenge when, at the age of 12, she was given in marriage to Denis, king of Portugal. She was able to establish for herself a pattern of life conducive to growth in God’s love, not merely through her exercises of piety, including daily Mass, but also through her exercise of charity, by which she was able to befriend and help pilgrims, strangers, the sick, the poor—in a word, all those whose need came to her notice. At the same time she remained devoted to her husband, whose infidelity to her was a scandal to the kingdom.
He too was the object of many of her peace endeavors. She long sought peace for him with God, and was finally rewarded when he gave up his life of sin. She repeatedly sought and effected peace between the king and their rebellious son, Alfonso, who thought that he was passed over to favor the king’s illegitimate children. She acted as peacemaker in the struggle between Ferdinand, king of Aragon, and his cousin James, who claimed the crown. And finally from Coimbra, where she had retired as a Franciscan tertiary to the monastery of the Poor Clares after the death of her husband, she set out and was able to bring about a lasting peace between her son Alfonso, now king of Portugal, and his son-in-law, the king of Castile.
Third Order of St. Francis.

Elizabeth was a Spanish princess who was given in marriage to King Denis of Portugal at the age of twelve. She was very beautiful and very lovable. She was also very devout, and went to Mass every day. Elizabeth was a holy wife, but although her husband was fond of her at first, he soon began to cause her great suffering. Though a good ruler, he did not imitate his wife's love of prayer and other virtues. In fact, his sins of impurity gave great scandle to the people.
Later, to make matters worse, the King believed a lie told about Elizabeth and one of her pages by another page, who was jealous of his companion. In great anger the King ordered the one he believed guilty, to be sent to a lime-burner. The lime-burner was commanded to throw into his furnace the first page who came. The good page set out obediently, not knowing death was waiting for him. On his way he stopped for Mass, since he had the habit of going daily. The first Mass had begun, so he stayed for a second one. In the meantime, the King sent the wicked page to the lime-burner to find out if the other had been killed. And so it was this page who was thrown into the furnace! When the King learned what had happened, he realized that God had saved the good page, punished the liar, and proven Queen Elizabeth to be innocent.
This amazing event helped greatly to make the King live better. He apologized to his wife in front of everyone and began to have a great respect for her. In his last sickness, she never left his side, except for Mass, until he died a holy death. St. Elizabeth lived for eleven more years, doing even greater charity and penance. She was a wonderful model of kindness toward the poor and a successful peacemaker between members of her own family and between nations.
Because St. Elizabeth was faithful to daily Mass, she found strength to carry her many great crosses. And because her page was faithful to daily Mass, he escaped death. We should try our best to make it a habit to go to Mass daily.
Comment:  The work of promoting peace is anything but a calm and quiet endeavor. It takes a clear mind, a steady spirit and a brave soul to intervene between people whose emotions are so aroused that they are ready to destroy one another. This is all the more true of a woman in the early 14th century. But Elizabeth had a deep and sincere love and sympathy for humankind, almost a total lack of concern for herself and an abiding confidence in God. These were the tools of her success.
Elisabeth von Portugal Katholische Kirche: 4. Juli
Elisabeth, Tochter des Königs Pedro von Aragon, wurde um 1270 geboren. In der Taufe erhielt sie nach ihrer Großtante den Namen Elisabeth. Sie wird auch Isabella von Aragon genannt. 1282 heiratete sie König Dionysius von Portugal. Ihr Sohn Alfons lag laufend mit seinem Vater und anderen Königen im Streit und Elisabeth konnte mehrmals erfolgreich vermitteln. Bei ihrer letzten Mission starb sie am 4.7.1336 in Estremoz. Elisabeth unterstütze zahlreiche kirchloche Einrichtungen. Nach dem Tod ihres Mannes 1325 zog sie sich in ein von ihr errichtetes Kloster zurück und wurde später Franziskaner-Tertiarin. Elisabeth ist Patronin von Portugal, Coimbra, Estremoz und Saragossa.
1336 Blessed Maurice Csaky earnest, pious priest  gift of prophecy miracles of healing were reported at his grave OP (PC)
(also known as Blessed Maurice of Hungary)
Maurice, Prince of Hungary, was persecuted by his father-in-law for his desire to remain in the Dominican Order. He was born into the royal house of Hungary. There had been many heavenly signs before his birth that he was to be an unusual favorite of God, but for the first few years of his life he was so sickly that no one believed he would survive. By the time he was five, he was a delicate, dreamy child who played at saying Mass and leading family prayers. The little chapel in his father's castle was his favorite haunt, and he was always to be found there between sessions in the schoolroom.
When he was still quite small, an old Dominican came one day to visit his parents, and took a great fancy to the handsome little boy. He told the child the story of Saint Alexis, which greatly impressed him. When Maurice knelt to ask the old priest's blessing, the Dominican said prophetically, "This child will one day enter our holy Order and will be one of its joys."

In spite of the several indications that God had designs on Maurice, circumstances conspired against him. His parents died when he was still quite young, leaving him immensely wealthy and solely in charge of his father's estates. A brother, who had entered the Dominican novitiate, died very young. Relatives prevailed upon Maurice to marry. Against all his wishes, he did so.

However, he and his young wife, the daughter of the Count of Palatine, made a vow of continence, and both resolved to became Dominicans as soon as it was possible to dispose of the estates. When his wife fled to the Isle of Margaret in the Danube, and took the veil in Saint Margaret's convent, her father was furious. He went in search of the young husband and found that he, too, had gone to the Dominicans. He settled the matter in the forthright fashion of the times by kidnapping Maurice and locking him in a tower. Here, like another Thomas Aquinas, the young novice settled down to wait until someone tired of the arrangement.

After three months of unfruitful punishment, Maurice was released as incorrigible, and his relatives devoted their attention to getting hold of his estates instead. He went happily off to Bologna to complete his studies, where he remained for three years.

For 32 years, Maurice ignored the throne and the luxuries of the world to live in obscurity and poverty. The picture of him left us by the chroniclers is an engaging one: an earnest, pious priest who made no effort to capitalize on his birth or social graces; a zealous addict of poverty, who managed, by a series of sagacious trades, to have the oldest habit in the house and the dreariest cell. He is said to have said the whole Psalter daily, plus the Penitential Psalms, and the Litany of the Saints.

A number of curious stories are told about him. Once, when he was staying with a Benedictine friend, the friend noticed that he went in and out of locked doors with no trouble at all, and that the rooms lighted up by themselves when he entered. Maurice is supposed to have had the gift of prophecy. A relative of his had cheated the sisters out of some property that Maurice had left them. Maurice told him that the goods would be taken away from him, and that another man, more generous, would give it back to the sisters. The man died shortly thereafter, and the prophecy was fulfilled.

After Maurice's death at least two miracles of healing were reported at his grave: one was a cure from fever, another from blindness. Butler's Lives of the Saints lists him as "Blessed Maurice" and he is still venerated in Hungary, although his cultus has never been formally approved (Attwater2, Benedictines, Dorcy).
1338 Saint Daniel of Serbia gift of wonderworking and healing  built  Ascension of the Lord at Dechani the finest Christian monuments in Serbia
The only son of rich and renowned parents, was a close associate of the Serbian king Stephan Urosh Milutin. Having renounced a secular career, he received monastic tonsure from the igumen of the St Nicholas monastery at Konchul near the River Ibar. St Daniel's ascetic life was an example for all the brethren.

Archbishop Eustathius of Serbia ordained him presbyter and took him into his cell. When it was time to choose the igumen for the Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos, St Daniel received the appointment. The saint was igumen at a most difficult time for the Holy Mountain. After the Crusaders were expelled from Palestine, they joined with the Arabs to plunder and loot the Athonite monasteries, "not sparing anything sacred."

St Daniel remained at the Hilandar monastery, enduring siege and hunger. When peace came to the Holy Mountain, the saint resigned as igumen and withdrew into complete silence in the cell of St Sava of Serbia (at Karyes). During the internecine war of Kings Milutin and Dragutin and Stephen of Dechani (November 11), the ascetic was summoned to Serbia, where he reconciled the adversaries.

In his native land Daniel was made Bishop of Banja and head of the renowned monastery of St Stephen, a royal treasury. After completing the construction of a cathedral church at Banja in honor of the holy Protomartyr and Archdeacon Stephen, St Daniel returned to his monastic labors on the Holy Mountain.

The saint was summoned from Athos again in 1325, when he was elected Archbishop of Serbia. He was consecrated on the Feast of the Elevation of the Cross of the Lord. The Protos ["head"] of the Holy Mountain, Garbasios, and other Athonite Elders took part in the solemnities.

Archbishop Daniel was a model of piety, and a wise archpastor. His tenure as archbishop was marked by complete non-covetousness, concern and toil for the needs of the Church and the flock, and the building of churches. In 1335 the saint built a church at Dechani in honor of the Ascension of the Lord, one of the finest Christian monuments in Serbia. He collected accounts about the Serbian past, and compiled the "Rodoslov" [Account about the homeland], writing about the lives of Serbian rulers and Serbian archpastors.

Even during his lifetime St Daniel was granted the gift of wonderworking and healing. After 14 years archbishop, St Daniel departed to the Lord on December 19, 1338.
1338 Blessed James Benfatti a master in theology and a holy priest; Nearly 150 years after his death, when repairs were being made in the church where he was buried, an accident opened his tomb, and people were startled to find that his body was completely incorrupt. Again in 1604, the same phenomenon was noted; worked many miracles among his flock. At his death in 1338, many remarkable miracles occurred  OP B (AC)
(also known as James of Mantua) Born in Mantua, Italy; died there; cultus confirmed 1859 by Pope Pius IX. James Benefatti, bishop of Mantua, was a famous man in his time; it is unfortunate that he is so little known in ours.

James entered the Dominican convent in his home town about 1290. He was both a master in theology and a holy priest. These qualities brought him to the attention of his brother Dominican, Nicholas Boccasino, the future Pope Benedict XI. As cardinal, Nicholas chose the young Dominican from Mantua for his companion. He employed him in various offices in Rome and recommended him to other high-ranking prelates. Consequently, James found himself kept busy in diplomatic offices by several popes--Benedict XI and John XXII among them.

For 18 years after being consecrated (1303) bishop of Mantua by Pope John XXII in 1320, James occupied the see and accomplished great good among the people, meriting his title of "Father of the Poor." He rebuilt and refurnished the cathedral and worked many miracles among his flock. At his death in 1338, many remarkable miracles occurred, and he was called "Blessed James" by people who were grateful for his intercession. Nearly 150 years after his death, when repairs were being made in the church where he was buried, an accident opened his tomb, and people were startled to find that his body was completely incorrupt. Again in 1604, the same phenomenon was noted (Attwater 2, Benedictines, Dorcy).

1338 Anna of Kashin The Holy Right-believing Princess; withdrew into Tver's Sophia monastery and accepted tonsure with the name Euphrosyne. Later, she transferred to the Kashin Dormition monastery, and became a schemanun with the name Anna; Miracles at St Anna's grave began in 1611

Daughter of the Rostov prince Demetrius Borisovich, in 1294 became the wife of the holy Great Prince Michael Yaroslavich of Tver, who was murdered by the Mongol-Tatars of the Horde in 1318, (November 22). After the death of her husband, Anna withdrew into Tver's Sophia monastery and accepted tonsure with the name Euphrosyne. Later, she transferred to the Kashin Dormition monastery, and became a schemanun with the name Anna. She fell asleep in the Lord on October 2, 1338.

St Anna's sons also imitated their father's steadfast confession of faith in Christ. Demetrius Mikhailovich ("Dread Eyes") was murdered at the Horde on September 15, 1325; and later, Alexander Mikhailovich, Prince of Tver, was murdered together with his son Theodore on October 29, 1339.

Miracles at St Anna's grave began in 1611, during the siege of Kashin by Polish and Lithuanian forces. There was also a great fire in the city which died down without doing much damage. The saint, dressed in the monastic schema, appeared to Gerasimus, a gravely ill warden of the Dormition cathedral. She promised that he would recover, but complained, "People show no respect for my tomb. They ignore it and my memory! Do you not know that I am supplicating the Lord and His Mother to deliver the city from the foe, and that you be spared many hardships and evils?" She ordered him to tell the clergy to look after her tomb, and to light a candle there before the icon of Christ Not-Made-By-Hands.

At the Council of 1649 it was decided to uncover her relics for general veneration and to glorify the holy Princess Anna as a saint. But in 1677 Patriarch Joachim proposed to the Moscow Council that her veneration throughout Russia should be discontinued because of the Old Believers Schism, which made use of the name of St Anna of Kashin for its own purposes. When she was buried her hand had been positioned to make the Sign of the Cross with two fingers, rather than three. However, the memory of St Anna, who had received a crown of glory from Christ, could not be erased by decree. People continued to love and venerate her, and many miracles took place at her tomb.

On June 12, 1909 her second glorification took place, and her universally observed Feast day was established. Her Life describes her as a model of spiritual beauty and chastity, and an example to future generations.
1340 Juliana Falconieri birth answer to prayers of old childless couple they built magnificent church Annunciation at Florence founded Third Order of Servites; Austere. zealous. charitable. sympathetic to all, OSM V (RM)
Floréntiæ sanctæ Juliánæ Falconériæ Vírginis, quæ Sorórum Ordinis Servórum beátæ Maríæ Vírginis fuit Institútrix, et a Cleménte Duodécimo, Pontífice Máximo, in sanctárum Vírginum númerum reláta est.
    At Florence, St. Juliana Falconieri, virgin, foundress of the Sisters of the Order of the Servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who was placed among the holy virgins by the Sovereign Pontiff, Clement XII.

1341  ST JULIANA FALCONIERI, VIRGIN, FOUNDRESS OF THE SERVITE  NUNS
ST JULIANA was one of the two glories of the noble family of the Falconieri, the other being her uncle, St Alexis, one of the Seven Holy Founders of the Servite Order. Her father, Chiarissimo, and her mother, Riguardata, were a devout couple of great wealth who had built at their own cost the magnificent church of the Annunziata in Florence. They were childless and already well advanced in age when, in 1270, Juliana was born-the answer to prayer. After the death of her father, which occurred while she was still quite young, her uncle Alexis shared with Riguardata the direction of her upbringing. She never cared for the amusements and occupations which interested other girls, but loved to spend her time in prayer and in church. Sometimes, indeed, her mother would tell her that if she continually neglected her needle and spinning-wheel she would never find a husband. The threat, however, had no terror for Juliana, and when she found that her relations were trying to arrange a suitable match for her she expressed her determination to consecrate herself to God and to renounce the world. She was then fifteen. After being carefully instructed by her uncle Alexis, she was invested with the Servite habit by St Philip Benizi in the church of the Annunziata, and a year later she was professed a tertiary of the order.
The ritual employed on this occasion appears to have been identical with that used in the profession of a Servite brother. Juliana continued to live at home, and Riguardata, who had originally opposed her profession, ended by placing herself under her daughter's direction. Bereft of her mother in 1304, when she was thirty-four, Juliana moved to another house, where she led a community life with a number of women who devoted themselves to prayer and works of mercy. Their habit resembled that of the men of the Servite Order, but to facilitate their work they wore short sleeves, which caused them to be nicknamed "Mantellate", a term subsequently applied to women tertiaries in general. With great reluctance Juliana accepted the post of superior at the urgent desire of her companions. For them she drew up a code of regulations which was formally confirmed 120 years later for their successors by Pope Martin V. Just as the Order of the Servants of Mary is commonly ascribed to St Philip Benizi because he framed their constitutions, so also for the same reason St Juliana is honoured as a foundress by all the women religious of the Servite Order, although she was not the first to be admitted into its ranks.
Those who were her contemporaries and were privileged to live under her guidance testified that she outstripped them all in her zeal, her charity and her austerities. Her sympathies extended to all with whom she came into contact, nor did she ever let slip an opportunity of helping others, especially when it was a question of reconciling enemies, of reclaiming sinners and of relieving the sick. Her mortifications seriously impaired her health, and towards the close of her life she suffered much from gastric derangement. She had been in the habit of making her communion three times a week, and it was a source of deep sorrow to her in her last illness that her frequent attacks of sickness precluded her from receiving the sacrament of the altar. Juliana died in 1341, in her seventy-first year, and she was canonized in 1737.
In the collect appointed for St Juliana's feast reference is made to the eucharistic miracle by which she is said to have been comforted in her last moments. In memory of this also the members of her order wear upon the left breast of their habit the device of a Host surrounded with rays. It is stated that a document is still in existence which claims to have been drawn up and witnessed eighteen days later by those who were present at her death-bed. The original is in Latin, but it may be translated as follows:
"He hath made a memorial of His wonderful works" [ps. cx 4]. Let it be placed on record how eighteen days ago our Sister Juliana died and flew to heaven with her spouse Jesus; and it was in this manner.
Being more than seventy years old her stomach had become so weakened from her voluntary sharp penances, from fasts, from chains, from an iron girdle, disciplines, nightly vigils and spare diet, that she was no longer able to take or retain food. When she knew that because of this she must be deprived of the viaticum of the most sacred Body of Christ, no one could believe how much she grieved and wept, so much so that they were afraid she would die from the vehemence of her sorrow.
She, therefore, most humbly begged Father James de Campo Reggio that at least he would bring the most holy sacrament in a pyx and set it before her, and this was done. But when the priest appeared carrying the Body of our Lord, she straightway prostrated herself upon the ground in the form of a cross and adored her Master.
Then her face became like the face of an angel. She desired, since she was not allowed to unite herself to Jesus, at least to kiss Him, but this the priest refused. She then begged piteously that over the burning furnace of her breast they would spread a veil upon which they might put the Host. This was granted her. But-O wonderful prodigy!-scarcely had the Host touched this loving heart than it was lost to sight and never more was found. Then Juliana, when the Host had disappeared, with a tender and joyous face, as if she were rapt in ecstasy, died in the kiss of her Lord, to the amazement and admiration of those who were present-to wit, of Sister Joanna, Sister Mary, Sister Elizabeth, Father James and others of the house.
The Sister Joanna whose name is appended to this is the Bd Joan Soderini (September I) who succeeded the foundress in her office of superior general. What strikes one as curious is the fact that no mention is made of the discovery on St Juliana's left breast of a mark resembling the impression upon the Host, as was averred later. No earlier authority has been adduced for this prodigy than a sentence occurring in a manuscript entitled Giornale e Ricordi, written by the Servite Nicholas Mati about the year 1384. In this volume, when he has occasion to refer to Joan Soderini, he remarks: "She was the happy disciple who, sooner than Sister Elizabeth or the others, discovered upon the breast of St Juliana that astounding marvel of the figure of Christ nailed to the cross impressed upon her flesh within a circle like a Host." It must be admitted, however, that Father Mati speaks of the prodigy as a thing which was in his time generally known.
The information obtainable about the life of St Juliana is very scanty. The promoters of the cause of her beatification seem to have contented themselves with producing proof of an immemorial cultus and of miracles worked by her relics. The Bollandists had to be satisfied with printing in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, a short life translated from the Italian of Father Archangelo Giani. There is an English life (1898) translated from the French of Fr Soulier, another in French by Cardinal Lépicier, and in Italian by Poletti (1903), Barbagallo (1912), and Panichelli (1928); a popular life in English was published in 1951, by M. Conrayville. A copy of the Latin original of the statement above is printed by Father V. de Buck in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. xii, pp. 403-404, in a notice he compiled of the life of Bd Joan Soderini.
Born at Florence, Italy, 1270; died there in 1340; canonized in 1737. Saint Juliana was born into the noble Falconieri family and niece of Saint Alexis (the only one of the Seven Founders of the Servites to remain a lay brother). She seems destined for Christian glory. Her father, Chiarissimo, and her mother, Riguardata, were both devout. At their own expense they built the magnificent church of the Annunciation at Florence, Italy. Juliana's birth was an answer to the prayers of this older, childless couple.

After her father's death while she was still very young, her uncle Alexis shared in her upbringing. She never cared for the amusements that interested other girls, and when she learned, at age 15, that her relatives were trying to arrange her marriage, she told them that she wanted to consecrate her life to God. After being carefully instructed by her uncle, Juliana was given the Servite habit by Saint Philip Benizi in the Church of the Annunciation. A year later she was professed as a tertiary, which permitted her to continue to live at home for the next 18 years.

Although Riguardata originally opposed Juliana's chosen vocation, she eventually placed herself under her daughter's direction. When Riguardata died in 1304, Juliana moved to another house, where she founded the Third Order of Servites. At that house a number of women lived in community and devoted themselves to a life of prayer and ministry to the sick. Their habit resembled that of the male Servites, but to facilitate that work, they wore short sleeves, which caused them to be nicknamed "Mantellate," a term later used for women tertiaries in general.

Reluctantly, Juliana acquiesced to her community's request for her to become their general. She drew up a code of regulations that were formally confirmed 120 years later for their successors by Pope Martin V. Juliana is considered the founder of the order because she framed their constitutions, although she was not the first to be admitted into its ranks.

The rest of her life was spent in Florence where, like her spiritual benefactor, Philip Benizi, she was particularly active in reconciling enemies--this was a time when the quarrels between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines were sowing discord in almost every town in Italy. Austere and zealous, she was also charitable and sympathetic to all.

Her mortifications seriously impaired her health, and towards the end of her life she suffered from gastric problems. She had been in the habit of receiving Communion three times weekly, which made these stomach ailments all the more sorrowful. When she was dying and could not receive Communion, the corporal and host were laid on her breast. Almost as soon as It touched her, the Host disappeared, miraculously incorporated into her body. A mark of the host was found on her breast after death. This image of a host emanating rays of light is now worn on the left breast of Servite nuns (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Martindale, Walsh) .
1342 Antony (Kukley) Eustace (Nizilon) and John (Milhey) martyred for their faith  relics were found to be incorrupt MM (AC)
The Holy Martyrs Anthony, John, and Eustathius were brothers who suffered for Christ under the Lithuanian Great Prince Olgerd (1345-1377). The prince was married to the Orthodox princess Maria Yaroslavna (+ 1346). He was baptized and during his wife's lifetime he allowed the preaching of Christianity. Two brothers, Nezhilo and Kumets, received holy Baptism from the priest Nestor, and they received the names Anthony and John. And at the request of Maria Yaroslavna an Orthodox church was built at Vilnius (Vilna).  After the death of his spouse, Prince Olgerd began to support the pagan priests of the fire-worshippers, who started a persecution against Christians. Sts John and Anthony endeavored not to flaunt their Christianity, but they did not observe pagan customs. They did not cut their hair as the pagans did, and on fastdays they did not eat forbidden foods.
The prince soon became suspicious of the brothers, so he interrogated them and they confessed themselves Christians. Then he demanded that they eat meat (it was a fast day). The holy brothers refused, and the prince locked them up in prison. The brothers spent an entire year behind bars. John took fright at the impending tortures and declared that he would obey all the demands of the Great Prince. The delighted Olgerd released the brothers and brought them to himself.

But Anthony did not betray Christ. When he refused to eat meat on a fast day, the prince again locked him up in prison and subjected him to brutal tortures. The other brother remained free, but both Christians and pagans regarded him as a traitor and would not associate with him. Repenting of his sin, John went to the priest Nestor and entreated him to ask his brother to forgive him. "When he openly confesses Christ, we will be reconciled," Anthony replied. Once, while serving the prince at the bath, St John spoke privately with him about his reconciliation with the Church. Olgerd did not display any anger and said that he could believe in Christ, but must conduct himself like all the pagans. Then St John confessed himself a Christian in the presence of numerous courtiers. They beat him fiercely with rods and sent him to his brother in prison. The martyrs met with joy, and received the Holy Mysteries that same day.

Many people went to the prison to see the new confessor. The brothers converted many to Christ by their preaching. The prison was transformed into a Christian school. The frightened pagan priests demanded the execution of the brothers, but they did not fear death.

On the morning of April 14, 1347 the Martyr Anthony was hanged on a tree after receiving the Holy Mysteries. This oak, which the pagans considered sacred, became truly sacred for Orthodox Christians. The pagan priests who hoped that Christian preaching would stop with the death of St Anthony, were disappointed. A multitude of the people gathered before the walls of the prison where St John was being held. On April 24, 1347 they strangled him and hanged his dead body upon the same oak. The venerable bodies of both martyrs were buried by Christians in the church of St Nicholas the Wonderworker.
A third sufferer for Christ was their relative Kruglets.
At Baptism the priest Nestor named him Eustathius. Kruglets stood out because of his comeliness, valor and bravery, but even more because of his mind and virtue of soul. A favorite of Olgerd, he could count on a very promising future. However, he also refused to eat meat at the festal table. St Eustathius openly declared that he was a Christian and would not eat meat because of the Nativity Fast.  They began to beat him with iron rods, but the youth did not make a sound. The prince tried refining the torture. Olgerd gave orders to strip the martyr naked, take him out on the street and to pour icy water in his mouth. But this did not break his spirit. Then they broke his ankle bones, and ripped the hair and skin from his head, and cut off his ears and nose. St Eustathius endured the torments with such gladness and courage, that the very torturers themselves were astounded by the divine power which strengthened him.

 The martyr Eustathius was sentenced to death and hanged on the same oak where Sts John and Anthony received a martyr's death (December 13, 1347).

For three days no one was permitted to take down the body of the martyr, and a column of cloud protected it from birds and beasts of prey. A church was later built on the hill where the holy martyrs suffered. The trinity of venerable passion bearers glorified the true God worshipped in the Holy Trinity, Father and Son and Holy Spirit. The church was dedicated to the Most Holy Trinity. The altar table was built on the stump of the sacred oak on which the martyrs died.

Soon their relics were found to be incorrupt. In 1364 Patriarch Philotheus of Constantinople (1354-1355, 1364-1376) sent a cross with the relics of the holy martyrs to St Sergius of Radonezh (September 25). The Church established the celebration of all three martyrs on April 14.  The holy martyrs were of immense significance for all the Western frontier. Vilnius's monastery of the Holy Trinity, where the holy relics are kept, became a stronghold of Orthodoxy on this frontier. In 1915 during the invasion of the Germans, these relics were taken to Moscow.
The relics of the holy passion-bearers were returned to the Vilnius Holy Spirit monastery in 1946. The commemoration of their return (July 13) is solemnly observed at the monastery each year.
Died at Vilna, Lithuania This trio was comprised of young Lithuanian noblemen who were chamberlains at the court of the grand Duke Olgierd, the father of Jagello.
John and Antony were brothers, heathen worshippers of fire, whom a travelling missionary priest, named Nestorius, converted to the Christian faith. They refused to eat meat on an day of abstinence.
Since their new ways conflicted with the customs of the court, they were hung from an oak tree in Vilna. John, the eldest, was martyred on April 24 and his brother Antony on June 14. Upon witnessing their heroic fortitude, Eustace converted and martyred for the faith on December 13.
These patrons of Vilna were buried in Holy Trinity Russian- Greek Church, which is now united with the Roman Catholic Church and served by Basilian monks. Their heads were translated to the cathedral of Vilna. The tree on which they were executed had long been used for that purpose; however, the Christians obtained a grant of it from the prince and built a church on the spot. Their feast on April 14 was established by Patriarch Alexius of Kiow (Benedictines, Coulson, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
1343 Blessed Gregory Celli monk  received by the Franciscans of Monte Carnerio, near Rieti, OSA (AC)
(also known as Gregory of Verucchio) Born in Verucchio, diocese of Rimini, Italy; died 1343; cultus confirmed in 1769.
1343 BD GREGORY OF VERUCCHIO
THE father of Bd Gregory dei Celli of Verucchio died before his son was four years old, and the child was brought up by a mother whose one object was to train him and St Monica: Gregory received the habit of the Hermits of St Augustine, whilst his mother spent their fortune in founding as well as endowing a house for the order at Verucchio. For ten years Gregory lived in the monastery, leading an exemplary life and converting many sinners who had been led away into heresy. But after his mother’s death, the brethren, instigated by jealousy at his success, or perhaps by resentment at his strictness, ungratefully drove him out of the house which had been built from the proceeds of his patrimony. Homeless and destitute, he made his way to the Franciscans of Monte Carnerio, near Reati, by whom he was so kindly received that he settled down permanently amongst them. He lived to extreme old age, dying, it is alleged, at the age of 118. It is averred that the mule which was bearing his coffin to the burial ground at Reati suddenly broke away and as though driven by an unseen force, carried its load back to Verucchio, where its arrival was announced by the spontaneous ringing of all the church bells. By local custom Bd Gregory is invoked as a patron when rain is needed.

The account of this beatus printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, depends mainly upon a document, attested by a notary public of the Celli family, which was for­warded to the Bollandists by Father H. Torelli, the historiographer of the Hermits of St Augustine. It must be confessed that there are suspicious features about this notarial instrument, but there can be no doubt that the cultus of Bd Gregory, alleged to have been signalized by many miraculous cures, was formally confirmed by Pope Clement XIV in 1769.
Gregory's mother founded a monastery for the Augustinians in Verucchio, where Gregory later became a monk. After a time he was dismissed for some unjust reason, but was charitably received by the Franciscans of Monte Carnerio, near Rieti, where he died (Benedictines). In art, Gregory is an Augustinian hermit with an iron ring around his body. He is venerated at Urbino and invoked in times of drought (Roeder)
1343 Blessed Thomas Corsini a Servite lay-brother, who spent his live collecting alms for the abbey. He was favored by many visions (Benedictines), OSM (AC)
Born at Orvieto, Italy; beatified in 1768. Thomas Corsini was a Servite lay-brother, who spent his live collecting alms for the abbey. He was favored by many visions (Benedictines).
1345 Peregrine Laziosi received a vision of Our Lady who told him to go to Siena, Italy, and there to join the Servites healed by Jesus incorrupt fervant preacher, excellent orator, and gentle confessor
 Also known as Peregrinus
Born wealthy, he spent a worldly youth, and became involved in politics. Peregrine was initially strongly anti-Catholic. During a popular revolt, he struck the papal peace negotiator, Saint Philip Benizi, across the face. Saint Philip calmly turned the other cheek, prayed for the youth, and Peregine converted.

He received a vision of Our Lady who told him to go to Siena, Italy, and there to join the Servites. After training and ordination, they assigned him to his home town. He lived and worked, as much as possible, in complete silence, in solitude, and without sitting down for 30 years in an attempt to do penance for his early life. When he did speak, he was known as a fervant preacher, excellent orator, and gentle confessor. Founded a Servite house at Forli.

A victim of a spreading cancer in his foot, Peregrine was scheduled for an amputation. The night before the operation, he spent in prayer; that night received a vision of Christ who healed him with a touch. The next morning, Peregrine found his cancer completely healed.
Born 1260 at Forli, Italy Died 1345 at Forli, Italy of natural causes; body incorrupt
St. Peregrine Laziosi 1345  Peregrine Laziosi was born of a wealthy family at Forli, Italy, in 1260. As a youth he was active in politics as a member of the anti-papal party. During one uprising, which the Pope sent St. Philip Benizi to mediate, Philip was struck in the face by Peregrine. When Philip offered the other cheek, Peregrine was so overcome that he repented and converted to Catholicism. Following the instructions of the Virgin Mary received in a vision, Peregrine went to Siena and joined the Servites. It is believed that he never allowed himself to sit down for thirty years, while as far as possible, observing silence and solitude. Sometime later, Peregrine was sent to Forli to found a new house of the Servite Order. An ideal priest, he had a reputation for fervent preaching and being a good confessor. When he was afflicted with cancer of the foot and amputation had been decided upon, he spent the night before the operation, in prayer. The following morning he was completely cured. This miracle caused his reputation to become widespread. He died in 1345 at the age of eighty-five, and he was canonized by Pope Benedict XIII in 1726. St. Peregrine, like St. Paul, was in open defiance of the Church as a youth. Once given the grace of conversion he became one of the great saints of his time. His great fervor and qualities as a confessor brought many back to the true Faith. Afflicted with cancer, Peregrine turned to God and was richly rewarded for his Faith, enabling him over many years to lead others to the truth. He is the patron of cancer patients.
1345 BD GERARD CAGNOLI cult to this follower of St Francis confirmed 1908; simplicity and devotion admiration of all; many miracles of healing before a little shrine of his patron St Louis; assisted cooking by angel; ecstasy levitating
   The cult which from time immemorial has been paid at Palermo and elsewhere to this follower of St Francis was confirmed in 1908. Gerard, born about 1270, was the only son of noble parents in the north of Italy. He lost his father at the age of ten, and his mother not many years afterwards.
   Resisting the persuasions of his relatives to marry, he distributed his goods to the poor and led, until he was forty, the life of a pilgrim and hermit, spending most of his time in the wilder parts of Sicily. In the early years of the fourteenth century, the holiness and miracles of St Louis of Anjou, who though heir to a throne had become a Franciscan, were much talked about. Gerard took him for his patron, and about the year 1310 ended by joining the same order.

  While he discharged duties of a lay-brother, his simplicity and devotion were the admiration of all. On one great feast-day, when he was acting as cook, being absorbed in prayer, he seemed to have forgotten all about the dinner; when, late in the morning, the father guardian, apprised that even the fire had not yet been lighted, remonstrated with the brother on his neglect.
Gerard, quite unperturbed, took to the kitchen, where, assisted, it is said, by an unknown youth of radiant beauty, he produced, punctually to the moment, a more delicious meal than the community had ever before eaten.

   Many miracles were attributed to the intercession of the holy brother. For example, it was said that, finding a child crying because it had dropped and broken the glass beaker it was carrying home to its mother, he collected the fragments, blessed them and restored the vessel to the child as sound as it had been before. His miracles of healing were commonly performed by anointing the sick with the oil which burned in a lamp before a little shrine of his patron St Louis. His diet was bread and water, he slept upon a plank, he scourged himself to blood, and there were many stories told of ecstasies in which he was seen surrounded with light and raised from the ground. He died on December 30, 1345.

See the decree of the Congregation of Rites in Analecta Ecclesiastica (1908), vol. xvi, pp. 293—295 B. Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano (1680), vol. iii, pp. 767—773; and Analecta Franciscana (1897), vol. ii, pp. 489-497.
1347 St. Flora Patron abandoned converts single laywomen betrayal victims many miracles worked & at tomb.
   ST FLORA OF BEAULIEU, VIRGIN (A.D. 1347)
         THE “Hospitalières, nuns of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, had a flourishing priory known as Beaulieu, between Figeac and the shrine of Rocamadour. Here about the year 1324 entered a very devout novice of good family, who is now venerated as St Flora. If we can trust the biography in the form we have it, she had passed a most innocent childhood, had resisted all her parents’ attempts to find her a husband, but on dedicating herself to God at Beaulieu she was over-whelmed by every species of spiritual trial. At one time she was beset with misgivings that the life she was leading was too easy and comfortable, at another she had to struggle against endless temptations to go back to the world and enjoy its pleasures. She seems, in consequence, to have fallen into a state of intense depression which showed itself in her countenance and behaviour to a degree which the other sisters found intensely irritating. They gave her in consequence a very bad time. They declared that she was either a hypocrite or out of her mind. They not only treated her themselves as an object of ridicule, but they brought in outsiders to look at her and encouraged them to mimic and make fun of her as though she were crazy.
         In all this time, obtaining help occasionally from some visiting confessor who seemed to understand her state, she was growing dearer to God and in the end was privileged to enjoy many unusual mystical favours. It is alleged that one year on the feast of All Saints she fell into an ecstasy in which she continued without taking any nourishment at all until St Cecilia’s day, three weeks later. Again, we hear of a fragment of the Blessed Sacrament being brought to her by an angel from a church eight miles away. The priest who was celebrating there thought that through some carelessness of his this portion of the Host which he had broken off had slipped off the corporal and been lost. In great distress he came to ask Sister Flora about it, since her gift of spiritual discernment was widely known. But she smiled and comforted him, leaving him with the conviction that she herself had received what had disappeared from the altar. It must be confessed that this story bears a suspicious resemblance to a similar incident which occurs in the Life of St Catherine of Siena. Again, when meditating on the Holy Ghost, one Whit Sunday at Mass, Flora is said to have been raised four feet from the ground and to have hung suspended in the air for some time while all were looking on. But perhaps the most curious of her mystical experiences was her feeling that a rigid cross to which our Saviour’s body was attached was inside her. The arms of the cross seemed to pierce her ribs and caused a copious flow of blood which sometimes flowed from her mouth, sometimes escaped through a wound in her side. Many instances were apparently reported of her inexplicable or prophetic knowledge of matters of which she could not naturally have learnt anything. She died in 1347 at the age of thirty-eight, and many miracles are believed to have been worked at her tomb.
The Bollandists were at first unable to procure any detailed information regarding St Flora, but eventually a Latin version was sent them, made in 1709, of a life which existed at Beaulieu in Old French. It is printed as an appendix in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. ii. The Old French text was printed in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxiv (1946), pp. 5—49. It was made before 1482 from a lost Latin original, said to have been written by the saint’s confessor. See also C. Lacarrière, Vie de Ste Flore ou Fleur (1866); and Analecta jurispontificii. vol. xviii (1879), pp. 1—27. The cult of St Flora has received a sort of indirect confirmation in the fact that the Holy See has approved an office in her honour, used in the diocese of Cahors.
St. Flora, Virgin, Patron of the abandoned, of converts, single laywomen, and victims of betrayal.
Flora was born in France about the year 1309. She was a devout child and later resisted all attempts on the part of her parents to find a husband for her.
In 1324, she entered the Priory of Beaulieu of the Hospitaller nuns of St. John of Jerusalem. Here she was beset with many and diverse trials, fell into a depressed state, and was made sport of by some of her religious sisters. However, she never ceased to find favor with God and was granted many unusual and mystical favors.
One year on the feast of All Saints, she fell into an ecstasy and took no nourishment until three weeks later on the feast of St.
Cecelia.
On another occasion, while meditating on the Holy Spirit, she was raised four feet from the ground and hung in the air in full view of many onlookers.
She also seemed to be pierced with the arms of Our Lord's cross, causing blood to flow freely at times from her side and at others, from her mouth.
Other instances of God's favoring of his servant were also reported, concerning prophetic knowledge of matters of which she could not naturally know.
 Through it all, St. Flora remained humble and in complete communion with her Divine Master, rendering wise counsel to all who flocked to her because of her holiness and spiritual discernment. In 1347, she was called to her eternal reward and
many miracles were worked at her tomb.
1348 Blessed Silvester Ventura age of 40 he joined the Camaldolese at Santa Maria degli Angeli at Florence as a lay brother cook favored with ecstasies heavenly visions, angels were wont to come and cook for him spiritual advice was in great demand, OSB Cam. (AC)
1348 BD SILVESTER OF VALDISEVE
A CARDER and bleacher of wool by trade, Bd Silvester (whose baptismal name was Ventura) was born near Florence. In middle life he came under the influence of a certain Brother Jordan, and at the age of forty he entered the Camaldolese monastery of St Mary in Florence as a lay-brother. There he was cook. Although he was totally uneducated, he was so liberally endowed with infused wisdom that he was often consulted by learned men, notably by Bd Simon of Cascia, who stated that he had been enlightened by him on at least one hundred abstruse theological points. The prior would frequently seek his advice, as did also the monks, who treasured up many of his wise sayings.
He used to dissuade them from undertaking extraordinary and prolonged penitential exercises as tending to pride; the discipline, he declared, should be taken with moderation, humility and devotion. When a monk told him that he was troubled with carnal thoughts, the holy man made light of it and remarked that it was only what was to be expected; but when another brother acknowledged that he had been murmuring, Silvester took the matter very seriously. He asked how he, a servant of Almighty God, could do such a thing and entreated him to cure himself of that vice in this life, that he might not have to atone for it in eternity.
He never learnt to read; but Silvester had so great a devotion to the Divine Office-which he could hear-that he expressed wonder that the hearts of men could remain unbroken at the sound of words so sweet and so sublime. In accordance with his own prediction, the good lay-brother passed away on the day that a beloved sister of the name of Paula died in the neighbouring convent of St Margaret. He was seventy years of age.
In the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. ii, will be found a short life of Bd Silvester, translated from the Italian of Fr Zenobius, and also an interesting poem in the original Italian, recounting the more striking features of Bd Silvester's character and history.
Born in Florence, Italy; Silvester was a carder and bleacher of wool by trade. At the age of 40 he joined the Camaldolese at Santa Maria degli Angeli at Florence as a lay brother and served the community as cook. He was favored with ecstasies and heavenly visions, and the angels were wont to come and cook for him. His spiritual advice was in great demand (Benedictines)

1350 BD ANTONY OF AMANDOLA commended for his patience and for his charity towards the poor, and a great number of miracles are reported to have been wrought at his intercession

Bd ANTONY seems to have been born not far from Ascoli Piceno, about the year 1300. Rejoined the Augustinians in 1306, the year that St Nicholas of Tolentino went to his reward, and he is said to have tried to copy the example of that great luminary of the order during the whole of his religious life. He is especially commended for his patience and for his charity towards the poor, and a great number of miracles are reported to have been wrought at his intercession. He died in 1350, and is said to have been ninety years old. His body lies at Amandola, and his feast is kept not only by the Augustinian friars but at Ancona and throughout the neighbouring district.

See J. F. Stadler, Heiligen-Lexikon (1861).
1350 Bd John Of Rieti  joined the Hermits of St Augustine (Austin friars) at Rieti.  He was ever at the service of his neighbour, especially the sick and strangers, and delighted to wait on guests who came to the monastery;  he spent long hours in contemplation and especially valued the opportunities provided by serving Mass in the friary church for loving converse with God.   He had the gift of tears, not only for his own faults but for those of others; when walking in the garden he would say, "How can one not weep? his holy life and the miracles taking place at his tomb were the cause of a cultus which persisted

John Bufalari was born about the beginning of the fourteenth century at Castel Porziano in Umbria, brother to Bd Lucy of Amelia. Little is known of his life, except that it was uneventful, but none the less significant in that he grew daily in grace and virtue.  He early determined to leave the world and joined the Hermits of St Augustine (Austin friars) at Rieti.  He was ever at the service of his neighbour, especially the sick and strangers, and delighted to wait on guests who came to the monastery;  he spent long hours in contemplation and especially valued the opportunities provided by serving Mass in the friary church for loving converse with God.  He had the gift of tears, not only for his own faults but for those of others; when walking in the garden he would say, "How can one not weep?   For we see all around us trees and grass and flowers and plants germinating, growing, producing their fruit, and dying back again into the earth in accordance with the laws of their Creator: while men, to whom God has given a reasoning intelligence and the promise of a transcendent reward, continually oppose His will."  A simple reflection whose force, if rightly understood, is not lessened by the consideration that the vegetable creation could not do otherwise if it would.  The exact date of the death of Bd John is not known, but his holy life and the miracles taking place at his tomb were the cause of a cultus which persisted and was formally confirmed in 1832.
See Torelli, Secoli Agostiniani, vol. ii, and P. Seeböck, Die Herrlichkeit day Katholischen Kirche (1900), pp. 299-300.
1350 Chukhloma Icon of the Mother of God of Galich appeared in the year 1350 to St Abraham of Galich, who came there from the north for ascetical labors with the blessing of St Sergius of Radonezh.
The icon is also commemorated on May 28, July 4, and August 15.
On the wild shores of the Galich lake near the large mountain, hidden in the dense forest, he turned with prayer to the Mother of God, asking Her blessing for his endeavors. After completing his prayer the saint sat down to rest, and suddenly a bright light appeared on the nearby mountainside and he heard a voice: "Abraham, come up the mountain, where there is an icon of My Mother."
The monk went up the mountain where the light shone, and indeed found an icon of the Mother of God with the Infant on a tree. With tenderness and in gratitude to God, the holy ascetic took the revealed icon and, strengthened by prayers to the Most Holy Theotokos, he built a chapel at that place, in which he put the icon.
After a certain time the Galich prince Demetrius Feodorovich, learned about the Elder's trip, and asked him to bring the icon. St Abraham rowed across the Galich lake in a boat and, accompanied by clergy and a throng of people, he took the wonderworking icon to the cathedral church of the city of Galich.
On this day a large number of the sick were healed by this icon. When St Abraham told about the appearance of the icon, the Prince offered money to build a monastery. Soon a church was built in honor of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos, around which a monastery grew. St Abraham founded several more monasteries, the last being founded was the Chukhloma, not far from the city of Chukhloma, from the name of this monastery the ascetic was named "of Chukhloma," and the wonderworking icon became known as the Chukhloma Icon of Galich.
1350 St. Francis of Pesaro miracle worker known for his holiness. He founded the Confraternity of Mercy, a hospice Franciscan tertiary of Pesaro, Italy.
He lived in a community and was known for his holiness. He founded the Confraternity of Mercy, a hospice, and was a miracle worker. Pope Pius IX confirmed his cult.
1358 BD GERTRUDE OF DELFT, VIRGIN stigmata knowledge of people’s thoughts, distant and future events.
MUCH interest attaches to the life of this mystic, who was first a servant-maid and afterwards a béguine at Delft in Holland. Béguines are not, strictly speaking, members of a religious order, though they dwell in a settlement apart, perform their religious exercises in common, and make profession of chastity and obedience. But they are not vowed to poverty, and they live in little separate houses, each with one or two companions, occupied for the most part in active good works in her early days Gertrude had been engaged to be married to a man who left her for another girl, causing great anguish of mind to the betrothed he had forsaken. Seeing the providence of God in this disappointment, she turned her thoughts to other things, and afterwards generously befriended the rival who had somewhat treacherously stolen her lover.

As the crown of a life now spent in contemplation and austerity, our Lord was pleased to honour her, on Good Friday 1340, with the marks of His sacred wounds. We read that a holy friend named Lielta had already foretold this privileged state to her, and also that she had experienced a very curious bodily manifestation in the Christmas season of the previous year. When the stigmata were thus given her, apparently as a permanent mark of God’s favour, they used to bleed seven times every day. She confided to her fellow béguine Diewerdis the news of this strange wonder.

Naturally the tidings spread, and very soon crowds came, not only from Delft, but from all the country round to behold the marvel. This destroyed all privacy and recollection, and so Gertrude implored our Lord to come to her aid. The stigmata consequently ceased to bleed, but the marks persisted. For the eighteen years she remained on earth she led a very suffering life, but she seems, like other mystics who have been similarly favoured with these outward manifestations, to have possessed a strange knowledge of people’s thoughts and of distant and future events, of which her biographer gives instances. The name “van Oosten, by which she is known in the place of a surname, is stated to have come to her from her fond repetition of an old Dutch hymn beginning, Het daghet in den Oosten (“The day is breaking in the east”). There seems a curious appro­priateness in the fact that she died (1358) on the feast of the Epiphany when the wise men came from the east to greet their infant Saviour. “I am longing”, she said a few minutes before her death, “I am longing to go home.”

See the life in the Acta Sanctorum, January 6. A short Dutch text was published at Amsterdam in 1879 by Alberdingk Thijm in Verspreide Verhalen in Prosa, vol. i, pp. 54—60. The hymn, Het daqhet in den Oosten, has been printed by Hoffmann von Fallersieben in his Horae Belgicae.
 1361     BD PETER PETRONI he is said to have been favoured by God with marvellous graces and with preternatural knowledge; wonders reported at his tomb threatened to disrupt the peace of the monastery so they ceased.
IN the Carthusian Order Peter Petroni of Siena is held in great veneration. Born of a distinguished family in that city, he seems to have manifested from his earliest childhood an extraordinary attraction for the things of God. He loved to go apart and pray, and sought out little ragamuffins in the streets to teach them and relieve their needs, spoiling his rich clothes, so his parents complained, by living in such company. When the Carthusian monastery of Maggiano was built near by through the munificence of one of his relatives, he was eager to enter there, and in spite of opposition he accomplished his purpose at the age of seventeen. His superiors wished him later to be ordained priest, but he so shrank from the responsibilities entailed that, after all his remonstrances had proved fruitless, he chopped off the index finger of his left hand to render himself for ever disqualified for ordination. His life was marked by what might seem an almost fanatical determination to have nothing to do with his own family; on the other hand he is said to have been favoured by God with marvellous graces and with preternatural knowledge. Shortly before his death he commissioned a devoted protégé of his, Gioacchino Ciani, to warn the famous humanist, Boccaccio, that unless he gave up his wanton literary work and mended his life, God would very soon summon him to juggernaut. The message was delivered; Boccaccio demurred, but when Ciani proceeded to remind him of secrets in his past, which were known to no human being, but which he had learnt from Pd Peter’s disclosures, the scholar was converted. Peter died on May 29, 1361, and the wonders reported at his tomb threatened to disrupt the peace of the monastery so they ceased.

There is an Italian life of Bd Peter, written at least in part by his disciple, Bd John Colombini, which has been translated into Latin in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vii. See also the Annales Ordinis Cartusiensis, by Dom Le Couteulx, vols. v, vi and vii. the conversion of Boccaccio is confirmed by his correspondence with Petrarch.

1365 BD HENRY SUSO have preached for thirty-seven years, converting many sinners and working miracles.
The fourteenth century was a period of remarkable spiritual activity in Germany, where the religious revival took the form of a pronounced mysticism. Most of its chief exponents came, either directly or indirectly, under the influence of the Dominican, Meister Eckhart, and were to be found, sometimes in convents, some­times as itinerant prophets, and sometimes as the heads of small societies of people calling themselves friends of God, who lived more or less in the world without being of it and who devoted much time to religion and to good works. The teaching of these leaders was propagated through their writings, through their preaching, and also through table-talks which seem rather to have corresponded to modern retreat-addresses. Of all Eckhart’s pupils perhaps the most famous was Henry Suso.

His real name was Von Berg, but he preferred to be known by the surname, Seuse, of his mother, a very holy woman who suffered much at the hands of her dissolute husband. The date of his birth is uncertain and all we know of his early years is derived from a paragraph in his autobiography (but cf. below) where, writing of himself as he always does in the third person, he says: “In his childhood it had been his custom when the beautiful summer came and the tender flowrets first began to spring up, never to pluck or touch a flower until he had greeted, with the gift of his first flowers, his spiritual love, the sweet blooming rosy maid, God’s mother.” At the age of thirteen he entered the Dominican priory at Constance, which town, as Bihlmeyer has shown, was also his birthplace. The building, which was beautifully situated on a small island at the point where the Rhine flows out of the lake, is still in existence, but now serves as a factory. Here he remained until he had been professed, when he was transferred to Cologne that he might study at the studium generale in that city. For several years he appears to have lived a somewhat careless life, satisfied with the avoidance of any gross or serious sin, but in his eighteenth year he received what he describes as “a secret illumination and drawing sent by God” which “speedily wrought in him a turning away from creatures”. “Forsake all” were the words that rang in his ears, and he deter­mined to obey at once, making no reservations. In vain did the Devil seek to deter him by maxims of worldly wisdom, suggesting that his conversion was too rapid, that he could not count upon corresponding to grace, that perseverance was im­possible, and that moderation was the secret of success. Heavenly wisdom taught him how to meet these suggestions and how to overcome them.

Bd Henry was wonderfully moved to make himself “the servant of the Eternal Wisdom”, whom he beheld afar off in vision (one thinks of Solovyev half a mil­lennium later); his veneration for the Holy Name caused him to cut its letters in his flesh; his deep love for the Mother of God, his whole highly-charged religious outlook, expressed themselves in ways that are loosely called “mystical”, sometimes touching, sometimes perhaps rather extravagant. In the same spirit he inflicted on himself bodily penances of the greatest severity, exercising upon them an ingenuity that in later times would seem somewhat morbid. Besides these physical mortifica­tions, Henry Suso was tormented by inner sufferings in the shape of imaginations against faith, intense sadness or nervous depression and a haunting fear that he was doomed to lose his soul whatever he might do. He says of himself: “After the terrible suffering had lasted about ten years, during which period he never looked upon himself in any other light than as one damned, he went to the holy Master Eckhart and made known to him his suffering. The holy man delivered him from it and thus set him free from the hell in which he had so long dwelt.!” The time also came—when Bd Henry was about forty years old—when he gave up his out­ward mortifications, for God showed him that these practices were but a beginning and that he must now press on in quite another direction if he wished to reach perfection. Instead of remaining at home and cultivating his own soul only, he must now go forth to save his neighbour. It was also revealed to him that, though he was freed from the crosses he had borne in the past, there were others in store for him. Whereas he had afflicted himself at will, he would he afflicted and persecuted by others, meeting with ingratitude and losing his good name and his friends.

Suso had distinguished himself when a student at Cologne, and now that he began to go forth preaching his learning and eloquence brought him many disciples of both sexes. He is said to have preached for thirty-seven years, converting many sinners and working miracles. On one occasion, when he was speaking at Cologne, the congregation were amazed to see his face shining like the sun. Nevertheless trouble followed him wherever he went. Upon the flimsy accusation of a child he was charged with theft and sacrilege, at another time he was suspected of poisoning, and elsewhere he was accused of faking a miracle and was obliged to fly for his life. In the Netherlands he was reprimanded for writing heretical books, and although he was afterwards exculpated his distress at the charge brought on a serious illness. His sister, a nun, fell into grievous sin and ran away from her convent; he never rested until he had found her, and after bringing her to repentance placed her in another community where she died a holy death. Another of his efforts to reclaim an erring woman did not turn out so well. A sinner who had placed herself under his direction had professed to be leading a better life, but when he discovered that she was continuing her evil ways he refused to continue to assist her with alms. In revenge she accused him of being the father of her child, and the charge seems to have been believed. Perhaps his own charitable action may have seemed to substantiate it, for when someone took to him the baby whom its mother had aban­doned he received it lovingly and adopted it until he could find it a suitable home. In view of the scandal, the master general of the order caused an inquiry to be made into the matter, and the truth being established his character was vindicated.

At a time when his monastery was burdened with debt, Suso was elected prior. Instead of seeking to raise money by begging or borrowing, he ordered a special Mass to be said in honour of St Dominic, trusting to the saint’s dying promise never to abandon his children. The other friars murmured: “The prior must be crazy. Does he think God will send food and drink from heaven?” As Bd Henry was still standing in choir, deep in thought, he was called out to receive a gift of twenty pounds of Constance money from a canon who had been admonished by God to come to his assistance. Not only did the monastery wipe off its debt, but it never lacked provisions during his term of office.

Bd Henry died at Ulm, on January 25, 1365, and was buried in the Dominican convent. It has been maintained that two hundred and forty years later his body was accidentally disinterred by workmen and was found incorrupt, wearing the Dominican habit. There is, however, no serious evidence for this identification. The burgomaster ordered the body to be covered up again) and all traces of it have been lost. The cultist of Bd Henry was confirmed in 1831.

Suso left several devotional books of great beauty, one of which, The Book of Eternal Wisdom, was extraordinarily popular during the latter part of the middle ages. His so-called “autobiography” is said to have been preserved to us by his spiritual daughter, Elizabeth Stagel, of the Dominican convent of Toss, near Winterthur. Consisting mainly of materials supplied by him, it shows evident marks of having been edited by someone other than himself—so much so that of late years the authenticity of the whole has been called in question. His books record some of the many occasions when the veil between this world and the next was lifted for him. Not only had he visions of our Lord, the Blessed Virgin and the saints, but many of those whom he had known appeared to him after death—notably his parents, Elizabeth Stagel and his beloved teacher Eckhart, whom he beheld in glory. In reply to his question asking how he might attain to eternal happiness, the master replied in words which might serve as an epitome of the life of Suso himself:  “To die to self in perfect detachment, to receive everything as from God, and to maintain unruffled patience with all men, however brutal or churlish they may be.”

Both the life and the writings of Bd Henry Suso have of late years given rise to much discussion. Those interested may be referred for fuller information to the third part of Xavier de Hornstein’s very painstaking volume Let grands mystiques allemandes du XIVe siècle (1922). It contains a clear statement of conflicting views with a good bibliography. See also Wilms, Der s. Heinrich Seuse R. Zeller, Le bx Henri Suso (1922) and J. Ancelet-Hustache, Le bx Henri Suso (1943). Several editions of Suso’s works have appeared since Father Denifle in a 1880 brought out the first critical text of Die deutschen Schriften. That of K. Bihlmeyer (1907) may be specially recommended both for the writings themselves and for the introduction thereto. There is an excellent French translation of the OEuvres mys­tiques by Father Thiriot; and see B. Lavaud, L’oeuvre mystique de Henri Suso (3 vols., 1946). In English, the translation of the “Autobiography” made many years ago by Father T. F. Knox, after falling out of copyright, was reprinted by other publishers with an introduction by Dean Inge “S.M.C.” in Henry Suso Mystic, Saint and Poet, brings out his relevance to our times. There is an English translation by R Raby of the Horologium Sapientiae (1868), and of its shorter original form, The Little Book of Eternal Wisdom, with The Little Book of Truth (1952), by J. M Clark, who has also translated The Life of the Servant (1951), that is, Suso’s autobiography. See also J. A. Bizet, Henri Suso et le déclin de La scolastique (1947).
1367 Blessed James of Cerqueto Many miracles occurred at his tomb OSA (AC)
Born in Cerqueto (near Perugia), Italy; cultus approved in 1895. James joined the Augustinian friar hermits in Perugia. Many miracles occurred at his tomb (Attwater2, Benedictines).
1367 BD JAMES OF CERQUETO
HISTORY has little to tell concerning Bd James of Cerqueto, who entered the order of the Hermits of St Augustine at Perugia when still very young and lived until extreme old age a life almost entirely devoted to prayer. It was to his prayers that his brethren attributed the permission they received sometimes to wear white habits in honour of the Blessed Virgin. Like many other saints who have led the eremitic life he had great power over animals. During his open-air preaching it was noticed that the very frogs ceased their croaking at his bidding, to allow his words to be heard by those for whom they were intended. He died in the church of St Augustine at Perugia on April 17, 1367. Owing to the number of miracles reported as having taken place at his tomb, Horatius, bishop of Perugia, caused his body to be enshrined in 1754 and carried in solemn procession through the city.

The cultus of Bd James was confirmed in 1895. The decree, giving a brief sketch of his life, may be found in the Analecta Ecclesiastica for 1895, pp. 253—254. A short account of the beato was printed in the same year by A. Rotelli, Ii beato Giacomo da Cerqueto.
1367 Blessed Sibyllina Biscossi blind (at 12) but saw Saint Dominic in ecstasy worked MANY GOOD miracles as an anchorite for 67 years OP Tert. (AC)
(also known as Sybillina) Born in Pavia, Italy, in 1287; cultus approved in 1853; beatified in 1854.
"All things work for the good of those who love the Lord and are called according to His purpose" (Romans 8:28). How many of us would have the faith to trust in God's providence as did this holy woman? As Mother Angelica has witnessed, true faith is knowing that when the Lord asks you to walk into the void, He will place a rock beneath your feet. True faith is to be able to praise God in all things; to say with Job, "The Lord gives and the Lord takes away. Blessed be the name of the Lord" (Job 1:21).

Sybillina's parents died when she was tiny and as soon as she was old enough to be of use to anyone, the neighbors, who had taken her in at the time she was orphaned, put her out to work. She must have been very young when she started to work, because at the age of 12, when she became blind and could not work any more, she already had several years of work behind her.

The cause of her blindness is unknown, but the child was left doubly destitute with the loss of her sight. The local chapter of the Dominican tertiary sisters took compassion on the child and brought her home to live with them. After a little while of experiencing their kind help, she wanted to join them. They accepted her, young though she was, more out of pity than in any hope of her being able to carry on their busy and varied apostolate.

They were soon agreeably surprised to find out how much she could do. She learned to chant the Office quickly and sweetly, and to absorb their teaching about mental prayer as though she had been born for it. She imposed great obligations of prayer on herself, since she could not help them in other ways. Her greatest devotion was to Saint Dominic, and it was to him she addressed herself when she finally became convinced that she simply must have her sight back so that she could help the sisters with their work.

Praying earnestly for this intention, Sybillina waited for his feast day. Then, she was certain, he would cure her. Matins came and went with no miracle; little hours, Vespers--and she was still blind. With a sinking heart, Sybillina knelt before Saint Dominic's statue and begged him to help her. Kneeling there, she was rapt in ecstasy, and she saw him come out of the darkness and take her by the hand.

He took her to a dark tunnel entrance, and she went into the blackness at his word. Terrified, but still clinging to his hand, she advanced past invisible horrors, still guided and protected by his presence. Dawn came gradually, and then light, then a blaze of glory. "In eternity, dear child," he said. "Here, you must suffer darkness so that you may one day behold eternal light."

Sybillina, the eager child, was replaced by a mature and thoughtful Sybillina who knew that there would be no cure for her, that she must work her way to heaven through the darkness. She decided to become a anchorite, and obtained the necessary permission. In 1302, at the age of 15, she was sealed into a tiny cell next to the Dominican church at Pavia. At first she had a companion, but her fellow recluse soon gave up the life. Sybillina remained, now alone, as well as blind.

The first seven years were the worst, she later admitted. The cold was intense, and she never permitted herself a fire. The church, of course, was not heated, and she wore the same clothes winter and summer. In the winter there was only one way to keep from freezing--keep moving--so she genuflected, and gave herself the discipline. She slept on a board and ate practically nothing. To the tiny window, that was her only communication with the outside world, came the troubled and the sinful and the sick, all begging for her help. She prayed for all of them, and worked many miracles in the lives of the people of Pavia.

One of the more amusing requests came from a woman who was terrified of the dark. Sybillina was praying for her when she saw her in a vision, and observed that the woman--who thought she was hearing things--put on a fur hood to shut out the noise. The next day the woman came to see her, and Sybillina laughed gaily. "You were really scared last night, weren't you?" she asked. "I laughed when I saw you pull that hood over your ears." The legend reports that the woman was never frightened again.

Sybillina had a lively sense of the Real Presence and a deep devotion to the Blessed Sacrament. One day a priest was going past her window with Viaticum for the sick; she knew that the host was not consecrated, and told him so. He investigated, and found he had indeed taken a host from the wrong container.

Sybillina lived as a recluse for 67 years. She followed all the Masses and Offices in the church, spending what few spare minutes she had working with her hands to earn a few alms for the poor (Attwater2, Benedictines, Dorcy).

1367 BD SIBYLLINA OF PAVIA, VIRGIN
SIBYLLINA Biscossi, left an orphan in early childhood, constrained to earn her bread as a servant-maid before she was ten years old, unable to read or write, and afflicted with total blindness at the age of twelve, can have known little of comfort or joy in the sense which the world attaches to these terms. When her blindness rendered her incapable of doing any useful work, some kind Dominican tertiaries of Pavia, in which city she was born and died, took her to live with them. Intensely devout and full of faith, the child was at first convinced that if she prayed hard enough St Dominic would restore her sight. The days slipped by and nothing happened, but at last, when all hope of cure seemed to have left her, she had a dream, or perhaps a vision. She thought that St Dominic took her by the hand and led her through a long, long passage in pitchy darkness where the felt presence of evil beings would have caused her to faint with terror had it not been for the hand-clasp of her guide. But a glimmer of light showed itself beyond, which became more intense as they struggled forwards, and in the end they emerged into glorious sunshine in a home of ineffable peace. When she awoke Sibyllina was at no loss for an interpretation. God meant her to remain blind; and so she determined to second the divine purposes which had already made her so pointedly an exile in this world. She made arrangements to become a recluse and was enclosed in an anchorage beside the Dominican church. At first she had a companion living with her, who died after three years and no one took her place. Sibyllina as a solitary led a life of incredible austerity, but she lived until the age of eighty. People of all classes came to consult her in their troubles and conversed with her through the window of her cell, while many miracles were ascribed to her intercession. It is recorded of her that she was specially devout to the Holy Ghost and that she regarded Whitsunday as the greatest feast of the year. When she died in 1367 she had been a recluse for sixty-five years. Her body was still incorrupt in 1853 when her cult was confirmed.

See G. M. Pio, Delle vile degli huomini illustri di S. Domenico (1607), cc. 467—469; Procter, Lives of the Dominican Saints, pp. 72—74 M. C. de Ganay, Leg Bienheureuses Dominicaines, pp. 179—195.

1366 Hemming of Finland canon of Abo cathedral in Helsinki bring peace to the Hundred Years War between England and France and to end the Avignon papacy; miracles were reported at his tomb BM
Born at Balinge near Uppsala, Sweden, in 1290; died May 22, 1366. After studying theology in Paris, France, Hemming became a canon of Abo cathedral in Helsinki, Finland, and, in 1339, its bishop. Hemming was involved in the border disputes with Uppsala, from where Saint Henry of Finland evangelized Finland. He is also associated with Saint Bridget of Sweden, whom he accompanied to France. Saint Bridget and Hemming worked together to bring peace to the Hundred Years War between England and France and to end the Avignon papacy.

In 1352, Hemming convened a diocesan synod in which he demonstrated his zeal for proper celebrations of the feasts of the Church and the local saints of Scandinavia. He was also concerned with the custody of the Eucharist, the administration of Church property, and releasing poor people from the payment of stipends for dispensations or for funerals.

Saint Hemming was buried in his cathedral, where miracles were reported at his tomb. In 1514, his relics were translated and enshrined. A surviving, embroidered altar frontal survives which depicts Saints Hemming and Bridget together as an angel holds the mitre over the bishop's head (Farmer)
.
1367 Bd Roger Le Fort, Archbishop Of Bourges immediately after death tomb a place of pilgrimage many miracles worked.
Roger Le For finds recognition in the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum on this day, though his cult has never been formally approved. He is said to have owed his elevation to the bishopric of Orleans to a jest. On the day of the election he had been criticizing the unseemly eagerness of the canons in pushing their claims without any thought of the responsibilities and difficulties involved in such a dignity. In mock earnest he said to one of those who were entering the chapter-house, " I hope the electors will think of me on the present occasion, for I too should like to be a bishop!" The canon, taking the words seriously, informed the rest, and the whole gathering acclaimed the name of the new candidate. The presiding prelate then rose and said, " Brethren, Heaven and earth are witnesses that you have made choice of Messire Roger for your bishop. Concurring as I do with your judgement, I declare that he upon whom your votes have fallen is the preordained pontiff of this city, for he is a man of eminent sanctity and wisdom. Assuredly this is the decision of the Holy Spirit, whom we cannot resist without guilt." Thereupon Roger was unanimously elected. It was in vain that he protested that he had only spoken in jest and that he had neither the desire nor the ability to undertake such a charge: the voice of the people came to ratify the choice of the clergy, and he was compelled to submit. On his entry into Orleans at his consecration an ancient custom was revived and all the prisoners in the city prison were released.
Roger was afterwards translated to Limoges, and in 1343 he became archbishop of Bourges. He is perhaps best remembered in connection with the feast of the Conception of our Lady, which he established in his diocese and which he did much to popularize. When he died, at the age of ninety, it was found that he had left all his possessions to enable poor boys to receive a good education. The archbishop's unsullied reputation and piety had caused him to be greatly venerated during his life, and immediately after his death his tomb became a place of pilgrimage where many miracles were said to be worked.
See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. i, and Cochard, Saints de l'É glise d'Orléans, pp. 487-495.
1373 St. Andrew Corsini regarded as a prophet and a thaumaturgus miracles were so multiplied at his death that Eugenius IV permitted a public cult immediately His feast is kept on 4 February.
 Floréntiæ natális sancti Andréæ Corsíni, civis Florentíni, ex Ordine Carmelitárum, Epíscopi Fæsuláni et Confessóris; quem, miráculis clarum, Urbánus Papa Octávus in Sanctórum númerum rétulit.  Ejus autem festívitas recólitur prídie nonas Februárii.

       At Florence, St. Andrew Corsini, a Florentine Carmelite and bishop of Fiesole.  Being celebrated for miracles, he was ranked among the saints by Urban VIII.  His festival is kept on the 4th of February.

He was born in Florence on November 30, 1302, a member of the powerful Corsini family. Wild in his youth, Andrew was converted to a holy life by his mother and became a Carmelite monk. He studied in Paris and Avignon, France, returning to his birthplace. There he became known as the Apostle of Florence. He was called a prophet and miracle worker. Named as the bishop of Fiesole in 1349, Andrew fled the honor but was forced to accept the office, which he held for twelve years. He was sent by Pope Urban V to Bologna to settle disputes between the nobles and commoners, a mission he performed well. Andrew died in Fiesole on January 6, 1373. So many miracles took place at his death that Pope Eugenius IV permitted the immediate opening of his cause.

1373 ST ANDREW CORSINI, BISHOP OF FIESOLE
THIS saint was called Andrew after the apostle of that name, upon whose festival he was born in Florence in 1302. He came of the distinguished family of the Corsini, and we are told that his parents dedicated him to God before his birth; but in spite of all their care the first part of his youth was spent in vice and extravagance, amongst bad companions.
   His mother never ceased praying for his conversion, and one day in the bitterness of her grief she said, “I see you are indeed the wolf I saw in my sleep,” and explained that before he was born she dreamt she had given birth to a wolf which ran into a church and was changed into a lamb. She added that she and his father had devoted him to the service of God under the protection of the Blessed Virgin, and that they expected of him a very different sort of life from that which he was leading.
   These rebukes made a very deep impression. Overwhelmed with shame, Andrew next day went to the church of the Carmelite friars, and after having prayed fervently before the altar of our Lady he was so touched by God’s grace that he resolved to embrace the religious life in that convent. All the artifices of his former companions, and the solicitations of an uncle who tried to draw him back into the world, were powerless to change his purpose: he never fell away from the first fervour of his conversion.

In the year 1328 Andrew was ordained; but to escape the feasting and music which his family had prepared according to custom for the day on which he should celebrate his first Mass, he withdrew to a little convent seven miles out of the town, and there, unknown and with wonderful devotion, he offered to Almighty God the first fruits of his priesthood.
After some time employed in preaching in Florence he was sent to Paris, where he attended the schools for three years. He continued his studies for a while at Avignon with his uncle, Cardinal Corsini, and in 1332, when he returned to Florence, he was chosen prior of his convent.

God honoured his virtue with the gift of prophecy, and miracles of healing were also ascribed to him. Amongst miracles in the moral order and conquests of hardened souls, the conversion of his cousin John Corsini, a confirmed gambler, was especially remarkable.
When the bishop of Fiesole died in 1349 the chapter unanimously chose Andrew Corsini to fill the vacant see. As soon, however, as he was informed of what was going on, he hid himself with the Carthusians at Enna: the canons, despairing of finding him, were about to proceed to a second election when his hiding-place was revealed by a child.
After his consecration as bishop he redoubled his former austerities. Daily he gave himself a severe discipline whilst he recited the litany, and his bed was of vine branches strewed on the floor. Meditation and reading the Holy Scriptures he called recreation from his labours. He avoided talking with women as much as possible, and refused to listen to flatterers or informers. His tenderness and care for the poor were extreme, and he was particularly solicitous in seeking out those who were ashamed to make known their distress: these he helped with all possible secrecy. St Andrew had, too, a talent for appeasing quarrels, and he was often successful in restoring order where popular disturbances had broken out. For this reason Bd Urban V sent him to Bologna, where the nobility and the people were miserably divided. He pacified them after suffering much humiliation, and they remained at peace during the rest of his life. Every Thursday he used to wash the feet of the poor, and never turned any beggar away without alms.

St Andrew was taken ill whilst singing Mass on Christmas night in 1373 and died on the following Epiphany at the age of seventy-one. He was immediately proclaimed a saint by the voice of the people, and Pope Urban VIII formally canonized him in 1629. Andrew was buried in the Carmelite church at Florence; and Pope Clement XII, who belonged to the Corsini family, built and endowed a chapel in honour of his kinsman in the Lateran basilica. The architect of this chapel, in which Clement himself was buried, was Alexander Galilei, who lived for some years in England. The same pope added St Andrew Corsini to the general calendar of the Western church, in 1737.
The two principal Latin lives of St Andrew are printed in the Acta Sanctorum, January, vol. ii. See also S. Mattei, Vita di S. Andrea Corsini (1872), and the biography by P. Caioli (1929), who makes use of certain unpublished Florentine documents. 
1377 Bl. Villana hideous demon in mirror wonderful visions olloquies our Lady and saints gift of prophecy.
Blessed Villana was the daughter of Andrew de'Botti, a Florentine merchant, and was born in 1332. When she was thirteen she ran away from home to enter a convent but her attempts were unsuccessful and she was forced to return. To prevent any repetition of her flight, her father shortly afterwards gave her in marriage to Rosso di Piero. After her marriage she appeared completely changed; she gave herself up to pleasure and dissipation and lived a wholly idle and worldly life. One day, as she was about to start for an entertainment clad in a gorgeous dress adorned with pearls and precious stones, she looked at herself in a mirror. To her dismay, the reflection that met her eyes was that of a hideous demon. A second and a third mirror showed the same ugly form. Thoroughly alarmed and recognizing in the reflection the image of herself sin-stained soul, she tore off her fine attire and, clad in the simplest clothes she could find, she betook herself weeping to the Dominican Fathers at Santa Maria Novella to make a full confession and to ask absolution and help. This proved the turning point of her life, and she never again fell away.

Before long Villana was admitted to the Third Order of St. Dominic, and after this she advanced rapidly in the spiritual life.

Fulfilling all her duties as a married woman, she spent all her available time in prayer and reading. She particularly loved to read St. Paul's Epistles and the lives of the saints. At one time, in a self-abasement and in her love for the poor, she would have gone begging for them from door to door had not her husband and parents interposed. So completely did she give herself up to God that she was often rapt in ecstacy, particularly during Mass or at spiritual conferences; but she had to pass through a period of persecution when she was cruelly calumniated and her honor was assailed.
Her soul was also purified by strong pains and by great bodily weakness.
However, she passed unscathed through all these trials and was rewarded by wonderful visions and olloquies with our Lady and other saints. Occasionally the room in which she dwelt was filled with supernatural light, and she was also endowed with the gift of prophecy.

As she lay on her deathbed, she asked that the Passion should be read to her, and at the words "He bowed His head and gave up the ghost", she crossed her hands on her breast and passed away. Her body was taken to Santa Maria Novella, where it became such an object of veneration that for over a month it was impossible to proceed with the funeral. People struggled to obtain shreds of her clothing, and she was honored as a saint from the day of her death. Her bereaved husband use to say that, when he felt discouraged and depressed, he found strength by visiting the room in which his beloved wife had died. Blessed Villana's cultus was confirmed in 1824.

1367 Blessed Sibyllina Biscossi blind (at 12) but saw Saint Dominic in ecstasy worked MANY GOOD miracles as an anchorite for 67 years OP Tert. (AC)
(also known as Sybillina) Born in Pavia, Italy, in 1287; cultus approved in 1853; beatified in 1854.
"All things work for the good of those who love the Lord and are called according to His purpose" (Romans 8:28).
 

How many of us would have the faith to trust in God's providence as did this holy woman? As Mother Angelica has witnessed, true faith is knowing that when the Lord asks you to walk into the void, He will place a rock beneath your feet. True faith is to be able to praise God in all things; to say with Job, "The Lord gives and the Lord takes away. Blessed be the name of the Lord" (Job 1:21).

Sybillina's parents died when she was tiny and as soon as she was old enough to be of use to anyone, the neighbors, who had taken her in at the time she was orphaned, put her out to work. She must have been very young when she started to work, because at the age of 12, when she became blind and could not work any more, she already had several years of work behind her.

The cause of her blindness is unknown, but the child was left doubly destitute with the loss of her sight. The local chapter of the Dominican tertiary sisters took compassion on the child and brought her home to live with them. After a little while of experiencing their kind help, she wanted to join them. They accepted her, young though she was, more out of pity than in any hope of her being able to carry on their busy and varied apostolate.

They were soon agreeably surprised to find out how much she could do. She learned to chant the Office quickly and sweetly, and to absorb their teaching about mental prayer as though she had been born for it. She imposed great obligations of prayer on herself, since she could not help them in other ways. Her greatest devotion was to Saint Dominic, and it was to him she addressed herself when she finally became convinced that she simply must have her sight back so that she could help the sisters with their work.

Praying earnestly for this intention, Sybillina waited for his feast day. Then, she was certain, he would cure her. Matins came and went with no miracle; little hours, Vespers--and she was still blind. With a sinking heart, Sybillina knelt before Saint Dominic's statue and begged him to help her. Kneeling there, she was rapt in ecstasy, and she saw him come out of the darkness and take her by the hand.

He took her to a dark tunnel entrance, and she went into the blackness at his word. Terrified, but still clinging to his hand, she advanced past invisible horrors, still guided and protected by his presence. Dawn came gradually, and then light, then a blaze of glory. "In eternity, dear child," he said. "Here, you must suffer darkness so that you may one day behold eternal light."

Sybillina, the eager child, was replaced by a mature and thoughtful Sybillina who knew that there would be no cure for her, that she must work her way to heaven through the darkness. She decided to become a anchorite, and obtained the necessary permission. In 1302, at the age of 15, she was sealed into a tiny cell next to the Dominican church at Pavia. At first she had a companion, but her fellow recluse soon gave up the life. Sybillina remained, now alone, as well as blind.

The first seven years were the worst, she later admitted. The cold was intense, and she never permitted herself a fire. The church, of course, was not heated, and she wore the same clothes winter and summer. In the winter there was only one way to keep from freezing--keep moving--so she genuflected, and gave herself the discipline. She slept on a board and ate practically nothing. To the tiny window, that was her only communication with the outside world, came the troubled and the sinful and the sick, all begging for her help. She prayed for all of them, and worked many miracles in the lives of the people of Pavia.

One of the more amusing requests came from a woman who was terrified of the dark. Sybillina was praying for her when she saw her in a vision, and observed that the woman--who thought she was hearing things--put on a fur hood to shut out the noise. The next day the woman came to see her, and Sybillina laughed gaily. "You were really scared last night, weren't you?" she asked. "I laughed when I saw you pull that hood over your ears." The legend reports that the woman was never frightened again.

Sybillina had a lively sense of the Real Presence and a deep devotion to the Blessed Sacrament. One day a priest was going past her window with Viaticum for the sick; she knew that the host was not consecrated, and told him so. He investigated, and found he had indeed taken a host from the wrong container.
Sybillina lived as a recluse for 67 years. She followed all the Masses and Offices in the church, spending what few spare minutes she had working with her hands to earn a few alms for the poor (Attwater2, Benedictines, Dorcy).
1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards  OP M (AC) His tomb was the scene of miracles

1374 BD ANTONY PAVONI, MARTYR
ANTONY Pavoni was born at Savigliano in Piedmont and entered, while still young, the Dominican priory there. His reputation for fervour and learning caused him to be appointed inquisitor general over Piedmont and Liguria: as such he was called upon to refute and pass judgement on the opponents of the faith, notably the Vaudois. In the zealous performance of his office he made many enemies, as he himself knew full well. At Easter 1374, in the little town of Bricherasio he prophesied his own approaching death. He bade the barber who was shaving him give him a fine tonsure because he was invited to a marriage feast. The man who, like all those of his trade, was well up in the local news, exclaimed in surprise that no wedding was about to take place in the neighbourhood. “All the same I can assure you that I am telling you the truth”, was Antony’s reply. A few days later, on Low Sunday, as he left the church in which he had just offered Mass and preached, he was set upon by seven armed men, who killed him. His tomb was the scene of miracles (one of the beneficiaries being Bd Haymo Taparelli); and the cultus was authorized in 1856.

See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i, and Archivio storico italiano, 3rd series, vol. xii, pp. 29 seq. A fuller bibliography in Taurisano, Catalogus hagiographicus OP. There is a short English account in Procter, Lives of the Dominican Saints, pp. 85—87.

Born in Savigliano, Italy, in 1326; died in Turino, Italy, in 1374; beatified in 1868. Antony was obviously martyred for the faith, yet it took more than 500 years before he was even beatified. He is still not canonized. Antony grew up to be a pious, intelligent youth. At 15, he was received into the monastery of Savigliano, was ordained in 1351, and almost immediately was engaged in combatting the heresies of the Lombards.

Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed him inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years. During this time, he accomplished a great deal by his preaching, and even more by his example of Christian virtue. He was elected prior of Savigliano, in 1368, and given the task of building a new abbey. This he accomplished without any criticism of its luxury--a charge that heretics were always anxious to make against any Catholic builders.

The consistent poverty of Antony's life was a reproach to the heretics, who had always been able to gain ground with the poor by pointing out the wealth of religious houses. He went among the poor and let them see that he was one of them. This so discomfited the heretics that they decided they must kill him. He was preaching in a little village near Turin when they caught him.

The martyrdom occurred in the Easter octave. On the Saturday after Easter, he asked the barber to do a good job on his tonsure because he was going to a wedding. Puzzled, the barber complied. On the Sunday after Easter, as he finished preaching a vigorous sermon against heresy at Brichera, seven heretics fell upon him with their daggers, and he hurried off to the promised "wedding." He was buried in the Dominican church at Savigliano, where his tomb was a place of pilgrimage until 1827. At that time the relics were transferred to the Dominican church of Racconigi (Benedictines, Dorcy).
Oddly enough, this Dominican Antony takes after his Franciscan namesake. He is also invoked to find lost articles (Dorcy).
1370 Blessed Pope Urban V deeply spiritual Benedictine monk canon lawyer reformer
 Avenióne beáti Urbáni Papæ Quinti, qui, Sede Apostólica Romæ restitúta, Græcórum cum Latínis conjunctióne perfécta, infidélibus coércitis, de Ecclésia óptime méritus est.  Ejus cultum pervetústum Pius Nonus, Póntifex Máximus, ratum hábuit et confirmávit.
      At Avignon, blessed Urban V, who deserved well of the Church by restoring the Apostolic See to Rome, by bringing about a reunion of the Latins and the Greeks, and by suppressing heretics.  Pius IX approved and confirmed the veneration which had long been paid to him.

1370 BD URBAN V, POPE
WILLIAM DE GRIMOARD was born at Grisac in Languedoc in 1310, his father being a local nobleman and his mother a sister of St Elzear de Sabran. He was educated in the universities of Montpellier and Toulouse and became a Benedictine after his ordination he returned to his old universities and then went on to Paris and Avignon to study for his doctor’s degree. He taught in those places, and was appointed abbot of St Germain’s at Auxerre in 1352. At this time the popes were residing at Avignon and for the next ten years Abbot William was constantly called on to undertake diplomatic missions for Pope Innocent VI, who in 1361 made him abbot of St Victor’s at Marseilles and sent him to Naples as legate to Queen Joanna. While he was there he heard that Innocent was dead and that he had been elected in his place. He returned at once to Avignon, where he was consecrated and crowned, and took the name of Urban because “all the popes called Urban had been saints”. He was the best of the Avignon popes, though like most of them he was too much of a “nationalist” (as we should say now) to be a really satisfactory pontiff of the Universal Church, and the abuses by which he was surrounded were beyond his strength to eradicate.

The great event of his pontificate was his attempt, abortive though it was, to restore the papacy to Rome. In 1366, ignoring the opposition of the French king and the French cardinals, he informed the emperor of his intention to return to the City, and in April of the following year he set out. At Carneto he was met by a host of envoys, ecclesiastical and lay, by a Roman embassy bearing the keys of Sant’ Angelo, and by Bd John Columbini and his Gesuati waving palms and singing hymns. Four months later he entered Rome in state, the first pope it had seen for over half a century, and when he looked upon the state of the City he wept.

The great churches, even the Lateran, St Peter’s and St Paul’s, were almost in ruins, and he at once set to work to restore them and to make the papal residences habitable. Immediate steps were taken to revive the discipline of the clergy and the fervour of the people, work was soon found for all, and food was distributed freely to the destitute.

In the following year Urban met the Emperor Charles IV, a new alliance was made between the empire and the Church, and Charles entered Rome leading the mule on which the pope rode. Twelve months later the emperor of the East, John V Palaeologus, also came, disclaiming schism and seeking help against the Turks. Urban received him on the steps of St Peter’s, but he could give him no help: it was more than he could do to maintain his own position. He had failed to crush the condottieri, Perugia had revolted, France was at war with England, his French court was restless and discontented, his health was failing: Urban prepared to go back to France. The Romans implored him to stay; Petrarch made himself the mouthpiece of Italy to keep him in Rome, St Bridget of Sweden rode out to Montefiascone on her white mule to warn him that if he left Italy his death would swiftly follow. But it was all to no purpose. In June 1370 he declared to the Romans that he was leaving them for the good of the Church and to help France; on September 5, “sorrowful, suffering and deeply moved”, he embarked at Carneto; and on December 19 he was dead. Petrarch wrote, “Urban would have been reckoned among the most glorious of men if he had caused his dying bed to be laid before the altar of St Peter’s and had there fallen asleep with a good conscience, calling God and the world to witness that if ever the pope had left this spot it was not his fault but that of the originators of so shameful a flight.” But this one weakness was forgiven him, and a chronicler of Mainz sums up contemporary opinion: “He was a light of the world and a way of truth; a lover of righteousness, flying from wickedness and fearing.”

Urban V was entirely free from the prevailing vices of his age and worked hard for the reform of the clergy, beginning with his own court, where the venality of the officials was notorious.* * Among the cardinals he made was Simon Langham, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was promptly turned out of his see by King Edward III because he had not asked the king’s leave to accept the honour.
He maintained many poor students and encouraged learning by his support of universities, e.g. Oxford, and his encouragement of the foundation of new ones, e.g. at Cracow and Vienna. He awarded the custody of the relics of St Thomas Aquinas to the Dominicans of Toulouse, and instructed the university of that city that: “We will and enjoin on you that you follow the teaching of the blessed Thomas as true and Catholic teaching, and promote it to the utmost of your power.” Pilgrims came to Urban’s tomb in the abbey church of St Victor at Marseilles, his canonization was asked for and Pope Gregory XI promised the King of Denmark that it should be undertaken. The times were too troubled; but the cultus continued, and in 1870 it was confirmed by Pope Pius IX, the feast of Bd Urban being added to the calendar of Rome and of several French dioceses.

From the point of view of this pontiff’s personal holiness the most important sources will be found collected in the volume of J. H. Albanes and U. Chevalier, Actes ancient et documents concernant le B. Urbain V (1897). This includes the ancient lives, of which there are several, and the evidence, reports of miracles, etc., presented in view of his canonization as early as 1390. There is besides this a very considerable literature, of which an excellent bibliography is provided in G. Mollat, Las popes d’Avignon (1912), pp. 102-103. See further G. Schmidt in Sdralek’s Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen, vol. iii, pp. 157—173, and E. Hocedez in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxvi (1907), PP. 305—316. There is a life by L. Chaillan (1911) in the series “Les Saints”, but the best account is that of G. Mollat in his work mentioned above.

In 1362, the man elected pope declined the office. When the cardinals could not find another person among them for that important office, they turned to a relative stranger: the holy person we honor today.
The new Pope Urban V proved a wise choice.
A Benedictine monk and canon lawyer, he was deeply spiritual and brilliant. He lived simply and modestly, which did not always earn him friends among clergymen who had become used to comfort and privilege. Still, he pressed for reform and saw to the restoration of churches and monasteries.
Except for a brief period he spent most of his eight years as pope living away from Rome at Avignon, seat of the papacy from 1309 until shortly after his death.

He came close but was not able to achieve one of his biggest goals—reuniting the Eastern and Western churches.
As pope, Urban continued to follow the Benedictine Rule. Shortly before his death in 1370 he asked to be moved from the papal palace to the nearby home of his brother so he could say goodbye to the ordinary people he had so often helped.

Blessed Urban V OSB, Pope (RM) Born in Grisac, Languedoc, France, 1310; died in Avignon, France, December 19, 1370; cultus confirmed by Pope Pius IX on March 10, 1870.

William (Guillaume) de Grimoard, later Pope Urban V, was born in a chateau and given his name by his godfather Elzear de Sabran. His mother, Amphelise de Montferrand, remarked: "My son, I don't understand you!...But God does."

William had a most distinguished academic career, both studying philosophy, letters and law at Montpellier and Toulouse, and teaching canon law at four universities: Montpellier, Toulouse, Avignon, and Paris. The Benedictines pleased him. He entered the Chirac abbey and followed his vocation, which included ordination as a priest. His serious smile won all hearts; his diplomas opened doors. He was vicar general at Clermont and Uzés. Pope Clement VI appointed him abbot of St. Germain, Auxerre, in 1352, and nine years later Pope Innocent VI appointed him abbot of St. Victor, Marseilles, and legate to Queen Joanna of Naples. He retained such fond memories of St. Victor's that he asked to be buried there.

Popes Clement VI and Innocent VI used his services as a diplomat. The latter sent him all over as papal legate to obtain the submission of the Italian cities and the little republics that had so clamorously broken loose and, in the disorder of temporal authority, more and more contested the authority of the Holy See.

William succeeded, not by the ruses of diplomats or severity, but by negotiations and candor. He had no enemies. On September 28, 1362, he was on a papal mission to Naples when he learned that Innocent VI had died and that he himself had been elected pope, though he was not a cardinal. Together with his new name Urban, he took on his new mission without any pomp for he had a horror of all display. He prayed the way everyone prayed. He ate and died as the common folk.

He immediately began to reform the Church. Because his studies had served him well, he came to the aid of students with all his might, creating thousands of scholarships, reforming or creating new universities. He said, "The first sin of Christians is their ignorance." He restored churches and monasteries that had fallen into disorder. He made peace with Barnabo Visconti in 1364, though he was unsuccessful in his attempts to suppress the marauding condottieri in France and Italy. Through Peter de Lusignan, Urban temporarily occupied Alexandria in 1365, but his crusade against the Turks did not succeed.

For 50 years the papacy had been based at Avignon but in 1366 Urban decided to bring back the papacy to Rome. Unfortunately, the French court and cardinals opposed this move. Once in Rome, he set about restoring the dilapidated city, tightening clerical discipline, and reviving religion. The Emperor Charles IV was won over to a new treaty with the papacy. After Urban crowned Charles' consort German Empress, Charles agreed to respect the rights of the Church in Germany.

Because the split church seemed to him a permanent injury to Jesus Christ, he made advances to the Christians of the East. Even the Greek emperor, John V Palaeologus, was reconciled to Rome, in an attempt to heal the deep rift between the Eastern and Western Church. It is sad that the emperor was unable to win over the hearts of his people to reconcile with Rome.

But many princes remained hostile. Because he knew how to live modestly, Urban demanded the same of his entourage. Because he did not value money, he made no economies and condemned the clergy who made profit and business from their positions. If the goodness of Pope Urban has any defect, it is that he didn't hide it under his hat. He did everything in all innocence. Though he was pope, he remained a monk and continued to follow the Benedictine Rule.

The condottieri, led by Barnabo Visconti, were once again his implacable enemies. The Perugians rose against him. The leaders of France threatened the stability of the Church. Sadly, Urban left Rome on September 5, 1370, and returned to Avignon, despite the prediction of Saint Bridget that he would die an early death if he left Rome. He died less than four months later.

On Tuesday Urban had a premonition that he would not finish his mission and that he was not the man to reconcile the French and the British. He made them remove him from the Papal Palace at Avignon to his brother's house at the foot of the hill. He did not want to die in fine sheets. He had all the door to the street opened, for many of the people whom he used to help wanted to say goodbye to him (Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

 Blessed Pope Urban V (1310-1370) 
In 1362, the man elected pope declined the office. When the cardinals could not find another person among them for that important office, they turned to a relative stranger: the holy person we honor today.

The new Pope Urban V proved a wise choice. A Benedictine monk and canon lawyer, he was deeply spiritual and brilliant. He lived simply and modestly, which did not always earn him friends among clergymen who had become used to comfort and privilege. Still, he pressed for reform and saw to the restoration of churches and monasteries. Except for a brief period he spent most of his eight years as pope living away from Rome at Avignon, seat of the papacy from 1309 until shortly after his death.
He came close but was not able to achieve one of his biggest goals—reuniting the Eastern and Western churches.
As pope, Urban continued to follow the Benedictine Rule. Shortly before his death in 1370 he asked to be moved from the papal palace to the nearby home of his brother so he could say goodbye to the ordinary people he had so often helped.
1378 St Rocks born at Montpellier; nursed the sick during a plague in Italy; performed as many miracles when dead as when alive.
We find this servant of God venerated in France and Jtaly during the early fifteenth century, not very long after his death, but we have no authentic history of his life.  No doubt he was born at Montpellier and nursed the sick during a plague in Italy, but that is almost all that can be affirmed about him.    His " lives " are chiefly made up of popular legends, which may have a basis in fact but cannot now be checked. 
According to the one written by a Venetian, Francis Diedo, in 1478, Rock was son of the governor of Montpellier, and upon being left an orphan at the age of twenty he went on a pilgrimage to Rome. Finding Italy plague-stricken he visited numerous centres of population, Acquapendente, Cesena, Rome, Rimini, Novara, where he not only devoted himself to care of the sick but cured large numbers simply by making the sign of the cross on them. At Piacenza he was infected himself, and not wishing to be a burden on any hospital he dragged himself out into the woods to die.  Here he was miraculously fed by a dog, whose master soon found
Rock and looked after him.
   When he was convalescent he returned to Piacetza and miraculously cured many more folk, as well as their sick cattle. At length he got back to Montpellier, where his surviving uncle failed to recognize him; he was there imprisoned, and so he remained five years, till he died.  When they came to examine his body it was recognized who he really was, the son of their former governor, by a cross-shaped birth-mark on his breast.  He was therefore given a public funeral, and he performed as many miracles when dead as he had done when alive. Another biography, shorter, simpler and perhaps older, says that St Rock was arrested as a spy and died in captivity at Angera in Lombardy.
  The popularity and rapid extension of the cultus of St Rock, a veneration by no means extinct today, was remarkable, and he soon became the saint par excellence to be invoked against pestilence. St Rock is named in the Roman Martyrology, and his feast is kept in many places  there is no evidence that he was a Franciscan tertiary, but the Franciscans venerate him as such.
See the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. iii, and "Le probleme de S. Roch", by A. Fiche, in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxviii (1950), pp. 343-361.  The saint is very popular, as anyone may learn who consults the long list of books and articles noted in the Bio-bibliographie of Chevalier.  A good modern work of general interest is that of C. Ceroni, San Rocco nella vita,... (1927); see also M. Bessodes, San Rocco, storia e leggende (1937); and A. Maurino, San Rocco, confronti storici (1936) (cf. Analecta Bolandiana, vol. lv (1937), p. 193).  It is curious that St Rock seems even to have left traces of cultus in England.  The present St Roche's Hill in Sussex was St Rokeshill in 1579 and it is said that the Glasgow parliamentary division of Saint Rollox had its name from him.  A short popular account of the saint may be found in Léon L’Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iii, pp. 11-21 .
1379 ST JOHN OF BRIDLINGTON Many miracles wrought through his intercession.
THOUGH it has been often said that St Thomas of Hereford was the last English saint of the middle ages to be formally canonized (Osmund, in 1457, was a Norman), there is a bull of Pope Boniface IX that canonized John of Bridlington in 1401 his feast is now celebrated in the diocese of Middlesbrough and by the Canons Regular of the Lateran (on October 10). He was surnamed Thwing, from the place of his birth near Bridlington, on the coast of Yorkshire, and the little which is known of his life presents nothing of unusual interest. At about the age of seventeen he went for two years to study at Oxford. When he returned from the university he took the religious habit in the monastery of regular canons of St Augustine at Bridlington. In this solitude he advanced daily in victory over himself and in the experimental knowledge of spiritual things. John was successively precentor, cellarer, and prior of his monastery. This last charge he had averted by his protests the first time he was chosen; but upon a second vacancy his brethren obliged him to take up the office. His application to prayer showed how much his conduct was regulated by the spirit of God, and a great spiritual prudence, peace of mind and meekness of temper were the fruits of his virtue. When he had been seventeen years prior and had earned a universal esteem and reverence he was called to God on October 10, 1379. 

Many miracles wrought through his intercession are mentioned by the author of his vita and by Thomas of Walsingham, who testifies that by order of Pope Boniface IX, Richard Scrope, the greatly venerated archbishop of York, assisted by the bishops of Lincoln and Carlisle, translated his relics to a more worthy shrine. This took place on March II, 1404. The shrine attracted many pilgrims, among them King Henry V, who attributed his victory at Agincourt to the intercession in Heaven of two English Johns, of Bridlington and of Beverley. The nave of the priory church in which St John Thwing presided is now the Anglican parish church of Bridlington.

See the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. v, where a life by one Hugh, himself a canon regular, is printed. There is also a shorter summary by Capgrave in his Nova Legenda Angliae. But most important of all is the article of Fr. Paul Grosjean in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. liii (1935), pp. 101—129. He has gathered up much new material, while expressing his indebtedness to the book, St John of Bridlington (1924), and other papers by J. S. Purvis. Mr Purvis published the text of the canonization document from the Lateran Regesta.
1380 Blessed John of Vallumbrosa monk;  Saint Catherine of Siena, often appeared to him, OSB Vall. (AC).
Born in Florence, Italy; Saint John's story reminds us that religious face many temptations, not all of them of the flesh. Like many monks, John of the Holy Trinity spent hours pouring over books. Unlike most, he became addicted to forbidden books and was drawn into the secret practice of necromancy and the Black Arts. When discovered, he was called before the Vallumbrosan abbot-general.
At first he denied this sin against humility and God's goodness, but finally he confessed, found guilty, and imprisoned. His internment proved to be his salvation: he came to true repentance and undertook voluntary penance, fasting to the point of emaciation. Eventually, his brothers implored him to return to the community. He, however, preferred to remain in prison as an anchorite until his death at a very old age. In his solitude, he attained great sanctity. John was an elegant writer and a friend of Saint Catherine of Siena, who often appeared to him and died the same year (Benedictines).

1380 BD JOHN OF VALLOMBROSA
JOHN OF VALLOMBROSA was a Florentine who entered the monastery of the Holy Trinity in his native city. He was a clever man and spent hours of the day and night poring over books. In the course of his studies he became interested in necromancy and began to practise the black arts in secret. He had become thor­oughly vicious and depraved when reports of his proceedings reached the ears of the abbot of Vallombrosa, who summoned him before a commission of monks and formally accused him. At first John lied and denied that he had had any dealings with magic, but when incontrovertible evidence was brought against him he acknowledged his guilt. His punishment was a lengthy imprisonment in a pes­tilential prison where he lost his health and was reduced to a skeleton.

When at last he was liberated John could scarcely walk, but he was sincerely penitent. Although the abbot and the monks would fain have restored him to their fellowship he asked to be allowed to continue voluntarily the life he had been compelled to lead. “I have learnt”, he said, “in this dark and long imprisonment, that there is nothing better, nothing more holy, than solitude in solitude I intend to go on learning divine things and to try to rise higher. Now that I am free from temporal fetters I am resolved, with the help of Christ, to waste no more time.” With the consent of the abbot he embraced the life of a hermit and soon became known as the foremost amongst the solitaries of the countryside for his sanctity and great learning. His letters and treatises, some written in Latin and some in the vernacular, were handed about from one to another and were prized for their subject-matter as well as for the elegance of their diction. He seemed as though divinely inspired to touch the hardest hearts and to expound the most abstruse points of Holy Scripture.

The “hermit of the cells”, as he came to be called, lived to extreme old age and enjoyed the friendship and esteem of St Catherine of Siena. Writing to Barduccio of Florence after her death, John says that whilst he was mourning over her loss she came to him in a vision, and gave him the consolation of witnessing her celestial glory.

There is a short life printed in the Acta Sanctorum under Andrew of Strumi, March, vol. ii, 3rd ed., pp. 49—50. Cf. Zambrini, Opera volgari a stampa dei sec. 13 e 14, pp. 238, 263—264, etc.
1387 BD PETER OF LUXEMBURG, BISHOP OF METZ AND CARDINAL "Contempt of the world, contempt of yourself: rejoice in your own contempt, but despise no other person."  tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage, miracles were reported there, and he was eventually beatified, by the true Pope Clement VII, in 1527. Bd Peter was only eighteen at his death.
PETER was son to Guy of Luxemburg, Count of Ligny, and his wife Mahaut de Châtillon, and was born in 1369. He was left an orphan when only four years old; his piety and intelligence attracted notice, and at ten he was sent to Paris to pursue his studies, where he was made a canon of Notre Dame, in accordance with an abuse all too common in those days. In 1380-81 he spent some months at Calais as hostage for the payment of the ransom of his elder brother, who was a prisoner in English hands.
Peter strove to advance in humility and Christian perfection: this was the point which he had in view in all his actions and undertakings, and he was far from seeking ecclesiastical dignity. But a consideration of his powerful relatives, which the troubles of the times made it prudent to take into account, moved Clement VII at Avignon, who in the “great schism" was acknowledged by France for true pope, to nominate him in 1384 bishop of Metz and, two months later, cardinal. To take possession of his see against the supporters of Urban VI, Peter had to rely on the armed help of his brother Valeran, to his deep distress. But even his sanctity could not make up for lack of orders (he was a deacon), and a Dominican was given him for his assistant and consecrated bishop. With him Peter performed the visitation of his diocese, in which he everywhere corrected abuses and gave proofs of his zeal and prudence. But political disturbances soon drove him from Metz, and in the autumn of 1386 Clement VII called him to Avignon).
Here Peter continued all his former austerities, till Clement commanded him to mitigate them for the sake of his health. His answer was, "Holy Father, I shall always be an unprofitable servant, but I can at least obey." He compensated for what he lost in the practices of penance by redoubling his alms-deeds. By his charities his purse was always empty; his table was frugal, his household small, his furniture simple, and his clothes poor. It seemed that he could not increase his alms, yet he found means to do it by distributing his little furniture and selling the episcopal ring which he wore. Everything about him breathed a spirit of poverty and showed his affection for the poor. An ancient picture of the saint was kept in the collegiate church of our Lady at Autun, in which he is painted in an ecstasy and on which are written these words, which he was accustomed frequently to repeat: "Contempt of the world, contempt of yourself: rejoice in your own contempt, but despise no other person."
Early in 1387 increasing ill-health made Bd Peter seek better air, at Villeneuve on the other side of the Rhone, where he lodged at a Carthusian monastery. Here he died on July 2, after writing a last letter to his beloved sister, Joan. His tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage, miracles were reported there, and he was eventually beatified, by the true Pope Clement VII, in 1527. Bd Peter was only eighteen at his death.
The principal source of information is the process of beatification, the greater part of which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum (July, vol. i). This is of exceptional interest because very few such documents containing the depositions of the witnesses are preserved to us from the middle ages. Strange to say most of these are concerned with youthful saints belonging to royal or very noble families, e.g. this Peter of Luxemburg, St Louis of Anjou who was consecrated archbishop of Toulouse and died at the age of twenty-three, and St Margaret of Hungary who was not twenty-nine. A brief account of Bd Peter, based upon the process, was published by H. Frantyois in 1927, Vie du B. Pierre de Luxembourg.
1392 Saint Demetrius of Priluki, Wonderworker combined prayer and strict asceticism with kindliness fed the poor and hungry took in strangers conversed with those in need of consolation gave counsel loved to pray in solitude Miracles from the relics began in 1409
Born into a rich merchant's family in Pereyaslavl-Zalessk. From his youth the saint was uncommonly handsome. Receiving monastic tonsure at one of the Pereyaslavl monasteries, the saint later founded the St Nicholas cenobitic monastery on the Sts Boris and Gleb Hill at the shore of Lake Plescheevo near the city, and became its igumen.

In 1534 St Demetrius first met with St Sergius of Radonezh, who had come to Pereyaslavl to see Metropolitan Athanasius. From that time, he frequently conversed with St Sergius and became close with him. The fame of the Pereyaslavl igumen was so widespread that he became godfather to the children of Great Prince Demetrius Ioannovich. Under the influence of the Radonezh wonderworker, St Demetrius decided to withdraw to a remote place, and went north with his disciple Pachomius.

In the Vologda forests, at the River Velika, near the Avnezh settlement, they built a church of the Resurrection of Christ and they prepared to lay the foundations for a monastery. The local inhabitants were fearful that if a monastery were built there, their village would become monastery property. They demanded that the monks leave their territory, and wishing to be a burden to no one, they moved farther away.

Not far from Vologda, at the bend of a river in an isolated spot, St Demetrius decided to form the first of the cenobitic monasteries of the Russian North. The people of Vologda and the surrounding gladly consented to help the saint. The owners of the land intended for the monastery, Elias and Isidore, even trampled down a grain field, so that a temple might be built immediately. In 1371 the wooden Savior cathedral was built, and brethren began to gather.

Many disciples of the monk came there from Pereyaslavl. St Demetrius combined prayer and strict asceticism with kindliness. He fed the poor and hungry, he took in strangers, he conversed with those in need of consolation, and he gave counsel. He loved to pray in solitude. His Lenten food consisted of prosphora with warm water. Even on feastdays, he would not partake of the wine and fish permitted by the Rule. Both winter and summer he wore an old sheepskin coat, and even in his old age he went with the brethren on common tasks. The saint accepted contributions to the monastery cautiously, so that the welfare of the monastery would not be detrimental to those living nearby.

The Lord granted His servant the gift of clairvoyance, and he attained a high degree of spiritual perfection. St Demetrius died at an advanced age on February 11, 1392. The brethren approaching found him as though asleep, and his cell was filled with a wondrous fragrance.

Miracles from the relics of St Demetrius began in the year 1409, and during the fifteenth century his veneration spread throughout all Rus. And no later than the year 1440, the Priluki monk Macarius recorded his Life (Great Reading Menaion, February 11) based on the narratives of St Demetrius's disciple Igumen Pachomius.
1380 St. Aventanus; Carmelite, mystic lay brother, gift of ecstasies, miracles, and visions.
A native of Limoges, France, he joined the Carmelites as a lay brother. With another Carmelite, Romaeus, Aventanus started on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Crossing the Alps they encountered many difficulties, including an outbreak of plague. Aventanus, who had a gift of ecstasies, miracles, and visions, succumbed to the plague near Lucca, Italy. His cult was approved by Pope Gregory XVI.

1380 BB. AVERTANUS AND ROMAEUS
LIMOGES was the birthplace of Avertanus, a holy lay-brother of the Carmelite Order. As soon as he could speak he would prattle about God and talk to Him. He was never naughty, nor did he want to play like other children, but he would pray and often appeared rapt in contemplation. Very early he began to long to join a religious order, and one night he had a vision of an angel, who enjoined him to enter the Carmelite Order. Overjoyed, he laid the matter before his parents. Although they were pious people, they were greatly distressed at the idea of losing the hope and prop of their old age; but Avertanus persuaded them that it was the will of God and that in his cell he would not be so far away, so that in the end they yielded and dismissed him with their blessing. The prior of the Carmelite monastery of Limoges admitted him, and the brethren seem soon to have realized that the newcomer was a youth of singular holiness. They recorded that, when he received the habit, angelic voices mingled with their own chants and that the Blessed Virgin herself was seen with her hand extended in blessing above the head of the humble lay-brother. When not at prayer, it was his delight to perform the most menial tasks in the convent; he was often found in his cell entirely rapt in ecstasy, and it was with the greatest difficulty that he could be recalled to ordinary life. At night he was wont to get up from his bed and creep on hands and knees to the top of one of the rocky hills near the monastery, where with his arms outstretched, he would pray till daybreak. He had such a horror of money that he would not touch it or speak of it or even see a coin if he could help it.
At length Avertanus was inspired with a great wish to visit the Holy Places and, with the prior’s consent, he started off for Rome with a companion called Romaeus. As his biographer remarks, theirs was not the sort of pilgrimage which combines pleasure and comfort with religion. They made their way painfully over the Alps in winter, and when they reached Italy they found that the plague was raging and that the gates of the cities were closed against all strangers and tramps who might spread the disease. It was in the cities that pilgrims were usually accommodated, but the two men made their way as best they could till they reached, in the suburbs of Lucca, the hospital of St Peter, where they were taken in. The next morning Avertanus attempted to enter the city, but the gatekeepers refused to admit the gaunt and ragged pair. No doubt they were justified, for by the time Avertanus had returned to the hospital he was in a high fever, having apparently contracted the dread disease. He grew rapidly worse and, warned that his last hour was approaching, he uttered three prophecies, viz, that a great schism would be healed through the intercession of the Blessed Virgin, that the city of Lucca which had rejected him in life would honour him after his death, and that the hospital of St Peter would pass into the care of the Carmelites. He received the last sacraments and died happily in the midst of a vision of Christ and the angels. Romaeus did not long survive him. Stricken with the complaint and sad at the loss of his friend, he hourly grew weaker until the eighth day, when he passed away to rejoin Avertanus whom his dying eyes had beheld in glory. The cultus of Bd Romaeus was confirmed by Pope Gregory XVI.

See Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii. The biography given in Grossi, Viridarium Carmelitanum, from which the above account is mainly derived, cannot be considered a very reliable source. Avertanus is called Saint in his order. The very jejune second-nocturn lessons in the Carmelite Breviary supplement on March 4 are an indication of the slender information we possess regarding the life of Bd Romaeus.
1380 St. Catherine of Siena illiterate one of the most brilliant theological minds of her day mystical experiences when only 6 visions of Christ Mary and the saints gift of healing Stigmata visible only after her death Doctor of the Church
Romæ natális sanctæ Catharínæ Senénsis Vírginis, ex tértio Ordine sancti Domínici, vita et miráculis claræ, quam Pius Secúndus, Póntifex Máximus, sanctárum Vírginum número adscrípsit.  Ipsíus tamen festum sequénti die celebrátur.
 At Rome, the birthday of St. Catherine of Siena, virgin of the Third Order of St. Dominic, renowned for her holy life and her miracles.  She was inscribed among the canonized virgins by Pope Pius II.  Her feast, however, is celebrated on the following day.

Patron Fire prevention 1347 - 1380
St. Catherine of Siena

The 25th child of a wool dyer in northern Italy, St. Catherine started having mystical experiences when she was only 6, seeing guardian angels as clearly as the people they protected. She became a Dominican tertiary when she was 16, and continued to have visions of Christ, Mary, and the saints.

St. Catherine was one of the most brilliant theological minds of her day, although she never had any formal education. She persuaded the Pope to go back to Rome from Avignon, in 1377, and when she died she was endeavoring to heal the Great Western Schism.

In 1375 Our Lord give her the Stigmata, which was visible only after her death. Her spiritual director was Blessed Raymond of Capua. St, Catherine's letters, and a treatise called "a dialogue" are considered.Saint Catherine of Siena, Doctor (Memorial) April 29
Born in Siena, Italy, March 25, 1347, in Florence, Italy; died there on April 29, 1380; canonized in 1461; declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970.

Saint Catherine cutting off her hair to convince her mother (seated) that she did not want any earthly spouse. 
Image by Boeri Boeri © 1997
    "Those in union with God when aware of the sins of others live in this gentle light...Therefore they are always peaceful and calm, and nothing can scandalize them because they have done away with what causes them to take scandal, their self-will. . . . They find joy in everything.
    "They do not sit in judgement on my servants or anyone else, but rejoice in every situation and every way of living they see. . . . Even when they see something that is clearly sinful, they do not pass judgement, but rather feel a holy and genuine compassion, praying for the sinner."
    --Saint Catherine of Siena.
"Whenever you think God has shown you other people's faults, take care: your own judgment may well be at fault. Say nothing. And if you do attribute any vice to another person, immediately and humbly look for it in yourself also. Should the other person really possess that vice, he will correct himself so much the better when he sees how gently you understand him, and he will say to himself whatever you would have told him." --Saint Catherine.
Fourteenth century Italy was desolated by plague, schism, and political turmoil.

When we are tempted to think that we live in the worst of times, we should remember the life of Saint Catherine. Those days were so black that many saints and scholars believed it heralded the end of the world. The popes deserted Rome for Avignon in 1305. Rome itself was in anarchy. Yet in the midst of confusion and dissent within the Church, God raised up Catherine, one of many saints who prove that our hope in the Lord is never in vain.among the most brilliant writings in the history of the Catholic Church. She died when she was only 33, and her body was found incorrupt in 1430. Siena had established itself as a military power by conquering Florence in 1260. The city, which possessed a university with a school of medicine and superb cathedral, was governed by the Governo dei Nove (Government of Nine). Art was closely bound to life in Siena. Sienese artists were the most faithful interpreters of the sentiments and ideas of its great mystics. Legend says that Siena was founded by Romulus and Remus or by Remus's sons Ascius and Senius, who created its black and white flag.

Giacomo di Benincasa had a thriving cloth dying business on the Vicolo del Tiratoio (Street of the Dyers) with three of his sons: Bartolommeo, Orlando, and Stefano, plus two journeymen and two apprentices. The family lived upstairs. The also had a family farm.

When Benincasa's domineering and shrewish wife Lapa, daughter of a now forgotten poet, gave birth to twin daughters, Catherine and Giovanna, she already had 22 children. Lapa kept Catherine and breastfed her, but didn't have enough milk for her twin, who was given to another's care and eventually died. A 25th child was born and named Giovanna also, though she lived only a few years. Thirteen of the children lived to adulthood and all remained at home until they were married. Eventually eleven grandchildren were included in the household, which was big enough to include a foster son Tommaso della Fonte, whose parents died in the plague of 1348.

Though Catherine was not a pretty child, she was popular in the neighborhood because of her gaiety and wise little sayings. According to her first biographer Blessed Raymond of Capua she always had the ability to charm others. She was slight and pale, her features delicate, the texture of her skin exquisite, and her hair long, thick, lustrous, and golden. She was animated, cheerful, friendly, sensitive, and charming. All her movements were swift and graceful.

Prayer came naturally to her. At the age of five she would kneel on each step of the stairs of her home and say a prayer. She was only seven when she reported her first vision--of Jesus seated on a throne surrounded by saints, when returning with a younger brother from visiting one of her married sisters. The young child dragged at her hand, but she was lost in ecstasy. From that day she was consecrated to His service and engaged herself entirely in prayer, meditation, and acts of penance in which she encouraged her friends to join her.

Raymond of Capua, her confessor and biographer, wrote "... taught entirely by the Holy Spirit, she had come to know and value the lives and way of life of the holy Fathers of Egypt and the great deeds of other saints, especially Blessed Dominic, and had felt such a strong desire to do what they did that she had been unable to think about anything else."

The Benincasas owned a small farm out the outskirts of San Rocca a Pilli, 14 km from Siena, where Catherine spent time. She had a passion for flowers and wove them into little crosses for her early confessor Padre Tommaso. She often dreamed that angels descended from Heaven and crowned her with white lilies.    Her parents wanted her to marry and encouraged her to enhance her looks. For a time she submitted to the ministrations of a hair dresser and to be decked out in fashionable clothes, but she soon repented of her concession meant to please her mother and sister Bonaventura. At age 16, when a real courtship was imminent, however, she told her mother she had taken a vow of perpetual virginity when she was seven. When her mother didn't take her seriously, she cut off her luxurious golden hair (Saint Rose of Lima did the same in a similar situation).
Her mother was enraged, discharged their maid, and decided Catherine should dress like a servant and perform a servant's tasks. Catherine accepted her tasks cheerfully and performed them capably. The men of the family objected but were overruled by Lapa; however, her father promised her that she would not be forced into marriage and he insisted that she be given a room to herself and time to pray because he had seen a white dove hovering above her head.

She dreamed that she encountered Saint Dominic and was overcome with a desire to enter the Third Order of the Dominican Sisters of Penance. At that time there were about 100 devout older women and spinsters in Siena who were known as Mantellates, because of the black capes they wore over their white habits.

Still unpersuaded that her daughter would not marry, Lapa took her to the spa at Vignone hoping to fatten her up in preparation for marriage. A week later they returned. Catherine had scalded herself at the source of the hot springs in order to disfigure herself. She had also contracted smallpox.  During her illness she extracted a promise from Lapa to ask the sisters to accept her daughter. The Mother Superior said Catherine was too young (pleasing Lapa) but Catherine insisted that the order had no rule about it. Lapa assured her that Catherine had cut off her hair, scalded herself, and now had smallpox, so that she would no longer be attractive. Then the Mother agreed to visit Catherine. Several weeks later Catherine received the mantle and habit.

For three years she left her bare room only to attend Mass, broke her silence only for confession or to meet an emergency, ate sparingly and alone, and recited the Divine Office during the hours when she knew that the Dominican friars slept.
She underwent periods of aridity, but was never subject to temptation. On Shrove Tuesday, 1367, she prayed for the "fullness of faith" and had a vision in which she saw Jesus, Mary, Saint John the Evangelist, Saint Paul, and Saint Dominic, the founder of her order. During this vision, the Blessed Virgin presented her to Jesus, who espoused Himself to her. He placed on her finger a gold ring with four pearls set in a circle in it and a wonderful diamond in the middle, saying to her, "receive this ring as a pledge and testimony that you are mine and will be mine for ever." No one else could see the ring but it was always before her eyes.
She had many marvelous religious experiences.

At the age of 26, she first felt the pain of Christ's suffering in her own body. Two years later during a visit to Pisa, she received Communion in the little church of Santa Christina. As she meditated in thanksgiving upon the crucifix, five blood-red rays seemed to come from it which pierced her hands, feet, and heart. Thus, she received the five visible wounds of His suffering--the stigmata. It caused such acute pain that she swooned. Unable or unwilling to eat, Catherine went for eight years without food or liquid other than the Blessed Sacrament. She prayed that the marks not be conspicuous, though they are traceable on her incorruptible body by a transparency in the tissues.

Oftentimes she was seen levitated in the air during her prayer. Once, as she was being given Holy Communion, the priest felt the Host become agitated and fly, as if of its own volition, from his fingers into her mouth. In the Life of Saint Catherine, Mother Francis Raphael relates that the saint was immune to fire. She tells of a time that Catherine fell forward into a fire in the kitchen during a religious ecstasy. The fire was large and fierce, but when Catherine was pulled out of the smoking embers neither she nor her clothes were damaged. But none of these divine favors would have meant much to a needy world if Catherine had remained hidden in her home. In 1370, she heard a divine voice that commanded her to leave the cell and enter His service in the world to promote the salvation of her neighbors. Thousands came to see her, to hear her, and to be converted by her. A mystical circle of members of religious orders, secular priests, and lay people gathered around her.

Of course, public opinion in Siena was sharply divided about Catherine. It may have been in consequence of accusations made against her that she was summoned to Florence to appear before the chapter general of the Dominicans. If any charges were made, they were certainly disproved, and shortly thereafter the new lector of Siena, Blessed Raymond, was appointed as her confessor.

The core of her teaching was: Man, whether in the cloister or in the world, must live in a cell of self-knowledge, which is the stall in which the pilgrim must be reborn from time to eternity. The press of the repentant was so great that the three priests of her neighborhood, who had been provided by the pope to hear the confessions of those who were induced by her to amend their lives, could hardly cope with it.
She dispatched letters that often had been dictated in ecstasy, to men and women of all ranks, entered into correspondence with kings and princes and with the Italian city-states. She took part also in public affairs, and Catherine welcomed all who came to call--the curious, the seeking, the devout. She collected information from them all.

Even the pope relied upon her good judgment. At this time the papacy was tragically weakened by contested papal elections, pope and antipope denouncing each other. Catherine supported the true Pope Urban VI against his opponents; but he was a somewhat graceless man, and her letters to him never hesitated to reprove the pope for this fault, while remaining entirely loyal to him.

Twice at least she successfully intervened in matters of high politics. Catherine made peace between cities torn by factional strife: she made peace between the pope and the city of Florence. On June 18, 1376, Catherine arrived in Avignon as unofficial ambassadress, and induced the pope to return to Italy, and--this was the greatest work of her life--brought to an end the Babylonian captivity of the popes. Thus, on September 13, 1376, Pope Gregory XI started from Avignon to travel by water to Rome
Choosing Thorns Image by Boeri Boeri © 1997

It was a month before Catherine arrived back in Siena, from where she continued to exhort the pope to contribute to the peace of Italy. By his special request, she went again to Florence, still rent by factions and obstinate in its disobedience and under interdict. There she remained for some time amid daily murders and confiscations, in danger of her life but never daunted, even when swords were drawn against her. Finally, she established peace between Florence and the Holy See.
Catherine dictated from memory The Dialogue in five days before she left Siena forever.

It is her account of her visions. She was clairaudient and clairvoyant, also awareness of communion with Jesus. She was illiterate, but yearning to be able to read the breviary, when suddenly she could read--either through the help of Father Tommaso della Fonte or Alessia Saracini (her friend), or through a miracle.
Her foster brother Tommaso della Fonte became a priest and her confessor during the time of her novitiate.

He provided her with other books, such as a short history of the Church, lives of the saints, the Psalms and other portions of the Bible. She later astonished learned ecclesiastics with her grasp of these subjects.She loved music and to sing, was passionately fond of children. She began to make friends again, first among the Mantellate and Dominicans, then among the priests and physicians at the Hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, where she began her nursing career, then among the intelligentsia. She had the gift of healing. Much of what she did was met with ingratitude.
Catherine loved working amongst the sick.

Unlike most other volunteers, she would care for those with the most repulsive diseases, such as leprosy, which was then virtually incurable. She gathered round her many friends, and when a fearful plague broke out in Siena, she led them boldly among those who had caught it sometimes even digging graves and burying the dead herself.

Catherine also suffered moral temptations, and often it seemed that God had deserted her. Was it for this that she had forsaken all to follow Him? A woman suffering from cancer, to whom she had given devoted care, pursued her with a vicious tongue and poured out upon her all the irritability and despair which were provoked by her hopeless condition, but Catherine remained incredibly patient and forbearing; her visions returned and her heart was strengthened. "O my Savior, my Lord," she cried, "why did You forsake me?" "My child," came the answer, "I have been with you through all. I was in your heart all the while."

This composite picture shows the mature Catherine choosing the Crown of Thorns. The lower left image of the saint is a detail of a larger work showing the young Catherine at the time her father saw a dove hovering over her head as she prayed. 
She gave freely from her father's resources to the poor beggars, some of whom she claimed were saintly visitors in disguise.

Through all her arduous life she remained gentle and forgiving, serving Christ in the lives of the poor, following Him into mean streets and crowded hovels, taking upon herself the burden of pain and sin that she met with, nourished and sustained by her frequent visions. Our Lord appeared to her holding in one hand a crown of gold and in the other a crown of thorns, and asked which she would choose. Without hesitation she reached out her hand for the crown of thorns.
Francesco di Vanni Malavolti, a famous philanderer, so desired Catherine's friendship that he went immediately to confession. They had an spontaneous and lasting friendship because of their mental harmony. After the death of his wife, he entered the monastery and spent the remainder of his days in prayer and contemplation.
Andrea Vanni was a friend whose portrait of her remains in the Church of San Domenico in Siena. He and Catherine's brother Bartolo led the revolution that toppled the government.

For thirty years this brave and devoted soul showed how there is a Power that transcends our earthly life, and awakened many, by conversion, to a sense of the Eternal. "Her prayers," we are told by an eyewitness, "were of such intensity, that one hour of prayer more consumed that poor little body than two days upon the rack would have done another."

When the great Western schism broke out following the death of Pope Gregory in 1378, the new pope, Urban VI, called her to Rome. A rival pope was established at Avignon by some cardinals who declared Urban's election was illegal.
Christendom was divided into two camps. She spoke to the cardinals in open consistory, wrote to the chief sponsors of the schism, to foreign princes, and through her influence, helped to overcome the French anti-pope in Italy. She also continued to write to Urban, sometimes urging him to remain patient in trials and other times admonishing him to abate his harshness that was alienating even his supporters.  Instead of resenting her reproofs, Urban invited her to come to Rome to advise and assist him. In obedience, she left Siena forever and took up residence in the Eternal City. There she labored indefatigably by her prayers and exhortations to gain new adherents to the true pontiff.

After she had offered her life as a sacrifice to God, and had seen and felt in a vision the Almighty God pressing out her heart as a balm over the Church, she fell mortally ill and died in the arms of Alessia Saracini after eight weeks of most acute suffering at the age of 33--the age at which her Master had died. And when she died, she was merry and joyful.

Catherine is one of the greatest mystics of all time. In her, the extraordinary mystical states that are the preparation for true sanctifying graces and the counterpart of the burdens of sainthood, became particularly evident. The history of literature gives the saint a place of honor beside Dante and Petrarch (Bentley, Gill, Harrison, Keyes, Schamoni, Walsh).

In art, Saint Catherine is always portrayed as a Dominican tertiary (white habit, black mantle, white veil) with a stigmata, lily, and book. Sometimes she is portrayed (1) with a crown of thorns and a crucifix; (2) with her heart on a book; (3) with her heart at her feet and a scourge or skull, book, and lily; (4) with the devil under her feet; (5) crowned by angels with three crowns; (6) celebrating her mystic marriage with Christ; (7) giving clothes to a beggar, who is really Christ (Roeder). Catherine is the patron of Italy together with Saint Francis of Assisi (Roeder).
January 19 1392 Blessed Nicholas Konchanov, Novgorod Fool-for-Christ ; The Lord glorified Blessed Nicholas with the gift of miracles and clairvoyance.
Born at Novgorod into a rich and illustrious family. From his youthful years he loved piety, he went to church faithfully, and loved fasting and prayer. Seeing his virtuous life, people began to praise him. Blessed Nicholas, disdaining glory from men, began the difficult exploit of folly for the Lord's sake. He ran about the city in the bitter cold dressed in rags, enduring beatings, insults and mockery. Blessed Nicholas and another Novgorod fool, Blessed Theodore (January 19), pretended to be irreconcilable foes, and graphically demonstrated to the people of Novgorod the pernicious character of their internecine strife.

Once, having overcome his sham opponent, Blessed Nicholas went along the Volkhov as if on dry land, and threw a head of cabbage at Blessed Theodore, therefore he was called "Konchanov" (i.e. "cabbage-head"). The Lord glorified Blessed Nicholas with the gift of miracles and clairvoyance.
Once, after being turned away by servants from a feast to which he had been invited, he left. Immediately, the wine disappeared from the barrel. Only upon the return of the fool, and through his prayer, did it reappear again. When he died, Blessed Nicholas was buried at the end of the cemetery by the Yakovlev cathedral.
Relics of Blessed Nicholas rest under a crypt in the church of the Great Martyr Panteleimon which was built over his grave