Thursday, May 08, 2014
Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles Miracles_BLay Saints 
 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  
                Saint Phanourius {read miracle below} St. Phanurius Martyr called a warrior saint
300 Saint Pelagia of Tarsus in Cilicia (southeastern Asia Minor) saw the face of Bishop Linus in a dream; miraclous
       baptism; burnt body filled city with myrrh; wild beasts protected her bones
300 Armenian Saints Emilian the Bishop, martyred with Hilarion, Dionysius, and Hermippus; Emilian miracles
302 March 16 St. Julian of Anazarbus  Martyr  sacred relics cured physical and spiritual ills
303 May 8 St. Victor the Moor ( from Mauretania, Africa) praetorian guard Martyr
303 St. Anthimus Priest  rescued by an angel then martyr of Rome led the Church in Rome converting many
303 May 8 Acacius of Byzantium Cappadocian centurion stationed in Thrace body miraculously brought to the shore
      of Squillace in Calabria
303 St. Sabinus bishop; Dec 30 Martyr with companions; cured a blind child
303 Procopius {Neanius} Holy Great Martyr persecution against Christians then, vision of the Lord Jesus, similar to the vision of Saul a radiant Cross appeared in the air. Neanius felt an inexpressible joy and spiritual happiness in his heart and he was transformed from being a persecutor into a zealous follower of Christ.
304 St. Sozon, a native of Lykaonia, was a shepherd read Holy Scriptures attentively, and he loved to share his knowledge about the One God with the shepherds who gathered together with him; brought many to the faith in Christ and Baptism destroyed idol; by his grave and at the place where he had the vision, many of the sick were healed.
304 St. Alban 1st. martyr of England soldier to kill the Saint was converted , and he too became a martyr According to Bede, governor so impressed by the miracles following Alban's martyrdom he immediately ended persecutions, these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime at the intercession of England's protomartyr where these martyrdoms took place a church later erected, 400 years later, Offa, king of Mercia, founded the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans.
304 Athenodorus The Holy Martyr Miracles accompanied martyrdom converted many pagans to the Christian Faith
304 St. Trophimus & Eucarpius martyrs 2 pagan soldiers converts while hunting Christians beheld within a cloud the image of a Radiant Man & great multitude standing about Him
305 St. Philemon converted by Apollonius  a deacon at Antinoë in the Thebaid, Egypt and Martyred together
305 St. Januarius born Italy bishop blood liquefies; During an eruption of Vesuvius around 431, inhabitants of the city
       prayed to St Januarius to help them. The lava stopped, and did not reach the city.

   Alexander Holy Martyr suffered for Christ soldier serving tribune Tiberian at Rome By night a fearsome angel
        appeared to Tiberian with sword in hand; miracles; healings
305 May 11 St. Otimus Departure of the Priest martyred; God revealed many miracles in Church where he was buried after persecutions ceased
305 July 26 St. Pantaleemon, the Physician Martyrdom of; miracle worker {Coptic}
310 Miracle of the boiled wheat performed by the holy Great Martyr Theodore the Recruit
310 April 07 Rufinus Deacon, Martyr Aquilina The Holy Martyr converted 200 soldiers to Christ by their miracles all
       beheaded for their faith
316 February 03 St. Blaise martyr miracles Patron of Throat Illnesses bishop of
Armenia Sebastea message from God
316 Eustace (Eustathius) of Galatia  tortured and then cast into a river in a chest, singing the 90th (91st) Psalm: "He
      that dwelleth in the help of the Most-High..."; received Communion from the hand of an Angel Beholding the
      miracle and sensing himself disgraced, the governor killed himself;  (Benedictines) M (RM)
319 St. Cleopatra St. Varus miraculously came to comfort her
319 Great Martyr Theodore Stratelates from Euchaita in Asia Minor God enlightened him with knowledge of Christian truth angel healed the saint and took him down from the cross
324 St. Romana  Roman virgin led holy life in dens/caves, wrought glorious miracles baptized by Pope St. Sylvester
326 March 31 Hieromartyr Hypatius Bishop of Gangra martyred after 1st Council at Nicea relics famous for numerous miracles, particularly for casting out demons; healing the sick
330 CONSTANTINOPLE  was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos  
330 April 20 St. Theodore Trichinaone of the most revered in the history of Orthodox monasticism; renowned for many miracles, especially for his power over the demons from his body issues a liquid that imparts health to the sick
330 May 15 Saint Achillas attended 1st Council of Nicaea relics venerated Presba Bulgaria, gift of healing sickness, especially demonic possession, and he worked many miracles (Achilli) Bulgaria
335 St. Marcarius of Jerusalem drafting The Creed Council of Nicaea 325 discovered true Cross with St. Helena build
        Church of the Holy Sepulcher
 
337 December 18 St. Gatian 1st Bishop of Tours appointed first bishop of that city by Pope St. Fabian; Celebrated for many miracles,
339 March 07 St. Paul the Simple “Pride of the Desert,” hermit disciple of St. Anthony read minds cured sick
345 April 07 St. Aphraates Persian hermit involved in the struggle against the Arian heresy by the power of miracles
      oldest extant document of the Church in Syria
346 May 09 St. Pachomius Egypt Emperor's army anchorite extreme austerity and total dedication to God
      began monasticism as we know it today
347 December 12 Saint Spyridon Bishop of Tremithus miracle worker Through his prayer, drought was replaced by
        abundant rains, and incessant rains were replaced by fair weather the sick healed and demons cast out; dead
        raised to life
350. Dec 06 St. Nicholas Bishop of Myra Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism; doweried 3 little girls; released falsily condemned men; saw the devil get on the ship, intending to sink it and kill all the passengers; calmed waves of the sea by his prayers; mortally injured sailor restored to health;
350 St. Matrona of Thessalonica Holy Martyr Her holy relics glorified by many miracles
350 St. Myron Martyred priest at Cyzicus on the Sea of Marmora, in modern Turkey. He was slain trying to protect his
       church from a pagan mob. Stopped raging river

350 August 05 St. Cassian of Autun Egyptian Famed for miracles
356 St. Anthony the Abbot miraculous healings Faith comes from God rhetoric from humans
358 August 16 St. Arsacius prophet Persian hermit known for his miracles and gift of prophecy

360 February 24 Theodore the Recruit Miracle of the boiled wheat performed by the holy Great Martyr
362 St. Gemellus Martyr Ancyra Turkey priest baptized him and when emerged from water his wounds were all healed
362 May 06 Barbarus the Soldier, Bacchus, Callimachus and Dionysius The Holy Martyrs served in the army of the
      emperor Julian the Apostate miracles caused many conversions.
363 (362) St. Manuel, Sabel and Ismael, Persian Christians martyred by Emperor Julian the Apostate at Chalcedon; legates from Persia sent to negotiate peace who were slain when it was discovered they were Christians. A church was dedicated to them by Emperor Theodosius the Great.
363 St. Artemius; The special interest of this alleged martyr lies in the miracles wrought at his shrine, the detailed record of which has been edited by A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus in his Varia Graeca Sacra (1909), pp. 1—79. In these cures something analogous to the incubation, practised by the votaries of Aesculapius at Epidaurus and described by Aristides, seems to have been observed.
368 April 27 Theodore the Sanctified miracles holy water as a sacramental Abbot (RM) In Ægypto sancti Theodóri
      Abbátis, qui fuit discípulus sancti Pachómii. In Egypt, St. Theodore, abbot, who was a disciple of St. Pachomius.

368 January 13 St. Hilary (315?-368) a gentle courteous man devoted to writing some of the greatest theology on the
      Trinity

291-371 St. Hilarion Abbot many miracles disciple of St. Anthony the Great
372 St. Sabas Goth converted to Christianity lector virtues of obedience and humility body bore no bruises or
       abrasions martyred w/50 others in the Romania area    
372 June 22 Saint Nicetas close friend of St. Paulinus of Nola bishop of Remesiana in Dacia (modern Romania and Yugoslavia) noted for successful missionary activities especially among Bessi race of marauders  miracles and healings began to be performed from the relics
374 April 20 St Marcellinus African priest of Embrun BM Vincent, & Domninus missionaries MM (RM)
Ebredúni, in Gálliis, sancti Marcellíni, qui fuit primus ejúsdem urbis Epíscopus.  Hic, Dei mónitu, cum sanctis Sóciis Vincéntio et Domníno, ex Africa venit, et máximam Alpium maritimárum partem verbo et signis admirándis, quibus usque hódie refúlget, ad Christi fidem convértit.
 At Embrun in France, St. Marcellin, first bishop of that city.  By divine inspiration he came from Africa with his holy companions Vincent and Domninus, and converted the greater portion of the inhabitants of the Maritime Alps by his preaching, and by the wonderful prodigies which he still continues to work.

379 July 19 St. Macrina the Younger; Gregory of Nyssa found her sick with a raging fever and used her discussion of
                  eternal life as the basis of his treatise De anima et resurrectione (On the soul and the resurrection)

380? ST BAUDELIUS, MARTYR
Nemáusi, in Gálliis, sancti Baudélii Mártyris, qui comprehénsus est a Pagánis, et cum sacrificáre nollet idólis et in Christi fide inter vérbera  et torménta immóbilis persísteret, martyrii palmam pretiósa morte suscépit.
    At Nimes in France, St. Baudelius, martyr.  Being arrested, but refusing to sacrifice to idols, and remaining immovable in the faith of Christ, despite blows and tortures, he gained the palm of martyrdom by his praiseworthy death.

St Gregory of Tours, who wrote in the sixth century, mentions the numerous miracles wrought at the tomb of St Baudelius, adding that his cult had spread all over the Christian world. He is the principal patron of Nimes, where he is called Baudille.
380 St. Maichus Syrian hermit  of the Thebaid miracle of the lioness end in Maronia where Jerome found him: old
       venerated for holiness

380 April 20 Sainted Betranes and Theotimos were bishops of Lesser Skythia, where the mouth of the Dunaj (Danube) flows into Thrace. The impressive miracles, worked by the saint in the Name of Jesus Christ, so astonished the pagans, that they called him a Roman god.Their diocesan cathedral was situated in the city of Toma (Kiustendji). They were Skythians.
383 Saint Maurus of Verdun many miracles are said to have taken place at his tomb B (RM)
   
Saint Spyridon Bishop of Tremithus miracle worker Through his prayer, drought was replaced by abundant rains, and incessant rains were replaced by fair weather the sick healed and demons cast out.
383 March 25 St Zosimas monk Palestinian monastery of Caesarea
Zosimas monk with Mary of the desert 430 St. Mary of Egypt penitent sent to desert east of Palestine by the Blessed Virgin as a hermitess in
       absolute solitude for forty-seven years

387 St. Marcian Hermit and founder born in Cyrrhus; miracles “God speaks to us every day by His creatures and by this universe which we behold. He speaks to us by His gospel, wherein He teaches us what we ought to do both for others and ourselves. What more can Marcian say that can be of use?”

387 July 18 St. Philaster Saint Gaudentius, his successor, praises him for his "modesty, quietness, and gentleness towards all men." He was chiefly famed, however, for his charity to the poor mission resisting the spread of the Arian heresy bishop of Brescia authored Catalogue of Heresies (28 Jewish & 128 Christian heresies) popular book in the Western Church used by St. Augustine; much praised by his successor, St. Gaudentius
387 St. Donatus Bishop of Euraea in Epirus sanctity praised by Greek writers miracle of the water healer
388 January 18 Saint Marcian of Cyrrhus gift of wonderworking many other miracles on behalf of the brethren
390 St. Palladius hermit of Syria near Antioch gift of wonderworking
390 St. Macarius the Great Egyptian hermit enemy of Arianism Jan 15 In Ægypto sancti Macárii Abbátis, qui fuit discípulus beáti Antónii, ac vita et miráculis celebérrimus éxstitit.  In Egypt, St. Macarius, abbot, disciple of St. Anthony, very celebrated for his life and miracles.
390 St. Zenobius raising five people from the dead.
394 St. John of Egypt  famous early desert hermit noted prophet of his era miracles of healing, gift of prophecy ability
       to read souls
395 St. Apollo Egyptian hermit founder miracle worker
395 jan 19 Saint Macarius of Alexandria great ascetic and monastic head, and he worked many miracles
397 St Philastrius, Bishop of Brescia 
4thv. Abramius the Hermit and Blessed Maria, his niece of Mesopotamia, Oct 29 Orthodox Calender; lived the ascetic life in the village of Chidan, near the city of Edessa. They were contemporaries and fellow countrymen of St Ephraim the Syrian (January 28), who afterwards wrote about their life.  The Lord forgave her and even granted her gift of healing the sick
397 St. Ambrose sent to Milan as Roman governor chosen bishop while a catechumen Granted a gift of
       wonderworking, he healed many
4th v. Hieromartyr Milus, Bishop of Babylon, gifts of prophecy and healing; and his disciples Euores the Presbyter and Seboes the Deacon.
4th v. May 15 Silvanus of Tabennisi an actor who abandoned the world to become a monk Hermit His sentiments of contrition helped him so to progress in virtue that the holy abbot proposed him as a model of humility to the rest favored with a spirit of prophecy he explained the dreadful judgments which threaten those that mock God. (AC)
4th v. Saint Anubius the Ascetic bravely endured tortures during the time of persecutions against Christians but
      remained alive and withdrew into the wilderness, where he dwelt until old age singing of angels who came to receive
      his soul he often saw angels and the holy saints of God standing before the Lord also beheld Satan and his angels
      committed to the eternal flames
4th v. October 26  St Bessarion a native of Egypt; having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness; disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macanus; neighborly charity led him to a height of perfection was manifested by miracles: made salt water fresh, several times brought rain during drought, walked on the Nile admirers compared him with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist
Item sancti Bessariónis Anachorétæ.    Also, St. Bessarion, anchoret.
Orthodoxe Kirche: 20. Februar und 06. Juni Katholische Kirche: 17. Juni
4th v. Consecration of the Church of Mari Mina at Maryut. {Coptic}
4th v. St Hellius lived died in it sent to a monastery when still a child raised in piety, temperance and chastity went into
      the Egyptian desert; endowed with the gift of clairvoyance, and he knew all the thoughts and disposition of the
      monks conversing with him; Great faith, simplicity of soul, deep humility allowed St Hellius to command wild
      animals July 14

4th May 05 v. Irene (peace) The holy Great Martyr dedicated herself to Christ her miracles converted thousands
      blinded and healed an entire army beheaded, buried then resurected

4th v. & 1190 John the Anchorite numerous miracles occurred at place of ascetic deeds
4th v. Lupus  Aug 23 was a faithful servant of the holy Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessalonica (October 26); worked many miracles at Thessalonica. He destroyed pagan idols, for which he was subjected to persecution by the pagans, but he was preserved unharmed by the power of God
4th v. July 14 Saint Onesimus the Wonderworker performed many miracles
4th v. Saint Parthenius, Bishop of Lampsacus from age 18 healed sick in the name of Christ cast out demons worked
         other miracles

4th v. Saint Parthenius Bishop of Lampsacus from age 18 healed sick in the(Feast Day)
       name of Christ cast out demons worked other miracles

300 Saint Pelagia of Tarsus in Cilicia (southeastern Asia Minor) saw the face of Bishop Linus in a dream; miraclous baptism; burnt body filled city with myrrh; wild beasts protected her bones

Pelagia von Tarsus Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 4. Mai
Pelagia von TarsusPelagia lebte im 3. Jahrhundert in Tarsus in Kleinasien. Ihre vornehmen heidnischen Eltern wollten sie mit einem (Adoptiv-)sohn von Kaiser Diokletian verheiraten. Pelagia aber, die heimlich Christin geworden war, ließ sich taufen und schlug die Heirat aus. Ihr Verlobter, der sie nicht der Folter überantworten wollte, nahm sich daraufhin das Leben. Aber ihre eigene Mutter verriet Pelagia an Diokletian und dieser bot ihr an, einen anderen Sohn zu heiraten oder zu sterben. Pelagia schlug auch diese Heirat aus und wurde in einem glühenden Ofen verbrannt. Ihre Legende beruht wohl auf der Lebensgeschichte der Pelagia von Antiochia.

She lived in the third century, during the reign of Diocletian (284-305), and was the daughter of illustrious pagans. When she heard about Jesus Christ from her Christian friends, she believed in Him and desired to preserve her virginity, dedicating her whole life to the Lord.
Emperor Diocletian's heir (a boy he adopted), saw the maiden Pelagia, was captivated by her beauty and wanted her to be his wife. The holy virgin told the youth that she was betrothed to Christ the Immortal Bridegroom, and had renounced earthly marriage.  Pelagia's reply greatly angered the young man, but he decided to leave her in peace for awhile, hoping that she would change her mind. At the same time, Pelagia convinced her mother to let her visit the nurse who had raised her in childhood. She secretly hoped to find Bishop Linus of Tarsus, who had fled to a mountain during a persecution against Christians, and to be baptized by him. She had seen the face of Bishop Linus in a dream, which made a profound impression upon her. The holy bishop told her to be baptized.
St Pelagia traveled in a chariot to visit her nurse, dressed in rich clothes and accompanied by a whole retinue of servants, as her mother wished.  Along the way St Pelagia, by the grace of God, met Bishop Linus. Pelagia immediately recognized the bishop who had appeared to her in the dream. She fell at his feet, requesting Baptism. At the bishop's prayer a spring of water flowed from the ground.

Bishop Linus made the Sign of the Cross over St Pelagia, and during the Mystery of Baptism, angels appeared and covered the chosen one of God with a bright mantle. After giving the pious virgin Holy Communion, Bishop Linus offered a prayer of thanksgiving to the Lord with her, and then sent her to continue her journey. She then exchanged her expensive clothing for a simple white garment, and distributed her possessions to the poor. Returning to her servants, St Pelagia told them about Christ, and many of them were converted and believed.

She tried to convert her own mother to Christ, but the obdurate woman sent a message to Diocletian's son that Pelagia was a Christian and did not wish to be his wife. The youth realized that Pelagia was lost to him, and he fell upon his sword in his despair. Pelagia's mother feared the emperor's wrath, so she tied her daughter up and led her to Diocletian's court as a Christian who was also responsible for the death of the heir to the throne. The emperor was captivated by the unusual beauty of the virgin and tried to turn her from her faith in Christ, promising her every earthly blessing if she would become his wife.  The holy virgin refused the emperor's offer with contempt and said,
 "You are insane, Emperor, saying such things to me. I will not do your bidding, and I loathe your vile marriage, since I have Christ, the King of Heaven, as my Bridegroom. I do not desire your worldly crowns which last only a short while. The Lord in His heavenly Kingdom has prepared three imperishable crowns for me. The first is for faith, since I have believed in the true God with all my heart; the second is for purity, because I have dedicated my virginity to Him; the third is for martyrdom, since I want to accept every suffering for Him and offer up my soul because of my love for Him."

Diocletian sentenced Pelagia to be burned in a red-hot bronze bull. Not permitting the executioners to touch her body, the holy martyr signed herself with the Sign of the Cross, and went into the brazen bull and her flesh melted like myrrh, filling the whole city with fragrance. St Pelagia's bones remained unharmed and were removed by the pagans to a place outside the city. Four lions then came out of the wilderness and sat around the bones letting neither bird nor wild beast get at them. The lions protected the relics of the saint until Bishop Linus came to that place. He gathered them up and buried them with honor. Later, a church was built over her holy relics.

The Service to the holy Virgin Martyr Pelagia of Tarsus says that she was "deemed worthy of most strange and divine visions." She is also commemorated on October 7. During the reign of Emperor Constantine (306-337), when the persecutions against Christians had stopped, a church was built at St Pelagia's burial place.

Pelagia of Tarsus VM (RM); feast day formerly October 8. During the persecutions of the Emperor Diocletian, Pelagia, the daughter of pagan parents in Tarsus, Cilicia, is said to have caught the eye of Diocletian's son. She, however, had no desire to marry. On the pretext of visiting her old nurse, she sought help and counsel from a Christian bishop.  Under his inspiration, Saint Pelagia became a Christian herself, and the bishop baptized her. At this point not only did the emperor's son turn against Pelagia; so did her own mother. Both reported her to the emperor, no doubt hoping that her faith would weaken under the threat of torture. Diocletian himself is said to have personally interviewed her--the legend alleges that he was as attracted to her beauty as was his son--but completely failed to change Pelagia's mind.
A singular torture was now prepared for the beautiful girl. A hollow bull was made out of bronze. Pelagia was put inside it and roasted to death. The bishop is said to have buried her relics.

Another version of the story has Diocletian's son committing suicide after Pelagia's rejection. When she repulsed Diocletian's advances, he decided to kill her. Today's saint is only one of several Pelagias and Marinas (the stories get very mixed up and the two names are the same in Greek and Latin). The idea that these, perhaps, fictitious stories are a christianized version of those of Aphrodite or Venus has been examined and firmly rejected by the eminent hagiographer Hippolyte Delehaye (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Coulson).  The scene of Pelagia's martyrdom shows her burned in a brazen bull (Roeder).
300 Armenian Saints Emilian the Bishop, martyred with Hilarion, Dionysius, and Hermippus; Emilian miracles.
They were born and lived in Armenia. After the death of their parents, the hieromartyrs Emilian, Dionysius, and Hermippus (they were brothers), and their teacher Hilarion left their native land and arrived in Italy, in the city of Spoleto.

St. Emilian began to preach the Gospel to the pagans. He won the deep respect of the Christian community because of his strict and virtuous life, and he was chosen bishop of the city of Trebium. He was consecrated by Marcellinus, the Bishop of Rome). After moving to Trebium, St. Emilian converted many pagans to Christ, for which he was brought to trial before the emperor Mamimian (284-305).

The saint suggested that the emperor see for himself the power of prayer to Christ. A man who had been crippled for a long time was brought before him. However much the pagan priests tried to heal him by appealing to the idols, they accomplished nothing. Then St. Emilian prayed to the Lord and commanded the crippled man, in the name of Jesus Christ, to get up. The man stood up healthy and went home rejoicing.

This miracle was so convincing that the emperor was inclined to admit the truth about Christ, but the pagan priests told him that the saint had worked magic. He was subjected to fierce tortures, in which the Lord encouraged him, saying: "Fear not, Emilian, I am with you."

They tied him to a wheel, threw him on hot tin, dunked him in a river, and put him in the arena to be eaten by wild beasts, but he remained unharmed. In view of all these miracles the people began to shout: "Great is the Christian God! Free His servant!" On this day 1000 men believed in Christ, and all received the crown of martyrdom.

In a rage, the governor ordered that the beasts be killed since they did not attack the saint. The martyr gave thanks to the Lord because even the wild beasts accepted death for Christ. They locked St. Emilian in prison together with his brothers and teacher, and after fierce tortures the hieromartyrs Hilarion, Dionysius, and Hermippus were beheaded with the sword.

St. Emilian was executed outside the city. When the executioner struck the martyr on the neck with a sword, it became soft like wax, and did not wound the saint. Soldiers fell on their knees to him asking forgiveness and confessing Christ as the True God. The saint prayed on his knees for them and asked the Lord to grant him a martyr's death. His prayer was heard, and another executioner cut off the saint's head. Seeing a milky liquid flowing from his wounds, many of the pagans believed in Christ and they buried the martyr's body with honor.
 Saint Phanourius {read miracle below} St. Phanurius Martyr called a warrior saint
Moslems uncovered the ruins of a beautiful church 15 th v. Several icons, most of them badly damaged, were found on the floor. One icon, of St Phanourius, looked as if it had been painted that very day. The local bishop, whose name was Nilus, was called to see the icon. It said,"Saint Phanourius." The saint's name sounds similar to the Greek verb "phanerono," which means "to reveal" or "to disclose." For this reason, people pray to St Phanourius to help them find lost objects. When the object is recovered, they bake a sweet bread and share it with the poor, offering prayers for the salvation of saint's mother. Her name is not known, but according to tradition, she was a sinful woman during her life. St Phanourius has promised to help those who pray for his mother in this way.

We know nothing for certain about the background of St Phanourius, nor exactly when he lived. Tradition says that when the island of Rhodes had been conquered by Moslems, the new ruler of the island wished to rebuild the walls of the city, which had been damaged in previous wars. Several ruined buildings were near the fortress, and stone from these buildings was used to repair the walls at the end of the fifteenth century, or the beginning of the sixteenth.

While working on the fortress, the Moslems uncovered the ruins of a beautiful church. Several icons, most of them badly damaged, were found on the floor. One icon, of St Phanourius, looked as if it had been painted that very day. The local bishop, whose name was Nilus, was called to see the icon. It said, "Saint Phanourius."The saint is depicted as a young soldier holding a cross in his right hand. On the upper part of the cross is a lighted taper. Twelve scenes from his life are shown around the border of the icon. These scenes show him being questioned by an official, being beaten with stones by soldiers, stretched out on the ground while soldiers whip him, then having his sides raked with iron hooks. He is also shown locked up in prison, standing before the official again, being burned with candles, tied to a rack, thrown to the wild animals, and being crushed by a large rock. The remaining scenes depict him standing before idols holding burning coals in his hands, while a demon stands by lamenting his defeat by the saint, and finally, the saint stands in the midst of a fire with his arms raised in prayer.

These scenes clearly revealed that the saint was a martyr. Bishop Nilus sent representatives to the Moslem ruler, asking that he be permitted to restore the church. Permission was denied, so the bishop went to Constantinople and there he obtained a decree allowing him to rebuild the church.

At that time, there was no Orthodox bishop on the island of Crete. Since Crete was under the control of Venice, there was a Latin bishop. The Venetians refused to allow a successor to be consecrated when an Orthodox bishop died, or for new priests to be ordained, hoping that in time they would be able to convert the Orthodox population to Catholicism. Those seeking ordination were obliged to go to the island of Kythera.

It so happened that three young deacons had traveled from Crete to Kythera to be ordained to the holy priesthood. On their way back, they were captured at sea by Moslems who brought them to Rhodes to be sold as slaves. Lamenting their fate, the three new priests wept day and night.  While in Rhodes the priests heard of the miracles performed by the holy Great Martyr Phanourius. They began to pray to him with tears, asking to be freed from their captivity. Each of the three had been sold to a different master, and so remained unaware of what the others were doing.  By the mercy of God, each of the priests was allowed by his master to pray at the restored church of St Phanourius. All three arrived at the same time and prostrated themselves before the icon of the saint, asking to be delivered from the hands of the Hagarenes (Moslems, descendents of Hagar). Somewhat consoled, the priests left the church and returned to their masters.

That night St Phanourius appeared to the three masters and ordered them to set the priests free so that they could serve the Church, or he would punish them. The Moslems ignored the saint's warning, believing the vision to be the result of sorcery. The cruel masters bound the priests with chains and treated them even worse than before.

Then St Phanourius went to the priests and freed them from their shackles, promising that they would be freed the next day. Appearing once more to the Moslems, the holy martyr told them severely, "If you do not release your slaves by tomorrow, you shall witness the power of God!"

The next morning, all the inhabitants of the homes where the priests were held awoke to find themselves blind, paralyzed, and in great pain. They considered what they were to do, and so decided to send for the priests. When the three priests arrived, they asked them whether they could heal them. The priests replied, "We will pray to God. May His will be done!"

Once more St Phanourius appeared to the Hagarenes, ordering them to send to the church a document granting the priests their freedom. He told them that if they refused to do this, they would never recover their sight or health. All three masters wrote letters releasing the priests, and sent the documents to the church, where they were placed before the icon of St Phanourius.

Before the messengers returned from the church, all those who had been blind and paralyzed were healed. The priests joyfully returned to Crete, carrying with them a copy of the icon of St Phanourius. Every year they celebrated the Feast of St Phanourius with deep gratitude for their miraculous deliverance.

From Crete, he was put to death during the Roman persecutions at some unknown date. He is invoked to assist in finding lost articles. He is often depicted in armor holding a cross with a burning candle on the top.
4th v. Saint Parthenius, Bishop of Lampsacus from age 18 healed sick in the name of Christ cast out demons worked other miracles
a native of the city of Melitoupolis (in northwestern Asia Minor), where his father Christopher served as deacon. The youth did not receive adequate schooling, but he learned the Holy Scripture by attending church services. He had a good heart, and distributed to the poor the money he earned working as a fisherman.

Filled with the grace of God, St Parthenius from age eighteen healed the sick in the name of Christ, cast out demons and worked other miracles. Learning of the young man's virtuous life, Bishop Philetus of Melitoupolis educated him and ordained him presbyter.

In 325, during the reign of Constantine the Great, Archbishop Achilles of Cyzicus made him bishop of the city of Lampsacus (Asia Minor). In the city were many pagans, and the saint fervently began to spread the faith in Christ, confirming it by through many miracles and by healing the sick.

The people began to turn from their pagan beliefs, and the saint went to the emperor Constantine the Great seeking permission to tear down the pagan temple and build a Christian church in its place. The emperor received the saint with honor, gave him a decree authorizing the destruction of the pagan temple, and provided him with the means to build a church. Returning to Lampsacus, St Parthenius had the pagan temple torn down, and built a beautiful church of God in the city.
In one of the razed temples, he found a large marble slab which he thought would be very suitable as an altar. The saint ordered work to begin on the stone, and to move it to the church. Through the malice of the devil, who became enraged at the removal of the stone from the pagan temple, the cart overturned and killed the driver Eutychian.
St Parthenius restored him to life by his prayer and shamed the devil, who wanted to frustrate the work of God.

The saint was so kind that he refused healing to no one who came to him, or who chanced to meet him by the wayside, whether he suffered from bodily illnesses or was tormented by unclean spirits. People even stopped going to physicians, since St Parthenius healed all the sick for free.
With the great power of the name of Christ, the saint banished a host of demons from people, from their homes, and from the waters of the sea.

Once, the saint prepared to cast out a devil from a certain man, who had been possessed by it since childhood. The demon began to implore the saint not to do so. St Parthenius promised to give the evil spirit another man in whom he could dwell. The demon asked, "Who is that man?" The saint replied, "You may dwell in me, if you wish."  The demon fled as if stung by fire, crying out, "If the mere sight of you is a torment to me, how can I dare to enter into you?"
An unclean spirit, cast out of the house where the imperial purple dye was prepared, said that a divine fire was pursuing him with the fire of Gehenna.
Having shown people the great power of faith in Christ, the saint converted a multitude of idol-worshippers to the true God.  St Parthenius died peacefully and was solemnly buried beside the cathedral church of Lampsacus, which he built
302 St. Julian of Anazarbus  Martyr  sacred relics cured of physical and spiritual ills
 Anazárbi, in Cilícia, sancti Juliáni Mártyris, qui, sub Marciáno Præside, diutíssime cruciátus, demum, in sacco una cum serpéntibus inclúsus, in mare demérsus est.
       At Anazarbum in Cilicia, under the governor Marcian, the martyr St. Julian, who was a long time tortured, then put into a sack with serpents, and cast into the sea.
when his remains were enshrined in Antioch. He was born in Anazarbus, Cilicia, in modern Turkey, and was arrested as a Christian of senatorial rank. For a year Julian was put on display in cities all over Cilicia. He was then sewn into a sack filled with vipers and scorpions and hurled into the sea.

Julian of Antioch M (RM) (also known as Julian of Anazarbus) Born in Anazarbus, Cilicia; date unknown though some say c. 302. Saint Julian was a Christian of senatorial rank, who suffered under Diocletian. According to unreliable reports, Julian was subjected to brutal punishments, paraded daily for a whole year through various cities of Cilicia, then sewn up in a sack half-filled with scorpions and vipers, and cast into the sea to drown at an unknown location.

Antioch claimed to have recovered and enshrined his relics in the basilica, and Saint John Chrysostom preached a homily there in his honor. Chrysostom eloquently tells how much these sacred relics were honored, affirms that no devil could stand their presence, and that men were cured of physical and spiritual ills by them. The people of his time celebrated Saint Julian's feast with special devotion at Antioch (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

Saint Julian is portrayed as being cast into the sea in a sack full of serpents and scorpions. He may also be shown (1) as his coffin floats with four angels seated on it or (2) led bound on a dromedary (Roeder).
303 St. Victor the Moor ( from Mauretania, Africa) praetorian guard Martyr
Medioláni item natális sancti Victóris Mártyris, qui, natióne Maurus et a primæva ætate Christiánus, a Maximiáno, cum esset in castris imperiálibus miles, compúlsus ut idólis sacrificáret, et in confessióne Dómini fortíssime persevérans, ideo, primum gráviter fústibus cæsus, sed, Deo protegénte, dolóris expers; deínde liquénti plumbo perfúsus, sed nihil pénitus læsus; novíssime gloriósi martyrii cursum, cápite abscíssus, implévit.
    At Milan, the birthday of the holy martyr Victor, a Moor.  He became a Christian in his youth and served in the imperial army.  When Maximian wished to force him to offer sacrifice to idols, he persevered with the greatest fortitude in the confession of the Lord.  He was first beaten with rods, but by God's protection without feeling any pain.  Following this, melted lead was poured over him, which did him no injury whatever.  The career of his glorious martyrdom was finally ended by his being beheaded.
also listed as Victor Maurus. He was labeled "the Moor" because he came from Mauretania, Africa. He was a member of the praetorian guard when a young man. He was in his old age when he was tortured and then beheaded at Milan, Italy, during the persecutions of co-Emperor Maximian.

303? ST VICTOR MAURUS, MARTYR
ST AMBROSE says of St Victor that he was one of the patrons of Milan, and as such he is associated with St Felix and St Nabor. According to tradition, he was a native of Mauretania, and was called Maurus to distinguish him from other con­fessors of the name of Victor. He is stated to have been a soldier in the Praetorian guard, a Christian from his youth, and to have been arrested for the faith when quite an old man. After enduring severe tortures, he suffered martyrdom by decapitation under Maximian in Milan about the year 303. His body was buried by order of the bishop, St Maternus, beside a little wood, and a church was after­wards built over his remains. St Gregory of Tours tells us that God honoured his tomb by many miracles. St Charles Borromeo caused the relics to be translated in 1576 to the new church in Milan which had then been recently built by the Olivetan monks and which still bears St Victor’s name.
In the passio of this martyr we have the usual fantastic accumulation of torments. He is said, for example, to have been basted with molten lead, which instantaneously cooled on touching his flesh, and did him no sort of harm. Nevertheless, the fact of his martyrdom and early veneration at Milan is beyond doubt. There is quite a considerable literature concerning St Victor the Moor, for which see CMH., p. 238. Consult especially F. Savio, .I santi Martiri di Milano (1906), pp. 3—24 and 59-65. The passio is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii.
   Called Maurus to distinguish him from other confessors named Victor. He is believed to have been a soldier in the Praetorian guard. Victor was a Christian from his youth, but it was not until he was an elderly man that he was arrested for the Faith. After severe tortures, including being basted with molten lead, he was decapitated under Maximian in Milan around the year 303. Later a church was erected over his grave. According to St. Gregory of Tours, many miracles occurred at the shrine. In 1576, at the request of St. Charles of Borromeo, Victor's relics were transferred to a new church in Milan established by the Olivetan monks. The church still bears St. Victor's name today. After a life of adherence to the Faith during perilous times, St. Victor Maurus was taken prisoner and tortured as an old man. Despite age, infirmity, and declining health, he remained steadfast in the Faith, gladly giving up his life for the Kingdom. His generous response to the call to martyrdom stands as a solemn sign to the modern church of the folly of the things of this world.
   Victor Maurus M (RM) (also known as Victor the Moor)  Born in Mauritania, North Africa; died in Milan, Italy, in 303. Saint Victor was a soldier in the Praetorian Guard who is associated by Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan from 374 to 397, with the martyrs SS. Nabor and Felix. He was martyred under Maximian. Many churches, especially in Milan, are dedicated to his honor. His cultus spread readily as far as England. Although little is known of his life, hagiographers have not hesitated to add details to the little information that is available (Benedictines, Farmer). In art, Saint Victor is depicted as a Moorish soldier trampling on a broken altar. He might also be portrayed as being roasted in an oven or a brazen bull, or thrown into a furnace. He is venerated in Milan
(Roeder).
303 Acacius of Byzantium Cappadocian centurion in the Roman army stationed in Thrace body was afterwards miraculously brought to the shore of Squillace in CalabriaM (RM)
Constantinópoli sancti Agáthii Centuriónis, qui, in persecutióne Diocletiáni et Maximiáni, a Firmo Tribúno delátus quod Christiánus esset, et a Júdice Perínthi Bibiáno sævíssime tortus, Byzántii demum a Procónsule Flaccíno cápitis damnátus est.  Ipsíus corpus ad Scyllácium littus, in Calábria, divínitus póstea delátum est, atque ibi honorífice asservátum.
    At Constantinople, St. Acathius, who, being denounced as a Christian by the tribune Firmus, and cruelly tortured at Perinthus by the judge Bibian, was finally condemned to death at Byzantium by the procunsul Flaccinus.  His body was afterwards miraculously brought to the shore of Squillace in Calabria, where it is preserved with honour.
(also known as Agathus, Agario, Acato)
 Saint Acacius was a Cappadocian centurion in the Roman army stationed in Thrace, who was tortured and beheaded at Byzantium under Diocletian. Constantine the Great built a church in his honor (Benedictines). In art, Saint Acacius is a centurion with a bunch of thorns. He may also be shown (1) in armor with a standard and shield, or (2) in Byzantine art, with Saint Theodore Tyro (Roeder). He is venerated as San Acato in Avila and Cuenca (Spain) and as Saint Agario in Squillace (Calabria, Italy) (Roeder).
303 St. Anthimus Priest rescued by an angel then martyr of Rome led the Church in Rome converting many
Romæ, via Salária, natális beáti Anthimi Presbyteri, qui, post virtútum  et prædicatiónis insígnia, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, in Tíberim præcipitátus, et ab Angelo exínde eréptus, oratório próprio restitútus est; deínde, cápite punítus, victor migrávit ad cælos.
     At Rome, on the Salarian Way, the birthday of blessed Anthimus, priest, who, after having distinguished himself by his virtues and preaching, was cast into the Tiber during the persecution of Diocletian.  He was rescued by an angel and restored to his oratory.  Afterwards he was beheaded, and went victoriously to heaven.

Anthimus is not well known. He is reported to have led the Church in Rome, converting many. One of his converts, a Roman prefect, brought Anthimus to the attention of the authorities. He was arrested and condemned to death by drowning. Miraculously saved, Anthimus escaped briefly but was recaptured and beheaded.

Saint Anthimus, a Roman priest, is said to have converted the pagan husband of a Christian matron named Lucina, who was well-known for her charity to imprisoned Christians. Saint Anthimus was thrown into the Tiber, miraculously rescued by an angel, later recaptured, and beheaded (Benedictines).
303 Procopius {Neanius} Holy Great Martyr persecution against Christians then, vision of the Lord Jesus, similar to the vision of Saul a radiant Cross appeared in the air. Neanius felt an inexpressible joy and spiritual happiness in his heart and he was transformed from being a persecutor into a zealous follower of Christ
In the world Neanius, a native of Jerusalem, lived and suffered during the reign of the emperor Diocletian (284-305). His father, an eminent Roman by the name of Christopher, was a Christian, but the mother of the saint, Theodosia, remained a pagan. He was early deprived of his father, and the young child was raised by his mother. Having received an excellent secular education, he was introduced to Diocletian in the very first year of the emperor's accession to the throne, and he quickly advanced in government service. Towards the year 303, when open persecution against Christians began, Neanius was sent as a proconsul to Alexandria with orders to mercilessly persecute the Church of God.

On the way to Egypt, near the Syrian city of Apamea, Neanius had a vision of the Lord Jesus, similar to the vision of Saul on the road to Damascus. A divine voice exclaimed, "Neanius, why do you persecute Me?"  Neanius asked, "Who are you, Lord?"  "I am the crucified Jesus, the Son of God."

At that moment a radiant Cross appeared in the air. Neanius felt an inexpressible joy and spiritual happiness in his heart and he was transformed from being a persecutor into a zealous follower of Christ. From this point in time Neanius became favorably disposed towards Christians and fought victoriously against the barbarians.

The words of the Savior came true for the saint, "A man's foes shall be those of his own household" (Mt. 10:36). His mother, a pagan herself, went to the emperor to complain that her son did not worship the ancestral gods. Neanius was summoned to the procurator Judaeus Justus, where he was solemnly handed the decree of Diocletian. Having read through the blasphemous directive, Neanius quietly tore it up before the eyes of everyone. This was a crime, which the Romans regarded as an "insult to authority." Neanius was held under guard and in chains sent to Caesarea of Palestine, where the Apostle Paul once languished. After terrible torments, they threw the saint into a dank prison. That night, a light shone in the prison, and the Lord Jesus Christ Himself baptized the suffering confessor, and gave him the name Procopius.

Repeatedly they led St Procopius to the courtroom, demanding that he renounce Christ, and they subjected him to more tortures. The stolidity of the martyr and his fiery faith brought down God's abundant grace on those who witnessed the execution.  Inspired by the example of Procopius, many of the holy martyr's former guards and Roman soldiers went beneath the executioner's sword together with their tribunes Nikostrates and Antiochus. Twelve Christian women received martyr's crowns, after they came to the gates of the Caesarea Praetorium.

Struck by the great faith and courage of the Christians, and seeing the firmness of her son in bearing terrible sufferings, Theodosia became repentant and stood in the line of confessors and was executed. Finally the new procurator, Flavian, convinced of the futility of the tortures, sentenced the holy Great Martyr Procopius to beheading by the sword. By night Christians took up his much-tortured body, and with tears and prayers, they committed it to the earth. This was the first martyrdom at Caesarea (303).

St Procopius, Martyr
An account of the passion of St Procopius, the protomartyr of the persecution of Diocletian in Palestine and one of sevenl martyrs distinguished in the East as "the Great ", was written by a contemporary, Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, who narrates it in the following words:

The first of the martyrs of Palestine was Procopius, a man filled with divine grace, who had ordered his life so well that from childhood he had devoted himself to chastity and the practice of all the virtues.  He had reduced his body until he had given it so to speak the appearance of a corpse, but his soul drew from the word of God so great a vigour that the body itself was refreshed by it.  He lived on bread and water and only ate every two or three days sometimes he prolonged his fast during a whole week. Meditation on the divine word so filled his being that he remained absorbed in it day and night without fatigue.  Filled with goodness and gentleness, regarding himself as the least of men, he edified everyone by his discourses.  The word of God was his sole study, and of profane science he had but little knowledge.  Born    at Aelia [Jerusalem], he had taken up his residence at Scythopolis [Bethsan], where he filled three ecclesiastical offices.  He was reader and interpreter in the Syriac language, and cast out evil spirits by the imposition of hands.
      Sent with companions from Scythopolis to Caesarea [Maritima] he had    scarcely passed the city gates when he was conducted into the presence of the    governor, and even before he h~d had a taste of chains or prison walls he was    urged by the judge Flavian to sacrifice to the gods.    But he, in a loud voice,    proclaimed that there are not sevenl gods, but One alone, the creator and author of all things.
This answer made a vivid impression on the judge.  Finding nothing to say in reply, he tried to persuade Procopius at least to sacrifice to the emperors. But the martyr of God despised his entreaties.
"Listen ", he said, "to this verse of Homer: It is not good to have several masters; let there be one chief, one king."    

(Iliad, II, 294.)

   At these words, as though he had uttered imprecations against the emperors, the judge ordered him to be led to execution.  They cut off his head, and he passed happily to eternal life by the shortest road, on the 7th of the month of   Desius, the day that the Latins call the nones of July, in the first year of our persecution.  This was the first martyrdom that took place at Caesarea.

   It is hardly believable that this simple and impressive narrative should have been the seed of the incredible legends which afterwards grew up around the name of Procopius: astonishing and absurd fables and trimmings that eventually transformed the austere cleric into a mighty warrior, and even split him into three people, the ascete, the soldier, and a martyr in Persia.  In his earlier legend he was made to argue with the judge and to refer to Hermes Trismegistus, Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Galen and Scamandrus in support of the oneness of God, to suffer torture in most ingenious fashions, and to paralyse his executioner; later he becomes a duke of Alexandria and the hero of more legendary marvels (afterwards borrowed for the "acts" of St Ephysius of Cagliari and the unknown martyr John of Constantinople), undergoing a miraculous conversion (combined of the visions of St Paul and of the Labarum), slaying six thousand marauding barbarians with the aid of a wonderworking cross, converting in prison a band of soldiers and twelve noble matrons, and the like.  The evolution, if such arbitrary leaps can be called evolution, of the story of St Procopius is a "leading case" in hagiology; but in the dignified account of Eusebius we may be certain that we have what really happened.
Father Delehaye devotes a whole chapter (ch. v) of his book The Legends of the Saints to this transformation of St Procopius into a military saint.  The most noteworthy Greek text has been edited by him in Les legendes grecques des saints militaires, pp. 214-233.
303 St. Sabinus bishop Martyr with  and companions cured a blind child.
 Spoléti item natális sanctórum Mártyrum Sabíni, Assisiénsis Epíscopi, atque Exsuperántii et Marcélli Diaconórum, ac Venustiáni Præsidis cum uxóre et fíliis, sub Maximiáno Imperatóre.  Ex ipsis Marcéllus et Exsuperántius, primum equúleo suspénsi, deínde fústibus gráviter mactáti, postrémum, abrási úngulis et láterum exustióne assáti, martyrium complevérunt; Venustiánus autem non multo post, simul cum uxóre et fíliis, est gládio necátus; sanctus vero Sabínus, post detruncatiónem mánuum et diútinam cárceris maceratiónem, ad mortem usque cæsus est.  Horum martyrium, licet divérso exstíterit témpore, una tamen die recólitur.
      At Spoleto, the birthday also of the holy martyrs Sabinus, bishop, Exuperantius and Marcellus, deacons, and also Venustian, governor, along with his wife and sons, under Emperor Maximian.  Marcellus and Exuperantius were first racked, then severely beaten with rods; afterwards being torn with iron hooks, and burned in the sides, they fulfilled their martyrdom.  Not long after, Venustian was put to the sword with his wife and sons.  St. Sabinus, after having his hands cut off, and being a long time confined in prison, was scourged to death.  The martyrdom of these saints is commemorated on the same day, although it occurred at different times.
St. Exuperantius, Marcellus, Venustian. They were put to death at Spoleto, Italy, during the persecutions of the Church under Emperor Diocletian. Sabinus was a bishop (he is claimed by several cities, including Assisi, Spoleto, and Faenza); Exuperantius and Marcellus were his deacons; and Venustian and others were converts. The martyrs were brought before the local governor, and Sabinus converted many and cured a blind child.

303 SS. SABINUS AND HIS COMPANIONS, MARTYRS
ACCORDING to the legend, Sabinus, claimed as a bishop by several Italian cities, and several of his clergy were arrested during the persecution under Diocletian; Venustian, the governor of Etruria, had them before him and offered for the veneration of Sabinus a small statue of Jupiter. The bishop threw it contemptuously to the ground and broke it, whereupon Venustian ordered the hands of Sabinus to be cut off. His two deacons, Marcellus and Exsuperantius, also made a confession of faith, and were scourged and racked, under which torments they both died. Sabinus was taken back to prison and the bodies of his two deacons were buried at Assisi. A widow named Serena brought her blind son to Sabinus, who blessed him with his handless arms and the boy was healed. Whereupon a number of the bishop’s fellow-prisoners asked for baptism. This, it is said, led also to the conversion of the governor Venustian, who had an affliction of the eyes, and he with his wife and children gave their lives for Christ. St Sabinus was beaten to death at Spoleto, and buried a mile from that city. St Gregory the Great speaks of a chapel built in his honour near Fermo, for which he asks relics of the martyr from Chrysanthus, bishop of Spoleto. These martyrs are remembered today in the Roman Martyrology, which on December 11 names another St Sabinus, bishop of Piacenza, during the fourth century. He was a man of so great learning and holiness that St Ambrose used to submit his writing to him for criticism and approval before publication.

The story told above depends upon a worthless passio that was fabricated in the fifth or sixth century. There is no evidence that Sabinus was bishop of Assisi or Spoleto or any other place. The passio was first published in the Miscellanea of Baluze-Mansi, vol. i, pp. 12—14. See further, Delehaye, Origines du culte des martyrs, p. 317, who does not dispute that there was, in fact, a martyr of this name who was buried a short distance from Spoleto, though we know nothing of his story. Consult also Lanzoni, Le diocesi d’Italia, vol. i, pp. 439—440 and 461—463 with G. Cristofani, Storia di Assisi, vol. iii, pp. 21—23.
304 St. Sozon, a native of Lykaonia, was a shepherd read Holy Scriptures attentively, and he loved to share his knowledge about the One God with the shepherds who gathered together with him; brought many to the faith in Christ and Baptism destroyed idol; by his grave and at the place where he had the vision, many of the sick were healed.
Pompejópoli, in Cilícia, sancti Sozóntis Mártyris, qui, sub Maximiáno Imperatóre, in ignem injéctus, réddidit spíritum.
    St. Sozon, At Pompeiopolis in Cilicia, in the time of Emperor Maximian, a martyr who was thrown into the fire and yielded up his spirit.

St Sozon, Martyr 
The following is the legend of this young shepherd of Cilicia, who was originally called Tarasius and took the name of Sozon at baptism. One day while sleeping under a tree our Lord appeared to him, told him to leave his sheep, and to follow Him to death.  Sozon awoke and at once made his way to the nearest town, Pompeiopolis, Where he found a pagan festival was being celebrated. He went straight into the temple of the god and with a mighty blow of his crook knocked down the golden image and broke off its hand.  This hand he took and broke into further small pieces, which he distributed as alms among the poor. Several
innocent persons were arrested for this, Whereupon Sozon marched into court and gave himself up as the true culprit.    He was offered pardon and freedom if he would Worship the god whose statue he had mutilated, but Sozon mocked at the idea of worshipping a god that could be broken by a sheep-crook.   Nails were then driven, points upward, through the soles of his sandals and he was made thus to walk around the arena.  As Sozon passed before the magistrate he pointed at his blood-stained feet and said, " I have finer red shoes than you ". "You are a brave fellow ", said the magistrate.  "Play a tune on your pipe and I will let you go."  But Sozon refused, saying that be had often piped to his sheep but would now make music only to God. So he was sentenced to be burned, and when night had come the Christians of the place collected his charred bones and gave them honourable burial.
Two Greek texts preserve the alleged acts of this martyr.  One has been edited in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. iii  the other in vol. cxv of Migne, PG.
The Martyr Sozon, a native of Lykaonia, was a shepherd. He read the Holy Scriptures attentively, and he loved to share his knowledge about the One God with the shepherds who gathered together with him. He brought many to the faith in Christ and to Baptism. One night, as he sat under an oak tree, he had a vision foretelling his martyrdom for Christ. He went to the city of Cilician Pompeiopolis, where a festal pagan celebration was being prepared for a golden idol, standing in a pagan temple. Unseen by anyone, St Sozon went into the pagan temple and broke off the idol's hand, then he smashed it and gave the gold to the poor. The missing hand of the idol caused an uproar and commotion in the city. Many were under suspicion, and were subjected to interrogation and torture. Not wanting to be the cause of suffering for other people, St Sozon went to the emperor Maximian (284-305) and declared that it was he who broke the hand of the idol.  "I did this," he said, "so that you might see the lack of power of your god, which offered me no resistance. It is not a god, but a deaf and dumb idol. I wanted to smash it all into pieces, so that people would no longer worship the work of men's hands."
The emperor in a fitful rage commanded that St Sozon be tortured mercilessly. They hung him up and struck him with iron claws, and then they put iron boots in which there were nails on his feet and took him through the city. After this they again suspended him and beat him with iron rods until his bones broke. In these terrible torments St Sozon gave up his spirit to God. By decree of the emperor, slaves lit a fire to burn the body of the martyr, but suddenly lightning flashed, it thundered loudly, and rain poured down over the fire.
Christians took the body of the martyr by night and buried it. By his grave and at the place where he had the vision, many of the sick were healed. A church was built later in memory of the sufferings of the holy martyr.
304 The Holy Martyr Athenodorus Miracles accompanied the martyrdom of the saint, which converted many of the pagans to the Christian Faith
from Syrian Mesopotamia, led a monastic life from his youth. Denounced as a Christian, he was arrested and condemned to fierce tortures by the governor of the land, Eleusius. Miracles accompanied the martyrdom of the saint, which converted many of the pagans to the Christian Faith. He was beheaded in the year 304
.
304 Florian of Austria princeps officiorum in the Roman army in Noricum (Austria) Many miracles are attributed M (RM)
The Martyrdom of St. Florian Albrecht Altdorfer Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Image courtesy of Carol Gerten Fine Arts
This site also has Altdorfer's The Departure of Saint Florian

Born at Ems; died 304. Florian was an officer (princeps officiorum) in the Roman army, who held a high administrative post in Noricum (now in Austria). He had secretly been converted to Christianity. When the governor of Lorch, Aquilinus, on instructions from Diocletian ordered his soldiers to hunt down Christians, Florian decided he no longer wished to conceal his faith. He gave himself up at Lorch to the governor's soldiers.

After professing his faith, he was scourged twice, then his skin was slowly peeled from his body. Finally, instead of being executed by the sword and thus given a soldier's death, Saint Florian was thrown into the River Ems (Anisus), near Lorch, with a stone around his neck.
His body was recovered and buried by a devout woman. It was removed to the Augustinian Abbey of Saint Florian, near Linz. It is held that his relics were later translated to Rome, and Pope Lucius III, in 1138, gave some of the saint's relics to King Casimir of Poland and to the bishop of Cracow. Many miracles are attributed to him, including the extinguishing of a huge fire with a pitcher of water (Benedictines, Bentley, Coulson, Delaney, Tabor, White).
Saint Florian is portrayed in art as a young man, sometimes in armor, sometimes unarmed, pouring water from a tub on a burning church. At times the picture may show him with a palm in his hand and a burning torch under his feet;  as a bearded warrior with a lance and tub;  as a classical warrior leaning on a millstone, pouring water on a fire; as a boy with a millstone; setting out on a journey with a hat and staff (Altdorfer); beaten;  being thrown into the river with a millstone around his neck; lying dead on a millstone guarded by an eagle; or with a sword (Roeder). The Sunserv site has Francesco del Cossa's painting.

Florian is one of the eight patron saints of Austria and the patron of Upper Austria and of Linz. He also holds patronage of Poland, brewers, coopers, chimney-sweeps, and soap-boilers (Roeder, Tabor). He is invoked against bad harvests, battles, fire, flood, and storm (Roeder). He is also the patron of those in danger from water and flood, and of drowning (White).
304 St. Trophimus & Eucarpius martyrs two pagan soldiers became converts while hunting Christians beheld within a cloud the image of a Radiant Man and a great multitude standing about Him
 Ibídem sanctórum Mártyrum Tróphimi et Eucárpii.       In the same place, the holy martyrs Trophimus and Eucarpius.
during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian.
They were two pagan soldiers in the Roman army stationed in Nicomedia (modern Turkey) who were ordered to pursue Christians.
While hunting Christians, they became converts and as a result, they were burned alive at Nicomedia.
Holy Martyrs Trophimus and Eucarpion were soldiers at Nicomedia during the persecution against Christians under the emperor Diocletian (284-305). They distinguished themselves by their great ferocity in carrying out all of the emperor's decrees.
Once, when these soldiers had caught up with some Christians, they suddenly saw a large fiery cloud which had come down from the sky, thickening in form as it drew close to them. From out of the cloud came forth a Voice: "Why are you so zealous in threatening My servants? Don't be deluded! No one can suppress those believing in Me through their own strength. It is better to join them and discover the Heavenly Kingdom yourselves."
The soldiers fell to the ground in fright, not daring to lift up their eyes, and only said to one another, "Truly this is the great God, Who has manifested Himself to us. We would do well to become His servants." The Lord then spoke saying, "Rise up, repent, for your sins are forgiven." As they got up, they beheld within the cloud the image of a Radiant Man and a great multitude standing about Him.
The astonished soldiers cried out with one voice, "Receive us, for our sins are inexpressibly wicked. There is no other God but You, the Creator and true God, and we are not yet numbered among Your servants." But just as they spoke this, the cloud receded and rose up into the sky.
Spiritually reborn after this miracle, the soldiers released all the jailed Christians from the prisons. For this Sts Trophimus and Eucarpion were handed over to terrible torments: they suspended the saints and tore their bodies with iron hooks. They gave thanks unto God, certain that the Lord would forgive them their former sins.
When a fire had been lit, the holy martyrs went willingly into the fire and there gave up their souls to God.
304 Saint Alban first martyr of England soldier who was to kill the Saint was converted himself, and he too, became a martyr
Verolámii, in Británnia, sancti Albáni Mártyris, qui, témpore Diocletiáni, pro Clérico hóspite, quem domi excéperat et a quo Christiánæ fídei præceptiónibus imbútus fúerat, seípsum, commutáta veste, trádidit; et hanc ob causam, post vérbera et acérba torménta, cápite plexus est.  Passus est étiam cum illo unus de milítibus, qui, dum eum dúceret ad supplícium, in via convérsus est ad Christum, et mox, gládio decollátus, próprio sánguine méruit baptizári.  Hoc autem nóbile sancti Albáni ac Sócii durátum pro Deo certámen sanctus Beda Venerábilis descrípsit.
    At Verulam in England, in the time of Diocletian, St. Alban, martyr, who gave himself up in order to save a cleric whom he had harboured.  After being scourged and subjected to bitter torments, he was sentenced to capital punishment.  With him also suffered one of the soldiers who led him to execution, for he was converted to Christ on the way and merited to be baptized in his own blood.  St. Venerable Bede has left an account of the noble combat of St. Alban and his companion.
Alban (von England) Katholische und Anglikanische Kirche: 22. Juni

his own country (homeland). During a persecution of Christians, Alban, though a pagan, hid a priest in his house. The priest made such a great impression on him that Alban received instructions and became a Christian himself.
Alban sheltered him, and after some days, moved by his example, himself received baptism.
In the meantime, the governor had been told that the priest was hiding in Alban's house, and he sent his soldiers to capture him. But Alban changed clothes with his guest, and gave himself up in his stead. The judge was furious when he found out that the priest had escaped and he said to Alban, "You shall get the punishment he was to get unless you worship the gods." The Saint answered that he would never worship those false gods again. "To what family do you belong?" demanded the judge. "That does not concern you," said Alban. "If you want to know my religion, I am a Christian." Angrily the judge commanded him again to sacrifice to the gods at once. "Your sacrifices are offered to devils," answered the Saint. "They cannot help you or answer your requests. The reward for such sacrifices is the everlasting punishment of Hell."
Since he was getting nowhere, the judge had Alban whipped. Then he commanded him to be beheaded. On the way to the place of execution, the soldier who was to kill the Saint was converted himself, and he too, became a martyr.

Alban of Great Britain M (RM) 3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as 209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a Passio Albani.

The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing c. 540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more details of signs from heaven.

Alban was a pagan, supposed to have been a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer, he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam), Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

The story continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a rumor that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered, the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian, whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar. He was threatened with all the tortures that had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.
Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith, the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God, who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be prevailed upon to retract, he was sentenced to decapitation.

On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered to honor his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty. Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people, Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban, and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the soldier was baptized in his own blood to share the glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions, and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission. He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Gill, Morris).

The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6) as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

Alban (von England) Katholische und Anglikanische Kirche: 22. Juni
Alban war Soldat der römischen Armee in England. Während einer Christenverfolgung nahm er einen flüchtigen Priester bei sich auf, der ihn taufte. Als Soldaten das Haus nach dem Priester durchsuchten, zog Alban seine Kleider an und ließ sich festnehmen. Er wurde vor ein Militärgericht gebracht, ausgepeitscht und (um 305) hingerichtet. Er gilt als erster christlicher Märtyrer Englands. Sein Geburtsort soll Verulamium gewesen sein, das in St. Albans umbenannt wurde. Auf der Hinrichtungsstätte wurde die Kathedrale St. Albans errichtet.
Alexander Holy Martyr suffered for Christ soldier serving tribune Tiberian at Rome By night a fearsome angel appeared to Tiberian with sword in hand; miracles; healings
at the beginning of the fourth century. He was a soldier serving in the regiment of the tribune Tiberian at Rome. When he was eighteen, the Roman emperor Maximian Hercules (284-305) issued an edict that all citizens were to go to the temple of Jupiter outside the city on a designated day to offer sacrifice. The tribune Tiberian assembled his soldiers and he ordered them to go to this festival, but Alexander, raised from childhood in the Christian Faith, refused and said that he would not offer sacrifice to devils.
Tiberian reported to the emperor Maximian that there was a soldier in his regiment who was a Christian.
Soldiers were immediately sent to arrest Alexander.

Alexander was asleep, but an angel woke him and warned him of his impending martyrdom, saying that he would be with him during this time. When the soldiers arrived, Alexander came out to meet them. His face shone with a light so bright that the soldiers fell to the ground when they saw him. The saint upbraided them and told them to carry out their orders.
Standing before Maximian, St Alexander boldly confessed his faith in Christ and he refused to worship the idols. He said that he was not afraid of the emperor, nor of his threats. The emperor tried to persuade the young man with promises of honors, but Alexander remained steadfast in his confession, and denounced the emperor and all the pagans.
They tortured the holy martyr, but he bravely endured all the sufferings.
Maximian remanded St Alexander to the tribune Tiberian, who was being sent to Thrace to persecute Christians there. So they brought the martyr to Thrace, fettered in chains.
At this time an angel told St Alexander's mother, Pimenia, of her son's martyrdom. Pimenia found her son in Carthage, where he stood before Tiberian and again he steadfastly confessed himself a Christian.
They subjected him to torture before the eyes of his mother, and then they took the prisoner on his final journey, walking behind Tiberian's chariot. The brave Pimenia asked the soldiers to let her go to her son, and she encouraged him to undergo torments for Christ.
The soldiers were astonished at the stoic strength of the martyr and they said one to another, "Great is the God of the Christians!"

The angel appeared to the martyr several times, strengthening him.
By night a fearsome angel appeared to Tiberian with sword in hand, and commanded the tribune to hasten to Byzantium, since the martyr's end was drawing near. Tiberian hurried on his way.

In the city of Philippopolis, Tiberian retried St Alexander in the presence of the city dignitaries gathered for this event. At this trial St Alexander remained steadfast. During his grievous journey the holy martyr had been repeatedly subjected to cruel tortures. He was strengthened by God, however, and he endured all the torments.

He gave strength to the soldiers weakened by thirst, asking the Lord to provide a spring of water for them.
During the journey, the martyr prayed beneath a tree, asking for strength in his sufferings, and the fruit and leaves of this tree received a curative power.
At a place named Burtodexion, the saint again met his mother Pimenia, who fell weeping at his feet.
The holy martyr said to her, "Do not weep , my mother, for the day after tomorrow, the Lord shall help me finish matters."

In the city of Drizipera Tiberian imposed the death sentence on the saint. The holy martyr gave thanks to the Lord for giving him the strength to endure all the torments, and to accept martyrdom.

The soldier who was supposed to carry out the execution asked the saint's forgiveness, and for a long time he could not bring himself to raise his sword, for he saw angels waiting to take the soul of the martyr.
The saint prayed and asked God to remove the angels, since he wanted to go to the Lord.

Only then did he cut off the saint's holy head. The saint's body was cast into a river, but four dogs dragged it out of the water, and they would not let anyone near it, until St Alexander's mother Pimenia came. She took up the remains of her martyred son and reverently buried them near the River Ergina.
Healings began to take place at the grave of St Alexander.

Soon the holy martyr appeared to his mother in a dream, in which he comforted her and said that soon she too would be transported to the heavenly habitations.
305 St. Philemon converted by Apollonius a deacon at Antinoe in the Thebaid, Egypt and Martyred together
An actor at Antinoe, Egypt, in the Nile Delta, he was converted to Christianity by the deacon Apollonius and was arrested with him by Roman authorities during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian.
Taken to Alexandria, they were wrapped in chains and hurled into the sea.

Philemon and Apollonius MM (RM) Apollonius was a deacon at Antinoe in the Thebaid, Egypt, and was said to have converted Philemon, a popular musician and entertainer. According to legend, he was arrested during the persecution of Diocletian and, fearful of torture, offered the pagan Philemon four gold pieces if he would perform the rite of eating food sacrificed to false gods in his place.
Philemon agreed. He dressed himself in Philemon's clothes and his hooded cloak to hide his face. Philemon appeared before the judge, who asked him to carry out the rite. The Holy Spirit entered Philemon, and he claimed himself a Christian and refused to partake of the sacrifice.  The judge Arrian argued with him, and finally thinking he was speaking to Apollonius, asked that Philemon be brought to him.
Unable to find Philemon, the court officers brought Philemon's brother, Theonas. Asked where his brother was, he pointed out Philemon in Apollonius's cloak.

The judge saw the situation as a joke but insisted that Philemon perform the rite. Philemon refused. Arrian responded that it was foolish of him to refuse when he was not even baptized.
Philemon prayed, and a cloud miraculously appeared and rained upon him. He claimed that he was thus baptized.

Arrian appealed to him, begging him to think of what a terrible loss of musical skill such resistance would mean. The musician's pipes were then said to have been destroyed by Philemon himself or to have spontaneously burst into flames. Officers arrested Apollonius, proclaimed the two men as Christians, and they were condemned to death.
One legend says that before the execution, Apollonius and Philemon asked that a great pot be brought before them and a living baby be placed inside it. They then asked soldiers to shoot arrows at it, which they did, the arrows piercing the pot. The baby remained unharmed. The judge then ordered the soldiers to shoot the men with arrows, but all the arrows hung suspended int he air, except one, which blinded Arrian.
Despite this and several other miracles, Apollonius is said to have been tied in a sack, thrown into the sea, and drowned. Arrian's sight was said to have been restored when clay from Apollonius's tomb was applied to his eyes.
This led to the conversion of Arrian and four other officials (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, White).

In art, Apollonius is depicted on a funeral pyre or drowning in the sea or being crucified (White).
305 St. Januarius born Italy bishop blood liquefies
of Benevento during the Emperor Diocletion persecution. Bishop Januarius went to visit two deacons and two laymen in prison. He was then also imprisoned along with his deacon and lector. They were thrown to the wild beasts, but when the animals did not attack them, they were beheaded. What is believed to be Januarius' blood is kept in Naples, as a relic. It liquifies and bubbles when exposed in the cathedral. Scientists have not been able to explain this miracle to date. St. Januarius lived and died around 305 A.D.

Nothing is known of Januarius's life. He is believed to have been martyred in the Diocletian persecution of 305. Legend has it that after Januarius was thrown to the bears in the amphitheater of Pozzuoli, he was beheaded, and his blood ultimately brought to Naples.

Comment: It is defined Catholic doctrine that miracles can happen and can be recognized—hardly a mind-boggling statement to anyone who believes in God. Problems arise, however, when we must decide whether an occurrence is unexplainable in natural terms, or only unexplained. We do well to avoid an excessive credulity, which may be a sign of insecurity. On the other hand, when even scientists speak about "probabilities" rather than "laws" of nature, it is something less than imaginative for Christians to think that God is too "scientific" to work extraordinary miracles to wake us up to the everyday miracles of sparrows and dandelions, raindrops and snowflakes.
Quote: “A dark mass that half fills a hermetically sealed four-inch glass container, and is preserved in a double reliquary in the Naples cathedral as the blood of St. January, liquefies 18 times during the year.... This phenomenon goes back to the 14th century.... Tradition connects it with a certain Eusebia, who had allegedly collected the blood after the martyrdom.... The ceremony accompanying the liquefaction is performed by holding the reliquary close to the altar on which is located what is believed to be the martyr's head. While the people pray, often tumultuously, the priest turns the reliquary up and down in the full sight of the onlookers until the liquefaction takes place.... Various experiments have been applied, but the phenomenon eludes natural explanation. There are, however, similar miraculous claims made for the blood of John the Baptist, Stephen, Pantaleon, Patricia, Nicholas of Tolentino and Aloysius Gonzaga—nearly all in the neighborhood of Naples” (Catholic Encyclopedia).
305 St. Otimus Departure of the Priest martyred; God revealed many miracles in Church where he was buried after persecutions ceased
On this day also, St. Otimus the priest was martyred. He was born in Fowwa, and because of his righteousness, he was ordained a priest for his city. He taught and confirmed the faithful in the faith. Afterwards, he moved to mount Ansena. When Emperor Diocletian incited the persecution against the Christians, the account of this Saint reached Arianus the governor of Ansena. He brought him and offered him to worship the idols, and the Saint did not hearken to his orders. He tortured him much, but the Lord strengthened him. When the Governor became weary of his torturing, he ordered him to be burned. He was burned and received the crown of martyrdom.

His body was taken by a God fearing priest, who shrouded the body and hid it in a place until the end of the time of persecution. They built him a church where God revealed many miracles. It is believed that his body still exists in the city of Kalabsha near El-Santa. May his prayers be with us.
Amen.
305 St. Pantaleemon, the Physician Martyrdom of; miracle worker {Coptic}
   This day also marks the martyrdom of the honorable St. Pantaleemon, the Physician. This saint was born in the city of Ta'madan. His father, whose name was Astochius (Asturius), was pagan, and his mother, whose name was Unala (Ulana), was Christian. They taught him the medical profession.
    A priest lived near their house, and every time Pantaleemon passed by him, and the priest saw his stature, his comeliness, his knowledge, and his wisdom, he was sorrowful for him for he was away from God. The priest entreated God in his prayers, to guide Pantaleemon to the way of salvation. Having repeated his petition to God for Pantaleemon's sake, the Lord told him in a vision that he would believe through him. The priest rejoiced, and started to speak to him whenever he passed before him, until a friendship grew between them. The priest started to explain to him the corruptness of idol worshipping and the nobility of the Faith of the Lord Christ and the noble life of its followers. He also told him about those who believe in Christ, and the signs and wonders wrought by their hands.
  When Pantaleemon, the Physician, heard that, he rejoiced and desired to perform these signs to perfect his medical profession. One day, he was passing through the market-place of the city, and he saw a man, whom a serpent had bitten, lying on the ground and the serpent was standing up before him. He said to himself, "I will put to test the words of my teacher, the priest, who told me, 'If you believe in the Lord Christ, you shall work miracles in His Name.'" He drew near that man, and prayed a long prayer, asking the Lord Christ to manifest His Power in healing that man, and in killing that serpent, so that it might not harm anyone else. When he finished his prayer, the man rose up alive, and the serpent fell down dead. Pantaleemon's faith increased; he went to the priest, who baptized him, and he went on practicing medicine.
    One day a blind man came to Pantaleemon that he might heal him, but his father sent him away. The Saint asked him, "Who was asking for me?" His father replied, "It was a blind man, and you can not heal him." The Saint told him, "You shall see the glory of God." He called the blind man back, and asked him, "If you can see will you believe in the God Who shall heal your eyes?" The man said, "Yes, I will believe." The Saint prayed over him a long and a profound prayer, and then he laid his hand upon the eyes of the blind man, and said, "In the Name of the Lord Christ receive your sight." Straightway, he received his sight and believed in the Lord Christ. When his father saw that, he also believed. The saint brought them to the priest who baptized them.
  When his father departed, the Saint set his slaves free and gave all his money to the poor. He treated the sick freely, and asked them to believe in Christ. The other physicians were jealous of him, and they laid accusation against him, the priest and many others who had believed, before the Emperor. He brought them and threatened to torture them if they did not deny the Lord Christ. When they did not yield to his threats, he tortured them severely then cut off their heads. The Emperor exaggerated in torturing St. Pantaleemon, he cast him to the lions which did not harm him, and the Lord strengthened and healed him. Finally, the Emperor ordered to cut off his head and he received the crown of martyrdom.  May his prayers be with us. Amen .

Pantaleon the Physician M (RM) (also known as Panteleemon, Panteleimon)
Died c. 305. Saint Pantaleon is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, known for their efficacious prayer, who are especially venerated in France and Germany. All of them have highly embroidered life stories, although they themselves are rather shadowy figures about whom almost nothing is known for certain. Pantaleon's unreliable vita may have developed because his name in Greek, means "the all-compassionate."
It is said that he was a doctor of such skill that Emperor Maximian, a great persecutor of Christians employed Pantaleon as the court physician. He was the son of a pagan father, Eustorgius, and a Christian mother, Eubula, who raised him as a Christian. In the fanatically anti-Christian and dissolute court of Maximian, he lost his faith and nearly his soul with his self-indulgent lifestyle.
In time, however, a fellow-Christian named Hermolaos reminded the doctor of the faith he had abandoned. From that time Pantaleon's skills were at the disposal of the poor. The wealth he had gained from his successful practice was given away.
   Other physicians, jealous of his position at court, saw Pantaleon's renewed faith as a way of discrediting him at court. When the persecution of Christians under Emperor Diocletian broke out in Nicomedia in 303, Pantaleon, Hermolaos, and two other Christians were arrested. This time Pantaleon refused to reject the faith; instead he chose death. Vain attempts were made to put him to death in six different ways--including drowning, fire, and wild beasts--before he was successfully beheaded amidst a halo of other marvels.
   What is probably true is that he was a physician, who practiced without payment, and who was martyred under Diocletian, probably at Nicomedia. He cultus is primarily connected with Bithynia, where Emperor Justinian rebuilt his church at Nicomedia. Churches are dedicated to him in Constantinople and Rome. In the East he is known as the Great Martyr and Wonder Worker. A reputed relic of Pantaleon's blood kept at Ravello in southern Italy displays the phenomenon of liquefaction on his feast day, similar to that of Saint Januarius (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Sheppard)
   In art, Saint Pantaleon is a physician holding a phial of medicine. At times he may be depicted (1) healing a sick child; (2) bound with hands above his head to an olive tree, to which he is nailed, with a sword at his feet; (3) nail through his hands into his head; (4) pushed off a rock with a pitchfork; (5) with a stone tied to his neck; (6) killed with a club; or (7) with a sword and vase or phial (Roeder). Click here to see an image of the saint by Photios Kontoglou .
Together with Saints Cosmas and Damian, Pantaleon is the patron of the medical profession (Bentley).
He is invoked against lung disease (Sheppard).

310 Miracle of the boiled wheat performed by the holy Great Martyr Theodore the Recruit
Today we remember the miracle of the boiled wheat performed by the holy Great Martyr Theodore the Recruit (February 17).
Fifty years after the death of St Theodore, the emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363), wanting to commit an outrage upon the Christians, commanded the city-commander of Constantinople to sprinkle all the food provisions in the marketplaces with the blood offered to idols during the first week of Great Lent. St Theodore, having appeared in a dream to Archbishop Eudoxius, ordered him to inform all the Christians that no one should buy anything at the marketplaces, but rather to eat cooked wheat with honey (kolyva).

In memory of this occurrence, the Orthodox Church annually celebrates the holy Great Martyr Theodore the Recruit on the first Saturday of Great Lent. On Friday evening, at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts following the prayer at the ambo, the Canon to the holy Great Martyr Theodore, composed by St John of Damascus, is sung. After this, kolyva is blessed and distributed to the faithful. The celebration of the Great Martyr Theodore on the first Saturday of Great Lent was set by the Patriarch Nectarius of Constantinople (381-397).
310 The Holy Martyr Rufinus the Deacon, the Martyr Aquilina and  converted 200 soldiers to Christ by their miracles
Synópe, in Ponto, sanctórum ducentórum Mártyrum.   At Sinope, in Pontus, two hundred holy martyrs.
suffered in the year 310 in the city of Sinope on the Black Sea during the reign of the emperor Maximian (305-311).
When the holy deacon Rufinus was put into prison for confessing Christianity, the martyr Aquilina showed concern.
Therefore, she was also placed under guard. In prison they converted 200 soldiers to Christ by their miracles, and all of them were beheaded by the sword.
316 St. Blaise martyr miracles Patron of Throat Illnesses bishop of Sebastea in Armenia message from God
Many Catholics might remember Saint Blaise's feast day because of the Blessing of the Throats that took place on this day. Two candles are blessed, held slightly open, and pressed against the throat as the blessing is said. Saint Blaise's protection of those with throat troubles apparently comes from a legend that a boy was brought to him who had a fishbone stuck in his throat. The boy was about to die when Saint Blaise healed him.

Very few facts are known about Saint Blaise. We believe he was a bishop of Sebastea (Cappadocia) in Armenia who was martyred under the reign of Licinius (308-316 in the early fourth century.

The legend of his life that sprang up in the eighth century tell us that he was born in to a rich and noble family who raised him as a Christian. After becoming a bishop, a new persecution of Christians began. He received a message from God to go into the hills to escape persecution. Men hunting in the mountains discovered a cave surrounded by wild animals who were sick. Among them Blaise walked unafraid, curing them of their illnesses. Recognizing Blaise as a bishop, they captured him to take him back for trial. On the way back, he talked a wolf into releasing a pig that belonged to a poor woman. When Blaise was sentenced to be starved to death, the woman, in gratitude, sneaked into the prison with food and candles. Finally Blaise was killed by the governor.

Blaise is the patron saint of wild animals because of his care for them and of those with throat maladies.
In His Footsteps: Take time as Saint Blaise did to find out how you can help wild animals. Find out what is being done to support and protect the wildlife in your area. There is wildlife everywhere, even in cities. Even a birdfeeder can help God's creatures survive.
Prayer:  Saint Blaise, pray for us that we may not suffer from illnesses of the throat and pray that all who are suffering be healed by God's love. Amen

Blaise of Sebaste BM (RM) (also known as Blase, Blasien, Blasius, Biagio)
Died c. 316. As someone who loves to sing and suffers from frequent sore throats, I always look forward to the feast of Saint Blaise. Since the 16th century, the throats of the faithful are blessed on this day using the sacramental of two crossed or intertwined candles. I hope this is still customary in all Catholic churches. The reason for Blaise's patronage of throats is that he reportedly revived a boy who choked to death on a fishbone (in some versions he raised the already dead boy). The candles used during the blessing are derived from the candles brought to Blaise in prison by the grateful mother. (I also wonder if there is some significance to the candles that were blessed the day before at Candlemas--Feast of the Presentation--being used to bless?) 
In the acta of Saint Eustratius, who perished in 303 under Diocletian (284-297), it is said that Blaise received his relics, deposited them with those of Saint Orestes, and executed every article of his last will and testament. This is all that can be confirmed of Saint Blaise with any accuracy as there is no evidence of a cultus for Blaise prior to the 8th century.

According to Blaise's legendary acta, which date no earlier than the 8th century, he was born into a rich and noble family, received a Christian education, and was consecrated a bishop of Sebaste, Cappadocia (now Armenia), while still quite young. Blaise was a physician in Sebaste, as well as bishop. As a doctor Blaise went into every home at all hours of the day and night, knew both the rich and the poor, comforted, cured, and advised them all. As a bishop, he did the same thing.
 
Image of Saint Blaise courtesy of Catholic Pics 

When the governor of Cappadocia and Lesser Armenia, Agricolaus, began persecuting Christians, Bishop Blaise of Sebastea hid in a cave where the wild beasts, including lions, tigers, and bears, tended him because he cared for them whenever they were hurt. His hiding place was discovered by hunters seeking animals for the amphitheatre, who observed him curing sick and wounded animals. Because the wild animals were so tame around him, they thought that Blaise was a wizard and wanted to present him as such to the governor.

As he was being brought to Governor Agricolaus, a poor woman appealed for help because a wolf had taken her pig and Blaise persuaded the wolf to release the pig unharmed. Blaise was presented to the governor, who had him scourged and decided to starve Blaise to death in prison. But his plans were thwarted when the grateful woman secretly brought Blaise food and candles to dispel the darkness of his gloomy prison. When it was discovered that Blaise was still alive, the governor ordered soldiers to rake away the saint's skin with a woolcomb, and then Blaise was beheaded.

This is only one version of Blaise's story. In another he is repeatedly tortured, but refuses to give in. He is thrown into a nearby lake, but the waters remain frozen like ice, unwilling to be an accomplice in the death of this holy man. So, he is finally killed by the sword. Canterbury claimed his relics, and at least four miracles were said to have occurred at his shrine, one dated 1451. Parson Woodforde described a solemn procession in his honor at Norwich on March 24, 1783 (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Coulson, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Sheppard, Tabor, Walsh, White).

In art he is a bishop with a metal comb and a tall candle. Sometimes he may be shown: (1) with crozier and two candles (no comb); (2) martyred by being torn with iron combs; (3) in a cave with wild animals; (4) discovered by hunters, a fawn near him (not to be confused with the monk, Saint Giles); (5) blessing the birds in front of a cave; (6) rescuing a poor woman's pig from a wolf; (6) saving the life of a boy who swallowed a fishbone; or (7) with the city of Dubrovnik in his hand or being carried over the city by angels (Roeder).
316 Eustace (Eustathius) of Galatia , a martyr of Galacia, was tortured and then cast into a river in a chest, was singing the 90th (91st) Psalm: "He that dwelleth in the help of the Most-High..."; received Communion from the hand of an Angel Beholding the miracle and sensing himself disgraced, the governor killed himself;  (Benedictines). M (RM) 
The Holy Martyr Eustathios was a soldier. For confessing the Christian faith he was arrested and brought before the head of the city on Ancyra. At the interrogation, the saint firmly and bravely confessed himself a Christian and was sentenced to tortures. They beat him without mercy, they bore into the heels and, having tied him about with rope, they dragged him in the city to the River Sagka (Sangara). At the bank of the river they put the martyr into a wooden chest and threw it in the water. An Angel of God brought the chest to shore. The saint, situated in the chest, was singing the 90th (91st) Psalm: "He that dwelleth in the help of the Most-High..." Beholding the miracle and sensing himself disgraced, the governor having drawn his sword killed himself. The holy martyr, having received Communion from the hand of an Angel, gave up his spirit to God. His venerable relics were buried in the city of Ancyra.
319 St. Cleopatra St. Varus miraculously came to comfort her
Widow of Palestine who rescued the remains of St. Varus, martyred in some earlier persecution. She enshrined the saint’s remains in her home in Dera, in Syria. When a church was dedicated to St. Varus, Cleopatra’s young son died, and the saint miraculously came to comfort her. 
Cleopatra of Syria, Widow, and Varus M (AC). The Palestine widow Saint Cleopatra secured the body of Saint Varus, and enshrined it in her home at Derâ'a, Syria. On the day it was dedicated as a church, her 12-year-old son died. The grieving mother was comforted, however, when her son and Saint Varus appeared to her in a vision (Benedictines).
324 St. Romana  Roman virgin led holy life in dens/caves, wrought glorious miracles baptized by Pope St. Sylvester
 Tudérti, in Umbria, sanctæ Románæ Vírginis, quæ, a sancto Silvéstro Papa baptizáta, in antris et spelúncis cæléstem vitam duxit, et miraculórum glória cláruit.
       At Todi in Umbria, St. Romana, virgin, who was baptized by Pope St. Sylvester, led a life of holiness in dens and caves, and wrought glorious miracles.
Almost certainly a legendary figure, she supposedly lived as a hermitess in a cave on the banks of the river Tiber in Rome. She figures in the doubtful life of Pope St. Sylvester.
Romana of Todi V (RM) Died 324. A spurious legend reports that the virgin Saint Romana was baptized by Pope Saint Sylvester. She died at the age of 18 while living in seclusion in a cave on the banks of the Tiber (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). Sometimes Saint Romana is painted together with Pope Saint Sylvester (Roeder).
326 Hieromartyr Hypatius Bishop of Gangra martyred after 1st Council at Nicea relics famous for numerous miracles, particularly for casting out demons; healing the sick
  Bishop of the city of Gangra in Paphlagonia (Asia Minor). In the year 325 he participated in the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea, at which the heresy of Arius was anathematized.

When St Hypatius was returning in 326 from Constantinople to Gangra, followers of the schismatics Novatus and Felicissimus fell upon him in a desolate place. The heretics ran him through with swords and spears, and threw him into a swamp. Like the Protomartyr Stephen, St Hypatius prayed for his murderers.

An Arian woman struck the saint on the head with a stone, killing him. The murderers hid his body in a cave, where a Christian who kept straw there found his body. Recognizing the bishop's body, he hastened to the city to report this, and the inhabitants of Gangra piously buried their beloved archpastor.

After his death, the relics of St Hypatius were famous for numerous miracles, particularly for casting out demons and for healing the sick.

From of old the hieromartyr Hypatius was particularly venerated in the Russian land. Thus in the year 1330 the Ipatiev monastery was built at Kostroma, on the place where the Mother of God appeared with the Pre-eternal Christ Child, the Apostle Philip, and the hieromartyr Hypatius, Bishop of Gangra. This monastery later occupied a significant place in the spiritual and social life of the nation, particularly during the Time of Troubles.

The ancient copies of the Life of the hieromartyr Hypatius were widely distributed in Russian literature, and one of these was incorporated into THE READING MENAION of Metropolitan Macarius (1542-1564). In this Life there is an account of the appearance of the Savior to St Hypatius on the eve of the martyr's death.

The entry for the saint's Feast consists of his Life, some prayers, and words of praise and instruction. The pious veneration of St Hypatius was also expressed in Russian liturgical compositions. During the nineteenth century a new service was written for the hieromartyr Hypatius, distinct from the services written by St Joseph the Studite, contained in the March MENAION.

330 Saint Achillas attended 1st Council of Nicaea relics venerated Presba  gift of healing sickness, especially demonic possession, and he worked many miracles (Achilli) Bulgaria
Saint Achilles, Bishop of Larissa, lived during the fourth century, during the reign of St Constantine the Great. Glorified for his holiness of life and erudition, he was made Bishop of Larissa in Thessaly.
St Achilles participated in the First Ecumenical Council, where he boldly denounced the heretic Arius. In his city he strove to promote Christianity, destroyed idolatrous pagan temples, and he built and adorned churches.
St Achilles had the gift of healing sickness, especially demonic possession, and he worked many miracles. The saint died peacefully in about the year 330. His relics have been in Prespa, Bulgaria (now the village of Akhila, renamed in honor of the saint) since 978.

Metropolitan bishop, also called Achilles or Achillius. He was metropolitan of Larissa in Thessaly, Greece, serving humbly with courage and wisdom. He is reported as attending the first Council of Nicaea. Since 978, Achillas' relics have been venerated at Presba in Bulgaria.
Achilles of Thessaly B (AC) (also known as Achillius). Metropolitan Achilles of Larissa (Thessaly) is supposed to have attended the Council of Nicaea. His relics have been venerated at Presba (Achilli) in Bulgaria since 978 (Benedictines).

330 St. Theodore Trichinas  one of the most revered in the history of Orthodox monasticism renowned for many miracles, but especially for his power over the demons from his body issues a liquid that imparts health to the sick
Apud Constantinópolim sancti Theodóri Confessóris, ab áspera cilícii veste, qua tegebátur, cognoménto Tríchinas, qui multis virtútibus, præsértim advérsus dæmones, cláruit; ex cujus córpore scatúriens unguéntum ægrótis sanitátem impértit.
     At Constantinople, St. Theodore, confessor, surnamed Trichinas, from the rough garment of hair which he wore.  He was renowned for many miracles, but especially for his power over the demons.  From his body issues a liquid that imparts health to the sick.

Saint Theodore Trichinas was born in Constantinople, the son of wealthy and pious parents. From childhood St Theodore was inclined toward monasticism, so he left his home, family, and former life in order to enter a monastery in Thrace. There he began his arduous ascetic struggles. He dressed in a hair-shirt, from which he derived the name "Trichinas," (or Hair-Shirt Wearer").
He even slept on a stone in order avoid bodily comfort, and to prevent himself from sleeping too much.

His life was adorned with miracles, and he had the power to heal the sick. He reposed at the end of the fourth century, or the beginning of the fifth century. A healing myrrh flows from his relics.
The name of St Theodore Trichinas is one of the most revered in the history of Orthodox monasticism. St Joseph the Hymnographer (April 4) has composed a Canon to the saint.
Hermit, called Trichinas ( or Hair-Shirt Wearer") from his habit of wearing only a coarse hair shirt. He lived as a hermit near Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey).  Theodore Trichinas, Hermit (RM) Born in Constantinople; died after 330.
The hermit Theodore was surnamed Trichinas or "or Hair-Shirt Wearer"" because his only garment was a rough hair-shirt (Benedictines).
330 CONSTANTINOPLE  was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos
In 324 the holy Emperor Constantine (May 21) decided that the imperial capital had to be closer to the Eastern provinces, and yet have direct communication with the West. The city of Byzantium fulfilled these requirements, and on November 8, 324 the site of the new capital was consecrated.
Tradition tells us that the Emperor was tracing the boundaries of the city with a spear, when his courtiers became astonished by the magnitude of the new dimensions of the capital. "Lord," they asked, "how long will you keep going?"
Constantine replied, "I shall keep going until the one who walks ahead of me stops."

Then they understood that the emperor was being guided by some divine power. There is an iconographic sketch by Rallis Kopsides showing an angel of the Lord going before St Constantine as he traces the new boundaries of the city.
Construction of the main buildings was begun in 325, and pagan monuments from Rome, Athens, and other cities were used to beautify the new capital. The need for the new city is partially explained by the changing requirements of government, the Germanic invasion of the West, and commercial benefits, but the new city was also to be a Christian capital. For this, a new foundation was required.
In 330, the work had progressed to the point where it was possible for Constantine to dedicate the new capital. The dedication took place on May 11, followed by forty days of joyous celebration. Christian Constantinople was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos, and overshadowed pagan Byzantium.
St Constantine was the first Emperor to submit voluntarily to Christ, and Constantinople became the symbol of a Christian Empire which lasted for a thousand years.
335 St. Marcarius of Jerusalem drafting The Creed Council of Nicaea in 325 miraculously discovered true Cross with St. Helena build Church of the Holy Sepulcher
St. Marcarius, Bishop of Jerusalem from about 313 until his death about 334. He was a lifelong staunch opponent of Arianism and fought strenuously against this pernicious heresy. He was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325 and played a large roll in drafting the Creed. Soon after the Council, he miraculously discovered the true Cross in Jerusalem together with St. Helena, and he was commissioned by her son, Emperor Constantine, to build the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Later, he and his fellow Bishops of Palestine received another letter from Constantine to construct at Mamre.

Macarius of Jerusalem B (RM) Saint Macarius was named bishop of Jerusalem in 314. He fought the Arian heresy and was one of the signers of the decrees of the Council of Nicaea. According to legend, he was with Saint Helena when she found three crosses and was the one who suggested that a seriously ill woman be touched with each of the crosses; when one of them instantly cured her, it was proclaimed the True Cross. He was commissioned by Constantine to build a church over Christ's sepulcher and supervised the building of the basilica that was consecrated on September 13, 335. He died soon thereafter (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
337 St. Gatian 1st Bishop of Tours appointed first bishop of that city by Pope St. Fabian
 Turónis, in Gállia, sancti Gratiáni Epíscopi, qui, a sancto Fabiáno Papa primus ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus ordinátus est, et multis clarus miráculis obdormívit in Dómino.
     At Tours in France, St. Gratian, appointed first bishop of that city by Pope St. Fabian.  Celebrated for many miracles, he calmly went to his repose in the Lord.
1/6 accompanied St. Dionysius to Rome then France Gatian is considered the first bishop, France, where he preached for half a century.
346 St. Pachomius Egypt Emperor's army anchorite extreme austerity and total dedication to God  began monasticism as we know it today.
Inducted into the Emperor's army as a twenty-year-old.  The great kindness of Christians at Thebes toward the soldiers became embedded in his mind and led to his conversion after his discharge. After being baptized, he became a disciple of an anchorite, Palemon (Died at Tabennisi, Egypt, in 325), and took the habit. The two of them led a life of extreme austerity and total dedication to God; they combined manual labor with unceasing prayer both day and night. 
Later, Pachomius felt called to build a monastery on the banks of the Nile at Tabennisi; so about 318 Palemon helped him build a cell there and even remained with him for a while.
In a short time some one hundred monks joined him and Pachomius organized them on principles of community living. So prevalent did the desire to emulate the life of Pachomius and his monks become, that the holy man was obliged to establish ten other monasteries for men and two nunneries for women.
Before his death in 346, there were seven thousand monks in his houses, and his Order lasted in the East until the 11th century.

St. Pachomius was the first monk to organize hermits into groups and write down a Rule for them. Both St. Basil (Born in Caesarea, Cappadocia, Asia Minor (now central Turkey), in 329; died there on January 1, 379; Doctor of the Church) and St. Benedict (Born in Nursia, Italy, c. 490; died at Monte Cassino, 543) drew from his Rule in setting forth their own more famous ones.  Hence, though St. Anthony is usually regarded as the founder of Christian monasticism, it was really St. Pachomius who began monasticism as we know it today.

Pachomius of Tabenna, Abbot (RM) (also known as Pachome) Born in the Upper Thebaîd near Esneh, Egypt, c. 290-292; died at Tabennisi, Egypt, on May 15, c. 346-348; feast day in the East is May 15.
"It is very much better for you to be one among a crowd of a thousand people and to possess a very little humility, than to be a man living in the cave of a hyena in pride." --Pachomius

Pachomius, son of pagan parents, was unwillingly drafted into the Theban army at the age of 20, probably to help Maximinus wage war against Licinius and Constantine. When his unit reached Thebes the officers in charge, knowing the feelings of their reluctant recruits, locked them up. They were taken down the Nile as virtual prisoners under terrible conditions. The soldier-prisoners were fed, given money, and treated with great kindness by the Christians of Latopolis (Esneh) while they were being shipped down the Nile, and Pachomius was struck by this.

When the army disbanded after the overthrow of Maximinus, he returned to Khenoboskion (Kasr as-Sayd). The kindness of the Christians to strangers caused Pachomius to enquire about their faith and to enroll himself as a catechumen at the local Christian church. After his baptism in 314 he searched for the best way to respond to the grace he had received in the sacrament. He prayed continually:
"O God, Creator of heaven and earth, cast on me an eye of pity: deliver me from my miseries: teach me the true way of pleasing You, and it shall be the whole employment, and most earnest study of my life to serve You, and to do Your will."

Like many neophytes, Pachomius was in danger of the temptation to do too much. Zeal is often an artifice of the devil to make a novice undertake too much too fast, and run indiscreetly beyond his strength. If the sails gather too much wind, the vessel is driven ahead, falls on some rock, and splits. Eagerness may be a symptom of secret passion, not of true virtue if it is willful and impatient at advice. Thus, Pachomius wanted to find a skillful conductor.

Hearing about a holy man was serving God in perfection, Pachomius finally sought out the elderly desert hermit named Saint Palaemon and asked to be his follower. They lived very austerely, doing manual labor to earn money for the relief of the poor and their own subsistence, and often praying all night. Palaemon would not use wine or oil in his food, even on Easter day, so as not to lose sight of the meaning of Christ's suffering. He set Pachomius to collecting briars barefoot; and the saint would often bear the pain as a reminder of the nails that entered Christ's feet.

One day in 318 while walking in the Tabennisi Desert on the banks of the Nile north of Thebes, Pachomius is said to have heard a voice that told him to begin a monastery there. He also experienced a vision in which an angel set out directions for the religious life. The two hermits constructed a cell there together about 320, and Palaemon lived with him for a while before returning to solitude. Pachomius's first follower was his own brother, John, and within a short time, there were 100 monks.

Pachomius wrote the first communal rule for monks (which some say survives in a Latin translation by Saint Jerome and others say is lost), an innovation on the common type of eremitical monachism. The life style was severe but less rigorous than that of typical hermits. Their habit was a sleeveless tunic of rough white linen with a cowl that prevented them from seeing one another at group meals taken in silence. (Silence was strictly observed at all times.) They wore on their shoulders a white goatskin, called Melotes. The monks learned the Bible by heart and came together daily for prayer. By his rule, the fasts and tasks of work of each were proportioned to his strength. They received the holy communion on the first and last days of every week. Novices were tried with great severity before they were admitted to the habit and profession of vows.

His rule influenced SS. Basil and Benedict; 32 passages of Benedict's rule are based on Pachomius's guidelines.
Pachomius himself went fifteen years without ever lying down, taking his short rest sitting on a stone. He begrudged the necessity for sleep because he wished he could have been able to employ all his moments in the actual exercises of divine love. From the time of his conversion he never ate a full meal. The saint, with the greatest care, comforted and served the sick himself. He received into his community the sickly and weak, rejecting none just because he lacked physical strength. The holy monk desired to lead all souls to heaven that had the fervor to walk in the paths of perfection.

He opened six other monasteries and a convent for his sister on the opposite side of the Nile (but would never visit her) in the Thebaîd, and from 336 on lived primarily at Pabau near Thebes, which outgrew the Tabennisi community in fame. He was an excellent administrator, and acted as superior general.

The communities were broken down into houses according to the crafts the inhabitants practiced, such as tailoring, baking, and agriculture. Goods made in the monasteries were sold in Alexandria. Because of his military background, Pachomius styled himself as a general who could transfer monks from one house to another for the good of the whole. There were local superiors and deans in charge of the houses. All those in authority met each year at Easter and in August to review annual accounts. Pachomius also built a church for poor shepherds and acted as its lector, but he refused to seek ordination for the priesthood or to present any of his monks for ordination, although he permitted priests to join and serve the communities.

Pachomius also had an enormous sense of justice. Although the money garnered by their labors was destined for the poor, when one of the procurators had sold the mats at market at a higher price than the saint had bid him, he ordered him to carry back the money to the buyers, and chastised him for his avarice.

The author of his vita tells us that the saint had the gift of tongues. Although he never learned Latin or Greek, he could speak them fluently when the necessity arose. Pachomius is credited with many miraculous cures with blessed oil of the sick and those possessed by devils. But he often said that their sickness or affliction was for the good of their souls and only prayed for their temporal comfort, with this clause or condition, if it should not prove hurtful to their souls. His dearest disciple, Saint Theodorus (Died April 27, c. 368) who after his death succeeded him as superior general, was afflicted with a perpetual headache. Pachomius, when asked by some of the brethren to pray for his health, answered: "Though abstinence and prayer be of great merit, yet sickness, suffered with patience, is of much greater."

One of the saints chief occupations was praying for the spiritual health of his disciples and others. He took every opportunity to curb and heal their passions, especially that of pride. One day a certain monk having doubled his diligence at work, and made two mats instead of one and set them where Pachomius might see them. The saint perceiving the snare, said "This brother has taken a great deal of pains from morning till night, to give his work to the devil." In order to cure the monk's vanity, Pachomius ruled that the proud monk do penance by remaining in his cell for five months.

Another time a young actor named Silvanus entered the monastery to do penance, but continued to live an undisciplined life by trying to entertain his fellows. Pachomius had a difficult time curbing his youthful playfulness until he explained the dreadful punishments awaiting those who mock God. From that moment divine grace touched Saint Silvanus, he led an exemplary life and was moved by the gift of tears.

Pachomius was an opponent of Arianism and for this reason was denounced to a council of bishops at Latopolis, but was completely exonerated. Though he was never ordained, he was highly respected and even visited by Saint Athanasius (Born in Alexandria, Egypt, in c. 295-297; died May 2, 373; Doctor of the Church one of the four great Greek Doctors; in the East he is venerated as one of the three Holy Hierarchs.) in 333.

By the time of his death, there were 3,000 (7,000 according to one source) monks in nine monasteries and two convents for women. He died in an epidemic. Pachomiusis one of the best-known figures in the history of monasticism (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Walsh, White).

The vita of Saint Pachomius was translated into Latin from the Greek in the 6th century by the abbot Dionysus Exiguus, so called not because of his height but because of his great humility. Dionysus includes this story:

"At another time the cohorts of the devils plotted to tempt the man of God by a certain phantasy. For a crowd of them assembling together, were seen by him tying up the leaf of a tree with great ropes and tugging it along with immense exertion, ranking in order on the right and left: and the one side would exhort the other, and strain and tug, as if they were moving a stone of enormous weight. And this the wicked spirits were doing so as to move him, if they could, to loud laughter, and so they might cast it in his teeth. But Pachome, seeing their impudence, groaned and fled to the Lord with his accustomed prayers: and straightway by the virtue of Christ all their triangular array was brought to naught. . . .
"After this, so much trust had the blessed Pachome learned to place in God . . . that many a time he trod on snakes and scorpions, and passed unhurt through all: and the crocodiles, if ever he had necessity to cross the river, would carry him with the utmost subservience, and set him down at whatever spot he indicated" (Dionysus).

In art, Saint Pachomius is a hermit holding the tablets of his rule. He might also be shown (1) as an angel brings him the monastic rule; (2) being tempted by a she-devil; (3) in a hairshirt; (4) with Saint Palaemon (Roeder), or (5) walking among serpents (White).
339 St. Paul the Simple “Pride of the Desert,” hermit disciple of St. Anthony read minds cured sick
In Thebáide sancti Pauli, cognoménto Símplicis.
  In Thebais, St. Paul, surnamed the Simple.
Paul had long been a humble farmer in Egypt when, at the age of sixty, he discovered that his wife was unfaithful. Leaving her, he set out for the desert and went to Anthony to become a follower. Anthony at first refused him, owing to Paul’s advanced years and because he doubted Paul’s sincerity. As Paul was persistent, Anthony gave him a host of demanding and arduous tasks which Paul fulfilled with such humility, obedience, and simplicity that Anthony allowed him entry into the community. Paul was termed by Anthony the ideal monk and the so called “Pride of the Desert,” bearing with honor the title “the Simple.” The monk and historian Rufinus and the historian Palladius both made reference to Paul. By tradition, he could read minds and cure the sick.

Paul the Simple, Hermit (RM) feast day formerly March 16. An old Egyptian farmer, Saint Paul left his unfaithful wife when he was sixty, sought out Saint Antony, and became one of his first disciples.  At first, Antony refused to accept him because of his advanced age but was so impressed by Paul's persistence that he took him in. Antony subjected Paul to an arduous training in an attempt to discourage him, but was convinced by Paul's humility, eagerness, and obedience, and assigned a cell to him.
339 St. Paul the Simple “Pride of the Desert,” hermit disciple of St. Anthony read minds cured sick
 

Paul had long been a humble farmer in Egypt when, at the age of sixty, he discovered that his wife was unfaithful. Leaving her, he set out for the desert and went to Anthony to become a follower. Anthony at first refused him, owing to Paul’s advanced years and because he doubted Paul’s sincerity. As Paul was persistent, Anthony gave him a host of demanding and arduous tasks which Paul fulfilled with such humility, obedience, and simplicity that Anthony allowed him entry into the community. Paul was termed by Anthony the ideal monk and the so called “Pride of the Desert,” bearing with honor the title “the Simple.” The monk and historian Rufinus and the historian Palladius both made reference to Paul. By tradition, he could read minds and cure the sick.

339 ST PAUL THE SIMPLE
PAUL, surnamed “the Simple” on account of his childlikeness, is not to be confused with St Paul, the first hermit, of whom an account has been given under January, 15. This second Paul, also an anchorite, became one of the most eminent of the early followers of St Antony in the Egyptian Thebaid. Up to the age of sixty he had lived the life of a labourer, but the misconduct of his wife, whose infidelity he had surprised, contributed to wean him from all earthly ties. Leaving her without a word, the old man went an eight days’ journey into the desert to seek St Antony and to beseech him to accept him as a disciple and to teach him the way of salvation. The great patriarch, judging him to be too old to enter upon a hermit’s life, repulsed him, bidding him return to the world to serve God by hard work, or at any rate to enter some monastery where they would put up with his stupidity. He then shut the door. Paul, instead of obeying, remained outside, fasting and praying con­tinuously until the fourth day, when Antony opened the door and discovered him still there. “Go away, old man”, he exclaimed, “Why are you so persistent You cannot remain here.”—“I cannot die anywhere but here”, replied his would-be disciple. Realizing that Paul had had no food, and fearing lest he should actually have the old man’s death on his conscience, Antony admitted him rather reluctantly, saying, “You can be saved if you are obedient and do what 1 enjoin.” The reply was, “I will do whatever you command.”

The neophyte was thereupon subjected to a course of training which was calculated to discourage anyone less determined. First he was bidden to stand outside and pray until he was told to stop—and he obeyed, undisturbed by the heat of a scorching sun and without having broken his fast. Next he was invited to enter the cave and to weave mats and hurdles as he saw St Antony do. This also he performed, praying all the while. When he had made fifteen mats he was told that they were badly made and that he must take them to pieces and start over again. He complied without a murmur, although he was still fasting. This done St Antony bethought him of another test, telling him to moisten with water four six-ounce loaves of bread—the bread being exceedingly hard and dry. When the food was ready, instead of eating, he instructed Paul to sing psalms with him and then to sit down beside the loaves until the evening, when it would be time to eat. At night they would pray together and then take a short rest, rising at midnight for further prayers which continued until daybreak. After sunset each one would eat a loaf and Antony would ask his disciple if he would like another, receiving the reply, “Yes, if you do.” To Antony’s rejoinder, “It is enough for me; I am a monk", the old man would meekly reply, “Then it is enough for me I also wish to be a monk.” The same routine was repeated day after day, but some­times the training would take another form. Paul would have to spend the time drawing water and pouring it away, or weaving rushes into baskets and undoing them, or sewing and unsewing his garments; but whatever lie was told to do he did it cheerfully and promptly. Once St Antony overturned a pot of honey and told him to collect it all from the ground without picking up any dust.

On another occasion, when there were guests at the hermitage and a general conversation was going on, Paul asked if the prophets were before Jesus Christ or Jesus Christ before the prophets. St Antony, mortified at his disciple’s display of ignorance, told him sharply to hold his tongue and go away. Paul at once did so, and continued to keep silence until the matter was reported to Antony, who had forgotten all about it. When he had elicited the fact that Paul’s silence was simply a question of obedience, he exclaimed, "How this monk puts us all to shame He immediately obeys man’s simplest order, while we often fail to listen to the word which comes to us from Heaven.” When the training was deemed complete, Antony established Paul in a cell at a distance of three miles from his own, and there he was wont to visit him. He recognized in the old man singular spiritual gifts and certain powers of healing and exorcising greater than his own. Often when he could not effect a cure, he would send the sufferer on to St Paul, who would restore him at once. Another divine gift he possessed was the power to read men’s thoughts. As each one came into church he could tell by glancing at his face what was in his mind and whether his thoughts were good or bad. By such signs of God’s predilection St Antony came to esteem his aged follower above all his other disciples, and frequently held him up to them as a model.

The substance of all that precedes is to be found in the 22nd chapter of Palladius’s Lausiac History, with a few additions from the Historia Monachorum as translated by Rufinus. Seeing that Palladius wrote sixty or seventy years after the death of Paul the Simple it is likely that his account is embellished by some legendary accretions. A detailed account of Paul may also he found in Bremond, Les Pères du desert, vol. i, pp. xli—xliii and 94--96.
There Paul performed miracles of healing, revealed his power to read men's minds, and so impressed Antony that he referred to him as the ideal of what a monk should be. Paul was surnamed 'the Simple' because of his childlike innocence. His prompt obedience and disposition were referred to as "the pride of the desert. He is mentioned in the writings of Palladius and Rufinus (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Gill, Waddell).
345 St. Aphraates Persian hermit involved in the struggle against the Arian heresy by the power of miracles oldest extant document of the Church in Syria
In Syria sancti Aphraátis Anachorétæ, qui, Valéntis témpore, cathólicam fidem virtúte miraculórum advérsus Ariános deféndit.

     In Syria, in the time of Valens, St. Aphraates, an anchoret, who defended the Catholic faith against the Arians by the power of miracles.

345 ST APHRAATES
According to the Bollandists, followed by Alban Butler, we owe our knowledge of the history of St Aphraates to Theodoret, who recalled how, as a boy, he had been taken by his mother to visit the saint and how Aphraates had opened his door to bless them, promising to intercede with God on their behalf. In his later years Theodoret continued to invoke that intercession, believing that it had become even more potent since the holy man had gone to God.
Aphraates came of a Persian family, but after his conversion to Christianity he settled at Edessa in Mesopotamia, then a stronghold of the faith, hoping to discover the most perfect way of serving God. When he had come to the conclusion that this could best be done in solitude, he shut himself up in a cell outside the city walls, where he gave himself up to penance and heavenly contemplation. His food consisted of bread, eaten after sunset; only in old age did he add a few vegetables his bed was a mat on the ground, and his clothing one coarse garment. After some time he changed his residence to a hermitage beside a monastery near Antioch in Syria, and gradually people began to resort to him there for advice. Anthemius, who afterwards became consul for the East, once brought back from Persia a garment which he presented to the hermit as a product of his native land. Aphraates asked him whether he thought it would be reasonable to exchange a faithful old servant for a new one merely because he was a fellow countryman. “Certainly not
, replied Anthemius. “Then take back your tunic, said the recluse, “for I have one which I have used for sixteen years, and I do not need more than one.”
When the Emperor Valens had banished the bishop St Meletius and the Arian persecution was making great havoc of the church in Antioch, St Aphraates left his retreat to come to the assistance of Flavian and Diodorus who were governing the distressed Catholics during the exile of their pastor. His reputation for sanctity and miracles gave great weight to his actions and words. As the Arians had taken possession of their churches, the faithful were reduced to worshipping beside the river Orontes or in the large open space outside the city which was used for military exercises. One day, as St Aphraates was hurrying along the road which led from the city to this parade-ground, he was stopped by order of the emperor, who happened to be standing in the portico of his palace which overlooked the road. Valens inquired whither he was going: “To pray for the world and the emperor”, replied the recluse. The monarch then asked him how it happened that one dressed as a monk was gadding about far away from his cell. To this Aphraates answered with a parable: “If I were a maiden secluded in my father’s house, and saw it take fire, would you recommend me to sit still and let it burn 1 It is not I who am to blame, but rather you who have kindled the flames which I am striving to extinguish. We are doing nothing contrary to our profession when we gather together and nourish the adherents of the true faith.”
The emperor made no reply, but one of his servants reviled the venerable man, whom he threatened to kill. Shortly afterwards the same attendant was accidentally scalded to death, which so terrified the superstitious Valens that he refused to listen to the Arians when they tried to persuade him to banish St Aphraates. He was also greatly impressed by the miracles wrought by the hermit, who not only healed men and women but also—or at least so it was reported—cured the emperor’s favourite horse.

Whether the Aphraates, described as above by Theodoret in his Philotheus and his Ecclesiastical History, is identical with the early Syriac writer whose homilies or dissertations are preserved to us, remains a great problem. These homilies, as all scholars agree, belong to the years 336—345. Valens died in 378 and Theodoret seems to have been born in 386 at the earliest. It is difficult to suppose that the latter, as a little boy, could have been taken to receive the blessing of the author of the homilies. On the other hand we know very little about the history of the great writer. He seems to have been invested with some ecclesiastical authority and was very possibly a bishop. The statement, however, that he lived near Mosul cannot be depended on. There is also an Aphraates mentioned in the Syriac “Breviarium”, seemingly a martyr in the early years of the persecution under Sapor. The works of Aphraates may best be consulted in Parisot’s edition, Syriac and Latin, in the Patrologia Syriaca, vols. i and ii. See also articles by Dom Connolly and F. C. Burkitt in the Journal of Theological Studies, vols. vi and vii; and Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur, vol. iv, pp. 327—342.


Aphraates was born on the Persian border with Syria. He converted to Christianity and became a hermit in Edessa moving in time to Antioch, Turkey. His hermitage attracted many, and miracles were reported. When Aphraates spoke publicly against the Arians, servant of Emperor Valens tried to murder Aphraates.
When the servant died suddenly, Valens took the death as a sign from God and protected Aphraates, refusing an Arian request to exile the hermit. Aphraates is sometimes identified as the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai, near Mosul Mesopotamia. Possibly a martyr, he is believed to have written a many-volumed defense of the faith called the Demonstrations, which is the oldest extant document of the Church in Syria. Aphraates is often referred to as "the Persian Sage."

Aphraates of Antioch, Hermit (RM) Born in Syria; died c. 345. Saint Aphraates was born into an illustrious pagan family on Syria's border with Persia (Iran). After his conversion to Christianity, he gave up all worldly possessions and became a hermit at Edessa in Mesopotamia, where he lived in severe austerity. He then moved to a hermitage next to a monastery in Antioch, Syria, and attracted numerous visitors with his reputation for holiness and as a miracle-worker.
He publicly and valiantly opposed Arians, who attempted to exile him, but Emperor Valens refused to allow it because he thought the death of his attendants who had threatened to murder Aphraates was retribution for his threat.

Some scholars considered Aphraates identical with the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai near Mosul, Mesopotamia, and the author of Demonstrations, 23 treatises written between 336 and 345 (the oldest document of the Church in Syria), which give a survey of the Christian faith. This Aphraates may have suffered persecution at the hands of King Shapur the Great and was known as 'the Persian sage' (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

In art, Saint Aphraates is a hermit striking a rock from which water gushes out, or refusing a rich robe (Roeder).

347 Saint Spyridon Bishop of Tremithus miracle worker Through his prayer, drought was replaced by abundant rains, and incessant rains were replaced by fair weather the sick healed and demons cast out
born towards the end of the third century on the island of Cyprus. He was a shepherd, and had a wife and children. He used all his substance for the needs of his neighbors and the homeless, for which the Lord rewarded him with a gift of wonderworking. He healed those who were incurably sick, and cast out demons.

After the death of his wife, during the reign of Constantine the Great (306-337), he was made Bishop of Tremithus, Cyprus. As a bishop, the saint did not alter his manner of life, but combined pastoral service with deeds of charity.

According to the witness of Church historians, St Spyridon participated in the sessions of the First Ecumenical Council in the year 325. At the Council, the saint entered into a dispute with a Greek philosopher who was defending the Arian heresy. The of St Spyridon's plain, direct speech showed everyone the impotence of human wisdom before God's Wisdom: "Listen, philosopher, to what I tell you. There is one God Who created man from dust. He has ordered all things, both visible and invisible, by His Word and His Spirit. The Word is the Son of God, Who came down upon the earth on account of our sins. He was born of a Virgin, He lived among men, and suffered and died for our salvation, and then He arose from the dead, and He has resurrected the human race with Him. We believe that He is one in essence (consubstantial) with the Father, and equal to Him in authority and honor. We believe this without any sly rationalizations, for it is impossible to grasp this mystery by human reason."

    As a result of their discussion, the opponent of Christianity became the saint's zealous defender and later received holy Baptism. After his conversation with St Spyridon, the philosopher turned to his companions and said, "Listen! Until now my rivals have presented their arguments, and I was able to refute their proofs with other proofs. But instead of proofs from reason, the words of this Elder are filled with some sort of special power, and no one can refute them, since it is impossible for man to oppose God. If any of you thinks as I do now, let him believe in Christ and join me in following this man, for God Himself speaks through his lips."
   At this Council, St Spyridon displayed the unity of the Holy Trinity in a remarkable way. He took a brick in his hand and squeezed it. At that instant fire shot up from it, water dripped on the ground, and only dust remained in the hands of the wonderworker. "There was only one brick," St Spyridon said, "but it was composed of three elements. In the Holy Trinity there are three Persons, but only one God."

The saint cared for his flock with great love. Through his prayer, drought was replaced by abundant rains, and incessant rains were replaced by fair weather. Through his prayers the sick were healed and demons cast out.

   A woman once came up to him with a dead child in her arms, imploring the intercession of the saint. He prayed, and the infant was restored to life. The mother, overcome with joy, collapsed lifeless. Through the prayer of the saint of God the mother was restored to life.

  Another time, hastening to save his friend, who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death, the saint was hindered on his way by the unanticipated flooding of a stream. The saint commanded the water: "Halt! For the Lord of all the world commands that you permit me to cross so that a man may be saved." The will of the saint was fulfilled, and he crossed over happily to the other shore. The judge, apprised of the miracle that had occurred, received St Spyridon with esteem and set his friend free.

  Similar instances are known from the life of the saint. Once, he went into an empty church, and ordered that the lampadas and candles be lit, and then he began the service. When he said, "Peace be unto all," both he and the deacon heard from above the resounding of "a great multitude of voices saying, "And with thy spirit." This choir was majestic and more sweetly melodious than any human choir. To each petition of the litanies, the invisible choir sang, "Lord, have mercy." Attracted by the church singing, the people who lived nearby hastened towards it. As they got closer and closer to the church, the wondrous singing filled their ears and gladdened their hearts. But when they entered into the church, they saw no one but the bishop and several church servers, and they no longer heard the singing which had greatly astonished them."

  St Simeon Metaphrastes (November 9), the author of his Life, likened St Spyridon to the Patriarch Abraham in his hospitality. Sozomen, in his CHURCH HISTORY, offers an amazing example from the life of the saint of how he received strangers. One time, at the start of the Forty-day Fast, a stranger knocked at his door. Seeing that the traveller was very exhausted, St Spyridon said to his daughter, "Wash the feet of this man, so he may recline to dine." But since it was Lent there were none of the necessary provisions, for the saint "partook of food only on certain days, and on other days he went without food." His daughter replied that there was no bread or flour in the house. Then St Spyridon, apologizing to his guest, ordered his daughter to cook a salted ham from their larder. After seating the stranger at table, he began to eat, urging that man to do the same. When the latter refused, calling himself a Christian, the saint rejoined, "It is not proper to refuse this, for the Word of God proclaims, "Unto the pure all things are pure" (Titus 1:15).

   Another historical detail reported by Sozomen, was characteristic of the saint. It was his custom to distribute one part of the gathered harvest to the destitute, and another portion to those having need while in debt. He did not take a portion for himself, but simply showed them the entrance to his storeroom, where each could take as much as was needed, and could later pay it back in the same way, without records or accountings.

   There is also the tale by Socrates Scholasticus about how robbers planned to steal the sheep of St Spyridon. They broke into the sheepfold at night, but here they found themselves all tied up by some invisible power. When morning came the saint went to his flock, and seeing the tied-up robbers, he prayed and released them. For a long while he advised them to leave their path of iniquity and earn their livelihood by respectable work. Then he made them a gift of a sheep and sending them off, the saint said kindly, "Take this for your trouble, so that you did not spend a sleepless night in vain."

   All the Lives of the saint speak of the amazing simplicity and the gift of wonderworking granted him by God. Through a word of the saint the dead were awakened, the elements of nature tamed, the idols smashed. At one point, a Council had been convened at Alexandria by the Patriarch to discuss what to do about the idols and pagan temples there. Through the prayers of the Fathers of the Council all the idols fell down except one, which was very much revered. It was revealed to the Patriarch in a vision that this idol had to be shattered by St Spyridon of Tremithus. Invited by the Council, the saint set sail on a ship, and at the moment the ship touched shore and the saint stepped out on land, the idol in Alexandria with all its offerings turned to dust, which then was reported to the Patriarch and all the bishops.

St Spyridon lived his earthly life in righteousness and sanctity, and prayerfully surrendered his soul to the Lord. His relics repose on the island of Corfu (Kerkyra), in a church named after him (His right hand, however, is located in Rome). His memory is also celebrated on Cheesefare Saturday.

270 St Spiridion Bishop and Confessor of our Order.
In Cypro natális beáti Spiridiónis Epíscopi, qui unus fuit ex illis Confessóribus, quos Galérius Maximiánus, dextro óculo effósso et sinístro póplite succíso, ad metálla damnáverat.  Hic 
prophetíæ dono et signórum glória ínclitus fuit, et in Nicæno Concílio philósophum éthnicum, Christiánæ religióni insultántem, devícit et ad fidem perdúxit.
    In the island of Cyprus, the birthday of blessed Spiridion, bishop.  He was one of those confessors who were condemned by Galerius Maximian to labour in the mines, after suffering the loss of his right eye and cutting of the sinews of his left knee.  This prelate was renowned for the gift of prophecy and glorious miracles, and in the Council of Nicea he confounded a heathen philosopher, who had insulted the Christian religion, and brought him to the faith.

Although his feast is no longer included either the Carmelite proper or the 2004 edition of the “Martyrologium Romanum”, his name is mentioned in the Byzantine “Synaxaria”. Saint Spiridion was born in Tremithous in Cyprus in 270 AD. Son of a poor family, he had no formal education and earned his living as a shepherd. After the death of his beloved wife, he dedicated himself to the Church and eventually rose to the office of Bishop of Tremithous. During the Maximinian persecutions he was arrested and exiled, but was returned to his see after the coming to power of Constantine. He participated in the Council of Nicea, and died around 348. When the Saracens took the island, the Cypriots opened his grave in order to remove his sacred bones to Costantinople. They found that his body had remained intact, while from the grave emanated a scent of basil, true signs of the sainthood he had shown during his life. When Costantinople fell in 1453, a Corfiot elder, Georgios Kalohairetis, brought him to Corfu, where his three children acquired the Saint's relics as an heirloom. The sacred remains then passed as the dowry of his doughter Asimia into the possession of the Voulgaris family, who placed them in their private church (which was located on the site of the Pallas Cinema). The relics of the Saint were transferred to their present church when, during the fortification of the town, the original church was demolished. The Holy Relics of the St. Spiridion go out on parade in Cyprus four times each year to commemorate times when his powerful intercession was felt. He is considered to be the island's Protector.

ST SPIRIDION, BISHOP OF TREMITHUS
MANY stories are told of this Cypriot saint, who was at the same time a shepherd, married and a bishop. Sozomen, who wrote in the middle of the fifth century, says that an invisible hand stopped a gang of thieves attempting one night to carry off some of his sheep, so that they could neither steal nor make their escape. Spiridion (or better, Spyridon), finding them thus the next morning, set them at liberty by his prayers and gave them a ram, lest they should have been up all night for nothing.

The same historian says that it was the saint’s custom to fast with his family for some days in Lent without eating anything. Once during this time, when he had no bread in his house, a traveller called to rest and refresh himself on the road. Spiridion, having nothing else, ordered some salt pork to be boiled, for he saw the traveller was very tired. Then he invited the stranger to eat. He excused himself, saying that he was a Christian. Spiridion, himself setting the example by way of courtesy, replied that therefore he was quite free to eat; thereby reminding the stranger both that ecclesiastical precepts do not bind unreasonably and that to a Christian no food is in itself forbidden.

St Spiridion was chosen bishop of Tremithus, on the seacoast near Salamis, and thenceforth combined the care of sheep with the care of souls. His diocese was very small and the inhabitant’s poor, but the Christians were regular in their lives; there remained among them some idolaters. In the persecution of Galerius he made a glorious confession of the faith. The Roman Martyrology says he was one of those who lost their right eye, had the left leg hamstrung, and in that state were sent to work in the mines, and (mistakenly) that he was among the bishops at the Council of Nicaea in 325.
There is a legend in the East that on the way to the council he fell in with a party of other bishops, who were alarmed lest the rustic simplicity of Spiridion should compromise the cause of orthodoxy. So they told their servants to cut the heads off the mules of Spiridion and his deacon, which was done. When he prepared to set off before dawn the next day and discovered the crime, Spiridion was not at all discomfited. He told the deacon to put the severed heads upon the bodies, and at once they grew together and the animals lived. But when the sun rose it was found that a mistake had been made in the dark: for the bishop’s white mule had a brown head and the deacon’s brown mule had a white head. During the council a pagan philosopher named Eulogius made an attack on Christianity, and an aged, one-eyed bishop, unpolished in manner and appear­ance, got up to reply to the urbane scoffer. He affirmed the omnipotent God and the incarnation of the Son for the redemption of all people as things beyond proof to be held by faith: did Eulogius believe them, or did he not? After a pause the philosopher was constrained to admit that he did. “Then”, said the bishop, “come with me to the church and receive the sign of faith.” And Eulogius did so, for, he said, words and arguments cannot resist virtue, meaning thereby the power of the Holy Ghost manifested in the unlearned bishop. Later writers identify this bishop with St Spiridion, but without authority. A certain person had deposited for safety in the hands of Spiridion’s daughter Irene something of great value. This he demanded of the bishop after her death; but it was not to be found and nobody knew where it was. Whereupon, it is said, St Spiridion went to the place where his daughter was buried, called her by her name, and asked where she had put the missing article. Then she answered him, giving directions where she had hid it that it might be safer: and it was found there.

Spiridion had very little learning, but he had made the Scriptures his daily study and had learned what respect is due to the word of God. Once when the bishops of Cyprus were assembled together, St Triphyllius, Bishop of Ledra (whom St Jerome commends as the most eloquent man of his time), was preaching a sermon. Mentioning that passage, “Take up thy bed, and walk”, he said “couch” instead of “bed”, thinking that word the more elegant and suitable. St Spiridion objected against this false nicety and attempt to add graces to what was more adorned with simplicity, and asked the preacher whether the word our Lord Himself had used was not good enough for him. *{* The obvious reflection that this rebuke would sometimes apply also to Alban Butler himself is modified by the further reflection that the fashions of the eighteenth century are not ours. But there are not wanting writers and speakers to-day who might with advantage ponder this anecdote.}

 The relics of St Spiridion were translated from Cyprus to Constantinople, and again to Corfu, where they are still venerated. He is the principal patron of the Catholics of Corfu, Zakynthos and Kephalonia.

Besides the relatively early references made to St Spiridion by the historians Socrates and Sozomen, it seems that a life of him was written at the beginning of the seventh century by Leontius of Neapolis. This is preserved to us only in the later adaptation of the Meta­phrast (Migne, PG., vol. cxvi, pp. 417—468). There is also a memorial discourse by Theodore of Paphos (printed in part by Usener, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Legendenliteratur, pp. 222—232, and edited complete in 1901 by S. Papageorgios), but it proves to be in large part simply a plagiarism from an anonymous Life of Bishops Metrophanes and Alexander of Constantinople (see P. Heseler, Hagiographica, 1934). It is also stated that a life of St Spiridion was written in elegiacs by his pupil, Triphyllius of Ledra, but this has not survived. In Byzantine art Spiridion is recognizable by his peculiar shepherd’s cap see, for example, G. de Jerphanion, Let églises rupestres de Cappadoce (1932); and the Byzantinische Zeitschrift for 1910, pp. 29 and 107. See P. Van den Ven, La Légende de S. Spyridon (1953), “beau travail d’édition et de critique “ (Fr F. Halkin).

350 Holy Martyr Matrona of Thessalonica Her holy relics glorified by many miracles placed church built by Bishop Alexander of Thessalonica
suffered in the third or fourth century. She was a slave of the Jewish woman Pautila (or Pantilla), wife of one of the military commanders of Thessalonica. Pautila constantly mocked her slave for her faith in Christ, and tried to convert her to Judaism. St Matrona, who believed in Christ from her youth, still prayed to the Savior Christ, and secretly went to church unbeknownst to her vengeful mistress.

Pautila, learning that St Matrona had been to church, asked, "Why won't you come to our synagogue, instead of attending the Christian church?" St Matrona boldly answered, "Because God is present in the Christian church, but He has departed from the Jewish synagogue." Pautila went into a rage and mercilessly beat St Matrona, tied her up, and shut her in a dark closet.
In the morning, Pautila discovered that St Matrona had been freed of her bonds by an unknown Power.

In a rage Pautila beat the martyr almost to death, then bound her even more tightly and locked her in the closet. The door was sealed so that no one could help the sufferer. The holy martyr remained there for four days without food or water, and when Pautila opened the door, she again found St Matrona free of her bonds, and standing at prayer.
Pautila flogged the holy martyr and left the skin hanging in strips from her body.
The fierce woman locked her in the closet again, where St Matrona gave up her spirit to God.

Pautila had the holy martyr's body thrown from the roof of her house. Christians took up the much-suffered body of the holy martyr and buried it. Later, Bishop Alexander of Thessalonica built a church dedicated to the holy martyr.
Her holy relics, glorified by many miracles, were placed in this church.

The judgment of God soon overtook the evil Pautila. Standing on the roof at that very place where the body of St Matrona had been thrown, she stumbled and fell to the pavement. Her body was smashed, and so she received her just reward for her sin.

350 St. Matrona (3 of them) She suffered grievously from dysentery, and was supernaturally directed to go to Italy to find a cure, for the relief of which disease she is now invoked
Thessalonícæ sanctæ Matrónæ, quæ, cum esset ancílla cujúsdam Judǽæ, et occúlte Christum cóleret, ac furtívis oratiónibus quotídie Ecclésiam frequentáret, a dómina sua est deprehénsa et multiplíciter afflícta, atque novíssime, robústis fústibus usque ad mortem cæsa, in confessióne Christi, incorrúptum Deo spíritum réddidit.
     
At Thessalonica, St. Matrona, servant of a Jewess, who, worshipping Christ secretly, and stealing away daily to pray in the church, was detected by her mistress and subjected to many trials.  Being at last beaten to death with large clubs, she gave up her pure soul to God in confessing Christ.

ST MATRONA, VIRGIN AND MARTYR

THERE are three saints of this name who are commemorated in the Acta Sanctorum on March 15. One only of the three appears in the Roman Martyrology, where she is honoured with the following eulogium: “At Thessalonica, of St Matrona, the servant maid of a certain Jewess, who worshipped Christ by stealth and went daily to the church for secret prayer. She was discovered by her mistress and in many ways tormented until at last she was beaten to death with stout rods and in the confession of Christ rendered up her pure soul to God.” The same account, slightly developed, is found in the Greek synaxaries, and we meet it in the West in the early part of the ninth century with certain additional details describing how the martyr, on two occasions being left overnight bound with thongs to a bench, was found in the morning miraculously released. Of this St Matrona no cultus seems to survive. In Barcelona, however, there is, or was, what purport to be the remains of a virgin of the same name who, though born in that region, was taken to Rome, and there, on account of the services she rendered to the Christians in prison, was arrested and put to death, her body being brought back to her own country. A third St Matrona, who is not a martyr, is honoured on this day in the neighbourhood of Capua. She is said, however, to have been of royal birth and to have come from Portugal. She suffered grievously from dysentery, and was supernaturally directed to go to Italy to find a cure, for the relief of which disease she is now invoked.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii; A. B. C. Dunbar, Dictionary of Saintly Women, vol. ii, p. 77 Quentin, Les Martyrologes Historiques, p. 181.
Matrona von Thessaloniki Orthodoxe Kirche: 27. März Matrona lebte im 3./4. Jahrhundert in Soluneia (Theassaloniki). Sie war Sklavin der Jüdin Pautilla, der Ehefrau eines Offiziers. Pautilla verlangte von ihren Sklaven, zum Judentum überzutreten, aber Matrona blieb Christin und ging heimlich zu den christlichen Gottesdiensten. Pautilla schlug sie deshalb, fesselte sie und sperrte sie in ein enges Verlies. Nachdem Matrona zweimal von den Fesseln befreit das Verlies wieder verlassen konnte, erschlug sie Pautilla und ließ ihren Leichnam über die Stadtmauer werfen. Christen begruben ihren Leichnam und später ließ der Bischof Alexander (nach anderen Berichten Bischof Demetrius) eine Kirche errichten, in der ihre Reliquien aufbewahrt wurden. Es wird von mehreren Wundern berichtet, die sich hier zutrugen. Nach einer anderen Quelle heilte Matrona Pautilla von einer Krankheit.

Matrona von Thessaloniki Orthodoxe Kirche: 27. März Matrona lebte im 3./4. Jahrhundert in Soluneia (Theassaloniki). Sie war Sklavin der Jüdin Pautilla, der Ehefrau eines Offiziers. Pautilla verlangte von ihren Sklaven, zum Judentum überzutreten, aber Matrona blieb Christin und ging heimlich zu den christlichen Gottesdiensten. Pautilla schlug sie deshalb, fesselte sie und sperrte sie in ein enges Verlies. Nachdem Matrona zweimal von den Fesseln befreit das Verlies wieder verlassen konnte, erschlug sie Pautilla und ließ ihren Leichnam über die Stadtmauer werfen. Christen begruben ihren Leichnam und später ließ der Bischof Alexander (nach anderen Berichten Bischof Demetrius) eine Kirche errichten, in der ihre Reliquien aufbewahrt wurden. Es wird von mehreren Wundern berichtet, die sich hier zutrugen. Nach einer anderen Quelle heilte Matrona Pautilla von einer Krankheit.
350 St. Myron Martyred priest at Cyzicus on the Sea of Marmora, in modern Turkey. He was slain trying to protect his church from a pagan mob.

In Creta sancti Myrónis Epíscopi, miráculis clari     In Crete, St. Myron, bishop renowned for miracles

 Saint Myron, Bishop of Crete, a wonderworker, in his youth was a family man, and worked as a farmer. He was known for his goodness, and he assisted everyone who turned to him for help. Once, thieves burst in upon his threshing floor, and St Myron himself helped them lift a sack of grain upon their shoulders. By his generosity the saint so shamed the thieves, that in future they began to lead honorable lives.
Out of profound respect for the saint, the Cretan people urged him to accept ordination to the priesthood in his native city of Raucia, and afterwards they chose him Bishop of Crete.
Wisely ruling his flock, St Myron received from the Lord the gift of wonderworking. At the time of a flood on the River Triton, the saint stopped its flow and went upon it as upon dry land, and then he sent a man back to the river with his staff to command the river to resume its course. St Myron fell asleep in the Lord at the age of 100, around the year 350.
350 St. Cassian of Autun Egyptian Famed for miracles.
Augustodúni beáti Cassiáni Epíscopi.    At Autun, blessed Cassian, bishop.
Successor of St. Reticius as bishop of Autun, France. He served from 314 until his death. Famed for miracles, Cassian was identified by a biographer as being an Egyptian.
356 St. Anthony the Abbot miraculous healings Faith comes from God rhetoric from humans
 In Thebáide sancti Antónii Abbátis, qui, multórum Monachórum Pater, vita et miráculis præclaríssimus vixit; cujus gesta sanctus Athanásius insígni volúmine prosecútus est.  Ejus autem sacrum corpus, sub Justiniáno Imperatóre, divína revelatióne repértum et Alexandríam delátum, in Ecclésia sancti Joánnis Baptístæ humátum fuit.
       In Thebais, St. Anthony, abbot and spiritual guide of many monks, who was most celebrated for his life and miracles of which St. Athanasius has written a detailed account.  His holy body was found by a divine revelation during the reign of Emperor Justinian and brought to Alexandria,  buried in the church of St. John Baptist.


356 ST ANTONY THE ABBOT
ST ANTONY was born at a village south of Memphis in Upper Egypt in 251. His parents, who were Christians, kept him always at home, so that he grew up in ignorance of what was then regarded as polite literature, and could read no language but his own. At their death he found himself possessed of a consider­able estate and charged with the care of a younger sister, before he was twenty years of age. Some six months afterwards he heard read in the church those words of Christ to the rich young man “Go, sell what thou hast, and give it to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in Heaven”. Considering these words as addressed to himself, he went home and made over to his neighbours his best land, and the rest of his estate he sold and gave the price to the poor, except what he thought necessary for himself and his sister. Soon after, hearing in the church those other words of Christ, “Be not solicitous for to-morrow”, he also distributed in alms the moveables which he had reserved, and placed his sister in a house of maidens, which is commonly assumed to be the first recorded mention of a nunnery. Antony himself retired into solitude, in imitation of a certain old man who led the life of a hermit in the neighbourhood. Manual labour, prayer and reading were his whole occupation; and such was his fervour that if he heard of any virtuous recluse, he sought him out and endeavoured to take advantage of his example and instruction. In this way he soon became a model of humility, charity, prayerfulness and many more virtues.

The Devil assailed Anthony by various temptations, representing to him first of all many good works he might have been able to carry out with his estate in the world, and the difficulties of his present condition—a common artifice of the enemy, whereby he strives to make a soul dissatisfied in the vocation God has appointed. Being repulsed by the young novice, he varied his method of attack, and harassed him night and day with gross and obscene imaginations. Antony opposed to his assaults the strictest watchfulness over his senses, austere fasts and prayer, till Satan, appearing in a visible form, first of a woman coming to seduce him, then of a Negro to terrify him, at length confessed himself vanquished.

The saint’s food was only bread, with a little salt, and he drank nothing but water he never ate before sunset, and sometimes only once in three or four days. When he took his rest he lay on a rush mat or the bare floor. In quest of a more remote solitude he withdrew to an old burial-place, to which a friend brought him bread from time to time. Satan was here again permitted to assault him in a visible manner, and to terrify him with gruesome noises; indeed, on one occasion he so grievously beat him that he lay almost dead, and in this condition was found by his friend. When he began to come to himself Antony cried out to God, “Where wast thou, my Lord and Master? Why wast thou not here from the beginning of this conflict to render me assistance?” A voice answered, “Antony, I was here the whole time I stood by thee and beheld thy combat; and because thou hast manfully withstood thy enemies, I will always protect thee, and will render thy name famous throughout the earth.”

Hitherto Antony, ever since he turned his back on the world in 272, had lived in solitary places not very far from his village of Koman; and St Athanasius observes that before him many fervent persons led retired lives in penance and contemplation near the towns, while others followed the same manner of life without withdrawing from their fellow creatures. Both were called ascetics, from their being devoted to the exercise of mortification and prayer, according to the import of the Greek word askhsix (practice or training). Even in earlier times we find mention made of such ascetics; and Origen, about the year 249, says they abstained from flesh-meat no less than the disciples of Pythagoras. Eusebius tells us that St Peter of Alexandria practised austerities equal to those of the ascetics he says the same of Pamphilus, and St Jerome uses the same expression of Pierius. St Antony had led this manner of life near Koman until about the year 285 when, at the age of thirty-five, he crossed the eastern branch of the Nile and took up his abode in some ruins on the top of a mountain, in which solitude he lived almost twenty years, rarely seeing any man except one who brought him bread every six months.

To satisfy the importunities of others, about the year 305, the fifty-fourth of his age, he came down from his mountain and founded his first monastery, in the Fayum. This originally consisted of scattered cells, but we cannot be sure that the various colonies of ascetics which he planted out in this way were all arranged upon the same plan. He did not stay permanently with any such community, but he visited them occasionally, and St Athanasius tells us how, in order to reach this first monastery, he had, both in going and returning, to cross the Arsinoitic canal, which was infested by crocodiles. It seems, however, that the distraction of mind caused by this intervention in the affairs of his fellow men gave him great scruples, and we hear even of a temptation to despair, which he could only overcome by prayer and hard manual labour. In this new manner of life his daily sustenance was six ounces of bread soaked in water, to which he sometimes added a few dates. He took it generally after sunset, and in his old age he added a little oil. Sometimes he ate only once in three or four days, yet appeared vigorous and always cheerful strangers knew him from among his disciples by the joy on his countenance, resulting from the inward peace of his soul. St Antony exhorted his brethren to allot the least time they possibly could to the care of the body, notwithstanding which he was careful not to make perfection seem to consist in mortification but in the love of God. He instructed his monks to reflect every morning that perhaps they might not live till night, and every evening that perhaps they might never see the morning; and to do every action as if it were the last of their lives. “The Devil”, he said, “dreads fasting, prayer, humility and good works he is not able even to stop my mouth who speak against him. His illusions soon vanish,- especially if a man arms himself with the sign of the cross.” He told them that once when the Devil appeared to him and said, “Ask what you please I am the power of God,” he invoked the name of Jesus and the tempter vanished.

In the year 311, when the persecution was renewed under Maximinus, St Antony went to Alexandria in order to give courage to the martyrs. He publicly wore his white tunic of sheep-skin and appeared in the sight of the governor, yet took care never presumptuously to provoke the judges or impeach himself, as some rashly did. The persecution having abated, he returned to his monastery, and some time after organized another, called Pispir, near the Nile but he chose for the most part to shut himself up in a cell upon a mountain difficult of access with Macarius, a disciple whose duty it was to interview visitors. If he found them to be Hiero­solymites, i.e. spiritual men. St Antony himself sat with them in discourse; if Egyptians (by which name they meant worldly persons), then Macarius entertained them, and Antony only appeared to give them a short exhortation. Once the saint saw in a vision the whole earth covered so thick with snares that it seemed scarce possible to set down a foot without being entrapped. At this sight he cried out trembling, “Who, Lord, can escape them all?” A voice answered him, “Humil­ity, Antony!

St. Antony cultivated a little garden on his desert mountain, but this tillage was not the only manual labour in which he employed himself. St Athanasius speaks of his making mats as an ordinary occupation. We are told that he once fell into dejection, finding uninterrupted contemplation above his strength; but was taught to apply himself at intervals to manual work by an angel in a vision, who appeared platting mats of palm-tree leaves, then rising to pray, and after some time sitting down again to work, and who at length said to him, “Do thus, and relief shall come to thee”. But St Athanasius declares that Antony continued in some degree to pray whilst he was at work. He spent a great part of the night in contemplation and sometimes when the rising sun called him to his daily tasks he complained that its visible light robbed him of the greater interior light which he enjoyed when left in darkness and solitude. After a short sleep he always rose at midnight, and continued in prayer on his knees with his hands lifted to Heaven till sunrise, and sometimes till three in the afternoon, so, at least, Palladius informs us in his Lausiac History.

St Antony in the year 339 saw in a vision, under the figure of mules kicking down the altar, the havoc which the Arian persecution was to cause two years after in Alexandria. So deep was the impression of horror that he would not speak to a heretic unless to exhort him to the true faith; and he drove all such from his mountain, calling them venomous serpents. At the request of the bishops, about the year 355, he took a journey to Alexandria to confute the Arians, preaching that God the Son is not a creature, but of the same substance with the Father; and that the Arians, who called him a creature, did not differ from the heathen themselves, who worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator“. All the people ran to see him, and rejoiced to hear him even the pagans, struck with the dignity of his character, flocked around him, saying, “We want to see the man of God“. He converted many, and even worked miracles. St Athanasius conducted him back as far as the gates of the city, where he cured a girl possessed by an evil spirit. Being desired by the governor to make a longer stay in the city, he answered,

As fish die if they are taken from the water, so does a monk wither away if he forsake his solitude

St Jerome relates that at Alexandria Antony met the famous Didymus, the blind head of the catechetical school there, and exhorted him not to regret overmuch the loss of eyes, which were common even to insects, but to rejoice in the treasure of that inner light which the apostles enjoyed, by which we see God and kindle the fire of His love •in our souls. Heathen philosophers and others often went to discuss with him, and returned astonished at his meekness and wisdom. When certain philosophers asked him how he could spend his time in solitude without even the alleviation of books, he replied that nature was his great book and amply supplied the lack of all else. When others came to ridicule his ignorance, he asked them with great simplicity which was best, good sense or book learning, and which had produced the other. The philosophers answered, “Good sense.” “This, then, said Antony, “is sufficient of itself.” Some others wishing to cavil and demanding a reason for his faith in Christ, he put them to silence by showing that they degraded the notion of godhead by ascribing to it human passions; but that the humiliation of the Cross is the greatest demonstration of infinite goodness, and its ignominy is shown to be the highest glory by Christ’s triumphant resurrection and by His raising of the dead to life and curing the blind and the sick. St Athanasius mentions that he disputed with these Greeks through an interpreter. Further, he assures us that no one visited St Antony under any affliction who did not return home full of comfort and he relates many miraculous cures wrought by him and several heavenly visions and revelations.

About the year 337 Constantine the Great and his two sons, Constantius and Constans, wrote a letter to the saint, recommending themselves to his prayers. St Antony, seeing his monks surprised, said, “Do not wonder that the emperor writes to us, a man even as I am; rather be astounded that God should have written to us, and that He has spoken to us by His Son“. He said he knew not how to answer it; but at last, through the importunity of his disciples, he penned a letter to the emperor and his sons, which St Athanasius has preserved, in which he exhorts them to constant remembrance of the judgement to come. St Jerome mentions seven other letters of St Aritony to divers monasteries. A maxim which he frequently repeats is, that the knowledge of ourselves is the necessary and only step by which we can ascend to the knowledge and love of God. The Bollandists give us a short letter of St Antony to St Theodore, abbot of Tabenna, in which he says that God had assured him that He showed mercy to all true worshippers of Jesus Christ, even though they should have fallen, if they sincerely repented of their sin. A monastic rule, which bears St Antony’s name, may very possibly preserve the general features of his system of ascetic training. In any case, his example and instructions have served as a trustworthy rule for the monastic life to all succeeding ages. It is related that St Antony, hearing his disciples express surprise at the multitudes who embraced the religious state, told them with tears that the time would come when monks would be fond of living in cities and stately buildings, of eating at well-laden tables, and be only distinguished from persons of the world by their dress but that still some amongst them would rise to the spirit of true perfection.

St Antony made a visitation of his monks a little before his death, which he foretold, but no tears could move him to die among them. It appears from St Athanasius that the Christians had begun to imitate the pagan custom of embalming the bodies of the dead, an abuse which Antony had often condemned as proceeding from vanity and sometimes superstition. He gave orders that he should be buried in the earth beside his mountain cell by his two disciples, Macarius and Amathas. Hastening back to his solitude on Mount Kolzim near the Red Sea, he some time after fell ill whereupon he repeated to these disciples his orders that they should bury his body secretly in that place, adding, “In the day of the resurrection I shall receive it incorruptible from the hand of Christ”. He ordered them to give one of his sheep-skins, with the cloak upon which he lay, to the bishop Athanasius, as a public testimony of his being united in faith and communion with that holy prelate to give his other sheep-skin to the bishop Serapion and to keep for themselves his sackcloth. “Farewell, my children. Antony is departing, and will no longer be with you.” At these words they embraced him, and he, stretching out his feet, without any other sign, calmly ceased to breathe. His death occurred in the year 356, probably on January 17, on which day the most ancient martyr­ologies commemorate him. He was one hundred and five years old. From his youth to that extreme old age he always maintained the same fervour and austerity yet he lived without sickness, his sight was not impaired, his teeth were only worn, not one was lost or loosened. The two disciples interred him ac­cording to his directions. About the year 561 his remains are supposed to have been discovered and translated to Alexandria, thence to Constantinople, and eventually to Vienne, in France. The Bollandists print an account of many miracles wrought by his intercession, particularly of those connected with the epidemic called St Antony’s Fire, which raged violently in many parts of Europe in the eleventh century about the time of the translation of his reputed relics thither.

In art St Antony is constantly represented with a tau-shaped crutch or cross, a little bell, a pig, and sometimes a book. The crutch, in this peculiarly Egyptian T-shaped form of the cross, may be simply an indication of the saint’s great age and abbatial authority, or it may very possibly have reference to his constant use of the sign of the cross, in his conflict with evil spirits. The pig, no doubt, in its origin, denoted the Devil, but in the course of the twelfth century it acquired a new significance owing to the popularity of the Hospital Brothers of St Antony, founded at Clermont in 1096. Their works of charity endeared them to the people, and they obtained in many places the privilege of feeding their swine gratuitously upon the acorns and beech mast in the woods. For this purpose a bell was attached to the neck of one or more sows in a herd of pigs, or possibly their custodians an­nounced their coming by ringing a bell. In any case, it seems that the bell became associated with the members of the order, and in that way developed into an attri­bute of their eponymous patron. The book, no doubt, has reference to the book of nature which compensated the saint for the lack of any other reading.
We also some­times find flames indicated, which are typical of the disease, St Antony’s Fire, against which the saint was specially invoked.*[
*Called also the “burning sickness”, “hell fire” or “sacred fire”. It was later identified with erysipelas (called in Welsh y fendigaid, “the blessed”) but it appears originally to have been a far more virulent and contagious disorder, caused probably by the consumption of flour made from grain damaged by ergot.]
His popularity, largely due to the prevalence of this form of epidemic (see, e.g. the Life of St Hugh of Lincoln), was very great in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was, in particular, appealed to, probably on account of his association with the pig, as the patron of domestic animals and farm stock, so that gilds of butchers, brushmakers, etc., placed them­selves under his protection. Antony is named in the preparation of the Byzantine Eucharistic liturgy and in the canon according to the Coptic and Armenian rites.

The main authority for our knowledge of St Antony is the Life by St Athanasius, the authorship of which is now practically undisputed there is an English trans. by Dr R. T. Meyer in the Ancient Christian Writers series, and others. A very early Latin translation of the original Greek was made by Evagrius, and a Syriac version is also known. (On a second Latin rendering, see Wilmart, in the Revue Bénédictine, 1914, pp. 163—173.) Inter­esting supplementary details are also contributed by Palladius in his Historic Lausiaca, Cassian, and the later church historians. The literature of the subject is considerable. It will be sufficient to refer to Abbot C. Butler, Lausiac History, vol. i, pp. 215—228, and in the Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. i, pp. 553555 Hannay, Christian Monasticism, pp. 95 seq., and pp. 274 seq.; H. Leclercq, art. “Cénobitisme”, in the DAC and Fr Cheneau, Saints d’Égypte, vol. i, pp. 153—181. On the diabolical assaults and temptations which figure so prominently in the life, cf. J. Stoffels in Theologie said Glaube, vol. ii (1910), pp. 721 seq., and 809 seq. Some fragments of what seems to be the original Coptic of three of St Antony’s letters have been published in the Journal of Theol. Studies, July, 1904, pp. 540-545 their authenticity is still a matter of dispute. We only know all seven in an imperfect Latin translation. The suggestion made by C. Ghedini (Lettere cristiane dei papiri greci, 1923, no. 19) that a letter in Greek on a fragment of papyrus in the British Museum is an autograph of St Antony, cannot be treated seriously; see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlii (1924), p. 173. See also G. Bardy in the Dictionnaire de spiritualité, vol. i, cc. 702—708; L. von Hertling, Antonius der Einsiedler (1930) B. Lavaud, Antoine le Grand (1943) and L. Bouyer, St Antoine Le Grand (1950), a valuable essay on primitive monastic spirituality. H. Queffélec’s biography (1950) is “une vie romancée”. On the saint in art, see H. Detzel, Christliche Ikonographie, vol. ii, pp. 85—88 ; Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art, vol. ii, pp. 741 seq.  Drake, Saints and Their Emblems, p.a,. In the East St Antony is also greatly vener­ated, and religious communities among the Maronites and Chaldeans, and the Orthodox monks of Sinai, still profess to follow his rule. See also Reitzenstein, Des Athanasius Werk Über das Leben des Antonius (1914) ; and Contzen, Die Regel des hl. Antonius (1896). There is no justification for the spelling “Anthony” in this or any other example of the name. 356 St. Anthony the Abbot miraculous healings Faith comes from God rhetoric from humans
Two Greek philosophers ventured out into the Egyptian desert to the mountain where Anthony lived. When they got there, Anthony asked them why they had come to talk to such a foolish man? He had reason to say that -- they saw before them a man who wore a skin, who refused to bathe, who lived on bread and water. They were Greek, the world's most admired civilization, and Anthony was Egyptian, a member of a conquered nation. They were philosophers, educated in languages and rhetoric. Anthony had not even attended school as a boy and he needed an interpreter to speak to them. In their eyes, he would have seemed very foolish.

But the Greek philosophers had heard the stories of Anthony. They had heard how disciples came from all over to learn from him, how his intercession had brought about miraculous healings, how his words comforted the suffering. They assured him that they had come to him because he was a wise man.

Anthony guessed what they wanted. They lived by words and arguments. They wanted to hear his words and his arguments on the truth of Christianity and the value of ascetism. But he refused to play their game. He told them that if they truly thought him wise, "If you think me wise, become what I am, for we ought to imitate the good. Had I gone to you, I should have imitated you, but, since you have come to me, become what I am, for I am a Christian."

Anthony's whole life was not one of observing, but of becoming. When his parents died when he was eighteen or twenty he inherited their three hundred acres of land and the responsibility for a young sister. One day in church, he heard read Matthew 19:21: "If you wish to be perfect, go, sell your possessions, and give the money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; then come, follow me." Not content to sit still and meditate and reflect on Jesus' words he walked out the door of the church right away and gave away all his property except what he and his sister needed to live on. On hearing Matthew 6:34, "So do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will bring worries of its own. Today's trouble is enough for today," he gave away everything else, entrusted his sister to a convent, and went outside the village to live a life of praying, fasting, and manual labor. It wasn't enough to listen to words, he had to become what Jesus said.

Every time he heard of a holy person he would travel to see that person. But he wasn't looking for words of wisdom, he was looking to become. So if he admired a person's constancy in prayer or courtesy or patience, he would imitate it. Then he would return home.

Anthony went on to tell the Greek philosophers that their arguments would never be as strong as faith. He pointed out that all rhetoric, all arguments, no matter how complex, how well-founded, were created by human beings. But faith was created by God. If they wanted to follow the greatest ideal, they should follow their faith.

Anthony knew how difficult this was. Throughout his life he argued and literally wrestled with the devil. His first temptations to leave his ascetic life were arguments we would find hard to resist -- anxiety about his sister, longings for his relatives, thoughts of how he could have used his property for good purposes, desire for power and money. When Anthony was able to resist him, the devil then tried flattery, telling Anthony how powerful Anthony was to beat him. Anthony relied on Jesus' name to rid himself of the devil. It wasn't the last time, though. One time, his bout with the devil left him so beaten, his friends thought he was dead and carried him to church. Anthony had a hard time accepting this. After one particular difficult struggle, he saw a light appearing in the tomb he lived in. Knowing it was God, Anthony called out, "Where were you when I needed you?" God answered, "I was here. I was watching your struggle. Because you didn't give in, I will stay with you and protect you forever."

With that kind of assurance and approval from God, many people would have settled in, content with where they were. But Anthony's reaction was to get up and look for the next challenge -- moving out into the desert.

Anthony always told those who came to visit him that the key to the ascetic life was perseverance, not to think proudly, "We've lived an ascetic life for a long time" but treat each day as if it were the beginning. To many, perseverance is simply not giving up, hanging in there. But to Anthony perseverance meant waking up each day with the same zeal as the first day. It wasn't enough that he had given up all his property one day. What was he going to do the next day?

Once he had survived close to town, he moved into the tombs a little farther away. After that he moved out into the desert. No one had braved the desert before. He lived sealed in a room for twenty years, while his friends provided bread. People came to talk to him, to be healed by him, but he refused to come out. Finally they broke the door down. Anthony emerged, not angry, but calm. Some who spoke to him were healed physically, many were comforted by his words, and others stayed to learn from him. Those who stayed formed what we think of as the first monastic community, though it is not what we would think of religious life today. All the monks lived separately, coming together only for worship and to hear Anthony speak.

But after awhile, too many people were coming to seek Anthony out. He became afraid that he would get too proud or that people would worship him instead of God. So he took off in the middle of the night, thinking to go to a different part of Egypt where he was unknown. Then he heard a voice telling him that the only way to be alone was to go into the desert. He found some Saracens who took him deep into the desert to a mountain oasis. They fed him until his friends found him again.

Anthony died when he was one hundred and five years old. A life of solitude, fasting, and manual labor in the service of God had left him a healthy, vigorous man until very late in life. And he never stopped challenging himself to go one step beyond in his faith.

Saint Athanasius, who knew Anthony and wrote his biography, said, "Anthony was not known for his writings nor for his worldly wisdom, nor for any art, but simply for his reverence toward God." We may wonder nowadays at what we can learn from someone who lived in the desert, wore skins, ate bread, and slept on the ground. We may wonder how we can become him. We can become Anthony by living his life of radical faith and complete commitment to God.

In His Footsteps: Fast for one day, if possible, as Anthony did, eating only bread and only after the sun sets. Pray as you do that God will show you how dependent you are on God for your strength.

Prayer: Saint Anthony, you spoke of the importance of persevering in our faith and our practice. Help us to wake up each day with new zeal for the Christian life and a desire to take the next challenge instead of just sitting still. Amen  Copyright (c) 1996-2000, Terry Matz. All Rights Reserved. Quotations from "Life of St. Anthony" by Saint Athanasius. Translated by Sister Mary Emily Keenan, S.C.N. Copyright 1952 by Fathers of the Early Church, Inc.
358 St. Arsacius prophet Persian hermit known for his miracles and gift of prophecy
A member of the Roman army, Arsacius, or Ursacius, was imprisoned for a time for being a Christian. Released, he retired to a tower near Nicomedia. He warned the people of an impending earthquake on August 24, 358, and some sought refuge in his tower, discovering his dead body lying there in the attitude of prayer.
Arsacius (Ursacius) of Nicomedia (RM) Died on August 24, 358. Saint Arsacius was a Persian soldier of the Roman army during the reign of Emperor Licinius. After his conversion he was persecuted for his faith but released. From that time he lived as a hermit in a tower overlooking Nicomedia, and became known for his miracles and gift of prophecy. He foretold the town's destruction by the earthquake of 358. Some of the survivors found refuge in the tower, where the found Arsacius dead body in an attitude of prayer (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

358 St. Arsacius prophet Persian hermit known for his miracles and gift of prophecy
Nicomedíæ sancti Arsácii Confessóris, qui, sub Licínio persecutóre, milítia relícta, solitáriam vitam ducens, tantis virtútibus cláruit, ut et dæmones expulísse et orándo interemísse ingéntem dracónem legátur; dénique, futúram civitátis cladem prænúntians, in oratióne spíritum Deo réddidit.
    At Nicomedia, St. Arsacius, confessor.  Under the persecution of Licinius he left the military service, and leading a solitary life, became so famous for working miracles that we read of his expelling the demons and killing a huge dragon by his prayers.  Finally he foretold the destruction of the city, and gave up his soul to God in prayer.


358 St Arsacius many miracles were done at his intercession
Arsacius was a soldier by profession, and was also employed as superintendent of the imperial menagerie. He became a Christian and suffered for the faith under the Emperor Licinius, but was not put to death.  He then lived as a solitary in a small tower at Nicomedia where, among other marvels, he had prevision of a terrible calamity that was about to overtake the city. He went at once to the clergy and told them to offer public prayer for the averting of disaster and to urge the people to penitence, but no notice was taken and he returned to his tower to pray alone for the city. There was a terrible earthquake, in which the tower of Arsacius was one of the few buildings to escape destruction; when people ran to it to seek safety he was found on his knees-but dead. Though St Arsacius is named in the Roman Martyrology on this day, the earthquake at Nicomedia took place on August 24, in the year 358. His story is told by the historian Sozomen, who says he got his information from people who had got it from others who knew Arsacius personally, and that many miracles were done at his intercession.
An account of St Arsacius, or Ursacius, is furnished in the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. iii, based upon Sozomen, Hist. Eccles., bk iv, ch. 16. It is curious that no cultus of Arsacius seems to be traceable in the Eastern churches.  On the other hand through the Historia Tripartita of Cassiodorus he found his way into the Western martyrologies; moreover copious, but very unreliable, accounts are furnished of the translation of his relics.

A member of the Roman army, Arsacius, or Ursacius, was imprisoned for a time for being a Christian. Re-leased, he retired to a tower near Nicomedia. He warned the people of an impending earthquake on August 24, 358, and some sought refuge in his tower, discovering his dead body lying there in the attitude of prayer.
Arsacius (Ursacius) of Nicomedia (RM) Died on August 24, 358. Saint Arsacius was a Persian soldier of the Roman army during the reign of Emperor Licinius. After his conversion he was persecuted for his faith but released. From that time he lived as a hermit in a tower overlooking Nicomedia, and became known for his miracles and gift of prophecy. He foretold the town's destruction by the earthquake of 358. Some of the survivors found refuge in the tower, where the found Arsacius dead body in an attitude of prayer (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia)
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360 Miracle of the boiled wheat performed by the holy Great Martyr Theodore the Recruit
Today we remember the miracle of the boiled wheat performed by the holy Great Martyr Theodore the Recruit (February 17).
Fifty years after the death of St Theodore, the emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363), wanting to commit an outrage upon the Christians, commanded the city-commander of Constantinople to sprinkle all the food provisions in the marketplaces with the blood offered to idols during the first week of Great Lent. St Theodore, having appeared in a dream to Archbishop Eudoxius, ordered him to inform all the Christians that no one should buy anything at the marketplaces, but rather to eat cooked wheat with honey (kolyva).

In memory of this occurrence, the Orthodox Church annually celebrates the holy Great Martyr Theodore the Recruit on the first Saturday of Great Lent. On Friday evening, at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts following the prayer at the ambo, the Canon to the holy Great Martyr Theodore, composed by St John of Damascus, is sung. After this, kolyva is blessed and distributed to the faithful. The celebration of the Great Martyr Theodore on the first Saturday of Great Lent was set by the Patriarch Nectarius of Constantinople (381-397).
362 St. Gemellus Martyr Ancyra Turkey priest baptized him and when emerged from water his wounds were all healed
Gemellus was crucified in the reign of Emperor Julian the Apostate.
The Holy Martyr Gemellus of Paphlagonia was subjected to cruel tortures for his staunch denunciation of the emperor Juilan the Apostate (361-363) in the city of Ancyra (Galatia). A red-hot iron belt was placed around his waist. Then he was ordered to accompany the impious Julian on his journey. When they reached Edessa in Mesopotamia, he was stretched out on the ground and his limbs were pierced with wooden stakes. Then he was hung on a post and mutilated.

Enduring the tortures, the saint continued to revile the emperor. After being subjected to even more horrible torments, they let him go. He was still able to walk and speak, so he went on his way until he met a priest. He entreated the priest to baptize him, and when he emerged from the water, his wounds were all healed.

Hearing of this miracle, Julian ordered that St Gemellus be crucified. The victorious athlete of Christ gave up his soul to God, and his body was secretly taken down and buried by Christians.
363 St. Artemius; The special interest of this alleged martyr lies in the miracles wrought at his shrine, the detailed record of which has been edited by A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus in his Varia Graeca Sacra (1909), pp. 1—79. In these cures something analogous to the incubation, practised by the votaries of Aesculapius at Epidaurus and described by Aristides, seems to have been observed. See Delehaye, La recueils antiques des miracles des saints in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xliii (1925), pp. 32—38; and M. P. Maas; “Artemioskult in Konstantinopel”, in Byzantinisch-Neugriochische Yahrbücher vol. (1920), pp. 377 seq. The Greek life is in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. viii. Cf. P. Allard, Julien l’Apostat, vol. iii (1903), pp. 21-32.
St Artemius, Martyr (A.D. 363)

Holy Great Martyr Artemius of Antioch was a prominent military leader during the reigns of the emperor Constantine the Great (May 21), and his son and successor Constantius (337-361). Artemius received many awards for distinguished service and courage. He was appointed viceroy of Egypt. In this official position he did much for the spreading and strengthening Christianity in Egypt.

St Artemius was sent by the emperor Constantius to bring the relics of the holy Apostle Andrew from Patras, and the relics of the holy Apostle Luke from Thebes of Boeotia, to Constantinople. The holy relics were placed in the Church of the Holy Apostles beneath the table of oblation. The emperor rewarded him by making him ruler of Egypt.

The emperor Constantius was succeeded on the throne by Julian the Apostate (361-363). Julian in his desire to restore paganism was extremely antagonistic towards Christians, sending hundreds to their death. At Antioch he ordered the torture of two bishops unwilling to forsake the Christian Faith.

During this time, St Artemius arrived in Antioch and publicly denounced Julian for his impiety. The enraged Julian subjected the saint to terrible tortures and threw the Great Martyr Artemius into prison. While Artemius was praying, Christ, surrounded by angels, appeared to him and said, "Take courage, Artemius! I am with you and will preserve you from every hurt which is inflicted upon you, and I already have prepared your crown of glory. Since you have confessed Me before the people on earth, so shall I confess you before My Heavenly Father. Therefore, take courage and rejoice, you shall be with Me in My Kingdom." Hearing this, Artemius rejoiced and offered up glory and thanksgiving to Him.

On the following day, Julian demanded that St Artemius honor the pagan gods. Meeting with steadfast refusal, the emperor resorted to further tortures. The saint endured all without a single moan. The saint told Julian that he would be justly recompensed for his persecution of Christians. Julian became furious and resorted to even more savage tortures, but they did not break the will of the saint. Finally the Great Martyr Artemius was beheaded.

His relics were buried by Christians. After the death of St Artemius, his prophecy about Julian the Apostate's impending death came true.

Julian left Antioch for a war with the Persians. Near the Persian city of Ctesiphon, Julian came upon an elderly Persian, who agreed to betray his countrymen and guide Julian's army. The old man deceived Julian and led his army into the Karmanite wilderness, where there was neither food nor water. Tired from hunger and thirst, Julian's army battled against fresh Persian forces.

Divine retribution caught up with Julian the Apostate. During the battle he was mortally wounded by an unseen hand and an unseen weapon. Julian groaned deeply said, "You have conquered, Galilean!" After the death of the apostate emperor, the relics of the Great Martyr Artemius were transferred with honor from Antioch to Constantinople.
St Artemius is invoked by those suffering from hernias.

Cardinal Baronius inserted the name of St Artemius in the Roman Martyrology, following the example of the Eastern Church, which had venerated him in spite of the fact that he was a supporter of the Arians.
   We are told that he was a veteran of the army of Constantine the Great who was made imperial prefect of Egypt, and in discharging this office he had to be a persecutor as well as a heretic. George the Cappadocian had been intruded upon the episcopal throne of Alexandria by the Arian emperor, Constantius, St Athanasius had fled, and it was the duty of Artemius to find him, which he endeavoured to do with great zeal among the monasteries and hermitages of the Egyptian desert; he also persecuted the orthodox in general.
   Artemius was no less zealous against paganism, destroying temples and images, so that when Julian the Apostate became emperor the persecutor was in turn persecuted. Many accusations against Artemius were made to the emperor, among others, that of breaking up idols; he was accordingly deprived of his property and beheaded.
Whether the Artemius whose healing shrine was a great centre of devotion at Constantinople was identical with this Artemius, the prefect of Alexandria put to death by Julian the Apostate, does not seem to be entirely clear. But the Greek life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, which is based ultimately upon the Arian chronicler Philostorgius, quite definitely assumes this. It also states that the Emperor Constantius II commissioned Artemius to convey the reputed relics of St Andrew the Apostle and St Luke the Evangelist from Achaia to Constantinople.

The special interest of this alleged martyr lies in the miracles wrought at his shrine, the detailed record of which has been edited by A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus in his Varia Graeca Sacra (1909), pp. 1—79. In these cures something analogous to the incubation, practised by the votaries of Aesculapius at Epidaurus and described by Aristides, seems to have been observed. See Delehaye, La recueils antiques des miracles des saints in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xliii (1925), pp. 32—38; and M. P. Maas; “Artemioskult in Konstantinopel”, in Byzantinisch-Neugriochische Yahrbücher vol. (1920), pp. 377 seq. The Greek life is in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. viii. Cf. P. Allard, Julien l’Apostat, vol. iii (1903), pp. 21-32.
We are told that he was a veteran of the army of Constantine the Great who was made imperial prefect of Egypt. In discharging this office he had to be a persecutor as well as a heretic. George the Cappadocian had been intruded upon the episcopal throne of Alexandria by the Arian emperor Constantius, St. Athanasius had fled, and it was the duty of Artemius to find him, which he endeavored to do with great zeal among the monasteries and hermitages of the Egyptian desert; he also persecuted the orthodox in general.

Artemius was no less zealous against paganism, destroying temples and images, so that when Julian the Apostate became emperor the persecutor was in turn, persecuted.
Many accusations against Artemius were made to the emperor, among others, that of breaking up idols; he was accordingly deprived of his property, and beheaded. Whether the Artemius whose healing shrine was a great center of devotion at Constantinople, was identical with this Artemius, the prefect of Alexandria put to death by Julian the Apostate, does not seem to be entirely clear. But the Greek life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, which is based ultimately upon the Arian chronicler Philostorgius, quite definitely assumes this.
It also states that the emperor Constantius II commissioned Artemius to convey the refuted relics of St. Andrew the Apostle and St. Luke the Evangelist, from Achaia to Constantinople.

Artemius M (RM). Artemius is one of those very interesting entries in the Roman Martyrology: A heretic and yet a saint! Artemius was a high-ranking officer under Constantine the Great and a professed Arian. Constantius, believing it imprudent to appoint a senator as proconsul of Egypt, which supplied grain to Rome, named Artemius as its prefect. In that position, Artemius persecuted Saint Athanasius and harassed the Catholics. There is no record of his having renounced Arianism.

Theodoret in the Paschal chronicle records that Artemius was accused of demolishing temples and destroying idols. For this reason he was brought before Julian the Apostate at Antioch, condemned, and beheaded as a Christian; therefore, Artemius is counted among the saints in light. The Greeks call him the Megalo- martyr (Benedictines, Husenbeth)
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362 Barbarus the Soldier, Bacchus, Callimachus and Dionysius The Holy Martyrs served in the army of the emperor Julian the Apostate miracles caused many conversions.
St Barbarus was secretly a Christian, and in a war with the Franks he gained victory in single combat against a mighty enemy soldier. For this he received great honor in the army and the acclamation of the emperor, and was given the title of comitus (imperial bodyguard). After the victory over the Franks, Bacchus wanted to offer sacrifice to the pagan gods, and he deferred to Barbarus as the victor, allowing him to have the honor of making the first sacrificial offering.
St Barbarus openly confessed himself a Christian and refused to offer the sacrifice. He was subjected to much torture for this, by order of Julian the Apostate. They suspended the saint and tore his body until his insides were falling out. St Barbarus called out to the Lord for help, and then an angel of God appeared and healed his wounds, so that not a trace of them remained.

Seeing this miracle, the military commander Bacchus and two soldiers, Callimachus and Dionysius, believed in Christ and repudiated the pagan gods. For this, they were immediately beheaded. They continued to torture St Barbarus. They tied him to a wheel and lit a fire under it, and they sprinkled the body of the sufferer with oil. But here also the power of God preserved the holy martyr unharmed. The fire burned many of the torturers, however, killing two. After this they continued to torment the holy Martyr Barbarus for another seven days.

Through miraculous help from on high, the saint remained unharmed. Seeing in this miracle the manifest power of God, many pagans were converted to the true God. St Barbarus finally completed his glorious endeavor by being beheaded by the sword in the year 362.
The martyr's body was buried in the city of Methona in the Peloponnesus by the pious Bishop Philikios.
363 (362) St. Manuel Sabel and Ismael Persian Christians martyred by Emperor Julian the Apostate at Chalcedon; legates from Persia sent to negotiate peace who were slain when it was discovered they were Christians. A church was dedicated to them by Emperor Theodosius the Great.

Chalcédone sanctórum Mártyrum Manuélis, Sabélis et Ismaélis, qui, pacis causa apud Juliánum Apóstatam pro Persárum Rege legatióne fungéntes, ab ipso Imperatóre, cum idóla venerári compelleréntur idque constánti ánimo recusárent, gládio feríri jubéntur.
    At Chalcedon, the holy martyrs Manuel, Sabel, and Ismael, whom the king of Persia sent as ambassadors to Julian the Apostate to obtain peace.  Having firmly refused to worship idols when commanded by the emperor, they were put to the sword.

The Holy Martyrs Manuel, Sabel and Ismael, brothers by birth, were descended from an illustrious Persian family. Their father was a pagan, but their mother was a Christian, who baptized the children and raised them with firm faith in Christ the Savior.  When they reached adulthood, the brothers entered military service. Speaking on behalf of the Persian emperor Alamundar, they were his emissaries in concluding a peace treaty with the emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363). Julian received them with due honor and showed them his favor. But when the brothers refused to take part in a pagan sacrifice, Julian became angry. He annulled the treaty and incarcerated the ambassadors of a foreign country like common criminals. At the interrogation he told them that if they scorned the gods he worshipped, it would be impossible to reach any peace or accord between the two sides. The holy brothers answered that they were sent as emissaries of their emperor on matters of state, and not to argue about "gods." Seeing their firmness of faith, the emperor ordered the brothers to be tortured.  They beat the holy martyrs, then nailed their hands and feet to trees. Later, they drove iron spikes into their heads, and wedged sharp splinters under their fingernails and toenails. During this time of torment the saints glorified God and prayed as if they did not feel the tortures. Finally, the holy martyrs were beheaded.

Julian ordered their bodies to be burned, and suddenly there was an earthquake. The ground opened up and the bodies of the holy martyrs disappeared into the abyss. After two days of fervent prayer by the Christians, the earth returned the bodies of the holy brothers, from which a sweet fragrance issued forth. Many pagans, witnessing the miracle, came to believe in Christ and were baptized. Christians reverently buried the bodies of the holy martyrs Manuel, Sabel and Ismael in the year 362. Since that time the relics of the holy passion-bearers have been glorified with miracles. When he heard about the murder of his emissaries, and that Julian was marching against him with a vast army, the Persian emperor Alamundar mustered his army and started off toward the border of his domain. The Persians vanquished the Greeks in a great battle, and Julian the Apostate was killed by the holy Great Martyr Mercurius (November 24).

Thirty years later the pious emperor Theodosius the Great (+ 397) built at Constantinople a church in honor of the holy martyrs, and St Germanus, Patriarch of Constantinople (May 12), then still a hieromonk, wrote a Canon in memory and in praise of the holy brothers.

Manuel, Sabel und Ismael Orthodoxe Kirche: 17. Juni
Manuel, Sabel und Ismael lebten in Persien. Sie waren von ihrer Mutter christlich erzogen worden und dienten im kaiserlichen Heer. Der persische Kaiser schickte sie als Gesandte nach Konstantinopel, um mit Kaiser Julian Apostates einen Friedensvertrag abzuschliessen. Als die drei Brüder sich weigerten, heidnischen Göttern zu opfern, ließ Julian Apostates sie foltern und hinrichten. Sie starben 362. Der persische Kaiser erklärte daraufhin Julian den Krieg und Julian wurde im Kampf von Merkurios erschlagen.
An den Gräbern der drei Märtyrer ereigneten sich zahlreiche Wunder und Kaiser Theodosius ließ 30 Jahre nach ihrem Tod eine Kirche zu ihren Ehren errichten.
368 Theodore the Sanctified miracles holy water as a sacramental Abbot (RM)
In Ægypto sancti Theodóri Abbátis, qui fuit discípulus sancti Pachómii. In Egypt, St. Theodore, abbot, who was a disciple of St. Pachomius.
(also known as Theodore of Tabenna) Died April 27, c. 368; feast day in the East is May 16. Saint Theodore was a disciple of Saint Pachomius, whom he succeeded as abbot of Tabennisi and superior general of the whole "congregation." One of his miracles provides an early example of the efficacy of holy water as a sacramental (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia)

368 ST THEODORE THE SANCTIFIED, ABBOT many miracles
SUCH was the glory which the Church received in the fourth and fifth centuries from the light of the monastic order which then shone in the deserts of Egypt that Theodoret and Procopius apply to the state of these holy recluses those passages of the prophets in which it is said of the age of the new law of grace that, "The wilderness shall rejoice and shall flourish like the lily; it shall bud forth and blossom, and shall rejoice with joy and praise" (Isaias xxxv 1, 2, etc.).
   One of the most eminent among these saints was the abbot Theodore, disciple of St Pachomius. He was born in the Upper Thebaid about the year 314, of wealthy parents, and when he was between eleven and twelve years of age, on the feast of the Epiphany, he gave himself to God with precocious fervour, determining that he would never prefer anything to the divine love and service. Eventually the reputation of St Pachomius drew him to Tabenna, where he appeared among the foremost in promise of his followers, and Pachomius made him his companion when he made the visitation of his monasteries. Pachomius had him promoted to the priesthood and committed to him the government of Tabenna, shutting himself up in the little monastery of Pabau.

   St Pachomius died in 346, and Petronius, whom he had declared his successor, died thirteen days after him. St Orsisius was then chosen abbot, but finding the burden too heavy for his shoulders and the group of monasteries threatened with rising factions, he placed St Theodore in charge. He assembled the monks, exhorted them to unanimity, inquired into the cause of the divisions and applied effectual remedies. By his prayers and endeavours union and charity was restored.
St Theodore visited the monasteries one after the other, and instructed, comforted and encouraged every monk in particular, correcting faults with a sweetness which gained the heart. He wrought several miracles, and foretold things to come. Being one day in a boat on the Nile with St Athanasius, he assured him that his persecutor, Julian the Apostate, was that moment dead in Persia and that his successor would restore peace to him and the Church: both of which were soon confirmed. One of St Theodore's miracles provides an early example of the use of blessed water as a sacramental for the healing of body and soul. The story is told by a contemporary-St Ammon. A man came to the monastery at Tabenna, asking St Theodore to come and pray over his daughter, who was sick. Theodore was not able to go, but reminded the man that God could hear his prayer wherever they were offered. To which the man replied that he had not a great faith, and brought a silver vessel of water, asking the monk that he would at least invoke the name of God upon that so it might be as a medicine for her. Then Theodore prayed and made the sign of the cross over the water, and the man took it home. He found his daughter unconscious, so he forced open her mouth and poured some of it down her throat. And by virtue of the prayer of St Theodore the girl was saved and recovered her health.
It is related that once while St Theodore was giving a conference to his monks, who were working at the same time making mats, two vipers crawled about his feet from under a stone. So as not to interrupt himself or disturb his audience he set his foot upon them till he had finished his discourse. Then taking away his foot he let them be killed, having received no harm. One of his monks happening to die on Holy Saturday in 368, Theodore went to assist him in his last moments, and said to those that were present, "This death will shortly be followed by another which is little expected". At the close of the week St Theodore made a customary discourse to his monks, for it was their custom to meet all together in the monastery of Pabau for the celebration of Easter, and had no sooner dismissed them to their own monasteries than he was taken ill, and died peacefully on April 27. His body was carried to the top of the mountain, and buried in the cemetery of the monks there, but it was soon removed and laid with that of St Pachomius. St Athanasius wrote to the monks of Tabenna to comfort them for the loss of their abbot, and bids them have before their eyes the glory of which he was then possessed.
Such information as was available in the seventeenth century concerning the history of St Theodore will be found collected in the account of St Pachomius which was published in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii. A number of new texts have come to light, mostly in Coptic, or in translations from Coptic sources: see the bibliography given herein under St Pachomius (May 9). But for the life of St Theodore the Epistola Ammonis is especially important: it is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, pp. 63-71. For English readers much may be learnt from H. G. Evelyn White, The Monasteries of the Wadi n'Natrun, pt ii, but heed must be paid also to the criticisms published thereon by P. Peeters in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. li (1933), pp. 152-157. The Greeks commemorate this saint in May, and the Roman Martyrology formerly on December 28, but in the latest editions he is named on the date of his death, April 27.
368 St. Hilary (315?-368) a gentle courteous man devoted to writing some of the greatest theology on the Trinity
 Pictávis, in Gállia, natális sancti Hilárii, Epíscopi et Confessóris; qui, ob cathólicam fidem, quam strénue propugnávit, quadriénnio apud Phrygiam relegátus, ibi, inter ália mirácula, mórtuum suscitávit.  Eum Pius Nonus, Póntifex Máximus, universális Ecclésiæ Doctórem declarávit et confirmávit.  Ipsíus autem festum sequénti die celebrátur.
       At Poitiers in France, the birthday of St. Hilary, bishop and confessor of the Catholic faith which he courageously defended, and for which he was banished for four years to Phrygia, where, among other miracles, he raised a man from the dead.  Pius IX declared him a doctor of the Church.  His festival is celebrated tomorrow.  SEE JANUARY 14
This staunch defender of the divinity of Christ was a gentle and courteous man, devoted to writing some of the greatest theology on the Trinity, and was like his Master in being labeled a “disturber of the peace.” In a very troubled period in the Church, his holiness was lived out in both scholarship and controversy.
Raised a pagan, he was converted to Christianity when he met his God of nature in the Scriptures. His wife was still living when he was chosen, against his will, to be the bishop of Poitiers in France. He was soon taken up with battling what became the scourge of the fourth century, Arianism, which denied the divinity of Christ.

The heresy spread rapidly. St. Jerome said “The world groaned and marveled to find that it was Arian.” When Emperor Constantius ordered all the bishops of the West to sign a condemnation of Athanasius, the great defender of the faith in the East, Hilary refused and was banished from France to far off Phrygia. Eventually he was called the “Athanasius of the West.” While writing in exile, he was invited by some semi-Arians (hoping for reconciliation) to a council the emperor called to counteract the Council of Nicea. But Hilary predictably defended the Church, and when he sought public debate with the heretical bishop who had exiled him, the Arians, dreading the meeting and its outcome, pleaded with the emperor to send this troublemaker back home. Hilary was welcomed by his people.
Comment:  Christ said his coming would bring not peace but a sword (see Matthew 10:34). The Gospels offer no support for us if we fantasize about a sunlit holiness that knows no problems. Christ did not escape at the last moment, though he did live happily ever after—after a life of controversy, problems, pain and frustration. Hilary, like all saints, simply had more of the same.
368 St. Hilary of Poitiers fixed names of His nature: Father Son Holy Spirit His hymns are the first in the West with a known writer
Patron against snake bites
"They didn't know who they were." This is how Hilary summed up the problem with the Arian heretics of the fourth century.
Hilary, on the other hand, knew very well who he was -- a child of a loving God who had inherited eternal life through belief in the Son of God. He hadn't been raised as a Christian but he had felt a wonder at the gift of life and a desire to find out the meaning of that gift. He first discarded the approach of many people who around him, who believed the purpose of life was only to satisfy desires. He knew he wasn't a beast grazing in a pasture. The philosophers agreed with him.
Human beings should rise above desires and live a life of virtue, they said. But Hilary could see in his own heart that humans were meant for even more than living a good life.

If he didn't lead a virtuous life, he would suffer from guilt and be unhappy. His soul seemed to cry out that wasn't enough to justify the enormous gift of life. So Hilary went looking for the giftgiver. He was told many things about the divine -- many that we still hear today: that there were many Gods, that God didn't exist but all creation was the result of random acts of nature, that God existed but didn't really care for his creation, that God was in creatures or images. One look in his own soul told him these images of the divine were wrong. God had to be one because no creation could be as great as God. God had to be concerned with God's creation -- otherwise why create it?

At that point, Hilary tells us, he "chanced upon" the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures. When he read the verse where God tells Moses "I AM WHO I AM" (Exodus 3:14), Hilary said, "I was frankly amazed at such a clear definition of God, which expressed the incomprehensible knowledge of the divine nature in words most suited to human intelligence." In the Psalms and the Prophets he found descriptions of God's power, concern, and beauty. For example in Psalm 139, "Where shall I go from your spirit?", he found confirmation that God was everywhere and omnipotent.

But still he was troubled. He knew the giftgiver now, but what was he, the recipient of the gift? Was he just created for the moment to disappear at death? It only made sense to him that God's purpose in creation should be "that what did not exist began to exist, not that what had begun to exist would cease to exist."
Then he found the Gospels and read John's words including "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God..." (John 1:1-2).
From John he learned of the Son of God and how Jesus had been sent to bring eternal life to those who believed. Finally his soul was at rest. "No longer did it look upon the life of this body as troublesome or wearisome, but believed it to be what the alphabet is to children... namely, as the patient endurance of the present trials of life in order to gain a blissful eternity." He had found who he was in discovering God and God's Son Jesus Christ.

After becoming a Christian, he was elected bishop of Poitiers in what is now France by the laity and clergy. He was already married with one daughter named Apra.

Not everyone at that time had the same idea of who they were. The Arians did not believe in the divinity of Christ and the Arians had a lot of power including the support of the emperor Constantius. This resulted in many persecutions. When Hilary refused to support their condemnation of Saint Athanasius he was exiled from Poitiers to the East in 356. The Arians couldn't have had a worse plan -- for themselves.

Hilary really had known very little of the whole Arian controversy before he was banished. Perhaps he supported Athanasius simply because he didn't like their methods. But being exiled from his home and his duties gave him plenty of time to study and write. He learned everything he could about what the Arians said and what the orthodox Christians answered and then he began to write. "Although in exile we shall speak through these books, and the word of God, which cannot be bound, shall move about in freedom."
The writings of his that still exist include On the Trinity, a commentary on the Gospel of Matthew, and a commentary on the Psalms. He tells us about the Trinity,

"For one to attempt to speak of God in terms more precise than he himself has used: -- to undertake such a thing is to embark upon the boundless, to dare the incomprehensible.
He fixed the names of His nature: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Whatever is sought over and above this is beyond the meaning of words, beyond the limits of perception, beyond the embrace of understanding."

After three years the emperor kicked him back to Poitiers, because, we are told by Sulpicius Severus, the emperor was tired of having to deal with the troublemaker, "a sower of discord an a disturber of the Orient." But no one told Hilary he had to go straight back to his home and so he took a leisurely route through Greece and Italy, preaching against the Arians as he went.

In the East he had also heard the hymns used by Arians and orthodox Christians as propaganda. These hymns were not based on Scripture as Western hymns but full of beliefs about God. Back at home, Hilary started writing hymns of propaganda himself to spread the faith.
His hymns are the first in the West with a known writer.

Some of use may wonder at all the trouble over what may seem only words to us now. But Hilary wasn't not fighting a war of words, but a battle for the eternal life of the souls who might hear the Arians and stop believing in the Son of God, their hope of salvation.

The death of Constantius in 361 ended the persecution of the orthodox Christians.
Hilary died in 367 or 368 and was proclaimed a doctor of the Church in 1851.

In His Footsteps: In Exodus, the Prophets, and the Gospel of John, Hilary found his favorite descriptions of God and God's relationship to us. What verses of Scripture describe God best for you? If you aren't familiar with Scripture, look up the verses that Hilary found. What do they mean to you?

Prayer: Saint Hilary of Poitiers, instead of being discouraged by your exile, you used your time to study and write. Help us to bring good out of suffering and isolation in our own lives and see adversity as an opportunity to learn about or share our faith. Amen
291-371 St. Hilarion Abbot many miracles disciple of St. Anthony the Great.

HILARION was born in a village called Tabatha, to the south of Gaza, his parents being idolaters. He was sent by them to Alexandria to study, where, being brought to the knowledge of the Christian faith, he was baptized when he was about fifteen. Having heard of St Antony, he went into the desert to see him, and stayed with him two months, observing his manner of life. But Hilarion found the desert only less distracting than the town and, not being able to bear the concourse of those who resorted to Antony to be healed of diseases or delivered from devils, and being desirous to begin to serve God in perfect solitude, he returned into his own country.

   Finding his father and mother both dead, he gave part of his goods to his brethren and the rest to the poor, reserving nothing for himself (for he was mindful of Ananias and Sapphira, says St Jerome). He retired into the desert seven miles from Majuma, towards Egypt, between the seashore on one side and a swamp on the other. He was a comely and even delicate youth, affected by the least excess of heat or cold, yet his clothing consisted only of a sackcloth shirt, a leather tunic which St Antony gave him, and an ordinary short cloak. He never changed a tunic till it was worn qut, and never washed the sackcloth which he had once put on, saying, “ It is idle to look for cleanliness in a hair-shirt “,which mortifications, comments Alban Butler, “the respect we owe to our neighbour makes unseasonable in the world and then cut off part of his scanty meal. His occupation was tilling the earth and, in imitation of the Egyptian monks, making baskets, whereby he provided himself with the necessaries of life. During the first years he had no other shelter than a little arbour, which he made of woven reeds and rushes. Afterwards he built himself a cell, which was still to be seen in St Jerome’s time it was four feet broad and five in height, and a little longer than his body, like a tomb rather than a house. Soon he found that figs alone were insufficient to support life properly and permitted himself to eat as well vegetables, bread and oil. But advancing age was not allowed to lessen his austerities. St Hilarion underwent many grievous trials. Sometimes his soul was covered with a dark cloud and his heart was dry and oppressed with bitter anguish; but the deafer Heaven seemed to his cries on such occasions, the more earnestly he persevered in prayer. St Jerome mentions that though he lived so many years in. Palestine Hilarion only once went up to visit the holy places at Jerusalem, and then stayed one day. He went once that he might not seem to despise what the Church honours, but did not go oftener lest he should seem persuaded that God or His worship is confined to any particular place.

St Hilarion had spent twenty years in the wilderness when he wrought his first miracle. A certain tharried woman of Eleutheropolis (Bait Jibrin, near Hebron) was in despair for her barrenness, and prevailed upon him to pray that God would bless her with fruitfulness; and before the year’s end she brought forth a son. Among other miraculous happenings, St Hilarion is said to have helped a citizen of Majuma, called Italicus, who kept horses to run in the circus against those of a duumvir of Gaza. Italicus, believing that his adversary had recourse to spells to stop his horses, came for aid to St Hilarion, by whose blessing and pouring water over the chariot wheels his horses seemed to fly, while the others seemed fettered upon seeing which the people cried out that the god of the duumvir was vanquished by Christ. From the model, which he set, other settlements of hermits were founded in Palestine, and St Hilarion visited them all on certain days before the vintage. In one of these visits, watching the pagans assembled at Elusa, south of Beersheba, for the worship of their gods, he shed tears to God for them. He had cured many of their sick, so he was well known to them and they came to ask his blessing. He received them with gentleness, beseeching them to worship God rather than stones. His words had such effect that they would not suffer him to leave them till he had traced the ground for the foundation of a church, and till their priest, all dressed for his office as he was, had become a catechumen.

St Hilarion was informed by revelation in 356 of the death of St Antony. He was then about sixty-five years old, and had been long afflicted at the number of people, especially women, who crowded to him; moreover, the charge of his disciples was a great burden. “ I have returned to the world “, he said, “ and received my reward in this life. All Palestine regards me, and I even possess a farm and household goods, under pretext of the brethren’s needs.”
    So he resolved to leave the country, and the people assembled in great numbers to stop him. He told them he would neither eat nor drink till they let him go; and seeing him pass seven days without taking anything, they left him. He then chose some monks who were able to walk without eating till after sunset, and with them he travelled into Egypt and at length came to St Antony’s mountain, near the Red Sea, where they found two monks who had been his disciples.
 
    St Hilarion walked all over the place with them. “ Here it was “, said they, “that he sang, here he prayed there he laboured and there he reposed when he was weary. He himself planted these vines, and these little trees; he tilled this piece of ground with his own hands he dug this pond to water his garden, and he used this hoe to work with for several years.” On the top of the mountain (to which the ascent was very difficult, twisting like a vine) they found two cells to which he often retired to avoid visitors and even his own disciples; and near by was the garden where the power of Antony had made the wild asses respect his vegetables and young trees. St Hilarion asked to see the place where he was buried. They led him aside, but it is unknown whether they showed it him or no; for they said that St Antony had given strict charge that his grave should be concealed, lest a certain rich man in that country should carry the body away and build a church for it.

    St Hilarion returned to Aphroditopolis (Atfiah), and thence went into a neigh­bouring desert and gave himself with more earnestness than ever to abstinence and silence. It had not rained there for three years, ever since the death of St Antony, and the people addressed themselves to Hilarion, whom they looked upon as Antony’s successor, imploring his prayers. The saint lifted up his hands and eyes to heaven, and immediately obtained a plentiful downpour. Anointing their wounds with oil that he had blessed cured many laborers and herdsmen who were stung by serpents and insects. Hilarion, finding himself too popular also in that place, spent a year in an oasis of the western desert. But finding that he was too well known ever to lie concealed in Egypt, he determined to seek some remote island and embarked with one companion for Sicily. From Cape Passaro they travelled twenty miles up the country and stopped in an unfrequented place here; by gathering sticks Hilarion made every day a faggot, which he sent Zananas to sell at the next village to buy bread. St Hesychius, the saint’s disciple, sought him in the East and through Greece when, at Modon in Peloponnesus, he heard from a Jewish peddler that a prophet had appeared in Sicily who wrought many miracles. He arrived at Passaro and, inquiring for the holy man at the first village, found that everybody knew him: he was not more distinguished by his miracles than by his disinterestedness, for he could never be induced to accept anything from anyone.
     He found that St Hilarion wanted to go into some country where not even his language should be understood, and so Hesychius took him to Epidaurus in Dalmatia (Ragusa). Miracles again defeated the saint’s design of living unknown.
   St Jerome relates that a serpent of enormous size devoured both cattle and men, and that Hilarion induced this creature to come on to a pile of wood and then set fire to it so that it was burnt to ashes. He also tells us that when an earthquake happened the sea threatened to overwhelm the city. The affrighted inhabitants brought Hilarion to the shore, as it were to oppose him as a strong wall against the waves. He made three crosses in the sand, then stretched forth his arms towards the sea which, rising up like a mountain, returned back.

    St Hilarion, troubled over what he should do or whither he should turn, going alone over the world in his imagination, mourned that though his tongue was silent yet his miracles spake. At last he fled away in the night in a small vessel to Cyprus. Arrived there, he settled at a place two miles from Paphos. He had not been there long when his identity was discovered, so he went a dozen miles inland to an inaccessible but pleasant place, where he at last found peace and quietness.

   Here after a few years Hilarion died at the age of eighty; among those who visited him in his last illness was St Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, who afterwards wrote about his life to St Jerome. He was buried near Paphos, but St Hesychius secretly removed the body to the saint’s old home at Majuma.

The life by St Jerome is our primary source and there is no reason to doubt that much of his information was derived from St Epiphanius, who had had personal contact with Hilarion. The historian Sozomen also gives independent testimony, and there are other references elsewhere, which have all been carefully collected in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. ix.
See especially Zockler, "Hilarion von Gaza“ in Neue Jahrbucher für deutsche Thealogie, vol. iii (1894), pp. 146-178 Delehaye, Saints de Chypre in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxvi (1907), pp. 245—242 Schiwietz, Das Morgenlandische Monchtum, vol. ii, pp. 95—126 ; and H. Leclercq, “Cenobitisme “in DAC., vol. ii, cc. 3157—3158.

Companion of St. Hesychius. He was born in Tabatha, Palestine, and was educated in Alexandria, Egypt. He stayed with St. Anthony in the desert there before becoming a hermit at Majuma, near Gaza, Israel. In 356, Hilarion returned to St. Anthony in the Egyptian desert and found that his fame had Spread there too.
He fled to Sicily to escape notice, but Hesychius traced him there. The two went to Dalmatia, Croatia, and then to Cyprus. Hilarion performed so many miracles that crowds flocked to him when it was discovered he was in any region. He died on Cyprus, and St. Hesychius secretly took his remains back to Palestine. His cult is now confined to local calendars.
372 Saint Nicetas close friend of St. Paulinus of Nola bishop of Remesiana in Dacia (modern Romania and Yugoslavia) noted for successful missionary activities especially among Bessi race of marauders  miracles and healings began to be performed from the relics
St. Paulinus commemorates that in a poem.
Nicetas wrote several dissertations on faith, the creed, the Trinity, and liturgical singing, and is believed by some scholars to be the author of Te Deum. We know little of Nicetas himself beyond the fact that on at least two occasions, he made his way from a country which Paulinus regarded as a wild region of snow and ice to visit his friend at Nola in Campania.
St. Jerome also speaks very appreciatively of his work in converting the people of Dacia, but of the details of his missionary expeditions, the manner of his promotion to the episcopate.
A friend of Nicetas searched out his holy remains at night and transferred them to Cilicia.
From that time, miracles and healings began to be performed from the relics of the holy Martyr Nicetas. A particle of the relics of the Great-martyr Nicetas is found in the monastery of Vysokie Dechany in Serbia.
372 St. Sabas Goth converted to Christianity lector virtues of obedience and humility body bore no bruises or abrasions martyred w/50 others in the Romania area

Also Sabbas the Goth, a martyr in the area of modern Romania. He was a Goth converted to Christianity in his youth and became a lector in Targoviste, Romania, to a priest named Sansala.
He survived several persecutions of the local Church under the pagan Goths, but finally was seized with Sansala by a group of Gothic soldiers and ordered to eat meat which had been sacrificed to idols. Brutally tortured with several other Christians, Sabas was finally drowned in the Mussovo River, near Targoviste. About fifty others were put to death with him.

Sabas the Goth M & Comp. MM (RM) (also known as Sabbas). The account of the martyrdom of Saint Sabas was recorded in a letter soon after his death at the hands of a Gothic ruler north of the Danube.
Saint Jerome tells us that King Athanaric of the Goths began persecuting Christians in his tribe about 370. Sabas, converted to Christianity in his youth, was lector to the priest Sansala, apparently at Targoviste in modern Romania.

We are told that Sabas exemplified the Christian virtues of obedience and humility, and that he loved to sing the divine praises in church and decorate the altar. His desire for chastity was so great that he refrained from even speaking to women unless it was absolutely necessary. Most of all, Sabas loved the truth.

Sabas denounced the practice of some Christians of pretending to eat meat offered to pagan gods though in reality it had not been sacrificed to the gods by arrangement with some officers. He said that they had renounced the faith by their pretense. For this, he was forced into exile but later was allowed to return.

During another persecution the following year, some Christians swore that there were no Christians among them. Sabas loudly proclaimed his Christianity. After his first arrest, he was released as an insignificant fellow, owning nothing but the clothes on his back, 'who can do us neither good nor harm.'

Just before Easter 372, the persecution was renewed. Atharidus and his troops broke into the lodgings of the sleeping Sansala, bound him, and threw him on a cart. They pulled Sabas out of bed without allowing him to dress and dragged the modest saint naked over thorns and briars, forcing him along with whips and staves. At daybreak Sabas said to his persecutors: "Have not you dragged me, quite naked, over rough and thorny grounds? Observe whether my feet are wounded, or whether the blows you gave me have made any impression on my body." His body bore no bruises or abrasions, which enraged his tormentors, causing them to rack him on a make- shift devise.

Sabas refused an opportunity to escape when the mistress of the house in which they were lodged overnight, untied him. He spent the rest of the night helping the woman to dress victuals for the family.

Sabas refused an opportunity to escape when the mistress of the house in which they were lodged overnight, untied him. He spent the rest of the night helping the woman to dress victuals for the family.

The next day he was hung upon a beam of the house, and offered and refused meats that had been sacrificed to idols. One of Atharidus's slaves struck the point of his javelin against the saint's breast with such violence that all present believed Sabas had been killed. But he was unharmed. At this, Atharidus declared that Sansala should be dismissed, but Sabas must be drowned.

On the banks of the river, the officers wanted to let him go. Overhearing them, Sabas asked why they were so dilatory in obeying their orders? Then he continued, "I see what you cannot: I see persons on the other side of the river ready to receive my soul, and conduct it to the seat of glory: they only wait the moment in which it will leave my body."

Thereupon he was tied to a pole and held down in the Buzau (Mussovo) River until he was dead; 'This death by wood and water,' says the correspondent, 'was an exact symbol of man's salvation,' i.e., symbols of baptism and the cross. When he was dead, they drew his body out of the water, and left it unburied: but the Christians of the place guarded it from birds and beasts of prey.

 Junius Soranus, duke of Scythia, a man who feared God, sent the body to Cappadocia. A letter was sent with these relics from the church of Gothia to that of Cappadocia governed by Saint Basil, which contains an account of the martyrdom of Sabas, and concludes thus: "Wherefore offering up the holy sacrifice on the day whereon the martyr was crowned, impart this to our brethren, that the Lord may be praised throughout the Catholic and Apostolic Church for thus glorifying his servants."

About 50 other Christians were martyred during this same persecution and are honored today (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

In art, Saint Sabas is pictured suspended by his fingers from a fig tree, or being thrown into a river (Roeder). Click here to view an anonymous icon at Hilandar monastery, Mt. Athos. He is venerated in Romania (Roeder).


374 Marcellinus African priest of Embrun BM Vincent, & Domninus missionaries MM (RM).
Ebredúni, in Gálliis, sancti Marcellíni, qui fuit primus ejúsdem urbis Epíscopus.  Hic, Dei mónitu, cum sanctis Sóciis Vincéntio et Domníno, ex Africa venit, et máximam Alpium maritimárum partem verbo et signis admirándis, quibus usque hódie refúlget, ad Christi fidem convértit.
 At Embrun in France, St. Marcellin, first bishop of that city.  By divine inspiration he came from Africa with his holy companions Vincent and Domninus, and converted the greater portion of the inhabitants of the Maritime Alps by his preaching, and by the wonderful prodigies which he still continues to work.
374 ST MARCELLINUS, Bishop OF EMBRUN
ST MARCELLIINUS, venerated as the first bishop of Embrun, was an African priest who, with two companions, St Vincent and St Domninus, evangelized a considerable part of the district known in later times as the Dauphiné. Marcellinus made Embrun his headquarters, building first an oratory on a cliff above the town and afterwards a large church for the accommodation of the citizens, all of whom were converted from paganism by him and by St Domninus. The church had a baptistery in which many miracles of healing took place. St Gregory of Tours and St Ado of Vienne both state that even in their days the font used to fill spontaneously to overflowing on Holy Saturday and at Christmas with water which had wonderful medicinal properties. In consequence of his sanctity and zeal, St Marcellinus was raised to the episcopate by the exiled St Eusebius of Vercelli. St Marcellinus too, during his later years, suffered persecution from the Arians; ultimately the aged bishop was obliged to escape, and lived for the rest of his life in hiding in the Auvergne Mountains, from whence he made occasional nocturnal visits to Embrun to advise and encourage his faithful clergy and people.

The short life of St Marcellinus, which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum (April, vol. ii), is an early document and trustworthy. See Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. i, pp. 290—291.
Marcellinus crossed over to Europe with fellow missionaries Vincent and Domninus. They preached the Gospel in what was later called the Dauphiné. Marcellinus was consecrated the first bishop of Embrun by Saint Eusebius of Vercelli. Numerous legends tell of cures and other miracles worked by Marcellinus, some of which are reported by Saint Gregory of Tours. Near the end of his life, he was persecuted by the Arians, whom he bitterly opposed, and was forced to live in isolation in the Auvergne hills.
The relics of the three saints are venerated at Digne, in the Alps of Savoy (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, Encyclopedia).
379 St. Macrina the Younger; Gregory of Nyssa found her sick with a raging fever and used her discussion of eternal life as the basis of his treatise De anima et resurrectione (On the soul and the resurrection)
In Cappadócia sanctæ Macrínæ Vírginis, fíliæ sanctórum Basilíi et Emméliæ, atque soróris item sanctórum Episcopórum Basilíi Magni, Gregórii Nysséni et Petri Sebastiénsis.
    In Cappadocia, St. Macrina, virgin.  She was the daughter of Saints Basil and Emmelia, and the sister of the holy bishops, St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Peter of Sebaste.
Orthodoxe, Katholische und Anglikanische Kirche: 19. Juli
MACRINA was the eldest of ten children of St Basil the Elder and St Emmelia, and was born at Caesarea in Cappadocia about the year 330.  She was brought up with particular care by her mother, who both taught her to read and exercised vigilance over how she used that accomplishment: the Wisdom of Solomon and the Psalms of David were her constant companions. Nor were household duties and the spinning and weaving of wool neglected.   At twelve years old she was betrothed, but after the sudden death of the young man she refused all other suitors, and was a great assistant to her mother in educating her younger brothers and sisters.
   St Basil the Great, St Peter of Sebastea, St Gregory of Nyssa and the rest learned from her contempt of the world, dread of its dangers, and application to prayer and the word of God; Basil, in particular, we are told, came back from the schools a very conceited young man, and his sister taught him humility; while to Peter, the youngest, she was "father, teacher, guide, mother, giver of good advice ", for his father died just as he was born.  Basil the younger then established his mother and Macrina on an estate by the river Iris in Pontus, and there they were joined by other women in an ascetic communal life.
  After the death of St Emmelia, Macrina disposed of all that was left of their estate in favour of the poor, and lived on what she earned by the labour of her hands.  Her brother Basil died in the beginning of the year 379, and she herself fell ill nine months after.
  St Gregory of Nyssa, making her a visit after eight years' absence, found her sick, lying on two boards for her bed.  He was exceedingly comforted by her cheerfulness and encouragement, and impressed by the fervour of love with which she prepared herself for death.   She died very happily at the hour of the lighting of lamps.  Such was her poverty that nothing was found to cover her body when it was carried to the grave but her old hood and coarse veil; St Gregory therefore provided a special linen robe.  Araxius, bishop of the place, and St Gregory, with two priests, themselves carried the bier in the funeral procession, choirs singing psalms all the way to the place of burial; but the press of the crowd and lamentations of the people, especially of some of the women, much disturbed the solemnity of the chant.
  An account of the life of St Macnina, with details of her conversation, death and burial, have been left us by St Gregory himself in the form of a dialogue on the soul and resurrection, and of a panegyric on his sister addressed to the monk Olympius.   In the last of these he speaks of two miracles, the one when his sister was cured of a growth at the sign of the cross made by her mother; the other, when Macrina herself healed the diseased eye of the small daughter of a military officer.  He adds: "I do not think it expedient to add to my story all the similar things that we heard from those who lived with her and knew her intimately. Though they seem incredible, they are all believed to be true by those who have carefully investigated them. But they are judged by the carnally-minded to be outside the possible...And so, lest the unbeliever should suffer hurt by being led to disbelieve the gifts of God, I have abstained from a consecutive narrative of these sublime marvels..."  The which observation discloses another aspect of the meaning of the saying that it takes a saint to write the life of a saint.
We know little or nothing of St Macrina except what may be gathered from the memoir written by her brother, St Gregory of Nyssa.  The Greek text will be found in his works a Latin translation is given in the Acta Sanctorum July, vol. iv, and there is an English translation by W. K. Lowther Clarke (1916).  St Macrina feast is kept in the Byzantine rite.

Born about 330; died 379 eldest child of Basil and Elder Emmelia, the granddaugher of St. Macrina the Elder, and the sister of the Cappadocian Fathers, Sts. Basil and Gregory of Nyssa. The last-mentioned has left us a biography of his sister in the form of a panegyric ("Vita Macrinae Junioris" in PG XLVI, 960 sq.). She received an excellent intellectual training, though one based more on the study of the Holy Bible than on that of profane literature. When she was but twelve years old, her father had already arranged a marriage for her with a young advocate of excellent family. Soon afterwards, however, her affianced husband died suddenly, and Macrina resolved to devote herself to a life of perpetual virginity and the pursuit of Christian perfection. She exercised great influence over the religious training of her younger brothers, especially St. Peter, afterwards Bishop of Sebaste, and through her St. Gregory received the greatest intellectual stimulation. On the death of their father, Basil took her, with their mother, to a family estate on the River Iris, in Pontus. Here, with their servants and other companions, they led a life of retirement, consecrating themselves to God. Strict asceticism, zealous meditation on the truths of Christanity, and prayer were the chief concerns of this community. Not only the brothers of St. Macrina but also St. Gregory of Nazianzus and Eustathius of Sebaste were associated with this pious circle and were there stimulated to make still further advances towards Christian perfection. After the death her mother Emmelia, Macrina became the head of this community, in which the fruit of the earnest christian life matured so gloriously. On his return from a synod of Antioch, towards the end of 379, Gregory of Nyssa visited his deeply venerated sister, and found her grievously ill. In pious discourse the brother and sister spoke of the life beyond and of the meeting in heaven. Soon afterwards Macrina passed blissfully to her reward. Gregory composed a "Dialogue on the Soul and Resurrection" (peri psyches kai anastaseos), treating of his pious discourse with his dying sister. In this, Macrina appears as teacher, and treats of the soul, death, the resurrection, and the restoration of all things. Hence the title of the work, ta Makrinia (P.G. XLVI, 12 sq.). Her feast is celebrated on 19 July.

Macrina the Younger V (RM) Born at Caesarea, Cappadocia, c. 327; died in Pontus, December 379. Macrina grew up surrounded by holy people. Her paternal grandmother was Macrina the Elder and for siblings she had SS. Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, and Peter of Sebastea. All four were among the ten children of SS. Basil and Emmelia.  Macrina was well educated by her mother, who used the Biblical Books of Wisdom for reading practice, rather than the then popular classical poems. This gave Macrina a great familiarity with Scripture. Emmelia also taught her spinning and weaving and the management of a household. She was betrothed at age 12 to a young lawyer, but when her fiancé died suddenly , the beautiful young girl decided to dedicate her life to God by her devotion to her family.
As the eldest child, she exercised a strong influence over her younger brothers. When, as most young boys, they displayed inflated egos about their intellectual accomplishments, she deflated them with affectionate, but pointed, jibes. In particular, Gregory tells us that Basil returned from the university at Athens "puffed up beyond measure with the pride of oratory . . . excelling in his own estimation all the local dignitaries." Macrina taught him humility so well that he renounced his property in order to become a monk.
To her youngest brother, Peter, she was "father, teacher, guide, mother, giver of good advice," for Basil the Elder had died just as he was born. Her example encouraged them to seek perfection and to love God above all things. She did a good job, it appears: Basil, Gregory, and Peter became bishops and leading defenders of orthodoxy against the Arian heresy. Another handsome brother, Naucratius, became a hermit and supported the poor by going on fishing expeditions. He died tragically while still young. At that time Macrina had to be her mother's strength.
On the death of her father (c. 370), mother and daughter voluntarily adopted the standard of living of their servants. Within a short time, they retired to the family estate at Annesi on the Iris River in Pontus and lived a life of prayer and contemplation in an ascetical community they formed there for which Macrina wrote a rule. She often brought home and cared for poor and hungry women. Eventually, many of them joined the community, as did many women of their own social class. At some point, Macrina developed a painful cancer, which was healed to a black spot upon Emmelia's making the Sign of the Cross over it.
Macrina led the group from the time of her mother's death until her own. She sold all that was left of their estate, gave the money to the poor and lived, as did the other nuns, on what could be earned by the labor of her hands. This community became the inspiration for her brother Basil's founding of Eastern monasticism, whose rule is followed in various forms by all monks in the Eastern Church.

Basil died at the beginning of 379, and Macrina fell ill just nine months later. Gregory of Nyssa, visiting her after an eight-year absence due to having been exiled from his see, found her sick with a raging fever, very weak, lying on a bed of two boards. He was comforted by her cheerfulness and encouragement, and impressed by the fervent love with which she prepared herself for death. So impressed, in fact, that he used her discussion of eternal life as the basis of his treatise De anima et resurrectione (On the soul and the resurrection). She died happily at Vespers following her last almost inaudible prayer:
    "You have freed us from the fear of death. You have made the end of this life the beginning of true life. . . . One day You will take again what You have given, transfiguring with grace and immortality our mortal and unsightly remains. . . . May my soul be received into Your hands, spotless and undefiled, as an offering before You."
Her poverty was so acute that nothing could be found to cover her body when it was carried to the grave but her old hood and coarse veil; therefore, Gregory provided a linen episcopal cloak. She did wear around her neck an iron cross and a ring. Gregory gave the cross to a nun named Vestiana and kept for himself the ring, containing a bit of the True Cross.
Bishop Araxius, Saint Gregory, and two priests themselves carried the bier in the funeral procession, choirs singing Psalms all the way to the place of burial at the Church of the Forty Martyrs; but the press of the crowd and lamentations of the people, especially of some of the women, much disturbed the solemnity of the chant. Macrina was laid in the same vault as her mother.
Accounts of her life and conversation were written by her brother Gregory, who was with her when she died (Attwater, Benedictines, Clarke, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Kiefer, Walsh).

Makrina
Orthodoxe, Katholische und Anglikanische Kirche: 19. Juli

Makrina Die Schwester von Basilius dem Großen, Gregor von Nyssa und Petrus von Sebaste wurde um 327 geboren. Sie war die Älteste von 10 Kindern. Nachdem ihr Verlobter vor der Eheschließung verstarb, gelobte sie Ehelosigkeit. Sie erzog nach dem Tod ihres Vaters die jüngeren Kinder und zog sich dann mit ihrer Mutter Emmelia (Emilia - Gedenktag 1.1.) und anderen Frauen auf einen Familienbesitz zurück. Hier gründete sie 352 eines der ersten Frauenklöster. Makrina starb 380. Ihr Bruder Gregor von Nyssa, der Makrina die Lehrerin seines Lebens nannte, schrieb ihre Lebensgeschichte.

Saint Macrina was the sister of the holy hierarchs Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, and was born in Cappadocia at the beginning of the fourth century. Her mother, Emilia, saw an angel in a dream, naming her unborn child Thekla, in honor of the holy Protomartyr Thekla. St Emilia (January 1) fulfilled the will of God and named her daughter Thekla. Another daughter was named Macrina, in honor of a grandmother, who suffered during the time of persecution under the emperor Maximian Galerius.
Besides Macrina, family there were nine other children. St Emila herself guided the upbringing and education of her elder daughter. She taught her reading and writing in the Scriptural books and Psalms of David, selecting examples from the sacred books which spoke of a pious and God-pleasing life. St Emilia taught her daughter to pray and to attend church services. Macrina was also taught the proper knowledge of domestic governance and various handicrafts. She was never left idle and did not participate in childish games or amusements.
When Macrina grew up, her parents betrothed her to a certain pious youth, but the bridegroom soon died. Many young men sought marriage with her, but Macrina refused them all, having chosen the life of a virgin and not wanting to be unfaithful to the memory of her dead fiancé. St Macrina lived in the home of her parents, helping them fulfill the household tasks as an overseer together with the servants, and she helped with the upbringing of her younger brothers and sisters. After the death of her father she became the chief support for the family.
When all the children grew up and left the parental home, St Macrina convinced her mother, St Emilia, to leave the world, to set their slaves free, and to settle in a women's monastery. Several of their servants followed their example. Having taken monastic vows, they lived together as one family, they prayed together, they worked together, they possessed everything in common, and in this manner of life nothing distinguished one from another.
After the death of her mother, St Macrina guided the sisters of the monastery. She enjoyed the deep respect of all who knew her. Strictness towards herself and temperance in everything were characteristic of the saint all her life. She slept on boards and had no possessions. St Macrina was granted the gift of wonderworking. There was an instance (told by the sisters of the monastery to St Gregory of Nyssa after the death of St Macrina), when she healed a girl of an eye-affliction. Through the prayers of the saint, there was no shortage of wheat at her monastery in times of famine.
St Macrina died in the year 380, after a final prayer of thanks to the Lord for having received His blessings over all the course of her life. She was buried in the same grave with her parents.
380 St. Maichus Syrian hermit  of the Thebaid miracle of the lioness ended up in Maronia where Jerome found him: old and venerated for his holiness; captured by the Saracens and sold as a slave.
Malchus told St. Jerome that he was born in Nisibia. {Nisibis (Nusaybin, province Mardin, south-eastern Turkey is the ancient Mesopotamiancity, which Alexander's successors refounded as Antiochia Mygdonia and is mentioned for the first time in Polybius } and he was taken prisoner.
While a captive, Malchus was forcibly married to a young woman who was already married. They lived as brother and sister until fleeing into the region of caves. While hunting them, their master was killed by a lioness. Malchus went back to Khalkis, and the woman, unable to find her true husband, became a hermitess. Malchus later went to Maronia where he was honored by St. Jerome.

Malchus of Chalcis, Hermit (RM)  Died c. 390. According to the story he told Saint Jerome, who recorded his l ife, Malchus was born in Nisibia, fled to avoid the marriage his parents had planned for him, and became a monk with a group of recluses at Khalkis near Antioch for about 20 years.   When his father died, he set out for home, despite the refusal of his abbot to grant him permission to do so. The caravan he was with was attacked by marauding Bedouins, and he and a young woman were carried off as slaves.

When his master decided he should marry the girl, they lived as brother and sister after Malchus had told her he would rather die than marry. After seven years of bondage, they decided to flee. He to return to the monastery and she to her husband. Their master and an aide pursued them. Malchus and the girl hid near a cave, and the master, thinking they had taken refuge in the cave, went into it with his aide, and both were killed by a lioness.

Malchus returned to Khalkis, and when she was unable to find her husband, she joined him as a hermitess. She died there and Malchus ended up in Maronia, where Jerome found him: old and venerated for his holiness (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).  Saint Malchus is depicted as a hermit with a staff, sheep, swine, and a dog; sometimes with vegetables near him. He's also known as the Hermit of the Thebaid (Roeder).
380 Sainted Betranes and Theotimos were bishops of Lesser Skythia, where the mouth of the Dunaj (Danube) flows into Thrace. The impressive miracles, worked by the saint in the Name of Jesus Christ, so astonished the pagans, that they called him a Roman god.
Their diocesan cathedral was situated in the city of Toma (Kiustendji). They were Skythians.

The Church historian Sozomenes gives an account about Sainted Betranes. When the emperor Valens (364-378) stayed in Toma, he began in church to urge the saint to enter into communion with Arian heretics. Saint Betranes boldly answered, that he adhered to the teaching of the holy Nicean fathers and, in order to avoid bantering, he went off to another of the city churches. And all the people followed after him. There remained in the deserted church only the emperor with his retinue. For such audacity the emperor condemned the saint to exile, but he feared the grumbling of the crowd and let him go free. The Skyths loved their archpastor and they cared about him as a good and saintly man.
Another historian, Theodorit, writes about the sainted-bishop: "And Betranes, radiant with every virtue and archpastoral power, governing the cities of all the Skythians, was enflamed with zeal of spirit and denounced the heretics for their dogmatic deficiency and their iniquitous attitude towards the saints. He said with the Divine-inspiration of David: "I shall speak Thy testimonies before the king and not be shy" (Ps. 18:46).
Sainted Betranes died, probably soon after the denunciation of emperor Valens. His commemoration in the "Acts of the Saints" indicates 25 January. At the II OEcumenical Council in 381 it mentions already the successor to Sainted Betranes, -- the Toma bishop Gerontios, and after him the cathedra was occupied by Sainted Theotimos.

In the year 392 Sainted Theotimos was already known to Blessed Jerome (Comm. 15 June) as a writer and bishop. Sainted Theotimos participated in the Council of 399, where Sainted John Chrysostom (Comm. 13 November) examined the acts of the bishop of Ephesus. In the year 403, when Sainted Epiphanios of Cyprus (+ 403, Comm. 12 May) insistently demanded of Saint John Chrysostom and the other bishops to carry out a condemnation of Origen, Sainted Theotimos wrote: "It is impious to further offend the dead and to rise up in judgement against the ancients and re-question their sanction". He took out one of the works of Origen, read from it and, pointing out that which was read was of good purpose to the Church, added: "Those who condemn this book, slander also that which it says here".
Sainted Theotimos journeyed much throughout his diocese. His Christian love flowed even upon the Huns, -- then as yet unenlightened by the light of the Gospel. By means of beneficence and gentleness the sainted-bishop strove to win them over to the true faith. The impressive miracles, worked by the saint in the Name of Jesus Christ, so astonished the pagans, that they called him a Roman god.
Once, when during the time of a journey the saint and his companions were under the threat of deadly peril from the Huns, the sainted-bishop began to pray intensely, and all were left invisible to them. Another time, when a certain Hun tried to catch the saint with a rope, his hand froze in the air and only then was it released from its invisible hold, when Sainted Theotimos at the request of other Huns prayed to God for him.
Sainted Theotimos kept to a simple form of life: he partook of nourishment not at this or that time, but only when he experienced hunger or thirst. Blessed Jerome wrote about him: "Theotimos, Skythian bishop of Tomum, produced in dialogues in the form of ancient rhetoric powerfully fine tracts and, as I have heard, he wrote other works". It is known, that Sainted Theotimos wrote: "About the Teachings of the Saviour", "Against Idols", a "Commentary on Genesis", a "Commentary on the Text -- `I shall bear the Gift unto the Altar", "About Fasting" (from the last 4 works the Monk John Damascene makes comparison in several places in his own parallels).
Sainted Theotimos died peacefully in about the year 412. His commemoration in the "Acts of the Saints" is indicated as 20 April.

380? ST BAUDELIUS, MARTYR.
Nemáusi, in Gálliis, sancti Baudélii Mártyris, qui comprehénsus est a Pagánis, et cum sacrificáre nollet idólis et in Christi fide inter vérbera  et torménta immóbilis persísteret, martyrii palmam pretiósa morte suscépit.
    At Nimes in France, St. Baudelius, martyr.  Being arrested, but refusing to sacrifice to idols, and remaining immovable in the faith of Christ, despite blows and tortures, he gained the palm of martyrdom by his praiseworthy death.

IT is certain that a large number of churches in France and Spain have been dedicated in honour of St Baudelius, whose tomb was formerly one of the most venerated shrines in Provence, but little is actually known of his history except that he perished for the faith at Nimes. Even the date of his martyrdom is uncertain some authorities give it as 187, others as 297, and others place it as late as the close of the fourth century. If we may put any trust in his fabulous "acts", he was a married man who came with his wife from a foreign land to evangelize southern Gaul. He arrived at Nimes one day when a feast was being celebrated in honour of Jupiter, and was moved to harangue the people on the truths of Christianity and the errors of paganism. He was arrested, and his head was struck off with an axe. St Gregory of Tours, who wrote in the sixth century, mentions the numerous miracles wrought at the tomb of St Baudelius, adding that his cult had spread all over the Christian world. He is the principal patron of Nimes, where he is called Baudille.

See the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. v; there are other Latin texts enumerated in BHL., nn. 1043--1047. St Baudelius is commemorated on this day in the Hieronymianum and Delehaye’s commentary thereon furnishes references to the evidence for early cultus.
383 Saint Maurus of Verdun many miracles are said to have taken place at his tomb B (RM)
The relics of Saint Maurus, second bishop of Verdun (353-383), were enshrined in the 9th century, when many miracles are said to have taken place at his tomb (Benedictines).
Saint Spyridon Bishop of Tremithus miracle worker Through his prayer, drought was replaced by abundant rains, and incessant rains were replaced by fair weather the sick healed and demons cast out
born towards the end of the third century on the island of Cyprus. He was a shepherd, and had a wife and children. He used all his substance for the needs of his neighbors and the homeless, for which the Lord rewarded him with a gift of wonderworking. He healed those who were incurably sick, and cast out demons.

After the death of his wife, during the reign of Constantine the Great (306-337), he was made Bishop of Tremithus, Cyprus. As a bishop, the saint did not alter his manner of life, but combined pastoral service with deeds of charity.

According to the witness of Church historians, St Spyridon participated in the sessions of the First Ecumenical Council in the year 325. At the Council, the saint entered into a dispute with a Greek philosopher who was defending the Arian heresy. The of St Spyridon's plain, direct speech showed everyone the impotence of human wisdom before God's Wisdom: "Listen, philosopher, to what I tell you. There is one God Who created man from dust. He has ordered all things, both visible and invisible, by His Word and His Spirit. The Word is the Son of God, Who came down upon the earth on account of our sins. He was born of a Virgin, He lived among men, and suffered and died for our salvation, and then He arose from the dead, and He has resurrected the human race with Him. We believe that He is one in essence (consubstantial) with the Father, and equal to Him in authority and honor. We believe this without any sly rationalizations, for it is impossible to grasp this mystery by human reason."

As a result of their discussion, the opponent of Christianity became the saint's zealous defender and later received holy Baptism. After his conversation with St Spyridon, the philosopher turned to his companions and said, "Listen! Until now my rivals have presented their arguments, and I was able to refute their proofs with other proofs. But instead of proofs from reason, the words of this Elder are filled with some sort of special power, and no one can refute them, since it is impossible for man to oppose God. If any of you thinks as I do now, let him believe in Christ and join me in following this man, for God Himself speaks through his lips."

At this Council, St Spyridon displayed the unity of the Holy Trinity in a remarkable way. He took a brick in his hand and squeezed it. At that instant fire shot up from it, water dripped on the ground, and only dust remained in the hands of the wonderworker. "There was only one brick," St Spyridon said, "but it was composed of three elements. In the Holy Trinity there are three Persons, but only one God."

The saint cared for his flock with great love. Through his prayer, drought was replaced by abundant rains, and incessant rains were replaced by fair weather. Through his prayers the sick were healed and demons cast out.

A woman once came up to him with a dead child in her arms, imploring the intercession of the saint. He prayed, and the infant was restored to life. The mother, overcome with joy, collapsed lifeless. Through the prayer of the saint of God the mother was restored to life.

Another time, hastening to save his friend, who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death, the saint was hindered on his way by the unanticipated flooding of a stream. The saint commanded the water: "Halt! For the Lord of all the world commands that you permit me to cross so that a man may be saved." The will of the saint was fulfilled, and he crossed over happily to the other shore. The judge, apprised of the miracle that had occurred, received St Spyridon with esteem and set his friend free.

Similar instances are known from the life of the saint. Once, he went into an empty church, and ordered that the lampadas and candles be lit, and then he began the service. When he said, "Peace be unto all," both he and the deacon heard from above the resounding of "a great multitude of voices saying, "And with thy spirit." This choir was majestic and more sweetly melodious than any human choir. To each petition of the litanies, the invisible choir sang, "Lord, have mercy." Attracted by the church singing, the people who lived nearby hastened towards it. As they got closer and closer to the church, the wondrous singing filled their ears and gladdened their hearts. But when they entered into the church, they saw no one but the bishop and several church servers, and they no longer heard the singing which had greatly astonished them."

St Simeon Metaphrastes (November 9), the author of his Life, likened St Spyridon to the Patriarch Abraham in his hospitality. Sozomen, in his CHURCH HISTORY, offers an amazing example from the life of the saint of how he received strangers. One time, at the start of the Forty-day Fast, a stranger knocked at his door. Seeing that the traveller was very exhausted, St Spyridon said to his daughter, "Wash the feet of this man, so he may recline to dine." But since it was Lent there were none of the necessary provisions, for the saint "partook of food only on certain days, and on other days he went without food." His daughter replied that there was no bread or flour in the house. Then St Spyridon, apologizing to his guest, ordered his daughter to cook a salted ham from their larder. After seating the stranger at table, he began to eat, urging that man to do the same. When the latter refused, calling himself a Christian, the saint rejoined, "It is not proper to refuse this, for the Word of God proclaims, "Unto the pure all things are pure" (Titus 1:15).

Another historical detail reported by Sozomen, was characteristic of the saint. It was his custom to distribute one part of the gathered harvest to the destitute, and another portion to those having need while in debt. He did not take a portion for himself, but simply showed them the entrance to his storeroom, where each could take as much as was needed, and could later pay it back in the same way, without records or accountings.

There is also the tale by Socrates Scholasticus about how robbers planned to steal the sheep of St Spyridon. They broke into the sheepfold at night, but here they found themselves all tied up by some invisible power. When morning came the saint went to his flock, and seeing the tied-up robbers, he prayed and released them. For a long while he advised them to leave their path of iniquity and earn their livelihood by respectable work. Then he made them a gift of a sheep and sending them off, the saint said kindly, "Take this for your trouble, so that you did not spend a sleepless night in vain."

All the Lives of the saint speak of the amazing simplicity and the gift of wonderworking granted him by God. Through a word of the saint the dead were awakened, the elements of nature tamed, the idols smashed. At one point, a Council had been convened at Alexandria by the Patriarch to discuss what to do about the idols and pagan temples there. Through the prayers of the Fathers of the Council all the idols fell down except one, which was very much revered. It was revealed to the Patriarch in a vision that this idol had to be shattered by St Spyridon of Tremithus. Invited by the Council, the saint set sail on a ship, and at the moment the ship touched shore and the saint stepped out on land, the idol in Alexandria with all its offerings turned to dust, which then was reported to the Patriarch and all the bishops.

St Spyridon lived his earthly life in righteousness and sanctity, and prayerfully surrendered his soul to the Lord. His relics repose on the island of Corfu (Kerkyra), in a church named after him (His right hand, however, is located in Rome). His memory is also celebrated on Cheesefare Saturday

270 St Spiridion Bishop and Confessor of our Order.
In Cypro natális beáti Spiridiónis Epíscopi, qui unus fuit ex illis Confessóribus, quos Galérius Maximiánus, dextro óculo effósso et sinístro póplite succíso, ad metálla damnáverat.  Hic 
prophetíæ dono et signórum glória ínclitus fuit, et in Nicæno Concílio philósophum éthnicum, Christiánæ religióni insultántem, devícit et ad fidem perdúxit.
    In the island of Cyprus, the birthday of blessed Spiridion, bishop.  He was one of those confessors who were condemned by Galerius Maximian to labour in the mines, after suffering the loss of his right eye and cutting of the sinews of his left knee.  This prelate was renowned for the gift of prophecy and glorious miracles, and in the Council of Nicea he confounded a heathen philosopher, who had insulted the Christian religion, and brought him to the faith.

Although his feast is no longer included either the Carmelite proper or the 2004 edition of the “Martyrologium Romanum”, his name is mentioned in the Byzantine “Synaxaria”. Saint Spiridion was born in Tremithous in Cyprus in 270 AD. Son of a poor family, he had no formal education and earned his living as a shepherd. After the death of his beloved wife, he dedicated himself to the Church and eventually rose to the office of Bishop of Tremithous. During the Maximinian persecutions he was arrested and exiled, but was returned to his see after the coming to power of Constantine. He participated in the Council of Nicea, and died around 348. When the Saracens took the island, the Cypriots opened his grave in order to remove his sacred bones to Costantinople. They found that his body had remained intact, while from the grave emanated a scent of basil, true signs of the sainthood he had shown during his life. When Costantinople fell in 1453, a Corfiot elder, Georgios Kalohairetis, brought him to Corfu, where his three children acquired the Saint's relics as an heirloom. The sacred remains then passed as the dowry of his doughter Asimia into the possession of the Voulgaris family, who placed them in their private church (which was located on the site of the Pallas Cinema). The relics of the Saint were transferred to their present church when, during the fortification of the town, the original church was demolished. The Holy Relics of the St. Spiridion go out on parade in Cyprus four times each year to commemorate times when his powerful intercession was felt. He is considered to be the island's Protector.

ST SPIRIDION, BISHOP OF TREMITHUS
MANY stories are told of this Cypriot saint, who was at the same time a shepherd, married and a bishop. Sozomen, who wrote in the middle of the fifth century, says that an invisible hand stopped a gang of thieves attempting one night to carry off some of his sheep, so that they could neither steal nor make their escape. Spiridion (or better, Spyridon), finding them thus the next morning, set them at liberty by his prayers and gave them a ram, lest they should have been up all night for nothing.

The same historian says that it was the saint’s custom to fast with his family for some days in Lent without eating anything. Once during this time, when he had no bread in his house, a traveller called to rest and refresh himself on the road. Spiridion, having nothing else, ordered some salt pork to be boiled, for he saw the traveller was very tired. Then he invited the stranger to eat. He excused himself, saying that he was a Christian. Spiridion, himself setting the example by way of courtesy, replied that therefore he was quite free to eat; thereby reminding the stranger both that ecclesiastical precepts do not bind unreasonably and that to a Christian no food is in itself forbidden.

St Spiridion was chosen bishop of Tremithus, on the seacoast near Salamis, and thenceforth combined the care of sheep with the care of souls. His diocese was very small and the inhabitant’s poor, but the Christians were regular in their lives; there remained among them some idolaters. In the persecution of Galerius he made a glorious confession of the faith. The Roman Martyrology says he was one of those who lost their right eye, had the left leg hamstrung, and in that state were sent to work in the mines, and (mistakenly) that he was among the bishops at the Council of Nicaea in 325.
There is a legend in the East that on the way to the council he fell in with a party of other bishops, who were alarmed lest the rustic simplicity of Spiridion should compromise the cause of orthodoxy. So they told their servants to cut the heads off the mules of Spiridion and his deacon, which was done. When he prepared to set off before dawn the next day and discovered the crime, Spiridion was not at all discomfited. He told the deacon to put the severed heads upon the bodies, and at once they grew together and the animals lived. But when the sun rose it was found that a mistake had been made in the dark: for the bishop’s white mule had a brown head and the deacon’s brown mule had a white head. During the council a pagan philosopher named Eulogius made an attack on Christianity, and an aged, one-eyed bishop, unpolished in manner and appear­ance, got up to reply to the urbane scoffer. He affirmed the omnipotent God and the incarnation of the Son for the redemption of all people as things beyond proof to be held by faith: did Eulogius believe them, or did he not? After a pause the philosopher was constrained to admit that he did. “Then”, said the bishop, “come with me to the church and receive the sign of faith.” And Eulogius did so, for, he said, words and arguments cannot resist virtue, meaning thereby the power of the Holy Ghost manifested in the unlearned bishop. Later writers identify this bishop with St Spiridion, but without authority. A certain person had deposited for safety in the hands of Spiridion’s daughter Irene something of great value. This he demanded of the bishop after her death; but it was not to be found and nobody knew where it was. Whereupon, it is said, St Spiridion went to the place where his daughter was buried, called her by her name, and asked where she had put the missing article. Then she answered him, giving directions where she had hid it that it might be safer: and it was found there.

Spiridion had very little learning, but he had made the Scriptures his daily study and had learned what respect is due to the word of God. Once when the bishops of Cyprus were assembled together, St Triphyllius, Bishop of Ledra (whom St Jerome commends as the most eloquent man of his time), was preaching a sermon. Mentioning that passage, “Take up thy bed, and walk”, he said “couch” instead of “bed”, thinking that word the more elegant and suitable. St Spiridion objected against this false nicety and attempt to add graces to what was more adorned with simplicity, and asked the preacher whether the word our Lord Himself had used was not good enough for him. *{* The obvious reflection that this rebuke would sometimes apply also to Alban Butler himself is modified by the further reflection that the fashions of the eighteenth century are not ours. But there are not wanting writers and speakers to-day who might with advantage ponder this anecdote.}

 The relics of St Spiridion were translated from Cyprus to Constantinople, and again to Corfu, where they are still venerated. He is the principal patron of the Catholics of Corfu, Zakynthos and Kephalonia.

Besides the relatively early references made to St Spiridion by the historians Socrates and Sozomen, it seems that a life of him was written at the beginning of the seventh century by Leontius of Neapolis. This is preserved to us only in the later adaptation of the Meta­phrast (Migne, PG., vol. cxvi, pp. 417—468). There is also a memorial discourse by Theodore of Paphos (printed in part by Usener, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Legendenliteratur, pp. 222—232, and edited complete in 1901 by S. Papageorgios), but it proves to be in large part simply a plagiarism from an anonymous Life of Bishops Metrophanes and Alexander of Constantinople (see P. Heseler, Hagiographica, 1934). It is also stated that a life of St Spiridion was written in elegiacs by his pupil, Triphyllius of Ledra, but this has not survived. In Byzantine art Spiridion is recognizable by his peculiar shepherd’s cap see, for example, G. de Jerphanion, Let églises rupestres de Cappadoce (1932); and the Byzantinische Zeitschrift for 1910, pp. 29 and 107. See P. Van den Ven, La Légende de S. Spyridon (1953), “beau travail d’édition et de critique “ (Fr F. Halkin).
387  St. Donatus Bishop of Euraea in Epirus sanctity praised by Greek writers miracle of the water healer
Evóreæ, in Epíro, sancti Donáti Epíscopi, qui, témpore Theodósii Imperatóris, exímia sanctitáte refúlsit.
    At Evorea in Epirus, St. Donatus, a bishop, who was eminent for sanctity in the time of Emperor Theodosius.
Donatos Orthodoxe Kirche: 30. April

Donatos lebte während der Herrschaft von Kaiser Theodosius dem Großen (370-397) und war Bischof von Eureia. In der Nähe der Stadt befand sich eine Quelle mit giftigem Wasser. Donatos reinigte die Quelle, indem er eine große Schlange, die in ihr lebte, tötete. Donatos vollbrachte weitere Wunder, unter anderem heilte er die Tochter des Kaisers. Er starb um 387.

Donatus of Euraea B (RM) Late 4th century. The sanctity of Bishop Donatus of Euraea, Epirus (Albania), was recorded by Sozomen and other Greek writers (Benedictines).
Saint Donatus lived during the reign of the holy Emperor Theodosius the Great (379-397) and was bishop of the city of Euroea (in Albania). Not far from this city, in the vicinity of Soreia, was a brackish spring of water. When the saint learned of this, he went with clergy to the spring and cast out a monstrous serpent, which died. The saint prayed, he blessed the spring and drank the water without harm. Seeing this miracle, the people glorified God.

Another time, St Donatus prayed and brought forth water from a dry and rocky place, and during a drought he entreated the Lord to send rain to the parched land.

The daughter of the holy Emperor Theodosius fell terribly ill and was afflicted by an unclean spirit. St Donatus came to the palace, and as soon as he arrived the devil left and the sick woman was healed.
A certain man, shortly before his death, repaid a loan to a money-lender. The creditor tried to extort the money a second time from the dead man's widow. The saint resurrected the dead man, who told where and when the loan had been repaid. After obtaining a receipt from the creditor, the man fell asleep in the Lord.
St Donatus reposed in peace about the year 387.
387 St. Philaster Saint Gaudentius, his successor, praises him for his "modesty, quietness, and gentleness towards all men." He was chiefly famed, however, for his charity to the poor mission resisting the spread of the Arian heresy bishop of Brescia authored Catalogue of Heresies (28 Jewish & 128 Christian heresies) popular book in the Western Church used by St. Augustine; much praised by his successor, St. Gaudentius
Bríxiæ natális sancti Philástrii, qui fuit ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus.  Hic advérsus hæréticos, præsértim Ariános, a quibus multa passus est, plúrimum verbis scriptísque pugnávit; demum, clarus miráculis, Conféssor in pace quiévit.
    At Brescia, the birthday of St. Philastrius, bishop of that city, who both by word and writing opposed the heretics, especially the Arians, from whom he suffered greatly.  Finally he died in peace, a confessor renowned for miracles.
Also called Philastrius and Filaster, a Spanish bishop. He took as his primary mission resisting the spread of the Arian heresy, once enduring a vicious scourging at their hands. Appointed bishop of Brescia, Italy, he continued to oppose the Arians. He authored the work Catalogue of Heresies, an accounting of twenty eight Jewish and one hundred twenty eight Christian heresies, which was a popular book in the Western Church and was used by St. Augustine. He was much praised by his successor, St. Gaudentius.

Philastrius of Brescia B (RM) Born in Spain; Saint Philastrius was appointed bishop of Brescia, Italy, during the time of the Arian controversy. He wrote a book against the Arians, which is still extant. Saint Gaudentius, his successor, praises him for his "modesty, quietness, and gentleness towards all men." He was chiefly famed, however, for his charity to the poor and his opposition to Arianism (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

397 St Philastrius, Bishop of Brescia 
We know nothing certain of this saint's country, but he quitted it and the house and inheritance of his ancestors, like Abraham, the more perfectly to disengage himself from ties of the world. He travelled through many provinces to oppose infidels and heretics, especially the Arians, whose errors were at that time dispersed over the whole Church. His zeal and faith gave him courage to rejoice with the Apostle in suffering for the truth, and to bear in his body the marks of a severe scourging which he underwent for asserting the true godhead of Jesus Christ. At Milan he vigorously opposed the endeavours of Auxentius, the Arian, who laboured to destroy the flock of Christ there; and he preached and held disputations with heretics in Rome itself, and afterwards went to Brescia.
  Being chosen bishop of this see, he exerted himself with such vigour as even to outdo himself. Alban Butler is understating when he says that Philastrius was not equal in learning to the Ambroses and Augustines of that age; but what was wanting in that respect was abundantly made up by the example of his life, his spirit of humility and piety, and his unwearied application to every pastoral duty: he is an instance of what eminent service moderate abilities may be capable of when they are joined with a high degree of virtue.

    To caution his flock against the danger of errors in faith St Philastrius wrote his Catalogue of Heresies, in which he does not take that word in its strict sense and according to the theological definition, but includes among his hundred and twenty-eight "heresies" a number of opinions - which are matters of dispute:  not only that, but he branded as heretics those who, for example, call the days of the week by heathen names (he would have approved the practice of the Society of Friends in this respect). The work has little value in itself, but is of interest to scholars for the light it may throw on the work of other writers, e.g. Hippolytus.
  St Gaudentius in a panegyric of St Philastrius praises his modesty, quietness and sweetness towards all men; he extended his liberality, not only to all that were reduced to beggary, but also to tradesmen and others, whom he generously enabled to carry on or to enlarge their business.   St Augustine met St Philastrius at Milan with St Ambrose about the year 384.  He died before St Ambrose, his metropolitan, who after his death placed his disciple St Gaudentius in the see of Brescia .
See the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. iv.   The authenticity of the panegyric by St Gaudentius, which is the source of most of our scanty information about Philastrius, has been questioned, but it is vindicated by Knappe and Poncelet: see the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxviii (1909), p. 224; and cf. Bardenhewer, Patrologie, § 89.   See also P. de Labriolle and G. Bardy, Histoire de La litterature latine chretienne (1947), pp. 432-434.
388 Saint Marcian of Cyrrhus gift of wonderworking many other miracles on behalf of the brethren.
lived in the desert near the city of Cyrrhus. He built a small hut and settled in it, passing his time in prayer, singing Psalms and reading spiritual books. He ate very little food, just enough to keep him alive. Reports of his holy life attracted to him many zealous ascetics, and St Marcian established a monastery for them.

God's blessing rested upon the saint, and he possessed the gift of wonderworking. Once, a serpent crawled into his cell. The saint made the Sign of the Cross and the serpent perished, burned up by flames. At night, when the ascetic read, a heavenly light shone for him. The monk also worked many other miracles on behalf of the brethren. He died in peace about the year 388.
390 St. Macarius the Great Egyptian hermit enemy of Arianism
 In Ægypto sancti Macárii Abbátis, qui fuit discípulus beáti Antónii, ac vita et miráculis celebérrimus éxstitit.
       In Egypt, St. Macarius, abbot, disciple of St. Anthony, very celebrated for his life and miracles.

390 ST MACARIUS THE ELDER
THIS Macarius was born in Upper Egypt, about the year 300, and spent his youth in tending cattle. By a powerful call of divine grace he retired from the world at an early age and, dwelling in a little cell, made mats, in continual prayer and the practice of great austerities. A woman falsely accused him of having offered her violence, for which supposed crime he was dragged through the streets, beaten and insulted, as a base hypocrite under the garb of a monk. He suffered all with patience, and sent the woman what he earned by his work, saying to himself, “Well, Macarius! having now another to provide for, thou must work the harder”.
But God made his innocence known; for the woman falling in labour, lay in extreme anguish, and could not be delivered till she had named the true father of her child. The fury of the people turned into admiration for the saint’s humility and patience. To escape the esteem of men he fled to the vast and melancholy desert of Skete, being then about thirty. In this solitude he lived sixty years, and became the spiritual parent of innumerable holy persons who put themselves under his direction and were governed by the rules he laid down for them; but all occupied separate hermitages. St Macarius admitted only one disciple to dwell with him, whose duty it was to receive strangers. He was compelled by an Egyptian bishop to receive the priesthood that he might celebrate the divine mysteries for the convenience of this colony. When the desert became better peopled, there were four churches built in it, which were served by so many priests.

The austerities of St Macarius were excessive; he usually ate but once a week. Evagrius, his disciple, once asked him leave, when tortured with thirst, to drink a little water; but Macarius bade him content himself with reposing awhile in the shade, saying, “For these twenty years I have never once eaten, drunk or slept as much as nature required”. His face was very pale, and his body feeble and shrivelled. To go against his own inclinations he did not refuse to drink a little wine when others desired him; but then he would punish himself for this indulgence by abstaining two or three days from all manner of drink; and it was for this reason that his disciple besought strangers never to offer him wine. He delivered his instructions in few words, and recommended silence, retirement and continual prayer, especially the last, to all sorts of people. He used to say, “In prayer you need not use many or lofty words. You can often repeat with a sincere heart, ‘Lord, show me mercy as thou knowest best.’ Or, ‘0 God, come to my assistance.’” His mildness and patience were invincible, and wrought the conversion of a heathen priest and many others.
A young man applying to St Macarius for spiritual advice, he directed him to go to a burying-place and upbraid the dead; and after that to go and flatter them. When he returned the saint asked him what answer the dead had made. “None at all”, said the other, “either to reproaches or praises.” “Then”, replied Macarius, “go and learn neither to be moved by abuse nor by flattery. If you die to the world and to yourself, you will begin to live to Christ.”
   He said to another, “Receive from the hand of God poverty as cheerfully as riches, hunger and want as readily as plenty; then you will conquer the Devil, and subdue your passions.” A certain monk complained to him that in solitude he was always tempted to break his fast, whereas in the monastery he could fast the whole week cheerfully. “Vain-glory is the reason”, replied the saint; “Fasting pleases when men see you; but seems intolerable when the craving for esteem is not gratified.”
   One came to consult him who was molested with temptations to impurity; the saint examining into the source, convinced himself the trouble was due to indolence. Accordingly, he advised him never to eat before sunset, to meditate fervently at his work, and to labour vigorously without slackening the whole day. The other faithfully complied, and was freed from his torment.
 God revealed to St Macarius that he had not attained to the perfection of two married women, who lived in a certain town. The saint thereupon paid them a visit, and learned the means by which they sanctified themselves. They were careful never to speak idle or rash words they lived in humility, patience, charity and conformity to the humours of their husbands; and they sanctified all their actions by prayer, consecrating to the divine glory all the powers of their soul and body.

A heretic of the sect of the Hieracites, called so from Hierax, who denied the resurrection of the dead, had caused some to be unsettled in their faith. St Macarius, to confirm them in the truth, raised a dead man to life, as Socrates, Sozomen, Palladius and Rufinus relate. Cassian says that he only made a dead body to speak for that purpose; then bade it rest till the resurrection.

Lucius, the Arian usurper of the see of Alexandria, sent troops into the desert to disperse the zealous monks, several of whom sealed their faith with their blood. The leading ascetics, namely the two Macariuses, Isidore, Pambo and some others were banished to a little island in the Nile delta, surrounded with marshes. The inhabitants, who were pagans, were all converted by the example and preaching of these holy men. In the end Lucius suffered them to return to their cells. Macarius, knowing that his end drew near, paid a visit to the monks of Nitria, and exhorted them in such moving terms that they all fell weeping at his feet. “Let us weep, brethren, said he, “and let our eyes pour forth floods of tears before we go hence, lest we fall into that place where tears will only feed the flames in which we shall burn.” He went to receive the reward of his labours at the age of ninety, after having spent sixty years in Skete. Macarius seems to have been, as Cassian asserts, the first anchoret who inhabited this vast wilderness. Some style him a disciple of St Antony; but it appears that he could not have lived under the direction of Antony before he retired to Skete. It seems, however, that later on he paid a visit, if not several, to that holy patriarch of monks, whose dwelling was fifteen days’ journey distant. Macarius is commemorated in the canon of the Mass according to the Coptic and Armenian rites.

See Palladius, Historia Lausiaca, c. 19 seq. Acta Sanctorum, January 15 Schiwietz, Morgenländ. Mönchtum, vol. i, pp. 97 seq. Bardenhewer, Patrology (Eng. ed), pp. 266—267  Gore in Journ. of Theol. Stud., vol. viii, pp. 85—90; Cheneau d’Onleans, Les saints d’Egypte (1923), vol. i, pp. 117—138

Also called "Macarius of Egypt” or “the Elder.” He was born in Upper Egypt, and went to the desert of Skete, where he was falsely accused of assaulting a woman, but was proven innocent. He was ordained and served as a counselor for thousands. An enemy of Arianism, Macarius was exiled to a small island in the Nile with Macarius the Younger by Lucius of Alexandria. a heretic of the era. Eventually he returned to the desert, and Macarius , considered the pioneering hermit, spent six decades in the wilderness.
390 St. Zenobius raising five people from the dead.
Zenobius Bishop of Florence, Italy. He was a member of the Florentine Geronimo family. Zenobius is best known for his close friendships with Saints Ambrose of Milan and Pope St. Damasus I (r. 366-384) The latter used him as a papal legate to Constantinople (modern Istanbul,Turkey) to deliver the papal views concerning the Arian heresy which was then troubling the Church. Zenobius was famous for miracles, including raising five people from the dead.
390 St. Palladius hermit of Syria near Antioch gift of wonderworking
He resided in a desert retreat near Antioch and was a friend of St. Simeon.
Saint Palladius the Desert Dweller led an ascetical life in a certain mountain cave near Syrian Antioch. Because of his struggles, he received from the Lord a gift of wonderworking. Once, a merchant was found murdered by robbers near his cave. People accused St Palladius of the murder, but through the prayer of the saint, the dead man rose up and named his murderers. The saint died at the end of the fourth century, leaving behind several edifying works.
383 St Zosimas monk Palestinian monastery of Caesarea
Zosimas monk with Mary of the desert 430 St. Mary of Egypt penitent sent to desert east of Palestine by the Blessed Virgin as a hermitess in
       absolute solitude for forty-seven years
 SEE ALSO HERE St. Mary of Egypt
Having dwelt at the monastery since his childhood, he lived there in asceticism until he reached the age of fifty-three. Then he was disturbed by the thought that he had attained perfection, and needed no one to instruct him. "Is there a monk anywhere who can show me some form of asceticism that I have not attained? Is there anyone who has surpassed me in spiritual sobriety and deeds?"

Suddenly, an angel of the Lord appeared to him and said, "Zosimas, you have struggled valiantly, as far as this is in the power of man. However, there is no one who is righteous (Rom 3:10). So that you may know how many other ways lead to salvation, leave your native land, like Abraham from the house of his father (Gen 12:1), and go to the monastery by the Jordan."

Abba Zosimas immediately left the monastery, and following the angel, he went to the Jordan monastery and settled in it.

Here he met Elders who were adept in contemplation, and also in their struggles. Never did anyone utter an idle word. Instead, they sang constantly, and prayed all night long. Abba Zosimas began to imitate the spiritual activity of the holy monks.
Thus much time passed, and the holy Forty Day Fast approached. There was a certain custom at the monastery, which was why God had led St Zosimas there. On the First Sunday of Great Lent the igumen served the Divine Liturgy, everyone received the All-Pure Body and Blood of Christ. Afterwards, they went to the trapeza for a small repast, and then assembled once more in church.

The monks prayed and made prostrations, asking forgiveness one of another. Then they made a prostration before the igumen and asked his blessing for the struggle that lay before them. During the Psalm "The Lord is my Light and my Savior, whom shall I fear? The Lord is defender of my life, of whom shall I be afraid?" (Ps 26/27:1), they opened the monastery gate and went off into the wilderness.

Each took with him as much food as he needed, and went into the desert. When their food ran out, they ate roots and desert plants. The monks crossed the Jordan and scattered in various directions, so that no one might see how another fasted or how they spent their time.

The monks returned to the monastery on Palm Sunday, each having his own conscience as a witness of his ascetic struggles. It was a rule of the monastery that no one asked how anyone else had toiled in the desert.
Abba Zosimas, according to the custom of the monastery, went deep into the desert hoping to find someone living there who could benefit him.
He walked into the wilderness for twenty days and then, when he sang the Psalms of the Sixth Hour and made the usual prayers. Suddenly, to the right of the hill where he stood, he saw a human form. He was afraid, thinking that it might be a demonic apparition. Then he guarded himself with the Sign of the Cross, which removed his fear. He turned to the right and saw a form walking southward. The body was black from the blazing sunlight, and the faded short hair was white like a sheep's fleece. Abba Zosimas rejoiced, since he had not seen any living thing for many days.

The desert-dweller saw Zosimas approaching, and attempted to flee from him. Abba Zosimas, forgetting his age and fatigue, quickened his pace. When he was close enough to be heard, he called out, "Why do you flee from me, a sinful old man? Wait for me, for the love of God."

The stranger said to him, "Forgive me, Abba Zosimas, but I cannot turn and show my face to you. I am a woman, and as you see, I am naked. If you would grant the request of a sinful woman, throw me your cloak so I might cover my body, and then I can ask for your blessing."
Then Abba Zosimas was terrified, realizing that she could not have called him by name unless she possessed spiritual insight.
Covered by the cloak, the ascetic turned to Zosimas: "Why do you want to speak with me, a sinful woman? What did you wish to learn from me, you who have not shrunk from such great labors?"
Abba Zosimas fell to the ground and asked for her blessing. She also bowed down before him, and for a long time they remained on the ground each asking the other to bless. Finally, the woman ascetic said: "Abba Zosimas, you must bless and pray, since you are honored with the grace of the priesthood. For many years you have stood before the holy altar, offering the Holy Gifts to the Lord."
These words frightened St Zosimas even more. With tears he said to her, "O Mother! It is clear that you live with God and are dead to this world. You have called me by name and recognized me as a priest, though you have never seen me before. The grace granted you is apparent, therefore bless me, for the Lord's sake."

Yielding finally to his entreaties, she said, "Blessed is God, Who cares for the salvation of men." Abba Zosimas replied, "Amen." Then they rose to their feet. The woman ascetic again said to the Elder, "Why have you come, Father, to me who am a sinner, bereft of every virtue? Apparently, the grace of the Holy Spirit has brought you to do me a service. But tell me first, Abba, how do the Christians live, how is the Church guided?"

Abba Zosimas answered her, "By your holy prayers God has granted the Church and us all a lasting peace. But fulfill my unworthy request, Mother, and pray for the whole world and for me a sinner, that my wanderings in the desert may not be useless."

The holy ascetic replied, "You, Abba Zosimas, as a priest, ought to pray for me and for all, for you are called to do this. However, since we must be obedient, I will do as you ask.

The saint turned toward the East, and raising her eyes to heaven and stretching out her hands, she began to pray in a whisper. She prayed so softly that Abba Zosimas could not hear her words. After a long time, the Elder looked up and saw her standing in the air more than a foot above the ground. Seeing this, Zosimas threw himself down on the ground, weeping and repeating, "Lord, have mercy!"

Then he was tempted by a thought. He wondered if she might not be a spirit, and if her prayer could be insincere. At that moment she turned around, lifted him from the ground and said, "Why do your thoughts confuse you, Abba Zosimas? I am not an apparition. I am a sinful and unworthy woman, though I am guarded by holy Baptism."
Then she made the Sign of the Cross and said, "May God protect us from the Evil One and his schemes, for fierce is his struggle against us." Seeing and hearing this, the Elder fell at her feet with tears saying, "I beseech you by Christ our God, do not conceal from me who you are and how you came into this desert. Tell me everything, so that the wondrous works of God may be revealed."
She replied, "It distresses me, Father, to speak to you about my shameless life. When you hear my story, you might flee from me, as if from a poisonous snake. But I shall tell you everything, Father, concealing nothing. However, I exhort you, cease not to pray for me a sinner, that I may find mercy on the Day of Judgment.

"I was born in Egypt and when I was twelve years old, I left my parents and went to Alexandria. There I lost my chastity and gave myself to unrestrained and insatiable sensuality. For more than seventeen years I lived like that and I did it all for free. Do not think that I refused the money because I was rich. I lived in poverty and worked at spinning flax. To me, life consisted in the satisfaction of my fleshly lust.

"One summer I saw a crowd of people from Libya and Egypt heading toward the sea. They were on their way to Jerusalem for the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. I also wanted to sail with them. Since I had no food or money, I offered my body in payment for my passage. And so I embarked on the ship.

"Now, Father, believe me, I am very amazed, that the sea tolerated my wantonness and fornication, that the earth did not open up its mouth and take me down alive into hell, because I had ensnared so many souls. I think that God was seeking my repentance. He did not desire the death of a sinner, but awaited my conversion.

"So I arrived in Jerusalem and spent all the days before the Feast living the same sort of life, and maybe even worse.
"When the holy Feast of the Exaltation of the Venerable Cross of the Lord arrived, I went about as before, looking for young men. At daybreak I saw that everyone was heading to the church, so I went along with the rest. When the hour of the Holy Elevation drew nigh, I was trying to enter into the church with all the people. With great effort I came almost to the doors, and attempted to squeeze inside. Although I stepped up to the threshold, it was as though some force held me back, preventing me from entering. I was brushed aside by the crowd, and found myself standing alone on the porch. I thought that perhaps this happened because of my womanly weakness. I worked my way into the crowd, and again I attempted to elbow people aside. However hard I tried, I could not enter. Just as my feet touched the church threshold, I was stopped. Others entered the church without difficulty, while I alone was not allowed in. This happened three or four times. Finally my strength was exhausted. I went off and stood in a corner of the church portico.

"Then I realized that it was my sins that prevented me from seeing the Life-Creating Wood. The grace of the Lord then touched my heart. I wept and lamented, and I began to beat my breast. Sighing from the depths of my heart, I saw above me an icon of the Most Holy Theotokos. Turning to Her, I prayed: "O Lady Virgin, who gave birth in the flesh to God the Word! I know that I am unworthy to look upon your icon. I rightly inspire hatred and disgust before your purity, but I know also that God became Man in order to call sinners to repentance. Help me, O All-Pure One. Let me enter the church. Allow me to behold the Wood upon which the Lord was crucified in the flesh, shedding His Blood for the redemption of sinners, and also for me. Be my witness before Your Son that I will never defile my body again with the impurity of fornication. As soon as I have seen the Cross of your Son, I will renounce the world, and go wherever you lead me."

"After I had spoken, I felt confidence in the compassion of the Mother of God, and left the spot where I had been praying. I joined those entering the church, and no one pushed me back or prevented me from entering. I went on in fear and trembling, and entered the holy place.

"Thus I also saw the Mysteries of God, and how God accepts the penitant. I fell to the holy ground and kissed it. Then I hastened again to stand before the icon of the Mother of God, where I had given my vow. Bending my knees before the Virgin Theotokos, I prayed:
"'O Lady, you have not rejected my prayer as unworthy. Glory be to God, Who accepts the repentance of sinners. It is time for me to fulfill my vow, which you witnessed. Therefore, O Lady, guide me on the path of repentance.'"
"Then I heard a voice from on high: 'If you cross the Jordan, you will find glorious rest.'
"I immediately believed that this voice was meant for me, and I cried out to the Mother of God: 'O Lady, do not forsake me!'
"Then I left the church portico and started on my journey. A certain man gave me three coins as I was leaving the church. With them I bought three loaves of bread, and asked the bread merchant the way to the Jordan.

"It was nine o'clock when I saw the Cross. At sunset I reached the church of St John the Baptist on the banks of the Jordan. After praying in the church, I went down to the Jordan and washed my face and hands in its water. Then in this same temple of St John the Forerunner I received the Life-Creating Mysteries of Christ. Then I ate half of one of my loaves of bread, drank water from the holy Jordan, and slept there that night on the ground. In the morning I found a small boat and crossed the river to the opposite shore. Again I prayed that the Mother of God would lead me where She wished. Then I found myself in this desert."

Abba Zosimas asked her, "How many years have passed since you began to live in the desert?"
"'I think," she replied, "it is forty-seven years since I came from the Holy City."
Abba Zosimas again asked, "What food do you find here, Mother?"
And she said, "I had with me two and a half loaves of bread when I crossed the Jordan. Soon they dried out and hardened Eating a little at a time, I finished them after a few years."

Again Abba Zosimas asked, "Is it possible you have survived for so many years without sickness, and without suffering in any way from such a complete change?"
"Believe me, Abba Zosimas," the woman said, "I spent seventeen years in this wilderness (after she had spent seventeen years in immorality), fighting wild beasts: mad desires and passions. When I began to eat bread, I thought of the meat and fish which I had in abundance in Egypt. I also missed the wine that I loved so much when I was in the world, while here I did not even have water. I suffered from thirst and hunger. I also had a mad desire for lewd songs. I seemed to hear them, disturbing my heart and my hearing. Weeping and striking myself on the breast, I remembered the vow I had made. At last I beheld a radiant Light shining on me from everywhere. After a violent tempest, a lasting calm ensued.

"Abba, how shall I tell you of the thoughts that urged me on to fornication? A fire seemed to burn within me, awakening in me the desire for embraces. Then I would throw myself to the ground and water it with my tears. I seemed to see the Most Holy Virgin before me, and She seemed to threaten me for not keeping my vow. I lay face downward day and night upon the ground, and would not get up until that blessed Light encircled me, dispelling the evil thoughts that troubled me.

"Thus I lived in this wilderness for the first seventeen years. Darkness after darkness, misery after misery stood about me, a sinner. But from that time until now the Mother of God helps me in everything."
Abba Zosimas again inquired, "How is it that you require neither food, nor clothing?"
She answered, "After finishing my bread, I lived on herbs and the things one finds in the desert. The clothes I had when I crossed over the Jordan became torn and fell apart. I suffered both from the summer heat, when the blazing heat fell upon me, and from the winter cold, when I shivered from the frost. Many times I fell down upon the earth, as though dead. I struggled with various afflictions and temptations. But from that time until the present day, the power of God has guarded my sinful soul and humble body. I was fed and clothed by the all-powerful word of God, since man does not live by bread alone, but by every word proceeding from the mouth of God (Dt 8:3, Mt.4:4, Luke 4:4), and those who have put off the old man (Col 3:9) have no refuge, hiding themselves in the clefts of the rocks (Job 24:8, Heb 11:38). When I remember from what evil and from what sins the Lord delivered me, I have imperishible food for salvation."

When Abba Zosimas heard that the holy ascetic quoted the Holy Scripture from memory, from the Books of Moses and Job and from the Psalms of David, he then asked the woman, "Mother, have you read the Psalms and other books?"

She smiled at hearing this question, and answered, "Believe me, I have seen no human face but yours from the time that I crossed over the Jordan. I never learned from books. I have never heard anyone read or sing from them. Perhaps the Word of God, which is alive and acting, teaches man knowledge by itself (Col 3:16, 1 Thess 2:13). This is the end of my story. As I asked when I began, I beg you for the sake of the Incarnate Word of God, holy Abba, pray for me, a sinner.

"Furthermore, I beg you, for the sake of Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior, tell no one what you have heard from me, until God takes me from this earth. Next year, during Great Lent, do not cross the Jordan, as is the custom of your monastery."

Again Abba Zosimas was amazed, that the practice of his monastery was known to the holy woman ascetic, although he had not said anything to her about this.

"Remain at the monastery," the woman continued. "Even if you try to leave the monastery, you will not be able to do so. On Great and Holy Thursday, the day of the Lord's Last Supper, place the Life-Creating Body and Blood of Christ our God in a holy vessel, and bring it to me. Await me on this side of the Jordan, at the edge of the desert, so that I may receive the Holy Mysteries. And say to Abba John, the igumen of your community, 'Look to yourself and your brothers (1 Tim 4:16), for there is much that needs correction. Do not say this to him now, but when the Lord shall indicate."

Asking for his prayers, the woman turned and vanished into the depths of the desert.

For a whole year Elder Zosimas remained silent, not daring to reveal to anyone what he had seen, and he prayed that the Lord would grant him to see the holy ascetic once more.

When the first week of Great Lent came again, St Zosimas was obliged to remain at the monastery because of sickness. Then he remembered the woman's prophetic words that he would not be able to leave the monastery. After several days went by, St Zosimas was healed of his infirmity, but he remained at the monastery until Holy Week.

On Holy Thursday, Abba Zosimas did what he had been ordered to do. He placed some of the Body and Blood of Christ into a chalice, and some food in a small basket. Then he left the monastery and went to the Jordan and waited for the ascetic. The saint seemed tardy, and Abba Zosimas prayed that God would permit him to see the holy woman.

Finally, he saw her standing on the far side of the river. Rejoicing, St Zosimas got up and glorified God. Then he wondered how she could cross the Jordan without a boat. She made the Sign of the Cross over the water, then she walked on the water and crossed the Jordan. Abba Zosimas saw her in the moonlight, walking toward him. When the Elder wanted to make prostration before her, she forbade him, crying out, "What are you doing, Abba? You are a priest and you carry the Holy Mysteries of God."

Reaching the shore, she said to Abba Zosimas, "Bless me, Father." He answered her with trembling, astonished at what he had seen. "Truly God did not lie when he promised that those who purify themselves will be like Him. Glory to You, O Christ our God, for showing me through your holy servant, how far I am from perfection."

The woman asked him to recite both the Creed and the "Our Father." When the prayers were finished, she partook of the Holy Mysteries of Christ. Then she raised her hands to the heavens and said, "Lord, now let Your servant depart in peace, for my eyes have seen Your salvation."

The saint turned to the Elder and said, "Please, Abba, fulfill another request. Go now to your monastery, and in a year's time come to the place where we first time spoke."

He said, "If only it were possible for me to follow you and always see your holy face!"

She replied, "For the Lord's sake, pray for me and remember my wrechedness."

Again she made the Sign of the Cross over the Jordan, and walked over the water as before, and disappeared into the desert. Zosimas returned to the monastery with joy and terror, reproaching himself because he had not asked the saint's name. He hoped to do so the following year.

A year passed, and Abba Zosimas went into the desert. He reached the place where he first saw the holy woman ascetic. She lay dead, with arms folded on her bosom, and her face was turned to the east. Abba Zosimas washed her feet with his tears and kissed them, not daring to touch anything else. For a long while he wept over her and sang the customary Psalms, and said the funeral prayers. He began to wonder whether the saint would want him to bury her or not. Hardly had he thought this, when he saw something written on the ground near her head: "Abba Zosimas, bury on this spot the body of humble Mary. Return to dust what is dust. Pray to the Lord for me. I reposed on the first day of April, on the very night of the saving Passion of Christ, after partaking of the Mystical Supper."

Reading this note, Abba Zosimas was glad to learn her name. He then realized that St Mary, after receiving the Holy Mysteries from his hand, was transported instantaneously to the place where she died, though it had taken him twenty days to travel that distance.

Glorifying God, Abba Zosimas said to himself, "It is time to do what she asks. But how can I dig a grave, with nothing in my hands?" Then he saw a small piece of wood left by some traveler. He picked it up and began to dig. The ground was hard and dry, and he could not dig it. Looking up, Abba Zosimas saw an enormous lion standing by the saint's body and licking her feet. Fear gripped the Elder, but he guarded himself with the Sign of the Cross, believing that he would remain unharmed through the prayers of the holy woman ascetic. Then the lion came close to the Elder, showing its friendliness with every movement. Abba Zosimas commanded the lion to dig the grave, in order to bury St Mary's body. At his words, the lion dug a hole deep enough to bury the body. Then each went his own way. The lion went into the desert, and Abba Zosimas returned to the monastery, blessing and praising Christ our God.

Arriving at the monastery, Abba Zosimas related to the monks and the igumen, what he had seen and heard from St Mary. All were astonished, hearing about the miracles of God. They always remembered St Mary with faith and love on the day of her repose.

Abba John, the igumen of the monastery, heeded the words of St Mary, and with the help of God corrected the things that were wrong at the monastery. Abba Zosimas lived a God-pleasing life at the monastery, reaching nearly a hundred years of age. There he finished his temporal life, and passed into life eternal.

The monks passed on the life of St Mary of Egypt by word of mouth without writing it down.

"I however," says St Sophronius of Jerusalem (March 11), "wrote down the Life of St Mary of Egypt as I heard it from the holy Fathers. I have recorded everything, putting the truth above all else."

"May God, Who works great miracles and bestows gifts on all who turn to Him in faith, reward those who hear or read this account, and those who copy it. May he grant them a blessed portion together with St Mary of Egypt and with all the saints who have pleased God by their pious thoughts and works. Let us give glory to God, the Eternal King, that we may find mercy on the Day of Judgment through our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom is due all glory, honor, majesty and worship together with the Unoriginate Father, and the Most Holy and Life-Creating Spirit, now and ever and unto ages of ages. Amen."
394 March 27 St. John of Egypt  famous early desert hermit noted prophet of his era miracles of healing, gift of prophecy ability to read souls  great sanctity second only to Saint Antony.  SEE ALSO HERE JOHN OF EGYPT March 27
 In Ægypto sancti Joánnis Eremítæ, magnæ sanctitátis viri, qui, inter cétera virtútum insígnia, étiam prophético spíritu plenus, Theodósio Imperatóri victórias de tyránnis Máximo et Eugénio prædíxit.
       In Egypt, the hermit St. John, a man of great sanctity, who, among other virtues, was filled with the spirit of prophecy, and predicted to Emperor Theodosius his victories over the tyrants Maximus and Eugene.
He was born in Lycopolis, modern Assiut, Egypt, and became a hermit at the age of twenty. He was walled up in a hermitage near Assiut, with a single window opening onto the public. There he preached to vast crowds each weekend. He predicted two military victories for Emperor Theodosius I, and they were proven accurate in 388 and 392. The cell in which John spent his life was discovered in 1925.

John of Egypt (RM) (also known as John of Lycopolis) Born at Asyut (Assiut or Lycopolis), Egypt, c. 304; died near there in 394 or 395; feast is October 17 in the Coptic Church. John was a carpenter (or shoemaker) at Asyut who at 25 became a hermit on a neighboring mountain for the next 40 years.
To test his humility and obedience the ancient anchorite who resided there made John perform seemingly ridiculous acts, such as water a dry stick for a whole year, all of which he executed with the utmost fidelity. He seems to have lived with the old hermit for the 12 years until the holy man's death, then spent four years in various monasteries.
When he was about 40, John walled himself into a cell on the top of a rock near Asyut, where he never ate until after sunset, and then very sparingly. Weekdays he spent his time in prayer. On Saturdays and Sundays, he spoke through the little window in his cell to the many men who came to him for instruction and spiritual advice. He allowed a type of hospital to be built near his cell, where some of his disciples took care of his visitors. These men were drawn by his reputation for miracles of healing, gift of prophecy, and ability to read souls.

Saint John's gift for foretelling the future was such that he was given the surname `Prophet of the Thebaid.' When Emperor Theodosius the Elder was attacked by the tyrant Maximus, who had killed Emperor Gratian in 383 and dethroned Valentinian in 387, he consulted John about the proposed war against Maximus. John foretold that Theodosius would be victorious, almost without blood. The emperor, full of confidence, marched into the West, defeated the more numerous armies of Maximus twice in Pannonia; crossed the Alps, took the tyrant in Aquileia. He returned triumphant to Constantinople, and attributed his victories to the prayers of Saint John, who also foretold him the events of his other wars, the incursions of barbarians, and all that was to befall his empire.

In 392, Eugenius, by the assistance of Arbogastes, who had murdered the emperor Valentinian the Younger, usurped the empire of the West. Theodosius instructed Eutropins the Eunuch to try to bring John to Constantinople; if he would not come, Eutropins was to consult with the saint whether it was God's will that he should march against Eugenius, or wait his arrival in the East. John would not leave his cell but predicted the emperor's success, but this time many lives would be lost and Theodosius would die in Italy. Theodosius marched against Eugenius, and lost 10,000 men in the first engagement. He was almost defeated: but renewing the battle on the next day, September 6, 394, he was entirely victorious by the miraculous interposition of heaven, as even the heathen poet Claudian acknowledges. Theodosius died in the West, January 17, 395, leaving his two sons emperors (Arcadius in the East, and Honorius in the West).

Among Saint John's reported miracles was the restoration of sight to the wife of a senator through the vehicle of oil he blessed. It had to be through such a medium with women, for he refused to speak with any woman. One interesting incident is related by Evagrius, Palladius, and Augustine in his treatise of On the Care for the Dead. One of the emperor's officers begged John to allow his wife to speak to him. She had made the difficult and dangerous journey to Lycopolis for that purpose. The holy man answered, that during his stricter enclosure for the last forty years, he had imposed on himself an inviolable rule not to see or converse with women; so he desired to be excused the granting her request. The officer returned to his virtuous, but disappointed, wife, who begged her husband to try again.

Returning to John, the husband said that his wife would die of grief if he refused her request. The saint said to him: "Go to your wife, and tell her that she shall see me tonight, without coming hither or stirring out of her house." When she was asleep that night, the man of God appeared to her in her dream, and said: "Your great faith, woman, obliged me to come to visit you; but I must admonish you to curb the like desires of seeing God's servants on earth. Contemplate only their life, and imitate their actions. As for me, why did you desire to see me? Am I a saint or a prophet like God's true servants? I am a sinful and weak man. It is, therefore, only in virtue of your faith that I have had recourse to our Lord who grants you the cure of the corporal diseases with which you are afflicted. Live always in the fear of God, and never forget his benefits." He added several proper instructions for her conduct, and disappeared.

Upon awakening the woman described to her husband the person she had seen in her dream and he confirmed that it was John. Whereupon he returned the next day to thank him. But when he arrived, the saint would not permit it. The officer received his benediction, and continued his journey to Seyne.

In 394, Palladius, who later became bishop of Helenopolis and one of the authors of John's vita, visited the saint in July. When he arrived, he found that he would have to wait until Saturday to speak with John. He returned that day in the early morning, saw the saint sitting at his window talking with others. Through an interpreter, introductions were made and Palladius was identified as a member of Evagrius's community.

Their conversation was interrupted by the hasty arrival of Alypius, governor of the province, in great haste. John asked Palladius to step aside for the governor with whom the saint engaged in a long discussion while an increasingly impatient Palladius had to wait. The weary man began to complain internally that the saint was showing preference to rank. He was about to leave when John sent his interpreter to stop him saying, "Go, bid that brother not to be impatient: I am going to dismiss the governor, and then will speak to him."

Palladius, astonished that his thoughts should be known to him, waited patiently. When Alypius had left, John called Palladius, and asked: "Why were you angry, unjustly imputing guilt to me in your mind? To you I can speak at any other time, and you have many fathers and brethren to comfort and direct you in the paths of salvation. But this governor, being involved in the hurry of temporal affairs, and having come to receive some wholesome advice during the short time his affairs will allow him time to breathe in, how could I give you the preference?"

He then told Palladius what passed in his heart: his secret temptations to quit his solitude. He told Palladius that it was the devil who tempted him with images of his father's loneliness at his absence, and that he might induce his brother and sister to embrace a solitary life. The holy man told him to ignore such suggestions, because his siblings had already renounced the world, and his father would live seven more years. He foretold him that he should meet with great persecutions and sufferings, and should be a bishop, but with many afflictions: all which came to pass, though at that time extremely improbable. The text of Palladius's account of their meeting still exists.

That same year John was visited by Saint Petronius with six other monks. The hermit asked if any of them was in holy orders and they answered, "no." In fact, Petronius was a deacon but had not disclosed this to his fellow travellers out of a false sense of humility because he was the youngest in the company. When John pointed to Petronius and said, "This man is a deacon," Petronius denied it. John took the younger man's hand and kissed it, while saying: "My son, take care never to deny the grace you have received from God, lest humility betray you into a lie. We must never lie, under any presence of good whatever, because no untruth can be from God."

When one of the company begged for a cure, Saint John answered replied that such diseases are beneficial to the soul.
Nevertheless, he blessed some oil and gave it to the monk, who vomited and was from that moment perfectly cured.


When they next visited him, John bore a joyful countenance-- evidence of the joy of his soul. They talked about their journey from Jerusalem, then he provided the monks with a long discourse about banishing pride and vanity from their hearts in order to attain all other virtues. He provided examples of many monks, who, by secretly harboring vanity, fell also into scandalous irregularities, including one who, after living a most holy and austere life, fell into fornication because of his vanity and then, through despair, into all manner of disorders. He told of another who left his solitude to seek fame, but through a sermon he preached in a monastery along the way, was mercifully converted and became an eminent penitent.

After entertaining Saint Petronius and his fellows for three days, Saint John gave them his blessing. As they were preparing to leave, he said, "Go in peace, my children. Today Alexandria receives news of Prince Theodosius's victory over the tyrant Eugenius, but this excellent emperor will soon end his life by a natural death."

A few days later, the monks learned that Saint John had died. He had foreseen his own death and refused to see anyone during the last three days. Instead, Saint John spent his time in prayer and expired on his knees. Saint John's reputation for holiness is said to have been second only to that of Saint Antony. He was much admired by his contemporaries SS. Jerome, Augustine, and John Cassian, who attributes the extraordinary gifts John received from God to the saint's humility and ready obedience (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Gill, Husenbeth).

Saint John the Clairvoyant of Egypt was born at the beginning of the fourth century. He lived in the city of Likopolis (Middle Egypt) and was a carpenter. At the age of twenty-five he went to a monastery, where he received monastic tonsure.

For five years St John lived in various monasteries, and then wanting complete solitude, he went to the Thebaid and lived on Mount Bolcha. St John then spent many years in solitude, never leaving the spot. He conversed with visitors through a small window, through which he also received food and other necessities.

After thirty years of seclusion,St John received the gift of clairvoyance from God. He predicted to the emperor Theodosius the Great (379-395) victory over his adversaries Maximus and Eugenius, and a military victory over the Gauls. He also foretold future events in the lives of his visitors, and gave them guidance.
The ascetic gave holy oil to the sick who visited him, and anointed them with it, healing them of various maladies.

St John predicted that the historian Palladius, who wrote his Life, would become a bishop. The prediction of the seer was fulfilled, and Palladius was made Bishop of Bithynia (Asia Minor).

St John in his instructions commanded first of all to have humility: "Imitate the virtuous life of the holy Fathers according to the measure of your strength and if you fulfill everything, do not become overconfident or praise yourself. For there are many people who reached perfection in virtue and became puffed up with pride, plunging from the heights into the abyss.

"Examine yourselves carefully to see if your conscience is pure, so that purity may not be driven from your mind. Do not allow your thoughts to wander during prayer. Do you, out of vanity, wish to gain a reputation for asceticism? Or do you wish to have only the appearance of asceticism? Take heed lest any passion overcome you. Take heed that thoughts of worldly things do not enter your mind during prayer, since there is nothing more foolish than to pray to God with your lips, while your thoughts are far from Him. This often happens with those who do not absolutely renounce the world, but rather seek approval from men. A man whose mind is given over to worldly and perishable things, cannot behold God with his spiritual eyes. It is fitting that one who seeks after God will remove his mind from every earthly thing, and direct the gaze of his understanding towards God. He who has attained a little knowledge of God (for no one can receive the whole of it), is able to acquire knowledge of many things, and will see the mysteries which the knowledge of God will show him. He sees future events before they happen, and like a saint he will receive glorious revelations. He will work miracles, and will receive everything that he asks from God."
"Love silence, child, live always in divine contemplation and pray that God will grant you a pure mind, free from sinful thoughts. Worthy of praise is the ascetic who lives in the world, practices the virtues, renders kindness to strangers or distributes alms, or who helps others in their work, or lives without anger. Such a man is praiseworthy, since he dwells in virtue, fulfilling the commands of God, while not neglecting earthly affairs."
"He who leaves the transitory things of this world to others is better and more worthy of praise, for he denies himself, takes up his cross, and cleaves to Christ. He constantly embraces the things of heaven, and escapes earthly things. He will not allow himself to be turned aside by any other cares. Such a man, through his good deeds and the praises which he offers to God, is free and unfettered by any ties whatsoever. He stands before God in security, and his mind is not distracted by any other cares. He who is in this condition continually converses with God."
St John brought much spiritual benefit to people with these and similar salvific teachings, through his instructive discourses, and by his personal example in the angelic life.
St John of Egypt survived into old age and fell asleep in the Lord in 395, at the age of ninety.
395 Saint Macarius of Alexandria great ascetic and monastic head, and he worked many miracles.
a contemporary and friend of St Macarius of Egypt (January 19). He was born in the year 295, and until the age of forty he was occupied in trade. Later, he was baptized and withdrew into the desert, where he spent more than sixty years.

After several years of ascetic life he was ordained to the holy priesthood and made head of the monastery the Cells in the desert between Nitria and Skete, where hermits silently lived in asceticism, each separately in his own cell. There were three deserts in northern Egypt: the first was the Cells (the inner desert), so designated because of the many cells carved into the rocks. The second was called Skete (utter desert). The third was the Nitrian desert which reached the western bank of the Nile.

St Macarius of Alexandria, like Macarius of Egypt, was a great ascetic and monastic head, and he worked many miracles. Learning about some monk's ascetic feat, he attempted to imitate it. Thus, when he heard that someone ate only one pound of bread a day, he would eat only that much or even less. Wishing to shorten his sleep, he stayed for twenty whole days under the open sky, enduring heat by day and cold by night.

St Macarius once received a bunch of newly-picked grapes. He very much wanted to eat them, but he conquered this desire in himself and gave the grapes to another monk who was sick. That monk, wanting to preserve his abstinence, gave the grapes to another, and he gave them to a third and so forth. In the end the bunch of grapes returned to St Macarius. The ascetic was astonished at the abstinence of his disciples and gave thanks to God.

Once, a proud thought came to the saint to go to Rome and heal the sick. Struggling with the temptation, the saint filled up a sack of sand, loaded it on himself and walked into the desert until he exhausted his body. Then the proud thought did not leave him.

By his ascetic life, fasting, and renunciation of earthly things, St Macarius acquired the gifts of wonderworking and of discerning the inner thoughts of people, and he also saw many visions. He once saw how one of the ascetics of the holy monastery, St Mark, received the Holy Mysteries from the hands of angels, and how during Communion the careless brethren received burning coals from the demons instead of the Body of Christ.

St Macarius was glorified by many miracles of healing the sick and casting out devils. St Macarius of Alexandria died in about 394-395 at age of one hundred. He wrote a Discourse on the Origin of the Soul included in the text of the Annotated Psalter.

395 January 25 St. Apollo Egyptian hermit founder miracle worker.
Apollo was born in Egypt and spent forty years in the desert region around Thebes. He then founded a community of monks in Hermopol, Egypt, ultimately numbering five hundred, and became their abbot. Apollo was eighty years old when he made this foundation. He was noted for his miracles
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397 St. Ambrose  sent to Milan as Roman governor chosen bishop while a catechumen Granted a gift of wonderworking, he healed many from sickness.
One of Ambrose’s biographers observed that at the Last Judgment people would still be divided between those who admired Ambrose and those who heartily disliked him. He emerges as the man of action who cut a furrow through the lives of his contemporaries. Even royal personages were numbered among those who were to suffer crushing divine punishments for standing in Ambrose’s way.  When the Empress Justina attempted to wrest two basilicas from Ambrose’s Catholics and give them to the Arians, he dared the eunuchs of the court to execute him. His own people rallied behind him in the face of imperial troops. In the midst of riots he both spurred and calmed his people with bewitching new hymns set to exciting Eastern melodies.

In his disputes with the Emperor Auxentius, he coined the principle: “The emperor is in the Church, not above the Church.” He publicly admonished Emperor Theodosius for the massacre of 7,000 innocent people. The emperor did public penance for his crime. This was Ambrose, the fighter, sent to Milan as Roman governor and chosen while yet a catechumen to be the people’s bishop.

There is yet another side of Ambrose—one which influenced Augustine, whom Ambrose converted. Ambrose was a passionate little man with a high forehead, a long melancholy face and great eyes. We can picture him as a frail figure clasping the codex of sacred Scripture. This was the Ambrose of aristocratic heritage and learning.

Augustine found the oratory of Ambrose less soothing and entertaining but far more learned than that of other contemporaries. Ambrose’s sermons were often modeled on Cicero and his ideas betrayed the influence of contemporary thinkers and philosophers. He had no scruples in borrowing at length from pagan authors. He gloried in the pulpit in his ability to parade his spoils—“gold of the Egyptians”—taken over from the pagan philosophers.

His sermons, his writings and his personal life reveal him as an otherworldly man involved in the great issues of his day. Humanity, for Ambrose, was, above all, spirit. In order to think rightly of God and the human soul, the closest thing to God, no material reality at all was to be dwelt upon. He was an enthusiastic champion of consecrated virginity.

The influence of Ambrose on Augustine will always be open for discussion. The Confessions reveal some manly, brusque encounters between Ambrose and Augustine, but there can be no doubt of Augustine’s profound esteem for the learned bishop.

Neither is there any doubt that Monica loved Ambrose as an angel of God who uprooted her son from his former ways and led him to his convictions about Christ. It was Ambrose, after all, who placed his hands on the shoulders of the naked Augustine as he descended into the baptismal fountain to put on Christ.

Comment:  Ambrose exemplifies for us the truly catholic character of Christianity. He is a man steeped in the learning, law and culture of the ancients and of his contemporaries. Yet, in the midst of active involvement in this world, this thought runs through Ambrose’s life and preaching: The hidden meaning of the Scriptures calls our spirit to rise to another world.

Quote:  “Women and men are not mistaken when they regard themselves as superior to mere bodily creatures and as more than mere particles of nature or nameless units in modern society. For by their power to know themselves in the depths of their being they rise above the entire universe of mere objects.... Endowed with wisdom, women and men are led through visible realities to those which are invisible” (Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, 14–15, Austin Flannery translation).

Saint Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, was born in the year 340 into the family of the Roman prefect of Gaul (now France). Even in the saint's childhood there appeared presentiments of his great future. Once, bees covered the face of the sleeping infant. They flew in and out of his mouth, leaving honey on his tongue. Soon they flew away so high that they could no longer be seen. Ambrose's father said that the child would become something great when he reached manhood.

After the death of the father of the family, Ambrose journeyed to Rome, where the future saint and his brother Satyrius received an excellent education. About the year 370, upon completion of his course of study, Ambrose was appointed to the position of governor (consular prefect) of the districts of Liguria and Aemilia, though he continued to live at Mediolanum (now Milan).

In the year 374 Auxentius, the Arian Bishop of Mediolanum, died. This led to complications between the Orthodox and the Arians, since each side wanted to have its own bishop. Ambrose, as the chief city official, went to the church to resolve the dispute.

While he was speaking to the crowd, suddenly a child cried out,"Ambrose for bishop!" The people took up this chant. Ambrose, who at this time was still a catechumen, considered himself unworthy, and tried to refuse. He disparaged himself, and even tried to flee from Mediolanum. The matter went ultimately before the emperor Valentinian the Elder (364-375), whose orders Ambrose dared not disobey. He accepted holy Baptism from an Orthodox priest and, passing through all the ranks of the Church clergy in just seven days, on December 7, 374 he was consecrated Bishop of Mediolanum. He dispersed all his possessions, money and property for the adornment of churches, the upkeep of orphans and the poor, and he devoted himself to a strict ascetic life.

Ambrose combined strict temperance, intense vigilance and work within the fulfilling of his duties as archpastor. St Ambrose, defending the unity of the Church, energetically opposed the spread of heresy. Thus, in the year 379 he traveled off to establish an Orthodox bishop at Sirmium, and in 385-386 he refused to hand over the basilica of Mediolanum to the Arians.

The preaching of St Ambrose in defense of Orthodoxy was deeply influential. Another noted Father of the Western Church, St Augustine (June 15), bore witness to this, having accepted holy Baptism in the year 387 by the grace of the preaching of the bishop of Mediolanum.

St Ambrose also actively participated in civil matters. Thus, the emperor Gracian (375-383), having received from him the "Exposition of the Orthodox Faith" (De Fide), removed, by decree of the saint, the altar of Victory from the halls of the Senate at Rome, on which oaths were wont to be taken. Displaying a pastoral boldness, St Ambrose placed a severe penance on the emperor Theodosius I (379-395) for the massacre of innocent inhabitants of Thessalonica. For him there was no difference between emperor and commoner. Though he released Theodosius from the penance, the saint would not permit the emperor to commune at the altar, but compelled him to do public penance.

The fame of Bishop Ambrose and his actions attracted to him many followers from other lands. From faraway Persia learned men came to him to ask him questions and absorb his wisdom. Fritigelda (Frigitil), queen of the military Germanic tribe of the Markomanni, which often had attacked Mediolanum, asked the saint to instruct her in the Christian Faith. The saint in his letter to her persuasively stated the dogmas of the Church. And having become a believer, the queen converted her own husband to Christianity and persuaded him to conclude a treaty of peace with the Roman Empire.

The saint combined strictness with an uncommon kindliness. Granted a gift of wonderworking, he healed many from sickness. One time at Florence, while staying at the house of Decentus, he resurrected a dead boy.

The repose of St Ambrose, who departed to the Lord on the night of Holy Pascha, was accompanied by many miracles. He even appeared in a vision to the children being baptized that night. The saint was buried in the Ambrosian basilica in Mediolanum, beneath the altar, between the Martyrs Protasius and Gervasius (October 14).

A zealous preacher and valiant defender of the Christian Faith, St Ambrose received particular renown as a Church writer. In dogmatic compositions he set forth the Orthodox teaching about the Holy Trinity, the Sacraments, and Repentance: "Five Books on the Faith" (De Fide); "Explication of the Symbol of the Faith" (Explanatio Symboli); "On the Incarnation" (De Incarnationis); "Three Books on the Holy Spirit" (De Spiritu Sancto); "On the Sacraments" (De Sacramento); "Two Books on Repentance" (De Paenitentia). In writings about Christian morality, he explained the excellence of Christian moral teaching compared to pagan moral teaching.
A well-known work of St Ambrose, "On the Duties of the Clergy" (De Officiis Ministrorum) evidences his deep awareness of pastoral duty. He stresses that those who serve in the Church should have not only the proper knowledge of Church services, but also the proper knowledge of moral precepts.
St Ambrose was also a reformer of Church singing. He introduced antiphonal singing (along the Eastern or Syrian form) into the Western Church, which became known as "Ambrosian Chant." He also composed twelve hymns which were used during his lifetime. The hymn, "Thee, O God, we praise" (Te Deum), attributed to St Ambrose, entered into the divine services of the Orthodox Church (Molieben).

Ambrose of Milan B Doctor (RM) Born in Trier, Germany, c. 340; died in Milan 397.
To me St. Ambrose is a fascinating character. He seems to be a magnet drawing all the saints of his time to himself. He must have been quite a character: holy, erudite, and humorous. I've read so much about him over the years in the lives of other saints that I could write his biography from memory. But I'll let others do the talking.

St. Ambrose was largely responsible for the rise of Christianity in the West as the Roman Empire declined, and he was a courageous and untiring defender of the independence of the Church from the state.
The Times
A major influence during this period was the gradual infiltration of barbarians into the Roman Empire, culminating in definite attacks upon the heart of the empire and a gradual amalgamation of the Teutonic invaders with the Greco-Roman population. The governance of the empire had moved from Rome to Constantinople, named after the first Christian emperor. Rome still had some prestige as the regional center of government, but even the Western emperor normally had his abode in Milan or Ravenna.

The power of the Church was not yet consolidated. Recognition by Constantine in the Edict of Milan meant the end of systematic persecutions of Christians (except for sporadic local outbreaks), but paganism was still alive, even in the Imperial Court under Julian the Apostate. Nevertheless, there were locations within the empire where Christians were in the majority but they were divided among themselves--not just the rivalry of East versus West, but the orthodox versus the heterodox. Arianism was still strong and other heresies continued to arise. The situation was even more difficult because the Goths were evangelized primarily by the Arians.

The increasing worldliness incorporated into the hierarchy of the Church and into the more elaborate liturgies, sparked a new form of asceticism--monasticism--which was just beginning to take hold in the Western Church.
Early Life of Ambrose
This is the world into which St. Ambrose was born in Trier (Treves) about 339-40, not long after the first ecumenical council of Nicaea in 325. His father Ambrose, a civil servant, was the praetorian prefect (governor) of Gaul. His command included Spain, the Netherlands, and Britain. Ambrose had one brother, Satyrus, and a sister, Marcellina, who became a nun in 353, though she continued to live as a religious at home (there were few regular convents).
Ambrose was not baptized as a child because Christians still regarded any sin after baptism with such horror that the sacrament was postponed as long as possible. There was, however, a service of exhortation and benediction in which salt and the Sign of the Cross were employed in order to claim the child for God, and to withdraw him from the dominance of the powers of evil.
All we have of Ambrose's childhood is a legendary tale that a swarm of bees settled on his mouth as a prophecy that he would be gifted with eloquence. Upon the death of his father while Ambrose was still young, the family moved back to Rome. The brothers were tutored by a Roman priest named Simplician, whom the boys loved (he later succeeded Ambrose as bishop of Milan). Their education ended in the study of law.
Early Career
The two brothers began practicing law in the court of the prefect of Italy. Their oratory and learning seem to have attracted the notice of Ancius Probus, the prefect of Italy. Ambrose was particularly marked for the fast-track. When Ambrose was little more than 30 (c. 372), Emperor Valentinian appointed him 'consular' or governor of Aemilia and Liguria, whose capital was Milan, the administrative center of the imperial government in the West since the beginning of the 4th century. He filled this position with great ability and justice.
Election as Bishop
The Arian Bishop Auxentius of Milan, who banned Catholic congregations from worshipping in the diocese's churches, died in 374, and the Arians and Catholics fought over the vacant position which exercised a metropolitan's jurisdiction over the whole of northern Italy. Ambrose had only been in Milan for three years at the time of the bishop's death and he expected that there might be trouble over the selection of his successor.

So, Ambrose, who was a Catholic in name but still a catechumen, went to the cathedral to try to calm the rival parties. During his speech exhorting the people to concord and tranquility, a child is said to have cried, "Ambrose for bishop!" The cry was taken up by both sides, neither of which was anxious to decide the issue between them. The local bishops had asked Emperor Valentinian to make the appointment but he turned the dubious honor back to the bishops. Now the matter was out of their hands. Ambrose was unanimously elected bishop by all parties.

The election of Ambrose, the one in charge of the local police, heightens our awareness of a truism: all clergy are recruited from the laity. It is better to choose an irreproachable person esteemed by all, than a savant who sows discord. The choice of Ambrose was a bold one, but it surprises no one but us.

Our attitudes towards vocations seems different than that in the early church. We today see a vocation as the story of a soul-- discernment of the vocation privately, preparation in a seminary, and gradual growth into the clerical role. For the early Church it was above all the call of God expressed by the Church. To our taste, the secret history of Ambrose's soul did not count enough. But we forget that it is the Holy Spirit through the Church that calls.

What did Ambrose think of this call? At first he protested (just like the prophets) saying he was not even baptized, and fled rather than yield to the tumult. St. Paulinus of Nola wrote of the incident:

"Ambrose left the church and had his tribunal prepared... Contrary to his custom, he ordered people submitted to torture. When this was done the people did not acclaim him any the less [saying]: 'May his sin fall on us!' The people of Milan, knowing that Ambrose had not been baptized, sincerely promised him a remission of all his sins by the grace of baptism.

"Troubled, Ambrose returned to his house. . . . Openly he had prostitutes come in for the sole purpose, of course, that once the people saw that, they would go back on their decision. But the crowd only cried all the louder: 'May your sin fall on us'" (Paulinus, Life of Ambrose, 7).

The people, however, continually pursued him and insisted that he take the see. The emperor confirmed the nomination and Ambrose capitulated. Beginning on November 24, 373, Ambrose was taken through baptism and the various orders to be consecrated as bishop on December 1 or 7--one or two weeks later. (Talk about fast track!) (The dates vary somewhat depending on the source.)
As Bishop
Quite consciously Ambrose set out to be an exemplary bishop, in spite of the daunting divisions within his see, his own delicate constitution, and lack of preparation. He was a slight figure with a beard and moustache, but with the natural grace of one who had been born in a palace and who could handle authority. (An early 5th century portrait in a church he founded shows him as a short man with a long face, long nose, high forehead, brown hair, thick lips, and a left eyebrow higher than his right.) His natural dignity was soon ignited by enthusiasm to correct wrongs (such as high taxation, corrupt officials, venality in the law courts, and Arians in the imperial court).

On his election he dedicated himself to an austere life and the in- depth study of the Church Fathers and Scriptures under the direction of his former tutor Father Simplician--essentially doing his seminary work after his consecration.

Following his election his life was one of poverty and humility. He gave away all his acquired property. His inherited possessions he gave into the charge of his brother Satyrus, who had resigned his own governorship. Ambrose was a man of charity. He even sold church property in order to buy back captives taken in wars. He distinguished himself in defense of the oppressed, and there is a strikingly modern note in his objection to capital punishment.

This left Ambrose free to follow the life he considered appropriate to the clergy: prayer seven times daily, regular fasts (although the Church of Milan followed the Eastern rule with regard to Saturday and did not, as the Romans did, keep it as a fast), and no food until dinner. He gave daily audiences to any who wished to consult him, then occupied himself with reading and writing. His favorite writers were Philo, Origen, and Basil. He was a Greek scholar and read most of the Greek Fathers (but seems unfamiliar with the Latin Fathers such as Tertullian and Justin Martyr). He also read heretical works in order to refute them.

We think of a bishop in terms of ceremony, administration, and leadership, when it should mean pastoral vigilance, care for all, teaching of the Gospel, and performance of the liturgy. As bishop, Ambrose felt he was primarily responsible for the instruction of catechumens, and would himself hear confessions before he actually administered Baptism. Whenever Ambrose baptized new Christians, Ambrose always washed their feet, even though he knew this was not the usual Roman custom.

As a metropolitan, Ambrose had to occasionally summon councils to deal with appeals from the various dioceses and set the date for the observance of Easter. He also had to preside at the election and consecration of bishops.

Episcopal duties at this time are well summed up by Chateaubriand, "There could be nothing more complete or better filled than a life of the prelates of the fourth and fifth centuries. A bishop baptized, absolved, preached, arranged private and public penances, hurled anathemas or raised excommunications, visited the sick, attended the dying, buried the dead, redeemed captives, nourished the poor, widows, and orphans, founded almshouses and hospitals, ministered to the needs of his clergy, pronounced as a civil judge in individual cases, and acted as arbitrator in differences between cities. He published at the same time treatises on morals, on discipline, on theology. He wrote against heresiarchs and against philosophers, busied himself with science and history, directed letters to individuals who consulted him in one or other of the rival religions; corresponded with churches and bishops, monks, and hermits; sat at councils and synods; was summoned to the audience of Emperors, was charged with negotiations, and was sent as ambassador to usurpers or to Barbarian princes to disarm them or keep them within bounds. The three powers, religious, political, and philosophical were all concentrated in the bishop."

Church vs. State and Church vs. Error
Ambrose was an admired preacher and became an articulate opponent of Arianism, the view that the Word of God was a created being and, therefore, not eternal. While Arianism was almost stamped out in Italy, two problems remained: The Goths had been evangelized by the Arian bishop Ulfilas, and the Empress Justina, second wife of Valentinian I and mother of Valentinian II was an Arian.

Ambrose stood up to the Empress-Regent. He refused to give one of his churches to the Arian heretics, in spite of her telling him that he must do so (when religion was a civic duty in the Roman Empire all temples were at the disposal of the emperor). Ambrose's own description of the events are telling:

"First of all some great men, counsellors of state begged me to give up the basilica, and to manage that the people should make no disturbance. I replied, of course, that the temple of God could not be surrendered by a bishop.
"On the following day this answer was approved by the people in the church; and the Prefect was there and began to persuade us to give up at least the Portian basilica (the old one), but the people clamored against it. He then went away implying that he should report to the Emperor.
"The day after, which was Sunday, after the lesson and the sermon, when the catechumens were dismissed, I was teaching the Creed to certain candidates in the baptistery of the basilica. There it was reported to me that they had sent decani from the palace, and were putting up hangings, and that part of the people were going there. I, however, remained at my ministrations and began to celebrate Mass.
"Whilst offering the oblation, I heard that a certain Castalus, who, the Arians said, was a priest, had been seized by the people. Passers-by had come upon him in the streets. I began to weep bitterly, and to implore God in the oblation that He would come to our aid, and that no one's blood be shed in the Church's cause, or at least that it might be my blood shed for the benefit not of my people only, but also for the unbelievers themselves. Not to say more, I sent priests and deacons and rescued the man from violence."

Those who sought to wreck violence were fined by the bishop. Ambrose deprecated violence and counselled passive resistance. The faithful were advised to occupy the two churches in question. The soldiers threw a cordon around the building, so the people remained inside throughout the night. The protest worked; the court withdrew its soldiers.

The following year Ambrose was persecuted in many ways. An edict proclaimed tolerance of Arian worship. Ambrose was subpoenaed, next the Court claimed the Church's plate, then that he leave Milan; each he refused. He took refuge in the new basilica and spent the time preaching and instructing the congregation in the art of antiphonal singing, using some of his own compositions. Emperor Valerian again capitulated.

The Emperor Gratian was a Catholic and at his request Ambrose wrote De fide to counter Arian arguments. Arian immigrants seized one of the Milan churches in 378, but the next year Gratian ordered the basilica returned to Ambrose and the cessation of all heresies. De fide does not rely on rhetoric, but on the authority of scripture texts. He is aware that these may be variously interpreted, but insists that they must be read in the light of their context.

In 381 the Council of Constantinople convened to again denounce Arianism and its new manifestation--Macedonianism, which applied the Arian principle to the Holy Spirit to interpret Him as a tertiary god. Again at Gratian's insistence, Ambrose wrote a counter-argument entitled De spiritu. The book was effective but earned the severe criticism of Saint Jerome.

In 383, when Gratian was killed in battle by Maximus, Ambrose persuaded Maximus not to attempt to extend his domain into Italy against the new young emperor Valentinian II.

Ambrose was adamant that the Christian religion should be supported by the empire and worked hard to eradicate paganism. Pagan senators, led by the famous orator Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, wanted the heathen goddess of Victory honored by the return of the statue to the Senate in Rome. A debate was arranged with Ambrose on one side and Augustine, as the local teacher of rhetoric (soon to become a saint) on the other. Ambrose persuaded the Emperor Valentinian II to forbid it.

Ambrose also used his position to ensure that the vacant see of Sirmium, a former Arian stronghold, was filled by a Catholic. He thereby incurred the hatred of the Empress Justina, who was already jealous of his influence over her son.

When the conflict between Catholics and Arians deepened, Maximus invaded Italy despite Ambrose's pleas. Valentinian and Justina fled and sought the aid of Eastern Emperor Theodosius I, who defeated Maximus and had him executed in Pannonia (Hungary) and restored Valentinian to the throne; Theodosius now controlled both Eastern and Western empires.

At Milan, Theodosius convinced Valentinian to denounce Arianism and recognize Ambrose, but himself soon came into conflict with the bishop when Ambrose denounced Theodosius's order to the bishop of Kallinikum, Mesopotamia, to rebuild a Jewish synagogue destroyed by Christians. Theodosius later rescinded the order and himself paid for the reconstruction to prevent the bishop from having to support a non-Christian faith.

Ambrose was strong enough to call the greatest in Christendom to public penance. In 390 A mob at Thessaloniki (Salonica) killed the Roman governor because he had imprisoned their favorite charioteer. In reprisal Emperor Theodosius I invited the people to the circus and there butchered 7,000 of them. Ambrose wrote to the emperor urging him to submit to public penance: "The emperor belongs to the church, but is not its superior."

As a result Theodosius ordered the henceforth capital punishment should not be carried out for 30 days after the sentence had been passed to allow time for calm judgment to prevail. Theodosius did his public penance and was readmitted to communion with the Church at Christmas. This was the turning point between Theodosius and Ambrose and between the Church and the State.

Extant letters show that Ambrose never hesitated to remind the emperor that he owed allegiance to God, just as his military owed obedience to him. Thereafter, the public treasury no longer funded restoration or maintenance of pagan altars. Ambrose also threatened excommunication if the emperor failed to obey. 
Strengthened by Ambrose, in 391 emperor Theodosius forbade all public observances of paganism (which wasn't actually enforced in the West, but led to civil disturbances in the East). The next year the emperor forbade all private observances of paganism. Homes Dudden points out that the Christians endeavored to facilitate the transition by fixing, wherever possible, the dates of Christian festivals to coincide with those of the old pagan feasts.
The suppression of paganism was effected by Milan, not Rome.

In 393, Valentinian II was murdered in Gaul by Arbogastes, whose envoy, Eugenius, had attempted to restore paganism.
Ambrose denounced the murder, and the defeat and execution of Arbogastes at Aquileia by Theodosius finally ended paganism in the empire. When Theodosius died a few months after his victory, it was in the arms of Ambrose, who preached at his funeral.

Other errors arose, including that of Priscillian from Spain. Priscillian preached an extreme asceticism in reaction to the growing worldliness of the Church. Against the protests of Saints Ambrose, Martin of Tours, and Siricius, the State intervened in Church affairs and executed Priscillian and six others. Ambrose excommunicated the Emperor Maximus for his part in the execution.

An opposing heresy arose in Ambrose's own monastery, led by Jovinian, who condemned fasting, the virtues of virginity, and who denied the perpetual virginity of Mary. Jovinian was condemned and excommunicated by Pope St. Siricius in 390. (St. Jerome scurrilously refuted the heresies in Refutation of Jovinian.)

Literary Works
Above all Ambrose was a Doctor of the Church and a pastor of his people. His thinking was not original but he successfully synthesized the thoughts of others after having read extensively from the beginning of his episcopate. As a Greek scholar he interpreted Eastern theologians for the West, a work that was much needed.

He wrote extensively on the Bible, theology, and asceticism, and he wrote numerous homilies and psalms. As befitted a bishop, his teaching was more by his sermons than his writings. His discourses were very practical. His writings on doctrinal subjects include 'catechism lessons' (De mysteriis) to the newly baptized on baptism, confirmation, and the Eucharist.

His greatest claim to originality is in the field of music and poetry, not theology. Until that time the music of the Church had been in the hands of the professional chanters who would sing the Psalms in a very slightly inflected recitative, the congregation merely singing an occasional refrain. As stated previously, Ambrose taught his people the art of antiphonal chanting, thus introducing congregational singing. St. Augustine tells in his Confessions how deeply the charm of this novel method had moved him when attending services in Milan, even stirring him to tears.

Ambrose also taught his congregation to sing his original hymns. Next to Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose is the first of the great Latin hymn writers. They were set in what is now known as the Ambrosian meter. The poems were divided into four-line stanzas, each line limited to eight syllables arranged in iambic dimetre. Four extant hymns seem certain to have come from him: "Framer of the earth and sky," "Maker of all things God most high," "O come Redeemer of mankind appear," and "Now the third hour cometh."

All sources note that Ambrose is not the composer of the Te Deum, as had been thought for some time. However, there is a growing belief that he did compose the Athanasian Creed.  Among his best known works are De officiis ministrorum, a treatise on Christian ethics especially directed to the clergy; De virginibus, written for his sister St. Marcellina; and De fide, written against the Arians for Gratian.

In the realm of theology, his main contribution comes with his description of the character of the Church and the nature of the Sacraments. According to his view, man fell from grace at the Fall and the results of that Fall are communicated to each individual at his conception. The effect must be counter-balanced by grace which is communicated in the Sacraments, but can only be effected by faith. Faith itself is so effective that it can in some cases, such as those of the martyrs and confessors, even take the place of the Sacraments, and it can above all make possible a mystical union between Christ and the believer. Thus in two respects, in the emphasis on the ruin brought by sin and upon a personal union with Christ, Ambrose influenced Augustine and through him the whole future theology of the Western Church.

In his charting of individual eschatology, Ambrose opened the way for Gregory the Great. He laid great emphasis on the terror of the Last Judgement. He believed in an eternity of graduated bliss or punishment in various departments of purgatory. Although he did not claim that anything we could do for the dead would affect their future destiny, yet he held that prayers and Masses for the faithful departed might ease their situation before the final goal was reached.

Ambrose seems to have accepted the idea of a double standard: one for those seeking perfection and another for those still living in the world, i.e., extreme asceticism is not for everyone.

Personal Influence
Ambrose came to be known as the "Hammer of Arianism." Although he fought paganism, he did not refuse to dine with them. He was thought of with great affection by those who came into contact with him.

Ambrose was a close friend of St. Monica, and it was he who finally showed the still doubting St. Augustine that a person of intelligence could find the Christian faith totally satisfying when Augustine moved to Milan in 386 to fill the vacant university chair in rhetoric. Ambrose brought Augustine back to his faith and baptized him in the autumn of 387, answering a mother's many years' of prayers.
Augustine describes Ambrose a sympathetic, seductive, and enticing others to live the life of Christ.

He also welcomed Saint Paulinus of Nola and his wife Teresa, though most had spurned Paulinus because he had been ordained and consecrated while still being married-- contrary to the discipline then in force.

Ambrose died on Easter Eve--April 4, 397, after a 23-year episcopate. It has been said that his chief importance was that he turned the Church into an instrument for the criticism and correction of the State, and that he was the first bishop to be used by the State in peace negotiations (Attwater, Bentley, Delaney, Dudden, Encyclopedia, Paredi, Wand, White).
Art and Patronage
In art St. Ambrose is portrayed as a bishop with a beehive (bees in iconography indicated a 'honeyed' tongue, someone with the gift of eloquent speech), and book. Sometimes the image includes (1) a scourge (often knotted with three thongs to symbolize the Trinitarian doctrines); (2) the saint standing on an armed man; (3) a child by him acclaiming him bishop (easily confused with Augustine or Hilary of Poitiers); (4) Ambrose writing in his study with the bull of St. Luke or a statue of the Virgin near; (5) SS Gregory, Jerome and Augustine ; or (6) Ambrose refusing Caesar admittance to Milan Cathedral (Roeder).

Patron of the French Army Commissariat (who are responsible for administration and procurement), bishops, beekeepers, bakers of honeybread, domestic animals, geese, and wax refiners (Roeder, White).
4th v. Silvanus of Tabennisi an actor who abandoned the world to become a monk Hermit His sentiments of contrition helped him so to progress in virtue that the holy abbot proposed him as a model of humility to the rest favored with a spirit of prophecy he explained the dreadful judgments which threaten those that mock God. (AC)
Saint Silvanus was an actor who abandoned the world to become a monk at Tabennisi under Saint Pachomius (Born in the Upper Thebaîd near Esneh, Egypt, c. 290-292; died at Tabennisi, Egypt, on May 15, c. 346-348; feast day in the East is May 15.) For some time he led an undisciplined life, trying to entertain the other monks and often transgressing the rule of silence. Pachomius endeavored to reform him by remonstration, prayers, sighs, and tears, for his poor soul. It was a fruitless endeavor for a long time, but Pachomius persisted
until one day he explained to the impenitent Silvanus the dreadful judgments which threaten those that mock God.

From that moment Silvanus began to lead a life of great edification to the rest of the brethren and began to bewail his past misdemeanors. When others entreated him to moderate the floods of his tears, "Ah," said he, "how can I help weeping, when I consider the wretchedness of my past life, and that by my sloth I have profaned what was most sacred? I have reason to fear lest the earth should open under my feet, and swallow me up, as it did Dathan and Abiron. Oh! suffer me to labor with ever-flowing fountains of tears, to expiate my innumerable sins. I ought, if I could, even to pour forth this wretched soul of mine in mourning; it would be all too little for my offenses."

His sentiments of contrition helped him so to progress in virtue that the holy abbot proposed him as a model of humility to the rest. After eight years in this penitential course, God had called Silvanus to himself. Saint Pachomius was assured by a revelation, that his soul was presented by angels a most agreeable sacrifice to Christ. The saint was favored with a spirit of prophecy, and with great grief foretold the decay of monastic fervor in his order in succeeding ages.
He is especially honored among the Greeks (Benedictines, Husenbeth). In art, Saint Silvanus is a hermit watering flowers. He is venerated by the Greeks (Roeder).

4th v. St Bessarion a native of Egypt; having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness; disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macanus; neighborly charity led him to a height of perfection was manifested by miracles: made salt water fresh, several times brought rain during drought, walked on the Nile admirers compared him with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist
Item sancti Bessariónis Anachorétæ.    Also, St. Bessarion, anchoret.
Orthodoxe Kirche: 20. Februar und 06. Juni Katholische Kirche: 17. Juni
4th v. ST BESSARION
BESSARION is greatly venerated in the East, where his name in various forms is sometimes given in baptism; e.g. Joseph Stalin's father was called Vissarion. He was a native of Egypt, and having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness, where he was a disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macarius. We are told that rather than live under a roof he wandered about like a bird, observing silence and subduing his flesh by mighty fasting; he is said to have once gone forty days without food, standing in prayer amid brambles. His neighbourly charity led him to a height of perfection that was manifested by miracles: he made salt water fresh, he several times brought rain during drought, he walked on the Nile, he overcame demons. Like so many other desert fathers, St Bessarion lived to a great age; and he was compared by his admirers with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist.
St Bessarion is named in the Roman Martyrology to-day, but his usual date in the East is June 6.

The above particulars are taken from a panegyric of his namesake written by the great Cardinal Bessarion, the text of which was printed, with an introduction by Peter Joannou, in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxv (1947), pp. 107-138. The cardinal's sources were the pertinent Greek synaxaries. See also the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iii. The three Bessarions in DHG., t. viii, cc. 1180-1181, are apparently all the same person.
Bessarion is greatly venerated in the East, where his name in various forms is sometimes given in baptism; e.g. Joseph Stalin’s father was called Vissarion. He was a native of Egypt, and having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness, where he was a disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macanus. We are told that rather than live under a roof he wandered about like a bird, observing silence and subduing his flesh by mighty fasting; he is said to have once gone forty days without food, standing in prayer amid brambles. His neighborly charity led him to a height of perfection that was manifested by miracles: he made salt water fresh, he several times brought rain during drought, he walked on the Nile, he overcame demons. Like so many other desert fathers, St Bessarion lived to a great age; admirers compared him with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist.
St Bessarion is named in the Roman Martyrology today, but his usual date in the East is June 6.
The above particulars are taken from a panegyric of his namesake written by the great Cardinal Bessarion, the text of which was printed, with an introduction by Peter Joannou, in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxv (1947), pp. 107—138. The cardinal’s sources were the pertinent Greek synaxaries. See also the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iii. The three Bessarions in DHG., t. viii, cc. 1180—1181, are apparently all the same person.
4th v. Bessarion von Ägypten
Orthodoxe Kirche: 20. Februar und 06. Juni Katholische Kirche: 17. Juni
Bessarion lebte im 4. Jahrhundert. Er wollte Einsiedler werden und unternahm eine Pilgerreise um verschiedene Einsiedler kennenzulernen. Er besuchte Gerasimos in Jerusalem und wurde Schüler von Isidor von Pelusium (nach anderen Berichten von Antonius). Er lebte in der Wüste und trug unter seinem Arm immer eine Abschrift der vier Evangelien. Sein einziges Kleidungsstück verschenkte er an einen Bettler. Eine Überlieferung berichtet, er habe schließlich sogar sein Buch verkauft, um das Geld an Arme zu verteilen.
In der russisch-orthodoxen Kirche wird Bessarion am 20.02. gefeiert, in der griechisch-orthodoxen Kirche am 06.06.
4th v. Saint Anubius the Ascetic bravely endured tortures during the time of persecutions against Christians but remained alive and withdrew into the wilderness, where he dwelt until old age singing of angels who came to receive his soul he often saw angels and the holy saints of God standing before the Lord also beheld Satan and his angels committed to the eternal flames
He founded a small skete, in which he lived with six monks, one of whom was his brother St Pimen the Great (August 27). Once robbers laid waste to the skete, and the monks had to hide themselves in the ruins of a pagan temple, while having given their word not to speak with each other for a week. In the morning all week long St Anubius threw a stone at the face of the statue of the pagan god, and in the evening he said to it, "I have sinned."

At the end of the week the brethren asked Abba Anubius what his actions signified, and the Elder explained that just as the statue did not get angry when he struck it, nor get flattered when he asked forgiveness of it, so the brethren ought to live.

Three days before his end St Anubius was visited by the desert-dwellers Cyrus, Isaiah, and Paul, who asked the Elder to tell them about his life for the edification of believers. The saint replied, "I do not recall that I did anything great or glorious." However, swayed by the entreaties of his questioners, in deep humility he related to them that during the time of persecutions he confessed the Name of Christ under torture, after this he had never defiled his lips with a lie, since after he had confessed Truth, he did not want to utter falsehood.

Three days later, St Anubius reposed in spiritual joy. The aforementioned Fathers said that they heard the singing of angels who came to receive his soul.

His heart was ever filled with a thirst for communion with the Lord, and he had often seen angels and the holy saints of God standing before the Lord. He also beheld Satan and his angels committed to the eternal flames. He is mentioned in the LAUSIAC HISTORYof Palladius, and his sayings can be found in the Paradise of the Fathers and in the Evergetinos.
4th v. & 1190 Saint John the Anchorite numerous miracles occurred at the place of his ascetic deeds
Two John the Anchorites... both listed here one in 4th v. one in 11th v.

During a persecution against Christians, the devout widow Juliania of Armenia hid from pursuers together with her two young children John and Themistea. She taught her children to pray and to read the Holy Scriptures.

From time to time John secretly visited a nearby monastery, thereby placing himself in danger. Once, a pious old man advised him to find a more secluded place for prayer. Returning home, the saint told his mother that he was going to visit the Elder. Thinking that her son would soon return, she let him go.

John went to the desert-dweller Pharmutios and received his blessing to live alone in the wilderness. The young ascetic found an abandoned well, which was filled with snakes, scorpions and other vile creatures. He lowered himself into the well and lived there for ten years in fasting, vigil, and prayer.

The angel who brought food to the hermit Pharmutios also brought bread for St John. The angel did not bring the bread directly to John, however, lest the young ascetic become filled with pride. Food was sent to him through his spiritual Father, Pharmutios.

St John had many temptations from the devil to test him. Demons assumed the appearance of his mother, his sister, his relatives and acquaintances in order to sadden the ascetic and compel him to give up his ascetic struggles. With tears they approached the well one after the other, begging St John to leave with them. All this time the saint did not cease to pray. Finally he said, "Be gone from me," and the demons vanished.

St John lived in the well until the time of his blessed repose. Through God's providence St Chrysikhios, who had struggled in the desert for thirty years, came to bury him. On the eve of his repose, St John told Chrysikhios of his life and struggles for salvation. After his death, numerous miracles occurred at the place of his ascetic deeds.
Saint Jean l'Anachorète d'Egypte (4ième s.)
Durant une persécution contre les Chrétiens, la pieuse veuve Juliania d'Arménie se cacha de ses poursuivants avec ses 2 jeunes enfants Jean et Thémistea. Elle enseigna à ses enfants la prière et la lecture des Saintes Ecritures.
De temps en temps, Jean visitait secrètement un proche monastère, se mettant dès lors en danger. Une fois, un pieux vieillard lui conseilla de chercher un endroit plus retiré pour prier. Rentrant à la maison, le saint expliqua à sa mère qu'il allait visiter l'Ancien. Pensant que son fils rentrerait vite, elle le laissa partir.
Jean partit voir l'habitant du désert Pharmutios, et reçut sa bénédiction pour vivre seul dans le désert. Le jeune ascète trouva un puit abandonné, qui était rempli de serpents et scorpions et autres viles créatures. Il descendit dans ce puit et y vécut 10 ans dans le jeûne, la veille et la prière.
Un Ange qui apportait la nourriture à l'ermite Pharmutios apporta aussi du pain à saint Jean. L'ange n'apportait cependant pas le pain directement à Jean, afin d'éviter que le jeune ascète ne se rengorge de fierté. La nourriture lui était envoyée via son père spirituel, Pharmutios.
Saint Jean eut nombre de tentations du diable pour le tester. Les démons prirent la forme de sa mère, de sa soeur, de sa parenté et de connaissances, afin d'attrister l'ascète et de le forcer à abandonner ses luttes ascétiques. Ils approchèrent en larmes, l'un après l'autre, du puit, suppliant saint Jean de quitter en les accompagnant. Durant tout ce temps, le saint ne cessa jamais de prier. Finallement il dit "Partez loin de moi," et les démons disparurent.
Saint Jean vécut dans le puit jusqu'à son bienheureux repos. Par la providence de Dieu, saint Chrysikhios, qui avait lutté dans le désert 30 ans durant, vint l'enterrer. Le soir de son repos, saint Jean raconta à Chrysikhios sa vie et ses luttes pour le Salut. Après sa mort, nombre de miracles eurent lieu à l'endroit de ses actes ascétiques.
Saint John the Anchorite 1190
Acitrezza   is a small comune (municipality) in Catania province which was declared to be  autonomous around 1800. Its history derives from the time of the Spanish domination  of Sicily. In the 1600s, its name was 'Terra di Trezza', founded by Prince  Stefano of the Riggio dynasty who constructed a church dedicated to St. Joseph and a small jetty. In the 1900s, fishing became the main source of revenue ```for the people to such an extent that Acitrezza registered the highest development of fish commerce. The town's particular attraction is the Faraglioni at the front of the town, noted for their historical and scientific importance. They are monolithic rocks, rising up from the sea's surface, singly or in groups.   Moreover, the invention of ice cream is partly attributed to Acitrezza.  Lachea Island is part of the small Lacheo archipelago that is in front of the sea of Acitrezza.  (The island), as commonly it is called from
 the inhabitants of the place, has an irregular shape, the side in front of Acitrezza is approximately of 250 metres of extension, it has got a surface large more than two hectares. The top of the island is constituted by clays of sandy colour that are situated on the basaltic formations. Always in the advanced part, reachable by stone stairs, there is a manufacturing which is the centre of the ichthyic museum, an old sink and a small dwelling dug into the hardened clay, that probably it was the dormitory of Saint John the anchorite, hermit at the end of the XI century.
4th v. Consecration of the Church of Mari Mina at Maryut. {Coptic}
On this day also, is the commemoration of the appearance of the body of the honorable saint, and great martyr Mari Mina, and the consecration of his church at Maryut (Mareotis).

Now, the body of this saint was hidden, and the Lord wished to reveal it. It came to pass that there was a shepherd, who pastured his sheep near the place where the body of the saint was buried. One day, one of his sheep, which was sick of a skin disease (mangy), dipped itself in the water of a pond which was near that place. It then went out of the water, and rolled itself in the sand of that place, and it was healed straightway. When the shepherd saw this wonder, he marvelled, and took the sand of that place and mixed it with the water of the pond. He smeared every mangy sheep, or any that had a deformity, and they were healed immediately.
The report of this shepherd became widespread in all the regions of the empire, until the emperor of Constantinople heard of it. He had an only daughter who was leprous.

Her father sent her there. She questioned the shepherd about how she could get rid of her illness, and he told her. She took some of that sand and mixed it with the water. She retired to her quarters and smeared her body with the mixture and slept that night in that place. She saw in a dream St. Mina and he told her,
 "Rise up early and dig in this place and you shall find my body."

When she woke up from her sleep, she found herself healed. She dug in that place, and she found the holy body. She sent to her father to inform him about what had happened. He rejoiced exceedingly, thanked God and praised His Holy Name. He sent men and money and built a church in that place which was consecrated on this day.

When Arcadius and Honorius reigned they ordered a city to be built there which was called Maryut. The masses came to this church interceding with the blessed Mari Mina. God had honored him by the miracles and wonders(1) that were manifested from his pure body, until the Moslems occupied the city and destroyed it.
The biography of this saint is mentioned under the 15th day of Hatour.  May his intercession be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen.

1. The Martyrdom of Saint Mari-Mina, the Wonder Worker

On this day St. Mina, who is called the blessed faithful, was martyred. His father, Eudoxius, was a native of the city of Nakiyos (Nikiu) and was its Governor. His brother was envious of him and he brought charges against him before the Emperor. The Emperor transferred him to Afrikia and appointed him Governor over it. The people were pleased with him because he was merciful and God-fearing.

His mother Euphemia had no children. One day she went to church on the feast of our Lady, the Virgin, the Mother of God, at Attribes. She saw the children in the church wearing their beautiful clothes with their parents. She heaved a sigh and wept before the icon of Our Lady St. Mary, entreating her to intercede for her before her beloved Son, in order that He would give her a son. A voice came from the icon saying, "Amen." She rejoiced in what she had heard and realized that the Lord had heard her prayers. When she returned to her home and told her husband about it, he replied, "May God's Will be done."

The Lord gave them this saint and they called him Mina, according to the voice that his mother heard. When he grew, his parents taught him reading and writing and they reared him in a Christian manner. When he was eleven years old, his father departed at a good old age. Then his mother departed three years later. St. Mina devoted his life to fasting, praying and to living a Christian life. Because of everyone's love towards him and his father, they placed him in his father's position. In spite of that, he did not forsake his worshipping.

When Diocletian had reneged Christianity and issued his orders to worship idols, many were martyred for the Name of the Lord Christ. St. Mina left his position and went to the desert, where he stayed many days worshipping God with all his heart.

One day he saw the heavens open and the martyrs crowned with beautiful crowns. He heard a voice saying, "He who toils for the Name of the Lord Christ shall receive these crowns." He returned to the city over which he was Governor and confessed the Name of the Lord Christ. Knowing that he belonged to a noble family, they tried to dissuade him from his faith and promised him honors and precious gifts. When he did not change his mind, they threatened him and the Governor ordered him to be tortured. When the Governor failed to turn him away from his faith in the Lord Christ, he sent him to his brother so that he might influence him but he failed also. Finally, he ordered his head to be cut off with the sword, his body to be cast in the fire and his ashes to be scattered in the wind. The body remained in the fire for three days and three nights, but it was not harmed.

His sister came and gave the soldiers a lot of money and they let her take the body. She put it in a sack made of fronds and decided to go to Alexandria, as her brother had previously advised her. She embarked with her brother's body on one of the ships to Alexandria.

During their trip, sea beasts came out of the water and attacked the passengers aboard the ship. They were frightened and screamed with fear. The Saint's sister prayed to the Lord and asked for the intercession of her brother. While the passengers were in fear, fire went forth from her brother's body and burned the faces of the beasts. They dived immediately into the water and as they reappeared, the fire burned them again. They finally dived and did not reappear.

When the ship arrived at the city of Alexandria, most of the people went out with the father, the Patriarch. They carried the holy body with reverence and honor and entered the city with a venerable celebration and placed it in the church, after they shrouded it in expensive shrouds. When the time of persecution ended, the angel of the Lord appeared to the honorable Patriarch, Anba Athanasius, the Apostolic. The angel informed him of the Lord's command which was to place the body of St. Mina on a camel and to take it out of the city without letting anyone lead it, but to follow it from a distance until it stopped at a place that the Lord had designated. They walked behind the camel until they arrived at a place called Lake Bayad, in the district of Marriot. There they heard a voice saying, "This is the place where the Lord wishes the body of his beloved Mina to be placed." They lowered the body and placed it in a coffin, then they situated it in a beautiful garden and many miracles happened through the body.

Later on, the people of Pentapolis (the five cities) rose against the cities around Alexandria. The people were getting ready to face the Berbers, and the Governor decided to take the body of St. Mina with him to be his deliverer and his strong protector. He took the body secretly and through the blessings of this saint, he overcame the Berbers and returned victorious.

The Governor decided not to return the body of the Saint to its original place and wanted to take it to Alexandria. On the way back, they passed by Lake Bayad, St. Mina's original place. The camel carrying the body knelt down and would not move in spite of frequent beatings. They moved the body over another camel, but again this second camel did not move from its place. The Governor finally realized that this was the Lord's command. He made a coffin from decay-resistant wood and placed the silver coffin in it. He then returned it to its place and invoked St. Mina's blessings, then returned to his city.

When the Lord wanted to disclose the location of St. Mina's holy body, He did it in this manner. There was a shepherd in the desert. One day a sheep with mange slipped down into the water of a well near the place of the saint's body. The sheep then came out of the water and rolled over in the sand of that place, and instantly the sheep was healed. When the shepherd saw this miracle, he was amazed. He took some of the sand and mixed it with water and smeared it over every sheep with mange, as well as on those with other infirmities, and immediately they were healed.

The news of these miracles spread in all the countries until the Emperor of Constantinople heard of them. He had an only daughter and she was leprous. Her father sent her to the place where the saint's body was and she inquired from the shepherd how these miracles were happening. She took some of the sand, moistened it with water, smeared it on her body and slept the night in that place. In her sleep she saw St. Mina saying to her, "Arise early and dig in this place, and you will find my body." When she woke up, she found herself cured. She began digging as she was told and she found the holy body. She sent word to her father, informing him of the news. The Emperor rejoiced exceedingly, thanked the Lord and glorified His Name. He then sent men and money and built a church in that place and it was consecrated on the fifteenth day of the Month of Baounah.

When Arcadius and Honorius reigned, they ordered a city to be built there. Multitudes of people came to that church asking for the intercession of the blessed St. Mina. The Lord had honored him with many signs and wonders that appeared from his pure body. When the Arabs came to Egypt, some of them attacked the city and the church was destroyed, only ruins remained. When His Grace, the late Pope Abba Kyrillos the Sixth was ordained Patriarch over the See of St. Mark, he took interest in building a large monastery in this area (Marriot) in the name of St. Mina. He spent a great deal of money in establishing it. There are now many churches in the monastery, visited by many Orthodox worshippers who go there to receive blessings and to pray. He also bought one hundred acres of land and built a fence around it. He ordained a number of monks who had a high degree of scientific and religious education.  The intercession of Mari-Mina be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.
4th v. Saint Onesimus the Wonderworker performed many miracles
Born in Caesarea in Palestine at the beginning of the fourth century, and entered a monastery in Ephesus.
Later, he founded a monastery at Magnesia and remained there for the rest of his life. He performed many miracles.
4th v. St Hellius lived died in it sent to a monastery when still a child raised in piety, temperance and chastity went into the Egyptian desert; endowed with the gift of clairvoyance, and he knew all the thoughts and disposition of the monks conversing with him; Great faith, simplicity of soul, deep humility allowed St Hellius to command wild animals

When he grew up, he went into the Egyptian desert, where through his ascetical struggles he attained great proficiency in the spiritual life. He was endowed with the gift of clairvoyance, and he knew all the thoughts and disposition of the monks conversing with him.

Great faith, simplicity of soul and deep humility allowed St Hellius to command wild animals. Once, the saint became tired while carrying a heavy load to the monastery. He prayed and called a wild donkey to carry his burden. The donkey meekly carried the load to the place and was set free to return to the wilderness. Another time, when St Hellius needed to cross a river and there was no boat, he summoned a crocodile from the water and crossed to the opposite shore while standing on its back.

One of the young novices of the monastery, whom St Hellius visited, asked him to take him along into the far desert. St Hellius warned him about the great work, exploits and temptations which inevitably beset all the hermits, but since the novice continued fervently to ask, he took him along. On the first night the novice, frightened by terrible visions, ran to St Hellius. The monk comforted and calmed him down and ordered him to return. Tracing the Sign of the Cross over the cave, the monk told the young hermit not to fear, because he would not be disturbed by these apparitions any more.
Trusting the word of the saint, the novice decided to remain in solitude and afterwards attained such perfection that he, like his teacher Hellius, received food from an angel.
St Hellius peacefully entered the heavenly mansions after reaching an advanced age.
The holy Great Martyr Irene (peace) dedicated herself to Christ her miracles converted thousands blinded and healed an entire army beheaded, buried then resurected
Thessalonícæ natális sanctórum Mártyrum Irenǽi, Peregríni et Irénes, qui, ígnibus combústi, palmas martyrii percepérunt.
    At Thessalonica, the birthday of the holy martyrs Irenæus, Peregrinus, and Irene, who were burned alive.
 
Irene was born in the city of Magedon in Persia during the fourth century. She was the daughter of the pagan king Licinius, and her parents named her Penelope.

Penelope was very beautiful, and her father kept her isolated in a high tower from the time she was six so that she would not be exposed to Christianity. He also placed thirteen young maidens in the tower with her. An old tutor by the name of Apellian was assigned to give her the best possible education. Apellian was a Christian, and during her lessons, he told the girl about Christ the Savior and taught her the Christian Faith and the Christian virtues.  When Penelope reached adolescence, her parents began to think about her marriage. One day, a dove flew through the window carrying an olive branch in its beak, depositing it upon a table. Then an eagle swooped in with a wreath of flowers in its beak, and also placed it upon the table.
Finally, a raven flew in carrying a snake, which it dropped on the table. Penelope was puzzled by these events and wondered what they meant.
Apellian explained that the dove signified her education, and the olive branch stood for the grace of God which is received in Baptism. The eagle with the wreath of flowers represented success in her future life. The raven and the snake foretold her future suffering and sorrow.  At the end of the conversation Apellianus said that the Lord wished to betroth her to Himself and that Penelope would undergo much suffering for her heavenly Bridegroom. After this Penelope refused marriage, was baptized by the priest Timothy, and she was named Irene (peace). She even urged her own parents to become Christians. Shortly after this, she destroyed all her father's idols.

Since St Irene had dedicated herself to Christ, she refused to marry any of the suitors her father had chosen for her. When Licinius learned that his daughter refused to worship the pagan gods, he was furious. He attempted to turn her from Christ by having her tortured. She was tied up and thrown beneath the hooves of wild horses so that they might trample her to death, but he horses remained motionless. Instead of harming the saint, one of the horses charged Licinius, seized his right hand and tore it from his arm. Then it knocked Licinius down and began to trample him.
They untied the holy virgin, and through her prayers Licinius rose unharmed in the presence of eyewitnesses with his hand intact.

Seeing such a miracle, Licinius and his wife, and many of the people, (about 3000 men) believed in Christ and turned from the pagan gods. Resigning his administrative duties, Licinius devoted himself to the service of the Lord Jesus Christ.
St Irene lived in the house of her teacher Apellian, and she began to preach Christ among the pagans, converting them to the path of salvation.
When Sedecius, the new prefect of the city, heard of this miracle he summoned Apellian and questioned him about Irene's manner of life. Apellian replied that Irene, like other Christians, lived in strict temperance, devoting herself to constant prayer and reading holy books. Sedecius summoned the saint to him and urged her to stop preaching about Christ. He also attempted to force her to sacrifice to the idols. St Irene staunchly confessed her faith before the prefect, not fearing his wrath, and prepared to undergo suffering for Christ. By order of Sedecius she was thrown into a pit filled with vipers and serpents. The saint spent ten days in the pit and remained unharmed, for an angel of the Lord protected her and brought her food. Sedecius ascribed this miracle to sorcery, and he subjected St Irene to many other tortures, but she remained unharmed.
Under the influence of her preaching and miracles even more people were converted to Christ, and turned away from the worship of inanimate idols.

Sedecius was deposed by his son Savorus, who persecuted Christians with an even greater zeal than his father had done. St Irene went to her home town of Magedon in Persia to meet Savorus and his army, and ask him to end the persecution. When he refused, St Irene prayed and his entire army was blinded. She prayed again and they received their sight once more.
In spite of this, Savorus refused to recognize the power of God. Because of his insolence, he was struck and killed by a bolt of lightning.

After this, St Irene walked into the city and performed many miracles. She returned to the tower built by her father, accompanied by the priest Timothy. Through her teaching, she converted five thousand people to Christ.
Next, the saint went to the city of Callinicus, or Callinicum (possibly on the Euphrates River in Syria). The ruler of that place was King Numerian, the son of Sebastian. When she began to teach about Christ, she was arrested and tortured by the pagan authorities. She was placed into three bronze oxen which were heated by fire. She was transferred from one to another, but miraculously she remained uninjured.
 Thousands of idolaters embraced Christianity as a result of this wondrous event.
Sensing the approach of death, Numerian instructed his eparch Babdonus to continue torturing the saint in order to force her to sacrifice to idols. Once again, the tortures were ineffective, and many people turned to Christ.
    Christ's holy martyr then traveled to the city of Constantina, forty miles northeast of Edessa. By 330, the Persian king Sapor II (309-379) had heard of St Irene's great miracles. To prevent her from winning more people to Christ, she was arrested, beheaded, and then buried. However, God sent an angel to raise her up again, and she went into the city of Mesembria.
After seeing her alive and hearing her preach, the local king was baptized with many of his subjects.
Wishing to convert even more pagans to Christianity, St Irene went to Ephesus, where she taught the people and performed many miracles. The Lord revealed to her that the end of her life was approaching. Then St Irene left the city accompanied by six people, including her former teacher Apellian. On the outskirts of the town, she found a new tomb in which no one had ever been buried. After making the Sign of the Cross, she went inside, directing her companions to close the entrance to the cave with a large stone, which they did. When Christians visited the cave four days later, they did not find the body of the saint.
Apellian returned after only two days, and found the stone rolled away and the tomb empty. Thus did God glorify St Irene, who loved Him and devoted her life to serving Him. Although many of these miracles may seem improbable to those who are skeptical, nothing is impossible with God.
St Irene led thousands of people to Christ through her preaching, and by her example. The Church continues to honor her memory and to seek her heavenly intercession.

The holy, glorious Great Martyr Irene is invoked by those wishing to effect a swift and happy marriage. In Greece, she is also the patron saint of policemen. St Irene is also one of the twelve Virgin Martyrs who appeared to St Seraphim of Sarov (January 2) and the Diveyevo nun Eupraxia on the Feast of the Annunciation in 1831. By her holy prayers, may the Lord have mercy upon us and save us.
4th v. Hieromartyr Milus, Bishop of Babylon, gifts of prophecy and healing; and his disciples Euores the Presbyter and Seboes the Deacon.
lived during the fourth century. The holy Martyr Milus was banished from the city of Suza, where his bishop's throne was situated. By his pious and ascetic life he was granted gifts of prophecy and healing.

St Milus suffered in the year 341 with two of his disciples, Abrosim and Sinos in their native city of Suza (trans. note: The discrepancy of these names in the header and in the text is found in the Russian original, and may reflect alternate transcriptions of Persian names in Greek and Russian), They returned to Suza after long wanderings and brought many to Christ.
4th v. Lupus was a faithful servant of the holy Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessalonica (October 26); worked many miracles at Thessalonica. He destroyed pagan idols, for which he was subjected to persecution by the pagans, but he was preserved unharmed by the power of God
Item sancti Luppi Mártyris, qui, ex servili conditióne, Christi libertáte donatus, martyrii quoque coróna dignátus est.
    Also St. Luppus, martyr, who, though a slave, enjoyed the liberty of Christ, and was likewise deemed worthy of the crown of martyrdom.
The Martyr lived at the end of the third century and beginning of the fourth century.  Being present at the death of his master, he soaked his own clothing with his blood and took a ring from his hand. With this clothing, and with the ring and the name of the Great Martyr Demetrius, St Lupus worked many miracles at Thessalonica. He destroyed pagan idols, for which he was subjected to persecution by the pagans, but he was preserved unharmed by the power of God.

St Lupus voluntarily delivered himself into the hands of the torturers, and by order of the emperor Maximian Galerius, he was beheaded by the sword.
In AD 298 the province of Mesopotamia, together with even some territory from across the river Tigris, was restored to Rome.
The treaty with the Persians most likely had more to do with Diocletian than Galerius. For Galerius, hungry for glory and eager to erase the memory of his earlier defeat, was known to have wanted to press on.
This decisive defeat of the Persians though raised Galerius' standing immensely. It is believed that his influence with Diocletian grew. To the extent that there is even some suggestion that the harsh persecution of the Christians by Diocletian might actually have been due to Galerius' influence.
Much points toward Galerius in this respect. His mother Romula was said to have been a fanatical paganist. Having grown up under the influence of such religious zealotry, it is well possible that Galerius's feelings should have been very hostile toward other religions.
The fourth and harshest edict of Diocletian against the Christians (AD 304) is widely believed to have been entirely the work of Galerius.
4th v. Saint Parthenius, Bishop of Lampsacus from age 18 healed sick in the name of Christ cast out demons worked other miracles
a native of the city of Melitoupolis (in northwestern Asia Minor), where his father Christopher served as deacon. The youth did not receive adequate schooling, but he learned the Holy Scripture by attending church services. He had a good heart, and distributed to the poor the money he earned working as a fisherman.

Filled with the grace of God, St Parthenius from age eighteen healed the sick in the name of Christ, cast out demons and worked other miracles. Learning of the young man's virtuous life, Bishop Philetus of Melitoupolis educated him and ordained him presbyter.

In 325, during the reign of Constantine the Great, Archbishop Achilles of Cyzicus made him bishop of the city of Lampsacus (Asia Minor). In the city were many pagans, and the saint fervently began to spread the faith in Christ, confirming it by through many miracles and by healing the sick.

The people began to turn from their pagan beliefs, and the saint went to the emperor Constantine the Great seeking permission to tear down the pagan temple and build a Christian church in its place. The emperor received the saint with honor, gave him a decree authorizing the destruction of the pagan temple, and provided him with the means to build a church. Returning to Lampsacus, St Parthenius had the pagan temple torn down, and built a beautiful church of God in the city.

In one of the razed temples, he found a large marble slab which he thought would be very suitable as an altar. The saint ordered work to begin on the stone, and to move it to the church. Through the malice of the devil, who became enraged at the removal of the stone from the pagan temple, the cart overturned and killed the driver Eutychian.
St Parthenius restored him to life by his prayer and shamed the devil, who wanted to frustrate the work of God.

The saint was so kind that he refused healing to no one who came to him, or who chanced to meet him by the wayside, whether he suffered from bodily illnesses or was tormented by unclean spirits. People even stopped going to physicians, since St Parthenius healed all the sick for free.
With the great power of the name of Christ, the saint banished a host of demons from people, from their homes, and from the waters of the sea.

Once, the saint prepared to cast out a devil from a certain man, who had been possessed by it since childhood. The demon began to implore the saint not to do so. St Parthenius promised to give the evil spirit another man in whom he could dwell. The demon asked, "Who is that man?" The saint replied, "You may dwell in me, if you wish."  The demon fled as if stung by fire, crying out, "If the mere sight of you is a torment to me, how can I dare to enter into you?"
An unclean spirit, cast out of the house where the imperial purple dye was prepared, said that a divine fire was pursuing him with the fire of Gehenna.
Having shown people the great power of faith in Christ, the saint converted a multitude of idol-worshippers to the true God.  St Parthenius died peacefully and was solemnly buried beside the cathedral church of Lampsacus, which he built
4thv. Saint Abramius the Hermit and Blessed Maria, his niece of Mesopotamia, lived the ascetic life in the village of Chidan, near the city of Edessa. They were contemporaries and fellow countrymen of St Ephraim the Syrian (January 28), who afterwards wrote about their life.  The Lord forgave her and even granted her the gift of healing the sick

St Abramius began his difficult exploit of the solitary life in the prime of youth. He left his parents' home and settled in a desolate wilderness place, far from worldly enticements, and he spent his days in unceasing prayer. After the death of his parents, the saint refused his inheritance and requested his relatives to give it away to the poor. By his strict ascetic life, fasting, and love for mankind, Abramius attracted to him many seeking after spiritual enlightenment, prayer and blessing.

Soon his faith was put to a serious test, as he was appointed presbyter in one of the pagan villages of Mesopotamia. For three years, and sparing no efforts, the saint toiled over the enlightenment of the pagans. He tore down a pagan temple and built a church. Humbly enduring derision and even beatings from obstinate idol-worshippers, he entreated the Lord,
Look down, O Master, upon Your servant, hear my prayer. Strengthen me and set Your servants free from diabolical snares, and grant them to know You, the one true God.
The zealous pastor was granted the happiness to see the culmination of his righteous efforts: the pagans came to believe in Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and St Abramius baptized them himself.

Having fulfilled his priestly duty, Abramius again withdrew into his wilderness, where he continued to glorify God, and doing His holy will. The devil, put to shame by the deeds of St Abramius, tried to entrap him with proud thoughts. Once at midnight, when St Abramius was at prayer in his cell, suddenly a light shone and a voice was heard,
Blessed are you, Abramius, for no other man has done my will as you have! Confuting the wiles of the enemy, the saint said: I am a sinful man, but I trust in the help and grace of my God. I do not fear you, and your illusions do not scare me. Then he ordered the devil to depart, in the name of Jesus Christ.

Another time, the devil appeared before the saint in the form of a youth, lit a candle and began to sing Psalm 118/119,
Blessed are the blameless in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord. Perceiving that this also was a demonic temptation, the Elder crossed himself and asked, If you know that the blameless are blessed, then why trouble them?

The temper answered,
I provoke them in order to conquer them and turn them away from every good deed. To this the saint replied, You gain victory over those who, like yourself, have fallen away from God. You are forced to vanish, like smoke in the wind, from before the face of those who love God. After these words the devil vanished. Thus St Abramius defeated the Enemy, being strengthened by divine grace. After fifty years of ascetic life, he peacefully fell asleep in the Lord.

St Abramius's niece, the Nun Maria, grew up being edified by his spiritual instruction. Her father died when she was seven, and so she was raised by her saintly uncle. But the Enemy of the race of man tried to turn her from the true path. At twenty-seven years of age she fell into sin with a man. Thoroughly ashamed, she left her cell, went to another city and began to live in a brothel. Two years later, when he learned of this, St Abramius clad himself in soldier's garb, so that he should not be recognized, and he went to the city to find his niece. Pretending to be one of her
clients, he revealed his identity once they were alone. With many tears and exhortations, he brought her to repentance and took her back to her cell.
St Maria returned to her cell and spent the rest of her days in prayer and tears of repentance.
The Lord forgave her and even granted her the gift of healing the sick. She died five years after St Abramius.