Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles   Miracles_BLay Saints Miraculous_Icons  Miraculous_Medal_Novena
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400 Saint Bessarion Wonderworker of Egypt an Egyptian baptized while still in his youth led a strict life, striving to
      preserve the grace given him during Baptism
400 St. Martinian Hermit of Caesarea Palestine manifesting gift of miracles
400 jan 19 Saint Macarius the Great of Egypt worked many healings Abba Anthony received him with love, and
      Macarius became his devoted disciple and follower

400 Saint Martin of Tours April 29  man came back to life  bishop  tree fell  freeing of prisoners Patron of Soldiers bolt
       of lightning
400 St Felix of Trier generosity to the poor virtuous (Trèves) B (RM)  March 26
400 St. Clarus Abbot  numerous miracles  patron of tailors January 29
403 St.  Epiphanius of Salamis  “Oracle of Pal­estine’ bishop of Constantia Salamis Cyprus  Authority on Mary and
     taught primacy of Peter among the Apostles reputation for scholarship austerities mortifications spiritual wisdom
     and advice authored many treatises. Jan 29
 404 ST ISIDORE OF ALEXANDRIA governor of the great hospital at Alexandria  Jan 15
409 Saint Olympias the Deaconess; daughter of senator Anicius Secundus, granddaughter of the noted eparch Eulalios;
     distributed her wealth to all the needy: the poor, orphaned; the widowed, gave generously to churches, monasteries,
     hospices, shelters for the downtrodden and the homeless; Miracles and healings occurred from her relics

410 Mar 13 In Thebáide deposítio sanctæ Euphrásiæ Vírginis favored with miracles both before and after her death
409 Severus of Naples renowned miracle worker raised dead man B (RM)
411 St Alexis fragrant myrrh flowed from holy relics healing upon the sick.  the Voice was heard again in the temple:
      "Seek the Man of God in the house of Euphemianus."
412 Cyrus and John from the city of Konopa, near Alexandria Transfer of the Relics of the Holy Martyrs,
       Unmercenaries and Wonderworkers
many miracles, healings of the sick and infirm
413 Saint Eupraxia entered convent at 7; requested the emperor dispose of her properties, distributing the proceeds for the use of the Church and the needy; gift of wonderworking. Through her prayers she healed a deaf and dumb crippled child, and she delivered a demon-possessed woman from infirmity. They began to bring the sick for healing to the monastery; humbled herself all the more, counting herself as least among the sisters
417 May 25 St. Zenobius saintly life supernatural gifts  Extraordinary miracles several restoration of dead to life
417 St. Alexis charitable to the poor; in disguise traveled to Syria lived in great poverty near a Church of Our Lady;
         after 17 years, a picture of our Blessed Mother spoke to tell the people that this beggar was very holy. She called
         him "The man of God." he wrought many miracles
418 St. Amator priest Bishop confessor Known for miracles ability to make spur conversions including King Germanus
      scholars believe Amator ordained St. Patrick

420 St. Sabinus Bishop of Piacenza renowned for miracles. feast day jan 17 fromerly dec 11
420 The Departure of St. Euphrasia (Eupraxia) humility and obedience daughter of noble family in Rome related to Emperor Honorius God granted her gift of healing the sick Memorial  13 March (Roman Church); 25 July (Greek Church)  today Baramhat 26 (Coptic Church).
421 February 26 St. Porphyry of Gaza Epíscopi  worked tirelessly for his people, instructed them and made many converts,
I tried to reach Mount Calvary, and there I fainted away and fell into a kind of trance or ecstasy in which I seemed to see our Saviour on the cross and the good thief hanging near Him. I said to Christ, ‘Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom’, and he replied by bidding the thief come to my assistance. This he did, and raising me from the ground he bade me go to Christ. I ran to Him and He came down from His cross, saying to me, ‘Take this wood’ (meaning the cross) ‘into thy custody’. In obedience to Him, methought I laid it on my shoulders and carried it some way. I awoke soon after and have been free from pain ever since, nor is there any sign left of the ailments from which I formerly suffered.”
5th v February 22 St. Thalassius & Limuneus 2 hermits lived near Cyrrhus (Syria) miracle workers
425 June 16 St. Tychon Bishop of Amathus, Cyprus;  gift of wonderworking appeared in St Tikhon at quite a young age a dedicated missionary among the last elements of pagan culture on the island.
425 Saint Ephraim, Patriarch of Antioch defended teaching Orthodox Church on union of two natures the divine and
      the human in the Person of our Lord Jesus Christ; Syrian distinguished for virtue, piety, and compassion for all
      the destitute miracle of the omophorion
429 Saint Peter of Galatia gift of wonderworking, healing infirmities and expelling devils
429 jan 16 Honoratus of Arles archbishop blessedly joyful B (RM) (also known as Honore)
 Areláte, in Gállia, sancti Honoráti, Epíscopi et Confessóris; cujus vita tam doctrína quam miráculis fuit illústris.
       At Arles in France, St. Honoratus, bishop and confessor, whose life was renowned for learning and for miracles.
Born in Trèves (Trier), Germany, (or Lorraine, France), c. 350; died at Arles, France, 429.
430 Saint Dius; his flesh was humbled by vigil and unceasing prayer. For these deeds the Lord granted St Dius
      dispassion and the gift of wonderworking;  a vision, the Lord ordered St Dius to go to Constantinople and there to
      serve both Him and the people;  The Lord worked many other miracles through His saint

430 Saint Bassian, Bishop of Lodi friend of St Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (December 7)  glorified by miracles
       providing his flock example of a virtuous life
430 ST MACEDONIUS; Theodoret relates many miraculous cures of sick persons, and of his own mother among them, wrought by water over which Macedonius had made the sign of the cross. He adds that his own birth was the effect of the anchoret’s prayers after his mother had lived childless in marriage thirteen years
430 St. Marcellus of Paris From his youth he exhibited the virtues of purity, modesty, meekness, and charity miracle worker B (RM)
431 June 22 Saint Paulinus Bishop of Nola writer poet; gave away property vast fortune to poor and Church and pursued life of deep austerity / mortifications
435 April 17 Saint Acacius, Bishop of Melitene firm supporter of Orthodoxy  gift of wonderworking made rain, checked flood, stopped dome from collapse 3rd Ecumenical Council 431 he defended the Orthodox teaching of the Two Natures (Divine and Human) of the Savior, and of His seedless Birth from the Most Holy Virgin Mother of God
446 March 31 Saint Hypatius Igumen of Rufinus in Chalcedon guided monastery for 40 years healer prophet
446 Proclus of Constantinople known for his dedication; tactful with whom he disagreed; singing the Trisagion liturgy
       in miraculous circumstances B (RM)

448  St Germanus, Bishop Of Auxerre; by his teaching and miracles Pelagianism was finally eradicated and its teachers banished, free from heresy the Church in these islands remained for a space of eleven hundred years, until the errors of Protestantism took root and were watered by royal corruption in the sixteenth century;  feast observed in Wales and in several southern English dioceses; he was strengthening and consolidating the British church after abandoned by the Roman empire, of purging it from error, of converting yet more of the people; and by his influence on St Patrick; no doubt Germanus left his mark on Ireland also.  The feast of St Germanus is August 3 in Wales and other dates in Westminster, Plymouth and Portsmouth.  His day in the Roman Martyrology is July 31.
450 Jan 15  St. John Calabytes Hermit (at 12) lived unknown in a small hut famous for prayers penances He sanctified his soul by wonderful patience, meekness and prayer.  Constantinópoli sancti Joánnis Calybítæ, qui aliquándiu in ángulo domus patérnæ, deínde in tugúrio, ignótus paréntibus, habitávit; a quibus in morte ágnitus, miráculis cláruit.  Ipsíus corpus póstea Romam translátum, et in Insulæ Tiberínæ Ecclésia, in ejus honórem erécta, collocátum est.
       At Constantinople, St. John Calybita.  For some time living unknown to his parents in a corner of their house, and later in a hut on an island in the Tiber, he was recognized by them only at his death.  Being renowned for miracles, his body was afterwards taken to Rome and buried on the Island in the Tiber, where a church was subsequently erected in his honour.  The legend of Calybites has either originated from, or been confused with, those of St Alexis, St Onesimus, and one or two others in which the same idea recurs of a disguise long persisted in.

450 St. Hypatius miracles prophecies
450 St. Hypatius Hermit
, Hermit, called “the Scholar of Christ.” vision that sent him to Thrace where he became a hermit foe of Nestorianism, he sheltered St. Alexander Akimetes and others at his hermitage near Chalcedon when their lives were threatened by the heretics known for miracles and prophecies.
In Phrygia sancti Hypátii Confessóris.    In Phrygia, St. Hypatius, confessor.
453 St. Anianus Bishop defender of Orleans against Attila the Hun
458 St. Anatolius Patriarch and defender of the faith, known for his opposition to the heretic Dioscurus at the Council
      of Chalcedon. The patriarch of Constantinople, he is called a prophet and a miracle
worker, despite the political
      turmoil that surrounded him. Anatolius also fought the Nestorian heresy at the Council of Ephesus.

459 Jan 05 ST SIMEON THE STYLITE; By an invincible patience he bore all afflictions and rebukes without a word of complaint; he sincerely looked upon himself as the outcast of the world; and he spoke to all with the most engaging sweetness and charity.
460 St. Turibius of Astorga Bishop stern disciplinarian opponent of the heretical Priscillianist
460 March 23 Gwinear, Phiala & Companions martyrs celebrated miracles contemporary Saint Patrick
460 February 28 St. Romanus of Condat  eputation for virtues miracles Abbot of Gallo hermit Jura Mts
460 November 27 St. Maximus reluctant Bishop of Reiz ordained by St. Hilary; celebrated for working miracles and
       prodigies.

461 St. Patrick Apostle of Ireland a humble, pious, gentle man feared nothing not death

470-488 April 20 St. Marian Abbot; Revered for his humility, remarkable power over all animals
Antisiodóri sancti Marciáni Presbyteri.   At Auxerre, the priest St. Marcian.  (also known as Marian)
471 St. Marcian Confessor hymnist - jan 10 Constantinople famous for miracles; received a gift of wonderworking, St
      Marcian healed the sick and cast out devils

473 St. Auxentius Hermit founder  healed many of the sick and the infirm in the name of the Lord
474 St. Marcellus of Avignon suffered much from the Arians and died after a long episcopate B (RM)
In civitáte Diénsi, in Gállia, sancti Marcélli Epíscopi, miráculis clari.
    In the city of Die, in France, St. Marcellus, bishop, celebrated for miracles.  feast April 09

475 Saint Polybius disciple of St Epiphanius of Cyprus gift of wonderworking
475 Mar 05 St. Gerasimus Hermit follower of St. Euthymius austerity and miracles
Born in Lycia, Asia Minor. He was a merchant who visited hermits in Egypt. Upon his return to Palestine, he founded a laura, or eremtical community, in Jericho, Israel. Gerasimus was famous for his austerity and miracles.
476 May 27 ST EUTROPIUS, BISHOP OF ORANGE repute for piety and learning
Aráusicæ, in Gálliis, sancti Eutrópii Epíscopi, virtútibus atque miráculis illústris.
    At Orange in France, St. Eutropius, a bishop illustrious for virtues and miracles.
480  March 14 Saint Benedict of Nursia founder of Western monasticism gift of foresight and wonderworking
477 January 20 St. Euthymius monk bishop sixty-six years in the desert
 In Palæstína natális sancti Euthymii Abbátis, qui zelo cathólicæ discíplinæ et virtúte miraculórum, témpore Marciáni
      Imperatóris, in Ecclésia flóruit.
       In Palestine, in the time of Emperor Marcian, the birthday of St. Euthymius, abbot, who flourished in the Church, full of zeal for Catholic discipline, and gifted with miracles.

480 St. Lupicinus Abbot brother of St. Romanus of Condat founded abbeys life was brilliant with the glory of holiness
      and miracles
482 January 08 St. Severinus Monk hermit founder of monasteries along Danube comfort to refugees /victims of Attila
 Neápoli, in Campánia, natális sancti Severíni Epíscopi, qui fuit frater beáti Victoríni Mártyris; et, post multárum virtútum perpetratiónem, plenus sanctitáte quiévit.
       At Naples in Campania, the birthday of the bishop St. Severin, brother to the blessed martyr Victorinus, who, after working many miracles, died, replenished with virtues and merits.

484 St. Victorian Martyr in Carthage with four other miraculously their bodies bore no sign of scars or bruises
485 December 29 Saint Marcellus, igumen of the Monastery called "the Unsleeping Ones," received great spiritual
      talents and the  gift of clairvoyance
Council of Chalcedon calmed Black Sea, put out fire in city with his tears
491 St. Theodora Egyptian penitent maiden of Alexandria; miracles
Alexandríæ sanctæ Theodóræ, quæ, cum incáute deliquísset, inde, facti pænitens, mirábili abstinéntia et patiéntia in hábitu sancto perseverávit incógnita usque ad mortem.
    At Alexandria, St. Theodora, who having committed a fault through imprudence and repenting of it, remained unknown in a religious habit, and persevered until her death in practices of extraordinary abstinence and patience.

5th v April 07 St. Brynach Celtic hermit in Wales in constant communication with the angels
5th v. Saints Julius the presbyter and Julian the Deacon, brothers by birth, natives of Myrmidonia holy brothers received permission for building churches; preaching to remote sections East and West within the Roman Empire, where pagan temples still existed and where offering of sacrifice to idols was still made converted pagans to Christianity, by word & numerous miracles.
5th v. St. Exuperantius Bishop of Cingoli; attained great fame by his miracles
 Cínguli, in Picéno, sancti Exsuperántii Confessóris, ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopi, ob miraculórum famam illústris.
       At Cingoli in Piceno, St. Exuperantius, confessor and bishop of that city, who attained great fame by his miracles.
Italy, possibly a native African.
5th v. St. Gladys wife of St. Gundleus and mother of St. Cadoc miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward
      the Confessor (1013 died 1066) and William I

5th v. St. Dichu First convert of St. Patrick in Ulser
5th century St. Lewina Martyred virgin of England july 24, a Briton slain by invading Saxons. In 1058, her relics were translated from Seaford, in Sussex, England, to Berques in Flanders, Belgium; her relics honored by numerous miracles, especially at the time of the translation; A history of these miracles was written by Drogo, an eyewitness to several of them
5th v. Saint Memnon the Wonderworker gift of clairvoyance many miracles
5th v Saint Thalassius of Syria near village of Targala 38 years monastic deeds no shelter; gift of wonderworking and
        healing the sick

5th v. Saint Thais lived in Egypt pious virgin radiant light holy angels bearing her soul to Paradise
5th v. St. Sabinus became a famed hermit; one of the apostles of the Lavedan, in the Pyrenees;  preached to peasants
     of the neighbourhood by mouth and by example of his kindly and penitential spirit, many and remarkable miracles

400 Saint Bessarion Wonderworker of Egypt an Egyptian baptized while still in his youth led a strict life, striving to preserve the grace given him during Baptism
Seeking to become more closely acquainted with the monastic life, he journeyed to the holy places. He was in Jerusalem, he visited St Gerasimus (March 4) in the Jordanian wilderness, he viewed other desert monasteries, and assimilated all the rules of monastic life.

Upon his return, he received monastic tonsure and became a disciple of St Isidore of Pelusium (February 4). St Bessarion took a vow of silence, and partook of food only once a week. Sometimes he remained without food or drink for forty days. Once, the saint stood motionless for forty days and forty nights without food or sleep, immersed in prayer.

St Bessarion received from God the gift of wonderworking. When his disciple was very thirsty, he sweetened bitter water. By his prayer the Lord sent rain upon the earth, and he could cross a river as if on dry land. With a single word he cast out devils, but he did this privately to avoid glory.

His humility was so great that once, when a priest ordered someone from the skete to leave church for having fallen into sin, Bessarion also went with him saying, "I am a sinner, too." St Bessarion slept only while standing or sitting. A large portion of his life was spent under the open sky in prayerful solitude. He peacefully departed to the Lord in his old age.

400 St. Clarus Abbot of St. Marcellus monastery at Vienne
reputed to have performed numerous miracles Feastday: January 1
Clarus was born near Vienne, Dauphine', France. He became a monk at St. Ferreol Abbey and later was spiritual director of St. Blandina Convent, where his mother and sister were nuns. In time he became Abbot of St. Marcellus monastery at Vienne and lived there until his death on January 1.
He is reputed to have performed numerous miracles, and his cult was confirmed in 1903 by Pope Pius X. He is the patron of
tailors.
400 Saint Macarius the Great of Egypt worked many healings Abba Anthony received him with love, and Macarius became his devoted disciple and follower
born around 331 in the village of Ptinapor in Egypt. At the wish of his parents he entered into marriage, but was soon widowed. After he buried his wife, Macarius told himself, "Take heed, Macarius, and have care for your soul. It is fitting that you forsake worldly life."

The Lord rewarded the saint with a long life, but from that time the memory of death was constantly with him, impelling him to ascetic deeds of prayer and penitence. He began to visit the church of God more frequently and to be more deeply absorbed in Holy Scripture, but he did not leave his aged parents, thus fulfilling the commandment to honor one's parents.

Until his parents died, St Macarius used his remaining substance to help them and he began to pray fervently that the Lord might show him a guide on the way to salvation. The Lord sent him an experienced Elder, who lived in the desert not far from the village. The Elder accepted the youth with love, guided him in the spiritual science of watchfulness, fasting and prayer, and taught him the handicraft of weaving baskets. After building a separate cell not far from his own, the Elder settled his disciple in it.

The local bishop arrived one day at Ptinapor and, knowing of the saint's virtuous life, ordained him against his will. St Macarius was overwhelmed by this disturbance of his silence, and so he went secretly to another place. The Enemy of our salvation began a tenacious struggle with the ascetic, trying to terrify him, shaking his cell and suggesting sinful thoughts. St Macarius repelled the attacks of the devil, defending himself with prayer and the Sign of the Cross.

Evil people slandered the saint, accusing him of seducing a woman from a nearby village. They dragged him out of his cell and jeered at him. St Macarius endured the temptation with great humility. Without a murmur, he sent the money that he got for his baskets for the support of the pregnant woman.

The innocence of St Macarius was manifested when the woman, who suffered torment for many days, was not able to give birth. She confessed that she had slandered the hermit, and revealed the name of the real father. When her parents found out the truth, they were astonished and intended to go to the saint to ask forgiveness. Though St Macarius willingly accepted dishonor, he shunned the praise of men. He fled from that place by night and settled on Mt. Nitria in the Pharan desert.

Thus human wickedness contributed to the prospering of the righteous. Having dwelt in the desert for three years, he went to St Anthony the Great, the Father of Egyptian monasticism, for he had heard that he was still alive in the world, and he longed to see him. Abba Anthony received him with love, and Macarius became his devoted disciple and follower. St Macarius lived with him for a long time and then, on the advice of the saintly abba, he went off to the Skete monastery (in the northwest part of Egypt). He so shone forth in asceticism that he came to be called "a young Elder," because he had distinguished himself as an experienced and mature monk, even though he was not quite thirty years old.

St Macarius survived many demonic attacks against him. Once, he was carrying palm branches for weaving baskets, and a devil met him on the way and wanted to strike him with a sickle, but he was not able to do this. He said, "Macarius, I suffer great anguish from you because I am unable to vanquish you. I do everything that you do. You fast, and I eat nothing at all. You keep vigil, and I never sleep. You surpass me only in one thing: humility."

When the saint reached the age of forty, he was ordained to the priesthood and made the head of the monks living in the desert of Skete. During these years, St Macarius often visited with St Anthony the Great, receiving guidance from him in spiritual conversations. Abba Macarius was deemed worthy to be present at the death of St Anthony and he received his staff. He also received a double portion of the Anthony's spiritual power, just as the prophet Elisha once received a double portion of the grace of the prophet Elias, along with the mantle that he dropped from the fiery chariot.

St Macarius worked many healings. People thronged to him from various places for help and for advice, asking his holy prayers. All this unsettled the quietude of the saint. He therefore dug out a deep cave under his cell, and hid there for prayer and meditation.

St Macarius attained such boldness before God that, through his prayers, the Lord raised the dead. Despite attaining such heights of holiness, he continued to preserve his unusual humility. One time the holy abba caught a thief loadng his things on a donkey standing near the cell. Without revealing that he was the owner of these things, the monk began to help tie up the load. Having removed himself from the world, the monk told himself, "We bring nothing at all into this world; clearly, it is not possible to take anything out from it. Blessed be the Lord for all things!"

Once, St Macarius was walking and saw a skull lying upon the ground. He asked, "Who are you?" The skull answered, "I was a chief priest of the pagans. When you, Abba, pray for those in hell, we receive some mitigation."

The monk asked, "What are these torments?" "We are sitting in a great fire," replied the skull, "and we do not see one another. When you pray, we begin to see each other somewhat, and this affords us some comfort." Having heard such words, the saint began to weep and asked, "Are there still more fiercesome torments?" The skull answered, "Down below us are those who knew the Name of God, but spurned Him and did not keep His commandments. They endure even more grievous torments."

Once, while he was praying, St Macarius heard a voice: "Macarius, you have not yet attained such perfection in virtue as two women who live in the city." The humble ascetic went to the city, found the house where the women lived, and knocked. The women received him with joy, and he said, "I have come from the desert seeking you in order to learn of your good deeds. Tell me about them, and conceal nothing."

The women answered with surprise, "We live with our husbands, and we have not such virtues." But the saint continued to insist, and the women then told him, "We married two brothers. After living together in one house for fifteen years, we have not uttered a single malicious nor shameful word, and we never quarrel among ourselves. We asked our husbands to allow us to enter a women's monastery, but they would not agree. We vowed not to utter a single worldly word until our death."

St Macarius glorified God and said, "In truth, the Lord seeks neither virgins nor married women, and neither monks nor laymen, but values a person's free intent, accepting it as the deed itself. He grants to everyone's free will the grace of the Holy Spirit, which operates in an individual and directs the life of all who yearn to be saved."

During the years of the reign of the Arian emperor Valens (364-378), St Macarius the Great and St Macarius of Alexandria was subjected to persecution by the followers of the Arian bishop Lucius. They seized both Elders and put them on a ship, sending them to an island where only pagans lived. By the prayers of the saints, the daughter of a pagan priest was delivered from an evil spirit. After this, the pagan priest and all the inhabitants of the island were baptized. When he heard what had happened, the Arian bishop feared an uprising and permitted the Elders to return to their monasteries.

The meekness and humility of the monk transformed human souls. "A harmful word," said Abba Macarius, "makes good things bad, but a good word makes bad things good." When the monks asked him how to pray properly, he answered, "Prayer does not require many words. It is needful to say only, "Lord, as Thou wilt and as Thou knowest, have mercy on me." If an enemy should fall upon you, you need only say, "Lord, have mercy!" The Lord knows that which is useful for us, and grants us mercy."

When the brethren asked how a monk ought to comport himself, the saint replied, "Forgive me, I am not yet a monk, but I have seen monks. I asked them what I must do to be a monk. They answered, 'If a man does not withdraw himself from everything which is in the world, it is not possible to be a monk.' Then I said, 'I am weak and cannot be as you are.' The monks responded, 'If you cannot renounce the world as we have, then go to your cell and weep for your sins.'"

St Macarius gave advice to a young man who wished to become a monk: "Flee from people and you shall be saved." That one asked: "What does it mean to flee from people?" The monk answered: "Sit in your cell and repent of your sins."

St Macarius sent him to a cemetery to rebuke and then to praise the dead. Then he asked him what they said to him. The young man replied, "They were silent to both praise and reproach." "If you wish to be saved, be as one dead. Do not become angry when insulted, nor puffed up when praised." And further: "If slander is like praise for you, poverty like riches, insufficiency like abundance, then you shall not perish."

The prayer of St Macarius saved many in perilous circumstances of life, and preserved them from harm and temptation. His benevolence was so great that they said of him: "Just as God sees the whole world, but does not chastize sinners, so also does Abba Macarius cover his neighbor's weaknesses, which he seemed to see without seeing, and heard without hearing."

The monk lived until the age of ninety. Shortly before his death, Sts Anthony and Pachomius appeared to him, bringing the joyful message of his departure to eternal life in nine days. After instructing his disciples to preserve the monastic Rule and the traditions of the Fathers, he blessed them and began to prepare for death. St Macarius departed to the Lord saying, "Into Thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit."

Abba Macarius spent sixty years in the wilderness, being dead to the world. He spent most of his time in conversation with God, often in a state of spiritual rapture. But he never ceased to weep, to repent and to work. The saint's profound theological writings are based on his own personal experience. Fifty Spiritual Homilies and seven Ascetic Treatises survive as the precious legacy of his spiritual wisdom. Several prayers composed by St Macarius the Great are still used by the Church in the Prayers Before Sleep and also in the Morning Prayers.

Man's highest goal and purpose, the union of the soul with God, is a primary principle in the works of St Macarius. Describing the methods for attaining mystical communion, the saint relies upon the experience of the great teachers of Egyptian monasticism and on his own experience. The way to God and the experience of the holy ascetics of union with God is revealed to each believer's heart.

Earthly life, according to St Macarius, has only a relative significance: to prepare the soul, to make it capable of perceiving the heavenly Kingdom, and to establish in the soul an affinity with the heavenly homeland.

"For those truly believing in Christ, it is necessary to change and transform the soul from its present degraded nature into another, divine nature, and to be fashioned anew by the power of the Holy Spirit."

This is possible, if we truly believe and we truly love God and have observed all His holy commandments. If one betrothed to Christ at Baptism does not seek and receive the divine light of the Holy Spirit in the present life, "then when he departs from the body, he is separated into the regions of darkness on the left side. He does not enter into the Kingdom of Heaven, but has his end in hell with the devil and his angels" (Homily 30:6).

In the teaching of St Macarius, the inner action of the Christian determines the extent of his perception of divine truth and love. Each of us acquires salvation through grace and the divine gift of the Holy Spirit, but to attain a perfect measure of virtue, which is necessary for the soul's assimilation of this divine gift, is possible only "by faith and by love with the strengthening of free will." Thus, the Christian inherits eternal life "as much by grace, as by truth."

Salvation is a divine-human action, and we attain complete spiritual success "not only by divine power and grace, but also by the accomplishing of the proper labors." On the other hand, it is not just within "the measure of freedom and purity" that we arrive at the proper solicitude, it is not without "the cooperation of the hand of God above." The participation of man determines the actual condition of his soul, thus inclining him to good or evil. "If a soul still in the world does not possess in itself the sanctity of the Spirit for great faith and for prayer, and does not strive for the oneness of divine communion, then it is unfit for the heavenly kingdom."

The miracles and visions of Blessed Macarius are recorded in a book by the presbyter Rufinus, and his Life was compiled by St Serapion, bishop of Tmuntis (Lower Egypt), one of the renowned workers of the Church in the fourth century. His holy relics are in the city of Amalfi, Italy.
400 St. Martinian Hermit of Caesarea Palestine manifesting the gift of miracles
He started his life as a recluse on a site called the Place of the Ark at eighteen. Zoe, a woman of evil reputation, came upon him and tried to seduce him. Martinian not only resisted her advances by putting his feet in a fire, but converted her and counseled her to become a nun at Bethlehem.  Martinian was quite elderly when he went to Athens, where he died.
Martinian the Hermit (AC) (also known as Martinian of Caesarea).  Recluse near Caesarea, Palestine, who put his feet in the fire and another time jumped into the sea to escape from the so-called weaker sex. You may ask how this all came about.  Martinianus retired to the 'place of the Ark' near his hometown of Caesarea when he was about 18. He lived for 25 years among holy solitaries practicing penance and the virtues, and manifesting the gift of miracles.
The harlot Zoë, hearing of his sanctity and inspired by the devil, determined to pervert him. She pretended to be a poor woman, lost and helpless in the desert late at night, and prevailed upon Martinianus to allow her to spend the night with him in his cell. About dawn she tossed aside her beggar's rags and donned her city finery. Zoë told him that she offered herself and all her wealth and estates to him. She also appealed to the Old Testament saints who were wealthy and married, and urged him to abandon his purpose.
It seems that Martinianus may have assented in his heart for he did not send her away immediately. He was expecting certain people to call upon him for a blessing and instructions but told her to wait. He intended to dismiss his guests, but was touched with remorse. Returning speedily to his cell he built a fire and stuck his feet into it. Hearing his scream of pain, Zoë ran to him. "If I cannot bear this weak fire, how can I endure the fire of hell?"
This example excited Zoë to sentiments of grief and repentance. She asked Martinianus's help in finding the way to salvation. Thus, she entered the convent of Saint Paula in Bethlehem, where she lived in continual penance, lying on the floor and consuming only bread and water.
It took nearly 7 months for Martinianus's legs to heal. When he was able to rise from the ground, he retired to a rock surrounded by water on every side to be secure from the approach of danger and all occasion of sin. Here he lived exposed to the elements and seeing no one except a boatman who brought him supplies twice annually.
After six years on the rock, he one day spied a ship wrecked at the bottom of his rock. All on board had perished except for one girl, who cried out for help. He rescued her but, fearing temptation of living alone with her for two months until the boatman came again, resolved to leave her and his provisions. She freely chose to live out her days on the rock in imitation of Martinianus.
He threw himself into the sea to shun all danger of sin, swam to the mainland, and travelled through many deserts to reach Athens, where he lived out the rest of his life.  Martinianus's name does not appear in the R.M., but does occur in the Greek Menaea. Some have questioned whether this story is entirely fictitious (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth). 
Saint Martinian's emblem is a dolphin, standing on a rock in the sea
(Roeder).
400 Felix of Trier generosity to the poor virtuous (Trèves) B (RM).
400 ST FELIX, Bishop OF TRIER miracles were reported as having taken place at his tomb
ST FELIX was consecrated bishop of Trier in 386 and took part in a synod held in his episcopal city at which St Martin was also present. He was a most holy man and extremely liberal to the poor. He built a monastery and a church which he dedicated to our Lady and the Theban Martyrs and in which he placed the alleged relics of the advance-guard of the Theban Legion—Thyrses the General and nine others. Because he had been elected by those who were said to have compassed the death of Priscillian, St Ambrose and Pope St Siricius refused to hold ecclesiastical communion with St Felix, and it was probably for this reason that he resigned his see in 398 and retired to the monastery he had built, which was subsequently called after St Paulinus. He died an edifying death and many miracles were reported as having taken place at his tomb. Sulpicius Severus speaks of him with much respect.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. iii, p. 36.

In 386, Saint Martin of Tours consecrated his friend Felix as bishop of the church of Trier (Trèves), which he governed for twelve years. Owing to the fact that this took place under the usurping emperor Maximus, the legality of his election was questioned by the Holy See and Saint Ambrose. Consequently, he retired to avoid trouble. Contemporary writers, particularly Saint Sulpicius Severus, speak very highly of Felix's virtues, especially his generosity to the poor (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
 400 Saint Martin of Tours nov 11 man came back to life  bishop tree fell; freeing prisoners; Patron of Soldiers bolt of lightning
When Sulpicius Severus first met Martin of Tours he was stunned. Not only did the bishop offer him hospitality at his residence -- a monk's cell in the wilderness instead of a palace -- but Martin washed Sulpicius' hands before dinner and his feet in the evening. But Sulpicius was just the kind of person Martin showed the greatest honor to -- a humble man without any rank or privilege. People of nobility and position were turned away from his abbey by chalk cliffs, out of fear of the temptation to pride. From that visit, Sulpicius became Martin's disciple, friend, and biographer. Little is known of many of the saints who died in the early years of Christianity but thanks to Sulpicius, who wrote his first biography of Martin before the saint died and who talked to most of the people involved in his life, we have a priceless record of Martin's life.
    Born in 315 or 316 in Pannonia, a Roman province that includes modern Hungary, Martin came into a world in transition. Christians were no longer persecuted by the Roman empire but Christianity was still not accepted by all. Martin's father, an Roman army officer who had risen through the ranks, remained faithful to the old religion and suspicious of this new sect, as did Martin's mother.
Therefore it was Martin's own spiritual yearning and hunger that led him to secretly knock on the door of the local Christian church and beg to be made a catechumen -- when he was ten years old. In contemplative prayer, he found the time to be alone with God that he ached for. In the discussion of the mysteries, he found the truth he hoped for.
He was still an unbaptized catechumen when he was forced to join the army at 15. The Roman army apparently had a law that required sons of veterans to serve in the military. Still, Martin found this so far removed from his desire to be a Christian monk that he had to be held in chains before taking the military oath. Once the oath was administered he felt bound to obey. He was assigned to a ceremonial cavalry unit that protected the emperor and rarely saw combat. Like his father, he became an officer and eventually was assigned to garrison duty in Gaul (present-day France).
Even in the military Martin attempted to live the life of a monk. Though he was entitled to a servant because he was an officer, he insisted on switching roles with his servant, cleaning the servant's boots instead of the other way around!
It was on this garrison duty at Amiens that the event took place that has been portrayed in art throughout the ages. On a bitterly cold winter day, the young tribune Martin rode through the gates, probably dressed in the regalia of his unit -- gleaming, flexible armor, ridged helmet, and a beautiful white cloak whose upper section was lined with lambswool. As he approached the gates he saw a beggar, with clothes so ragged that he was practically naked. The beggar must have been shaking and blue from the cold but no one reached out to help him. Martin, overcome with compassion, took off his mantle. In one quick stroke he slashed the lovely mantle in two with his sword, handed half to the freezing man and wrapped the remainder on his own shoulders. Many in the crowd thought this was so ridiculous a sight that they laughed and jeered but some realized that they were seeing Christian goodness. That night Martin dreamed that he saw Jesus wearing the half mantle he had given the beggar. Jesus said to the angels and saints that surrounded him, "See! this is the mantle that Martin, yet a catechumen, gave me." When he woke, it was the "yet a catechumen" that spurred Martin on and he went immediately to be baptized. He was eighteen years old.

We don't know much about the two years that followed but his baptism must have fed his growing desire to make a total commitment to Christ, a commitment that was in conflict with his military role. This conflict came to a crisis when the nomad Franks and Allemanni invaded the empire.

It was the practice at the time to give money to soldiers before battle, in order to infuse the soldiers with a greater love of their country and desire to fight. When Julian lined up the soldiers in Gaul to give them their bounty, Martin refused to accept the money -- and to fight -- saying, "Put me in the front of the army, without weapons or armor; but I will not draw sword again. I am become the soldier of Christ." There seems to be no evidence that Martin had been in combat before so perhaps he never had to reconcile his Christian beliefs with war. In any case, it does seem an unfortunate time to make such a decision. Julian, furious at what he saw as cowardice, told Martin he would grant him his wish and put him right in the middle of battle the next day. Until that happened, he had Martin imprisoned. However, against all predictions and all explanation, the nomads sent word that they wanted to negotiate for peace and the battle was postponed. Martin was released from his prison and from the army.
Searching for direction in his new life, Martin wound up in Poitiers, seeking the guidance and example of Saint Hilary. Hilary wished to make this promising young man a priest but Martin, out of humility, refused even to be ordained a deacon. He finally agreed to be ordained an exorcist (someone who performed rituals for those who were sick or possessed) when Hilary told him his refusal meant that he thought he was too good for such a lowly job.
On a trip over the Alps to visit his parents, he was attacked by robbers who not only wanted to steal what he owned but threatened to take his life. Calm and unperturbed, Martin spoke to the robbers about God. One was so impressed he converted and became a law-abiding citizen who told his own story to Sulpicius years later.
But Martin was to find even more trouble in his own home town. Though his mother converted, his father stubbornly refused. When Martin began to denounce publicly the Arian heretics that were then in power throughout the empire -- even within the Church -- Martin was whipped and driven out of his own hometown!
He could not escape trouble by leaving. When he discovered that Hilary had been exiled from Poitiers as well for the same reason, Martin went to an island near Milan to live as a hermit. The Arians soon discovered that Hilary was even more trouble in exile, because of the writing he did, and let him come back. When Hilary returned to Poitiers, Martin was there to meet him and renew their old friendship. In order to fulfill Martin's call to solitude, Hilary gave Martin a wilderness retreat. As disciples came to Martin for direction, he founded a monastery for them called Ligug‚. It was there he performed the first of many miracles. When a catechumen died before baptism, Martin laid himself over the body and after several hours the man came back to life. Sulpicius also had talked to this man who was baptized immediately but lived many years after that. Martin remained in this monastery near his teacher and friend until after Hilary died.
This was still the era when bishops were chosen by the people and when the bishop of Tours died, the people decided they wanted an example of holiness as their new bishop. After that their choice was simple -- Martin. But as well as they knew his holiness, they also knew he would never agree to be a bishop so they conceived a trick. A citizen of Tours came to Martin and begged him to come visit his sick wife. When the kindhearted Martin got to Tours crowds of people came out of hiding and surrounded him. Unable to escape, he was swept into the city. The people may have been enthusiastic about their choice but the bishops there to consecrate the new bishop declared they were repelled by this dirty, ragged, disheveled choice. The people's reply was that they didn't choose Martin for his haircut, which could be fixed by any barber, but for his holiness and poverty, that only charity and grace could bring. Overwhelmed by the will of the crowds the bishops had no choice but to consecrate Martin.
Instead of living in a palace, Martin made his first home as bishop in a cell attached to a church in hopes of being able to maintain his lifestyle as a monk. But at that time bishops were more than spiritual pastors. With the Empire's administration disintegrating under outside invasion and internal conflict, often the only authority in a town like Tours was the bishop. People came to Martin constantly with questions and concerns that involved all the affairs of the area.
To regain some of his solitude Martin fled outside the city to live in a cabin made of branches. There he attracted as many as eighty disciples who wanted to follow him and founded the monastery of Marmoutiers. He kept in touch with Tours through priest representatives who reported to him and carried out his instructions and duties with the people.

It may seem from this that Martin did not get involved with what was going on but Martin was deeply committed to his responsibilities.
One of those responsibilities was, he felt, the missionary conversion of those who still held to various non-Christian beliefs. In those early days of Christianity such old beliefs survived in abundance. He did not attempt to convert these people from a high pulpit or from far away. His method was to travel from house to house and speak to people about God. Then he would organize the converts into a community under the direction of a priest of monk. In order to let them know of his continued love and to keep them following the faith, he would then visit these new communities regularly.
Of course he ran into resistance. In one rather ridiculous scene, locals decided to get back at him by dressing up as the gods. So in the middle of the night, he was visited by a waggish talkative Mercury, a doltish Jupiter, and an enthusiastically naked Venus, as well as various "wood spirits." Needless to say, he was unconvinced by this show.
In one town, when he tried to convince the locals to cut down a pine tree they venerated, they agreed -- but only if Martin would sit where the tree was going to fall! Martin seated himself directly under the path of the leaning tree and the townspeople began to cut from the other side. However, just as the tree began to topple, Martin made the sign of the cross and the tree fell in the opposite direction -- slowly enough to miss the fleeing townspeople. Martin won many converts that day.
Martin tore down many non-Christian temples and always built a Christian church in their place to make a point about true worship and give people a genuine replacement for their false idols. In once case when a huge tower was not torn down under his orders, a bolt of lightning came to destroy it after his prayers.
Martin was also dedicated to freeing of prisoners, so much so that when authorities, even the emperors, heard he was coming, they refused to see him because they knew he would request mercy for someone and they would be unable to refuse. Martin was so dedicated that few escaped his entreaties. One who didn't was a general named Avitianus who arrived at Tours with ranks of prisoners he intended to torture and execute the next day. As soon as Martin heard of this cruel plan, he left his monastery for the city. Although he arrived there after midnight, he went straight to the house where Avitianus was staying and threw himself on the threshold crying out in a loud voice. Sulpicius tells us that it was an angel who awakened Avitianus to tell him Martin was outside. The servants, certain Avitianus was dreaming, reassured him there was no one out there (without looking themselves). But after the angel woke him up the second time, Avitianus went outside himself and told Martin, "Don't even say a word. I know what your request is. Every prisoner shall be spared."
Remarkably enough Sulpicius had this story from Avitianus himself, who loved to tell it.
Martin was human and made mistakes. In spite of what we may think of people in earlier times, many were skeptical of his visions of demons, believing them to come from too much fasting. He also announced eight years before he died that the Antichrist had been born. But his visions, whatever the source, are still instructive.
At one point the devil appeared to him dressed in magnificent robes, encrusted with gold and gems, and announced he was Jesus and that Martin was to adore him. Martin immediately saw the mistake the devil had made (and had to make) and asked, "Where are the marks of the nails? Where the piercing of the spear? Where the crown of thorns? When I see the marks of the Passion I shall adore my Lord." Jesus would not come in riches but with the signs of his suffering and poverty.
Martin's compassion was as well-known as his miracles. In just one case out of many a father came to him griefstricken that his daughter had never spoken. Martin healed her by asking her to say her father's name -- which she did.
However it was this compassion and mercy that led to what he considered his greatest mistake. Bishops from Spain including a bishop named Ithacius had gone to the emperor soliciting his help in destroying a new heresy taught by a man named Priscillian. Martin agreed completely that Priscillian was teaching heresy (among other things, he rejected marriage, and said that the world was created by the devil) and that he should be excommunicated. But he was horrified that Ithacius had appealed to a secular authority for help and even more upset that Ithacius was demanding the execution of Priscillian and his followers. Martin hurried to intervene with emperor Maximus, as did Ambrose of Milan. Martin stated his case that this was a church matter and that secular authority had no power to intervene and that excommunication of the heretics was punishment enough. He left believing he had won the argument and saved the heretics but after he left Ithacius began his manipulation again and Priscillian and the other prisoners were tortured and executed. This was the first time a death sentence had been given for heresy -- a horrible precedent.
Martin's mistake was yet to come. He hurried back in order to forestall a massacre of the Priscillianists. Once there he absolutely refused communion with the bishops who had murdered the people. This was a strong statement that rejected the persecuting bishops as part of the communion of the Church.
Unfortunately, the emperor Maximus knew the key to Martin's heart. He had prisoners that supported the former emperor Gratian in captivity and knew Martin wanted mercy for them. Maximus said that he would free these prisoners if Martin would share communion with Ithacius. Martin agreed to do so, but afterwards was so overcome with shame and guilt for giving in to such evil that he never went to any more assemblies of bishops.
On his way home, still weighed down with a feeling that he had sinned by communicating with Ithacius, he had a vision of angel who told him that although he was right to regret what he did, he was wrong to brood over his faults. "You saw no other way out," the angel said. "Take courage again: recover your ordinary firmness; otherwise you will be imperilling not your glory but your salvation." This advice we all should remember if we dwell too much on our mistakes.
Martin died when he was over 80 years old on November 8. Historians disagree on the year and place it anywhere from 395 to 402. His feast is November 11, the day he was buried, at his request, in the Cemetery of the Poor.
316?-397)  If saints, like stars, vary in greatness, St. Martin of Tours is a saint of great magnitude. Although he flourished in ancient times, we know a good deal about him--a further proof of his wide popularity.
     Martin was the son of an Italian officer of the Roman army. He was born in what is now Szombathely, Hungary, when his father was on a military tour of duty; but before long his parents returned to Pavia, Italy, and it was there that the son grew up. Although the parents were pagans, Martin became a Christian catechumen at age 10. Roman law required that the sons of soldiers also be soldiers, so Martin took the military oath at 15, and was discharged only in 356. But his life was more Christian than soldierly, especially after his baptism at 18. From his earliest military years dates the story, legendary but characteristic, of his encounter with the poor man of Amiens, France.
     One wintry day, says the tale, Martin encountered at the city gate a man who stood begging alms, shaking with cold but spurned by passersby. Touched by the sight, the young soldier wanted to help. Since he had no coins on his person, he took off his military cloak, cut it in two with his sword, gave the beggar one part, and donned the other part himself. Some bystanders laughed at this soldier dressed in a ragged half-cape. But that night in a dream, Private Martin saw Jesus himself dressed in the beggar's half. Jesus said, "Martin, yet a catechumen, covered me with this garment."
     Eventually the military man decided that as a soldier of Christ he could no longer serve in the ranks. Emperor Julian ("the Apostate") thereupon jailed him for "cowardice", but shortly afterward gave him a discharge. Then he returned home and converted his mother and others to Christianity (but not his father).
     For a while he campaigned against the local Arian heretics.  (They denied the divinity of Christ.) Then, fascinated by the monastic life that was becoming popular among devout Christians, he took up the life of a hermit on an island near Genoa. After a while he contacted St. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers in western France, and received from him an invitation to move his hermitage to the present Ligugé near Poitiers. When a number of other men came to Ligugé and asked to join him, Martin the hermit established what seems to have been the pioneer monastery in France. This was around 360. During the next decade he not only helped form his disciples in the religious life but preached throughout the countryside of Gaul, which was still largely pagan.
     Gifted with the power of miracles, he was a very successful missionary.
     In 371, the people of Tours insisted that Martin be their bishop. He refused. But after they had tricked him into being consecrated, he finally accepted the task. Unwilling to abandon his monastic life, he set up a new monastery at Marmoutier, near Tours. In a short time the community grew to 80 monks. In this district, too, Bishop Martin became an effective missionary; indeed, he moved out from Touraine into northern Gaul (including Paris) and into the southeast of France.
     The longer Martin lived, the more his influence increased, in matters of state as well as church. Thus he intervened successfully with a tyrannical army officer to prevent him from torturing and executing a number of prisoners. He was less successful, however, in his effort to prevent the government from executing some Priscillianists. Not that he approved the errors of these Christian heretics. He simply believed that the Church, not the civil government, should handle the case, and that death was not an appropriate penalty.
Martin was still engaged in his tireless labors when it was revealed to him that his death was approaching. He told his disciples of this coming event, but they begged him not to "desert" them. Torn between their will and God's will, he prayed in anguish, "Lord, if your people still need me, I will keep working." But whatever delay he was granted was not long. He died in the harness on November 8, 397. Burial was at Tours on November 11, which became his feastday.
     St. Martin's tomb quickly became one of the most beloved shrines in Europe, and Martin one of the most popular saints, not only in France, where his name is interwoven with many folk traditions (e.g. the name "St. Martin's Summer" for "Indian Summer"), but especially in England. There the oldest existing church in the country, near Canterbury, is dedicated to him. And to this day, the feast of St. Martin of Tours, "this glory of France and light of the western Church", is listed in the calendar of the Anglican Church.  --Father Robert F. McNamara
403 St.  Epiphanius of Salamis  “Oracle of Pal­estine’ bishop of Constantia Salamis Cyprus  authority on Mary and taught the primacy of Peter among the Apostles reputation for scholarship austerities mortifications spiritual wisdom and advice authored many treatises.
Salamínæ, in Cypro, sancti Epiphánii Epíscopi, qui, multíplici eruditióne et sacrárum sciéntia litterárum excéllens, vitæ quoque sanctitáte, zelo cathólicæ fídei, munificéntia in páuperes et virtúte miraculórum éxstitit admirándus.
    At Salamis in Cyprus, St. Epiphanius, a bishop of great erudition, with a profound knowledge of the Holy Scriptures.  He is to be admired for the sanctity of his life, his zeal for the Catholic faith, his charity to the poor, and the gift of miracles.
He was born in Besanduk, Palestine, in 315, and he became an expert in scriptural languages. He spent time as a monk and as a hermit. In 333, he was ordained and made the abbot of a monastery at Eleutheropolis. He became the bishop of Cyprus in 367, a foe of the Arians. After a series of dis­putes, Epiphanius concentrated on writing. He was an authority on Mary and taught the primacy of Peter among the Apostles. He is considered an outstanding Church defender.  Salamis Cyprus
Epiphanius of Salamis B (RM) Born at Besanduk, Palestine, c. 315; died at sea in 403. Born into a Hellenized Jewish family, Epiphanius became an expert in the languages needed to understand Scripture. From his earliest youth he was a monk in Palestine. Later he went to Egypt and stayed at several desert communities. He returned to Palestine about 333, was ordained, and became superior of a monastery at Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), which he had built in his youth and which he directed for 30 years.
He achieved a widespread reputation for his scholarship, austerities, mortifications, spiritual wisdom, and advice. Called "the Oracle of Palestine," he became bishop of Constantia (Salamis), Cyprus, and metropolitan of Cyprus in 367, although still continuing as superior of his monastery. His reputation was such that he was one of the few orthodox bishops not harassed by Arian Emperor Valens, though Epiphanius preached vigorously against Arianism.
He supported Bishop Paulinus in 376 at Antioch against the claims of Metetius and the Eastern bishops, and attended a council in Rome summoned by Pope Saint Damasus in 382. Late in his life Epiphanius was embroiled in several unpleasant episodes with fellow prelates. First, he ordained a priest in another bishop's diocese.
He also denounced his host, Bishop John of Jerusalem, in John's cathedral in 394 for John's softness to Origenism (he believed Origen responsible for many of the heresies of the times). This won for Epiphanius the friendship of Saint Jerome (Born c. 304; died in Rome in 384), who was a bitter opponent of Origen. (It is said that there was a test of wills between Jerome and Origen; the winner of the crown was the one who outlived the other, Jerome.)
Like Saint Jerome, Epiphanius was too immoderate in his zeal and unable to use tact and discretion in his polemics.
When Epiphanius was nearly 80, in 402, at the behest of Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, the saint went to Constantinople to support Theophilus in his campaign against Saint John Chrysostom, and the four "Tall Brothers" and then admitted he knew nothing of their teachings. Yes, even a saint can be headstrong or ornery at times.  When he realized he was being used as a tool by Theophilus against Saint John Chrysostom, who had given refuge to the monks persecuted by Theophilus and who were appealing to the emperor, and Epiphanius started back to Salamis, only to die on the way home.
He wrote numerous theological treatises, among them Ancoratus, on the Trinity and the Resurrection; Panarion (The Medicine Box) on some 80 heresies--real and imagined--and their refutations. The number 80 was chosen to correspond with the 'fourscore concubines' of the Song of Songs (6:8). He also authored De mensuribus et ponderibus, on ancient Jewish customs and measures. He was an authority on devotion to Mary and taught the primacy of Peter among the Apostles (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney)
404 ST ISIDORE OF ALEXANDRIA governor of the great hospital at Alexandria.
 Alexandríæ beáti Isidóri, sanctitáte vitæ, fide et miráculis clari.
       At Alexandria, blessed Isidore, renowned for holiness of life, faith, and miracles.
IN early life Isidore, after distributing his large fortune to the poor, became an ascetic in the Nitrian desert. Afterwards he fell under the influence of St Athanasius, who ordained him and took him to Rome in 341. The greater part of his life, however, seems to have been passed as governor of the great hospital at Alexandria. When Palladius, the author of the Lausiac History, came to Egypt to adopt an ascetic life, he addressed himself first to Isidore, who advised him simply to practise austerity and self-denial, and then to return for further instruction. During his last days the saint, when over eighty years of age, was overwhelmed with persecutions, misrepresentations and troubles of every description. St Jerome denounced him in violent terms for his supposed Origenist sympathies, and his own bishop, Theophilus, who had once been his friend, excommunicated him, so that Isidore was driven to take refuge in the Nitrian desert, where he had spent his youth. In the end he fled to Constantinople to seek the protection of St John Chrysostom, and there shortly afterwards he died at the age of eighty-five.

See Palladius, Historia Lausiaca, and Dialogus de vita Chrysostomi; and Acta Sanctorum, January 15.
409 Severus of Naples renowned miracle worker raised dead man B (RM)
Neápoli, in Campánia, sancti Sevéri Epíscopi, qui, inter ália admiránda, mórtuum de sepúlcro excitávit ad tempus, ut mendácem víduæ et pupíllórum creditórum argúeret falsitátis.
 At Naples in Campania, Bishop St. Severus, who, among other prodigies, raised for a short time a dead man from the grave in order to convict of falsehood the lying creditor of a widow and her children.
Bishop Severus of Naples was a renowned miracle worker. He raised a dead man to life in order that he should bear witness in favor of his persecuted widow (Benedictines).
409 Saint Olympias the Deaconess; daughter of senator Anicius Secundus, granddaughter of the noted eparch Eulalios; distributed her wealth to all the needy: the poor, the orphaned and the widowed, also gave generously to the churches, monasteries, hospices and shelters for the downtrodden and the homeless; Miracles and healings occurred from her relics
Orthodoxe Kirche: 25. Juli (auch 24. oder 26. Juli) Katholische Kirche: 17. Dezember
Eulalios (is mentioned in the life of St Nicholas). Before her marriage to Anicius Secundus, Olympias's mother had been married to the Armenian emperor Arsak and became widowed. When St Olympias was still very young, her parents betrothed her to a nobleman. The marriage was supposed to take place when St Olympias reached the age of maturity. The bridegroom soon died, however, and St Olympias did not wish to enter into another marriage, preferring a life of virginity.
After the death of her parents she became the heir to great wealth, which she began to distribute to all the needy: the poor, the orphaned and the widowed. She also gave generously to the churches, monasteries, hospices and shelters for the downtrodden and the homeless.
Holy Patriarch Nectarius (381-397) appointed St Olympias as a deaconess. The saint fulfilled her service honorably and without reproach.

St Olympias provided great assistance to hierarchs coming to Constantinople: Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium, Onesimus of Pontum, Gregory the Theologian, St Basil the Great's brother Peter of Sebaste, Epiphanius of Cyprus, and she attended to them all with great love.
 She did not regard her wealth as her own but rather God's, and she distributed not only to good people, but also to their enemies.
St John Chrysostom (November 13) had high regard for St Olympias, and he showed her good will and spiritual love. When this holy hierarch was unjustly banished, St Olympias and the other deaconesses were deeply upset. Leaving the church for the last time, St John Chrysostom called out to St Olympias and the other deaconesses Pentadia, Proklia and Salbina. He said that the matters incited against him would come to an end, but scarcely more would they see him. He asked them not to abandon the Church, but to continue serving it under his successor. The holy women, shedding tears, fell down before the saint.
Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria (385-412), had repeatedly benefited from the generosity of St Olympias, but turned against her for her devotion to St John Chrysostom. She had also taken in and fed monks, arriving in Constantinople, whom Patriarch Theophilus had banished from the Egyptian desert. He levelled unrighteous accusations against her and attempted to cast doubt on her holy life.
After banishment of St John Chrysostom, someone set fire to a large church, and after this a large part of the city burned down.
All the supporters of St John Chrysostom came under suspicion of arson, and they were summoned for interrogation. They summoned St Olympias to trial, rigorously interrogating her. They fined her a large sum of money for the crime of arson, despite her innocence and a lack of evidence against her. After this the saint left Constantinople and set out to Kyzikos (on the Sea of Marmara). But her enemies did not cease their persecution. In the year 405 they sentenced her to prison at Nicomedia, where the saint underwent much grief and deprivation. St John Chrysostom wrote to her from his exile, consoling her in her sorrow. In the year 409 St Olympias entered into eternal rest.
St Olympias appeared in a dream to the Bishop of Nicomedia and commanded that her body be placed in a wooden coffin and cast into the sea. "Wherever the waves carry the coffin, there let my body be buried," said the saint. The coffin was brought by the waves to a place named Brokthoi near Constantinople.
The inhabitants, informed of this by God, took the holy relics of St Olympias and placed them in the church of the holy Apostle Thomas.
Afterwards, during an invasion of enemies, the church was burned, but the relics were preserved. Under the Patriarch Sergius (610-638), they were transferred to Constantinople and put in the women's monastery founded by St Olympias. Miracles and healings occurred from her relics.
Olympias
Orthodoxe Kirche: 25. Juli (auch 24. oder 26. Juli) Katholische Kirche: 17. Dezember
OlympiasOlympias wurde 361 oder 368 in einer vornehmen Familie in Konstantinopel geboren. Sie heiratete den Stadtpräfekten, verlor aber ihren Ehemann nach wenigen Monaten. Ein Angebot des Kaisers Theodosius zu einer Ehe mit einem seiner Verwandten lehnte sie ab. Vielmehr verteilte sie ihr Vermögen an die Notleidenden und ließ in Konstantinopel ein Frauenkloster bauen. Patriarch Nektarios weihte sie zur Diakonisse. Sie wurde auch die erste Vorsteherin in ihrem Kloster. Besonders eng war ihre Beziehung zu Johannes Chrysostomus. Als Chrysostomus verbannt wurde, wurde auch Olympias gezwungen, Konstantinopel zu verlassen. Sie starb 408 oder 409 in Nikomedien (Izmit).
410 In Thebáide deposítio sanctæ Euphrásiæ Vírginis favored with miracles both before and after her death
       In Thebais, the death of St. Euphrasia, virgin.
Virgin, b. in 380; d. after 410. She was the daughter of Antigonus, a senator of Constantinople, and a relation of Emperor Theodosius.

420 ST EUPHRASIA, OR EUPRAXIA, VIRGIN
THE Emperor Theodosius I had a kinsman Antigonus, who died within a year of the birth of his daughter Euphrasia, and the emperor took the widow and her child under his protection. When the little girl was five years old he arranged to betroth her to the son of a wealthy senator—in accordance with the custom of the time—the marriage being deferred until the maiden should have reached a suitable age. The widow herself began to be sought in marriage, and she withdrew from court and went with Euphrasia to Egypt, where she settled down near a convent of nuns. Euphrasia, then seven years of age, was greatly drawn to the nuns and begged to be allowed to stay with them. To humour her and thinking it was only a childish fancy, her mother left her there for a little, expecting her soon to weary of the life, but the child was persistent, although she was told that she would have to fast and to sleep on the ground and to learn the whole Psalter if she remained. The abbess then said to the mother, Leave the little girl with us, for the grace of God is working in her heart. Your piety and that of Antigonus have opened to her the most perfect way”.  The good woman wept for joy, and leading her child before the image of our Lord she said, “Lord Jesus Christ, receive this child. Thee alone doth she love and seek, and to thy service alone doth she commend herself.” Then turning to Euphrasia she exclaimed, “May God who laid the foundations of the mountains, keep you always steadfast in His holy fear”.

A few days later the child was clothed in the nun’s habit, and her mother asked if she were satisfied. “Oh, mother” cried the little novice, “it is my bridal robe, given me to do honour to Jesus my beloved.” Soon afterwards the mother went to rejoin her husband in a better world, and as the years went by Euphrasia grew up a beautiful girl in the seclusion of the convent.

In due time the emperor, presumably Arcadius, sent for her to come to Con­stantinople to marry the senator to whom he had betrothed her. She was now twelve years old and an heiress, but she wrote him a letter begging him to allow her to follow her vocation and requesting him to distribute her parents’ property to the poor as well as to enfranchise all her slaves. The emperor carried out her requests but Euphrasia was sorely tried by vain imaginations and temptations to know more of the world she had forsaken. The abbess, to whom she opened her heart, set her some hard and humbling tasks to divert her attention and to drive away the evil spirits from which she suffered in body as well as in soul. Once the abbess ordered her to remove a pile of stones from one place to another, and when the task was completed she continued to make her carry them backwards and forwards thirty times. In this and in whatever else she was bidden to do, Euphrasia complied cheerfully and promptly she cleaned out the cells of the other nuns, carried water for the kitchen, chopped the wood, baked the bread and cooked the food. The nun who performed these arduous duties was generally excused the night offices, but Euphrasia was never missing from her place in the choir, and yet at the age of twenty she was taller, better developed and more beautiful than any of the others.

Her meekness and humility were extraordinary. A maid in the kitchen once asked her why she sometimes went without food for the entire week, a thing no one but the abbess ever attempted. When the saint said she did it out of obedience, the woman called her a hypocrite, who sought to make herself conspicuous in the hope of being chosen superior. Far from resenting this unjust accusation, Euphrasia fell at her feet and besought her to pray for her.

As the saint lay on her death-bed, Julia, a beloved sister who shared her cell, besought Euphrasia to obtain for her the grace of being with her in Heaven as she had been her companion on earth, and three days after her friend’s demise, Julia was taken also. The aged abbess who had originally received Euphrasia remained for a month together very sad at the loss of her dear ones. She prayed earnestly that she might not have to linger on now that the others had gone to their reward. The following morning when the nuns entered her cell they found only her lifeless body, for her soul had fled in the night to join the other two. According to Russian usage St Euphrasia is named in the preparation of the Byzantine Mass.

The remarkable Greek life, which is the source of alt we know concerning St Euphrasia, has been printed in the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii. There seems good reason to regard it as a more or less contemporary and, in its main features, a trustworthy narrative. Certainly the asceticism it reflects is the asceticism of that age. Within a few years of the date at which Euphrasia died, St Simeon Stylites set up his first pillar. Of Euphrasia, as of her abbess, it is stated that she stood upright in one spot for thirty days until she lost consciousness and fell down in a swoon. Etheria in her pilgrimage (c. 390) tells us much of the ebdomadarii who made it a point of honour and endurance to pass an entire week without food from Sunday to Saturday evening. Moreover, the whole atmosphere of the document recalls vividly the ascetic ideals set before us in the Life of St Melania the Younger, who was a contemporary. See also A. B.C. Dunbar, Dictionary of Saintly Women, vol. i, pp. 292—293.
Her father died shortly after her birth, and her mother, also Euphrasia, devoted her life thenceforth exclusively to the service of God. To carry out this ideal she abandoned the capital, and, with her seven-year-old daughter, repaired to Egypt, where she dwelt on one of her estates, near a convent, and adopted the nuns' austere mode of life. This example aroused in her daughter the desire to enter the convent, and her mother gave her into the care of the superior, that she might be trained in the ascetic life. After her mother's death she declined an offer of marriage made, by the Emperor Theodosius, on behalf of a senator's son, transferred to the emperor her entire fortune, to be used for charitable purposes, and took up, with a holy ardour, the rigorous practices of Christian perfection. She was about thirty when she died. Her feast is celebrated in the Greek Church on 25 July, and in the Latin Church on 13 March. She is mentioned by St. John Damascene, in his third "Oratio de imaginibus".

Euphrasia (Eupraxia)  Orthodoxe Kirche: 25. Juli  Katholische Kirche: 13. März 
Euphrasia, Tochter des Senators Antigonos und seiner Ehefrau Eupraxia, wurde um 380 in Konstantinopel geboren. Nach dem Tod ihres Vaters kam sie mit ihrer Mutter nach Ägypten, wo sie um 387 in ein Nonnenkloster in der Thebais eintrat. Ihr wurde die Gabe der Heilung verliehen. Sie starb dort friedlich in jungen Jahren nach 410 (evt. 413).

Euphrasia of Constantinople V (RM) (also known as Euphraxia)  Born in Constantinople, Byzantium; died c. 420. Saint Euphrasia's father, Antigonus, was a blood relative of Emperor Theodosius I. Her mother, Eupraxia, was no less illustrious for her birth and virtue. Because of his close ties with her parents and the fact that she was an only child, the emperor took an interest in Euphrasia and, when she was only five, found her a rich senator for her future husband. After her birth, her pious parents mutually consented and vowed themselves to perpetual continence. From that time they lived together as brother and sister in order to devote themselves to prayer, alms-giving, and penance.
Antigonus died within a year, and the holy widow withdrew with her daughter to her large estates in Egypt in order to avoid importunate suitors for marriage and the distraction of friends. Near her home in Tabenisi was a monastery of one hundred and thirty austere nuns, who fasted severely and regularly, wore and slept on sackcloth that they made themselves, and prayed almost without interruption. When sick, they bore their pains with patience and thanksgiving, esteeming them an effect of the divine mercy: nor did they seek relief from physicians, except in cases of absolute necessity. Delicate and excessive attention to health nourishes self-love and often destroys the health that it anxiously tries to preserve.

The example of these holy virgins, moved the devout mother to greater fervor in the exercise of faith and charity. She frequently visited these servants of God, and earnestly entreated them to accept a considerable annual revenue, with an obligation that they should always be bound to pray for the soul of her deceased husband. But the abbess refused the estate, saying: "We have renounced all the conveniences of the world, in order to purchase heaven. We are poor, and such we desire to remain." She could only be prevailed upon to accept a continuous supply of oil for the votive lamp and incense for the altar.

The seven-year-old Euphrasia asked her mother for permission to serve God in this convent. Eupraxia joyfully gave permission and soon after presented Euphrasia to the abbess, who, taking up an image of Christ, gave it into her hands. The tender virgin kissed it, saying: "By vow I consecrate myself to Christ." Then the mother led her before an image of our Redeemer, and lifting up her hands to heaven, said: "Lord Jesus Christ, receive this child under your special protection. She seeks and loves You alone and commends herself only to You." Then turning to her dear daughter, she said: "May God, who laid the foundations of the mountains, strengthen you always in his holy fear." And leaving her in the hands of the abbess, she left the monastery weeping.

At first the nuns supposed the youngster would soon tire of the austerities of religious life. None of the burdens, however, discouraged Euphrasia. Of course, she probably wondered at times whether she had missed some great pleasure by quitting the world, but her greatest joy was in serving God by serving others.

When Eupraxia later fell deathly ill, she gave her last instructions to her daughter: "Fear God, honor your sisters, and serve them with humility. Never think of what you have been, nor say to yourself that you are of royal extraction. Be humble and poor on earth, that you may be rich in heaven." The good mother then died.

When news of her death reached the ears of the emperor, Theodosius sent for the noble virgin to court, having promised her in marriage to a favorite young senator. But in her own hand the virgin wrote him: "Invincible emperor, having consecrated myself to Christ in perpetual chastity, I cannot be false to my engagement, and marry a mortal man, who will shortly be the food of worms. For the sake of my parents, be pleased to distribute their estates among the poor, the orphans, and the church. Set all my slaves at liberty, and discharge my vassals and servants, giving them whatever is their due. Order my father's stewards to acquit my farmers of all they owe since his death, that I may serve God without let or hindrance, and may stand before him without the solicitude of temporal affairs. Pray for me, you and your empress, that I may be made worthy to serve Christ."

The messengers returned with this letter to the emperor, who shed many tears in reading it. The senators who heard it burst also into tears, and said to his majesty; "She is the worthy daughter of Antigonus and Eupraxia, of your royal blood, and the holy offspring of a virtuous stock." The emperor punctually executed all she desired, a little before his death, in 395.

Saint Euphrasia was to her pious sisters a perfect pattern of humility, meekness, and charity. If she found herself assaulted by any temptation she immediately confessed it to the abbess, to drive away the devil by that humiliation, and to seek a remedy. The discreet superioress often enjoined her on such occasions, some humbling and painful penitential labor; as sometimes to carry great stones from one place to another; which employment she once under an obstinate assault, continued thirty days together with wonderful simplicity, till the devil being vanquished by her humble obedience and chastisement of her body, he left her in peace. Her diet was only herbs or pulse, which she took after sunset, at first every day, but afterwards only once in two or three, or sometimes seven days. But her abstinence received its chief merit from her humility; without which it would have been a fast of devils.

She cleaned out the chambers of the other nuns, carried water to the kitchen, and, out of obedience, cheerfully employed herself in the meanest drudgery; making painful labor a part of her penance. To mention one instance of her extraordinary meekness and humility: it is related, that one day a maid in the kitchen asked her why she fasted whole weeks, which no other attempted to do besides the abbess. Her answer was, that the abbess had enjoined her that penance. The other called her a hypocrite. Upon which Euphrasia fell at her feet, begging her to pardon and pray for her. In which action it is hard to say, whether we ought more to admire the patience with which she received so unjust a rebuke and slander or the humility with which she sincerely condemned herself; as if, by her hypocrisy and imperfections, she had been a scandal to others.
She was favored with miracles both before and after her death at the age of 30. Her name is still mentioned in the preparation of the Byzantine Mass (Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
411 St Alexis fragrant myrrh flowed from holy relics healing upon the sick. the Voice was heard again in the temple:
"Seek the Man of God in the house of Euphemianus."

born at Rome into the family of the pious and poverty-loving Euphemianus and Aglais. The couple was childless for a long time and constantly prayed the Lord to grant them a child.
And the Lord consoled the couple with the birth of their son Alexis.

At six years of age the child began to read and successfully studied the mundane sciences, but it was with particular diligence that he read Holy Scripture. When he was a young man, he began to imitate his parents: he fasted strictly, distributed alms and beneath his fine clothing he secretly wore a hair shirt. Early on there burned within him the desire to leave the world and serve God. His parents, however, had arranged for Alexis to marry a beautiful and virtuous bride.
On his wedding night, Alexis gave her his ring and his belt (which were very valuable) and said, "Keep these things, Beloved, and may the Lord be with us until His grace provides us with something better." Secretly leaving his home, he boarded a ship sailing for Mesopotamia.
Icon of the Lord "Not-made-by-Hands"
Arriving in the city of Edessa, where the Icon of the Lord "Not-made-by-Hands" (August 16) was preserved, Alexis sold everything that he had, distributed the money to the poor and began to live near the church of the Most Holy Theotokos under a portico. The saint used a portion of the alms he received to buy bread and water, and he distributed the rest to the aged and infirm. Each Sunday he received the Holy Mysteries.
The parents sought the missing Alexis everywhere, but without success. The servants sent by Euphemianus also arrived in Edessa, but they did not recognize the beggar sitting at the portico as their master. His body was withered by fasting, his comeliness vanished, his stature diminished.
The saint recognized them and gave thanks to the Lord that he received alms from his own servants.
The inconsolable mother of St Alexis confined herself in her room, incessantly praying for her son. His wife also grieved with her in-laws.
St Alexis dwelt in Edessa for seventeen years. Once, the Mother of God spoke to the sacristan of the church where the saint lived: "Lead into My church that Man of God, worthy of the Kingdom of Heaven. His prayer rises up to God like fragrant incense, and the Holy Spirit rests upon him." The sacristan began to search for such a man, but was not able to find him for a long time. Then he prayed to the Most Holy Theotokos, beseeching Her to clear up his confusion. Again a voice from the icon proclaimed that the Man of God was the beggar who sat in the church portico.
The sacristan found St Alexis and brought him into the church. Many recognized him and began to praise him. The saint secretly boarded a ship bound for Cilicia, intending to visit the church of St Paul in Tarsus. But God ordained otherwise. A storm took the ship far to the West and it reached the coast of Italy. The saint journeyed to Rome and decided to live in his own house. Unrecognized, he humbly asked his father's permission to settle in some corner of his courtyard. Euphemianus settled Alexis in a specially constructed cell and gave orders to feed him from his table.
Living at his parental home, the saint continued to fast and he spent day and night at prayer. He humbly endured insults and jeering from the servants of his father. The cell of Alexis was opposite his wife's windows, and the ascetic suffered grievously when he heard her weeping. Only his immeasurable love for God helped the saint endure this torment. St Alexis dwelt at the house of his parents for seventeen years and the Lord revealed to him the day of his death. Then the saint, taking paper and ink, wrote certain things that only his wife and parents would know. He also asked them to forgive him for the pain he caused them.
On the day of St Alexis' death in 411, Archbishop Innocent (402-417) was serving Liturgy in the presence of the emperor Honorius (395-423). During the services a Voice was heard from the altar: "Come unto Me, all ye who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest" (Mt.11:28).
All those present fell to the ground in terror.
The Voice continued: "On Friday morning the Man of God comes forth from the body; have him pray for the city, that you may remain untroubled." They began to search throughout Rome, but they did not find the saint. Thursday evening the Pope was serving Vigil in the Church of St Peter. He asked the Lord to show them where to find the Man of God.
After Liturgy the Voice was heard again in the temple: "Seek the Man of God in the house of Euphemianus." All hastened there, but the saint was already dead. His face shone like the face of an angel, and his hand clasped the paper, and they were unable to take it. They placed the saint's body on a cot, covered with costly coverings. The Pope and the Emperor bent their knees and turned to the saint, as to one yet alive, asking him to open his hand. And the saint heard their prayer. When the letter was read, the righteous one's wife and parents tearfully venerated his holy relics.
The body of the saint was placed in the center of the city. The emperor and the Pope carried the body of the saint into the church, where it remained for a whole week, and then was placed in a marble crypt. A fragrant myrrh began to flow from the holy relics, bestowing healing upon the sick.
The venerable relics of St Alexis, the Man of God, were buried in the church of St Boniface. The relics were uncovered in the year 1216.  The Life of St Alexis, the Man of God, was always very popular in Russia.
412 Cyrus and John from the city of Konopa, near Alexandria Transfer of the Relics of the Holy Martyrs, Unmercenaries and Wonderworkers many miracles, healings of the sick and infirm
(where they suffered in the year 311) to the nearby village of Manuphin, took place in the year 412. This Egyptian village prompted fear in everyone, since in a former time there was a pagan temple inhabited by evil spirits. Patriarch Theophilus (385-412) wanted to cleanse this place of demons, but he died. His wish was fulfilled by his successor in the See of Alexandria, the holy Patriarch Cyril (412-444). He prayed fervently in carrying out this project. An angel of the Lord appeared in a vision to the hierarch and commanded the venerable relics of Sts Cyrus and John be transferred to Manuphin. His Holiness Patriarch Cyril did the angel's bidding and built a church at Manuphin in the name of the holy martyrs.

From that time this place was purified of the Enemy's influence, and by the prayers of the holy Martyrs Cyrus and John there began to occur many miracles, healings of the sick and infirm. An account Sts Cyrus and John is located under January 31.

 Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: Cyrus und Johannes - Übertragung der Gebeine - 28. Juni
Cyrus wurde in Alexandria geboren. Er war Arzt und Christ und behandelte alle Armen unentgeltlich an Leib und Seele. Er konnte durch sein Bekenntnis zu Christus viele heiden bekehren. Während der diokletianischen Verfolgung floh er in die arabische Wüste. Auch hier wirkte er weiter als Arzt und Heiler, wobei er auch viele Kranke durch Gebet und Handauflegung heilen konnte.
Johannes war ein Soldat und lebte in Edessa. Auf einer Pilgerreise nach Jerusalem hörte er von Cyrus, ging zu ihm in die Wüste und wurde sein Schüler. Beide gingen nach der Legende dann nach Canopis in Ägypten, um Athanasia und ihren Töchtern Theoktista, Theodotia und Eudoxia, die verhaftet worden waren, beizustehen. Cyril und Johannes wurden ebenfalls verhaftet und hingerichtet. Beide werden zu den heiligen Ärzten gezählt. Im 5. Jahrhundert wurden ihre Reliquien von Cyrill von Alexandria nach Menuthis übertragen (Festtag 28. Juni). Cyrill wollte dem Kult der Isis, die als heilende Göttin verehrt wurde, begegnen. Am Grab der Märtyrer sollen sich nach dem Bericht des Patriarchen Sophronios über 79 Wunderheilungen ereignet haben. Da über Cyrus und Johannes nichts weiter bekannt ist, könnte ihre Lebensgeschichte auch eine Legendenbildung zur Begründung der Heilkraft ihrer Reliquien sein.
413 Saint Eupraxia entered convent at 7; requested the emperor dispose of her properties, distributing the proceeds for the use of the Church and the needy; gift of wonderworking. Through her prayers she healed a deaf and dumb crippled child, and she delivered a demon-possessed woman from infirmity. They began to bring the sick for healing to the monastery; humbled herself all the more, counting herself as least among the sisters
Daughter of the Constantinople dignitary Antigonos, a kinsman of the holy Emperor Theodosius the Great (379-395).
Orthodoxe Kirche: 25. Juli Katholische Kirche: 13. März
Antigonus and his wife Eupraxia were pious and bestowed generous alms on the destitute. A daughter was born to them, whom they also named Eupraxia. Antigonos soon died, and the mother withdrew from the imperial court. She went with her daughter to Egypt, on the pretext of inspecting her properties. Near the Thebaid there was a women's monastery with a strict monastic rule. The life of the inhabitants attracted the pious widow. She wanted to bestow aid on this monastery, but the abbess Theophila refused and said that the nuns had fully devoted themselves to God and that they did not wish the acquisition of any earthly riches. The abbess consented to accept only candles, incense and oil.
The younger Eupraxia was seven years old at this time. She liked the monastic way of life and she decided to remain at the monastery. Her pious mother did not stand in the way of her daughter's wish. Taking leave of her daughter at the monastery, Eupraxia asked her daughter to be humble, never to dwell upon her noble descent, and to serve God and her sisters.

In a short while the mother died. Having learned of her death, the emperor St Theodosius sent St Eupraxia the Younger a letter in which he reminded her that her parents had betrothed her to the son of a certain senator, intending that she marry him when she reached age fifteen. The Emperor desired that she honor the commitment made by her parents. In reply, St Eupraxia wrote to the emperor that she had already become a bride of Christ, and she requested of the emperor to dispose of her properties, distributing the proceeds for the use of the Church and the needy.
St Eupraxia, when she reached the age of maturity, intensified her ascetic efforts all the more. At first she partook of food once a day, then after two days, three days, and finally, once a week. She combined her fasting with the fulfilling of all her monastic obediences. She toiled humbly in the kitchen, she washed dishes, she swept the premises and served the sisters with zeal and love. The sisters also loved the humble Eupraxia. But one of them envied her and explained away all her efforts as a desire for glory. This sister began to trouble and to reproach her, but the holy virgin did not answer her back, and instead humbly asked forgiveness.
The Enemy of the human race caused the saint much misfortune. Once,while getting water, she fell into the well, and the sisters pulled her out. Another time, St Eupraxia was chopping wood for the kitchen, and cut herself on the leg with an axe. When she carried an armload of wood up the ladder, she stepped on the hem of her garment. She fell, and a sharp splinter cut her near the eyes. All these woes St Eupraxia endured with patience, and when they asked her to rest, she would not consent.
For her efforts, the Lord granted St Eupraxia a gift of wonderworking. Through her prayers she healed a deaf and dumb crippled child, and she delivered a demon-possessed woman from infirmity. They began to bring the sick for healing to the monastery. The holy virgin humbled herself all the more, counting herself as least among the sisters. Before the death of St Eupraxia, the abbess had a vision. The holy virgin was transported into a splendid palace, and stood before the Throne of the Lord, surrounded by holy angels. The All-Pure Virgin showed St Eupraxia around the luminous chamber and said that She had made it ready for her, and that she would come into this habitation after ten days.
The abbess and the sisters wept bitterly, not wanting to lose St Eupraxia. The saint herself, in learning about the vision, wept because she was not prepared for death. , She asked the abbess to pray that the Lord would grant her one year more for repentance. The abbess consoled St Eupraxia and said that the Lord would grant her His great mercy.
Suddenly St Eupraxia sensed herself not well, and having sickened, she soon peacefully died at the age of thirty.
Euphrasia (Eupraxia)
Orthodoxe Kirche: 25. Juli Katholische Kirche: 13. März
Euphrasia, Tochter des Senators Antigonos und seiner Ehefrau Eupraxia, wurde um 380 in Konstantinopel geboren. Nach dem Tod ihres Vaters kam sie mit ihrer Mutter nach Ägypten, wo sie um 387 in ein Nonnenkloster in der Thebais eintrat. Ihr wurde die Gabe der Heilung verliehen. Sie starb dort friedlich in jungen Jahren nach 410 (evt. 413)
.
417 St. Zenobius saintly life and supernatural gifts Extraordinary miracles several instances restoration of the dead to life

Bishop of Florence and one of the patrons of that city, there in the latter part of the reign of Constantine I; d. 337?. Carefully educated by pagan parents, he came early under the influence of the holy bishop Theodore, was baptized by him, and succeeded, after much opposition, in bringing his father and mother to the Christian Faith.
He embraced the clerical state, and rapidly rose to the position of archdeacon, when his virtues and notable powers as a preacher made him known to St. Ambrose, at whose instance Pope Damasus (366-86) called him to Rome, and employed him in various important missions, including a legation to Constantinople.
On the death of Damasus he returned to his native city, where he resumed his apostolic labours, and on the death of the bishop of that see, Zenobius, to the great joy of the people, was appointed to succeed him. The ancient legends of his episcopal career -- in which, however, there are many interpolations of a later date -- are unanimous in their description of his saintly life and supernatural gifts. Extraordinary miracles, including several instances of the restoration of the dead to life, are attributed to him, and during his prolonged episcopate his fervour and zeal for souls never for a moment flagged.
According to his biographer and successor in the See of Florence, Antonius, he died in his ninetieth year, in 424; but, as Antonius says that Innocent I (d. 417) was at the time pope, the date is uncertain. There is ground for believing that he actually died in 417, on 25 May, on which day the ancient tower where he is supposed to have lived, near the Ponte Vecchio, is annually decorated with flowers.
His body was first buried in the Basilica of St. Laurence (consecrated by St. Ambrose in 393), and was later translated to San Salvador's church, on the site of the present cathedral.
Beneath the high altar is the silver shrine of the saint, designed by Ghiberti about 1440, in the same style as his famous bronze gates. There is a statute of Zenobus in San Marco, and other memorials of him in the city, where his name and memory are still
venerated.
417 St. Alexis charitable to the poor; in disguise traveled to Syria lived in great poverty near a Church of Our Lady;
         after 17 years, a picture of our Blessed Mother spoke to tell the people that this beggar was very holy. She called
         him "The man of God." he wrought many miracles
417 St. Alexis charitable to the poor; in disguise traveled to Syria lived in great poverty near a Church of Our Lady; after seventeen years, a picture of our Blessed Mother spoke to tell the people that this beggar was very holy. She called him "The man of God." he wrought many miracles
Romæ sancti Aléxii Confessóris, ex Euphemiáno Senatóre progéniti.  Hic, prima nocte nuptiárum, sponsa intácta, e domo sua abscédens, ac, post longam peregrinatiónem, ad Urbem rédiens, decem et septem annos tamquam egénus in domo patérna recéptus hospítio, nova mundum arte delúdens, incógnitus mansit; sed post óbitum, et voce per Urbis Ecclésias audíta et scripto suo ágnitus, Innocéntio Primo Pontífice Máximo, ad sancti Bonifátii Ecclésiam summo honóre delátus est, ibíque multis miráculis cláruit.
    At Rome, St. Alexius, confessor, son of the senator Euphemian.  Leaving his spouse before the night of marriage, he withdrew from his house, and after a long pilgrimage, returned to Rome where he was for seventeen years harboured in his father's house as an unknown pauper, thus deluding the world in this strange way.  After his death, however, becoming known through a voice heard in the churches of the city, and by his own writings, he was, under the sovereign Pontiff Innocent I, translated to the Church of St. Boniface, where he wrought many miracles.
Alexis was the only son of a rich Roman senator. From his good Christian parents, he learned to be charitable to the poor. Alexis wanted to give up his wealth and honors but his parents had chosen a rich bride for him. Because it was their will, he married her. Yet right on his wedding day, he obtained her permission to leave her for God. Then, in disguise, he traveled to Syria in the East and lived in great poverty near a Church of Our Lady. One day, after seventeen years, a picture of our Blessed Mother spoke to tell the people that this beggar was very holy. She called him "The man of God." when he became famous, which was the last thing he wanted, he fled back to Rome.
5th v. St Alexis, The Man Of God
Early in the fifth century there is said to have lived at Edessa in Syria a  man who, whether from choice or necessity, lived the life of a beggar, and was of such virtue that he was revered as a saint. After his death an unknown writer wrote an account of him.  He called him by no name but simply" the Man of God ", and stated that he lived during the episcopate of Rabbula,who died in 436.  According to this writer, he lived by begging alms at the church doors, which he shared with other poor people, existing himself on what little was left over from their needs, and when he died was buried in the common grave of the city; but
before his death he had confided to an attendant in the hospital that he was the only son of noble Roman parents, and when the bishop heard of this he ordered the body to be exhumed; but only the ragged garments of the Man of God could be found.  His fame spread westward, and before the ninth century was known in Greece with sundry embroideries, including the name of the saint, Alexis, and was related in a kanon by St Joseph the Hymnographer (d. 883); the cultist in the West, fhough known before, e.g. in Spain, was popularized in Rome towards the end of the tenth century by an exiled metropolitan of Damascus, Sergius; to him was given the church of St Boniface on the Aventine, and he established a monastery of Greek monks there, adding the name of St Alexis to the church as contitular.
  As an alleged citizen of Rome the saint soon had a vast popularity, and this popularity has persisted: in the twelfth century his story is said to have had a deep influence on the heretic Peter Waldo; in the fifteenth, he was chosen as the patron of the nursing congregation commonly called the Alexian Brothers, and so late as 1817 as a lesser patron of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary (Picpus Fathers); while in the East he is still greatly venerated as the "Man of God ".
  The legend of this forerunner of St Joseph Benedict Labre as it came to be received in the West, with its resemblance to that of St John Calybites, may be told in the summarized words of Alban Butler:

    St Alexis was the only son of a rich senator of Rome, Euphemian, and his wife Aglae, born and educated in that capital in the fifth century. From the charitable example of his parents he learned that the riches which are given away to the poor remain with us for ever, and that alms-deeds are a treasure transferred to Heaven, with the interest of an immense reward.  Whilst yet a child he was intent on the relief of all whom he saw in distress, and thought himself obliged to those who received his charity and regarded them as his benefactors. Fearing lest the distraction of earthly honours might at length divide or draw his heart too much from more noble objects, he decided to renounce the advantages of his birth and retire from the world.
  Having, in compliance with the will of his parents, married a wealthy girl, he on the very day of the wedding parted from her with her consent. In disguise he travelled into Syria, embraced extreme poverty, and resided in a hut adjoining a church dedicated to the Mother of God at Edessa. Here he lived for seventeen years until an image of our Lady spoke and revealed his holiness to the people, calling him "the Man of God".  Thereupon he fled back to his home; his father did not recognize him, but received him as a beggar and gave him employment, allotting a corner under the staircase as his quarters.  For another seventeen years he thus lived unknown in his father's house, bearing the ill-treatment at the other servants in patience and silence. After his death a writing was found upon him, giving his name and family and an account of his life.

  The extraordinary paths in which the Holy Ghost is pleased sometimes to conduct certain privileged souls are rather to be admired than imitated. If it cost them so much to seek humiliations, we ought diligently to make a good use of those which Providence sends us. It is only by humbling ourselves on all occasions that we can walk in the path of true humility and root out of our hearts all secret pride. The poison of this vice infects all states and conditions: it often lurks undiscovered in the heart even after a man has got the mastery over all his other passions. Pride always remains even for the most perfect to fight against; and unless we watch continually against it, nothing will remain sound or untainted in our lives: it will creep into our best actions, infect the whole circle of our works, and become a mainspring of everything; and the deeper its wounds, the more is the soul stupefied and the less capable of knowing her disease and weakness.  St John Climacus writes that when a young novice was rebuked for his pride, he said, "Excuse me, father, I am not proud".  To whom the experienced director replied, "And how could you give me a surer proof of your pride than by not seeing it yourself?"
  This warning against pride comes very fitly a propos of the story just related, but the same story is also an apt illustration of a quite different matter, namely, of how a legend is embellished in the course of time and travelling.  To draw attention to only a few points: the flight on the wedding-day, so common an incident in hagiography; when a man wishes to avoid marriage he does not wait till after the wedding, but the popular form is so much more spectacular and impressive to simple minds; the speaking image provides an edifying reason for his coming back to Rome and being buried there; and the finding of his relics-somebody's relics were certainly found at the church of St Boniface in Rome in 1217 but the only things which are reasonably certain about St Alexis are that he lived (if indeed he ever lived), died, and was buried in Edessa:  his name is found in no ancient Roman liturgical book or martyrology and was apparently not heard of there before about 972.
The fifth-century Syriac text recounting how "the Man of God" who had edified Edessa revealed before his death that he had come from Rome, has been edited by A. Amiaud, La légende syriaque de S. Alexis (1889).  The most widely diffused recension of the Greek legend (though this particular type of text seems to have taken shape in Rome) has been printed in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xix (1900), pp. 241-256.  For the Latin versions see the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. iv.  But the literature of the subject is vast and brings us into contact with the early developments of almost every European language. The articles of Poncelet in Science Catholique, t. iv (1890), and of Mgr Duchesne in Mélanges d'.Archeologie, t. x (1890), are especially worthy of mention.  For the treatment of the subject in art cf. Künstle, Ikonographie de, Heiligen, ii, pp. 48-49, and for its folk-lore aspects Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. i, cc. 261-262.  See also Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxii (1944), pp. 281-283  vol. lxiii (1945), pp. 48-55 ; and vol. lxv (1947), pp. 157-195.  In this last Fr B. de Gaiffier refers to twenty-one other hagiological examples of a newly-married husband who goes away "intactam sponsam relinquens", or of a couple forced to marry who agree to live together in virginity these range from the Acta Thomae to St Bernard of Montjoux.  Fr de Gaiffier then discusses the evolution of the story of St Alexis's departure.
Alexis of Rome (RM) (also known as Alexius, Alessio)  Early 5th century. Since the 10th century the story of Saint Alexis, called the "Man of God" by his unknown biographer, has been popular throughout the West. It was introduced from the East by some Greek monks who were given the Benedictine abbey of Saint Boniface on the Aventine, which was renamed Saint Boniface and Saint Alexis. In 1216, his bones were discovered by Pope Honorius III and reverently placed under the high altar of the church.
   Though much of the legend is probably apocryphal, there is no doubt that there was a man of God called Alexis and that he achieved a great reputation for holiness at Edessa. It is, however, likely that he lived, died, and was buried at Edessa, and that the man whose bones were found in Saint Boniface's were not his. The legend appears to be a conflation of the life of Saint John Calybites and that of the Man of God Mar Riscia of Edessa.
   According to an almost contemporary account, a nameless man died in a hospital at Edessa in Mesopotamia about 430. He had lived by begging, and shared the alms he received with other poor people. After his death, it was learned that he was the son of a Roman patrician, who had left a wealthy bride on his wedding day and gone to live in poverty in Syria. An account of this man, which called him Alexis, was written in Greek, and a further narrative was produced in Latin.
   According to the expanded late medieval version, Alexis was the only son of Euphremian, a Roman senator of enormous wealth and influence, and his wife Aglae (Agloe). They were devout Christians and brought up their son in the spirit of the Gospel. Even as a child, Alexis was known for his charity.  When Alexis reached manhood he allowed himself to be betrothed to an heiress who was related to the imperial family, though he had already determined to give his life to God. Their wedding took place with great pomp and dignity. As soon as the ceremony was ended, Alexis took off the gold ring that had just been placed on his finger, gave it to his bride. They separated by mutual consent and he fled from his home disguised as a beggar. He set sail for Syria and then made his way on foot to the church of Our Lady of Edessa, famous as a shrine for pilgrims, where he lived in a shack adjoining the church. The Syrian text of his legend says: "During the day he remained steadfastly in the church and in the martyrium, refusing alms from those who offered them, for he wished to do without food during the day and thus forced himself to fast until the evening.
"In the evening, he stood in the doorway of the church and held out his hand, receiving the alms of those who entered the church. But as soon as he had received what he needed, he closed his hand and would take no more. Nor did he ever cease to live among the poor. Such was his life every day. Of his earlier condition and status he said not a word, nor did he even wish to reveal his name."
   After living this life for 17 years, his identity was revealed; some say that he was recognized by a sacristan, others that the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to the people and said: "Seek the man of God." To avoid discovery, Alexis fled and took ship for Tarsus, but a tempestuous wind drove his ship to Italy.  He went to Rome and to his father's house, where he found that his parents were still living. He did not make himself known, nor did anyone recognize him, and when he asked for lodging he was given permission to sleep under the staircase of his own sumptuous home; and so he lived, begging his bread in the streets and working in the kitchen, where he was often insulted by the servants and sharing crumbs of what was rightly his.
   Seventeen years later while Pope Innocent I was celebrating Mass before the emperor, he heard a voice saying: "Seek the man of God." Guided by the selfsame voice, he and the emperor went to the house of Euphremian, but when they arrived they found Alexis dead. His body was lying clothed in rags beneath the staircase, and in his hand he was holding a parchment that gave his name and history.
   There is no mention of Saint Alexis in the ancient martyrologies or other liturgical records. Attempts to identify him with Alethius, a correspondent of Saint Paulinus of Nola, have failed. By the 12th century, his story had reached England, where his name is found in the Albani Psalter that probably belonged to Saint Christina of Markyate (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer).
   In art, Saint Alexis is portrayed as a beggar or pilgrim holding a staircase (his emblem). He may also be shown (1) asleep by the stairs, dirty water emptied on him; (2) as a pilgrim with a staff and scrip; or (3) as a pilgrim, kneeling before the pope, to whom he gives a letter (Roeder). Alexis is the patron of beggars and pilgrims (Roeder).
418 St. Amator priest Bishop confessor Known for miracles ability to make spur conversions including King Germanus scholars believe Amator ordained St. Patrick
the son of Upper-class wealthy parents in Auxerre, France, also called Arnatre. At his wedding, Bishop Valerian read the words for the ordination ceremony for deacons.

Amator had not wanted to be married, and with the help of the bishop convinced his bride-to-be to enter a convent. He then became a priest and the bishop of Auxerre.

Known for his miracles and his ability to make spur conversions, Amator found himself threatened by the local governor, Germanus, a pagan who still conducted many of the old rituals.
Amator left for a time but upon his return he made Germanus a designated candidate for the bishopric.
Some scholars believe it was Amator who ordained St. Patrick.
420 The Departure of St. Euphrasia (Eupraxia) humility and obedience daughter of noble family in Rome related to Emperor Honorius God granted her gift of healing the sick Memorial  13 March (Roman Church); 25 July (Greek Church)  today Baramhat 26 (Coptic Church)
On this day the blessed St. Euphrasia (Eupraxia) the virgin departed. She was the daughter of a noble family in the city of Rome, who was related to Emperor Honorius {probably Roman emperor Theodosius I}. Before her father's departure (Antigonus, senator of Constantinople), he asked the Emperor to care for her.
Her mother went to Egypt to collect the revenues and rent of her estates and orchards, which her husband had left her. She took her daughter, who was nine years of age, with her, and they lodged in one of the houses of virgins. The nuns of that convent were on high degree of asceticism, piety and devoutness, they never ate food with meat, oil, fruits, at no time drank wine and slept on the floor.
Eupraxia loved the life in that convent, and she was pleased with the nun that served her.

That nun told her: "Promise me that you will not leave this convent"; and she promised her that. When her mother finished her work that she came to achieve, her daughter refused to return with her and she said to her mother: "I have vowed myself to Christ, and I have no need for this world, for my true Bridegroom is the Lord Christ."
When her mother knew that, she gave all her money and goods to the poor and needy, and she lived with her daughter in the convent for many years, then departed in peace.

When Emperor Honorius heard that, he sent asking for her. She answered back saying that she had vowed her self to the Lord Christ, and she can not break her covenant.
The Emperor marvelled at her wisdom and righteousness and allowed her to stay.

Eupraxia contended strenuously in the ascetic life, she fasted two days at a time, then three, then four, and afterwards she fasted for a week at a time, and during the Holy Lent she did not eat anything which was cooked. Satan was jealous of her, and he smote her with an illness in her feet, gave her pain for a long time, until God had compassion on her and healed her.
God granted her the gift of healing the sick, and she was beloved by all the sisters and the abbess for her humility and obedience to them.

One night the abbess saw in a vision crowns which had been prepared, and she asked: "Who are these for?", and she was told: "These crowns for your daughter Eupraxia, she will be coming to us after a short while." The abbess told the nuns of the vision which she had seen, and commanded them not to tell Eupraxia about it. When her time came to depart of this world, she fell sick of a slight fever. The abbess and the nuns gathered around St. Eupraxia and asked her to remember them before the Divine Throne, then she departed in peace. Then right after her departure the nun her friend departed, and shortly after, the abbess fell sick, so she gathered the nuns and told them: "Choose whom will be abbess over you, for I am going to the Lord." When they came on the following morning to visit her, they found that she had departed.
May their prayers be with us. Amen.
420 The Departure of St. Euphrasia
Roman nobility, the daughter of Antigonus, senator of Constantinople. Related to Roman emperor Theodosius I who finished the conversion of Rome to a Christian state. He father died soon after Euphrasia was born; she and her mother became wards of the emperor. When Euphrasia when only five years old, the emperor arranged a marriage for her the son of a senator. Two years later, she and her mother moved to their lands in Egypt. There, while still a child, Euphrasia entered a convent; her mother died soon after of natural causes, leaving the novice an orphan. At age twelve, she was ordered by the emperor Aracdius, successor to Theodosius, to marry the senator's son as arranged. Eurphasia reuqested that she be relieved of the marriage arrangement, that the emperor sell off her family property, and that he use the money to feed the poor and buy the freedom of slaves. Arcadius agreed, and Euphyrasia spent her life in the Egyptian convent. Noted for her prayer life, and constant self-imposed fasting; she would sometimes spend the day carrying heavy stones from one place to another to exhaust her body and get her mind off temptations. She suffered through gossip and false allegations, much of it the result of being a foreigner in her house. Held up as a model by Saint John Damascene.
420 St. Sabinus Bishop of Piacenza renowned for miracles.
Placéntiæ sancti Sabíni Epíscopi, miráculis clari.    At Piacenza, St. Sabinus, bishop, renowned for miracles.
He served the Church early in his career, being sent by Pope St. Damasus to Antioch to suppress the Meletian Schism in Antioch. Also a friend of St. Ambrose of Milan, he regularly received from Ambrose early versions of his writings. Sabinus read them and made suggestions for revisions.
He also attended the Council of Aquileia in 381.
421 St. Porphyry of Gaza Epíscopi  worked tirelessly for his people, instructed them and made many converts,
I tried to reach Mount Calvary, and there I fainted away and fell into a kind of trance or ecstasy in which I seemed to see our Saviour on the cross and the good thief hanging near Him. I said to Christ, ‘Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom’, and he replied by bidding the thief come to my assistance. This he did, and raising me from the ground he bade me go to Christ. I ran to Him and He came down from His cross, saying to me, ‘Take this wood’ (meaning the cross) ‘into thy custody’. In obedience to Him, methought I laid it on my shoulders and carried it some way. I awoke soon after and have been free from pain ever since, nor is there any sign left of the ailments from which I formerly suffered.”
(353-421) 
We go far back in history today to learn a bit about a saint whose name is not familiar to most of us in the West but who is celebrated by the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches.  Born near Greece in the mid-fourth century, Porphry is most known for his generosity to the poor and for his ascetic lifestyle. Deserts and caves were his home for a time. At age 40, living in Jerusalem, Porphyry was ordained a priest.

If the accounts we have are correct, he was elected bishop of Gaza—without his knowledge and against his will. He was, in effect, kidnapped (with the help of a neighboring bishop, by the way) and forcibly consecrated bishop by the members of the small Christian community there. No sooner had Porphyry been consecrated bishop then he was accused by the local pagans of causing a drought. When rains came shortly afterward, the pagans gave credit to Porphyry and the Christian population and tensions subsided for a time.  For the next 13 years, Porphyry worked tirelessly for his people, instructed them and made many converts, though pagan opposition continued throughout his life. He died in the year 421.

420 ST PORPHYRY, BISHOP OF GAZA

PORPHYRY came of a family of Thessalonica (the modern Salonika) in Macedonia. Turning his back upon the world, he left friends and country at the age of twenty-five and went to Egypt, where he consecrated himself to God in a monastery in the desert of Skete. After five years he made his way to Palestine, and took up his abode in a cave near the Jordan, where he passed five more years, until a complica­tion of diseases obliged him to return to Jerusalem. There he never failed daily to visit all the holy places, leaning on a stick, for he was too weak to stand upright. It happened about that time that Mark, an Asiatic who afterwards wrote his life, also came to Jerusalem as a pilgrim. He was greatly edified by the devout assiduity with which Porphyry continually visited the scene of our Lord’s resurrection and other stations, and seeing him one day struggling with difficulty to climb the steps in the church he ran to offer his assistance. Porphyry, however, refused, saying, “It is not right that I, who have come here to implore pardon for my sins, should be helped to make my task easier rather let me undergo some trouble and in­convenience that God, seeing it, may have compassion on me.” Feeble as he was, he never omitted his usual visits to the holy places and he daily partook of the Blessed Sacrament. The only thing which troubled him was that his paternal estate had not as yet been disposed of and the proceeds given to the poor. This commission he entrusted to Mark, who set out for Thessalonica and in three months’ time returned to Jerusalem with money and effects of considerable value.

Mark scarcely recognized Porphyry, so completely had he recovered his health. His face had lost its pallor and was fresh and ruddy. Seeing his friend’s amaze­ment, he said with a smile, “Do not be surprised, Mark, to see me in perfect health, but only marvel at the unspeakable goodness of Christ who can easily cure what men despair of”. Mark asked him by what means he had been cured. He replied, “Forty days ago, being in great pain, I tried to reach Mount Calvary, and there I fainted away and fell into a kind of trance or ecstasy in which I seemed to see our Saviour on the cross and the good thief hanging near Him. I said to Christ, ‘Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom’, and he replied by bidding the thief come to my assistance. This he did, and raising me from the ground he bade me go to Christ. I ran to Him and He came down from His cross, saying to me, ‘Take this wood’ (meaning the cross) ‘into thy custody’. In obedience to Him, methought I laid it on my shoulders and carried it some way. I awoke soon after and have been free from pain ever since, nor is there any sign left of the ailments from which I formerly suffered.”

Mark was so much impressed by the holy man’s words and example that he determined to take up his abode with him altogether. All the money he had brought was distributed amongst the poor, and consequently Porphyry found himself compelled to work for his living. He learned to make shoes and to dress leather; while Mark, who was well skilled in writing, gained a competence by copy­ing books. He wished the saint to share his earnings, but Porphyry replied in the words of St Paul, “He that doth not work, let him not eat”.  The saint led this laborious and penitential life until he was forty, when the bishop of Jerusalem ordained him priest, and committed to his charge the great relic of the holy cross. This was in 393. The saint changed nothing in his austere life, subsisting only on roots and the coarsest bread, and generally not taking food until after sunset.  He continued this mode of life until his death in 396 he was elected bishop of Gaza without his knowledge, and John, the bishop of Caesarea, wrote to the bishop of Jerusalem desiring him to send Porphyry, alleging that he wished to consult him on various difficult passages of Holy Scripture. He was therefore bidden to go, but to return in seven days.

Upon receiving this order Porphyry seemed at first disturbed, but he said, “God’s will be done”. That evening he called Mark, and said to him, “Brother Mark, let us go and venerate the holy places and the sacred cross, for it will be long before we shall do so again.” Mark asked him why he spoke in such a tone, and he replied that our Saviour had appeared to him the night before, and had said,

"'Give up the treasure of the cross which you have in custody, for I will marry you to a wife, poor indeed and lowly, but of great piety and virtue. Take care to adorn her well for, however she may appear, she is my sister.'”—“This,” he added, Christ signified to me last night, and therefore I fear that I may be charged with the sins of others while I seek to expiate my own—but the will of God must be obeyed.” When they had done as he had said he started off with Mark and the following day, which was a Saturday, they reached Caesarea. Next morning Bishop John bade certain townsmen of Gaza lay hold of Porphyry, and while they held him he ordained him bishop. The holy man was much distressed at being promoted to a dignity for which he judged himself unfit. The Gazaeans did their best to console him, and they started for Gaza, where they arrived on Wednesday night, harassed and weary, for the heathen in the villages near Gaza, having had notice of their coming, had so broken up the roads and obstructed them with thorns and logs that they were scarcely passable.

That year there was a great drought, which the pagans ascribed to the coming of the new Christian bishop, for they said their god Mamas had foretold that Porphyry would bring calamities on the city. In Gaza there stood a famous temple dedicated to that deity, which the Emperor Theodosius I had ordered to be closed but not destroyed because of the beauty of its structure. The governor had allowed it to be reopened and when, for two months after the arrival of Porphyry, no rain had fallen, the pagans assembled in this temple to make supplication to Mamas. Then the Christians after a day of fasting and a night of prayer, went in procession to the church of St Timothy outside the walls, singing hymns. Upon their return they found the city gates shut against them. Then Porphyry and his flock besought God ‘with redoubled fervour to bestow the boon so greatly needed, and in a short time clouds gathered and rain fell in such plenty that the heathen opened the gates and, joining them, cried out, “Christ alone is God! He alone has over­come!” This and the miraculous healing of a woman led to a great number of conversions, so that the pagans, perceiving their numbers decrease, became very troublesome to the Christians, whom they excluded from commerce and public offices and harassed in various ways. Porphyry, to protect himself and his flock, had recourse to the emperor, to whom he sent Mark his disciple, and afterwards followed him to Constantinople himself in company with John, his metropolitan.

Through the advocacy of St John Chrysostom and the Empress Eudoxia, Arcadius eventually was induced to grant all that was asked, including permission for the destruction of the temples of Gaza. An imperial edict to that effect was delivered to a patrician named Cynegius, who was charged to see the order carried out. When they landed again in Palestine near Gaza, the Christians came out to meet them singing hymns; and as the two bishops and the procession passed through a square called Tetramphodos in which stood a marble statue of Venus, which was supposed to give oracles to young women about the choice of husbands, the idol fell, apparently of itself, and was broken to pieces. Ten days later arrived Cynegius with a strong guard of soldiers and the emperor’s edict. In accordance with it, eight public temples were destroyed by fire, including the Marneion. After this, private houses and courts were searched and the idols were destroyed or cast into the sewers, and all books of magic were consigned to the flames. Many of the pagans desired baptism; but many others were only angered by these pro­ceedings, and in a riot they raised. Porphyry barely escaped with his life (cf. St Marcellus on August 14). On the site of the temple of Mamas was built a church in the form of a cross, and the Empress Eudoxia sent pillars and rich marbles from Constantinople to adorn the building, which was called after her the Eudoxiana. At its beginning St Porphyry, with his clergy and all the Christians of the city, went in procession from the church called Eirene singing the “Venite, exultemus Domino” and other psalms, each verse being answered with an “Alleluia”. They all set to work carrying stones and other materials and digging the foundations under the direction of Rufinus, a famous architect. The church was begun in 403, took five years to build, and the bishop consecrated it on Easter day, 408. His alms to the poor on that occasion seemed boundless, though at all times they were very great. St Porphyry spent the rest of his life in the zealous discharge of his pastoral duties, and lived to see the city for the most part free from open idolatry.

The Life of St Porphyry by Mark the deacon is an historical document of quite exceptional interest. Apart from the insight which it affords into the character of the saint, it provides much valuable information regarding the last efforts of paganism in the Christian East. In 1913 an English translation by G. F. Hill was published, and an annotated German version by Dr George Rohde appeared in 1927. The Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, only prints a Latin version of the Life. The Greek text was edited for the first time by M. Haupt in the Abhandlungen of the Berlin Academy in 1874, and, in 1895, more accurately by the Philological Society of Bonn. In 1930 H. Grégoire and M. A. Kugener published the Greek text, with a French translation and commentary according to them, it is not an authentic contemporary work of Mark, but was Written at least twenty-five years after Porphyry’s death. In Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lix (1941), pp. 63—216, there is printed a Latin version of a Georgian life of St Porphyry (probably of Syrian origin) an interesting feature is that the writer seems to emphasize that paganism was brought to an end at Gaza without the violence associated with the name of St Cyril at Alexandria. See also the excellent essay by F. M. Abel in the Conferences de Saint-Etienne (ed. Lagrange, 1910).
425 Saint Ephraim, Patriarch of Antioch defended teaching of the Orthodox Church on the union of two natures the divine and the human in the Person of our Lord Jesus Christ; a Syrian distinguished for his virtue, piety, compassion for all the destitute miracle of the omophorion
A military general under the emperors Anastasius (491-518) and Justin (518-527)
 The saint was distinguished for his virtue, piety, and compassion for all the destitute.

In the year 526 the Lord punished Antioch for Christians falling into the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches, an earthquake destroyed this magnificent city. A large number of the inhabitants perished. Patriarch Euphrasios was crushed beneath a fallen column.

The emperor summoned Ephraim to oversee the restoration of the ruined city. Among the workers was a bishop who left his see for unknown reasons. He predicted to Ephraim his election to the patriarchal throne and asked him not to abandon deeds of charity, and to struggle firmly against the heretics. In the year 527 Ephraim was indeed elected to the patriarchal throne. He governed his flock firmly and wisely by the example of his life. He also defended it against heretical teachings through his sermons and letters.

The following event gives some idea of his faith. Near Herakleia was a stylite practicing asceticism, who had fallen into heresy. Learning about the ascetic, Ephraim went to him and urged him to be reunited to the Orthodox Church. The stylite was not agreeable. He decided to frighten the patriarch and he offered to kindle a large bonfire, so that they both might enter the fire. The bonfire was set, but the stylite did not dare to go into it. The patriarch prayed to the Lord Jesus Christ to show that his was the correct faith and, removing his omophorion, he put it in the bonfire. After three hours the firewood was consumed, but the omophorion of the saint was taken out unharmed. The stylite was converted from his heresy and reunited to the Church.
Ephraim fell asleep in the Lord in the year 425.
Among his labors, Ephraim defended the teaching of the Orthodox Church on the union of two natures, the divine and the human, in the Person of our
Lord Jesus Christ.
425 St. Tychon Bishop of Amathus, Cyprus;  gift of wonderworking appeared in St Tikhon at quite a young age a dedicated missionary among the last elements of pagan culture on the island
ST TYCHON, BISHOP OF AMATHUS     (FIFTH CENTURY?)
ALL that can be confidently asserted about St Tychon is that he was a very early bishop of Amathus, the site of the modern Limassol in Cyprus, and that he has been for many centuries greatly venerated by the inhabitants of the island, who style him "the Wonder-worker" and regard him as the patron of vine-growers. The two things his biographer specially emphasizes in his life are: first, that as a boy, being the son of a baker, he used to give away to the poor the bread he was sent out to sell. His father was very angry, but when he opened the granary where he kept his flour, he found that by miracle it was full to overflowing and that his loss had many times over been made good. Secondly, when Tychon had become a bishop he possessed a small vineyard but had no means to stock it. He accordingly took one of the cuttings which other vine-growers had thrown away because it was dead, and planted it with a prayer that God would grant four favours, viz. that the sap should run in it again, that it should produce abundance of fruit, that the fruit should be sweet, and that it should ripen early. Ever afterwards the grapes in this vineyard ripened long in advance of all others, and this is the reason why St Tychon's feast and the blessing of the grape harvest take place there on June 16. Elsewhere in Cyprus the vine-gathering festival could not be celebrated until many weeks later.
Although no credence whatever can be placed in his legendary history, and notwithstanding the attempts made by some recent German writers, notably H. Usener, to identify him with the pagan god Priapus, it may be accepted as certain that he was a real personage and a Christian prelate. On the strength of a tradition that he once caused the vintage to mature before its season, part of the ceremonial locally observed on his feast-day, June 16, consists of squeezing into a chalice the juice of a bunch of partially ripened grapes. Before the end of the sixth century St Tychon's tomb was a famous shrine, and during the ninth century St Joseph the Hymnographer composed an office in his honour.
There is a Greek life of St Tychon which was prepared for the press by H. Usener, Der heilige Tychon (1907). This biography was written by St John the Almoner (see January 23), and from a literary point of view it is held a very elegant example of Byzantine Greek composition, but it tells us little that is reliable in the way of historical fact. An epitome of this text was previously printed in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxvi (1907), pp. 229-232 from the MS. Paris, 1488. See also Delehaye in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxviii (1909), pp. 119-122; A. Brinkmann in Rheinisches Museum (1908), pp. 304-310, and the notice of St. Tychon in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv.
The son of a baker opposed to the worship of Aphrodite, he was a dedicated missionary among the last elements of pagan culture on the island. He is patron of wine growers on Cyprus. Tychon brought a dead vine leaf back to life.
Tychon of Cyprus B (RM) (also known as Tikhon of Amathus). The life of Tychon, an early bishop of Amathus, Cyprus, was recorded by Saint John the Almsgiver. He energetically fought against the last remnants of paganism in the island, especially against the cult of Aphrodite (Attwater, Benedictines).

Saint Tikhon, Bishop of Amathus, was born in the city Amathus on the island of Cyprus. His parents raised their son in Christian piety, and taught him the reading of sacred books. It is said that the gift of wonderworking appeared in St Tikhon at quite a young age.
His father was the owner of a bakery, and whenever he left his son alone in the shop, the holy youth would give free bread to those in need. Learning of this, his father became angry, but the son said that he had read in the Scriptures, that in giving to God one receives back a hundredfold. "I," said the youth, "gave to God the bread which was taken," and he persuaded his father to go to the place where the grain was stored. With astonishment the father saw that the granary, which formerly was empty, was now filled to overflowing with wheat. From that time the father did not hinder his son from distributing bread to the poor.

A certain gardener brought the dried prunings of vines from the vineyard. St Tikhon gathered them, planted them in his garden and besought the Lord that these branches might take root and yield fruit for the health of people. The Lord did so through the faith of the holy youth. The branches took root, and their fruit had a particular and very pleasant taste.
It was used during the lifetime of the saint and after his death for making wine for the Mystery of the Holy Eucharist.

They accepted the pious youth into the church clergy, made him a reader. Later, Mnemonios, the Bishop of Amathus ordained him a deacon. After the death of Bishop Mnemonios, St Tikhon by universal agreement was chosen as Bishop of Amathus. St Epiphanius, Bishop of Cyprus (May 12), presided at the service.

St Tikhon labored zealously to eradicate the remnants of paganism on Cyprus; he destroyed a pagan temple and spread the Christian Faith. The holy bishop was generous, his doors were open to all, and he listened to and lovingly fulfilled the request of each person who came to him. Fearing neither threats nor tortures, he firmly and fearlessly confessed his faith before pagans.
In the service to St Tikhon it is stated that he foresaw the time of his death, which occurred in the year 425.

The name of St Tikhon of Amathus was greatly honored in Russia. Temples dedicated to the saint were constructed at Moscow, at Nizhni Novgorod, at Kazan and other cities. But he was particularly venerated in the Voronezh diocese, where there were three archpastors in succession sharing the name with the holy hierarch of Amathus: St Tikhon I (Sokolov) (+ 1783, August 13), Tikhon II (Yakubovsky, until 1785) and Tikhon III (Malinin, until 1788).
  429 Saint Peter of Galatia gift of wonderworking, healing infirmities and expelling devils.
left home at the age of seven, then spent the rest of his life in ascetical labors as a monk.

At first, he remained in Galatia, then went to Palestine. Later, he went to Antioch. There he enclosed himself in a tomb, devoting himself to deeds of prayer and strict abstinence. He partook of bread and water only every other day. Because of his holy life, God granted him the gift of wonderworking, healing infirmities and expelling devils.

St Peter died around the year 429 at the age of ninety-nine. His Life was written by Theodoret of Cyrrhus, whose mother had been healed by the saint.
This St Peter should not be confused with the other St Peter of Galatia, who is commemorated on October 9.
429 Honoratus of Arles archbishop blessedly joyful B (RM) (also known as Honore)
 Areláte, in Gállia, sancti Honoráti, Epíscopi et Confessóris; cujus vita tam doctrína quam miráculis fuit illústris.
       At Arles in France, St. Honoratus, bishop and confessor, whose life was renowned for learning and for miracles.
Born in Trèves (Trier), Germany, (or Lorraine, France), c. 350; died at Arles, France, 429.

429 ST HONORATUS, BISHOP OF ARLES
HONORATUS was of a consular Roman family settled in Gaul, and was well versed in the liberal arts. In his youth he renounced the worship of idols and gained to Christ his elder brother Venantius, whom he also inspired with a contempt for the world. They desired to forsake it entirely, but their father put continual obstacles in their way. At length they took with them St Caprasius, a holy hermit, to act as their instructor, and sailed from Marseilles to Greece, intending to live there unknown in some desert.

Venantius soon died at Modon; and Honoratus, having also fallen ill, was obliged to return with his conductor. He first led an eremitical life in the mountains near Fréjus. Two small islands lie in the sea near that coast one larger and nearer the continent, called Lero, now St Margaret’s; the other smaller and more remote, two leagues from Antibes, named Lérins, at present Saint-Honorat, from our saint. There he settled; and being followed by others he founded the famous monastery of Lérins about the year 400. Some he appointed to live in community; others in separate cells as anchorets. His rule was chiefly borrowed from that of St Pachomius. Nothing can be more attractive than the description St Hilary of Arles has given of the virtues of this company of saints, especially of the charity and devotion which reigned amongst them.

A charming legend, unfortunately of much later date, recounts how Margaret, the sister of Honoratus, converted at last from paganism by his prayers, came to settle on the other island, Lero, in order to be near her brother. With some reluctance he was induced to promise that he would visit her once a year, when the mimosa was in bloom. But on one occasion Margaret in great distress of soul longed for his guidance. It was still two months from the time appointed, but she fell upon her knees and prayed. Suddenly all the air was filled with an unmistak­able perfume; she looked up, and there, close beside her, was a mimosa tree covered with its fragrant blossom. She tore off a bough and sent it to her brother, who understood her appeal and tenderly acceded to the summons. It was their last meeting, for she passed away soon afterwards. Honoratus was by compulsion consecrated archbishop of Arles in 426, and died exhausted with austerities and apostolic labours in 429. The style of his letters, so St Hilary, his successor, assures us, was clear and affecting, penned with an admirable delicacy, elegance and sweetness. The loss of all these is much to be regretted. His tomb is shown empty under the high altar of the church which bears his name at Arles, his body having been translated to Lérins in 1391.

Cf. Gallia Christiana novissima, vol. iii (1901), p. 26; Revue Bénédictine, vol. iv, pp. 180—184 Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. i, p. 256. See also his panegyric by his disciple, kinsman and successor, St Hilary of Arles, and especially A. C. Cooper-Marsden, The History of the Islands of the Lérins (1913), illustrated with excellent photographs. B. Munke and others have edited a medieval Latin life of St Honoratus (1911), but like the Provençal Vida de Sane Honorat it contains nothing of historical value. Hilary’s discourse is translated in F. R. Hoare, The Western Fathers (1954).

Saint Honoratus was born into a Gallo-Roman family of consular rank. He was well-versed in the liberal arts. He converted from paganism to Christianity in his youth and won his older brother, Venantius, to Christ. The two brothers desired to forsake the world entirely; but their father put continual temptations in their way. Finally, they secured the services of Saint Caprasius, a holy hermit, who acted as their instructor in the ways of holiness.

The three sailed from Marseilles to Greece, intending to live there in some unknown desert and learn more about monasticism. Venantius died at Modon; Honoratus was also ill. He and his mentor were forced to return home via Rome. He intended to live the life of a hermit, but God had other plans for him. At first he lived as one near Fréjus. Two small islands were just off the coast near Cannes: a larger one called Lero (now St. Margaret's); the other, smaller and further out called Lérins (now Saint- Honorat).

Around 410 (400?), he established himself on this smaller desert island, where he was joined by SS. Lupus of Troyes, Eucherius of Lyons, and Hilary of Arles, as well as others. This was the beginning of the celebrated monastery of Lérins, whose history lasted for nearly 1,400 years. Some of the monks lived in community; others were anchorites. The Rule was that of Saint Pachomius.

About 426-427, he was forced to become archbishop of the important see of Arles. However, he labors in the field he did not want lasted less than three years. Honoratus died exhausted by his austerities and apostolic labors in 429.

His relative Hilary, who succeeded him as bishop of Arles, wrote a panegyric of Saint Honoratus that speaks of the trouble taken by the saint to ensure that no one in this island community should be dispirited, overworked, or idle; and 'it is astonishing how much work he got through himself, of poor health as he was.' Many visitors found their way to the island (including Saint John Cassian), and no one left it 'without a perfectly carefree mind.' Honoratus is one of those blessedly joyful saints (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Hoare, Walsh).

Saint Honoratus is generally portrayed as driving serpents from the island of Lérins, whose monastery he founded. He is shown at times (1) as a bishop over the island of Lérins with a phoenix below, or (2) drawing water from a rock with his mitre near him (Roeder).

430 Saint Bassian, Bishop of Lodi friend of St Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (December 7)  glorified by miracles  providing his flock example of a virtuous life
St Bassian's father governed the Syracuse region (in Sicily) and he prepared his son to follow in his footsteps. He sent him to Rome to receive his education. While still in his childhood St Bassian had heard about the Christians and he wanted to learn more about them and become familiar with the Christian Faith. Gordian the priest taught him the essentials of the Christian Faith, and the youth was filled with the desire to accept Baptism.

At the time of the performing of the Mystery St Bassian beheld an angel in the Baptismal font, holding the garment in which the newly-baptized would be clothed.
The saint made bold to ask who he was and where he was from.
The angel replied that he was sent from afar to help him fulfill his holy intent to know Christ. Then he became invisible.
St Bassian began to lead a strict life, eating little food, and spending his nights at prayer. His servants were astonished at such temperance, and they surmised that he had accepted Christianity. They reported about this to St Bassian's father, who ordered him to return to Syracuse. Praying in the church of St John the Theologian, the saint received from the Apostle the command to leave Rome. And so St Bassian distributed all his substance to the poor and together with his faithful Christian servant, he set off to Ravenna to his kinsman, Bishop Ursus.
Bishop Ursus set him up at a solitary place outside the city near the church in honor of the Hieromartyr Apollinarius.
St Bassian quickly advanced spiritually, and soon he was glorified by miracles. During this time a judge had been falsely accused and was sentenced to death by decapitation. Along the way to he prayerfully called out for help to St Bassian. When the executioner was already holding the sword over his head, the sword suddenly was knocked from his hands and flew off to the side. This occurred three times. The same thing happened with another executioner.

When they reported this to the Emperor, the Emperor set the judge free. He then told how he had been saved through the intercession of St Bassian.

The people of the city, believing that the prayer of St Bassian was powerful before God, asked Bishop Ursus to ordain him to the priesthood. Upon the death of the bishop of the city of Lodium (Lodi in Liguria, Northern Italy), the priest Clement of the cathedral church had a revelation that St Bassian would be chosen Bishop of Lodium.
Both St Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, and Bishop Ursus officiated at at his consecration.
St Bassian taught the people not only by word, but also by deed, providing his flock example of a virtuous life. At Lodi he built a beautiful church dedicated to the holy Apostles. St Bassian often exchanged letters with St Ambrose, and he was present at his blessed repose, and buried his body.  St Bassian died peacefully in the year 430, having served as archbishop for 35 years.
430 Saint Dius; his flesh was humbled by vigil and unceasing prayer. For these deeds the Lord granted St Dius dispassion and the gift of wonderworking;  a vision, the Lord ordered St Dius to go to Constantinople and there to serve both Him and the people;  The Lord worked many other miracles through His saint
   Born in Antioch, Syria towards the end of the fourth century into a pious Christian family. From his youth he was noted for his temperance. He ate food in small quantities, but not every day, and his flesh was humbled by vigil and unceasing prayer. For these deeds the Lord granted St Dius dispassion and the gift of wonderworking.

    In a vision, the Lord ordered St Dius to go to Constantinople and there to serve both Him and the people. St Dius settled beyond the city in a solitary place, where people feared to live. St Dius bravely contended with the evil spirits which tried to expel him from this place. The Lord heard the prayer of His saint: his staff took root, began to grow and with time was transformed into an immense oak, which stood for a long time even after the death of St Dius.
    The surrounding inhabitants began to come to the saint for advice and guidance, and they sought healing from illnesses of body and soul. St Dius doctored the infirm with prayer, and whatever was offered him he distributed to the poor, the homeless and the sick.
   Reports of St Dius reached even the emperor Theodosius the Younger. He came to St Dius for a blessing together with Patriarch Atticus of Constantinople (406-425). The emperor wanted a monastery to be built on the place of St Dius' efforts, and he provided the means for its construction. The Patriarch ordained the monk as a priest and made him the igumen. Soon numerous monastic brethren gathered to St Dius. The monastery was in need of a well, and they dug for a long time without success. Through the prayers of the monk the Lord brought forth a spring of pure water, which soon filled up the entire well. Once, through his prayers, the monk raised up a drowned man. The Lord worked many other miracles through His saint.
    In extreme old age St Dius became grievously ill. He took his leave of the brethren, received the Holy Mysteries, and lay upon his cot like one dead. At the monastery His Holiness Patriarch Atticus (Comm. on Cheesefare Saturday) came for the funeral service and also Patriarch Alexander of Alexandria, who was then at Constantinople. The holy Elder unexpectedly rose up from his death bed and said, "The Lord has granted me fifteen more years of life." Great was the joy of the brethren.
    St Dius did live another fifteen years, helping all with guidance and counsel, healing the sick, and being concerned for the poor and homeless. Shortly before his death, a radiant man in priestly garb appeared to him in the altar of the church and told him of his impending death. Having given thanks to the Lord for this news, St Dius quietly died and was buried in his monastery. (about the year 430).
430 ST MACEDONIUS; Theodoret relates many miraculous cures of sick persons, and of his own mother among them, wrought by water over which Macedonius had made the sign of the cross. He adds that his own birth was the effect of the anchoret’s prayers after his mother had lived childless in marriage thirteen years
This Syrian ascetic is said to have lived for forty years on barley moistened in water till, finding his health impaired, he ate bread, reflecting that it was not lawful for him to shorten his life in order to shun labours and conflicts. This also was the direction he gave to the mother of Theodoret, persuading her, when in a poor state of health, to use proper food, which he said was a form of medicine. Theodoret relates many miraculous cures of sick persons, and of his own mother among them, wrought by water over which Macedonius had made the sign of the cross. He adds that his own birth was the effect of the anchoret’s prayers after his mother had lived childless in marriage thirteen years. The saint died when ninety years old, and is named in the Greek menologies.
Practically all our information comes from Theodoret’s Historia Religiosa (see Migne, PG., vol. lxxxii, 1399), but Macedonius also has a paragraph in the Synaxary of Constanti­nople (ed. Delehaye, pp. 457—458), under date February 11. Cf. also DCB., vol. iii, p. 778 and the Acta Sanctorum for January 24. 
430 St. Marcellus of Paris From his youth he exhibited the virtues of purity, modesty, meekness, and charity miracle worker B (RM)
Lutétiæ Parisiórum deposítio sancti Marcélli Epíscopi.
    At Paris, the death of St. Marcellus, bishop.

410? ST MARCELLUS, BISHOP OF PARIS
IT is stated that this Marcellus was born at Paris of parents not conspicuous for rank in the world but on whom his holiness reflected the greatest honour: he gave himself entirely to the discipline of virtue and prayer, so as to seem disengaged both from the world and the flesh, says the author of his life. The uncommon gravity of his character and his progress in sacred learning recommended him to Prudentius, Bishop of Paris, who ordained him reader and later made him his archdeacon. From this time the saint is said to have given frequent proofs of a wonderful gift of miracles, and upon the decease of Prudentius was unanimously chosen bishop of Paris. It is related that by his prayers and authority he defended his flock from the raids of barbarians, and some surprising marvels (including victory over a great serpent or dragon) are attributed to him by his biographer. “But”, as Alban Butler remarks, “the circumstances depend upon the authority of one who wrote over a hundred years after the time, and who, being a foreigner, took them upon trust and probably upon popular reports.” The saint died early in the fifth century. His body was buried in the catacomb known by his name on the left bank of the Seine, a district now joined to the city and called the suburb of Saint-Marceau. 
Modern criticism seems agreed that the Life of this saint may without hesitation be assigned to the authorship of St Venantius Fortunatus, who, pace Alban Butler, can hardly be regarded as a foreigner in Gaul, except technically. It has been critically edited both by B. Krusch in MGH., Auctores antiquissimi, vol. iv, pt 2, pp. 49—54, and in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p. 470. 
(also known as Marceau) Born in Paris; died November 1, c. 430. Bishop Marcellus of Paris was born of common, but obviously virtuous, parents. From his youth he exhibited the virtues of purity, modesty, meekness, and charity. He attempted to live in the world without being a part of it, keeping his eyes focussed on the heavenly Jerusalem. His progress in this regard led to his appointment as reader in the cathedral of Paris. From that time, he was known as a miracle worker and soon ordained to the priesthood. Upon the death of Bishop Prudentius, Marcellus was chosen to succeed him. As bishop he was careful and indefatigable. An unreliable report by a foreigner tell us that Marcellus freed the country from a great serpent that lived in the sepulcher of an adulteress. Saint Marcellus was buried in the old Christian cemetery outside the walls of the city, where now is the suburb of Saint-Marceau that was named in his honor. His relics are venerated in the cathedral (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
431 Saint Paulinus Bishop of Nola writer poet; gave away property vast fortune to poor and Church and pursued life of deep austerity / mortifications
Apud Nolam, Campániæ urbem, natális beáti Paulíni, Epíscopi et Confessóris, qui ex nobilíssimo et opulentíssimo factus est pro Christo pauper et húmilis, et, quod supérerat, seípsum pro rediméndo víduæ fílio, quem Wándali, Campánia devastáta, captívum in Africam abdúxerant, in servitútem dedit.  Cláruit autem non solum eruditióne et copiósa vitæ sanctitáte, sed étiam poténtia advérsus dæmones; ejúsque præcláras laudes sancti Ambrósius, Hierónymus, Augustínus et Gregórius Papa scriptis suis celebrárunt.  Ipsíus corpus, póstea Benevéntum et inde Romam translátum, tandem, Summi Pontíficis Pii Décimi jussu, Nolæ restitútum fuit.
    At Nola in Campania, the birthday of blessed Paulinus, bishop and confessor, who, although a noble and wealthy man, made himself poor and humble for Christ; and what is still more admirable, became a slave to liberate a widow's son who had been carried to Africa by the Vandals when they devastated Campania.  He was celebrated, not only for his learning and great holiness of life, but also for his power over demons.  His great merit has been extolled by Saints Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, and Gregory in their writings.  His body was translated to Benevento, and later to Rome, but was taken back to Nola by the order of Pope Pius X.

ST PAULINUS, BISHOP OF NOLA (A.D. 431)
ST PAULINUS, more formally designated Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus, was one of the most remarkable men of his age, and we find him eulogized in terms of warm appreciation by St Martin, St Sulpicius Severus, St Ambrose, St Augustine, St Jerome, St Eucherius, St Gregory of Tours, Apollinaris, Cassiodorus and other writers. His father, who was prefect of Gaul, had lands in Italy, Aquitaine and Spain, and Paulinus was born at or near Bordeaux. He had for his master in poetry and rhetoric the famous poet Ausonius. Trained under such a teacher, Paulinus more than fulfilled the high hopes that had been entertained of him, and while still quite young made a name for himself at the bar. "Everyone", says St Jerome, "admired the purity and elegance of his diction, the delicacy and loftiness of his sentiments, the strength and sweetness of his style and the vividness of his imagination." He was entrusted with various public offices, the exact nature of which we do not know, but there is some ground for surmising that he held an appointment in Campania and had also been prefect of New Epirus. His duties, whatever they were, required or permitted him to travel extensively, and during the course of his public life he made many friends in Italy, Gaul and Spain.
He married a Spanish lady called Therasia, and after some years he resigned his offices and retired to lead a life of cultured leisure in Aquitaine. He now came into relations with St Delphinus, bishop of Bordeaux, through whose ministrations Paulinus and his brother were brought to receive baptism. Then, about the year 390, he went with his wife to live on her estate in Spain where, after years of childlessness, a son was born to them; but the boy died at the end of a week. They now determined to live more austerely and charitably, and proceeded to dispossess themselves of much property for the benefit of the needy. This liberality had a result which appears to have come upon them as a surprise. On Christmas day, about 393, in response to a sudden outcry on the part of the people, the bishop of Barcelona in his cathedral conferred upon Paulinus the orders of a priest, although he had not previously been a deacon. [It should not be supposed that this conferring of sacred orders in deference to popular c1amour is altogether without a parallel. Apart from the well-known case of the raising of St Ambrose to the episcopate, we have a very similar incident occurring to the husband of St Melania the Younger (December 31). Melania and Pinian were not only the contemporaries, but the personal friends of St Paulinus, and like him they had divested themselves of large sums of money to give away in charity.]
If the citizens had hoped thereby to retain Paulinus amongst them, they were disappointed. He had already decided to settle at Nola, a small town near Naples, where he had property. As soon as his intentions became known and he attempted to deal with his possessions in Aquitaine, as he had done with those of Therasia in Spain, he found he had to encounter the remonstrances of his friends and the opposition of his relatives. However, he did not allow himself to be deterred, and successfully carried his purpose into effect. He proceeded to Italy, where St Ambrose and other friends gave him a warm welcome. In Rome, on the other hand, he met with a chilly reception from Pope St Siricius and his clergy, who possibly resented the uncanonical nature of his ordination. His stay in the City was accordingly a short one, and he passed on to Nola with his wife. There he took up his residence in a long, two-storied building outside the walls, close to the tomb of St Felix. Although he had parted with so much he was still possessed of considerable means-presumably his Italian property.
This he gradually disposed of to further religious and philanthropic schemes.
Thus he built a church for Fondi, gave Nola a much-needed aqueduct, and supported a host of poor debtors, tramps and other necessitous persons, many of whom he lodged in the lower part of his own house. He himself, with a few friends, occupied the upper story, living under semi-monastic rule and reciting the daily office in common; Therasia presumably was the housekeeper for this establishment. Adjacent was a building with a garden which served as a guest-house for visitors. Amongst those who enjoyed his hospitality may be mentioned St Melania the Elder and the missionary bishop St Nicetas of Remesiana, who stayed with him on two occasions. Very striking is the account preserved in the Life of the younger Melania, which describes the coming to Nola of herself and her husband with other devoted Christians. When St Paulinus went to settle at Nola, there were already three little basilicas and a chapel grouped about the tomb of the former presbyter there, St Felix; to these he added another, which he caused to be adorned with mosaics of which he has left a description in verse. Three of these churches shared a common outside entrance, and they were probably connected in much the same way as the seven old basilicas which constitute San Stefano in Bologna. Every year for the festival of St Felix, Paulinus rendered him what he described as a tribute of his voluntary service, in the shape of a birthday poem in his honour. Fourteen or fifteen of these poems are still extant.
Upon the death of the bishop of Nola, about the year 409, St Paulinus was chosen as obviously the right person to fill his place. He occupied the episcopal chair until his death. Beyond the fact that he ruled with wisdom and liberality, we have no reliable information about his career as a shepherd of souls. Once a year he went to Rome for the feast of St Peter and St Paul: otherwise he never left Nola. But he was a great letter-writer and kept in touch by correspondence with the leading churchmen of his day-notably with St Jerome and St Augustine, whom he consulted on many subjects, often on the meaning of obscure passages of the Bible. It was in response to a query of his that St Augustine wrote his book On the Care of the Dead, in which he emphasizes that pompous funerals and similar honours are only comforts to surviving friends, and of no use to the dead.
St Paulinus survived until the year 431, and the closing scenes of his life are described in the letter of an eye-witness named Uranius. Three days before his death he was visited by two bishops, Symmachus and Acyndinus, with whom at his bedside he celebrated the Divine Mysteries. Then the priest Postumian came to tell him that forty pieces of silver were owing for clothes for the poor. The dying saint replied with a smile that someone would pay the debt of the poor; and almost immediately afterwards there arrived a messenger bearing a gift of fifty silver pieces. On the last day, at the hour for Vespers, when the lamps were being lighted in the church, the bishop roused himself from a prolonged silence, and, stretching out his hand, said in a low voice, "I have prepared a lamp for my Christ." Some hours later the watchers felt a sudden tremor, as of a slight earthquake, and at that moment St Paulinus yielded up his soul to God. He was buried in the church he had built in honour of St Felix; and his relics having been translated to Rome, they were restored to Nola by order of St Pius X in 1909.
Of the writings of St Paulinus, which seem to have been numerous, only thirty-two poems, fifty-one letters, and a few short fragments have come down to us. But he is esteemed the best Christian poet of his time after Prudentius, and his epithalamium for Julian, bishop of Eclanum and la, is one of the earliest Christian wedding poems that has survived.
There is no proper life of St Paulinus of early date, but we have a letter of Uranius describing his death and a short notice by St Gregory of Tours. But in Paulinus's own correspondence and in the references of contemporaries we have a good deal of biographical material which has been used in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. v. Another source which has only become available in comparatively recent times is the Life of Melania the Younger, preserved both in a Greek and a Latin text, which may be best consulted in the edition of Cardinal Rampolla, Santa Melania Giuniore (1905). There are modern biographies by A. Buse, F. Lagrange and A. Baudrillart, and a good article in DCB., vol. iv, pp. 234-245, as well as in DTC., vol. xii, cc. 68-7J. See, further, G. Boissier, La Fin du Paganisme, vol. ii, pp. 49-103; F. de Labriolle, La Correspondance d'Ausone et de Paulin (1910); C. Weyman, Beiträge zur Geschichte de, christ.-Latein. Poesie (1926), pp. 92-103; P. Fabre, S. Paulin et l'amitie chrétienne (1947); and P. de Labriolle, Histoire de la littérature chrétienne (1947), p. 877.

Apud Nolam, Campániæ urbem, natális beáti Paulíni, Epíscopi et Confessóris, qui ex nobilíssimo et opulentíssimo factus est pro Christo pauper et húmilis, et, quod supérerat, seípsum pro rediméndo víduæ fílio, quem Wándali, Campánia devastáta, captívum in Africam abdúxerant, in servitútem dedit.  Cláruit autem non solum eruditióne et copiósa vitæ sanctitáte, sed étiam poténtia advérsus dæmones; ejúsque præcláras laudes sancti Ambrósius, Hierónymus, Augustínus et Gregórius Papa scriptis suis celebrárunt.  Ipsíus corpus, póstea Benevéntum et inde Romam translátum, tandem, Summi Pontíficis Pii Décimi jussu, Nolæ restitútum fuit.

    At Nola in Campania, the birthday of blessed Paulinus, bishop and confessor, who, although a noble and wealthy man, made himself poor and humble for Christ; and what is still more admirable, became a slave to liberate a widow's son who had been carried to Africa by the Vandals when they devastated Campania.  He was celebrated, not only for his learning and great holiness of life, but also for his power over demons.  His great merit has been extolled by Saints Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, and Gregory in their writings.  His body was translated to Benevento, and later to Rome, but was taken back to Nola by the order of Pope Pius X.
Paulinus von Nola Orthodoxe Kirche: 23. Januar    Katholische und Evangelische Kirche: 22. Juni

Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus was born 354 to a wealthy Roman family at Bordeaux, in Gaul. His father was the praetorian prefect of Gaul who made certain that his son received a sound education. Paulinus studied rhetoric and poetry and learned from the famed poet Ausonius. He subsequently became a well known lawyer.

He became the prefect of Rome, married a Spanish noble lady, Therasia, and led a luxury filled life.
Following the death of his son a week after his birth in 390, Paulinus retreated from the world and came to be baptized a Christian by St. Delphinus in Aquitaine. With Therasia, he gave away their property and vast fortune to the poor and to the Church, and they pursued a life of deep austerity and mortifications.
About 393, he was forcibly ordained a priest by the bishop of Barcelona. Soon after, he moved to an estate near the tomb of St. Nola near Naples, Italy There, he and his wife practiced rigorous asceticism and helped to establish a community of monks. To the consternation of his other relatives, he sold all of their estates in Gaul and gave the money to the poor. He also helped to build a church at Fondi, a basilica near the tomb of St. Felix, a hospital for travelers, and an aqueduct.
Many of the poor and sick he brought into his own house, and he lived as a hermit with several of his friends. In 409, he was elected bishop of Nola, serving in this office with great distinction until his death. He was a friend and correspondent of virtually all of the leading figures of his era, including Sts. Augustine, Jerome, Ambrose, Martin of Tours, and Pope Anastasius I. Paulinus was also a gifted poet, earning the distinction of being one of the foremost Christian Latin poets of the Patristic period, an honor he shares with Prudentius. Paulinus retained much of the style of the old classical poets, and composed most of the poems in honor of the feast of St. Felix. He is the author of a body of extant works including fifty one letters, thirty two poems, and several prose pieces.

Paulinus of Nola B (RM) Born in Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France, c. 354; died 431. Saint Paulinus of Nola (and Thomas More below) is one of the few male saints with whom I feel an absolute affinity, even though there are others that I admire.
Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus, was the son of a Roman patrician who was the praetorian prefect in Gaul at the time of Paulinus's birth. The family owned extensive lands in both Aquitaine and Italy. He was taught by the poet Ausonius until he was 15, when he went to the University of Bordeaux to study Roman law, poetry, eloquence, science, and Platonic philosophy. He became a successful and prominent lawyer.
He was not attracted to the pious life. His father died when Paulinus was 24, but he continued to live a restrained life even though he inherited great wealth. At age 25, Emperor Gratian nominated him a Roman senator to fill an unexpired term as a consul of Rome. At age 26, he was made governor of Campania and took up residence in Nola in the mountains east of Naples. Paulinus was apparently devoid of vanity and cared little for honors.
His first year in Nola was decisive. On the Feast of Saint Felix, patron of Campania, he saw several sick people healed at the tomb of the saint--disturbing to a pagan philosopher. This was the time of his initial conversion to Christianity. He sacrificed his first beard to Saint Felix, resigned his post as governor, and returned to his awaiting mother.
He travelled to Spain and brought back his strong-willed wife Teresa, who was almost as wealthy as he. At age 36, the rich, erudite pagan philosopher was baptized by Saint Delphinus, bishop of Bordeaux, after the witness of his wife Theresa's life. (His brother was baptized at the same time.) He later wrote that by marrying her, God gained two souls, ". . . by the merits of the woman, Thou didst compensate for the hesitations of the man."
Many men, who afterwards became saints, were the instruments through which the grace of God operated on him: Martin of Tours, Ambrose, Augustine, Victricius of Rouen, Jerome, Amadeus of Bordeaux, and Sulpicius Severus.
Saint Martin of Tours miraculously cured his eye affliction. He had religious talks with Saint Victricius and Saint Amadeus, and with his friend Sulpicius Severus, who converted at about the same time. Above all, Saint Ambrose's sermons finally led him to place himself under instruction. Possibly Augustine's conversion and baptism two years before his own helped move his stubborn will. His wife Theresa's prayers and merits were also not without effect.
Paulinus and Theresa sold their estates in Gaul and divided the money among the poor and their slaves. His ancient tutor tried to dissuade him from doing this. His pagan friends saw it as a desertion of the Empire at a critical time. Theresa approved and showed it by selling her own lands when they got to Spain and using the proceeds to redeem captives and free debtors.
Then they had a son who died soon after baptism at 8 days old. Paulinus thought this might be because of Theresa's physical condition and that it would be an act of charity to relinquish his rights as a husband. They both took vows of chastity and lived together as siblings for the rest of their lives.

Three years after his baptism, the populace of Barcelona physically carried him off to the bishop and begged that he be ordained to the priesthood, to which the bishop and Paulinus--under the condition that he not be tied to a parish or diocese--agreed.
The year following his ordination they were the guests of Saint Ambrose, who instructed Paulinus in priestly duties. Then they visited Rome, where they received a cold reception. (Eight years previously, in a letter to Bishop Himerius of Taragona, Pope Siricius laid down seven regulations against married priests (cf. Denzinger's Enchiridion Symbolorum, page 89).) From Rome they retired to Nola to live a severely ascetic life near the tomb of his beloved Saint Felix.
In 394, Saint Augustine wrote to them with admiration for the example of Theresa. Saint Ambrose, in his 30th Epistle to Sabinus, wrote in praise of their actions.
Paulinus could see the Empire was falling apart from within and without, and that the Catholic Church was the only institution that possessed any vitality. He chose to attach himself to the invincible kingdom of Christ. Paulinus and Theresa made their home at Nola in a hospice for the poor and sick, which they had founded when they sold their estates. Theresa lived on the first floor and acted as matron.
The second floor was a monastery, where Paulinus and other hermits established one of the first monastic centers in the West--a century before Saint Benedict.

The monastery had strict rules of silence and fasting, a diet consisting mostly of vegetables, shaved heads, wore hair-cloth with a rope girdle, slept on the floor, and self-mortification. Paulinus often ill, but philosophically said "the weakness of the body is advantageous to the spirit, which rejoices in the losses of the flesh." Paulinus lived 78 years. He found that to live according to faith required much more than avoiding sin.
Saint Paulinus was an active apostle for justice and charity through his oral teaching and letters. He ransomed many captives and fed those left without possessions during the invasions of Alaric the Goth.
In 410, shortly before Theresa's death, the people of Nola chose him for their bishop.

He proved to be one of the best prelates of his time. Paulinus continued to live in the monastery. He built an aqueduct for Nola, basilicas at Fondi and Nola. Msgr. Baudrillart, a modern biographer, said, "to instruct one another, to edify, to assist in the exercise of charity--such were in his eyes the true fruits of Christian friendship." He was a friend of both Saint Jerome and Saint Rufinus, but would not take sides in their dispute.
Paulinus integrated head and heart. His letters show humility, an affectionate disposition, cheerful humor, charity, self-discipline, and contemplation. Most of his poems and a number of his letters still exist. They show him to have been a Christian poet of distinction as well as a fluent writer of prose. Some of his poetry can be found in Medieval Latin Lyrics translated by Helen Waddell (Benedictines, S. Delany, Encyclopedia).

Paulinus von Nola Orthodoxe Kirche: 23. Januar Katholische und Evangelische Kirche: 22. Juni
Paulinus wurde um 353 in Bordeaux geboren. Vermutlich 381 wurde er Statthalter in Kampanien (Süditalien). Mehrere Leiderfahrungen, insbesondere der Tod seines Sohnes, bestimmten ihn, sein Leben nach dem Vorbild Martins auszurichten. Er beendete seine politische Laufbahn. ließ sich in Barcelona zum Priester weihen und ging mit seiner Frau nach Nola in Kampanien. Hier lebte er am Grab des hl. Felix (Gedenktag 14.1.) wie ein Mönch in einer asketischen Priestergemeinschaft und verwendete seinen Besitz zum Bau eines Hospitals, einer Wasserleitung und einer Kirche. Um 409 wurde er zum Bischof von Nola ernannt. Der Durchzug der Goten unter Alarich bewog ihn, alles zu geben, was er hatte. Schließlich bot er sich selbst als Lösegeld an, um einen Kriegsgefangenen auszulösen. Alarich erfuhr, wer Paulinus war und schenkte allen Gefangenen aus seinem Bistum die Freiheit. Paulinus wurde schon zu Lebzeiten wie ein Heiliger verehrt. Er starb am 22.6.431 in Nola. Sein Leichnam kam später nach Benevent, dann nach Rom, wurde aber 1908 wieder nach Nola überführt. Von dem Briefwechsel mit großen Christen seiner Zeit sind 49 Briefe erhalten, ebenso 33 Gedichte.
In art, Saint Paulinus is a bishop, with a shovel (his emblem), giving alms. He may also be shown preaching to the poor or writing (Roeder).
435 Saint Acacius, Bishop of Melitene firm supporter of Orthodoxy  gift of wonderworking made rain, checked flood, stopped dome from collapse 3rd Ecumenical Council 431 he defended the Orthodox teaching of the Two Natures (Divine and Human) of the Savior, and of His seedless Birth from the Most Holy Virgin Mother of God
Born into a pious family in the Armenian city of Melitene. His parents were childless for a long time. They prayed for a son, and vowed to dedicate him to God.

Therefore, Acacius was given to Bishop Ostrychius of Melitene (November 7) to serve the Church. St Ostrychius was a firm supporter of Orthodoxy. When the heresy of Macedonius arose, it was
 St Ostrychius set forth Orthodox teaching about the Holy Spirit as 3rd Person of the Holy Trinity One in Essence Undivided at the 2nd Ecumenical Council 381.

The holy hierarch raised Acacius with love, made him a reader, and then ordained him a deacon and then to the holy priesthood. St Acacius devoutly served the Church. He instructed both adults and children in the Holy Scripture, and in the Orthodox Confession of faith.  Among his disciples was St Euthymius the Great (January 20).
After the death of St Ostrychius, St Acacius was elevated to the bishop's throne of Melitene by general acclamation.

He wisely governed his diocese. By his firm faith, humility and deeds, the saint acquired the gift of wonderworking. Once, during a dry summer, the saint celebrated Liturgy in an open field, suddenly the wine in the Holy Chalice was mixed by the falling rain, which fell throughout the land.
He prayed during a flood, and the advancing river turned away and did not rise higher than the stone which he had placed at the riverbank. On one of the islands of the River Azar, despite the opposition of the pagans, the saint built a temple in honor of the Most Holy Theotokos. The builders of the church either through carelessness or through malice, were not careful in building the dome. During the Liturgy the dome was ready to collapse. The people rushed out of the church in terror. But the saint halted their flight saying, "The Lord is the defender of my life, of whom shall I be afraid?" (Ps. 26/27:1). The dome remained suspended in the air. Only when the services were ended, and the saint was the last one to emerge from the church, did the dome collapse, causing harm to no one. After this, the church was rebuilt.
St Acacius participated in the Third Ecumenical Council (431) and he defended the Orthodox teaching of the Two Natures (Divine and Human) of the Savior, and of His seedless Birth from the Most Holy Virgin Mother of God.
St Acacius peacefully fell asleep in the Lord around the year 435. He should not be confused with St Acacius the Confessor (March 31), who was also a bishop of Melitene.
5th v St. Thalassius & Limuneus Two hermits who lived near Cyrrhus (modern Syria) miracle workers
Two hermits who lived for many years in a cave near Cyrrhus (modern Syria). Limnaeus also spent time with St. Maro. He built two houses for the blind and was a noted healer.
Knowledge of them comes from the historian and bishop of Cyrrhus,Theodoret (d.c. 466).
5th v Thalassius and Limnaeus, Hermits (AC). Bishop Theodoret of Cyr (Syria) also records information about his contemporaries Thalassius and Limnaeus in his Philotheus (c. 22).
Saint Thalassius lived in obscurity in a cave near Cyr and was endowed with extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit.
His disciple Saint Limnaeus was famous for miraculous cures of the sick, while he himself bore patiently the sharpest colics and other distempers without any human succor.
He opened his enclosure only to Theodoret, his bishop, but spoke to others through a window
(Benedictines, Husenbeth).
446 Proclus of Constantinople known for his dedication tactful with whom he disagreed singing the Trisagion liturgy in miraculous circumstances B (RM)

St Proclus was a native of Constantinople, and was very young when he was made a lector.  He was a disciple of St John Chrysostom, but nevertheless became secretary to St John’s opponent, Atticus, archbishop of Constantinople, who

Born at Constantinople; Proclus was a disciple of Saint John Chrysostom, became a lector, and then was secretary to John's opponent, Patriarch Atticus of Constantinople, who ordained him. He was named bishop of Cyzicus but the people there would not accept him. In 428, Nestorius was named Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Theodosius II, and Proclus, by now famous for his preaching, opposed his teachings.  He was firm but gentle in his treatment of heretics, notably the Nestorians.

In 434 Maximian, who had succeeded Nestorius when he was deposed in 431, died, and Proclus was name patriarch. He continued his opposition to Nestorianism, ministered to the people of the city when it was struck with a devastating earthquake, and was known for his dedication and tactful handling of those with whom he disagreed.

He wrote several treatises, notably Tome to the Armenians, which opposed the Nestorian-flavored teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia without mentioning him by name.  Several of his letters and sermons have survived. According to tradition he instituted the singing of the Trisagion in the liturgy in miraculous circumstances (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia) .
446 Saint Hypatius Igumen of Rufinus in Chalcedon guided monastery for 40 years healer prophet.
Born in Phrygia (Asia Minor) into the family of a lawyer and he received a fine education. Once, when he was eighteen years old, his father punished him, after which the youth left home and went to Thrace (Balkans). There he herded cattle for a time, and then he lived with a priest who taught him how to chant the Psalms. Soon the chosen one of God was tonsured in one of the monasteries. Struggling against the temptations of the flesh, the holy ascetic spent fifty days in a strict fast. One night, with the blessing of the igumen, he drank some wine and ate some bread in the presence of the brethren, and was healed of his passions.
In search of a new place for ascetic struggles, St Hypatius settled with two other monks in the neglected Rufinus monastery near Chalcedon (Asia Minor). The monastery was rebuilt and soon many monks gathered about the holy ascetic, and the monastery began to flourish spiritually once more.
At the age of forty, St Hypatius was chosen igumen and he guided the monastery for forty years. Many monks, imitating their guide, attained spiritual perfection. For his strict ascetic life and love for others, St Hypatius was granted the gifts of wonderworking and healing by the Lord. Through his holy prayers bread was multiplied at the monastery, those afflicted with demons, and the blind, the withered and the hemorrhaging, came to the monastery and were healed.

St Hypatius reposed in 446, at eighty years of age. On the eve of his death, he predicted misfortunes to come: a devastating hailstorm, an earthquake, and Attila the Hun's invasion of Thrace.

450 St. John Calabytes Hermit (at 12) lived unknown in a small hut famous for prayers penances He sanctified his soul by wonderful patience, meekness and prayer
 Constantinópoli sancti Joánnis Calybítæ, qui aliquándiu in ángulo domus patérnæ, deínde in tugúrio, ignótus paréntibus, habitávit; a quibus in morte ágnitus, miráculis cláruit.  Ipsíus corpus póstea Romam translátum, et in Insulæ Tiberínæ Ecclésia, in ejus honórem erécta, collocátum est.
       At Constantinople, St. John Calybita.  For some time living unknown to his parents in a corner of their house, and later in a hut on an island in the Tiber, he was recognized by them only at his death.  Being renowned for miracles, his body was afterwards taken to Rome and buried on the Island in the Tiber, where a church was subsequently erected in his honour.

ST JOHN CALYBITES
IT was at Gomon on the Bosphorus, among the “sleepless “ monks founded by St Alexander Akimetes, that St John sought seclusion, leaving his father and a large fortune. After six years he returned disguised in the rags of a beggar, and lived unrecognized upon the charity afforded him by his parents, close to their door in a little hut (
καλνβη) whence he is known as “Calybites”. He sanctified his soul by wonderful patience, meekness and prayer. When at the point of death he is said to have revealed his identity to his mother, producing in proof the book of the gospels, bound in gold, which he had used as a boy. He asked to be buried under the hut he had occupied, and this was granted, but a church was built over it, and his relics were at a later date translated to Rome. The legend of Calybites has either originated from, or been confused with, those of St Alexis, St Onesimus, and one or two others in which the same idea recurs of a disguise long persisted in.
See the Acta Sanctorum for January 15 and Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xv (1896), pp. 256 -267,  Cf. also Synaxarium Cp. (ed. Delehaye) p. 393
He was born in Constantinople to a wealthy family at Gomon on the Bosporus and became a hermit at the age of twelve. After six years at Gomon he returned to his family’s estate as a beggar. Given a small calybe, he became famous for his prayers and penances, residing there until his death when his identity was at last revealed to his mother.
450 St. Hypatius miracles and prophecies.
Hermit, called “the Scholar of Christ.” He was born in Phrygia, and became a monk. Hypatius had a vision that sent him to Thrace where he became a hermit with a man named Jonas. The two then went to Constantinople and Chalcedon. A foe of Nestorianism, he sheltered St. Alexander Akimetes and others at his hermitage near Chalcedon when their lives were threatened by the heretics. Hypatius is credited with halting a revival of the Olympic games because of their pagan origins. He died at the age of eighty and was known for miracles and
prophecies.
448  St Germanus, Bishop Of Auxerre; by his teaching and miracles Pelagianism was finally eradicated and its teachers banished, free from heresy the Church in these islands remained for a space of eleven hundred years, until the errors of Protestantism took root and were watered by royal corruption in the sixteenth century;  feast observed in Wales and in several southern English dioceses; he was strengthening and consolidating the British church after abandoned by the Roman empire, of purging it from error, of converting yet more of the people; and by his influence on St Patrick; no doubt Germanus left his mark on Ireland also.  The feast of St Germanus is August 3 in Wales and other dates in Westminster, Plymouth and Portsmouth.  His day in the Roman Martyrology is July 31.
It is very fitting that the feast of St Gerrnanus (Germain) of Auxerre should be observed in Wales and in several southern English dioceses for, while there is no saint who can be venerated as the apostle of Britain, to him belongs the honour of strengthening and consolidating the British church after the country was abandoned by the Roman empire, of purging it from error, and of converting yet more of the people; and by his influence on St Patrick no doubt Germanus left his mark on Ireland also.   But there was nothing in his youth and early manhood to suggest the future that was before him.

  He was born at Auxerre of Christian parents, and attended the Gallic schools then he went to Rome, read law and studied eloquence there, and practised at the bar, as we should say, with succcss.  He married-his wife was named Eustochia -and was sent back to Gaul as dux of the Armorican border provinces.  Germanus was a capable governor, and on the death of St Amator in 418 he was chosen, much against his will, to succeed him as bishop of Auxerre.  This sudden change of state imbued him with a deep sense of the obligations of his new dignity (cf. St Amator on May I). He renounced all worldliness, and embraced a life of poverty austerity. He extended his hospitality to all sorts of persons, washed the feet of the poor and served them with his own hands, while he himself fasted.   He built a monastery near Auxerre, on the other side of the river Yonne, in honour of SS. Cosmas and Damian, and endowed the cathedral and other churches of Auxerre, which he found very poor.
  At this time the British church was troubled by the heresy of Pelagius. This man was himself a Briton, and he, teaching in Rome, rejected the doctrine of original sin and denied that grace is necessary for salvation.  One of his disciples, Agricola, had propagated this false teaching in Britain, and the bishops of Gaul were asked to deal with the trouble.  Pope St Celestine and the Gallic bishops nominated St Germanus to go in year 429, and appointed St Lupus, Bishop of Troyes, to accompany him on this mission.
   The bishops arrived in Britain after a rough passage, and the fame of their sanctity, doctrine and miracles soon spread abroad.  They confirmed the orthodox and converted heretics, preaching wherever people would listen.  A public disputation was held at some unnamed place, where the heretics were allowed to speak first. When they had talked a long time, the bishops answered them with great eloquence, and so supported their arguments with quotations from the Bible and the fathers that their adversaries were reduced to silence. The saints went from this conference to return thanks to God at the tomb of St Alban, and ask for smooth passage home. St Germanus caused his sepulchre to be opened, and put therein his box of relics (with which he had just cured a little blind girl), taking out a little of the dust of St Alban.  This he carried away with him, and at his return built at Auxerre a church in his honour.  St Germanus found his people burdened with excessive taxes and went to Arles to appeal to Auxiliaris, prefect of Gaul, on their behalf.   On the road the people everywhere met him in crowds to receive his blessing.  In consequence of the bishop's healing of his sick wife, Auxiliaris granted Germanus the discharge from the taxes which he had asked for his people.
  About 440 he was called again into Britain to assist that church against Pelagianism, which was again gaining ground. He sought out those who had been seduced by the heretics, and converted many of them; so that by his teaching and miracles Pelagianism was finally eradicated and its teachers banished.  Germanus knew that ignorance could not be banished, nor the reformation which he had established maintain its ground, without schools for the instruction of the clergy, and is said himself to have founded such institutions, by which means, "These churches continued afterward pure in the faith, and free from heresy", as Bede observes. But for the slight and passing success of Wiclif, free from heresy the Church in these islands remained for 11 hundred years, until errors of Protestantism took root and watered by royal corruption in the 16 thcentury.
    In the proper Mass of St Germanus formerly used in the diocese of Paris, the offertory verse was taken from the Apocalypse xix I, 3:  "I heard as it were the voice of much people in Heaven, saying, Alleluia.  And again they said, Alleluia."
This had reference to an incident recorded by Germanus's biographer Constantius.  During his first visit to Britain, a plundering expedition of Picts and Saxons descended on the country, and the Britons, having assembled an army, invited the bishop into their camp, hoping to be protected by his prayers and presence.  The saint agreed, and employed his time in bringing idolaters to faith, and the Christians to penance.  Many demanded baptism, and they were prepared to receive it at Easter, for it was then Lent.   They made a church in the camp, of green boughs twisted together, in which the catechumens received the sacrament of regeneration, and the whole army celebrated the festival with great devotion. After Easter, St Germanus had recourse to a stratagem by which, without bloodshed, he rescued his friends from the danger with which they were threatened.  He led the little army into a vale between two high mountains; when warned of the enemy's approach, ordered his troops to send forth the same shout for which he would give them a sign. When the Saxons came near, he cried out thrice, Alleluia! which was repeated by the whole British force, and the sound was carried on by the echo from the hills with an awe-inspiring noise.  The barbarians, judging from the shout that they were falling upon the swords of a mighty army, flung down their arms and ran away. According to tradition this "battle" took place near Mold, in Flintshire, where is a meadow called Maes Garmon, though the association is very dubious indeed: other suggested localizations are near the south-east coast (Dr Hugh Williams) and the Chiltern escarpment (R. H. Hodgkin).
  To quell a revolt in Armorica, the Roman general Aetius sent a force of barbarians under their chief Goar, and Germanus, fearing for the people in the hands of such savages, went out to meet Gear, stopping his horse by the bridle, at the head of his army.   He at first refused to hear the bishop, but Germanus was firm, and Goar agreed not to ravish the province until the matter had been referred to Aetius, who in turn said that Germanus must get the imperial pardon for the people. He therefore undertook a journey to Ravenna.  His fame went before him like a triumphal progress, so that he entered the city by night to avoid a public reception.  He was received with joy by the bishop, St Peter Chrysologus, by the young Emperor Valentinian III, and by his mother, Galla Placidia; but unhappily for the cause which had brought Germanus there, news came of a further revolt among the Armoricans.
  The last great act of charity of his life was done, for while still at Ravenna, God took him, on July 31, 448. The transport of his body to Auxerre was one of the most magnificent funerals of which there is record, and his shrine in the great abbey church of his name at Auxerre was a famous place of pilgrimage.
  Saint Germans in Cornwall takes its name from this saint, who in a ninth- or tenth-century sacramentary is referred to as "a preacher of the truth and the light and pillar of Cornwall".  A medieval legend associates the foundation of the great abbey of Selby with a vision of St Germanus to the monk Benedict, with many marvels added.
The critical edition published by W. Levison in 1920 of Constantius's Vita S. Germani renders the older texts, such as that in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. vii, to some extent out of date.  Like so many of the other biographies edited in MGH., Scriptores Merov. (vol. vii, pp. 225-283), the older text is now shown to have been considerably interpolated.  Still the substance remains, and it cannot be disputed that Constantius wrote within thirty years of the death of the saint.  See also Levison's "Bischof Germanus von Auxerre" in Neues Archiv, vol. xxix (1904); and, for a good popular work, L. Prunel's book in the series "Les Saints "(1929).  The meeting of the Association Bourguignonne des Sociétés Savantes held at Auxerre in 1948 produced a volume of studies, St Germain d'Auxerre et son temps, of great value.  Baring-Gould and Fisher's hypothesis (LBS., vol. iii, pp. 60-79) of a separate St Germanus, "of Man ", giving his name to Saint Germains on that island and other British churches, cannot be accepted without many reserves: see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxiii (1904), p. 356 and J. Loth in the Annales de Bretagne, vol. xx (1905), p. 351.  The vita by Constantius is translated in F. R. Hoare, The Western Fathers (1954).  The feast of St Germanus is August 3 in Wales and other dates in Westminster, Plymouth and Portsmouth.  His day in the Roman Martyrology is July 31.
458 St. Anatolius Patriarch and defender of the faith, known for his opposition to the heretic Dioscurus at the Council of Chalcedon. The patriarch of Constantinople, he is called a prophet and a miracle worker, despite the political turmoil that surrounded him. Anatolius also fought the Nestorian heresy at the Council of Ephesus.
When he was seriously ill, St. Daniel the Stylite restored him to health. Anatolius' death has long been viewed as a possible murder by local heretics.
Saint Anatolius, Patriarch of Constantinople, was born at Alexandria in the second half of the fourth century, at a time when many representatives of illustrious Byzantine families ardently strove to serve the Church of Christ armed with Greek philosophic wisdom. Having studied philosophy, St Anatolius was ordained a deacon by St Cyril of Alexandria (January 18). Anatolius was present at the Third Ecumenical Council at Ephesus in the year 431 (September 9), at which the holy Fathers condemned the false teaching of Nestorius.

St Anatolius remained a deacon at Alexandria and after the death of St Cyril (+ 444), when the See of Constantinople was occupied by Dioscorus, a supporter of the heresy being spread by Eutyches, which said that the Divine nature in Christ had fully swallowed up and absorbed His human nature. This false teaching undermined the very basis of the Church's teaching about the salvation and redemption of humankind [trans. note: Since "what is not assumed is not saved", if Christ has only a Divine nature and not a human nature, then the salvation of humankind, and even the Incarnation of Christ would be rendered heretically docetic]. In the year 449 Dioscorus and his followers convened a heretical "Robber Council" at Ephesus, having received also the support of the emperor. The great advocate of Orthodoxy, St Flavian, the Patriarch of Constantinople, was deposed.

Elected to the See of Constantinople, St Anatolius zealously set about restoring the purity of Orthodoxy. In 450, at a local Council in Constantinople, St Anatolius condemned the heresy of Eutyches and Dioscorus. Having died in exile, the confessor Flavian was numbered among the saints and his relics were transferred to the capital.
In the following year, 451, with the active participation of Patriarch Anatolius, the Fourth Ecumenical Council was convened at Chalcedon. The Fathers of the Chalcedon Council affirmed the dogma about the worship of the Lord Jesus Christ, "perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, true God and true man, made known in two natures without mingling, without change, indivisibly, inseparably" (Greek: "asynkhutos, atreptos, adiairetos, akhoristos").

After a life of constant struggle against heresy and for truth, Patriarch Anatolius died in the year 458.
Among the canons enacted was the 28th Canon of the Fourth Ecumenical Council stating that the See of Constantinople is equal to the throne of Old Rome. The churches of Asia Minor, Greece and the Black Sea region, and all new churches that might arise in these regions were placed under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople, in accord with the 28th Canon.
   St Anatolius also made a large contribution to the literary treasury of the Orthodox Church. He composed liturgical hymns for Sundays, for certain Feasts of the Lord (the Nativity and the Theophany of Christ), for the martyrs ( St Panteleimon the Healer, St George the Victory-Bearer, St Demetrius of Thessalonica). In service books designated simply as "Anatolian" verses
453 St. Anianus Bishop defender of Orleans against Attila the Hun.
Aureliánis, in Gállia, sancti Aniáni Epíscopi, cujus mortem in conspéctu Dómini pretiósam mirácula crebra testántur.
    At Orleans in France, St. Anian, bishop, the value of whose death in the sight of the Lord is attested by frequent miracles.
453 St Anianus, Or Aignan, Bishop of Orleans
Anianus was born in Vienne and, after living a hermit’s life there for some time, went to Orleans, attracted by the reputation of its holy bishop
, Evurtius. He ordained Anianus priest. Towards the end of his life St Evurtius determined to resign his bishopric, and summoned an assembly to appoint a successor. Ac­cording to a legend the names of the candidates were put in a vessel and, the lot having been drawn by a child, it fell upon St Anianus; lest this should be but chance, the choice was confirmed by the sortes biblicae. When he came to take possession of his cathedral, Anianus asked the governor of the city according to custom to release all the prisoners who were in gaol. The governor refused until, having had a near escape from death, he took this to be a warning from Heaven and did as the new bishop had requested.

In the year 451 Orleans was threatened by Attila and his Huns and, as in many other examples at this time, the credit of saving the city was given to its bishop. St Anianus helped to organize the defenses, encourage the people, and appealed urgently to the Roman general Aetius to come to their help. Aetius was slow in moving, the town was taken, and the Huns had already begun to carry off their booty and captives, when they had to turn and defend themselves against the troops of Aetius, who drove them from Orleans and across the Seine. St Anianus died two years later at a great age.

The two Latin lives of this saint are late in date and unreliable. The better of the two has been edited by B. Krusch in MGH., Scriptures Merov., vol. iii, pp. 104—, 117. St Gregory of Tours also describes in some detail the relief of Orleans when attacked by Attila, and attributes it to St Aignan. See further C. Duhan, Vie de St Aignan (1877) and L. Duchesne, Fastes Episcopaux, vol. ii, p. 460. 

     Anianus was born in Vienne, France, where he lived as a hermit for many years. He went to Orleans, France, to be ordained by Bishop Evurtius, and succeed him as bishop in Vienne. When Attila the Hun and his horde attacked Orleans, Anianus defended the area. He sent word to General Aetius, who brought a Roman army to relieve the city.
459 ST SIMEON THE STYLITE; By an invincible patience he bore all afflictions and rebukes without a word of complaint; he sincerely looked upon himself as the outcast of the world; and he spoke to all with the most engaging sweetness and charity.

ST SIMEON was, in his life and conduct, a subject of astonishment not only to the whole Roman empire, but also to many barbarous and infidel peoples who had the highest veneration for him. The Roman emperors solicited his prayers, and consulted him on matters of importance. It must, nevertheless, be acknowledged that his most remarkable actions are a subject of admiration, not of imitation. They may serve, notwithstanding, for our spiritual edification, as we cannot well reflect on his fervour without being confounded at our own indolence in the service of God.
St Simeon was the son of a shepherd in Cilicia, on the borders of Syria, and at first kept his father’s sheep. Being only thirteen, about the year 402, he was much moved by hearing the beatitudes one day read in church, particularly the words, “Blessed are they that mourn; blessed are the clean of heart”. The youth addressed himself to a certain old man to learn their meaning, and begged to know how the happiness they promised was to be obtained. He was told that continual prayer, watching, fasting, weeping, humiliation and the patient suffering of persecution were pointed out by these texts as the road to true happiness; and that a solitary life afforded the best opportunity for the practice of virtue. Simeon upon this withdrew to a little distance where, falling upon the ground, he besought Him who desires all to be saved to conduct him in the paths that lead to happiness and perfection. At length, falling asleep, he had a vision, which he often related afterwards. He seemed to himself to be digging for the foundation of a house, and that as often as he stopped to take a little breath, which was four times, he was commanded each time to dig deeper, till at length he was told he might desist, the pit being deep enough to receive the intended foundation, on which he would be able to raise a superstructure of what kind and to what height he pleased. “The event”, says Theodoret, “verified the prediction; the actions of this wonderful man were so much above nature, that they might well require deep foundations to build such a structure securely.”
Rising from the ground, he went to a monastery near at hand ruled by an abbot called Timothy. There he remained at the gate for several days, without either eating or drinking, begging to be admitted on the footing of the lowest servant in the house. His petition was granted, and he complied with the terms of it for four months. During this time he learned the psalter by heart, and his familiarity with the sacred words greatly helped to nourish his soul. Though still no more than a boy, he practised all the austerities of the house, and by his humility and charity gained the good will of all the monks. Having here spent two years, he removed to the monastery of Heliodorus, who had spent sixty-two years in that community so abstracted from the world as to be utterly ignorant of it, as Theodoret relates, who knew him well. Here Simeon much increased his mortifications. Judging the tough rope of the well, made of twisted palm leaves, a proper instrument of penance, he tied it close about his naked body, where it remained, unknown both to the community and his superior, till it ate into his flesh. Three days successively his clothes, which clung to it, had to be softened with liquids to disengage them; and the incisions made to cut the cord out of his body were attended with such pain that he lay for some time as dead. On his recovery the abbot, as a warning to the rest to avoid such dangerous singularities, dismissed him.
After this he repaired to a hermitage at the foot of Mount Telanissae, where he resolved to pass the whole forty days of Lent in total abstinence, after the example of Christ, without either eating or drinking. Bassus, a priest to whom he communicated his design, gave him ten loaves and some water that he might eat if he found it necessary. At the expiration of the forty days Bassus came to visit him, and found the loaves and water untouched, but Simeon lay stretched on the ground almost without any signs of life. Taking a sponge, he moistened his lips with water, and then gave him the blessed Eucharist. Simeon having recovered a little rose up, and by degrees found himself able to swallow a few lettuce-leaves. This was his method of keeping Lent during the remainder of his life; and he had passed twenty-six Lents after this manner when Theodoret wrote his account of him; in which he adds other particulars—that Simeon spent the first part of Lent in praising God standing; growing weaker, he continued his prayer sitting; while towards the end, being unable to support himself in any other posture, he lay on the ground. However, it is probable that in his advanced years he admitted some mitigation of this incredible austerity. When on his pillar, he kept himself during this fast tied to a pole; but in the end was able to fast the whole term without any support. Some attribute this to the strength of his constitution, which was naturally very robust, and had been gradually habituated to an extreme privation of food. It is well known that the hot climate affords surprising instances of long abstinence among the Indians. A native of France has, within our memory, fasted the forty days of Lent almost in the same manner. *{* Dom Claude Léauté, a Benedictine monk of the congregation of Saint-Maur. This fact is attested by his brethren and superiors in a relation printed at Sens in 1731; and recorded by Dom L’Isle in his History of Fasting. (Some other remarkable examples may be found cited by Father Thurston in two articles in The Month, February and March, 1921, on “The Mystic as a Hunger Striker”.)} But few examples occur of persons abstaining entirely from food for many days unless prepared and inured by habit.
   After three years spent in this hermitage the saint removed the top of the same mountain, where he made an enclosure, but without any roof or shelter to protect him from the weather; and to confirm his resolution of pursuing this manner of life, he fastened his right leg to a rock with a chain. Meletius, vicar to the patriarch of Antioch, told him that a firm will, supported by God’s good grace, would enable him to abide in his solitary enclosure without having recourse to any bodily restraint; whereupon the obedient servant of God sent for a smith and had his chains knocked off. But visitors began to throng to the mountain, and the solitude his soul sighed after came to be interrupted by the multitudes that flocked to receive his benediction, by which many sick recovered their health. Some were not satisfied unless they also touched him.
   So Simeon, to remove these causes of distraction, projected for himself a new and unprecedented manner of life. In 423 he erected a pillar six cubits +{+ A cubit was a measure of from 18 to 22 inches.} high, and on it he dwelt four years; on a second, twelve cubits high, he lived three years on a third, twenty-two cubits high, ten years; and on a fourth, forty cubits high, built for him by the people, he spent the last twenty years of his life.
   Thus he lived thirty-seven years on pillars, and was called Stylites, from the Greek word stylos, which signifies a pillar. This singularity was at first censured by all as a piece of extravagance. To make trial of his humility an order was sent him in the name of the neighbouring bishops and abbots to quit his pillar and give up his new manner of life. The saint at once made ready to come down; but the messenger said that, as he had shown a willingness to obey, it was their desire that he should follow his vocation in God.
His pillar did not exceed six feet in diameter at the top, which made it difficult for him to lie extended on it; neither would he allow a seat. He only stooped, or leaned, to take a little rest, and often in the day bowed his body in prayer. A visitor once reckoned 1,244 such profound reverences made by him at one time. He made exhortations to the people twice a day. His garments were the skins of beasts, and he never suffered any woman to come within the enclosure where his pillar stood. His disciple Antony mentions that he prayed most fervently for the soul of his mother after her decease.
God is sometimes pleased to conduct certain souls through extraordinary paths, in which others would find only danger of illusion and self-will. We should, notwithstanding, consider that the holiness of these persons does not consist in such wonderful actions or in their miracles, but in the perfection of their charity, patience and humility; and it was these solid virtues which shone so conspicuously in the life of St Simeon. He exhorted people vehemently against the horrible custom of swearing; as also to observe strict justice, to take no usury, to be earnest in their piety, and to pray for the salvation of souls.
   The great deference paid to his instructions, even by barbarians, cannot be described.
   Many Persians, Armenians and Iberians were converted by his miracles or by his discourses, which they crowded to hear.
   The Emperors Theodosius and Leo I often consulted him and desired his prayers.
   The Emperor Marcian visited him in disguise. By an invincible patience he bore all afflictions and rebukes without a word of complaint; he sincerely looked upon himself as the outcast of the world; and he spoke to all with the most engaging sweetness and charity.
Domnus, Patriarch of Antioch, and others brought him Holy Communion on his pillar. In 459, on a Wednesday, September 2 (or as some say, on the previous July 24, a Friday), this incomparable penitent, bowing on his pillar as if intent on prayer, gave up the ghost, in the sixty-ninth year of his age. Two days later his body was conveyed to Antioch, attended by the bishops and the whole country. Many miracles, related by Evagrius, Antony and Cosmas, were wrought on this occasion.
Incredible as some of the feats of endurance may seem which are attributed to St Simeon the Elder and to the other Stylites, or “Pillar-Saints”, his imitators, there can be no doubt that the facts are vouched for by the best historical evidence. The church historian Theo­doret, for example, who is one of our principal authorities, knew Simeon well, possessed his confidence, and wrote his account while the saint was still living. Hippolyte Delehaye discusses the whole question of this extraordinary phase of asceticism with great thoroughness, in his monograph Les Saints Stylites (1923). This supersedes all previous works on the subject. A popular summary by Fr Thurston of the outstanding features of this mode of life, based upon Delehaye’s researches, may be found in the Irish quarterly Studies, December, 1923, pp. 584—596. Besides the account of Theodoret, we have two other primary authorities for the life of St Simeon one the Greek biography by his disciple and contemporary Antony, the other the Syriac, which also must certainly have been written within fifty years of the saint’s death. Both these texts have been critically edited by Lietzmann in his Das Leben des heiligen Symeon Stylites (1908); see also P. Peeters on Simeon’s earliest biographers, in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxi (1943), pp. 71 seq. Between the Syriac and the Greek accounts there are a good many points of divergence in matters of detail which cannot be gone into here. In the Roman Martyrology St Simeon is commemorated on January 5, and the Bollandists and Butler have followed this example. On a tree-dweller (dendrite) see A. Vasiliev, “Life of David of Thessalonika”, in Traditio, vol. iv (1946), pp. 115-147.
460 St. Turibius of Astorga Bishop stern disciplinarian opponent of the heretical Priscillianist.
Paléntiæ sancti Turíbii, Epíscopi Asturicénsis, qui, ope sancti Leónis Papæ, Priscilliáni hæresim ex Hispánia pénitus profligávit, clarúsque miráculis quiévit in pace.
    At Paléntia, St. Turibius, bishop of Astorga.  With the aid of Pope St. Leo, he drove out of Spain completely the Priscillian heresy.  He went to rest in the Lord with a great renown for miracles.
450 ST TURIBIUS, Bishop OF ASTORGA
St Turibius became bishop of Astorga when the errors of the Priscillianists were gaining many adherents in various parts of Spain. Based on forged apostolic writings, this heresy was a subtle form of Manichaeism which seems to have attracted both laymen and clergy: even Dictinus, the previous bishop of Astorga, is said at one time to have defended its teachings. St Turibius, on the other hand, came forward as an uncompromising champion of the Catholic faith. Not only did he boldly expose and denounce the new doctrines, but he took strong action against the leaders of the movement. He then appealed for support to Pope St Leo the Great, to whom he sent a report of the measures he was adopting. Leo in reply wrote a long epistle in which he categorically condemned the tenets of the Priscillianists. Mainly as a result of the efforts of St Turibius, thus backed by the authority of Rome, the spread of this heresy was checked, and the bishop was able to devote his energies to the enforcement of discipline amongst his clergy and the reform of morals amongst his people. His death occurred about the year 450.

An account of St Turibius is given in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii; but see more especially the short essay of Fr V. De Buck in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. xiii, pp. 226—230.  There are three Spanish saints called Turibius, and much confusion between them cf. Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lix (1941), pp. 34—37.
Bishop of Astorga, Spain, best known for having been an opponent of the heretical Priscillianist practically wiping out the heresy in Spain. He supported Pope St. Leo I the Great and was a stern disciplinarian.
Turibius of Astorga B (RM) Bishop Turibius of Astorga, Spain, championed Catholic doctrine against the Priscillianists and promoted ecclesiastical discipline.
 He endeavors against Priscillianism were heralded in a letter addressed to him from Pope Saint Leo the Great (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
460 Gwinear, Phiala & Comp martyrs celebrated miracles contemporary Saint Patrick. MM (AC)
(Gwinear is also known as Fingar, Guigner, Gwinnear) This saint's vita was not written by Anselm, probably a Cornish canon, until about eight centuries after his death. There is evidence that the basics of the story are true. When Saint Patrick was evangelizing Ireland, he came to the court of King Clito and was treated with scorn. But the king's son Gwinear was more courteous than his father. Though not yet a Christian, he recognized Patrick's piety and rose to his feet to offer the saint his own seat.
Later, as he was hunting and at the same time meditating on Christianity, he was converted. Gwinear let his horse go free and began to live as a hermit. After King Clito's death, the saint returned home, but not to assume the throne. Instead he took 770 men and women (including his converted sister Piala) to spread the Christian faith in Wales and Brittany. At first they landed at the mouth of the Hayle River.

Among the celebrated miracles alleged to have been performed by the saint, one--at Puvigner in Brittany--indicates his reputation for loving animals. Short of water the saint struck the ground and created not one fountain but three: one for himself, the other two for his dog and his horse.

The saint and many of his followers died as martyrs. The Cornish tyrant Teudar had long hated the Christians. He kept a lake filled with reptiles in amongst which he threw those he disliked. It is said that Teudar came upon a band of Gwinear's Christian friends "from behind" and killed them.

Later Gwinear and some companions came across their bodies. The saint knew his own martyrdom could not be far off. "Here brethren is the place of our rest," he told his companions. "Here God has appointed that we should cease from our labors. Come therefore and let us gladly sacrifice our lives for him. Let us not fear them that kill the body. Rather let us fear him who has power to cast both body and soul into hell."

Shortly afterwards the saint was caught by Teudar and beheaded at Hayle near Penzance. A basilica was built in later years over his grave. And the Cornish village of Gwinear bears his name to this day. He is also still venerated in Pluvigner (diocese of Vannes), Brittany, as Saint Guigner, where his legend has adapted to local conditions. At Pluvigner, there is a stained glass window of Gwinear hunting a stag with a cross between its antlers (reminiscent of Saint Eustace) and a well near the church to which processions go on the day of Pardon.

Some of Gwinear's company escaped and gave their names to churches from Saint Ives to Porthleven. While there is no reliable evidence that Gwinear and his companions were Irish or missionaries nor that they were massacred by a tyrant, the historical record suggests that he came from Wales with another local saint, Meriadoc, evangelized the district of Comborne and Gwinnear (Cornwall), and went to Brittany
(Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Farmer).
460 St. Romanus of Condat  reputation for virtues and miracles Abbot of Gallo hermit in the Jura Mountains
In território Lugdunénsi, locis Jur
énsibus, deposítio sancti Románi Abbátis, qui primum illic eremíticam vitam duxit, et, multis virtútibus ac miráculis clarus, plurimórum póstea Pater éxstitit Monachórum.
In the territory of Lyons, in the Jura Mountains, the death of St. Romanus, abbot, who first had led the life of a hermit there.  His reputation for virtues and miracles brought under his guidance many monks.
Roman descent, he adopted the life of a hermit in the Jura Mountains, France, at age thirty five and was joined by his brother, St. Lupicinus, and many other disciples. The two brothers thus found it necessary to establish two monasteries, at Condat and Leuconne, and a convent at La Beaume which was governed by their sister. Romanus famed for his healing 2 lepers at Saint Maurice.  He is buried at La Beaume.
  460 St. Maximus reluctant Bishop of Reiz ordained by St. Hilary; celebrated for working miracles and prodigies.
Apud Régium, in Gállia, sancti Máximi, Epíscopi et Confessóris; qui, usque a primævæ ætátis annis omni virtútum grátia præditus, primum Lirinénsis cœnóbii Pater, deínde Regiénsis Ecclésiæ Epíscopus, signis et prodígiis ínclytus éxstitit.
    At Riez in France, St. Maximus, bishop and confessor, who, from his tender years, was endowed with every grace and virtue.  Being first superior of the monastery of Lerins, and afterwards bishop of the Church of Riez, he was celebrated for the working of miracles and prodigies.
Maximus was born near Digne and became a monk at Lerins. He was made abbot of Lerins in 426, having been trained by St. Honoratus. Maximus refused the see of Frejus and was made bishop of Riez against his will.

Maximus of Riez B (RM) Born at Decomer (Châteauredon near Digne), Provence, France;
Saint Maximus was baptized in infancy and raised in a Christian home, where he lived a reclusive life at home in order to mortify his senses and train his will. Finally he decided to enter religious life in the community of Lérins, which was then under the direction of its founder, Saint Honoratus.

When Honoratus was consecrated archbishop of Arles in 426, Maximus was chosen to be the second abbot of Lérins to succeed its founder. Saint Sidonius records that the monastery acquired a new luster because the prudent conduct and bright example of Saint Maximus were such that the monks did not mind the severities of the rule; they obeyed him cheerfully and quickly.

Maximus was also favored with the gift of working miracles which supplemented his reputation for great sanctity. So many came to consult him that he eventually had to hide in a forest to escape those seeking to make him bishop of Fréjus. Later he was promoted to the see of Riez in Provence and much against his will, in 434, received the episcopal consecration from Saint Hilary. (He had fled to the coast of Italy in an attempt to shun the dignity.) He was one of the most prominent prelates of the church of Gaul in his time. Throughout his episcopacy, he continued to wear his hair shirt and habit, and observe the monastic rule as far as it was compatible with his episcopal functions.

Among the sermons wrongly attributed to Eusebius Emisenus are several now ascribed to Saint Maximus. He attended the councils of Riez in 439, Orange I in 441, and Arles in 454. His body now rests in the cathedral of Riez, which is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and Saint Maximus (Attwater 2, Benedictines, Coulson, Husenbeth).

460 ST MAXIMUS, BISHOP OF RIEZ
St MAXIMUS was born in Provence, near Digne. His Christian parents brought him up in the love of virtue, and no one was surprised when as a young man he retired to the monastery of Lérins, where St Honoratus, its founder, received him. When the last named was made bishop of Arles in 426, Maximus was chosen the second abbot of Lérins. St Sidonius assures us that the monastery seemed to acquire a new lustre by his prudent example; and the gift of miracles and the reputation of his sanctity drew crowds to his monastery from the mainland. At one time he felt obliged to quit the house and conceal himself in a forest and we are assured that the reason why he thus lay hid, in a very rainy season, was that the clergy and people of Fréjus had demanded him for bishop. However, not long after, the see of Riez in Provence became vacant and he was compelled to fill it, although he tried to get away in a boat. His parents were originally of that city so the saint was looked upon as already a citizen and on account of his holiness received with great joy. As a bishop he continued to observe the monastic rule so far as was compatible with his duties. He retained the same love of poverty, the same spirit of penance and prayer, the same indifference to the world, and the same humility for which he had been so conspicuous in the cloister.

   Faustus, the successor of Maximus, probably wrote a laudatory oration printed among the works of Eusebius of Emesa.
   Besides this we have a life by one Dynamius, who was a patrician of the period. It is printed in Migne, PL., vol. lxxx, cc.
   31—40. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux
, vol. i, pp. 283—284.  
461 St. Patrick Apostle of Ireland  a humble, pious, gentle man feared nothing not death
Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at Saul, Downpatrick, Ireland, 17 March, 461.

Along with St. Nicholas and St. Valentine, the secular world shares our love of these saints. This is also a day when everyone's Irish.

There are many legends and stories of St. Patrick, but this is his story.
Patrick was born around 385 in Scotland, probably Kilpatrick. His parents were Calpurnius and Conchessa, who were Romans living in Britian in charge of the colonies.  As a boy of fourteen or so, he was captured during a raiding party and taken to Ireland as a slave to herd and tend sheep. Ireland at this time was a land of Druids and pagans. He learned the language and practices of the people who held him.

During his captivity, he turned to God in prayer. He wrote
"The love of God and his fear grew in me more and more, as did the faith, and my soul was rosed, so that, in a single day, I have said as many as a hundred prayers and in the night, nearly the same." "I prayed in the woods and on the mountain, even before dawn. I felt no hurt from the snow or ice or rain."

Patrick's captivity lasted until he was twenty, when he escaped after having a dream from God in which he was told to leave Ireland by going to the coast. There he found some sailors who took him back to Britian, where he reunited with his family.

He had another dream in which the people of Ireland were calling out to him "We beg you, holy youth, to come and walk among us once more."  He began his studies for the priesthood. He was ordained by St. Germanus, the Bishop of Auxerre, whom he had studied under for years.

Later, Patrick was ordained a bishop, and was sent to take the Gospel to Ireland. He arrived in Ireland March 25, 433, at Slane. One legend says that he met a chieftain of one of the tribes, who tried to kill Patrick. Patrick converted Dichu (the chieftain) after he was unable to move his arm until he became friendly to Patrick.  Patrick began preaching the Gospel throughout Ireland, converting many. He and his disciples preached and converted thousands and began building churches all over the country. Kings, their families, and entire kingdoms converted to Christianity when hearing Patrick's message.

Patrick by now had many disciples, among them Beningnus, Auxilius, Iserninus, and Fiaac, (all later canonized as well).  Patrick preached and converted all of Ireland for 40 years. He worked many miracles and wrote of his love for God in Confessions. After years of living in poverty, traveling and enduring much suffering he died March 17, 461.  He died at Saul, where he had built the first church.

Why a shamrock?
Patrick used the shamrock to explain the Trinity, and has been associated with him and the Irish since that time.
In His Footsteps:  Patrick was a humble, pious, gentle man, whose love and total devotion to and trust in God should be a shining example to each of us. He feared nothing, not even death, so complete was his trust in God, and of the importance of his mission.

Patrick of Ireland B (RM)   Born in Scotland, c. 385-390; died in Ireland c. 461.
"I bind to myself today The strong virtue of the Incarnation of Christ with his Baptism, The virtue of His Crucifixion with his burial, The virtue of His Resurrection with His Ascension, The virtue of His coming on the Judgment Day.

I bind to myself today The virtue of the love of the seraphim, In the obedience of angels, In the hope of resurrection unto reward, In prayers of Patriarchs, In predictions of Prophets, In preaching of Apostles, In faith of Confessors, In purity of holy Virgins, In deeds of righteous men.

I bind to myself today The power of Heaven, The light of the sun, The brightness of the moon, The splendor of fire, The flashing of lightning, The swiftness of wind,
 
The depth of the sea, The stability of the earth, The compactness of rocks.I bind to myself today

God's power to guide me,  God's might to uphold me, God's wisdom to teach me, God's eye to watch over me,
God's ear to hear me, God's word to give me speech, God's hand to guide me, God's way to lie before me, God's shield to shelter me, God's host to secure me, Against the snares of demons, Against the seductions of vices, Against the lusts of nature, Against everyone who meditates injury to me, Whether far or near, Whether few or many.  I invoke today all these virtues Against every hostile, merciless power Which may assail my body and my soul, Against the incantations of false prophets, Against the black laws of heathenism, Against the false laws of heresy, Against the deceits of idolatry, Against every knowledge that binds the soul of man and woman.

Christ, protect me today Against poison, Against burning, Against drowning, Against death-wound, That I may receive abundant reward.

Christ be with me, Christ be before me, Christ behind me, Christ be with me, Christ beside me, Christ to win me,  Christ to comfort and restore me. Christ beneath me, Christ above me, Christ at my right, Christ at my left, Christ be in the fort, Christ be in the chariot, Christ be in the ship, Christ in quiet, Christ in danger, Christ in hearts of all that love me, Christ in mouth of friend and stranger, Christ in every eye that sees me, Christ in every ear that hears me.

I bind to myself today The strong virtue of the Invocation of the Trinity. I believe the Trinity in the Unity, The Creator of the Universe. Amen." --Saint Patrick's Breastplate or Faeth Fiadha (deer's cry).

Note that there are several different versions of this prayer, which is alleged to be the invocation that led Patrick and his party safely to the confrontation with the Druids at Tara. It's Irish name, the Deer's Cry, is based on the legend that Patrick and his eight companions were miraculously turned into deer to be able to pass unnoticed by the king's guards sent to intercept them.

"I was like a stone lying in the deep mire; and He that is mighty came, and in His mercy lifted me up, and verily raised me aloft and placed me on the top of the wall."  --Saint Patrick

The historical Patrick is much more attractive than the Patrick of legend. It is unclear exactly where Patricius Magonus Sucatus (Patrick) was born--somewhere in the west between the mouth of the Severn and the Clyde - but this most popular Irish saint was probably born in Scotland of British origin, perhaps in a village called Bannavem Taberniae. (Other possibilities are in Gaul or at Kilpatrick near Dumbarton, Scotland.) His father, Calpurnius, was a deacon and a civil official, a town councillor, and his grandfather was a priest.
About 405, when Patrick was in his teens (14-16), he was captured by Irish raiders and became a slave in Ireland. There in Ballymena (or Slemish) in Antrim (or Mayo), Patrick first learned to pray intensely while tending his master's sheep in contrast with his early years in Britain when he "knew not the true God" and did not heed clerical "admonitions for our salvation." After six years, he was told in a dream that he should be ready for a courageous effort that would take him back to his homeland.

He ran away from his owner and travelled 200 miles to the coast. His initial request for free passage on a ship was turned down, but he prayed, and the sailors called him back. The ship on which he escaped was taking dogs to Gaul (France). At some point he returned to his family in Britain, then seems to have studied at the monastery of Lérins on the Côte d'Azur from 412 to 415.

He received some kind of training for the priesthood in either Britain or Gaul, possibly in Auxerre, including study of the Latin Bible, but his learning was not of a high standard, and he was to regret this always. He spent the next 15 years at Auxerre were he became a disciple of Saint Germanus of Auxerre and was possibly ordained about 417.

The cultus of Patrick began in France, long before Sucat received the noble title of Patricius, which was immediately before his departure for Ireland about 431. The center of this cultus is a few miles west of Tours, on the Loire, around the town of St- Patrice, which is named after him. The strong, persistent legend is that Patrick not only spent the twenty years after his escape from slavery there, but that it was his home. The local people firmly believe that Patrick was the nephew of Saint Martin of Tours and that he became a monk in his uncle's great Marmoutier Abbey.

Patrick's cultus there reverts to the legend of Les Fleurs de St- Patrice which relates that Patrick was sent from the abbey to preach the Gospel in the area of Bréhémont-sur-Loire. He went fishing one day and had a tremendous catch. The local fishermen were upset and forced him to flee. He reached a shelter on the north bank where he slept under a blackthorn bush. When he awoke the bush was covered with flowers. Because this was Christmas day, the incident was considered a miracle, which recurred each Christmas until the bush was destroyed in World War I. The phenomenon was evaluated many times and verified by various observers, including official organizations. His is now the patron of the fishermen on the Loire and, according to a modern French scholar, the patron of almost every other occupation in the neighborhood. There is a grotto dedicated to him at Marmoutier, which contains a stone bed, alleged to have been his.

It is said that in visions he heard voices in the wood of Focault or that he dreamed of Ireland and determined to return to the land of his slavery as a missionary. In that dream or vision he heard a cry from many people together "come back and walk once more among us," and he read a writing in which this cry was named 'the voice of the Irish.' (When Pope John Paul II went to Ireland in 1979, among his first words were that he, too, had heard the "voice of the Irish.")

In his Confessio Patrick writes: "It was not my grace, but God who overcometh in me, so that I came to the heathen Irish to preach the Gospel... to a people newly come to belief which the Lord took from the ends of the earth." Saint Germanus consecrated him bishop about 432, and sent him to Ireland to succeed Saint Palladius, the first bishop, who had died earlier that year. There was some opposition to Patrick's appointment, probably from Britain, but Patrick made his way to Ireland about 435.

He set up his see at Armagh and organized the church into territorial sees, as elsewhere in the West and East. While Patrick encouraged the Irish to become monks and nuns, it is not certain that he was a monk himself; it is even less likely that in his time the monastery became the principal unit of the Irish Church, although it was in later periods. The choice of Armagh may have been determined by the presence of a powerful king. There Patrick had a school and presumably a small familia in residence; from this base he made his missionary journeys. There seems to have been little contact with the Palladian Christianity of the southeast.

There is no reliable account of his work in Ireland, where he had been a captive. Legends include the stories that he drove snakes from Ireland, and that he described the Trinity by referring to the shamrock, and that he singlehandedly--an impossible task--converted Ireland. Nevertheless, Saint Patrick established the Catholic Church throughout Ireland on lasting foundations: he travelled throughout the country preaching, teaching, building churches, opening schools and monasteries, converting chiefs and bards, and everywhere supporting his preaching with miracles.

At Tara in Meath he is said to have confronted King Laoghaire on Easter Eve with the Christian Gospel, kindled the light of the paschal fire on the hill of Slane (the fire of Christ never to be extinguished in Ireland), confounded the Druids into silence, and gained a hearing for himself as a man of power. He converted the king's daughters (a tale I've recounted under the entry for Saints Ethenea and Fidelmia. He threw down the idol of Crom Cruach in Leitrim. Patrick wrote that he daily expected to be violently killed or enslaved again.

He gathered many followers, including Saint Benignus, who would become his successor. That was one of his chief concerns, as it always is for the missionary Church: the raising up of native clergy.

He wrote: "It was most needful that we should spread our nets, so that a great multitude and a throng should be taken for God. .... Most needful that everywhere there should be clergy to baptize and exhort a people poor and needy, as the Lord in the Gospel warns and teaches, saying: Go ye therefore now, and teach all nations. And again: Go ye therefore into the whole world and preach the Gospel to every creature. And again: This Gospel of the Kingdom shall be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all nations."

In his writings and preaching, Patrick revealed a scale of values. He was chiefly concerned with abolishing paganism, idolatry, and sun-worship. He made no distinction of classes in his preaching and was himself ready for imprisonment or death for following Christ. In his use of Scripture and eschatological expectations, he was typical of the 5th-century bishop. One of the traits which he retained as an old man was a consciousness of his being an unlearned exile and former slave and fugitive, who learned to trust God completely.

There was some contact with the pope. He visited Rome in 442 and 444. As the first real organizer of the Irish Church, Patrick is called the Apostle of Ireland. According to the Annals of Ulster, the Cathedral Church of Armagh was founded in 444, and the see became a center of education and administration. Patrick organized the Church into territorial sees, raised the standard of scholarship (encouraging the teaching of Latin), and worked to bring Ireland into a closer relationship with the Western Church.

His writings show what solid doctrine he must have taught his listeners. His Confessio (his autobiography, perhaps written as an apology against his detractors), the Lorica (or Breastplate), and the "Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus," protesting British slave trading and the slaughter of a group of Irish Christians by Coroticus's raiding Christian Welshmen, are the first surely identified literature of the British or Celtic Church.

What stands out in his writings is Patrick's sense of being called by God to the work he had undertaken, and his determination and modesty in carrying it out: "I, Patrick, a sinner, am the most ignorant and of least account among the faithful, despised by many. . . . I owe it to God's grace that so many people should through me be born again to him."

Towards the end of his life, Patrick made that 'retreat' of forty days on Cruachan Aigli in Mayo from which the age-long Croagh Patrick pilgrimage derives. Patrick may have died at Saul on Strangford Lough, Downpatrick, where he had built his first church. Glastonbury claims his alleged relics. The National Museum at Dublin has his bell and tooth, presumably from the shrine at Downpatrick, where he was originally entombed with Saints Brigid and Columba.

The high veneration in which the Irish hold Patrick is evidenced by the common salutation, "May God, Mary, and Patrick bless you." His name occurs widely in prayers and blessings throughout Ireland. Among the oldest devotions of Ireland is the prayer used by travellers invoking Patrick's protection, An Mhairbhne Phaidriac or The Elegy of Patrick. He is alleged to have promised prosperity to those who seek his intercession on his feast day, which marks the end of winter. A particularly lovely legend is that the Peace of Christ will reign over all Ireland when the Palm and the Shamrock meet, which means when St. Patrick's Day fall on Passion Sunday.

Most unusual is Well of Saint Patrick at Orvieto, Italy, which was built at the order of Pope Clement VII in 1537 to provide water for the city during its periodic sieges. The connection with Saint Patrick comes from the fact that the project was completed and dedicated by a member of the Sangallo family, a name derived from the Irish Saint Gall. A common Italian proverb refers to this exceptionally deep (248 steps to the surface) well: liberal spenders are said to have pockets as deep as the Well of Patrick (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Bieler, Bury, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, MacNeill, Montague, White).

We are told that often Patrick baptized hundreds on a single day. He would come to a place, a crowd would gather, and when he told them about the true God, the people would cry out from all sides that they wanted to become Christians. Then they would move to the nearest water to be baptized.

On such a day Aengus, a prince of Munster, was baptized. When Patrick had finished preaching, Aengus was longing with all his heart to become a Christian. The crowd surrounded the two because Aengus was such an important person. Patrick got out his book and began to look for the place of the baptismal rite but his crozier got in the way.

As you know, the bishop's crozier often has a spike at the bottom end, probably to allow the bishop to set it into the ground to free his hands. So, when Patrick fumbled searching for the right spot in the book so that he could baptize Aengus, he absent-mindedly stuck his crosier into the ground just beside him--and accidentally through the foot of poor Aengus!

Patrick, concentrating on the sacrament, never noticed what he had done and proceeded with the baptism. The prince never cried out, nor moaned; he simply went very white. Patrick poured water over his bowed head at the simple words of the rite. Then it was completed. Aengus was a Christian. Patrick turned to take up his crozier and was horrified to find that he had driven it through the prince's foot!

"But why didn't you say something? This is terrible. Your foot is bleeding and you'll be lame. . . ." Poor Patrick was very unhappy to have hurt another.

Then Aengus said in a low voice that he thought having a spike driven through his foot was part of the ceremony. He added something that must have brought joy to the whole court of heaven and blessings on Ireland:

"Christ," he said slowly, "shed His blood for me, and I am glad to suffer a little pain at baptism to be like Our Lord" (Curtayne).

In art, Saint Patrick is represented as a bishop driving snakes before him or trampling upon them. At times he may be shown (1) preaching with a serpent around the foot of his pastoral staff; (2) holding a shamrock; (3) with a fire before him; or (4) with a pen and book, devils at his feet, and seraphim above him (Roeder, White). Click here to view an anonymous American icon. He is patron of Nigeria (which was evangelized primarily by Irish clergy) and of Ireland and especially venerated at Lérins (Roeder, White).

St. Patrick (415?-493?) Legends about Patrick abound; but truth is best served by our seeing two solid qualities in him: He was humble and he was courageous. The determination to accept suffering and success with equal indifference guided the life of God’s instrument for winning most of Ireland for Christ.
Details of his life are uncertain. Current research places his dates of birth and death a little later than earlier accounts. Patrick may have been born in Dunbarton, Scotland, Cumberland, England, or in northern Wales. He called himself both a Roman and a Briton. At 16, he and a large number of his father’s slaves and vassals were captured by Irish raiders and sold as slaves in Ireland. Forced to work as a shepherd, he suffered greatly from hunger and cold.

After six years, Patrick escaped, probably to France, and later returned to Britain at the age of 22. His captivity had meant spiritual conversion. He may have studied at Lerins, off the French coast; he spent years at Auxerre, France, and was consecrated bishop at the age of 43. His great desire was to proclaim the Good News to the Irish.

In a dream vision it seemed “all the children of Ireland from their mothers’ wombs were stretching out their hands” to him. He understood the vision to be a call to do mission work in pagan Ireland. Despite opposition from those who felt his education had been defective, he was sent to carry out the task. He went to the west and north, where the faith had never been preached, obtained the protection of local kings and made numerous converts.

Because of the island’s pagan background, Patrick was emphatic in encouraging widows to remain chaste and young women to consecrate their virginity to Christ. He ordained many priests, divided the country into dioceses, held Church councils, founded several monasteries and continually urged his people to greater holiness in Christ.

He suffered much opposition from pagan druids, and was criticized in both England and Ireland for the way he conducted his mission.
In a relatively short time the island had experienced deeply the Christian spirit, and was prepared to send out missionaries whose efforts were greatly responsible for Christianizing Europe.

Patrick was a man of action, with little inclination toward learning. He had a rocklike belief in his vocation, in the cause he had espoused.

One of the few certainly authentic writings is his Confessio, above all an act of homage to God for having called Patrick, unworthy sinner, to the apostolate.
There is hope rather than irony in the fact that his burial place is said to be in strife-torn Ulster, in County Down.

Comment: What distinguishes Patrick is the durability of his efforts. When one considers the state of Ireland when he began his mission work, the vast extent of his labors (all of Ireland) and how the seeds he planted continued to grow and flourish, one can only admire the kind of man Patrick must have been. The holiness of a person is known only by the fruits of his or her work.
Quote:  “Christ shield me this day: Christ with me, Christ before me, Christ behind me, Christ in me, Christ beneath me, Christ above me, Christ on my right, Christ on my left, Christ when I lie down, Christ when I arise, Christ in the heart of every person who thinks of me, Christ in the eye that sees me, Christ in the ear that hears me” (from “The Breastplate of St. Patrick”).
450 St. Hypatius Hermit, called “the Scholar of Christ.” vision that sent him to Thrace where he became a hermit foe of Nestorianism, he sheltered St. Alexander Akimetes and others at his hermitage near Chalcedon when their lives were threatened by the heretics known for miracles and prophecies.
In Phrygia sancti Hypátii Confessóris.    In Phrygia, St. Hypatius, confessor.
He was born in 366  Phrygia, and became a monk. Hypatius had a vision that sent him to Thrace where he became a hermit with a man named Jonas. The two then went to Constantinople and Chalcedon. A foe of Nestorianism, he sheltered St. Alexander Akimetes and others at his hermitage near Chalcedon when their lives were threatened by the heretics. Hypatius is credited with halting a revival of the Olympic games because of their pagan origins. He died at the age of eighty and was known for miracles and prophecies.

In the suburb of Chalcedon that gave its name—The Oak—to the infamous pseudo-synod by which St John Chrysostom was condemned, a certain consular official called Rufinus built a church dedicated under the names of St Peter and St Paul, together with a monastery alongside to serve it. The community flourished for a time, but after the founder’s death the monks dispersed and the derelict fabric soon acquired an unsavory reputation as the haunt of evil spirits. The building remained unoccupied until a holy ascetic named Hypatius, attended by two companions, Timotheus and Moschion, came upon it in their wanderings through Bithynia in search of a suitable retreat, and took up their residence in the ruins. Disciples gathered round them and a great community was formed over which Hypatius ruled for many years. After his death the monastery was known by his name.
The life of St Hypatius has come down to us in the shape of a biography written by Callinicus, one of his monks, who in his desire to glorify his master sometimes lets his imagination or his credulity run away with him. According to him St Hypatius was born in Phrygia and was educated by his father, a learned scholar who intended that his son should follow in his steps. Hypatius himself, however, always desired monastic life. At the age of eighteen, having been cruelly beaten by his father, he ran away from home, and in obedience to a supernatural admonition proceeded to Thrace. There for a considerable time he acted as a shepherd. A priest who heard him singing to his flock taught him the Psalter and the chant. Hypatius then joined a solitary, an ex-soldier named Jonas, with whom he led a most austere life, abstaining, it is said, from drink of any kind sometimes for forty consecutive days. His father discovered Hypatius, and reconciliation took place.

Afterwards Hypatius and Jonas made their way to Constantinople, where Jonas seems to have remained. Hypatius crossed the straits into Asia Minor again, and revived religious life in the ruins of the old Rufinian monastery. As head of a great body of monks he stood forth as a powerful champion of orthodoxy. Even before the Church had denounced the errors of Nestorius, he ordered removal of that hierarch’s name from the office books of his church, paying no heed to the remonstrances of Bishop Eulalius of Chalcedon. He protected and hospitably entertained St Alexander Akimetes and his monks who had fled from Constantinople to Bithynia; and when a proposal to revive the Olympic games it Chalcedon had met with no opposition from Eulalius, Hypatius defeated the project by the vehemence with which he protested that he and his monks would die rather than permit any such restoration of pagan practices.
Critical commentators, it must be said, discredit the historical accuracy of these stories. They question the very existence of Eulalius: no other record can be found of any such bishop of Chalcedon; his name appears neither amongst signatories of the Council of Ephesus in 431, nor amongst those of the Latrocinium in 449. On the other hand, it is certain that a certain Eleutherius was bishop of Chalcedon in 451.
St Hypatius, “the scholar of Christ, became famous for his reputed miracles and prophecies. He is said to have died about the middle of the fifth century at the age of eighty. His name is entered on this day in the Roman Martyrology as belonging to Phrygia.
The long Greek life by Callinicus is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, but the text is unfortunately incomplete. It has since been edited critically (1895) from another manuscript which contains the whole, by the pupils of H. Usener. Sec also II. Mertel, Die biograph. Form der griech. Heiligenlegenden (1909). Hypatius seems to have been especially invoked in the Greek Church as a protector against harmful beasts; see Franz, Kirchlichen Benediktionen, vol. ii, p. 143.
470-488 St. Marian Abbot; Revered for his humility, remarkable power over all animals.
Antisiodóri sancti Marciáni Presbyteri.   At Auxerre, the priest St. Marcian.  (also known as Marian)
488 ST MARCIAN, or MARIAN
WHEN St Mamertinus was abbot of the monastery which St Germanus had founded at Auxerre, there came to him a young man called Marcian, a fugitive from Bourges then occupied by the Visigoths. St Mamertinus gave him the habit, and the novice edified all by his piety and obedience. The abbot, wishing to test him, gave him the lowest possible post—that of cowman and shepherd in the abbey farm at Mérille. Marcian accepted the work cheerfully, and it was noticed that the beasts under his charge throve and multiplied astonishingly. He seemed to have a strange power over all animals. The birds flocked to eat out of his hands, bears and wolves departed at his command; and when a hunted wild boar fled to him for protection, he defended it from its assailants and set it free. After his death the abbey took the name of this humble monk.
A short biography is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii.

When St. Mamertinus was Abbot of the monastery which St. Germanus had founded at Auxerre, there came to him a young man called Marcian (also known as Marian), a fugitive from Bourges then occupied by the Visigoths. St. Mamertinus gave him the habit, and the novice edified all his piety and obedience. The Abbot, wishing to test him, gave him the lowest possible post - that of cowman and shepherd in the Abbey farm at Merille. Marcian accepted the work cheerfully, and it was noticed that the beast under his charge throve and multified astonishingly. He seemed to have a strange power over all animals. The birds flocked to eat out of his hands: bears and wolves departed at his command; and when a hunted wild boar fled to him for protection, he defended it from its assailants and set it free. After his death, the Abbey took the name of the humble monk.

St. Marcian of Auxerre Lay brother of Sts. Cosmas and Damian Monastery of Auxerre, France also listed as Marianus. He fled Bourges to escape an invasion of Visigoths. Under St. Mamertinus, Marcian was put in charge of the abbey’s livestock. Revered for his humility, he was honored by having the monastery named after him.

Marcian of Auxerre (RM) (also known as Marcion, Marian) Born in Bourges, France; died at Auxerre, c. 470-488. Marcion, who was of humble birth, entered Saint-Germain Abbey in Auxerre as a lay brother when he was exiled from Bourges by the invading Visigoths. He "sanctified himself in a lifetime of watching the herds" of the abbey and is said to have possessed a remarkable power over all animals (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, Gill).
471 St. Marcian Confessor hymnist - Constantinople famous for miracles; received a gift of wonderworking, St Marcian healed the sick and cast out devils
 Constantinópoli sancti Marciáni Presbyteri.       At Constantinople, St. Marcian, priest.
He was a member of a Roman family of Constantinople, related to Emperor Theodosius II. Ordained in 455, he was so ascetical that he was wrongly accused of Novatianism.
Marcian was the treasurer of Hagia Sophia, was appointed Oikonomos - second only to the patriarch and restored several churches.   He is also believed to have composed hymns and was a famous miracle worker.


471 ST MARCIAN
MARCIAN was born, and spent his life, in Constantinople, of a Roman family related to the imperial house of Theodosius. From his childhood he served God, and he secretly gave away great sums to the poor. About the year 455 the Patriarch Anatolius, disregarding the saint’s protests of unworthi­ness, ordained him priest. In this new state Marcian saw himself under a stricter obligation than before of labouring to reach the summit of Christian perfection; and whilst he made the instruction of the poor his favourite employment, he redoubled his earnestness in providing for their bodily needs, and was careful to relax no part of his own austerities. The severity of his morals was made a handle, by those who resented the tacit censure of such an example, to fasten upon him a suspicion of Novatianism, but his meekness at length triumphed over the slander. This persecution served more and more to purify his soul. His virtue only shone forth with greater lustre than ever when the cloud was dispersed, and the Patriarch Gennadius, with the great applause of the whole body of the clergy and people, conferred on him the dignity of Oikonomos, which was the second in that church.
St Marcian built or restored a number of churches in Constantinople, notably that known as the Anastasis, and was famous for miracles before and death, which probably occurred in 471. He has been regarded by some as a writer of liturgical hymns.

He is honoured both in the Greek Menaion and Roman Martyrology. See his ancient anonymous life in Surius and in the Acta Sanctorum, January 10. Cf. also DCB., vol. iii, p. 185; and K. Krumbacher, Geschichte der Byzantinischen Literatur, p. 663.

Saint Marcian, Presbyter of the Great Church, was born at Rome and in his youth he received a first-rate education in Constantinople. After the death of his parents, St Marcian used his inheritance on the building, renovation and embellishment of churches. Thus, he built a church dedicated to the holy Martyr Anastasia (December 22), richly adorned it, and had the holy relics of the saint transferred to it. He also built a church of the Great Martyr Irene (May 5), and the church of St Isidore.
His moral purity and strict asceticism were resented by those who were slothful and avaricious, for they regarded his life as an unspoken criticism of their own lack of virtue. However, his meekness and silence overcame their slanders and brought him to the attention of the Patriarch, who ordained St Marcian a presbyter and appointed him treasurer of the Church of Constantinople.

From his wealth St Marcian distributed generous alms, and distinguished himself by non-covetousness, denying himself in everything. In accord with the command of the Savior, he did not even have an extra set of clothes, which he might need should he be caught in inclement weather. Having received a gift of wonderworking, St Marcian healed the sick and cast out devils. St Marcian died between 472-474 and was buried at the monastery of St John the Forerunner at Constantinople.

Saint_Auxentius_1of_5_Companions
473 St. Auxentius Hermit founder  healed many of the sick and the infirm in the name of the Lord son of a Persian named Addas
Auxentius was a member of the entourage of Emperor Theodosius II in Constantinople. He retired from military service to become a hermit at Mount Oxia near Constantinople. He was accused of heresy by the Council of Chalcedon but cleared himself. He then went to Mount Skopa, near Chalcedon and attracted many disciples to his hermitage. Auxentius also formed a congregation of women on Mount Skopa.

Auxentius of Bithynia, Hermit (RM) Born in Syria; died on Mount Skopa on February 14, 473. Auxentius, son of the Persian Addas, was an equestrian guard of Emperor Theodosius the Younger. He served God in the position by serving his prince faithfully and providing witness to his fellows by spending his free time in solitude and prayer. During this portion of his life, Auxentius often visited the holy hermits to spend the nights with them in tears and singing the divine praises, prostrate on the ground. Finally, he left his position to become a hermit in the desolate area around Mount Oxia (Oxea), about eight miles from Constantinople. He was accused of heresy at the Council of Chalcedon but cleared himself of charges of Eutychianism before Emperor Marcion. Thereafter, he resumed his eremitical life on Mount Skopa (Siope) near Chalcedon, where he attracted numerous disciples by his austerity and holiness and assisted troubled souls who came to drink at the fountain of his wisdom. He also attracted a group of women who formed a community of nuns at the foot of the mountain. While he was still living, Sozomen highly commended his sanctity and had his monastery's church placed under the protection of Auxentius (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

Saint Auxentius, by origin a Syrian, served at the court of the emperor Theodosius the Younger (418-450). He was known as a virtuous, learned and wise man, and he was, moreover, a friend of many of the pious men of his era.
Distressed by worldly vanity, St Auxentius was ordained to the holy priesthood, and then received monastic tonsure. After this he went to Bithynia and found a solitary place on Mount Oxia, not far from Chalcedon, and there he began the life of a hermit (This mountain was afterwards called Mt. Auxentius). The place of the saint's efforts was discovered by shepherds seeking their lost sheep. They told others about him, and people began to come to him for healing. St Auxentius healed many of the sick and the infirm in the name of the Lord.

In the year 451 St Auxentius was invited to the Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon, where he denounced the Eutychian and Nestorian heresies. Familiar with Holy Scripture and learned in theology, St Auxentius easily bested those opponents who disputed with him. After the end of the Council, St Auxentius returned to his solitary cell on the mountain. With his spiritual sight he saw the repose of St Simeon the Stylite (459) from a great distance.
St Auxentius died about the year 470, leaving behind him disciples and many monasteries in the region of Bithynia. He was buried in the Monastery of St Hypatius at Rufiananas, Syria.
474 Marcellus of Avignon suffered much from the Arians and died after a long episcopate B (RM).
In civitáte Diénsi, in Gállia, sancti Marcélli Epíscopi, miráculis clari.
    In the city of Die, in France, St. Marcellus, bishop, celebrated for miracles.
Born in Avignon, France. Saint Marcellus was educated by his own brother Saint Petronius, bishop of Die (not of Saint-Dié), and later succeeded him. Marcellus was consecrated by Bishop Saint Mamertius of Vienne. Marcellus suffered much from the Arians and died after a long episcopate. Meanwhile, Mamertius was censured by the Holy See for the consecration without the proper authority (Benedictines). Saint Marcellus is portrayed as a bishop leading a dragon with his stole around its neck. (This is typical of several saints because casting the stole round the creature's neck was the accepted way of subduing dragons or devils.) Marcellus is venerated at Avignon (Roeder).
475 Saint Polybius disciple of St Epiphanius of Cyprus gift of wonderworking.
He accompanied him on all his journeys and he wrote about the life and miracles of his teacher.

St Polybius accompanied St Epiphanius when he was returning from Constantinople, unwilling to take part in the council condemning St John Chrysostom. As he was dying, St Epiphanius told St Polybius, "Go to Egypt, and after my death I shall concern myself about you."
St Polybius obeyed his teacher's order with humility and, not waiting for the burial of the body, he went to Egypt, where he was made bishop of the city of Rinocyria.
For his virtuous ascetic life, St Polybius was granted the gift of wonderworking. Once, through his prayer, the Lord sent rain during a drought and provided an abundant harvest in the fields. St Polybius reposed in the fifth century at an advanced age.
476 ST EUTROPIUS, BISHOP OF ORANGE repute for piety and learning.
Aráusicæ, in Gálliis, sancti Eutrópii Epíscopi, virtútibus atque miráculis illústris.
    At Orange in France, St. Eutropius, a bishop illustrious for virtues and miracles.

ALTHOUGH Eutropius, a native of Marseilles, seems to have led a careless life at the beginning of his career in that city, still he sobered down after marriage, and when his wife died, he was induced by Bishop Eustachius to enter the ranks of the clergy. His conversion, aided, we are told, by heavenly favours, was very thorough. He gave himself up to prayer and fasting, and when Justus, the bishop of Orange, departed this life, Eutropius was chosen as his successor. The see of Orange had just been ravaged by the Visigoths, and the material and moral desolation of the people was such that Eutropius, losing heart at the sight of the burden imposed upon him, meditated taking refuge in flight. But a holy man whom he consulted showed him where his duty lay, and from that time forth the new bishop set an admirable example. The terms in which he is addressed by St Sidonius Apollinaris in a letter still preserved plainly indicate the repute for piety and learning in which he was held.
A fragmentary biography by Verus, his successor in the see of Orange, is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi. A sepulchral inscription described him as innocentissimus, meaning, probably, that his conduct as a bishop was faultless, and his name is commemorated in the Hieronymianum. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. i, pp. 265—266.
480 Venerable Benedict of Nursia founder of Western monasticism gift of foresight and wonderworking
Saint Benedict, founder of Western monasticism, was born in the Italian city of Nursia in the year 480. When he was fourteen, the saint's parents sent him to Rome to study. Unsettled by the immorality around him, he decided to devote himself to a different sort of life.  At first St Benedict settled near the church of the holy Apostle Peter in the village of Effedum, but news of his ascetic life compelled him to go farther into the mountains. There he encountered the hermit Romanus, who tonsured him into monasticism and directed him to live in a remote cave at Subiaco. From time to time, the hermit would bring him food.

For three years the saint waged a harsh struggle with temptations and conquered them. People soon began to gather to him, thirsting to live under his guidance. The number of disciples grew so much, that the saint divided them into twelve communities. Each community was comprised of twelve monks and was a separate skete. The saint gave each skete an igumen from among his experienced disciples, and only the novice monks remained with St Benedict for instruction.
The strict monastic Rule St Benedict established for the monks was not accepted by everyone, and more than once he was criticized and abused by dissenters.

Finally he settled in Campagna and on Mount Cassino he founded the Monte Cassino monastery, which for a long time was a center of theological education for the Western Church. The monastery possessed a remarkable library. St Benedict wrote his Rule, based on the experience of life of the Eastern desert-dwellers and the precepts of St John Cassian the Roman (February 29).

The Rule of St Benedict dominated Western monasticism for centuries (by the year 1595 it had appeared in more than 100 editions). The Rule prescribed the renunciation of personal possessions, as well as unconditional obedience, and constant work. It was considered the duty of older monks to teach the younger and to copy ancient manuscripts. This helped to preserve many memorable writings from the first centuries of Christianity. Every new monk was required to live as a novice for a year, to learn the monastic Rule and to become acclimated to monastic life. Every deed required a blessing. The head of this cenobitic monastery is the igumen. He discerns, teaches, and explains. The igumen solicits the advice of the older, experienced brethren, but he makes the final decisions. Keeping the monastic Rule was strictly binding for everyone and was regarded as an important step on the way to perfection.
St Benedict was granted by the Lord the gift of foresight and wonderworking. He healed many by his prayers. The monk foretold the day of his death in 547. The main source for his Life is the second Dialogue of St Gregory.
St Benedict's sister, St Scholastica (February 10), also became famous for her strict ascetic life and was numbered among the
saints.
477 St. Euthymius monk bishop sixty-six years in the desert
 In Palæstína natális sancti Euthymii Abbátis, qui zelo cathólicæ discíplinæ et virtúte miraculórum, témpore Marciáni Imperatóris, in Ecclésia flóruit.
       In Palestine, in the time of Emperor Marcian, the birthday of St. Euthymius, abbot, who flourished in the Church, full of zeal for Catholic discipline, and gifted with miracles.

473 ST EUTHYMIUS THE GREAT, ABBOT
THE birth of this saint was the fruit of the prayers of his parents through the intercession of the martyr Polyeuctus. His father was a wealthy citizen of Melitene in Armenia, and Euthymius was educated in sacred learning under the care of the bishop of that city, who ordained him priest and made him his deputy in the supervision of the monasteries. The saint often visited that of St Polyeuctus, and spent whole nights in prayer on a neighbouring mountain, as he also did continuously from the octave of the Epiphany till towards the end of Lent. The love of solitude daily growing stronger, he secretly left his own country at twenty-nine years of age; and, after offering up his prayers at the holy places in Jerusalem, chose a cell six miles from that city, near the laura of Pharan. *{* A laura consisted of cells at a little distance from one another.} He made baskets, and earned enough by selling them to provide a living for himself and alms for the poor. After five years he retired with one Theoctistus ten miles farther towards Jericho, where they both lived in a cave. In this place he began to receive disciples about the year 411. He entrusted the care of his community to Theoctistus, and himself retired to a remote hermitage, only meeting on Saturdays and Sundays those who desired spiritual advice. He taught his monks never to eat so much as to satisfy their hunger, but strictly forbade among them any singularity in fasts or any other uncommon observances, as savouring of vanity and self-will. Following his example, they all withdrew into the wilderness from after Epiphany till Palm Sunday, when they met again in their monastery to celebrate the offices of Holy Week. He enjoined constant silence and plenty of manual labour, so that they not only earned their own living, but also a surplus which they devoted as first-fruits to God in the relief of the poor.
By making the sign of the cross and a short prayer, St Euthymius cured a young Arab, one half of whose body had been paralysed. His father, who had vainly invoked the much-boasted arts of physic and magic among the Persians to procure some relief for his son, at the sight of this miracle asked to be baptized. So many Arabs followed his example that Juvenal, Patriarch of Jerusalem, consecrated Euthymius bishop to provide for the spiritual needs of these converts, and in that capacity he assisted at the Council of Ephesus in 431. Juvenal built St Euthymius a laura on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho in the year 420. Euthymius could never be prevailed upon to depart from his rule of strict solitude, but governed his monks by vicars, to whom he gave directions on Sundays. His humility and charity won the hearts of all who spoke to him. He seemed to surpass the great Arsenius in the gift of perpetual tears, and Cyril of Scythopolis relates many miracles that he wrought, usually by the sign of the cross. In the time of a great drought he exhorted the people to penance to avert this scourge of heaven. Great numbers came in procession to his cell, carrying crosses, singing Kyrie eleison, and begging him to offer up his prayers to God for them. He said to them, “I am a sinner; how can I presume to appear before God, who is angry at our sins? Let us prostrate ourselves all together before Him, and He will hear us.” They obeyed; and the saint going into his chapel prayed lying on the ground. The sky grew dark on a sudden, rain fell in abundance, and the year proved remarkably fruitful.
When the heretical Empress Eudoxia, widow of Theodosius II, frightened by the afflictions of her family, consulted St Simeon Stylites he referred her to St Euthymius. As Euthymius would allow no woman to enter his laura she built a lodge some distance away, and asked him to come and see her there. His advice to her was to forsake the Eutychians and to receive the Council of Chalcedon. She followed his counsel as the command of God, returned to orthodox communion, and many followed her example. In 459 Eudoxia desired St Euthymius to meet her at her lodge, designing to settle on his laura sufficient revenues for its maintenance. He sent her word to spare herself the trouble, and to prepare for death. She admired his disinterestedness, returned to Jerusalem, and died shortly after. One of the latest disciples of Euthymius was the young St Sabas, whom he tenderly loved. In the year 473, on January 13, Martyrius and Elias, to both of whom St Euthymius had foretold that they would be patriarchs of Jerusalem, came with several others to visit him and accompany him to his Lenten retreat. But he said he would stay with them all that week, and leave on the Saturday following, giving them to understand that his death was near at hand. Three days after he gave orders that a general vigil should be observed on the eve of St Antony’s festival, on which occasion he delivered an address to his spiritual children, exhorting them to humility and charity. He appointed Elias his successor, and foretold to Domitian, a beloved disciple, that he would follow him out of this world on the seventh day, which happened exactly as he had prophesied. Euthymius died on Saturday, January 20, being ninety-five years old, of which he had spent sixty-eight in the desert. Cyril relates that he appeared several times after his death, and speaks of the miracles that were wrought by his intercession, declaring that he himself had been an eyewitness of many. St Euthymius is named in the preparation of the Byzantine Mass.

Almost all our knowledge of Euthymius is derived from his life by Cyril of Scythopolis, a Latin version of which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, January 20, and a critical Greek text in E. Schwartz, Kyrillos von Skythopolis (1939). See also DCB., vol. ii, pp. 398-400 and R. Génier, Vie de S. Euthyme le Grand (1909).  

Euthymius was born of wealthy parents at Militene, Armenia. He studied under the bishop there and was ordained. He was appointed supervisor of the monasteries in the diocese but when twenty-nine, he became a monk at the Pharan laura near Jerusalem. About 411, he left to live with a companion in a cave near Jericho, attracted numerous disciples, left his companion, Theoctistus, as superior, and moved to a more remote spot. He still attracted many and converted so many, including a great many Arabs, that Patriarch Juvenal of Jerusalem consecrated him bishop to minister to them. Juvenal built him a laura on the rode from Jerusalem to Jericho, which Euthymius ruled by vicars.

He attracted enormous crowds among them, Eudoxia, the widow of Emperor Theodosius II, who followed his advice to give up her allegiance to the Eutychians and return to orthodoxy in 459.
He died on January 20 after sixty-six years in the desert.

Euthymius the Great, Abbot (RM)
Born at Melitene, Armenia, c. 378; died in Palestine on January 20, 473. Saint Euthymius was the fruit of the fervent prayers of his wealthy parents through the intercession of a local martyr, Saint Polyeuctus. Euthymius studied under the bishop of Melitene, who ordained and appointed him supervisor of monastic settlements of the diocese. In that capacity, Euthymius often visited Saint Polyeuctus's monastery, where he would spend whole nights in prayer on a nearby mountain. From the octave of Epiphany to the end of Lent, Euthymius was continuously in prayer.

When he was about 30, his love of solitude had grown so strong that he secretly migrated to Palestine. After offering his prayers at the holy places in Jerusalem, he settled in a cell six miles distant near at the Pharan laura. He earned money for his bread and some alms for the poor by weaving baskets.

About 411, he moved 10 miles closer to Jericho, where he and a companion, named Theoctistus, lived as hermits in a cave. When a number of other hermits gravitated to him, he left them with his companion Theoctistus as superior, settled in the desolate country between Jerusalem and Jericho, and began his solitary life. He would meet with his spiritual children only on Saturdays and Sundays, and would abide for only a short time in one place, then move to another, usually in caves. Thus, he became their spiritual director without giving up his own solitary mode of life.

Saint Euthymius was one of the most revered of the early Palestinian monks. He attracted enormous crowds by his preaching, and combatted Nestorianism and Eutychianism alike. He gained influence among the Arabs by his healing of the paralytic son of an important sheikh, simply with a short prayer and the Sign of the Cross. The sheikh, who had vainly employed Persian magic arts seeking some relief for his son, immediately requested baptism.

So many Arabs followed suit that Patriarch Juvenal of Jerusalem consecrated Euthymius bishop to minister to them. In 420, Juvenal built him a laura on the road between Jerusalem and Jericho, which Euthymius ruled through vicars to whom he gave directions on Sundays. Cyril of Scythopolis relates that this was only one of many miraculous cures wrought by Euthymius, usually with the Sign of the Cross. It was in his capacity as bishop that Euthymius attended the Council of Ephesus in 431.

His humility and charity won the hearts of all who spoke to him. He seems to have surpassed even the great Saint Arsenius in the gift of perpetual tears. Empress Eudoxia, widow of Theodosius II, sought the advice of Saint Simeon Stylites regarding the frightening afflictions of her family. He referred her to Euthymius. Because Euthymius would allow no woman to enter his laura, she built a lodging and asked him to come to her there. She followed his counsel as the command of God, gave up her allegiance to the Eutychians, returned to orthodoxy in 459, and received the Council of Chalcedon.

On January 13, 473, Martyrius and Elias, both of whom Euthymius foretold would be patriarchs of Jerusalem, came with several others to visit him and accompany him to his Lenten retreat. But he said he would stay with them all that week, and leave on the next Saturday, giving them to understand that his death was near at hand. He appointed Elias as his successor, and foretold to Domitian, a beloved disciple, that he would follow him out of this world on the seventh day, which happened just as he prophesied. At the time of his death, Euthymius had spent 66-68 years in the desert. He is still highly revered throughout the East (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Walsh).

Saint Euthymius the Great came from the city of Melitene in Armenia, near the River Euphrates. His parents, Paul and Dionysia, were pious Christians of noble birth. After many years of marriage they remained childless, and in their sorrow they entreated God to give them offspring. Finally, they had a vision and heard a voice saying, "Be of good cheer! God will grant you a son, who will bring joy to the churches." The child was named Euthymius ("good cheer").

St Euthymius' father died soon after this, and his mother, fulfilling her vow to dedicate her son to God, gave him to her brother, the priest Eudoxius, to be educated. He presented the chid to Bishop Eutroius of Melitene, who accepted him with love. Seeing his good conduct, the bishop soon made him a Reader.

St Euthymius later became a monk and was ordained to the holy priesthood. At the same time, he was entrusted with the supervision of all the city monasteries. St Euthymius often visited the monastery of St Polyeuctus, and during Great Lent he withdrew into the wilderness. His responsibility for the monasteries weighed heavily upon the ascetic, and conflicted with his desire for stillness, so he secretly left the city and headed to Jerusalem. After venerating the holy shrines, he visited the Fathers in the desert.

Since there was a solitary cell in the Tharan lavra, he settled into it, earning his living by weaving baskets. Nearby, his neighbor St Theoctistus (September 3) also lived in asceticism. They shared the same zeal for God and for spiritual struggles, and each strove to attain what the other desired. They had such love for one another that they seemed to share one soul and one will.  Every year, after the Feast of Theophany, they withdrew into the desert of Coutila (not far from Jericho). One day, they entered a steep and terrifying gorge with a stream running through it. They saw a cave upon a cliff, and settled there. The Lord, however, soon revealed their solitary place for the benefit of many people. Shepherds driving their flocks came upon the cave and saw the monks. They went back to the village and told people about the ascetics living there.

People seeking spiritual benefit began to visit the hermits and brought them food. Gradually, a monastic community grew up around them. Several monks came from the Tharan monastery, among them Marinus and Luke. St Euthymius entrusted the supervision of the growing monastery to his friend Theoctistus.  St Euthymius exhorted the brethren to guard their thoughts. "Whoever desires to lead the monastic life should not follow his own will. He should be obedient and humble, and be mindful of the hour of death. He should fear the judgment and eternal fire, and seek the heavenly Kingdom."  The saint taught young monks to fix their thoughts on God while engaging in physical labor. "If laymen work in order to feed themselves and their families, and to give alms and offer sacrifice to God, then are not we as monks obliged to work to sustain ourselves and to avoid idleness? We should not depend on strangers."

The saint demanded that the monks keep silence in church during services and at meals. When he saw young monks fasting more than others, he told them to cut off their own will, and to follow the appointed rule and times for fasting. He urged them not to attract attention to their fasting, but to eat in moderation.  In these years St Euthymius converted and baptized many Arabs, among whom was the Saracen leaders Aspebet and his son Terebon, whom St Euthymius healed of sickness. Aspebet received the name Peter in Baptism and afterwards he was a bishop among the Arabs.  Word of the miracles performed by St Euthymius spread quickly. People came from everywhere to be healed of their ailments, and he cured them. Unable to bear human fame and glory, the monk secretly left the monastery, taking only his closest disciple Dometian with him. He withdrew into the Rouba desert and settled on Mt. Marda, near the Dead Sea.

In his quest for solitude, the saint explored the wilderness of Ziph and settled in the cave where David once hid from King Saul. St Euthymius founded a monastery beside David's cave, and built a church. During this time St Euthymius converted many monks from the Manichean heresy, he also healed the sick and cast out devils.  Visitors disturbed the tranquillity of the wilderness. Since he loved silence, the saint decided to return to the monastery of St Theoctistus. Along the way they found a quiet level place on a hill, and he remained there. This would become the site of St Euthymius' lavra, and a little cave served as his cell, and then as his grave.

St Theoctistus went with his brethren to St Euthymius and requested him to return to the monastery, but the monk did not agree to this. However, he did promise to attend Sunday services at the monastery.  St Euthymius did not wish to have anyone nearby, nor to organize a cenobium or a lavra. The Lord commanded him in a vision not to drive away those who came to him for the salvation of their souls. After some time brethren again gathered around him, and he organized a lavra, on the pattern of the Tharan Lavra. In the year 429, when St Euthymius was fifty-two years old, Patriarch Juvenal of Jerusalem consecrated the lavra church and supplied it with presbyters and deacons.

The lavra was poor at first, but the saint believed that God would provide for His servants. Once, about 400 Armenians on their way to the Jordan came to the lavra. Seeing this, St Euthymius called the steward and ordered him to feed the pilgrims. The steward said that there was not enough food in the monastery. St Euthymius, however, insisted. Going to the storeroom where the bread was kept, the steward found a large quantity of bread, and the wine casks and oil jars were also filled. The pilgrims ate their fill, and for three months afterwards the door of the storeroom could not be shut because of the abundace of bread.
 The food remained undiminished, just like the widow of Zarephath's barrel of meal and cruse of oil (1/3 Kings 17:8-16).

Once, the monk Auxentius refused to carry out his assigned obedience. Despite the fact that St Euthymius summoned him and urged him to comply, he remained obstinate. The saint then shouted loudly, "You will be rewarded for your insubordination." A demon seized Auxentius and threw him to the ground. The brethren asked Abba Euthymius to help him, and then the saint healed the unfortunate one, who came to himself, asked forgiveness and promised to correct himself. "Obedience," said St Euthymius, "is a great virtue.
 The Lord loves obedience more than sacrifice, but disobedience leads to death."

Two of the brethren became overwhelmed by the austere life in the monastery of St Euthymius, and they resolved to flee. St Euthymius saw in a vision that they would be ensnared by the devil. He summoned them and admonished them to abandon their destructive intention. He said, "We must never admit evil thoughts that fill us with sorrow and hatred for the place in which we live, and suggest that we go somewhere else. If someone tries to do something good in the place where he lives but fails to complete it, he should not think that he will accomplish it elsewhere. It is not the place that produces success, but faith and a firm will. A tree which is often transplanted does not bear fruit."  In the year 431, the Third Ecumenical Council was convened in Ephesus to combat the Nestorian heresy. St Euthymius rejoiced over the affirmation of Orthodoxy, but was grieved about Archbishop John of Antioch who defended Nestorius.  In the year 451 the Fourth Ecumenical Council met in Chalcedon to condemn the heresy of Dioscorus who, in contrast to Nestorius, asserted that in the Lord Jesus Christ there is only one nature, the divine (thus the heresy was called Monophysite). He taught that in the Incarnation, Christ's human nature swallowed up by the divine nature.

St Euthymius accepted the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon and he acknowledged it as Orthodox. News of this spread quickly among the monks and hermits. Many of them, who had previously believed wrongly, accepted the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon because of the example of St Euthymius.

Because of his ascetic life and firm confession of the Orthodox Faith, St Euthymius is called "the Great." Wearied by contact with the world, the holy abba went for a time into the inner desert. After his return to the lavra some of the brethren saw that when he celebrated the Divine Liturgy, fire descended from Heaven and encircled the saint. St Euthymius himself revealed to several of the monks that often he saw an angel celebrating the Holy Liturgy with him. The saint had the gift of clairvoyance, and he could discern a person's thoughts and spiritual state from his outward appearance. When the monks received the Holy Mysteries, the saint knew who approached worthily, and who received unworthily.

When St Euthymius was 82 years old, the young Sava (the future St Sava the Sanctified, December 5), came to his lavra. The Elder received him with love and sent him to the monastery of St Theoctistus. He foretold that St Sava would outshine all his other disciples in virtue.
When the saint was ninety years of age, his companion and fellow monk Theoctistus became grievously ill. St Euthymius went to visit his friend and remained at the monastery for several days. He took leave of him and was present at his end. After burying his body in a grave, he returned to the lavra.
God revealed to St Euthymius the time of his death. On the eve of the Feast of St Anthony the Great (January 17) St Euthymius gave the blessing to serve the all-night Vigil. When the service ended, he took the priests aside and told them that he would never serve another Vigil with them, because the Lord was calling him from this earthly life.  All were filled with great sadness, but the saint asked the brethren to meet him in church in the morning. He began to instruct them, "If you love me, keep my commandments (John 14:15). Love is the highest virtue, and the bond of perfectness (Col. 3:14). Every virtue is made secure by love and humility. The Lord humbled Himself because of His Love for us and became man. Therefore, we ought to praise Him unceasingly, especially since we monks have escaped worldly distractions and concerns."

"Look to yourselves, and preserve your souls and bodies in purity. Do not fail to attend the church services, and keep the traditions and rules of our community. If one of the brethren struggles with unclean thoughts, correct, console, and instruct him, so that he does not fall into the devil's snares. Never refuse hospitality to visitors. Offer a bed to every stranger. Give whatever you can to help the poor in their misfortune."

Afterwards, having given instructions for the guidance of the brethren, the saint promised always to remain in spirit with them and with those who followed them in his monastery.St Euthymius then dismissed everyone but his disciple Dometian. He remained in the altar for three days, then died on January 20, 473 at the age of ninety-seven.

A multitude of monks from all the monasteries and from the desert came to the lavra for the holy abba's burial, among whom was St Gerasimus. The Patriarch Anastasius also came with his clergy, as well as the Nitrian monks Martyrius and Elias, who later became Patriarchs of Jerusalem, as St Euthymius had foretold.

Dometian remained by the grave of his Elder for six days.
On the seventh day, he saw the holy abba in glory, beckoning to his disciple."Come, my child, the Lord Jesus Christ wants you to be with me."
After telling the brethren about the vision, Dometian went to church and joyfully surrendered his soul to God. He was buried beside St Euthymius. The relics of St Euthymius remained at his monastery in Palestine, and the Russian pilgrim igumen Daniel saw them in the twelfth century.
480 St. Lupicinus Abbot brother of St. Romanus of Condat founded abbeys life was brilliant with the glory of holiness and miracles
 In território Lugdunénsi sancti Lupicíni Abbátis, cujus vita ob sanctitátis et miraculórum glóriam fuit illústris.
       In the territory of Lyons, St. Lupicinus, abbot, whose life was brilliant with the glory of holiness and miracles.
Lupicinus founded the abbeys of St. Claud in the Jura mountains and in the Lauconne districts of
France.
482 St. Severinus Monk hermit founder of monasteries along Danube comfort to refugees /victims of Attila
 Neápoli, in Campánia, natális sancti Severíni Epíscopi, qui fuit frater beáti Victoríni Mártyris; et, post multárum virtútum perpetratiónem, plenus sanctitáte quiévit.
       At Naples in Campania, the birthday of the bishop St. Severin, brother to the blessed martyr Victorinus, who, after working many miracles, died, replenished with virtues and merits.
He labored to evangelize the region of Noricum (part of. modern Austria), establishing a number of monasteries along the Danube River near modern Vienna.
In his last years, he gave aid and comfort to the many refugees and victims of the invasion of the region by Attila and the Huns. He was known for his preaching and prophecies, Severinus died on January 5. His relics were later carried to Naples. Italy, and enshrined in the Benedictine monastery of San Severino.
St. Severinus Bishop of Naples brother of St. Vietorinus unknown. He may be the same saint as Severinus.

480 ST SEVERINUS OF NORICUM
WE know nothing of the birth or country of this saint. From the purity of his Latin he was generally supposed to be a Roman, and his care to conceal what rank he had held in the world was taken for a proof of his humility and a presumption that he was a person of birth.

   He spent the first part of his life in the deserts of the East, but left his retreat to preach the gospel in Noricum (Austria). At first he came to Astura, now Stockerau; but finding the people hardened in vice, he fore­told the punishment God had prepared for them, and repaired to Comagene (Hainburg, on the Danube). It was not long ere his prophecy was veri­fied, for Astura was laid waste, and the inhabitants destroyed by the Huns. By the fulfilment of this prophecy, and by several miracles, which he wrought, the name of the saint became famous.

Faviana, a city on the Danube, distressed by a terrible famine, implored his assistance. St Severinus preached penance among them with great fruit, and he so effectually threatened a certain rich woman who had hoarded up a great quantity of provisions, that she distributed all her stores amongst the poor. Soon after his arrival, the ice of the Danube and the Inn breaking, the country was abundantly supplied by barges up the rivers.

Another time by his prayers he chased away the swarms of locusts, which were then threatening the whole produce of the year.

He wrought many miracles, yet never healed the sore eyes of Bonosus, the dearest to him of his disciples, who spent forty years without any abatement of his religious fervour. Severinus himself never ceased to exhort all to repentance and piety; he redeemed captives, relieved the oppressed, was a father to the poor, cured the sick, mitigated or averted public calamities, and brought a blessing wherever he came. Many cities desired him for their bishop, but he withstood their importunities by urging that it was sufficient he had relinquished his dear solitude for their instruction and comfort.

He established several monasteries, of which the most considerable was one on the banks of the Danube near Vienna; but he made none of them the place of his constant abode, often shutting himself up in a hermitage where he wholly devoted himself to contemplation. He never ate till after sunset, unless on great festivals, and he always walked barefoot, even when the Danube was frozen. Kings and princes of the barbarians came to visit him, and among them Odoacer on his march for Italy. The saint’s cell was so low that Odoacer could not stand upright in it. St Severinus told him that the kingdom he was going to conquer would shortly be his, and Odoacer finding himself soon after master of the country, wrote to the saint, promising him all he was pleased to ask; but Severinus only desired of him the restoration of a certain banished man.

Having foretold his death long before it happened, he fell ill on January 5, and on the fourth day of his illness, repeating that verse of the psalmist, “Let every spirit praise the Lord”, he closed his eyes in death. This happened between 476 and 482. Some years later his disciples, driven out by the inroads of barbarians, retired with his relics into Italy, and deposited them at Luculanum, near Naples, where a monastery was built, of which Eugippius, his disciple and biographer, was soon after made abbot. In the year 910 they were translated to Naples, where they were honoured in a Benedictine abbey that bore his name.

The one supreme authority for the life of St Severinus is the biography by his disciple Eugippius, the best text of which is to be found in the edition of T. Mommsen (1898), or in that of the Vienna Corpus scriptorum ecciesiasticorum latinorum, edited by Pius Knoell (1886). See also A. Baudrillart, St Séverin (1908); and T. Sommerlad, Wirtschafts­geschichtliche Untersuchungen, part ii (1903). Sommerlad shows some reason for thinking that St Severinus belonged to a distinguished family in Africa, and that in his own country he had been consecrated bishop before he sought refuge in the East and led the life of a hermit or monk.  

484 St. Victorian Martyr in Carthage with four other miraculously their bodies bore no sign of scars or bruises
wealthy fellow merchants, including Frumentius. Initially named proconsul by Hunneric, the Arian king of the Vandals, he was seized and put under pressure to convert to Arianism. When he refused, he was executed with the other merchants after being tortured at Adrumetum.

Victorian, Frumentius & Comps. MM (RM) Died at Hudrumetum in 484. When Huneric succeeded his father Genseric as the Arian king of the Vandals in 477, the African Catholics were extended a degree of toleration. But in 480, he again began persecuting priests and virgins and by 484 extended his rage to simple believers.

Victorian, a wealthy Catholic of Adrumetum, was appointed proconsul by Hunneric. He always behaved with fidelity toward the king until the day Hunneric sent a message to him demanding that he conform to the Arian perversity of the Faith. Victorian immediately gave his answer: "Tell the king that I trust in Christ. If his majesty pleases, he may condemn me to the flames, or to wild beasts, or to any torments: but I shall never consent to renounce the Catholic church in which I have been baptized. Even if there were no other life after this, I would never be ungrateful and perfidious to God, who hath granted me the happiness of knowing him, and who hath bestowed on me his most precious graces."

Of course, Hunneric did not take this answer well. Victorian was subjected to torture, which he suffered with joy, ending in his martyrdom. The Roman Martyrology records that four other wealthy merchants were martyred on that same day. The two of them were merchants of Carthage, both named of Frumentius. The other two were brothers of the city of Aquae-regiae, Byzacona, who were apprehended for the faith, and conducted to Tabaia. They had promised each other and begged God to allow them to suffer and die together. The persecutors hung them in the air with great weights at their feet. One of them, under the excess of pain, begged to be taken down for a little ease.

His brother feared that he might be losing the will to remain faithful. From his rack he cried out: "God forbid, dear brother, that you should ask such a thing. Is this what we promised to Jesus Christ? Should not I accuse you at His terrible tribunal? Have you forgotten what we have sworn upon his body and blood, to suffer death together for his holy name?"
These words encouraged the other: "No, no; I ask not to be released: on the contrary, add new weights, if you please, increase my tortures, exert all your cruelties till they are exhausted upon me."
They were then subjected to new tortures including being burnt with red-hot plates of iron, but miraculously their bodies bore no sign of scars or bruises. Finally, their tormentors left them saying: "Everybody follows their example, no one now embraces our religion" (Attwater2, Benedictines, Husenbeth)
485 Saint Marcellus, igumen of the Monastery called "the Unsleeping Ones," received great spiritual talents and the gift of clairvoyance Council of Chalcedon

A native of the city of Apamea in Syria. His parents were wealthy, but died when he was young. He received his education first at Antioch, and then at Ephesus. All his possessions left him by his parents he distributed to the poor, thereby sundering his ties to the world.

Under the guidance of an experienced elder at Ephesus, Marcellus entered upon the path of asceticism. He later went on to Byzantium to St Alexander, igumen of the monastery named "the Unsleeping." The monastery received its name because in it psalmody was done constantly, both day and night, by alternating groups of monks. St Alexander accepted Marcellus and tonsured him into the monastic schema. Zealous in the works of watchfulness, fasting and prayer, the saint received great spiritual talents and the gift of clairvoyance. Marcellus foresaw the day of Abba Alexander's death and his own election as igumen. However, since he was still young, he did not want to rule others. So he slipped out of the monastery to visit other provinces and other monasteries, where he received edification from the monks who lived there.

After the death of St Alexander, when Abba John had already been chosen as igumen, Marcellus returned to the great joy of the brethren. Abba John made Marcellus his own closest assistant. After John's death, St Marcellus was chosen igumen of the monastery in spite of his own wishes, and in this position he remained for sixty years.

News of his saintly life spread far. People came to Marcellus from afar, both the illustrious and the common, rich and the poor. Many times they saw angels encircling the saint, attending and guarding him. With the help of God, the monastery of "the Unsleeping Ones" flourished. So many monks came to place themselves under the direction of St Marcellus that it became necessary to enlarge the monastery and the church.

St Marcellus received donations from believers for expansion, and built a beautiful large church, a hospital, and a hostel for the homeless. By his prayers the monk treated the sick, cast out devils and worked miracles. For example, one of the monks was sent to Ankara and fell ill. Being near death, he called out mentally to his abba. At that very hour St Marcellus heard his disciple in the monastery, and he began to pray for him. He who was sick recovered at once.
When a ship with his monks came into danger on the Black Sea, the saint calmed the tempest by his prayers. Another time, when they told him that a fire was raging at Constantinople, he prayed tearfully for the city, and the fire subsided as if extinguished by the tears of the monk.

John, the servant of a certain Arian nobleman named Ardaburios, was unjustly accused of something, and he hid out at the monastery to escape his master's wrath. Ardaburios twice demanded that St Marcellus hand John over to him, but he refused. Ardaburios then sent out a detachment of soldiers, who surrounded the monastery, threatening to slay anyone who interfered with their mission. The brethren went to the abba, asking him to surrender John and save the monastery. St Marcellus signed himself with the Sign of the Cross, then boldly went out alone through the monastery gate towards the soldiers. Lightning flashed in the sky, thunder rumbled, and the Cross appeared shining brighter than the sun. The soldiers threw down their weapons and took to flight. Ardaburios, learning from the soldiers what had happened, was frightened, and because of St Marcellus he pardoned the servant.

St Marcellus peacefully departed to the Lord in the year 485. His faithful disciple Lukian grieved terribly over him, but on the fifth day after the death St Marcellus appeared to him and comforted him, foretelling his own impending end.

Marcellus Akimetes (the Righteous), Abbot (RM) Born in Apamea, Syria; died near Constantinople, c. 485. Marcellus joined a group of monks called Akoimetoi or "non-rester." They are so called because they recited the divine office in relays throughout the day and night without stopping. Marcellus became the third abbot of their chief monastery, Eirenaion, at Constantinople. He placed special emphasis on poverty and manual labor. Under his leadership the Akimetes grew in number and influence.
Marcellus was among those present for the Council of Chalcedon (Attwater, Benedictines).
491 St. Theodora Egyptian penitent maiden of Alexandria; miracles
Alexandríæ sanctæ Theodóræ, quæ, cum incáute deliquísset, inde, facti pænitens, mirábili abstinéntia et patiéntia in hábitu sancto perseverávit incógnita usque ad mortem.
    At Alexandria, St. Theodora, who having committed a fault through imprudence and repenting of it, remained unknown in a religious habit, and persevered until her death in practices of extraordinary abstinence and patience.
who fell into a life of sin, repented, and spent her remaining days in virtual anonymity as a hermit in the Thebaid, in the southern region of Egypt, atoning through abstinence and mortifications.  The fact that she was a woman was not discovered until she died.

Saint Theodora of Alexandria and her husband lived in Alexandria. Love and harmony ruled in their family, and this was hateful to the Enemy of salvation. Goaded on by the devil, a certain rich man was captivated by the youthful beauty of Theodora and began with all his abilities to lead her into adultery, but for a long time he was unsuccessful. Then he bribed a woman of loose morals, who led the unassuming Theodora astray by saying that a secret sin, which the sun does not see, is also unknown to God.
Theodora betrayed her husband, but soon came to her senses and realizing the seriousness of her fall, she became furious with herself, slapping herself on the face and tearing at her hair. Her conscience gave her no peace, and Theodora went to a renowned abbess and told her about her transgression. The abbess, seeing the repentance of the young woman, spoke to her of God's forgiveness and reminded her of the the sinful woman in the Gospel, who washed the feet of Christ with her tears and received from Him forgiveness of her sins. In hope of the mercy of God, Theodora said: "I believe my God, and from now on, I shall not commit such a sin, and I will strive to atone for my deed."  At that moment St Theodora resolved to go off to a monastery to purify herself by labor and by prayer. She left her home secretly, and dressing herself in men's clothes, she went to a men's monastery, since she feared that her husband would find her in a women's monastery.

The igumen of the monastery, in order to test the resolve of the newcomer, would not even bless her to enter the courtyard. St Theodora spent the night at the gates. In the morning, she fell down at the knees of the igumen, and said her name was Theodore from Alexandria, and entreated him to let her remain at the monastery for repentance and monastic labors. Seeing the sincere intent of the newcomer, the igumen consented.

Even the experienced monks were amazed at Theodora's all-night prayers on bended knee, her humility, endurance and self-denial. The saint labored at the monastery for eight years. Her body, once defiled by adultery, now became a vessel of the grace of God and a receptacle of the Holy Spirit.

Once, the saint was sent to Alexandria to buy provisions. After blessing her for the journey, the igumen indicated that in case of a delay, she should stay over at the Enata monastery, which was on the way. Also staying at the guest house of the Enata monastery was the daughter of its igumen. She had come to visit with her father. Attracted by the comeliness of the young monk, she tried to seduce the monk Theodore into the sin of fornication, not knowing that it was a woman standing before her. Meeting with refusal, she committed sin with another guest and became pregnant.
Meanwhile, the saint bought the food and returned to her own monastery.
After a certain while the father of the shameless girl, realizing that a transgression had occurred, began to question his daughter about the father of the child. The girl indicated that it was the monk Theodore. The father at once reported it to the Superior of the monastery where St Theodora labored in asceticism. The igumen summoned the saint and repeated the accusation. The saint firmly replied: "As God is my witness, I did not do this."

The igumen, knowing of Theodore's purity and holiness of life, did not believe the accusation.
When the girl gave birth, the Enata monks brought the infant to the monastery where the ascetic lived, and began to reproach its monks for an unchaste life. But this time even the igumen believed the slanderous accusation and became angry at the innocent Theodore.
   They entrusted the infant into the care of the saint and threw her out of the monastery in disgrace. The saint humbly submitted to this new trial, seeing in it the expiation of her former sin. She settled with the child not far from the monastery in a hut. Shepherds, out of pity, gave her milk for the infant, and the saint herself ate only wild vegetables.  Bearing her misfortune, the holy ascetic spent seven years in banishment. Finally, at the request of the monks, the igumen allowed her to return to the monastery with the child, and in seclusion she spent two years instructing the child.

The igumen of the monastery received a revelation from God that the sin of the monk Theodore was forgiven. The grace of God dwelt upon the monk Theodore, and soon all the monks began to witness to the signs worked through the prayers of the saint.

Once, during a drought, all the wells dried up. The igumen said to the brethren that only Theodore would be able to reverse the misfortune. Having summoned the saint, the igumen bade her to bring forth water, and the water in the well did not dry up afterwards. The humble Theodore said that the miracle was worked through the prayer and faith of the igumen.

Before her death, St Theodora shut herself in her cell with the child and instructed him to love God above all things. She told him to obey the igumen and the brethren, to preserve tranquility, to be meek and without malice, to avoid obscenity and silliness, to love non-covetousness, and not to neglect their communal prayer. After this, she prayed and, for the last time, she asked the Lord to forgive her sins. The child also prayed together with her. Soon the words of prayer faded from the lips of the ascetic, and she peacefully departed to a better world.

The Lord revealed to the igumen the spiritual accomplishments of the saint, and also her secret. The igumen, in order to remove any dishonor from the deceased, in the presence of the igumen and brethren of the Enata monastery, told of his vision and uncovered the bosom of the saint as proof.

The Enata igumen and brethren shrank back in terror at their great transgression. Falling down before the body of the saint, with tears they asked forgiveness of St Theodora. News of St Theodora reached her former husband. He received monastic tonsure at this same monastery where his wife had been. And the child, raised by the nun, also followed in the footsteps of his foster-mother. Afterwards, he became igumen of this very monastery.
5th v St. Brynach Celtic hermit in Wales in constant communication with the angels.
He built a hermitage at Carn-Englyi, near Nefyn, Gwynedd. He is identified by some with St. Brannock of Braunton.

Brynach of Carn-Engyle (AC)(also known as Bernach, Bernacus, Brenach or Bryynach the Irishman) 5th century. Brynach was an Irishman who settled in Wales, where he built a hermitage and a church at a place called Carn-Engyle (Mountain of Angels) overlooking the Nevern (Pembrokeshire). Traditionally, the place received its name because Brynach was in constant communication with the angels. His church became the principal church of the district. Some authors identify him with Saint Brannock of Braunton (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Montague, Moran).

5th v. Saints Julius the presbyter and Julian the Deacon, brothers by birth, natives of Myrmidonia holy brothers received permission for building churches; preaching to remote sections East and West within the Roman Empire, where pagan temples still existed and where offering of sacrifice to idols was still made converted pagans to Christianity, by word & numerous miracles.
For his virtuous life St Julius was ordained to the priesthood, and his brother as a deacon. Inspired with zeal for the spreading of the Christian Faith, the holy brothers received permission for the building of churches and set off preaching to remote sections East and West within the Roman Empire, where pagan temples still existed and where offering of sacrifice to idols was still made. Visiting several lands, they converted many pagans to Christianity, persuading them not only by word, but also by numerous miracles. At Constantinople they turned to the pious emperor Theodosius the Younger (408-450) requesting permission to build churches upon the sites of pagan temples.

Having received the blessing of the patriarch and the permission of the emperor, the holy brothers built many churches. The people considered it their duty to assist them in this matter. Once, some people went past a church under construction. Fearing that they would be talked into taking part in this work, they engaged in a deception, in order to get away. One of them feigned being dead, and when St Julius invited them to take part in the work, they excused themselves, saying that they had to bury a dead person. The saint asked, "You're not lying, are you?" The passers-by persisted in their ruse. Then St Julian said to them, "Let it be according to your words." Having continued on farther, they discovered that the one pretending to be dead really was dead. After this, no one else dared to lie to the holy brothers.

Foreseeing his own impending end, St Julius set off in search of a place to build his one hundredth church, which he believed would be his last. Reaching Lake Mukoros, he saw a beautiful island. Because of the huge quantity of snakes on it, no one was able to settle there. St Julius decided to build a church upon this island. Having prayed, he sailed off to the island on his mantle as though on a boat, and set up a cross on it. In the Name of God, the holy ascetic ordered all the snakes to gather together and leave the island. All the venomous vipers slithered into the lake and re-established themselves upon Mount Kamunkin.
On the island St Julius built a church in honor of the holy Twelve Apostles. At this time his brother, St Julian, finished construction on a church near the city of Gaudiana and decided to build a crypt for his brother Julius by the church. St Julius paid his brother a visit and advised him to hurry with the construction of the crypt, prophetically foretelling that he would lie in it. Indeed, St Julian the Deacon soon died and was buried in the crypt built by him. St Julius the Presbyter reverently buried his brother and returned to the island, where he soon died and was buried in the church of the Twelve Apostles he had built. From his grave many of the sick received healing. The blessed end of the holy brothers occurred after the first half of the fifth century.

  Our Holy Fathers Julius and Julian June 21 SerbianOrthodoxChurch.net
Greek-born brothers, they were brought up from their youth in the Christian faith, and vowed to live in perpetual virginity and the service of the Church. Julius was a priest and Julian a deacon. They received an imperial decree from the Emperor Theodosius the Younger to destroy the idols throughout the whole Empire and build Christian churches. Like two apostles, these two brothers turned pagans into Christians in the East and the West, and built a hundred churches during their lifetime. They entered peacefully into the Lord's rest near Milan, the inhabitants of which city invoke St Julius's help against wolves.

5th v. St. Exuperantius Bishop of Cingoli; attained great fame by his miracles
 Cínguli, in Picéno, sancti Exsuperántii Confessóris, ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopi, ob miraculórum famam illústris.
       At Cingoli in Piceno, St. Exuperantius, confessor and bishop of that city, who attained great fame by his miracles.
Italy, possibly a native African.

418 Exsuperántii, Epíscopi et Confessóris Ravénnæ sancti
    At Ravenna, St. Exuperantius, bishop and confessor. Exuperantius of Ravenna B (RM)  FROM MAY 30, PROBABLY DIFFERENT SAINT
Died 418. Bishop of Ravenna, Italy, 398 to 418 (Benedictines)
.

418 ST EXSUPERANTIUS, BISHOP OF RAVENNA

THE successor of St Ursus as metropolitan of Ravenna was St Exsuperantius, or Superantius—a holy man who did much to promote the temporal as well as the spiritual welfare of his flock. He lived during the reign of the Emperor Honorius, and when Stilicho invested Ravenna with his army, St Exsuperantius prevailed upon him to restrain his soldiers from desecrating and looting the cathedral. The bishop built the town of Argenta—so-called because it paid a tribute in silver to the church of Ravenna. After a peaceful and uneventful episcopate of twenty years St Exsuperantius died in 418 and was buried in the church of St Agnes. His relics now rest in the cathedral of Ravenna.

There is a short account in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vii, but the ultimate authority seems to be the not very trustworthy Liber pontificalis seu vitae pontificum Ravennatum of Andreas Agnellus. This may conveniently be consulted in Migne, PL., vol. 106 cc. 525-528 but a better text is provided by Holder-Egger in MGH., Scriptores Rerum Langobardicarum, pp. 265 seq.

5th v. St. Gladys wife of St. Gundleus and mother of St. Cadoc miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the Confessor (1013 died 1066) and William I
Welsh saint, wife of St. Gundleus and mother of St. Cadoc. She was the daughter of Brychan of Brecknock, Wales. Tradition relates that Gundleus kidnapped Gladys. Their romance became part of the Arthurian legend.

Gwaladys, Hermit (AC) (also known as Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia) Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus, and mother of Saints Cadoc (Died c. 580; feast day Jan 24) and, possibly, Keyna
Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk, followed by a mile-long walk in the nude. Her son finally convinced them to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century vita, which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the Confessor (1013 died 1066) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

Holy Gwaladys, hermit.  (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia)
Born in Wales at the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan de Brecknock, marries of saint Gundleus (cfr today), and mother of saint Cadoc (September 25) and, probably, Keyna (October 8), holy Gladys had a very interesting life. It is known as that after their conversion for the example and with the exhortation of their son, it and Gundleus lived an austere life. That included a rather interesting practice: throughout the year, they prennaient night baths in Usk, follow-ups of a walk of one mile without coat. His/her son ends up convincing them to stop this practice and to live separately. Gladys left for Pencanau in Bassaleg. The details of its history come from a “vita” of the 12th century, which includes miracles which took place at the time of saint Edward the Confessor (cfr October 13) and William 1st. (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).
5th v Saint Thalassius of Syria near village of Targala 38 years monastic deeds no shelter gift of wonderworking and healing the sick
Lived during the fifth century. At a young age he withdrew to a hill near the village of Targala and passed 38 years there in monastic deeds, having neither a roof over his head, nor any cell nor shelter.

For his simple disposition, gentleness and humility he was granted by the Lord the gift of wonderworking and healing the sick. Many wanted to live under his guidance, and the saint did not refuse those coming to him. He himself built cells for them. He died peacefully, granted rest from his labors.
5th v. Saint Memnon the Wonderworker gift of clairvoyance many miracles
from his youth he lived in the Egyptian desert. By his arduous ascetical efforts, he attained a victory of spirit over the flesh.

As Igumen of one of the Egyptian monasteries, he wisely and carefully guided the brethren. Even while aiding them through prayer and counsel, the saint did not waver in his efforts in the struggle against temptation.

He received the gift of clairvoyance through unceasing prayer and toil. At his prayer a spring of water gushed forth in the wilderness, locusts destroying the harvest perished, and the shipwrecked who called on his name were saved. After his death, the mere mention of his name dispelled a plague of locusts and undid the cunning wiles of evil spirits.
5th v. St. Dichu First convert of St. Patrick in Ulser 5th century.
First convert of St. Patrick in Ulser, Ireland. He is listed as a swineherd in some lists and in others as a the son of an Ulster chieftain.  Opposed to Patrick originally, Dichu converted and gave Patrick a church in Saul, the capital of Lecale in County Down.
5th v. Dichu of Ulster (AC) 5th century Dichu, son of an Ulster chieftain and a swineherd in his youth, succeeded to the kingdom of Lecale in County Down, Ireland, and bitterly opposed Saint Patrick when he landed there in 432. He became Patrick's first Irish convert, gave Patrick a church in Saul, capital of Lecale, the first of Patrick's foundations in Ireland, and the two became close friends
(Benedictines, Delaney).
5th v. Saint Thais lived in Egypt pious virgin radiant light holy angels bearing her soul to Paradise
In the fifth century, she was left an orphan after the death of her wealthy parents, she led a pious life, distributing her wealth to the poor, and she gave shelter to pilgrims on her estate. She decided that she would never marry, but would devote her life to serving Christ.

After spending all her inheritance, Thais was tempted to acquire more money by any means, and began to lead a sinful life. The Elders of Sketis near Alexandria heard of her fall, and asked St John the Dwarf (November 9) to go to Thais and persuade her to repent. "She was kind to us," they said, "now perhaps we can help her. You, Father, are wise. Go and try to save her soul, and we will pray that the Lord will help you."

The Elder went to her home, but Thais's servant did not want to allow him into the house. St John said, "Tell your mistress that I have brought her something very precious." Thais, knowing that the monks sometimes found pearls at the shore, told her servant to admit the visitor. St John sat down and looked her in the face, and then began to weep. Thais asked him why he was crying.

 "How can I not weep," he asked, "when you have forsaken your Bridegroom, the Lord Jesus Christ, and are pleasing Satan by your deeds?"

The Elder's words pierced the soul of Thais like a fiery arrow, and at once she realized how sinful her present life had become. In fear, she asked him if God would accept the repentance of a sinner like her. St John replied that the Savior awaited her repentance. That is why He came, to seek and to save the perishing. "He will welcome you with love," he said, "and the angels will rejoice over you. As the Savior said Himself, one repentant sinner causes the powers of Heaven to rejoice (Luke 15:7).

A feeling of repentance enveloped her, and regarding the Elder's words as a call from the Lord Himself to return to Him, Thais trembled and thought only of finding the path of salvation. She stood up and left her house without speaking to her servants, and without making any sort of disposition of her property, so that even St John was amazed.
Following St John into the wilderness, she hastened to return to God through penitence and prayer. Night fell, and the Elder prepared a place for Thais to lay down and sleep. He made a pillow for her from the sand, and he went off somewhat farther, and went to sleep after his evening prayers.

In the middle of the night, he was wakened by a light coming down from the heavens to the place where Thais was at rest. In the radiant light he saw holy angels bearing her soul to Paradise. When he went over to Thais, he found her dead.

St John prayed and asked God to reveal to him whether Thais had been saved. An angel of God appeared and told him, "Abba John, her one hour of repentance was equal to many years, because she repented with all her soul, and a compunctionate heart."
After burying the body of the saint, St John returned to Sketis and told the monks what had happened.
All offered thanks to God for His mercy toward Thais who, like the wise thief, repented in a single moment.
5th century St. Lewina Martyred virgin of England, a Briton slain by invading Saxons. In 1058, her relics were translated from Seaford, in Sussex, England, to Berques in Flanders, Belgium; her relics honored by numerous miracles, especially at the time of the translation; A history of these miracles was written by Drogo, an eyewitness to several of them

Lewina of Berg VM (AC). The first extant record of Saint Lewina dates from 1058, when her relics were translated from Seaford (near Lewes) or Alfriston in Sussex, England, with those of Saint Idaberga (not sure which one) and portions of Saint Oswald, to Saint Winnoc's Abbey Church in Bergues, Flanders, where she had been venerated and her relics honored by numerous miracles, especially at the time of the translation. A history of these miracles was written by Drogo, an eyewitness to several of them. Lewina is reputed to have been a British maiden martyred by the invading Saxons (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth).

Lewina is supposed to have suffered martyrdom under the Saxons in Britain before their conversion to Christ.   Nothing is heard of her till 1058 when, on or about July 24, her relics, with those of St Ideberga, virgin, and part of those of St Oswald, were translated from Seaford in Sussex to the church of St Winnoc at Bergues in Flanders.  They were honoured by many miracles, especially at the time of this translation, as Drogo, an eye-witness to several, testifies.   Lewina was among the saints represented on the walls of the chapel of the English College at Rome in the sixteenth century.
  There is an account of St Lewina in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. v, but it is mainly concerned with the translation of her relics
5th v. St. Sabinus became a famed hermit; one of the apostles of the Lavedan, in the Pyrenees;  preached to peasants of the neighbourhood by mouth and by example of his kindly and penitential spirit, many and remarkable miracles
Also Savin, hermit and the one of the apostles of the Lavedan, in the Pyrenees. According to tradition, he was bom in Barcelona, Spain, received an education at Poitiers, and then entered a monastery at Liguge. Later, he departed the monastic community and became a famed hermit
.
5th v. ST Savin (Sabinus) preached to peasants of the neighbourhood by mouth and by example of his kindly and penitential spirit, many and remarkable miracles;
This saint is venerated as the apostle of the Lavedan, that district of the Pyrenees at one end of which is situated the town of Lourdes. According to his legend he was born at Barcelona and brought up by his widowed mother, who when he became a young man sent him to the care of his uncle Eutilius at Poitiers. Being appointed tutor to his young cousin, Savin (Sabinus) so impressed him by his religious example and inspiring words that the youth secretly left home and went to the great monastery at Ligugé. Eutilius and his wife besought Savin to use his influence with their son to induce him to return home. But he refused, quoting the words of our Lord that He must be loved even more than father and mother, and furthermore announced his intention of becoming a monk at Ligugé himself.
St Savin eventually left there with the object of becoming a solitary. He walked to Tarbes and from thence made his way to the place in the Lavedan then called Palatium Aemilianum, where there was a monastery. The abbot, Fronimius, showed him a place a little way off in the mountains well suited to his design. Here St Savin built himself a cell, which he afterwards exchanged for a pit in the ground, saying that everyone should expiate his sins in the way and the measure that seems to himself called for. This in reply to Fronimius, who on one of his frequent visits to the hermit expressed the opinion that his austerities were becoming exaggerated. Savin preached to the peasants of the neighbourhood by his mouth and by the example of his kindly and penitential spirit, and many and remarkable was the miracles with which they credited him. For example, a farmer having roughly stopped him from crossing his land to reach a spring, he struck water from the rocks with his staff; and one night, having no dry tinder, he lit his candle by the flames from his own heart! He wore only one garment, summer and winter, and that lasted him for thirteen years.
St Savin was forewarned of his death and sent a message to the monastery, and he was surrounded by clergy, monks and devoted people when his peaceful end came. His body was enshrined in the abbey church, which was afterwards called St Savin’s, and the name extended to the adjacent village, Saint-Savin-de-Tarbes.
No reliance can be placed upon the short text of uncertain date printed in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. iv (cf. Mabillon, Annales Benedictini, vol. i, p. s75); even the century in which the hermit lived is a matter of pure conjecture the above time-heading follows A. Poncelet. It is characteristic of the methods of a certain type of hagiographer that out of these scanty materials a writer in the so-called Petits Bollandistes has evolved a biography of seven closely printed pages (over 4,500 words) in which he speaks with the same detail and definiteness of statement as he might have used in providing a summary of the career of Napoleon I