Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles Miracles_BLay Saints 
  100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  
6th v. St. John the Syrian hermit of Pinna abbot of a large monastic colony 44 years tree was in full bloom dead of winter
Apud Pinnénsem civitátem natális beáti Joánnis, magnæ sanctitátis viri; qui de Syria ad Itáliam venit, atque ibi, constrúcto monastério, multórum servórum Dei per quátuor et quadragínta annos Pater éxstitit, et, clarus virtútibus, in pace quiévit.

       In the city of Pinna, the birthday of blessed John, a man of great sanctity, who came from Syria into Italy, and there founded a monastery.  After being the spiritual guide for many of God's servants for forty-four years, he rested in peace.

505 March 26 Macartin of Clogher miracle-worker early disciple companion of Saint Patrick B (AC)
507 St. Severinus miracles of healing
510 June 10 & 17 St. Nectan one of the most celebrated saints in the West of England; tended to the needs of the poor
       throughout Devon, Cornwall even Brittany, where churches dedicated to him may be found; miracles after death
510 May 01 St. Brieuc Bishop missionary known for miracles educated by St. Germanus in Auxerre, France.
512 St. Genevieve Paris averted Attila scourge by fasting and prayer
513 Spes of Campi Abbot regained eyesight 15 days before death 40 yrs blind
April 01 6th v. St. Musa Virgin child of Rome; a great mystic visions and ecstasies, reported by St. Gregory I the Great   September 23 6th century St. Constantius sacristan of St. Stephen’s Church in Ancona, Italy; renowned for the gift of miracles. The sacristan of St. Stephen’s Church in Ancona, Italy. He is greatly venerated there.
Anconæ sancti Constantii, Ecclésiæ Mansionarii, miraculórum grátia conspicui.
    At Ancona, St. Constantius, sacristan of the church, renowned for the gift of miracles.
6th v. ST MANECHILDIS, VIRGIN
6th v April 07 Saint Finan Disciple of St. Brendan abbot founder
6th Century September 02 St. Nonossus Benedictine monk of Mt. Soracte
6th v. May 23 Dodo of the St David-Gareji Monastery, Georgia Venerable
6th v. ST ILLTUD, OR ILLTYD Feast Day Nov 6 HERE, ABBOT; a disciple of St Germanus (of Auxerre), who ordained him priest, and that he presided over the monastic school at Llantwit in Glamorgan much stress is laid on his learning and wisdom “This Illtud was the most learned of all the Britons both in the Old Testament and the New, and in all kinds of philosophy—poetry and rhetoric, grammar and arithmetic…were I to begin to relate all his wondrous works I should be led to excess”.
6th v. St. Benedicta Mystic nun St. Peter appeared in vision warn her of death
6th v. May 23 Eutychius and Florentius 2 monks Saint Gregory the Great praised their virtues and miracles (RM)
6th v St. Almedha Welsh virgin and martyr also called Ellyw
6th v. Saint Severus the Presbyter served in a church of the Most Holy Theotokos in the village of Interocleum in Central Italy; noted for his virtuous and God-pleasing life the dead man came alive and related to everyone that the demons wanted to seize his soul, but one of the angels said, "Give him back, since the priest Severus weeps over him, and on account of his tears the Lord has granted him this man."
6th v. St. Attracta w/St Patrick Hermitess and co-worker with St. Patrick; founded a hospice on Lough Gara called
       Killaraght. She also performed miracles, while living at Drum, near Boyle
6th v. Blessed Abba Joseph of Alaverdi; sept 15 disciple and companion of St. John of Zedazeni, arrived in Georgia with twelve Syrian ascetics to spread the Christian Faith.  With the blessing of his teacher, Fr. Joseph settled in the village of Alaverdi in eastern Georgia. According to tradition, he carried with him a cross formed from the wood of the Life-giving Cross of our Savior.  Many of the faithful were so drawn to Abba Joseph’s holy life, boundless love, and miracles that they left the world to join in his labors.
6th v. Ethbin of Kildare, Abbot; famous for his virtues and miracles (RM)
6th v. St. Felix of Fondi Benedictine monk; revered friend of Pope St. Gregory I the Great
Thiníssæ, in Africa, natális sancti Felícis Mártyris, qui, conféssus et ad torménta dilátus, álio die (ut refert sanctus Augustínus, Psalmum in ejus festivitáte ad pópulum expónens) invéntus est in cárcere exánimis.
    At Tunis in Africa, the birthday of St. Felix, martyr, who, having confessed Christ, was sent to prison.  His sentence had been deferred, but the next day he was found dead, as is related by St. Augustine when he was expounding on a psalm to the people on the feast of the saint.

6th v. Nov 30 St. Zosimus  hermit who resided in Palestine
In Palæstína beáti Zósimi Confessóris, qui, sub Justíno Imperatóre, sanctitáte et miráculis fuit insígnis.
    In Palestine, blessed Zosimus, confessor, who was distinguished for his sanctity and miracles in the time of Emperor Justin.

514 St. Macanisius Patrick baptized Macanisius bishop founder of Kells Monastery; many spectacular miracles
      attributed to him.

515 June 26 St. Maxentius Abbot miracle worker a monk in St. Severus’ abbey counselor to King Clovis I marauding
             soldiers threatened abbey Maxentius miraculously saved site
515 Saint Abran Hermit  many miracles reported at his tomb, especially healing of blindness brothers and sisters were
      all declared saints
520 St. Constantius Bishop of Aquino; Sept 01  renowned for gift of prophecy. many virtues; mentioned by Pope St.
      Gregory the Great in his Dialogues.
 520 St. Apollinaris Oct 5 Bishop of Vienne, Gaul; renowned in life for virtues and in death for miracles and prodigies.
 520 Dec 28 ST ANTONY OF LÉRINS In the monastery of Lérins in France, a monk famed for his miracles.
523 May 01 ST. SIGISMUND He met death by being drowned in a well, and was afterwards famous for his miracles.  St. Avitus made St. Sigismund realize that his behavior was anything but Christian and he tried to make amends. Sigismund listened to the voice of his conscience and found that it led to martyrdom. We, too, may have to suffer for trying to live our faith. It is one of the consequences of following Christ.
525 St. Vitonus Bishop Verdun, France  credited with many miracles
529 St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch jan 11 Abbot founder various nationalities of monks many healings and miracles
530? St. Kieran The “first born of the saints of Ireland,” sometimes listed as Kieran Saighir or Kevin the Elder.
530   Saint Martius  the hermit attracted disciples founded For them the friary of Clermont; Abbot; St Martius lived to the age of ninety, and his tomb was the scene of many miracles.
530 St. Cannera Irish hermitess a friend of St. Senan
530? January 13 St. Remigius or Remi, Bishop of Rheims extraordinary gift of miracles
530 St. Samson Xenodochius "the Hospitable," priest a doctor and renowned figure of charity Lord blessed the efforts
      of St Sampson and endowed him with the power of wonderworking. He healed the sick not only through being a
      skilled physician, but also as a bearer of the grace of God
530 ST MELAINE, BISHOP OF RENNES; Nov 8 the author of his life tells us that he performed many miracles; played a leading part in drawing up the canons of the Council of Orleans in 511; King Clovis after his conversion held him in great esteem
532 St. Sabas (Sava) one of the founders of Eastern monasticism Many miracles took place through his prayers healings of the sick and the demoniacs
In Judæa sancti Sabbæ Abbátis, in óppido Cappadóciæ Mútala orti, qui miro sanctitátis exémplo refúlsit, et pro fide cathólica, advérsus impugnántes sanctam Synodum Chalcedonénsem, strénue laborávit, ac tandem in ea diœcésis Hierosolymitánæ laura, quæ ipsíus sancti Sabbæ nómine póstmodum est insigníta, requiévit in pace.
    In Judea, St. Sabbas, abbot, who was born in the town of Mutala in Cappadocia.  He gave a wondrous example of holiness and laboured most zealously for the Catholic faith against those who attacked the holy Council of Chalcedon.  He rested in peace in the monastery later named for him in the diocese of Jerusalem.

533 Nov 30 St. Trojan Bishop son of Jewish father Arabic mother shews by many miracles that he lives in heaven, though his body is buried on earth.
Apud Sántonas, in Gállia, sancti Trojáni Epíscopi, magnæ sanctitátis viri, qui, sepúltus in terris, se in cælis vívere multis virtútibus maniféstat.
    At Saintes in France, St. Trojan, bishop and confessor, a man of great sanctity, who shews by many miracles that he lives in heaven, though his body is buried on earth.

535 St. Donatus  Aug 19;  Hermit born in Orleans, France; lived as a recluse on Mount Jura near Sisteron in Provence
536 April 17 Saint Agapitus wonderworker healer of blind and lame defended the Orthodox teaching against the
      heretic Severus Bishop of Rome

539 St. John of Reomay  Pioneer of Western monasticism in France  a great reputation of sanctity, and was rendered famous by miracles
539 Januaryd 04 ST GREGORY, Bishop of Langres miracles recorded after death; he seemed to give the preference to
       captives arrested by the officers of human justice

539 May 13 St. Vedast of Arras holy from childhood instrumental in the conversion of Clovis I to Christianity B (AC)
540 June 16 St. Berthaldus A hermit ordained by St. Remigius. Berthaldus, also called Bertaud, lived in the Ardennes region of France indulgences granted for pilgrimages to his shrine.
540 June 27 St. David  Hermit of Thessalonika Greece remained in his small hermitage for seventy years, attracting
               many followers  gift of wonderworking, and he healed many from sickness
540-547 Saints Eutychius and Florentius were monks pursuing asceticism in the region of Nursa in Italy during the sixth century. St Eutychius converted many to God by his teaching. When the igumen of a nearby monastery died, they appealed to him to become its head. He consented, but continued to be concerned with the former place of his ascetic activity, where his companion Florentius remained. miracles
544 January 28 St. John of Reomay hermit monk confirmed many miracles Abbot (RM)
547 October 14 St. Fortunatus, Bishop of Tuderti, who had a most singular grace in casting out of devils
547 March 21 ST BENEDICT, ABBOT, PATRIARCH OF WESTERN MONKS
 In monte Cassíno natális sancti Benedícti Abbátis, qui in Occidénte fere collápsam Monachórum

550 St. Benedict of Campania Benedictine hermit contemporary of St. Benedict of Nursia and Monte Cassino escaped burning
550  March 01 St A
lbinus, Or Aubin, Bishop Of Angers many miracles attributed during life but more particularly
         after his death
550 April 10 Isaac of Spoleto a Syrian monk “A monk who wants earthly possessions is not a monk at all”. The holy man was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.
552 Dec 19 Saint Gregory, Bishop of Homer (Omirits) possessed gifts of healing and wonderworking even in his youth
 Antisiodóri sancti Gregórii, Epíscopi et Confessóris.       At Auxerre, St. Gregory, bishop and confessor.
Healed Jews made blind during debate
 
556 March 14 Leobinus priest abbot of Brou (Lubin); brought about various reforms and con­tinued to be very famous for his miracles. He took part in the Fifth Council of Orleans and in the Second Council of Paris B (RM)
556 September 09 Saint Ciaran of Clonmacnoise 1/12 Apostles of Ireland his holiness spread abroad: miracles.
558 St John the Silent of St Sabbas Monastery many miracles St John performed during this time in the desert discern secret thoughts of people healed sick and possessed
558 Jan 12 St. Victorian of Asan Abbot Italy native founded Asan monastery {SanVictorian} his miracles and his great
      reputation as a teacher of monastic observance.

559 St. Leonard of Noblac Feast Day Nov 6 Hermit-abbot convert of St. Remigius

559 St. Leonard of Noblac Hermit-abbot convert of St. Remigius
Lemóvicis, in Aquitánia, sancti Leonárdi Confessóris, qui fuit beáti Remígii Epíscopi discípulus.  Hic, nóbili génere ortus, solitáriam vitam delégit, et sanctitáte ac miráculis cláruit; ejúsque virtus præcípue in liberándis captívis enítuit.
    At Limoges in Aquitaine, St. Leonard, confessor, disciple of the blessed bishop Remigius, who was born of a noble family but chose to lead a solitary life.  He was celebrated for holiness and miracles, but his virtue shone particularly in the deliverance of captives.
560 March 08 St. Senan of Scattery Ireland holiness miracles attracted great crowds to his sermons
6v St. James the Hermit in Palestine miracle worker.
560 March 10 St. Kessag martyr worked miracles even as a child
560  St. Medard, bishop of Noyon, At Soissons in France, birthday of whose life and precious death are commended
        by glorious miracles.
560 Isaak der Syrer/Isaak vom Monte Luco Er kam (auf der Flucht vor den Monophysiten?) aus Syrien nach Spoleto
564 June 04 St. Petroc known for miracles Maddern Or Madron Well  son of a Welsh king
564 St. Abundius Confessor sacrist St. Peter's in Rome humble many graces spiritual gifts Romæ sancti Abúndii,
      Mansionárii Ecclésiæ sancti Petri.  At Rome, St. Abundius, sacristan of the church of St. Peter.

Abundius served in St. Peter's in Rome. Pope St. Gregory I the Great wrote of his life, which was filled with many graces and spiritual gifts.  Abundius the Sacristan (RM)(also known as Abonde) Saint Abundius was sacristan (mansionarius) of the Church of Saint Peter in Rome. His humble, but divinely favored life, is described by Saint Gregory the Great. His feast is kept as a major feast at Saint Peter's (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
565 St. Samson Welsh bishop and evangelizer- even though he had long searched for solitude; disciple of St. Illtyd at the monastery of Lianwit (Llantwit) in southern Glamorgan and then lived as a monk (and later abbot) of a community on Caldey Island (Ynys Byr). He was joined there by his uncle, Umbrafel, and his father, Amon. After a trip to Ireland, Samson became a hermit with Amon whom he cured of a mortal illness. During a trip to Cornwall, he was consecrated a bishop and appointed an abbot. He then departed England and went to Brittany where he spent the rest of his life as a missionary, Many miraculous deed were attributed
568 Saint Anastasia Patrician of Alexandria lived in Constantinople Alexandria founded a small monastery not far
      from the city & a remote skete 28 yrs Lord revealed her day of death

570 June 22 Saint Consortia Foundress of a convent endowed by King Clotaire I of Soissons and the Franks miraculously healed his dying daughter
570 St. Ita virgin founded a community of women dedicated to God extravagant miracles attributed
573 April 02 St. Nicetius bishop of Lyons extensive revival of ecclesiastical chant Humility and assiduous prayer Great
       miracles confirmed the opinion of his sanctity

573 March 07 St. Paul Aurelian  Welsh bishop able to perform miracles exorbitant nature
573 St. Cerbonius Africa Oct 10 bishop of Populonia St. Gregory relates he was renowned for miracles, during life
      and after death.

574 St. Emilian Cucullatus shepherd hermit priest patron saint of Spain favoured with many miracles
575 June 17 St. Hervae angels at death wolf, repenting, shouldered the dead donkey's harness stopped singing frogs
576 February 03 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker
576  May 28 Saint Germanus, Bishop Of Paris ordained priest by St. Agrippinus abbot of St. Symphorian's continual fasts and austerities miraculous healings while alive and wrought at his tomb: sight was restored to the blind and speech to the dumb prophesied
576 St. Senoch Benedictine abbot friend of St. Gregory of Tours; St Gregory narrates a number of miracles of healing vouchsafed by God at the prayer of St Senoch, who died in his arms.
579 September 10 St. Finian Irish abbot  disciple of Sts.Colman & Mochae miracles including moving a river
580 St Martin, or Mark: St Gregory says that many of his friends knew Martin personally and had been present at his
      miracles, and that he had heard much of him from his predecessor,
Pope Pelagius II
580 September 19 St. Sequanus Abbot, also Seine; God was pleased to honour him with the gift of miracles; perfected himself in the study of the Holy Scriptures, and in the practice of all religious virtues
582 April 06 Eutychius of Constantinople; worked many miracles, healings; opposed Justinian's interference.
586 September 10 St. Candida the Younger Miracle worker famed for her miracles
586 St. Cyprian A hermit near Perigueux
588 Marth 18 St. Frediano Irish bishop founded a group of eremetical canons  Miraculously, the river followed him   
589 St. Aedh MacBricc Miracle worker founder reputedly cured St. Brigid 
590 St. Quadragesimus shepherd raising a man from the dead   
590 Stephen of Rieti, Abbot of admirable sanctity despised all things for the love of heaven; extreme poverty, privation
      of all the conveniences of life In his agony angels seen surrounding him to conduct his happy soul to bliss

585-590 September 06 Eleutherius of Spoleto, OSB Abbot  one favored by God with the gift of miracles (RM)
6th v. 590 Dec 23 St. Servulus  beggar in Rome palsy thanked God all his life; At Rome, blessed Servulus of whom St. Gregory writes that from his early years to the end of his life he was a paralytic and had remained lying in a porch near St. Clement's Church, and being invited by the chant of angels, he went to enjoy the glory of Paradise.  At his tomb frequent miracles are wrought by God.
590 St. Blane Scottish nephew St. Cathan, Ireland educated under Sts. Comgall and Kenneth Miracles restored dead
      boy to life

592 March 27 Saint Guntramnus, King protector of oppressed care-giver to sick; many miracles performed before and
      after death (Saint Gregory of Tours)
6th v. May 09 and 07 St. Shio of Mgvime among the Thirteen Syrian Fathers who preached the Christian Faith in Georgia; miracles the Most Holy Theotokos and St. John the Baptist stood before him; performed many miracles
6th v May 14 St. Boniface Bishop of Ferentino, Italy, renowned for sanctity and miracles from his childhood, commemorated by Pope St. Gregory the Great.
596 St. Agnellus dec 14      Miracle worker and abbot

6th v. St. John the Syrian hermit of Pinna abbot of a large monastic colony 44 years tree was in full bloom dead of winter
Apud Pinnénsem civitátem natális beáti Joánnis, magnæ sanctitátis viri; qui de Syria ad Itáliam venit, atque ibi, constrúcto monastério, multórum servórum Dei per quátuor et quadragínta annos Pater éxstitit, et, clarus virtútibus, in pace quiévit.

       In the city of Pinna, the birthday of blessed John, a man of great sanctity, who came from Syria into Italy, and there founded a monastery.  After being the spiritual guide for many of God's servants for forty-four years, he rested in peace.

6 th v.    ST JOHN OF PANACA, ABBOT
DURING the monophysite disturbances in the East, a Syrian called John left his native land and, coming to the West, settled not far from Spoleto. There he built an abbey of which he became superior, and he also founded another religious house near Pesaro. An untrustworthy legend informs us that when the holy man was leaving Syria, he prayed Lord God of Heaven and earth, God of Abraham, 
Isaac and Jacob, I beseech thee, the true light, to enlighten me who hope in thee and to prosper my way before me, and to let it be to me for a sign of my resting-place when the person to whom I shall give my psalter shall not return it to me that same day.“ He landed in Italy and had travelled as far as the neighbourhood of Spoleto when he met a handmaid of the Lord, to whom he lent his psalter. When he asked her to return it, she said, “Where are you going, servant of God? Remain here and resume your journey to-morrow.” John agreed to tarry the night, and remembering his prayer he said to himself, “This is indeed what I asked of the Lord here will I stay.” The next morning he received back his psalter and had walked the distance of four bow-shots when there appeared an angel, who led him to a tree under which he told him to sit, adding that it was the Lord’s will that he should remain in that place and that there he would have a great congregation and would find rest.

It was the month of December and the ground was hard with frost, but the tree under which John was seated was blossoming like a lily. Some passing huntsmen asked him whence he came and what he was doing there. The holy man told them his whole history and they were filled with astonishment—especially at his clothes, the like of which they had never seen. “Please do not hurt me, my sons“, said John, “for I have come here in the service of God.” But the request was un­necessary, as they had already noticed the tree which was blossoming and recognized that the Lord was with him. Far from wishing to do him harm they were eager to announce his arrival to the bishop of Spoleto, who hurried out to greet him and found him praying under the tree. They wept for joy when they met, and all who were present gave glory to God. In that place John built his monastery, and there he lived until forty-four years later, when he fell asleep in peace and was buried with hymns and songs.

St John, who in the Roman Martyrology is said to have built his abbey “apud Pinnensem civitatem”, appears in the Martyrology of Ado. His festival is still kept at Spoleto. See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii.

A Syrian hermit and founder who settled in Pinna, Italy. He was recognized as a holy man immediately. According to one legend, hunters saw him sitting under a tree in the dead of winter, but the tree was in full bloom. He also founded an abbey at Pinna and another at Pesaro.
John the Syrian, Hermit (RM) (also known as John of Pinna or John of Panaca). According to the Roman Martyrology, John was a Syrian monk may have been driven from his homeland by the Monophysite persecution. He settled at Pinna near Spoleto, Italy, where he founded a religious house. For 44 years he was abbot of a large monastic colony (Attwater2, Benedictines).

505 Macartin of Clogher miracle-worker early disciple companion of Saint Patrick B (AC).
(also known as Macartan, MacCartan, Maccarthen) feast day formerly March 24. Saint Macartin (in Irish is Aedh mac Carthin) was an early disciple and companion of Saint Patrick during the latter's missions into pagan territory. He is said to have been consecrated bishop of Clogher in Tyrone by Patrick in 454. It is said the Saint Brigid, Macartin's niece, was present at the founding of the see.
Macartin is also one of the earliest Irish saints to be known as a miracle-worker. His holiness is revealed not so much by any vita, which are non-existent, but by the high veneration in which he is held. Saint Bede records that the earth was taken from his grave as holy relics. His Office is the only one to survive from an Irish source.

A reliquary, called the Great Shrine of Saint Mac Cairthinn, which was designed to contain relics of the True Cross as well as his bones, has been altered over the centuries but still survives as the "Domnach Airgid" in the National Museum. It's inner yew box was given to Macartin by Patrick together with the latter's episcopal staff and Bible.

The Cloch-Oir (Golden Stone), from which this ancient diocese takes its name, was a sacred ceremonial stone to the druids, It was given to Macartin by an old pagan noble, who had harassed Macartin in every possible way until the saint's patient love won the local ruler to the faith. The stone is still preserved and the noble's son, Tighernach of Clones, succeed Macartin as bishop (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Farmer, Healy, Kenney, Montague, Muirhead, Needham).
507 St. Severinus miracles of healing.
Severinus was born in Burgundy. He joined the monastery of Agaunum as a youth.
He cured King Clovis of a disease that his doctors had been unable to cure in 504, and is reported to have performed miracles of healing before his death at Chateau-Landon. St. Severin church in Paris is named after him.

Severinus of Agaunum, Abbot (RM)
Died at Château-Landon, c. 507. Severinus is said to have been a Burgundian abbot of Saint Maurice in Agaunum, Switzerland, who caused the fever of Clovis to go down and worked many other miraculous cures. The details of his life given to us are unreliable. Saint-Séverin in Paris is dedicated to his honor (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia). Saint Severinus is represented in art as a bishop curing King Clovis (Roeder).
510 St. Brieuc Bishop missionary known for miracles educated by St. Germanus in Auxerre, France.
6th v. ST BRIEUC, OR BRIOCUS, ABBOT
ALTHOUGH some writers have striven to prove that St Brieuc was of Irish descent, it is now commonly admitted that he probably was born in Cardiganshire. A life of him, which purports to be written by a contemporary but which is certainly of much later date, perhaps the eleventh century, describes his career in some detail. The saint, who in this Latin narrative is generally called Brioccius, but also Brio­maglus,*[* Briomaglus seems to be the fill form of the name, Briocus the hypocoristic abbreviation so common among Celtic peoples.] is said to have been the son of noble parents, pagans, but good and charitable people. Before his birth an angel appeared, first to his mother and then to his father, in their sleep, demanding of them that the child should be sent to France to be brought up by a St Germanus. When in due course he had been ordained priest, a vision in his sleep recalled him to his own country, and there he converted his parents to Christianity, seemingly as a consequence of the miracles of healing which he wrought. After a while he was bidden by an angel to return to “Latium”, [Which may mean Brittany.] and accordingly he set sail with no less than 168 disciples whom he had gathered about him. On the journey the ship’s progress was suddenly arrested in the middle of the night. Great consternation prevailed, but they eventually discovered that they had struck an obstacle, which was really the Devil, who, in the form of a huge monster, was lying right across their course. Yielding to the prayers of the saint this primitive sea-serpent, though with a very bad grace, vanished into thin air. “Evanescit utfumus”, is the biographer’s phrase.

Pursuing their journey, they landed at some unidentified place where the local chieftain, named Conan, was converted from paganism by Brieuc’s miracles. This, however, was not their final destination, and they sailed on to a little estuary on the coast of Brittany near Tréguier, where they settled and built a monastery, of which St Brieuc became abbot. A flourishing and fervent community was formed, but before long news came of a grievous pestilence which was devastating his native land. His family implored him to visit them once again, and he, though very reluctantly, yielded to their entreaties, leaving his nephew, St Tugdual, to rule the abbey in his absence. His parents were consoled, and the pestilence was arrested by his prayers, but he would not consent to abide with them long. He was gladly welcomed back in Brittany, where he determined to found another monastery in a different part of the country. It is said that eighty-four volunteers accompanied him, who all travelled by sea, and, finding a suitable spot with a good water supply, proceeded to encamp and make themselves at home. The ruler of the district, Rigual, was at first infuriated by this invasion, but falling ill himself he was cured by St Brieuc. Having further discovered that he was a blood relation he became his warm friend and patron.
   We are told, however, that Brieuc, after the founda­tion of the new abbey on the lands which the chieftain bestowed, assisted Rigual on his death-bed, and himself, to the great sorrow of his brethren, passed away shortly after. He is said to have been then one hundred years old. All this is supposed to have happened on the site of the present cathedral and town of Saint-Brieuc, but in the middle of the ninth century the saint’s remains, for fear of the Norman marauders, were translated to Angers. In 1210 a portion of the relics was given back by the monks of Angers, and they are preserved in the cathedral to this day. It is possible that St Brieuc was a missionary bishop, but the see which bears his name was not formed until many centuries later.

The complete text of the Vita S. Brioci was printed for the first time in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. ii (1883), pp. 161—190. In the same collection, vol. xxiii (1904), pp. 246—251, is an interesting fragment in verse of a life in which he is called “Briomaglus”.  From this we learn that when his remains were exhumed (c. 853[?]) he was found wearing a dalmatic, a fact which pointed to episcopal consecration. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, pp. 269 and 390; LBS., vol. i, p. 288; du Bois de la Villerabel, Vie de Saint Brieuc; Gougaud, Christianity in Celtic Lands (1932), p. 115. Most valuable of all, however, is the essay of G. H. Doble, St Brioc (1929). At least one Cornish church is dedicated in honour of St Brieuc, viz. St Breoke (but not Breage); one in Cardiganshire, Llandyfriog; and one in Gloucestershire, St Briavels.
He is believed to have been born in Dyfed or Cardiganshire, Wales, circa 420. Ordained in France, Brieuc returned to England as a missionary. Known also as Briocus, Briomaglus, or Brioc, he converted his parents and became known for his miracles. He also converted Conan, a local ruler of Brittany, France, and founded a monastery near the present site of the town of Saint-Brieuc in Brittany. He remained in Brittany, dying at the age of ninety. Brieuc is venerated in Cornwall, England, and is credited with stopping a plague.
510 St. Nectan one of the most celebrated saints in the West of England; tended to the needs of the poor throughout Devon, Cornwall and even Brittany, where churches dedicated to him may be found miracles after death
St Nectan was born in Wales and lived in the sixth century, but we know few details about his life. He was the oldest of the twenty-four children of St Brychan of Brecknock (April 6). While he was still living in Wales, God inspired him to imitate the example of St Anthony (January 17) and other ascetics, and to embrace the monastic life.
6th V. St Nectan
The tomb of St Nectan at Hartland in Devonshire was the centre of a cultus which seems to have been fostered in the middle ages by the Augustinian canons, who were the custodians of his tomb. He was also venerated in Cornwall, especially at Launceston, where a fair is still held on his feast-day, June 17. In the neigh­bourhood of Lostwithiel and Newlyn chapels were dedicated in his honour under the name of St Nighton, and perhaps also at Tintagel, not far from which famous resort “St Nighton’s Kieve” (i.e. vat) is still shown. William of Worcester and some later writers, such as Nicholas Roscarrock, describe the saint as having been the eldest of the twenty-four children of the Welsh king, Brychan, who gave his name to Brecknock. The saint may possibly have been an Irish missionary who came to England and founded churches in Devon and Cornwall. Actually nothing is known of his true history. All that Worcester is able to tell us about him is this: “And the venerable man Nectan, while he was making his way through certain woody districts in order to explore the country, was found by robbers in the place which to this day is called New Town (i.e. New Stoke), and there a church is built to his honour. On the fifteenth day before the kalends of July he was beheaded, and he took up his head in his own hands and carried it about a distance of half a stadium, as far as the fountain where he lived, and there laid it down, besmeared with his blood and sweat, on a certain stone, and blood-stained traces of this murder and miracle still remain on that same stone.” This is a quotation from the saint’s Life.

The twelfth-century life of St Nectan, which came to light in the Gotha MS. I. 81 in 1937 and was translated by Canon Doble (see note below), adds little of interest about the saint, though it gives interesting particulars about his shrine and side­lights on life at Hartland in the middle ages.

By far the best attempt in English to cope with the incoherencies of the materials is that of Canon Doble in no. 25 of his “Cornish Saints” series, St Nectan and the Children of Brychan (1930); his translation of the vita appeared in A Book of Hartland (1940), ed. by Miss I.  D. Thornley, and was reprinted separately in the same year. See also DCB., vol. iv, pp. 10—11, and LBS., vol. iv, pp. 1—2. But consult especially Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxxi (1953).
Seeking greater solitude, St Nectan and his companions left Wales, intending to settle wherever their boat happened to land. Divine providence brought them to the northern coast of Devonshire at Hartland, where they lived for several years in a dense forest. The saint's family would visit him there on the last day of the year. Later, he relocated to a remote valley with a spring.

Once, St Nectan found a stray pig and returned it to its owner. In gratitude, the swineherd gave St Nectan two cows. The saint accepted the gift, but the cows were soon stolen by two robbers. St Nectan found the thieves who took the animals, and tried to preach to them about Christ. They became angry and cut off his head. Then the saint picked up his head and carried it for half a mile, laying it down near the spring by his cell. Seeing this, the man who killed St Nectan went out of his mind, but the other thief buried him. From that time, miracles began to take place at St Nectan's tomb.

In 937 St Nectan appeared on the eve of the Battle of Brunanburgh to a young man from Hartland who was in a tent near King Athelstan's pavilion. Suddenly, he felt himself afflicted with the plague which was then destroying the English army. The young man wept and called upon God and St Nectan to help him. His cries were so loud that he woke the king and others around him.  St Nectan came to the young man just after midnight and touched the afflicted area of his body, healing him. In the morning, he was brought before the king and admitted that it was he who had disturbed Athelstan's sleep. The king asked gently why he had been crying out during the night.  The young man explained that he felt himself stricken with the plague, and was afraid that he would die. Therefore, he entreated God and St Nectan to help him, and his prayer was answered.  Athelstan asked for more information about the life and martyrdom of St Nectan, which the young man provided. He also urged the king to turn to St Nectan with faith, promising that he would be victorious in battle if he did so.  The king promised to honor God and St Nectan, and so his faith was rewarded. Not only did he win the battle, but the plague disappeared and his soldiers recovered. The first time that King Athelstan visited Hartland in Devonshire, he donated property to the saint's church. For the rest of his life, the king placed great confidence in the intercession of St Nectan.

St Nectan is the patron of Hartland, Devonshire. The fullest surviving Life dates from the twelfth century (See Vol. 5 of THE SAINTS OF CORNWALL by G. H. Doble for an English translation).
There is an Orthodox house chapel (Russian diocese of Sourozh) dedicated to St Simeon and St Anna at Combe Martin, N. Devon where St Nectan is venerated.

(c.AD 468-510) (Welsh-Nudd, Latin-Natanus, English-Nathan), although details from his life-story are rather sparse. He is chief amongst the Cornish list of children of King Brychan Brycheiniog, usually said to have been the eldest. Nectan sailed south from Wales and landed on the Corno-Devon border at Hartland Point. He found a beautiful valley there, at Stoke St. Nectan near Hartland, with a never-failing spring. He built a little church and a hermitage, forty paces away and lived there many years. He tended to the needs of the poor throughout Devon, Cornwall and even Brittany, where churches dedicated to him may be found. He once helped a swineherd find his lost pigs and, in return, was given two cows who provided his daily comestible needs. Most of Nectan's siblings followed him from Wales and were instrumental in evangelising the south-west. They saw Nectan as their leader and gathered every New Year's Eve at Hartland to talk with him.

Eventually, Nectan's two cows were stolen by bandits. He tracked them to New Stoke, took them back and tried to convert his persecutors to Christianity. For all his hard work, they struck off his head! Legend says Nectan picked up the severed object and returned, with it, to his chapel at Stoke. This occurred on 17th June AD 510. His body was translated to a more fitting shrine in the 1030s and later looked after by the Austin Canons who built an Abbey nearby.

Little historical credit is given to the Cornish lists of the children of Brychan and many scholars believe they only indicate that the named persons originated in South Wales. Nechtan's name is Pictish and some think he has been confused with Noethon ap Gildas who is known to have come from the North. Prof. Charles Thomas, meanwhile, believes that Nectan is, in fact, a corruption of the name Brychan itself: father and son being one and the same. He identifies Lundy Island as Brychan's mysterious burial place, Ynys Brychan, from where his body was removed to Stoke in the 7th century.
Dodo of the St David-Gareji Monastery, Georgia Venerable
A companion of St. Davit of Gareji, St. Dodo belonged to the royal family Andronikashvili. He was tonsured a monk while still an youth, and was endowed with every virtue.

An admirer of poverty and solitude, he labored as a hermit at Ninotsminda in Kakheti.

Having heard about the miracles of Davit of Gareji, St. Dodo set off for the Gareji Wilderness to witness them himself. The venerable fathers greeted one another warmly and began laboring there together.

After some time, St. Davit became deeply impressed with Dodo’s devotion to the Faith, and he proposed that he take with him some of the other monks and begin to construct cells on the opposite mountain.

The brothers built cells and began to labor there with great ardor. Before long the number of cells had reached two hundred. St. Dodo isolated himself in a narrow crevice, where there was barely room for one man. Day and night, winter and summer, in the heat and the cold, he prayed with penitent tears for the forgiveness of his sins, the strengthening of the souls of his brothers, and the bolstering of the true Faith throughout the country.

Once St. Davit miraculously healed the son of Prince Bubakar of Rustavi. In return, the grateful prince donated food and other necessities to the monks of Gareji Monastery. St. Davit took part of his contributions and sent what remained to St. Dodo. He advised Bubakar to have St. Dodo baptize him, and St. Dodo joyously baptized Bubakar, his sons, and all his suite.
St. Dodo labored to an advanced age in the monastery he had founded and reposed peacefully.

His spiritual sons and companions buried him in the cave where he had labored, and a church was later built over his grave.

6th Century St. Nonossus Benedictine monk of Mt. Soracte near Rome.
In monte Sorácte sancti Nonnósi Abbátis, qui ingéntis molis saxum oratióne sua tránstulit, aliísque miráculis coruscávit.
    On Mount Soracte, Abbot St. Nonnosus, who by his prayers moved a rock of huge proportions, and was renowned for other miracles.
His remarkable works of faith were recorded by Pope St. Gregory I the Great.

Century: 6th Century
Patronage: Against Diseases of Kidneys, Against Physical Defects, Back Pain
Feast Day: September 2nd


St. Nonossus was born in 500, in what is believed to be, Mt. Soracte, near Rome.  He had a remarkable life and his works of faith were recorded by Pope St. Gregory I the Great.  Nonossus was a prior at the San Silvestre Monastery on Monte Soratte, north of Rome.  He later was a Monk at Suppenntonia, near Civitah.  He was a contemporary of St. Benedictine of Nursia.  Very little information survived the centuries. 
 
The sole source of Nonnsus’ life is Pope Gregory I, who wrote about St. Nonossus after being asked by some friends to create a compendium of miracle stories associated with Italian Saints.  Maximian was the Bishop of Syracuse, and provided Pope Gregory I with some information about Nonnosus.  Another source that Pope Gregory drew from was Laurio, an old monk of the Monastery Suppentonia.  Laurio had been a great friend of Nonossus, while the two lived the monastic life there, under the Abbot St. Anastasius.  According to Gregory, Nonossus was a particularly good-natured man and was buried at Monte Soratte.  A tablet at his burial site reads “Here rests the servant of Christ, Nonossus, Deacon”. 
 
Miracles told of Nonossus, as recorded by St. Gregory, state that Nonossus removed an enormous rock that had occupied land on which he wanted to grow cabbage.  Fifty pairs of oxen had not been able to move it, after many attempts.  He miraculously restored a glass lamp that had been shattered against the floor.  He also completely filled many receptacles with olive oil, after a particularly bad harvest for the olive crop, so the people would not go without.  He also had the ability to calm his Abbot, who was sometimes easily upset and frustrated. 
 
Practical Take Away
 
St. Nonossus’s life shows us that one can be in tune with God, and remain in His peace.  He by the best information known, was a Monk at the Abbey in Suppentonia, Italy.  He was said to have the ability to perform many miracles, and in fact, so many, that they caught the attention of Pope St. Gregory I – the Great, who wrote the stories of Nonossus’s life and many miracles he performed.  These records from Pope St. Gregory I, are the only records known to exist of this saints life, outside of legend.  His life shows us that many before us were willing to serve the Church with all they had, so as to preserve the faith for us.  The question that comes to mind, what are we willing to do to learn, live, and pass the faith on in our generation, for the generations to come?  St. Nonossus can be invoked to help in this regard. 

6th v. ST ILLTUD, OR ILLTYD, ABBOT; a disciple of St Germanus (of Auxerre), who ordained him priest, and that he presided over the monastic school at Llantwit in Glamorgan much stress is laid on his learning and wisdom “This Illtud was the most learned of all the Britons both in the Old Testament and the New, and in all kinds of philosophy—poetry and rhetoric, grammar and arithmetic…were I to begin to relate all his wondrous works I should be led to excess”.

THE first information we have about IlItud, one of the most celebrated of the Welsh saints, is in the perhaps early seventh-century Life of St Samson. Here it is said that he was a disciple of St Germanus (of Auxerre), who ordained him priest, and that he presided over the monastic school at Llantwit in Glamorgan much stress is laid on his learning and wisdom “This Illtud was the most learned of all the Britons both in the Old Testament and the New, and in all kinds of philosophy—poetry and rhetoric, grammar and arithmetic…were I to begin to relate all his wondrous works I should be led to excess”. There are further references in the ninth-century Life of St Paul Aurelian there it is stated that the saint’s monastery was established on a certain island “within the borders of Dyfed, called Pyr”, which is usually identified with Caldey, off Tenby. This statement has given rise to the baseless conjecture that there was an original Llanilltud on Caldey, and that a later and bigger foundation in Glamorgan was distinguished from it as Llanilltud Fawr, that is “the Great”. Illtud is said to have increased the size of this “very limited area hemmed in by the sea”, at the suggestion of his pupils Paul, David, Samson, and Gildas.*{*Little credence can be attached to the statement that St David was a pupil of St IlItud: cf. A. W. Wade-Evans, Life of St David, p. 73. The same scholar sought to identify the insula with Manorbier on the mainland of Pembrokeshire (Notes and Queries, 1950).}

The only life we have of St IlItud himself is a Latin composition dating from about 1140. This tells us that his father was a Briton who lived in Letavia with his wife; it has been suggested that Letavia here really means a district in central Brecknock rather than Brittany. When he grew up Illtud went by water to visit “his cousin King Arthur”, and married a lady called Trynihid. Leaving Arthur, he entered the military service of a chieftain in Glamorgan, whence he is sometimes called IlItud the Knight. The story goes that he was startled into taking up the monastic life by a hunting accident in which some of his friends lost their lives, and that he was recommended to leave the world by St Cadoc (who was hardly born at this time). Illtud went to live with Trynihid in a reed hut by the river Nadafan, but was warned by an angel, in peculiar circumstances, to leave his wife. This he did, very roughly, early in the morning, and went to St Dubricius to receive the tonsure of a monk. Then he made his abode by a stream called the Hodnant, and lived austerely there as a solitary until disciples began to flock around. They flourished materially and spiritually, their land was good and they worked hard, and St Illtud’s monastery became the first great monastic school of Wales, known as Llanilltud Fawr (now Llantwit Major in Glamorgan).

Once Trynihid came to see her husband, whom she found working in the fields, but he was offended and would not speak to her (The narrator here attributes a similar discourtesy to Almighty God). When Illtud was driven from his monastery by the oppression of a local chieftain he had to take refuge for a time in a cave by the river Ewenny, where he was fed from Heaven their lands were threatened by the collapse of the sea-wall, which the monks built up again, but finally it had to be made good miraculously by the saint. He is said to have gone with corn-ships to relieve a famine in Brittany, and places and churches bearing his name are found there as well as many in Wales. Illtud was honoured as having introduced to his monks, and so to the people, an improved method of ploughing. The life is largely taken up with anecdotes of wonders, which provoked Dom Serenus Cressy in the seventeenth century to complain of “fables and unsavoury miracles”, when he met them in Capgrave’s Nova legenda Angliae. It states that in his old age Illtud again crossed the sea, and died at Dol; but the Life of Samson gives a moving account of his last days at Llantwit.

A local tradition of Breconshire says he died at Defynock and was buried at the place still called Bedd Gwyl Illtud, the Grave of Illtud’s Feast. In one of the Welsh triads IlItud is named, with Cadoc and Peredur, as one of the three knights of Arthur who had charge of the Holy Grail, and attempts have been made to identify him with the Galahad of the Arthurian legends. No mention of Illtud seems to be found in calendars, martyrologies or litanies earlier than the eleventh century. In a ninth-century inscription on a cross at Llantwit there is mention of “Iltet, Samson and Ebisar”, and this is probably the earliest surviving notice of the saint. His feast is observed in the archdiocese of Cardiff and on Caldey. The best texts of the Latin life of St IlItud are those edited by Father De Smedt in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. iii, and by A. W. Wade-Evans in Vitae sanctorum Britanniae (1944), with a translation (both correct many errors which occur in the transcript of W. J. Rees, Lives of the Cambro-British Saints, pp. 158—182). The best and handiest general work in English is G. H. Doble’s St Ilyut (1944). See also A. W. Wade-Evans, Welsh Christian Origins (1934), pp. 132—137 and passim and especially F. Duine, Memento des sources hagiographiques...de Bretagne (1918), pp. 129—131. The saint’s name appears in many forms, Iltutus, Eltut, Hildutus, etc.
6th v. St. Benedicta Mystic nun St. Peter appeared in vision warn her of death
Romæ sanctæ Benedíctæ Vírginis.    At Rome, the virgin St. Benedícta.

Benedicta lived in a convent founded by St. Galla in Rome. Pope St. Gregory the Great states that St. Peter appeared in a vision to warn her of her approaching death.

Benedicta of Rome V (RM). Benedicta a nun of the convent founded in Rome by Saint Galla (A Roman widow of the sixth century; feast, 5 October. According to St. Gregory the Great (Dial. IV, ch. xiii) she was the daughter of the younger Symmachus, a learned and virtuous patrician of Rome, whom Theodoric had unjustly condemned to death (525). Becoming a widow before the end of the first year of her married life, she, still very young, founded a convent and hospital near St. Peter's, there spent the remainder of her days in austerities and works of mercy, and ended her life with an edifying death. The letter of St. Fulgentius of Ruspe, "De statu viduarum", is supposed to have been addressed to her. Her church in Rome, near the Piazza Montanara, once held a picture of Our Lady, which according to tradition represents a vision vouchsafed to St. Galla. It is considered miraculous and was carried in recession in times of pestilence. It is now over the high altar of Santa Maria in Campitelli. ), of whom Saint Gregory the Great narrates that her death was foretold to her by Saint Peter in a vision (Benedictines).
6th v. Eutychius and Florentius 2 monks Saint Gregory the Great praised their virtues and miracles (RM)
Apud Núrsiam sanctórum Eutychii et Floréntii Monachórum, quorum méminit beátus Gregórius Papa.
    At Norcia, Saints Eutychius and Florentius, monks, mentioned by the blessed Pope Gregory.
Two monks who successively governed a monastery in Valcastoria near Norcia (Nursia?), Italy. Saint Gregory the Great praised their virtues and miracles (Benedictines).
6th v St. Almedha Welsh virgin and martyr also called Ellyw
  
She is honored in Lianelly and Llanelieu.  Virgin and martyr, also called Aled or Filuned. The Welsh tradition reports that Almedha was the daughter of King Brychan. Having taken a vow of virginity and dedicated to Christ, Almedha fled from her father's royal residence to escape marriage to the prince of a neighboring kingdom. She went to three Welsh villages - Llandrew, Llanfillo, and Llechfaen - but the people turned her away, despite her promise warning that dreadful thing calamaties would befall anyone who denied her sanctuary. Almedha reached Brecon, where she took up residence in a small hut, but the king arrived and demanded her return. When she refused him, he beheaded her. Tradition states that a spring of water appeared on the site of her murder. The three villages that refused her were visited by disasters.

ST ALED, ELLUNED OR ALMEDHA, VIRGIN AND MARTYR
"NOT far from Brecon is the church called St Almedha's, after the holy maiden who, refusing an earthly husband, was wedded to the Eternal King, and there triumphed in a happy martyrdom.  A solemn feast is held in her honour every year at the beginning of August, and it is attended by many people from distant parts; those who suffer from various diseases receive wished-for health through the merits of the blessed maiden.   Certain things which happen at this anniversary seem remarkable to me.  In the church or in the churchyard, during the dance which is led round the churchyard with a song, you may see men and girls suddenly fall to the ground as in a trance; then, as if frenzied, they jump up and represent to the people with their hands and feet whatever work they have unlawfully done on great feasts.  You may see one man put his hand to the plow, and another as it were goad on the oxen, lightening their labour with the usual uncouth song; one imitates the trade of a cobbler, another that of a tanner.  You may see a girl with a distaff, drawing out the thread and winding it again on the spindle; another as she walks arranges the threads for the web; another throws the shuttle and seems to weave. Then, on coming into the church and being led to the altar with their offerings, you will be astonished to see them suddenly come to their senses again. Thus, by the divine mercy which rejoices not at the death of sinners but at their conversion, many, convicted by their own actions, are corrected and amended on these feast days."
  This interesting passage comes from the Itinerary through Wales of Giraldus Cambrensis, who was archdeacon of Brecon from 1175 for over twenty years and lived at Llanddew only a couple of miles away; he was therefore well placed for verifying the details of the phenomena which he describes.   The passage is well known, and has often raised questions about the identity and story of St Almedha, or Aled as she was more usually called locally-the name is found in a score of forms.   Gerald himself states that she was one of the children of Brychan, that prolific father of saints, but the name figures in only some lists of these children; and it is odd that, while she appears in at least one Latin calendar, she is unknown to the Welsh ones.
  The legend of St Med as it was current in the seventeenth century has a suspicious resemblance to the story of St Winifred (November 3).  While still young she dedicated herself completely to God, and when a young prince, supported by her family, urged her to marry him, she fled away in disguise to Llanddew.  Here she was so badly treated that she withdrew to Llanfillo, and then again to Llechfaen, where she had to sleep in the street as nobody would give her a bed.  So she took refuge in the wood on Slwch Tump, by Brecon itself, where the lord of the place helped her to build a cell, and she settled down there, prophesying that a chastisement would rest on the village of Llanddew for the injuries done to her; that the village of LlanfIllo should be plagued with thieves (as they are to this day above all others) ; and the village of Llechfaen with envy, as indeed they are almost continually in contention and law with one another" (Hugh Thomas, c. 1698).
   It is not recorded that Med also foretold her own misfortunes, but soon after her princely suitor sought her out in her retreat. Directly she saw him she ran away down the hill; he followed, caught her up, and in baffled rage smote off her head with his sword. Where Aled's head fell, a spring of water miraculously welled up from the rock; and thereafter the maiden was venerated as a saint and martyr.
The legend of St Aled is set out in a late seventeenth-century manuscript of Hugh Thomas, the Breconshire herald (Harleian MS. 4181) see Archacologia Cambrensis for 1883, pp. 46-47, 168, and for 1903, pp. 214-223.  Gerald the Welshrnan's Itinerary through Wales, bk i, cap. a  Jones's History of Brecknock, vol.1, pp. 4344 (edition of 1909); Cressy's Church History of Brittany (i.e. Britain), published at Rouen in 1668.  William of Worcester says that "St Elevetha" was buried at Usk, but other writers agree that it was in her cell, which became the first St Med's chapel on Slwch hill.  This in turn became a small church of some importance in the middle ages  by 1698 it was roofless and disused, and today its site can with difficulty be identified.

6th v. ST MANECHILDIS, VIRGIN

SIGMARUS, comes in the Perthois, and his wife had seven daughters, all of whom are venerated as saints in different parts of Champagne; they were Lintrudis, Amata (Amée), Pusinna, Hoildis, Francula, Libergis and Manechildis (Méné­hould), who was the youngest. They all received the veil of consecrated virgins from St Alpinus, Bishop of Chalons, and Manechildis in particular gave herself to all sorts of spiritual and temporal good works she would accompany her father on his visits to Château-sur-Aisne (now called Sainte-Ménéhould), one of the places in his jurisdiction, in order to tend the sick of that place. On the Côte-à-Vignes is a spring said to have been produced miraculously by the saint to quench the thirst of the people who came to her in large numbers when she was at her cell on the side of the mountain. After the death of her parents St Manechildis left her home and sisters to live as a solitary at Bienville on the Marne, and here she died amid the lamentations of the poor and sick whom she had tended.

There seems to be little or nothing to add to the account of the Bollandists who print and comment upon a very short and unconvincing Latin text which cannot be dated.
6th v. St. Attracta w/St Patrick Hermitess and co-worker with St. Patrick; founded a hospice on Lough Gara called Killaraght. She also performed miracles, while living at Drum, near Boyle

ST ATTRACTA, OR ARAGHT, VIRGIN 
As with so many Irish saints, there is much uncertainty about the chronology of St Attracta; her alleged association with St Patrick would put her in the flfth century, but others mentioned as her contemporaries lived in the sixth.  According to her legend she was the daughter of a noble house, and when her father refused to allow her to dedicate herself to God, she fled to Coolavin, where she is said to have received the nun's veil from St Patrick.  She then established herself on Lough Gara, and founded a hospice for travellers in a place where seven roads meet, now called after her Killaraght.  This hospice continued its good work until 1539. Later, she went into Roscommon, where she wished to have a cell close to St Conall (said to have been her half-brother) at Drum, near Boyle.  This was forbidden by him and St Dachonna, and St Attracta expressed her indignation with a freedom which strikes us as Irish rather than holy : she hoped that the time would come when their respective churches would be reduced to insignificance, and their offerings to nothing, by the rising of another church near by , "and many otherthings that were disagreeable", some of which are" not set down in her acta  It is fanciful to see a fulfilment of this in the foundation centuries later of the Cistercian abbey of Boyle, but the churches of Drumconnell and Eas Dachonna (Assylin) were soon after overshadowed by the rise of the episcopal churches of Achonry and Elphin.
  When a raiding-party of the men of Luighne (Lugna) were fleeing from the king of Connacht, St Attracta enabled them to escape by dividing the waters of Lough Gara;  two natural weirs oft the lake are still connected with her name.  Another miracle attributed to her is the harnessing of forest deer with her own hair, to drag timber for the construction of a fort by the king of Connacht, when he had unjustly summoned her to take part in the work:   doubtless he remembered the affair of the men of Lugna.
This saint's feast is now celebrated throughout Ireland on August 11  she is patron of the diocese of Achonry.
There is a Latin life, unfortunately mutilated, printed by Colgan, as well as in the Acta Sanctorum under February 9, and in the form "Tarahata ". Although St Attracta is mentioned as in personal relation with St Patrick both in Tirechan`s Collections and in the Tripartite Life, there seems to be no reference to her in the Félire of Oengus.

Also called Araght or Taraghta. She is traditionally listed as a daughter of a noble Irish family. Her father opposed her religious vocation but Attracta went to St. Patrick at Coolavin, Ireland, and made her vows to him. Attracta founded a hospice on Lough Gara called Killaraght. She also performed miracles, while living at Drum, near Boyle
.
6th v. Ethbin of Kildare, Abbot; famous for his virtues and miracles (RM)
In monastério Silvæ Necténsis, in Hibérnia, sancti Ethbíni Abbátis.
    In Ireland, in the monastery of the Forest of Kildare, St. Ethbin, abbot.
ST ETHBIN
His father dying when Ethbin was fifteen his mother entrusted him to the care of St Samson, and later he became a monk under St Winwaloe in Brittany. He was one day walking with his master, when they saw a leper lying helpless at the side of the way. “What shall we do with this poor fellow?” asked Winwaloe. “Do as the apostles of Christ did. Bid him to rise up and walk”, replied St Ethbin promptly. Winwaloe had faith both in his monk and in the power of God, and the sufferer was healed. When the monastery was destroyed by the Franks, Ethbin took refuge in Ireland, where he lived for twenty years, and there died, famous for his virtues and miracles. He is named in the Roman Martyrology, but is unknown to Irish calendars. The name Ethbin sounds Anglo-Saxon.
We cannot put trust in the short life, which has been printed in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. viii. See also LBS., vol. ii, p. 466, and Duine, St Samson (1909).
Born in Great Britain. Saint Ethbin's noble father died when he was only about 15 years old. His widowed mother then entrusted his education to his countryman, the great Saint Samson, at Dol Abbey in Brittany. At Mass one day, he really heard the words: "Every one of you that cannot renounce all that he possesses, cannot be my disciple." He immediately resolved to renounce the world.
   Because he was a deacon, Ethbin sought the permission of his bishop to withdraw from the world. Upon receiving it, Ethbin retired to the abbey of Taurac in 554. For his spiritual director, the saint chose another: Saint Winwaloë. The community was dispersed by a Frankish raid in 556 and Winwaloë died soon thereafter. Ethbin then crossed over to Ireland, where he led the life of a hermit in a forest near Kildare called Nectensis (unidentified) for 20 years. There was no cultus for Saint Ethbin in Ireland. His relics are claimed by Montreuil and Pont-Mort (Eure), France. It has been suggested by P. Grosjean that the silva called Necensis could be a corruption of Silvanectensis (i.e., Senlis, France), rather than Ireland (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth)
.
512 St. Genevieve Paris averted Attila scourge by fasting and prayer
 Lutétiæ Parisiórum sanctæ Genovéfæ Vírginis, quæ, a beáto Germáno, Antisiodorénsi Epíscopo, Christo dicáta, admirándis virtútibus et miráculis cláruit.       At Paris, St. Genevieve, virgin, who was consecrated to Christ by St. Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, and who became famous for her admirable virtues and miracles.
500 ST GENEVIEVE, or GENOVEFA, VIRGIN
GENEVIEVE’S father’s name was Severus, and her mother’s Gerontia; she was born about the year 422 at Nanterre, a small village four miles from Paris, near Mont Valérien. When St Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, went with St Lupus into Britain to oppose the Pelagian heresy, he spent a night at Nanterre on his way. The inhabitants flocked about them to receive their blessing, and St Germanus gave an address, during which he took particular notice of Genevieve, though she was only seven. After his sermon he inquired for her parents, and foretold their daughter’s future sanctity. He then asked Genevieve whether it was not her desire to serve God only and to be naught else but a spouse of Jesus Christ. She answered that this was what she desired, and begged that by his blessing she might be from that moment consecrated to God. The holy prelate went to the church, followed by the people, and during the long singing of psalms and prayers, says Constantius—that is during the recital of None and Vespers, as one text of the Life of St Genevieve expresses it—he laid his hand upon the maiden’s head. After he had supped he dismissed her, telling her parents to bring her again to him the next morning. The father obeyed, and St Germanus asked the child whether she remembered the promise she had made to God. She said she did, and declared that she hoped to keep her word. The bishop gave her a medal or coin, on which a cross was engraved, to wear about her neck, in memory of the consecration she had received the day before; and he charged her never to wear bracelets or jewels or other trinkets. The author of her life tells us that the child, begging one day that she might go to church, her mother struck her on the face, but in punishment lost her sight; she only recovered it two months after, by washing her eyes with water which her daughter fetched from the well and over which she had made the sign of the cross. Hence the people look upon the well at Nanterre as having been blessed by the saint.
When she was about fifteen, Genevieve was presented to the bishop of Paris to receive the religious veil, together with two other girls. Though she was the youngest of the three, the bishop gave her the first place, saying that Heaven had already sanctified her, by which he seems to have alluded to her promise of consecrating herself to God. From that time she frequently ate only twice in the week, on Sundays and Thursdays, and her food was barley bread with a few beans. After the death of her parents she left Nanterre; and settled with her godmother in Paris, but sometimes undertook journeys for motives of charity. The cities of Meaux, Laon, Tours, Orleans and all other places she visited bore witness to her miracles and remarkable predictions. God permitted her to meet with some a severe trials ; for at a certain time everybody seemed to be against her, and perse­cuted her under the opprobrious names of visionary, hypocrite and the like.

   The arrival of St Germanus at Paris, probably on his second journey to Britain, for some time silenced her calumniators; but it was not long before the storm broke out anew. Her enemies were fully determined to discredit and even to drown her, when the archdeacon of Auxerre arrived with eulogiae, blessed bread, sent her by St Germanus as a testimony of his particular esteem and a token of communion. This seems to have happened whilst Germanus was absent in Italy in 448. The tribute thus paid her converted the prejudices of her calumniators into veneration for the remainder of her life.

The Franks had at this time gained possession of the better part of Gaul, and Childeric, their king, took Paris. During the long blockade of that city, the citizens being reduced to extremities by famine, St Genevieve, as the author of her life relates, went out at the head of a company who were sent to procure provisions, and brought back from Arcis-sur-Aube and Troyes several boats laden with corn. Childeric, when he had made himself master of Paris, though always a pagan, respected St Genevieve, and upon her intercession spared the lives of many prisoners and did other generous acts. She also awakened the zeal of many persons to build a church in honour of St Dionysius of Paris, which King Dagobert I afterwards rebuilt with a monastery in 629. St Genevieve likewise undertook many pilgrimages, in company with other maidens, to the shrine of St Martin at Tours, and the reputation of her holiness is said to have been so great that her fame even reached St Simeon Stylites in Syria.

   King Clovis, who embraced the faith in 496, often listened with deference to St Genevieve, and more than once granted liberty to captives at her request. Upon the report of the march of Attila with his army of Huns the Parisians were preparing to abandon their city, but St Genevieve, like a Christian Judith or Esther, encouraged them to avert the scourge by fasting and prayer. Many of her own sex passed whole days with her in prayer in the bap­tistery; from whence the particular devotion to St Genevieve, formerly practised at S.-Jean-le-Rond, the ancient public baptistery of the church of Paris, seems to have taken rise. She assured the people of the protection of Heaven, and though she was treated by many as an impostor, the event verified the prediction, for the barbarous invader suddenly changed the course of his march.

   Our author attributes to St Genevieve the first suggestion of the church, which Clovis began to build in honour of SS. Peter and Paul, in deference to the wishes of his wife, St Clotilda, in which church the body of St Genevieve herself was enshrined after her death about the year 500.

The miracles which were performed there from the time of her burial rendered this church famous over all France, so that at length it began to be known by her name. The fabric, however, fell into decay, and a new church was begun in 1764. This has long been secularized and, under the name of the Pantheon, is now used as a national mausoleum.

The city of Paris has frequently received sensible proofs of the divine protection, through St Genevieve’s intercession. The most famous instance is that called the miracle des Ardents, or of the burning fever. In 1129 a disease, apparently poisoning by ergot, swept off in a short time many thous and persons, nor could the art of physicians afford any relief. Stephen, Bishop of Paris, with the clergy and people, implored the divine mercy by fasting and sup­plications. Yet the epidemic did not abate till the shrine of St Genevieve was carried in a solemn procession to the cathedral. Many sick persons were cured by touching the shrine, and of all who then were suffering from the disease in the whole town only three died, and no others fell ill. Pope Innocent II, coming to Paris the year following, after due investigation ordered an annual festival in commemoration of the miracle on November 26, which is still kept in Paris. It was formerly the custom, in extraordinary public calamities, to carry the shrine of St Genevieve in procession to the cathedral. The greater part of the relics of the saint were destroyed or pillaged at the French Revolution.

The ancient life of St Geneviève from which most of the above account is derived, and which purports to have been written by a contemporary eighteen years after the saint’s death, has been the subject of keen controversy. There are three principal recensions of it, known respectively as the A, B and C texts. Text A has been edited by B. Krusch in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. iii (1896). Text B is printed in the very valuable essay of C. Kohler, Ètude critique sur le texte de la vie latine de Sainte Geneviève (1881), and Text C may be found in the Teubner edition of the Vita Sanctae Genovefae, edited by C. Künstle in 1910. Al­though Text C has in its favour the authority of the oldest manuscripts (eighth century), the priority of that recension is by no means generally admitted. But the more important controversy is that regarding the authenticity of the life itself. Bruno Krusch declares it to be a forgery, and that the author, instead of being a contemporary as he pretends, did not compile the life until more than 250 years later, towards the close of the eighth century. It is impossible here to do more than mention the acrimonious discussion to which Krusch’s pronouncement has given rise. It must be sufficient to say that his views have by no means carried with them the support of the majority of competent critics. Such scholars as Mgr Duchesne, Prof. G. Kurth, C. Künstle and A. Poncelet strenuously maintain that the life was really written by a contemporary, and that, so far as regards the substance of its contents, it is trustworthy. Readers will find an excellent summary of all that is really known about St Genevieve in H. Lesêtre, Ste Geneviève (in the series “Les Saints”), and in the essay of E. Vacandard, Études de critique, vol. iv, pp. 67—124, and 255—266. For a charming popular account of the saint, see M. Reynès-Monlaur, Ste Geneviève (1924). A story in the life tells how the devil, when St Geneviève went to pray in the church at night, blew out her candle to frighten her. She is, therefore, often represented in art with a candle. Sometimes the devil and a pair of bellows are also depicted beside her.  

When Attila was reported to be marching on Paris, the inhabitants of the city prepared to evacuate, but St. Genevieve persuaded them to avert the scourge by fasting and prayer, assuring them of the protection of Heaven. The event verified the prediction, for the barbarian suddenly changed the course of his march.
The life of St. Genevieve was one of great austerity, constant prayer, and works of charity. She died in the year 512. Her feast day is January 3rd.
She dressed in a long flowing gown with a mantle covering her shoulders, similar to the type of garments the Blessed Mother wore. One of the symbols of this saint is a loaf of bread because she was so generous to those in need.

Saint Genevieve was born of wealthy parents in Gaul (modern France) in the village of Nanterre, near Paris, around 422. Her father's name was Severus, and her mother was called Gerontia. According to the custom of the time, she often tended her father's flocks on Mt. Valerien.

When she was about seven years old, St Germanus of Auxerre (July 31) noticed her as he was passing through Nanterre. The bishop kissed her on the head and told her parents that she would become great in the sight of God, and would lead many to salvation. After Genevieve told him that she wished to dedicate herself to Christ, he gave her a brass medal with the image of the Cross upon it. She promised to wear it around her neck, and to avoid wearing any other ornaments around her neck or on her fingers.

When it was reported that Attila the Hun was approaching Paris, Genevieve and the other nuns prayed and fasted, entreating God to spare the city. Suddenly, the barbarians turned away from Paris and went off in another direction.

Years later, when she was fifteen, Genevieve was taken to Paris to enter the monastic life. Through fasting, vigil and prayer, she progressed in monasticism, and received from God the gifts of clairvoyance and of working miracles. Gradually, the people of Paris and the surrounding area regarded Genevieve as a holy vessel (2 Tim. 2:21).

St Genevieve considered the Saturday night Vigil service to be very important, since it symbolizes how our whole life should be. "We must keep vigil in prayer and fasting so that the Lord will find us ready when He comes," she said. She was on her way to church with her nuns one stormy Saturday night when the wind blew out her lantern. The nuns could not find their way without a light, since it was dark and stormy, and the road was rough and muddy. St Genevieve made the Sign of the Cross over the lantern, and the candle within was lit with a bright flame. In this manner they were able to make their way to the church for the service.

There is a tradition that the church which St Genevieve suggested that King Clovis build in honor of Sts Peter and Paul became her own resting place when she fell asleep in the Lord around 512 at the age of eighty-nine. Her holy relics were later transferred to the church of St Etienne du Mont in Paris. Most of her relics, and those of other saints, were destroyed during the French Revolution.
In the Middle Ages, St Genevieve was regarded as the patron saint of wine makers.
513 Spes of Campi Abbot regained eyesight 15 days before death 40 yrs blind.
 Apud Núrsiam sancti Spei Abbátis, miræ patiéntiæ viri, cujus ánima (ut refert sanctus Gregórius Papa), cum ex hac vita migráret, in colúmbæ spécie a cunctis frátribus visa est in cælum ascéndere.
       At Norcia, Abbot St. Spes, a man of extraordinary patience, whose soul at its departure from this life (as Pope St. Gregory relates) was seen by all his brethren to ascend to heaven in the shape of a dove.
(RM)
Though totally blind for forty years, Saint Spes, abbot of Campi in central Italy, regained his eyesight 15 days before his death (Attwater2, Benedictines).
6th v. Saint Severus the Presbyter served in a church of the Most Holy Theotokos in the village of Interocleum in Central Italy; noted for his virtuous and God-pleasing life the dead man came alive and related to everyone that the demons wanted to seize his soul, but one of the angels said, "Give him back, since the priest Severus weeps over him, and on account of his tears the Lord has granted him this man."

One time, when the saint was working in his garden, cutting grapes in the vineyard, they summoned him to administer the Holy Mysteries for the dying. St Severus said: "Go back, and I'll catch up with you soon."
There remained only but a few more grapes to cut off, and St Severus dallied for awhile in the garden to finish the work. When he arrived at the sick person's home, they told him that the person was already dead. St Severus, regarding himself as guilty in the death of a man without absolution, started to tremble and loudly he began to weep. He went into the house where the deceased lay.

With loud groans and calling himself a murderer, in tears he fell down before the dead person. Suddenly the dead man came alive and related to everyone that the demons wanted to seize his soul, but one of the angels said, "Give him back, since the priest Severus weeps over him, and on account of his tears the Lord has granted him this man." St Severus, giving thanks to the Lord, confessed and communed the resurrected man with the Holy Mysteries. That man survived for another seven days, then joyfully went to the Lord.
6th v. Blessed Abba Joseph of Alaverdi; disciple and companion of St. John of Zedazeni, arrived in Georgia with twelve Syrian ascetics to spread the Christian Faith.  With the blessing of his teacher, Fr. Joseph settled in the village of Alaverdi in eastern Georgia. According to tradition, he carried with him a cross formed from the wood of the Life-giving Cross of our Savior.  Many of the faithful were so drawn to Abba Joseph’s holy life, boundless love, and miracles that they left the world to join in his labors.

At that time the region around Alaverdi was deserted and barren. One day the Lord sent a nobleman to hunt in the valley where the pious hermit dwelt among the wild animals. Seeing the saint, the nobleman guessed immediately that before him stood a holy man. He bowed before him, kissed him, and humbly asked what had brought him to this deserted place.

With the help of God, St. Joseph aroused in the nobleman a divine love and an unquenchable desire for the Truth. The nobleman vowed to erect a church in the Alaverdi Wilderness, and he laid the foundations of Alaverdi Monastery in fulfillment of this vow. Venerable Joseph was overjoyed at the accomplishment of this God-pleasing work.

Soon the people began to hear stories about the holy elder who was laboring in Alaverdi. Crowds of the faithful flocked there to see him with their own eyes and hear the blessed Joseph’s preaching. As a result of his unceasing efforts, unbelief was uprooted, and the divine services of the Church were firmly established in that region. Many of the faithful were so drawn to Abba Joseph’s holy life, boundless love, and miracles that they left the world to join in his labors.

Gradually the number of hermits increased, and a large community was formed. Fr. Joseph was the first abbot of this brotherhood. Utterly exhausted from a life of God-pleasing ascesis and labors, St. Joseph sensed the approach of death and prepared to stand before the Lord God. He gathered his disciples, blessed them, instructed them for the last time, appointed a new abbot, and peacefully departed to the Lord.

With great honor Fr. Joseph’s disciples buried him at the Alaverdi Church. Many miracles have since occurred over the grave of the venerable elder
.
514 St. Macanisius Patrick baptized Macanisius bishop founder of Kells Monastery; many spectacular miracles attributed to him.
Ireland, which became the diocese of Connor. Tradition states that St. Patrick baptized Macanisius as an infant and then consecrated him later as a bishop. He is also listed as Aengus McNisse in some documents, and many spectacular miracles are attributed to him.

St Macanisius, Bisilop
The records of St Macanisius (Aengus MacNisse) consist chiefly of miracles, many of them fantastic, and conflicting references.  He is said to have been baptized by St Patrick, who in due course consecrated him bishop.    It is related that he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and on the way back made a stay at Rome.  He returned to Ireland, where he established a church and monastery which developed into the diocese of Connor, of which see he is venerated as the first bishop.   The original foundation was perhaps not at Connor itself but at Kells, close by, where, according to a Latin life, he changed the course of the river Curi, perhaps by natural means later regarded as miraculous, for the convenience of his monks.  While journeying through Munster with St Patrick and St Brigid, Macanisius had a vision of angels at Lynally in Offaly, in consequence of which St Patrick wished to establish a monastery there.   But St Macanisius dissuaded him, prophesying that that was to be the work of a bishop who would follow them sixty years after. This prophecy was duly verified in the person of St Colman Elo, who is venerated on the 26th of this month.   Among the more incredible legends about St Macanisius is that his reverence for the Holy Scriptures was so great that it would not allow him to carry them in a wallet when on his journey instead he proceeded on all fours, balancing the precious book on his back.  He is also alleged to have saved the life of the child who was to become St Colman of Kilruaidh. Colman's father was guilty of parricide and was sentenced to lose his own son.  Macanisius in vain interceded for his innocent life, so when the child was tossed into the air to be caught on the spear-points of the waiting tribesmen, the saint, standing on an adjacent hillock, prayed with such fervour that Colman's body was blown by the wind safely into his arms, at which miracle the executioners abandoned their purpose.   The feast of St Macanisius is kept on this day throughout Ireland.

The Latin legend of St MacNisse has been printed by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. i, and again in their edition of the Codex Salmanticensis, pp. 925-930.  The saint is commemorated in the Felire of Oengus.  See also O'Hanlon, LIS., vol. ix, pp. 62 seq .
515 St. Maxentius Abbot miracle worker a monk in St. Severus’ abbey counselor to King Clovis I marauding soldiers threatened the abbey Maxentius miraculously saved the site
He was born Adjutor at Agde, France, and trained by St. Severus. He became a monk in St. Severus’ abbey and left for two years to avoid the acclaim given to him. In time, Maxentius entered the monastery at Poitou, now called Saint-Maixent, where he took the name Maxentius. He was a counselor to King Clovis I and he was elected abbot about 500 . When marauding soldiers threatened the abbey, Maxentius miraculously saved the site. In his later years, he lived as a hermit. Maxentius is called Maixent in some lists.
Maxentius (Maixent) of Poitou, Abbot (RM) Born at Agde, France;
Maxentius was educated under Saint Severus. Abbot of the monastery in Poitou, which has since been named after him.
He is revered for his austerities and for protecting the district from barbarian invaders (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
515 Saint Abran Hermit  many miracles reported at his tomb, especially the healing of blindness his brothers and sisters were all declared saints
also called Gibrian. From Ireland, Abran, the eldest of five brothers and three sisters, sailed to Brittany with his siblings. There all of them continued their hermitages and greatly influenced the people of the area. Abran and his brothers and sisters were all declared saints.
Gibrian (AC) The Irish hermit Saint Gibrian was the eldest of nine (or eight) siblings, all of whom migrated to Brittany where they became saints. They include his brothers Tressan (Trasain, a priest), Helan(us) (priest), Germanus, Abran (seems to be Gibrian himself), Petran, and sisters Franca, Promptia, Possenna. Gibrian labored near Rheims and was buried at a place now called after him Saint Gibrian. His cultus spread because of the many miracles reported at his tomb, especially the healing of blindness. His relics were translated to the basilica of Saint Remigius in Rheims (Benedictines, Montague).
6th v. St. James the Hermit  hermit in Palestine miracle worker
A hermit in Palestine who was the subject of numerous legends. He lived in an ancient tomb to atone for his sins and died a penitent and miracle worker.
A later legend changes the "lapse from the faith" into one of homicide, committed under the most romantic circumstances (Benedictines).
520 St. Apollinaris Bishop of Vienne, Gaul; renowned in life for virtues and in death for miracles and prodigies.
Valéntiæ, in Gállia, sancti Apollináris Epíscopi, cujus vita virtútibus fuit illústris, et mors signis ac prodígiis decoráta.
    At Valence in France, St. Apollinaris, a bishop, renowned in life for virtues and in death for miracles and prodigies.
patron saint of that diocese. Apollinaris was the son of St. Hesychius and brother of St. Avitus of Vienne. He was trained by St. Marnertus and he was consecrated by his brother circa 492. He was sent into exile during the political turmoil caused by the marriage of an official of King Sigismund of Bavaria. The local bishops condemned the marriage, defended by the king. When Apollinaris' cloak was used to cure King Sigismund, he was recalled and restored to his office.
 
The most illustrious of the Bishops of Valence, b. at Vienne, 453; d. 520. He lived in the time of the irruption of the barbarians, and unhappily Valence, which was the central see of the recently founded Kingdom of Burgundy, had been scandalized by the dissolute Bishop Maximus, and the see in consequence had been vacant for fifty years.
Apollinaris was of a family of nobles and saints. He was little over twenty when he was ordained priest. In 486, when he was thirty­three years old, he was made Bishop of the long vacant See of Valence, and under his zealous care it soon recovered its ancient glory. Abuses were corrected and morals reformed. The Bishop was so beloved that the news of his first illness filled the city with consternation. His return to health was miraculous. He was present at the conference at Lyons, between the Arians and Catholics, which was held in presence of King Gondebaud. He distinguished himself there by his eloquence and learning.

A memorable contest in defence of marriage brought Apollinaris again into special prominence. Stephen, the treasurer of the kingdom, was living in incest. The four bishops of the province commanded him to separate from his companion, but he appealed to the King, who sustained his official and exiled the four bishops to Sardinia. As they refused to yield, the King relented, and after some time permitted them to return to their sees, with the exception of Apollinaris, who had rendered himself particularly obnoxious, and was kept a close prisoner for a year. At last the King, stricken with a grievous malady, repented, and the Queen in person came to beg Apollinaris to go to the court to restore the monarch to health. On his refusal, the Queen asked for his cloak to place on the sufferer. The request was granted, the King was cured, and came to beg absolution for his sin. Apollinaris was sixty­four years old when he returned from Sardinia to Valence, and his people received him with every demonstration of joy. He died after an episcopate of thirty­four years, at the age of sixty­seven, his life ending, as it had begun, in the constant exercise of the most exalted holines
s.
520 St. Constantius Bishop of Aquino; renowned for the gift of prophecy. many virtues;  mentioned by Pope St. Gregory the Great in his Dialogues.
Apud Aquínum sancti Constántii Epíscopi, prophetíæ dono multísque virtútibus clari.
    At Aquino, St. Constantius, a bishop renowned for the gift of prophecy and many virtues.
In Italy, mentioned by Pope St. Gregory the Great in his Dialogues.

520 ST ANTONY OF LÉRINS In the monastery of Lérins in France, St. Anthony, a monk famed for his miracles.
 In monastério Lirinénsi, in Gállia, sancti Antónii Mónachi, miráculis clari.
       In the monastery of L
é
rins in France, St. Anthony, a monk famed for his miracles.

HE was born at Valeria in Lower Pannonia during the time of the barbarian in­vasions, and his father dying when he was eight years old he was entrusted to the care of St Severinus, the intrepid apostle of Noricum. Antony probably lived with him in the monastery he had founded at Faviana, and as a boy saw Odoacer go by on his triumphant march to Rome.

Severinus died about 482 and Antony was then taken charge of by his uncle Constantius, Bishop of Lorch in Bavaria. He became a monk, and withdrew from Noricum into Italy with the other Romans in 488. He was then about twenty. He made his way to the neighbourhood of Lake Como, and there attached himself to a priest named Marius, who directed a number of disciples there. Marius conceived a great admiration for Antony and wanted him to be ordained priest and share in his work but Antony’s vocation was for the solitary life and, leaving Marius, he joined two hermits near the tomb of St Felix at the other end of the lake. Here he lived in a cave, spending his time in prayer, study and cultivating his garden, but frequent visitors distracted him. A murderer, hiding from justice, simulated devotion and attached himself to Antony as a disciple, but the saint “read his soul”, exposed his impos­ture, and the man fled. Antony had to go also, for this incident made him better known than ever. At last, despairing of finding complete solitude and fearing the respect he received would make him vain, he passed over the Alps into southern Gaul and became a monk at Lérins. St Antony died there revered for his virtues and miracles. St Ennodius of Pavia wrote his life.

Little is known to us of this Antony beyond what Ennodius has recorded in the life referred to. It has been edited in the Vienna Corpus Scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum, vol. vi, pp. 383—393 in MGH., Auctores antiquissimi, vol. vii, pp. 185—190 and in Migne, FL., vol. lxiii, cc. 239—246. See also DHG., vol. iii, c. 739.
523 ST. SIGISMUND He met death by being drowned in a well, and was afterwards famous for his miracles.  St. Avitus made St. Sigismund realize that his behavior was anything but Christian and he tried to make amends. Sigismund listened to the voice of his conscience and found that it led to martyrdom. We, too, may have to suffer for trying to live our faith. It is one of the consequences of following Christ.

Apud Colúmnam vicum, in Aurelianénsi Gálliæ território, pássio sancti Sigismúndi, Regis Burgundiónum, qui in púteum demérsus occúbuit, ac póstea miráculis cláruit.  Sacrum vero ipsíus corpus, e púteo tandem extráctum, ad Ecclésiam Agaunénsis monastérii, intra Sedunénsis diœcésis términos siti, delátum est ibíque honorífice collocátum.
    In the town of Columna, in the province of Orleans in France, the martyrdom of St. Sigismund, king of Burgundy.  He met death by being drowned in a well, and was afterwards famous for his miracles.  His venerable body was later recovered and taken to the monastery of Agaune in the diocese of Sitten where it was honorably entombed.

The kingdom of Burgundy at the beginning of the sixth century comprized a great portion of south-eastern France and of south-western Switzerland. It was ruled by a prince of Vandal extraction named Gundebald, who was an Arian, but a year before his death his son and successor, Sigismund, was converted to the Catholic faith by St Avitus, Bishop of Vienne. But Sigismund seems to have remained something of a barbarian—subject at times to uncontrollable fits of rage. On one occasion, when worked upon by the false accusations of his second wife, he ordered his son Sigeric to be strangled. No sooner had the deed been perpetrated than Sigismund came to his senses and was overpowered with horror and remorse. Perhaps the greatest service Sigismund rendered to the Church was the virtual refounding of the monastery of St Maurice at Agaunum in the present canton of Valais; he endowed it liberally and, in order that the laus perennis, the unbroken chant, should be celebrated within its walls, he brought to it monks from Lérins, Gigny, Ile-Barbe and Condat.* * The law perennis was an arrangement in certain religious houses by which the praises of God never ceased. Relays of monks or nuns were so timed to succeed each other that the chanting of the divine office went on night and day without intermission; this was only practicable where communities contained an unusually large number of members. The practice seems to have been of eastern origin, but it found much favour in houses in which the Celtic traditions were strong, and it was also particularly associated with Agaunum. In the course of centuries this observance died out everywhere. Cf. St Alexander Akimetes (January 15).]

When the church was dedicated St Avitus preached a sermon of which fragments are still preserved.

Sigismund in his repentance had prayed that God would punish him in this life, and his prayer was granted. The three kings of France, sons of Clovis, declared war against him with the avowed intention of avenging their maternal grandfather, Chilperic, whom Sigismund’s father had put to death, and of con­quering Burgundy. Sigismund, after he had been defeated in battle, escaped in the direction of Agaunum. For a time he lived as a hermit in the vicinity of St Maurice, but eventually he was captured and taken to Orleans. There he was put to death by King Clodomir, in spite of the remonstrances of St Avitus. His body was thrown into a well, from which it was recovered, and his relics are now preserved at Prague in Bohemia. St Sigismund is not only named in the Roman Martyrology but is even called a martyr.

There is a Passio Sancti Sigismundi which is a valuable historical document compiled by a monk of Agaunum. It is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, but more critically edited by Bruno Krusch in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. ii, pp. 333—340. We also learn something from Gregory of Tours, both in his Historia Francorum, bk. iii, and in his De Gloria Martyrum, ch. 74. A full bibliography is available in H. Leclercq’s article on Agaunum in the DAC., vol. i, cc. 850—871, and in Hefele-Leclercq, Histoire des Conciles, vol. ii, pp. 1017—1022 and pp. 1031—1042.

The era of the Merovingian kings of France was brutal and barbaric, and these kings were especially noted for their savagery and cruelty. But it was also a period of high sanctity, some saints martyred and others converting or converted St. Sigismund was the king of Burgundy, whose father had been an Arian, and he was converted to the Catholic faith by St. Avitus, bishop of Vienne. But at heart he remained a barbarian, subject to violent, uncontrollable rages, like many kings of the period. He succeeded to the throne in 516 and, in 522, in one of his fits of rage, ordered his own son to be strangled.

The shock of this barbaric act brought him to his senses and in reparation he founded the monastery of St. Maurice in present-day Switzerland, bringing monks from Lerins, Gigny, Ile-Barbe, and St. Claude. He arranged that the <laus perennis>, the perpetual chanting of the canonical hours, should take place there and endowed the monastery liberally.

He also asked that God punish him in this life for his barbaric behavior; soon after, the kings of France declared war upon him to avenge the death of their grandfather, Chilperic, who had been put to death by Sigismund's father. Sigismund was defeated in battle, escaped, and fled to Agaunum, where he began to live as a hermit near the monastery of St. Maurice, which he had founded. He was later captured by King Clodomir and, even though Bishop Avitus begged for Sigismund's life to be spared, he was killed by being drowned in a well.

The dead king was revered as a martyr from the day of his death and his relics were taken to St. Maurice. In 1354, part of his relics were brought to the cathedral in Prague, Czechoslovakia, and others were transported to Freising in Germany.

Thought for the Day: Power can intoxicate, and kings in their lust for power have often lacked a sense of decency and justice. Association with St. Avitus made St. Sigismund realize that his behavior was anything but Christian and he tried to make amends. Sigismund listened to the voice of his conscience and found that it led to martyrdom. We, too, may have to suffer for trying to live our faith. It is one of the consequences of following Christ.

From 'The Catholic One Year Bible': . . . "Do you believe all this just because I told you I had seen you under the fig tree? You will see greater proofs than this. You will even see heaven open and the angels of God coming back and forth to me, the Messiah."—John 1:50-51

525 St. Vitonus Bishop Verdun, France  credited with many miracles
from about 500, also listed as Vanne or Vaune. The Benedictine abbey of Lorraine which served as the chief community of the Congregation of St. Vannes was dedicated to him. Vitonus eradicated paganism in the area and started a college for clergy, probably the foundation for St. Vanne's.
Vitonus of Verdun B (AC) (also known as Vanne, Vaune). It is said that Vitonus took the monastic habit in his youth, and then was chosen to be bishop of Verdun about 498. He shepherded his flock for about 26 years until his death--never slacking in his zeal or practice of austerity. Though little is known of his life, Vitonus is credited with many miracles. At a later period a great Benedictine abbey of Lorraine was dedicated to him, which in 1604 became the center of the Congregation of Saint- Vannes. He is the patron of Verdun (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
529 St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch Abbot founder various nationalities of monks many healings and other miracles
Born at Garissus, Cappadocia (modern Turkey), in 423, he undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and after meeting with the famed St. Simeon Stylites, he entered a monastery.
He was named the head of a church between Jerusalem and Bethlehem, but departed to live as a hermit near the Dead Sea. As he attracted a large number of followers, Theodosius established a monastery which was divided among the various nationalities of the monks (Greek, Armenian, etc.), each with their own church. Appointed by the patriarch of Jerusalem to the post of visitor to all the cenobitical communities of Palestine, he used his influence as cenobiarch to oppose the spread of the heretical doctrines of Eutychianism, displaying such zeal in his preaching that Emperor Anastasius I (r. 491-518), who was sympathetic to the Eutychians, exiled him.
Recalled by Emperor Justin soon after Anastasius' death, Theodosius spent his last years in poor health.

Saint Theodosius the Great
lived during the fifth-sixth centuries, and was the founder of cenobitic monasticism. He was born in Cappadocia of pious parents. Endowed with a splendid voice, he zealously toiled at church reading and singing. St Theodosius prayed fervently that the Lord would guide him on the way to salvation. In his early years he visited the Holy Land and met with St Simeon the Stylite (September 1), who blessed him and predicted future pastoral service for him.

Yearning for the solitary life, Saint Theodosius settled in Palestine into a desolate cave, in which, according to Tradition, the three Magi had spent the night, having come to worship the Savior after His Nativity. He lived there for thirty years in great abstinence and unceasing prayer. People flocked to the ascetic, wishing to live under his guidance. When the cave could no longer hold all the monks, St Theodosius prayed that the Lord Himself would indicate a place for the monks. Taking a censer with cold charcoal and incense, the monk started walking into the desert.

At a certain spot the charcoal ignited by itself and the incense smoke began to rise. Here the monk established the first cenobitic monastery, or Lavra (meaning "broad" or populous").
Soon the Lavra of St Theodosius became renowned, and up to 700 monks gathered at it. According to the final testament of St Theodosius, the Lavra rendered service to neighbor, giving aid to the poor and providing shelter for wanderers.

St Theodosius was extremely compassionate. Once, when there was a famine in Palestine and a multitude of people gathered at the monastery, the monk gave orders to allow everyone into the monastery enclosure. His disciples were annoyed, knowing that the monastery did not have the means to feed all those who had come. But when they went into the bakery, they saw that through the prayers of the abba, it was filled with bread. This miracle was repeated every time St Theodosius wanted to help the destitute.

At the monastery St Theodosius built an home for taking in strangers, separate infirmaries for monks and laymen, and also a shelter for the dying. Seeing that people from various lands gathered at the Lavra, the saint arranged for services in the various languages: Greek, Georgian and Armenian. All gathered to receive the Holy Mysteries in the large church, where divine services were chanted in Greek.

During the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius (491-518) there arose the heresy of Eutychius and Severus, which recognized neither the sacraments nor the clergy. The emperor accepted the false teaching, and the Orthodox began to suffer persecution. St Theodosius stood firmly in defense of Orthodoxy and wrote a letter to the emperor on behalf of the monks, in which they denounced him and refuted the heresy with the teachings of the Ecumenical Councils. He affirmed moreover, that the desert-dwellers and monks would firmly support the Orthodox teaching. The emperor showed restraint for a short while, but then he renewed his persecution of the Orthodox. The holy Elder then showed great zeal for the truth. Leaving the monastery, he came to Jerusalem and in the church, he stood at the high place and cried out for all to hear: "Whoever does not honor the four Ecumenical Councils, let him be anathema!" For this bold deed the monk was sent to prison, but soon returned after the death of the emperor.

St Theodosius accomplished many healings and other miracles during his life, coming to the aid of the needy. Through his prayers he once destroyed the locusts devastating the fields in Palestine. Also by his intercession, soldiers were saved from death, and he also saved those perishing in shipwrecks and those lost in the desert.

Once, the saint gave orders to strike the semandron (a piece of wood hit with a mallet), so that the brethren would gather at prayer. He told them, "The wrath of God draws near the East." After several days it became known that a strong earthquake had destroyed the city of Antioch at the very hour when the saint had summoned the brethren to prayer.

Before his death, St Theodosius summoned to him three beloved bishops and revealed to them that he would soon depart to the Lord. After three days, he died at the age of 105. The saint's body was buried with reverence in the cave in which he lived at the beginning of his ascetic deeds.

529 St Theodosius The Cenobiarch
St Theodosius was born at Garissus, incorrectly, it seems, called Mogarissus, in Cappadocia in 423. He was ordained reader, but being moved by Abraham’s example in quitting his country and friends, he resolved to do likewise. He accordingly started for Jerusalem, but went out of his road to visit the famous St Simeon Stylites on his pillar, who foretold many circumstances of his future life, and gave him advice regarding them. Having satisfied his devotion in visiting the holy places in Jerusalem, he began to consider in what manner he should dedicate himself to God. The dangers of living without a guide made him prefer a monastery to a hermitage; and he therefore put himself under the direction of a holy man named Longinus, who soon conceived a warm affection for his disciple. A lady having built a church on the high road to Bethlehem, Longinus could not well refuse her request that his pupil should undertake the charge of it; but Theodosius could not easily be induced to consent: absolute commands were necessary before he would undertake the charge. Nor did he govern long; instead he retired to a cave at the top of a neighbouring mountain.

When many sought to serve God under his direction Theodosius at first deter­mined only to admit six or seven, but was soon obliged to receive a greater number, and at length came to a resolution never to reject any that presented themselves with dispositions that seemed sincere. The first lesson that he taught his monks was by means of a great grave he had dug, which might serve for the common burial-place of the community, that by the presence of this reminder they might more perfectly learn to die daily. The burial-place being made, the abbot one day said, “The grave is made; who will first occupy it?” Basil, a priest, falling on his knees, said to St Theodosius, “Let me be the first, if only you will give me your blessing.” The abbot ordered the prayers of the Church for the dead to be offered up for him, and on the fortieth day Basil departed to the Lord in peace, without any apparent sickness.

When the holy company of disciples was twelve in number, it happened that at Easter they had nothing to eat—they had not even bread for the sacrifice. Some murmured, but the saint bade them trust in God and He would provide: which was soon remarkably verified by the arrival of a train of mules loaded with provi­sions

The sanctity and miracles of St Theodosius attracting numbers who desired to serve God under his direction, the available space proved too small for their reception. Accordingly he built a spacious monastery at a place called Cathismus, not far from Bethlehem, and it was soon filled with monks. To this monastery were annexed three infirmaries: one for the sick; another for the aged and feeble; the third for such as had lost their reason, a condition then commonly ascribed to diabolical possession, but due, it would seem, in many cases, to rash and extravagant practices of asceticism. All succours, spiritual and temporal, were afforded in these infirmaries, with admirable order and benevolence. There were other buildings for the reception of strangers, in which Theodosius exercised an unbounded hospitality. We are told, indeed, that there were one day above a hundred tables served; and that food, when insufficient for the number of guests, was more than once miraculously multiplied by his prayers.

The monastery itself was like a city of saints in the midst of a desert, and in it reigned regularity, silence, charity and peace. There were four churches belonging to it, one for each of the three several nations of which his community was chiefly composed, each speaking a different language; the fourth was for the use of such as were in a state of penance, including those recovering from their lunatic or possessed condition before-mentioned.
The nations into which his community was divided were the Greeks, who were by far the most numerous, and consisted of all those that came from any province of the empire; the Armenians, with whom were joined the Arabians and Persians; and, thirdly, the Bessi, who comprehended all the northern nations below Thrace, or all who used the Slavonic tongue. Each nation sang the first part of the Eucharistic Liturgy to the end of the gospel in their own church, but after the gospel all met in the church of the Greeks, where they celebrated the essential part of the liturgy in Greek, and communicated all together. The monks passed a considerable part of the day and night in the church, and at the times not set apart for public prayer and necessary rest everyone was obliged to apply himself to some trade or manual labour not incompatible with recollection, in order that the house might be supplied with conveniences.
Sallust, Patriarch of Jerusalem, appointed St Sabas head of all the hermits, and our saint of the cenobites, or men living in community, throughout Palestine, whence he was styled “the Cenobiarch”.
These two great servants of God lived in close friendship, and it was not long before they were also united in their sufferings for the Church.

   The Emperor Anastasius patronized the Eutychian heresy, and used all possible means to win our saint over to his own views. In 513 he deposed Elias, Patriarch of Jerusalem, just as he had previously banished Flavian II of Antioch, and intruded Severus into that see. Theodosius and Sabas maintained boldly the rights of Elias, and of John his successor; whereupon the imperial officers thought it advisable to connive at their proceedings, considering the great authority they had acquired by their sanctity. Soon after, the emperor sent Theodosius a considerable sum of money, for charitable uses in appearance, but in reality to engage him in his interest. The saint accepted it, and distributed it all among the poor. Anastasius, now persuading himself that Theodosius was as good as gained over to his cause, sent him a heretical profession of faith, in which the divine and human natures in Christ were confounded into one, and desired him to sign it. The saint wrote him an answer full of apostolic spirit, and for a time the emperor was more peaceable. But he soon renewed his persecuting edicts against the orthodox, dispatching troops everywhere to have them put into execution. On intelligence of this, Theodosius travelled through Palestine, exhorting all to stand firm in the faith of the four general councils. At Jerusalem he cried out from the pulpit, “If anyone receives not the four general councils as the four gospels, let him be anathema.” So bold an action put courage into those whom the edicts had terrified. His discourses had a wonderful effect on the people, and God gave a sanction to his zeal by some striking miracles. One of these was, that on his going out of the church at Jerusalem, a woman was healed of a cancer by touching his garments. The emperor sent an order for his banishment, which was executed; but dying soon after, Theodosius was recalled by his successor, Justin.
During the last year of his life St Theodosius was afflicted with a painful infirmity, in which he gave proof of heroic patience and submission to the will of God; for being advised by a witness of his sufferings to pray that God would grant him some ease, he would give no ear to the suggestion, alleging that such ideas implied a lack of patience. Perceiving that his end was close at hand, he addressed a last exhortation to his disciples, and foretold many things that came to pass after his death. He went to his reward in 529, in the one hundred and fifth year of his age. Peter, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and the whole country were present at his funeral, which was honoured by miracles. He was buried in his first cell, called the cave of the Magi, because the wise men who came to find Christ soon after his birth were said to have lodged in it. A military commander, on his march against the Persians, begged to have the hair shirt, which the saint used to wear, and believed that he owed the victory that he obtained over them to the prayers of St Theodosius.
There are two main sources for the history of St Theodosius, one the biography written by his disciple Theodore, Bishop of Petra, the other a shorter abstract by Cyril of Skythopolis. The Greek text of both of these was printed for the first time by H. Usener see his book Der Heilige Theodosios (1890). To the critical material thus provided, K. Krumbacher has made important additions in the Sitzungsberichte of the Munich Academy for 1892, pp. 220—379. Cf. also the Byzantinische Zeitschrift (1897), vol. vi, pp. 357 seq. Acta Sanctorum, January 11 and E. Schwartz, Kyrillos von Skythopolis (1939), for text of the shorter life.
530? St. Kieran The “first born of the saints of Ireland,” sometimes listed as Kieran Saighir or Kevin the Elder.
ST KIERAN, OR CIARAN, OF SAIGHIR, BISHOP IN OSSORY
OF the sons of Erin senior to or associated with St Patrick, one of the most celebrated is St Kieran, whom the Irish designate as the first-born of their saints. Very conflicting accounts of him appear in the legendary lives, where he seems to have been confused with other holy men of his name and where, in order to reconcile discrepancies of date, he is sometimes credited with having lived to the age of 300.
   According to some he was a native of Ossory, according to others Cork was his birthplace. Having received some elementary knowledge of Christianity, he is said to have made a journey to Rome, at the age of about thirty, in order to be more fully instructed in the faith, and after a stay of some years to have returned to Ireland accompanied by four learned men, all of whom were afterwards raised to the episcopate. Some writers maintain that he was ordained bishop in Rome, and that it was in Italy, on his homeward journey, that he first met St Patrick, who was not yet a bishop but others, with more show of probability, assert that St Kieran was one of the twelve whom St Patrick upon his arrival in Ireland consecrated bishops to assist him in evangelizing the country.
We read that he made himself a cell in a lovely spot surrounded by woods near a famous spring, and for some time lived the life of a hermit. Ere long, however, disciples gathered about him and he constructed a monastery or collection of huts, round which subsequently sprang up a town called after him Sier-Ciaran and Saighir, or Saigher. He is venerated as the first bishop of Ossory, a diocese now including Kilkenny and parts of Leix and Offaly, and his feast is observed throughout Ireland.
Many legends, some fantastic and some poetical, have grown up round St Kieran, but only two or three of them can be set down here. The holy man had had for his nurse St Cuach, who afterwards became abbess of Ros-Bennchuir, a place situated in a part of Ireland very remote from Saighir. Nevertheless, every Christmas night, when St Kieran had offered Mass and had given communion to his monks, he celebrated again at Ros-Bennchuir and gave communion to Cuach. How he got there and back in the same night was neyer known, for he told no one, but, as the chronicler truly remarks, God could if He willed convey this faithful servant, as He had in the past conveyed the prophet Habakkuk from Palestine to Chaldaea.
St Kieran lent some oxen to Cuach to help her to cultivate her fields. He sent no word that they were arriving and the animals found their own way to the abbess, who, divining from whence they came, set them to work at the plough. They remained for several years at Ros-Bennchuir, but when they judged that the land was in a good state of cultivation the wise beasts of their own accord returned to their master.
One day a boy called Crichidh came to St Kieran, who took him in and employed him in the monastery. But the mischievous lad, “at the instigation of the Devil, extinguished the paschal fire which was lighted at Easter and was kept burning for the rest of the year, the only source from which all lights in the monastery were kindled. Then said the aged St Kieran, “Brothers, our sacred fire has been putout on purpose by that rascally boy Crichidh, for he is always doing things to annoy us. Now we shall have no fire until next Easter unless the Lord sends us some, and he went on to foretell that the miscreant would meet with an untimely death. The very next day when the boy went out into the woods, he was eaten up by a wolf.
Tidings of this reached St Kieran the Younger at Clonmacnois to whom the lad belonged, and he came to Saighir. It was bitterly cold and the monks had no means of warming their guests or of cooking a meal. Then St Kieran the Elder upraised his hands to God in prayer, and immediately there fell into his lap a glowing fire-ball which he carried in his skin to his guests, who were able to warm themselves by its heat. As soon as supper was announced and they had all sat down to table, Kieran of Clonmacnois said, “I will not eat here until my boy who has been killed in this place has been restored to me safe and sound.” The other Kieran replied, “ We knew why you had come. The Lord will bring him to life for us. Therefore eat freely, for the boy is just coming.” Even as he spoke the lad entered and sat down to supper with the brethren, who all gave thanks to God.
           Aengus, King of Munster, had seven minstrels who were wont to sing him sweet lays of the deeds of heroes to the accompaniment of their harps. As they wandered through the land they were murdered by the king’s enemies, who threw their bodies into a bog and hung their harps upon a tree which overshadowed the swamp. Aengus was very sad, for he did not know what had become of them, and, being a Christian, he would not consult magicians. St Kieran, however, was divinely enlightened as to their fate and came and told Aengus where they were.
         At the king’s request, the saint went to the spot, and when he had fasted for a day the water from the bog evaporated and he could plainly discern the bodies of the bards lying side by side in the mud. St Kieran recalled them to life in the name of the Holy Trinity, and although they had lain in the bog for a month they arose as out of sleep, and taking down their harps they sang their sweetest songs to the king and to the bishop. Then, amid a shower of blessings from Aengus and his people, St Kieran returned to Saighir and the bog has remained dry ever since
.
Both the Latin and the Irish lives of St Kieran have been edited and annotated by C.
         Plummer. See his VSH., vol. i, pp. 217—233, and Bethada Naem n-É
renn (Eng. trans.),
         vol. ii, pp. 99—120. The newly-found Latin life in MS. Gotha I. 81, is printed in Analecta
         Bollandiana. vol. lix (1941), pp. 217—271. There is, of course, only a very slender kernel
         of history to be looked for in these legends, and the stories themselves are differently narrated
         in different texts. For example, in the first Irish life the boy Crichidh becomes Trichem,
         a rich man, cunning in many kinds of evil. The Latin life, BHL., 4658, is to be found
         both in Colgan and the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. i and there is an analysis of it in
         G. H. Doble’s St Perran (1931). See also LBS., vol. ii, pp. 119—138; and J. Ryan’s Irish
         Monasticism
(1935); and cf. next notice.

He was a native of Ossory, and after living for a time as a hermit, he is believed to have been consecrated a bishop by St. Patrick, taking his place as the first bishop of Ossory. Another tradition states that he was consecrated in Rome. Legends attribute remarkable miracles to Kieran.

530 Saint Martius  the hermit attracted disciples founded For them the friary of Clermont; Abbot; St Martius lived to the age of ninety, and his tomb was the scene of many miracles.  (also known as Mars) A sober-minded and austere native of Auvergne, Martius the hermit, attracted disciples. For them he founded the friary of Clermont in 530 in the mountains above the city. Some information about Martius is found in Saint Gregory of Tours' Vitae Patrum (Attwater2, Coulson, Encyclopedia).
530 ST MARTIUS, or MARS, ABBOT
THE memory of St Martius or Mars, abbot of Clermont in the Auvergne, has been preserved by St Gregory of Tours, whose father when a boy had been cured by him of a fever.
From early youth, Martius had resolved to give himself to God, and upon attaining manhood he retired from the world to lead the solitary life; he hewed himself a hermitage in the mountain side and carved the stone bed upon which he lay. His sanctity and spiritual gifts attracted disciples who gradually formed themselves into a community, whose time was divided between prayer and the cultivation of the soil, which they converted from a desert into a flourishing garden.
 St Gregory of Tours tells the following anecdote. One night a thief broke into the monastery enclosure and set about rifling its apples, onions, garlic and herbs. When he had collected as much as he could carry, he attempted to depart, but was unable to find his way out in the dark. He therefore lay down on the ground to await the daylight. In the meantime Abbot Martius in his cell was fully aware of all that had happened. At the break of dawn, he summoned the prior and told him to go into the garden to release a bull which had found its way in. “Do not hurt him”, he added, and let him have all he wants, for it is written, ‘Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out thy corn!’” The prior went forth and came upon the thief, who started up on seeing him, threw down his booty and attempted to escape. He was, however, caught by the briars. The monk smilingly released and reassured him. Then, after picking up the scattered spoil, he led the culprit to the gate where he laid the path upon the man’s shoulders saying, “Go in peace, and give up your evil ways”. St Martius lived to the age of ninety, and his tomb was the scene of many miracles.

All that we know concerning St Mars is found in the Vitae Patrum of St Gregory of Tours, ch. xiv; and see the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii.
530 St. Cannera Irish hermitess a friend of St. Senan
She is also called Cainder or Kinnera.  She lived as a recluse near Bantry, Ireland, and was buried on St. Senan's Island, Enniscarthy.
Cannera of Inis Cathaig V (AC) (also known as Cainder, Conaire, Kinnera. Little is known of Saint Cannera except that which is recorded in the story of Saint Senan, who ruled an abbey on the Shannon River, which ministered to the dying- -but only men. Cannera was an anchorite from Bantry in southern Ireland. When she knew she was dying, she travelled to Senan's abbey without rest and walked upon the water to cross the river because no one would take her to the place forbidden to women. Upon her arrival, the abbot was adamant that no woman could enter his monastic enclosure. Arguing that Christ died for women, too, she convinced the abbot to give her last rites on the island and to bury her at its furtherest edge. Against his argument that the waves would wash away her grave, she answered that she would leave that to God.
Cannera told the abbot of a vision she had in her Bantry cell of the island and its holiness. Her appearance signaled a change in the attitude of the monks toward women, whose contamination they feared. Cannera charges Senan with this unChristian prejudice.
She reminded him that "Christ is no worse than yourself." If He could find comfort in the presence of women, so should the monks. The monks believed that the holier a man, the more he distances himself from Eve. They saw their celibacy as a taboo against women, rather than a sacrifice of love to Christ. They also failed to recognize that Jesus broke the conventions of His time. Again, Cannera said, "Christ came to redeem women no less than to redeem men," and "women gave service and tended to Christ and His Apostles," so why should the monks so distance themselves?
Other double (men and women) monasteries already existed in Ireland for Saint Patrick (March 17) and his followers did not reject the fellowship and ministry of women.
Probably because Saint Cannera walked across the water, sailors honor their patron by saluting her resting place on Scattery Island (Inis Chathaigh). They believed that pebbles from her island protected the bearer from shipwreck. A 16th-century Gaelic poem about Cannera prays, "Bless my good ship, protecting power of grace. . . ." (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Markus, O'Hanlon).
530  St. Remigius or Remi, Bishop of Rheims extraordinary gift of miracles
Sancti Remígii, Epíscopi Rheménsis et Confessóris, qui Idibus Januárii obdormívit in Dómino, sed hac die, ob Translatiónem córporis ejus, potíssimum cólitur.
    St. Remigius, bishop of Rheims and confessor, who fell asleep in the Lord on the 13th of January, but is commemorated on this day because of the translation of his body.

530 ST REMIGHIS, OR REMI, BISHOP OF RHEIMS
REMIGIUS, the great apostle of the Franks, was illustrious for his learning, sanctity and miracles, which in his episcopacy of seventy and more years rendered his name famous in the Church. His father and his mother were both descended from Gaulish families, and lived at Laon. The boy made great progress in learning, and in the opinion of St Sidonius Apollinaris, who was acquainted with him in the earlier part of his life, he became the most eloquent person in that age. When only twenty-two, too young to be a priest, much less a bishop, he was chosen in 459 to fill the vacant see of Rheims. But he was ordained and consecrated in spite of his youth, and amply made up for lack of experience by his fervour and energy. Sidonius, who had considerable practice in the use of words of commendation, was at no loss to find terms to express his admiration of the charity and purity with which this bishop offered at the altar a fragrant incense to God, and of the zeal with which he subdued the wildest hearts and brought them under the yoke of virtue. Sidonius had a manuscript of his sermons from a man at Clermont (“I do not know how he got hold of it. Like a good citizen he gave it to me, instead of selling it), and wrote to tell Remigius how much he admired them: the delicacy and beauty of thought and expression were so smooth that it might be compared to ice or crystal upon which a nail runs without meeting the least unevenness. With this equipment of eloquence (of which unfortunately there is no specimen extant for us to judge its quality for ourselves) allied to the yet more valuable quality of personal holiness, St Remigius set out to spread Christianity among the Franks.
Clovis, king of all northern Gaul, was himself yet a pagan, though not unfriendly to the Church. He had married St Clotildis, daughter of the Christian king of the Burgundians, Chilperic, and she made repeated attempts to convert her hus­band. He agreed to the baptism of their first-born, but when the child shortly after died he harshly reproached Clotildis, and said, “If he had been consecrated in the name of my gods, he had not died; but having been baptized in the name of yours, he could not live”. The queen afterwards had another son, whom she had baptized, and he also fell sick. The king said in great anger, “It could not be otherwise. He will die as his brother did through having been baptized in the name of your Christ.” This child recovered, but it required a more striking manifestation of the might of the Christian God to convert the rough Clovis. It came apparently in 496, when the Alemanni crossed the Rhine and the Franks marched out to drive them back. One account says that St Clotildis had said to him in taking leave, My lord, to be victorious invoke the God of the Christians. If you call on Him with confidence, nothing can resist you”; and that the wary Clovis had promised that he would be a Christian if he were victorious. The battle was going badly against him when the king, either reminded of these words or moved by desperation, shouted to the heavens, “0 Christ, whom Clotildis invokes as son of the living God, I implore thy help! I have called upon my gods, and they have no power. I therefore call on thee. I believe in thee! Deliver me from my enemies and I will be baptized in thy name.” The Franks rallied and turned the tide of battle; the Alemanni were overcome.

It is said that Clovis, during his return from this expedition, passed by Toul, and there took with him St Vedast, that he might be instructed by him in the faith during his journey. But Queen St Clotildis was not trusting to any enthusiasm of victory, and sent for St Remigius, telling him to touch the heart of the king while he was well disposed. When Clovis saw her he cried out, “Clovis has vanquished the Alemanni and you have triumphed over Clovis. What you have so much at heart is done.” The queen answered, “To the God of hosts is the glory of both these triumphs due”.
  Clovis suggested that perhaps the people would not be willing to forsake their gods, but said he would speak to them according to the bishop’s instructions. He assembled the chiefs and warriors, but they prevented his speaking, and cried out, “We abjure mortal gods, and are ready to follow the immortal God whom Remigius preaches”. St Remigius and St Vedast therefore instructed and prepared them for baptism. To strike the senses of barbarous people and impress their minds, Queen Clotildis took care that the streets from the palace to the church should be adorned with hangings, and that the church and baptistery should be lighted with a great number of candles and scented with incense. Catechumens marched in procession, carrying crosses, and singing the litany; St Remigius conducted the king by the hand, followed by the queen and the people. At the font the bishop is said to have addressed Clovis in words that are memorable, if not actually pronounced: “Humble yourself, Sicambrian! Worship what you have burned, and burn what you have worshipped!” Words which may be emphatically addressed to every penitent, to express the change of heart and conduct that is required of him.

St Remigius afterwards baptized the king’s two sisters and three thousand men of his army, as well as women and children, with the help of the other bishops and priests present. Hincmar of Rheims, who wrote a Life of St Remigius in the ninth century, is the first to mention a legend that at the baptism of Clovis the chrism for the anointing was found to be missing, whereupon St Remigius prayed and a dove appeared from the heavens, bearing in its beak an ampulla of chrism. A phial of oil, fabled to be the same, was preserved at the abbey of Saint-Remi and used in the consecration of the kings of France until Charles X in 1825. It was broken up at the Revolution, but a piece of La Sainte Ampoule and its contents were saved and are kept in Rheims Cathedral. St Remigius is also supposed to have conferred on Clovis the power of touching for the “king’s evil (scrofula), which was exercised by the kings of France at their coronation, again up to Charles X. This power was confirmed by the relics of St Marculf, who died about 538.

Under the protection of Clovis, St Remigius spread the gospel of Christ among the Franks, in which work God endowed him with an extraordinary gift of miracles, if we may trust his biographers on this point. The bishops who were assembled in a conference that was held at Lyons against the Arians in his time declared they were stirred to exert their zeal in defence of the Catholic faith by the example of Remigius, “who, say they, “has everywhere destroyed the altars of the idols by a multitude of miracles and signs.
He did his best to promote orthodoxy in
Arian Burgundy, and at a synod in 517 converted an Arian bishop who came to it to argue with him. But the actions of St Remigius did not always meet with the approval of his brother bishops. Sometime after the death of Clovis the bishops of Paris, Sens and Auxerre wrote to him concerning a priest called Claudius, whom he had ordained at the request of the king. They blamed Remigius for ordaining a man whom they thought to be fit only for degradation, hinted that he had been bribed to do it, and accused him of condoning the financial malpractices of Claudius. St Remigius thought these bishops were full of spite and told them so, but his reply was a model of patience and charity. To their sneer at his great age he answered, “Rather should you rejoice lovingly with me, who am neither accused before you nor suing for mercy at your hands. Very different was his tone towards a bishop who had exercised jurisdiction outside his diocese. “If your Holiness was ignorant of the canons it was ill done of you to transgress the diocesan limits without learning them...Be careful lest in meddling with the rights of others you lose your own.”

St Remigius, whom St Gregory of Tours refers to as “a man of great learning, fond of rhetorical studies,
and equal in his holiness to St Silvester
, died about the year 530.

Although the enthusiastic letter in which Sidonius Apollinaris (who has, not unfairly, been described as an inveterate panegyrist) commends the discourses of St Remigius is authentic, most of the sources from which we derive our knowledge of the saint are, to say the least, unsatisfactory. The short biography attributed to Venantius Fortunatus is not his, but of later date, and the Vita Remigii, writtea by Hincmar of Rheims three centuries after his death, is full of marvels and open to grave suspicion. We have therefore to depend for our facts upon the scanty references in St Gregory of Tours (who declares that he had before him a Life of St Remigius) and to supplement these by a phrase or two in letters of St Avitus of Vienne, St Nicetius of Trier, etc., together with three or four letters written by Remigius himself. The question in particular of the date, place and occasion of the baptism of Clovis has given rise to protracted discussion in which such scholars as B. Krusch, W. Levison, L. Levillain, A. Hauck, G. Kurth, and A. Poncelet have all taken part. A detailed summary of the controversy, with bibliographical references will be found, under “Clovis in DAC., vol. iii, cc. 2038—2052. It can safely be affirmed that no conclusive evidence has yet upset the traditional account given above, so far, at least, as regards the substantial fact that Clovis in 496, or soon after, after a victory over the Alemanni, was baptized at Rheims by St Remigius. As for more general matters, the principal texts, including the Liber His­toriae, have been edited by B. Krusch; see BHL., nn. 7150—7173. Consult also 0. Kurth, Clovis (1901), especially vol. ii, pp. 262—265 and cf. A. Hauck, Kirchengeschichte Deutsch­lands, vol. i (1904), pp. 119, 548, 217, 595—599. There are popular but uncritical lives by Haudecoeur, Avenay, Carlier and others. For “touching see Les rois thaumaturges (1924), by M. Bloch; and for the ampulla, F. Oppenheimer, The Legend of the Sainte Ampoule (1953).

The great apostle of the Franks, and was illustrious for his learning, sanctity and miracles, which in his episcopacy of seventy and more years, rendered his name famous in the church. As a boy he made great progress in learning, and in the opinion of St. Sidonius Apollinaris, who was acquainted with him in the earlier part of his life, he became the most eloquent person in that age. When only twenty-two, too young to be a priest, much less a bishop, he was chosen in 459 to fill the vacant See of Rheims. But he was ordained and consecrated in spite of his youth, and amply made up for lack of experience by his fervor and energy.  Under the protection of King Clovis, who was baptized by Remigius, St. Remigius spread the gospel of Christ among the Franks, in which work God endowed him with an extraordinary gift of miracles. The bishops who were assembled in a conference that was held at Lyons against the Arians in his time, declared they were stirred to exert their zeal in defense of the Catholic Faith by the example of Remigius, "who", say they, "has everywhere destroyed the altars of the idols by a multitude of miracles and signs." St. Remigius, whom St. Gregory of Tours refers to as "a man of great learning, fond of rhetorical studies, and equal in his holiness to St. Silvester", died about the year 530.

Remigius (Rémy, Remi) of Reims B (RM) + Born at Cerny near Laon, France, c. 437; died at Rheims on January 13, 530.
The name St. Rémy is intimately connected with that of King Clovis of the Franks, the bloodthirsty general and collector of vases. Rémy was the son of Count Emilius of Laon and Saint Celina, daughter of Principius, bishop of Soissons. Even as a child Rémy was devoted to books and God. These two loves developed the future saint into a famous preacher. Saint Sidonius Apollinaris, who knew him, testified to his virtue and eloquence as a preacher. So great was his renown that, in 459, when he was only 22 and still a layman, he was elected bishop of Rheims. Hincmar, testifying that Rémy "was forced into being bishop rather than elected," adds to our impression of a virtuous man the added quality of modesty. Other sources note that the saint was refined, tall (over seven feet(!) in height), with an austere forehead, an aquiline nose, fair hair, a solemn walk, and stately bearing.  After his ordination and consecration, he reigned for 74 years--all the time devoting himself to the evangelization of the Franks. It was said that "by his signs and miracles, Rémy brought low the heathen altars everywhere." Foregoing the alternative episcopal path, Rémy chose the way of self-sacrifice. He became a model for his clergy and was indefatigable in his good works. At some point between 481 and 486, Rémy wrote to the pagan King Clovis: "May the voice of justice be heard from your mouth...Respect your bishops and seek their advice...Be the protector of your subjects, the support of the afflicted, the comfort of widows, the father of orphans and the master of all, that they might learn to love you and fear you...Let your court fe open to all and let no one leave with the grief of not being heard...Divert yourself with young people, but if you wish truly to reign transact important matters with those who are older..."
Clovis must have respected Rémy's advice even if he did not follow it: During his march on Chalons and Troyes, Clovis bypassed Rheims, Rémy's see. It is possible, though, that only his wife's civilizing influence prevented him from burning Rheims.  Clovis married the radiant and beautiful Christian, Saint Clotildis, by proxy at Chalons-sur- Saone, while she was still living in Lyons under the tutelage of Saint Blandine. It was not a peaceful union. Clovis, an ambitious autocrat, allowed his rage to lead to ill-planned actions. The young, pious Clotildis showed him how much wiser it was to struggle with this wild beast than to give way to his emotions. At first Clovis resisted being tamed by his wife.
In 496, Clovis, supposedly in response to a suggestion from his wife, invoked the Christian God when the invading Alemanni were on the verge of defeating his forces, whereupon the tide of battle turned and Clovis was victorious at Tolbiac. St. Rémy, aided by Saint Vedast, instructed him and his chieftains in Christianity. At the Easter Vigil (or Christmas Day) in 496, Rémy baptized Clovis, his two sisters, and 3,000 of his subjects. (Most seem to agree on the year, but not the day or place.)
Though he never took part in any of the councils held during his life, Rémy was a zealous proponent of orthodoxy, opposed Arianism, and converted an Arian bishop at a synod of Arian bishops in 517. He was censured by a group of bishops for ordaining one Claudius, whom they felt was unworthy of the priesthood, but St. Rémy was generally held in great veneration for his holiness, learning, and miracles. He is said to have healed a blind man. Another time, like Jesus, he was confronted with a host who ran out of wine at a dinner party. Rémy went down to the cellar, prayed, and at once wine began to spread over the floor!
Rémy's last act was to draw up a will in which he distributed all his lands and wealth and ordered that "generous alms be given the poor, that liberty be given to the serfs on his domain," and concluded by asking God to bless the family of the first Christian king.   Because he was the most influential prelate of Gaul and is considered the apostle of the Franks, Rémy has been the subject of many tales. Rémy's notoriety sometimes difficult to distinguish the reliable from the untrustworthy in his biographies (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
In art, St. Remigius is generally portrayed as a bishop carrying holy oils, though he may have other representations. At times he may be shown (1) as a dove brings him the chrism to anoint Clovis; (2) with Clovis kneeling before him; (3) preaching before Clovis and his queen; (4) welcoming another saint led by an angel from prison; (5) exorcising; or (6) contemplating the veil of Saint Veronica (Roeder).
530 St. Samson Xenodochius "the Hospitable," priest a doctor and renowned figure of charity Lord blessed the efforts of St Sampson and endowed him with the power of wonderworking. He healed the sick not only through being a skilled physician, but also as a bearer of the grace of God
Constantinópoli sancti Sampsónis Presbyteri, páuperum exceptóris.
    At Constantinople, St. Sampson, a priest, who harboured the poor.


Also called Samson Xenodochius "the Hospitable," a doctor and renowned figure of charity. A physician in Constantinople (modern Istanbul), he also became a priest in order to tend to both the physical and spiritual welfare of his patients. Samson also founded a well known hospital near the Hagia Sophia, in Constantinople. He was revered as "the Father of the Poor."
Samson (Sampson) Xenodochius (RM) (also known as Samson or Sampson the Hospitable) Samson was a distinguished citizen of Constantinople who studied medicine and was ordained priest in order to devote his life to the spiritual and physical care of the sick and destitute.
He founded and equipped a magnificent hospital near Santa Sophia (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

Saint Sampson the Hospitable was the son of rich and illustrious Roman parents. In his youth he received an excellent education, he studied the medical arts, and doctored the sick without charge. After the death of his parents St Sampson generously distributed alms and set his slaves free, preparing himself to go into the wilderness.

With this intent in mind he soon journeyed from Rome to the East. But the Lord directed him onto a different path, that of service to neighbor, and so St Sampson came to Constantinople.
Settling into a small house, the saint began to take in homeless wanderers, the poor and the sick, and he attended to them. The Lord blessed the efforts of St Sampson and endowed him with the power of wonderworking. He healed the sick not only through being a skilled physician, but also as a bearer of the grace of God. News of St Sampson spread abroad. The patriarch heard of his great virtue and ordained him to the holy priesthood.

It was revealed to the grievously ill Emperor Justinian (527-565), that he could receive healing only through St Sampson. In praying, the saint put his hand on the afflicted area, and Justinian was healed. In gratitude the emperor wanted to reward his healer with silver and gold, but the saint refused and instead asked Justinian to build a home for the poor and the sick. The emperor readily fulfilled his request.

St Sampson devoted the rest of his life to serving his neighbor. He survived into old age and after a short illness he departed peacefully to the Lord. The saint was buried at the church of the holy Martyr Mocius, and many healings were effected at his grave. His hospice remained open, and the saint did not cease to care for the suffering. He appeared twice to a negligent worker of the hospice and upbraided him for his laziness. At the request of an admirer of St Sampson the hospice was transformed into a church, and beside it a new edifice was built for the homeless. During the time of a powerful fire at Constantinople the flames did not touch the hospice of St Sampson. Through his intercession a heavy rain quenched the fire.
6th v. St. Zosimus  hermit who resided in Palestine.
In Palæstína beáti Zósimi Confessóris, qui, sub Justíno Imperatóre, sanctitáte et miráculis fuit insígnis.
    In Palestine, blessed Zosimus, confessor, who was distinguished for his sanctity and miracles in the time of Emperor Justin.

Zosimus (d. sixth century) + A hermit who resided in Palestine as part of the erernetical revival there. He was given the nickname "Wonder Worker" for his many remarkable miracles and spiritual gifts.

530 ST MELAINE, BISHOP OF RENNES;  the author of his life tells us that he performed many miracles; played a leading part in drawing up the canons of the Council of Orleans in 511; King Clovis after his conversion held him in great esteem

MELAINE (Melanius) was a native of Placet in the parish of Brain, in Brittany. He had served God with great fervour in a monastery for some years when, upon the death of St Amand, Bishop of Rennes, he was constrained by the clergy and people to fill that see. As a bishop he played a leading part in drawing up the canons of the Council of Orleans in 511 (see Neues Archiv, xiv, 50), and with others wrote a letter of rebuke to two Breton priests who were wandering from place to place and behaving very irregularly. A sincere humility, and a spirit of continual prayer chiefly enhanced his virtue, and the author of his life tells us that he performed many miracles. King Clovis after his conversion held him in great esteem. St Melaine died in a monastery, which he had built at Placet, some time before 549. He was buried at Rennes, where his feast is kept to-day, as it was formerly at Mullion in Cornwall, where he had come to be regarded as the local patron, supplanting an earlier St Mollien or Moellien. He must not be confused with the St Mellon venerated in Normandy, who gave his name to Saint Mellons between Newport and Cardiff.

See his life in the Acta Sanctorum, January 6, of which other, and probably older, re­dactions may be found in the Catalogus Cod. Hagiog. Lot. Paris, i, 7x and ii, 531. Cf. also MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. iii; Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux , vol. ii, pp. 340—341; and G. H. Doble, St Melaine (1935). 
532 St. Sabas (Sava) one of the founders of Eastern monasticism Many miracles took place through his prayers healings of the sick and the demoniacs
In Judæa sancti Sabbæ Abbátis, in óppido Cappadóciæ Mútala orti, qui miro sanctitátis exémplo refúlsit, et pro fide cathólica, advérsus impugnántes sanctam Synodum Chalcedonénsem, strénue laborávit, ac tandem in ea diœcésis Hierosolymitánæ laura, quæ ipsíus sancti Sabbæ nómine póstmodum est insigníta, requiévit in pace.
    In Judea, St. Sabbas, abbot, who was born in the town of Mutala in Cappadocia.  He gave a wondrous example of holiness and laboured most zealously for the Catholic faith against those who attacked the holy Council of Chalcedon.  He rested in peace in the monastery later named for him in the diocese of Jerusalem.


532 ST SABAS, ABBOT
ST SABAS, one of the most renowned patriarchs of the monks of Palestine, was born at Mutalaska in Cappadocia, not far from Caesarea, in 439. His father was an officer in the army and, being obliged to go to Alexandria, took his wife with him and recommended his son Sabas, with the care of his estate, to his brother-in-law. This uncle’s wife used the child so harshly that, when he was eight, he ran away, went to another uncle, called Gregory, brother to his father, hoping there to live more happily. Gregory, having the care of the child, demanded also the administration of the property, whence lawsuits and animosity arose between the two uncles. Sabas, who was of a quiet disposition, was upset at these discords and ran away again, this time to a monastery near Mutalaska. His uncles, after some years, ashamed of their conduct, agreed together to take him out of his monastery, restore him his property, and persuade him to marry. But young Sabas had tasted the bitterness of the world and the sweetness of the yoke of Christ, and his heart was so united to God that nothing could draw him from his new home. Though he was the youngest in the house he surpassed the rest in fervour and virtue. Once, when he was serving the baker, this monk put his wet clothes into the oven to dry, and then, forgetting them, put in fire. Seeing him much troubled for his clothes Sabas crawled into the oven and fetched them out through the flames, without hurt.
   When Sabas had been ten years in this monastery, being eighteen years old, he went to Jerusalem to learn from the example of the solitaries of that country. He passed the winter in a monastery governed by the holy abbot Elpidius, whose monks desired earnestly that he would fix his abode among them. But his love of silence and retirement made him prefer the manner of life practised by St Euthymius, who even when a monastery was built for him refused to abandon his complete solitude. When Sabas asked to be accepted as his disciple St Euthymius judged him too young for an absolutely solitary life, and therefore recommended him to his monastery below the hill, about three miles distant, which was under the conduct of St Theoctistus.
Sabas consecrated himself to God with new fervour, working all day and watching in prayer a good part of the night. As he was very energetic and strong he assisted his brethern in their heavier work, and himself prepared the wood and water for the house. Once his abbot as companion sent him to another monk on business to Alexandria. There his parents met him and desired him to accept his father’s profession and influence in the world. When he refused they pressed
him at least to accept money for his necessaries ; but he would only take three pieces of gold, and those he gave to his abbot on his return. When he was thirty he obtained leave of St Euthymius to spend five days a week in a remote cave, which time he passed in prayer and manual labour. He left his monastery on Sunday evening carrying with him bundles of palm-twigs, and came back on Saturday morning with fifty baskets which he had made, imposing upon himself a task of ten a day. St Euthymius chose him and one Domitian for his companions in his yearly retreat in the desert of Jebel Quarantal, where Christ is said to have made His forty-days’ fast. They entered this solitude together on the octave-day of the Epiphany and returned to their monastery on Palm Sunday.
   In the first retreat Sabas collapsed in the wilderness, almost dead with thirst. St Euthymius, moved with compassion, prayed to Christ that He would take pity on His fervent soldier, and it is said that, striking his staff into the earth, a spring gushed forth; of which Sabas drinking a little, he recovered his strength.
   After the death of Euthymius, St Sabas retired further into the desert towards Jericho. Four years he spent in this wilderness in total separation from intercourse with men, when he chose a new dwelling in a cave on the face of a cliff, at the bottom of which ran the brook Cedron. He was obliged to hang a rope down the descent to hold on by when going up and down. Wild herbs that grew on the rocks were his food, till certain countrymen brought him sometimes a little bread, cheese, dates and other things, which he might want. Water he had to fetch from a considerable distance.
After Sabas had lived here some time many came to him, desiring to serve God under his direction. He was at first unwilling to consent, but eventually founded a new laura.*{* A laura was a monastery in which the monks lived in separate huts or cells, grouped around the church without any definite plan. The maximum of solitude possible in such circumstances was aimed at.}

 One of the first difficulties was shortage of water. But having noticed a wild ass pawing and nosing at the ground, Sabas caused a pit to be dug at the spot, where a spring was discovered which subsisted to succeeding ages. The number of his disciples was increased to one hundred and fifty, but he had no priest in his community, for he thought no religious man could aspire to that dignity without presumption. This provoked some of the monks to complain of him to Sallust, Patriarch of Jerusalem. The bishop found their grievances groundless, except that the want of a priest was a trouble in the community. He therefore compelled Sabas to receive ordination at his hands in 491. The abbot was then fifty-three years old. The reputation of his sanctity drew persons from remote countries to his laura, and among the monks were Egyptians and Armenians, for whom special arrangements were made so that they could celebrate the offices in their own tongues.
   After the death of the saint’s father, his mother came to Palestine and served God under his direction. With the money that she brought he built two hospitals, one for strangers and another for the sick, and also a hospital at Jericho and another monastery on a neighbouring hill. In 493 the patriarch of Jerusalem established St Sabas as archimandrite over all the monks of Palestine who lived in separate cells (hermits), and St Theodosius of Bethlehem over all who lived in community (cenobites).
  St Sabas, after the example of St Euthymius, left his disciples every year, or oftener, and at least passed Lent without being seen by anyone, and this was one of the things complained of by some of his monks. As they got no sympathy from the patriarch some sixty of them left the laura, and settled themselves in a ruined monastery at Thecua, where the prophet Amos was born. When he heard that these malcontents were in sore straits, St Sabas gave them supplies and repaired their church. He himself had been driven for a time from his own monastery by the factions therein, but returned at the command of St Elias, the successor of Sallust at Jerusalem.
   Among the stories told of St Sabas is that he once lay down to sleep in a cave that happened to be the den of a lion. When the beast came in it clawed hold of the monk’s clothes and dragged him outside. Nothing perturbed, Sabas returned to the cave and eventually reduced the lion to a considerable degree of friendliness. But it was still a rather troublesome companion, and at length Sabas told it that if it could not live with him in peace it had better go away. So the lion went away.

At this time the Emperor Anastasius was supporting the Eutychian heresy, and banished many orthodox bishops. In 511 the Patriarch Elias sent to him as deputies St Sabas, with other abbots, to endeavour to stop this persecution. Sabas was seventy years old when he undertook this journey to Constantinople. As he looked like some beggar the officers at the gate of the palace admitted the rest but stopped him. Sabas said nothing, but withdrew. When the emperor had read the letter of the patriarch, in which great commendations were bestowed on Sabas, he asked where he was. The saint was sought, and at length found in a corner saying his prayers.
    Anastasius gave the abbots liberty to ask what they wanted for themselves; they presented their petitions, but Sabas had no request to make in his own name. Being pressed, he only begged that Anastasius would restore peace to the Church and not disturb the clergy.
   Sabas stayed the winter in Constantinople, and often visited the emperor to argue against heresy. But Anastasius for all that procured the banishment of Elias of Jerusalem and put one John into his place. Whereupon St Sabas and other monks hastened to Jerusalem and persuaded the intruder at least not to repudiate the Council of Chalcedon. Sabas is said to have been with the exiled Elias at his death at Aïla on the Red Sea. In the following years he went to Caesarea, Scythopolis and other places, preaching the true faith, bringing back many to orthodoxy and right living.
In his ninety-first year, at the request of Patriarch Peter of Jerusalem, St Sabas undertook a second journey to Constantinople, in connection with troubles arising out of the Samaritan revolt and its violent repression by the emperor. Justinian received him with honour and offered to endow his monasteries. Sabas gratefully replied that they stood not in need of such revenues so long as the monks should faithfully serve God. But he begged a remission of taxes in favour of the people of Palestine in consideration of what they had suffered on account of the Samaritans; that he would build a hospital at Jerusalem for pilgrims and a fortress for the protection of the hermits and monks against raiders; and that he would authorize further strong measures for the putting down of the Samaritans. All which things were granted.
   It happened one day, the emperor being busy dispatching certain affairs of St Sabas, who was himself present, that when it was the third hour the abbot went out to his prayers. His companion, Jeremy, said it was not well done to leave the emperor in this way. “My son”, replied Sabas, “the emperor does his duty, and we must do ours.”
   Very shortly after his return to his laura he fell sick, and the patriarch persuaded him to let himself be taken to a neighbouring church, where he served him with his own hands. The sufferings of Sabas were
very sharp, but God supported him under them in perfect patience and resigna­tion. Finding his last hour approach, he begged the patriarch that he might be carried back to his laura. He appointed his successor, gave him instructions, and then lay four days in silence without seeing anyone, that he might concern himself with God alone. On December 5, 532, in the evening, he departed to the Lord, being ninety-four years old. His relics were venerated at his chief monastery until the Venetians carried them off.

St Sabas is one of the outstanding figures of early monasticism, and his feast today is kept throughout the Church both in the East and the West; he is named at the preparation in the Byzantine Mass. The Typikon of Jerusalem, setting out the rules for the recitation of the Divine Office and carrying out of ceremonies, which is the norm in nearly all churches of the Byzantine rite, bears his name, as does a monastic rule; but his part in their composition is a matter of doubt. His chief monastery, called after him Mar Saba and sometimes distinguished as the Great Laura, still exists in a gorge of the Cedron, ten miles southeast of Jerusalem in the desert country towards the Dead Sea. Among its monks were St John Damascene, St John the Silent, St Aphrodisius, St Theophanes of Nicaea, St Cosmas of Majuma and St Theodore of Edessa.

   After a period of ruin it was restored by the Russian government in 1840 and is now inhabited by monks of the Eastern Orthodox Church, whose life is not unworthy of the example of the holy founder.

 After St Catherine’s on Mount Sinai (and perhaps Dair Antonios and Dair Boulos in Egypt) Mar Saba is the oldest inhabited monastery in the world, and the most remarkable; the wildness of its situation and grandeur of its fortress-like buildings at least equal those of St Catherine’s. St Sabas’s spring still flows there, his palm-tree still bears stoneless dates, and the dark blue grackles that abound are called “his blackbirds”, and are daily fed by the monks.

The Life of St Sabas, written in Greek by Cyril of Scythopolis, is one of the most famous and trustworthy of early hagiographical documents. The full text has to be sought either in Cotelerius, Ecclesiae Graecae Monumenta, vol. iii, pp. 220—376; or in Kyrillos von Skytho­polis, ed. E. Schwartz (1939). Another biography, an adaptation attributed to the Meta­phrast, has been printed by Kleopas Koikylides as an appendix to the two first volumes of the Greek review, Nea Sion (1906). The Life of St Sabas at a relatively early date was also translated into Arabic. On the chronology of the life see Loofs in Texte und Untersuchungen, vol. iii (dealing with Leontius of Byzantium), pp. 274—297; and on the literary and liturgical work ascribed to Sabas consult A. Ehrhard in the Kirchenlexikon, vol. x (1897), cc. 1434—1437, or his fuller article in the Römische Quartalschrift, vol. vii (1893), pp. 31—79. J. Phokylides at Alexandria published an exhaustive and satisfactory account of Sabas himself and of his monastery in Greek in 1927. Cyril of Scythopolis had been impressed even as a boy by a casual meeting with St Sabas; he seems to have entered the monastery of St Euthymios in 544 and to have passed on to Mar Saba not long before his death in 558.

   Sabas was born at Mutalaska, Cappadocia, near Caesarea. He was the son of an army officer there who when assigned to Alexandria, left him in the care of an uncle. Mistreated by his uncle's wife, Sabas ran away to another uncle, though he was only eight. When the two uncles became involved in a lawsuit over his estate, he again ran away, this time to a monastery near Mutalaska. In time the uncles were reconciled and wanted him to marry, but he remained in the monastery.
In 456, he went to Jerusalem and there entered a monastery under St. Theoctistus. When he was thirty, he became a hermit under the guidance of St. Euthymius, and after Euthymius' death, spent four years alone in the desert near Jericho. Despite his desire for solitude, he attracted disciples, organized them into a laura in 483, and when his one hundred fifty monks asked for a priest and despite his opposition to monks being ordained, he was obliged to accept ordination by Patriarch Sallust of Jerusalem in 491.
He attracted disciples from Egypt and Armenia, allowed them a liturgy in their own tongue, and built several hospitals and another monastery near Jericho. He was appointed archimandrite of all hermits in Palestine who lived in separate cells, but his custom of going off by himself during Lent caused dissension in the monastery, and sixty of his monks left to revive a ruined monastery at Thecuna. He bore them no illwill and aided them with food and supplies.
In 511, he was one of a delegation of abbots sent to Emperor Anastasius I, a supporter of Eutychianism, which Sabas opposed, to plead with the Emperor to mitigate his persecution of orthodox bishops and religious. They were unsuccessful.
Sabas supported Elias of Jerusalem when the Emperor exiled him, was a strong supporter of theological orthodoxy, and persuaded many to return to orthodoxy. He was a vigorous opponent of Origenism and monophysitism.
In 531, when he was ninety-one, he again went to Constantinople, this time to plead with Emperor Justinian to suppress a Samaritan revolt and protect the people of Jerusalem from further harassment by the Samritans. He fell ill soon after his return to his laura from this trip and died on December 5 at Laura Mar Saba, after naming his successor. Sabas is one of the most notable figures of early monasticism and is considered one of the founders of Eastern monasticism. The laura he founded in the desolate, wild country between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, named Mar Saba after him, was often called the Great Laura for its preeminence and produced many great saints. It is still inhabited by monks of the Eastern Orthodox Church and is one of the three or four oldest monasteries in the world.

532 Saint Sava the Sanctified.
born in the fifth century at Cappadocia of pious Christian parents, John and Sophia. His father was a military commander. Journeying to Alexandria on military matters, his wife went with him, but they left their five-year-old son in the care of an uncle. When the boy reached eight years of age, he entered the monastery of St Flavian located nearby. The gifted child quickly learned to read and became an expert on the Holy Scriptures. In vain did his parents urge St Sava to return to the world and enter into marriage.
When he was seventeen years old he received monastic tonsure, and attained such perfection in fasting and prayer that he was given the gift of wonderworking. After spending ten years at the monastery of St Flavian, he went to Jerusalem, and from there to the monastery of St Euthymius the Great (January 20). But St Euthymius sent St Sava to Abba Theoctistus, the head of a nearby monastery with a strict cenobitic rule. St Sava lived in obedience at this monastery until the age of thirty.
After the death of the Elder Theoctistus, his successor blessed St Sava to seclude himself in a cave. On Saturdays, however, he left his hermitage and came to the monastery, where he participated in divine services and ate with the brethren. After a certain time St Sava received permission not to leave his hermitage at all, and he struggled in the cave for five years.
St Euthymius attentively directed the life of the young monk, and seeing his spiritual maturity, he began to take him to the Rouba wilderness with him. They set out on January 14, and remained there until Palm Sunday. St Euthymius called St Sava a child-elder, and encouraged him to grow in the monastic virtues.
When St Euthymius fell asleep in the Lord (+ 473), St Sava withdrew from the Lavra and moved to a cave near the monastery of St Gerasimus of Jordan (March 4). After several years, disciples began to gather around St Sava, seeking the monastic life. As the number of monks increased, a lavra sprang up. When a pillar of fire appeared before St Sava as he was walking, he found a spacious cave in the form of a church.
St Sava founded several more monasteries. Many miracles took place through the prayers of St Sava: at the Lavra a spring of water welled up, during a time of drought there was abundant rain, and there were also healings of the sick and the demoniacs. St Sava composed the first monastic Rule of church services, the so-called "Jerusalem Typikon", accepted by all the Palestine monasteries.
The saint surrendered his soul to God in the year 532.
533 St. Trojan Bishop son of Jewish father Arabic mother shews by many miracles that he lives in heaven, though his body is buried on earth.
Apud Sántonas, in Gállia, sancti Trojáni Epíscopi, magnæ sanctitátis viri, qui, sepúltus in terris, se in cælis vívere multis virtútibus maniféstat.
    At Saintes in France, St. Trojan, bishop and confessor, a man of great sanctity, who shews by many miracles that he lives in heaven, though his body is buried on earth.
also called Troyen. He was the son of a Jewish father and an Arabic mother. Converted to the Christian faith, he was ordained a priest and later became bishop of Saintes, France.
Trojan of Tréguier B (RM) (also known as Troyen) Died c. 564 (or 533?). Said to have been born of a Jewish father and a Saracen mother. He became a priest at Saintes under Saint Vivian, whom he succeeded as bishop of Saintes, where his merits edified his people (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

535 St. Donatus Hermit born in Orleans, France. He lived as a recluse on Mount Jura near Sisteron in Provence.
In pago Sigistérico, in Gállia, beáti Donáti, Presbyteri et Confessóris; qui, ab ipsis usque infántiæ rudiméntis mira Dei grátia præditus, anachoréticam vitam multis annis exégit, et miraculórum glória clarus migrávit ad Christum.
    In the neighbourhood of Sisteron in France, blessed Donatus, priest and confessor.  Being from his very infancy endowed with the grace of God in an extraordinary manner, he lived the life of an anchoret for many years, and after having been renowned for glorious miracles, went to Christ.
536 Saint Agapitus wonderworker healer of the blind and lame defended the Orthodox teaching against the heretic Severus Bishop of Rome
A zealous adherent of Orthodoxy. By his pious life he won the general esteem and was elevated to the See of Rome in the year 535.
The Gothic king Theodoric the Great sent Agapitus to Constantinople for peace negotiations. Along the way, St Agapitus encountered a man who was lame and mute. He healed him of his lameness, and after receiving the Holy Mysteries the mute one spoke. After arriving in Constantinople, the saint healed a blind beggar.
At that time, a local Council was convened in Constantinople. St Agapitus participated in it and zealously defended the Orthodox teaching against the heretic Severus, who taught that the Body of the Lord Jesus Christ was subject to decay similar to every man's body.
St Agapitus died at Constantinople in the year 536.

539 ST GREGORY, Bishop of Langres miracles recorded after death he seemed to give the preference to captives who had been arrested by the officers of human justice
 Apud Língonas, in Gállia, sancti Gregórii Epíscopi, miráculis clari.
       At Langres in France, St. Gregory, a bishop renowned for miracles.

THIS saint is welt known to us from the writings of St Gregory of Tours, who was his great-grandson. Of very distinguished birth, he for forty years governed the district of Autun as count (comes), administering justice equitably but sternly. It was only late in life, after the death of his wife Armentaria that he turned from the world and gave himself unreservedly to God.

The clergy and people then elected him bishop of Langres, and for the rest of his days he showed an admirable example of devotion to his pastoral duties.

   His abstemious­ness in food and drink, which he was ingenious in concealing from the knowledge of others, was remarkable, and he often gave the hours of the night to prayer, frequenting especially the baptistery of Dijon, in which town he commonly lived. There the saints came to visit him and join him in chanting the praises of God in particular St Benignus, the apostle of Burgundy, whose cultus he had at first neglected, after some words of fatherly rebuke directed him to restore his dilapidated shrine, which has ever since been so famous in Dijon. It was here that Gregory himself, who died at Langres in 539, was brought to be buried in accordance with his own desire. His epitaph, composed by Venantius Fortunatus, suggests that any severity he had displayed as a secular ruler was expiated by the tender charity he showed to all in his last years. Even in the miracles recorded after death he seemed to give the preference to captives who had been arrested by the officers of human justice.

See Gregory of Tours, Vitae patrum, bk vii; Historia Francorum, bks iii, iv and v; and De Gloria martyrum, li. L. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, pp. 185—186; DCB., vol. ii, p. 770.
539 John of Reomay hermit monk  confirmed many miracles Abbot (RM)
(also known as John of Réomé)
Born in Dijon (diocese of Langres), France, 425; died at Reomay c. 544. This pioneer of the monastic life in France, was first a hermit at Reomay. When disciples gathered round him, he escaped in secret and became a monk at Lérins.
Here he learned the traditions of Saint Macarius, and when summoned back to his native Langres by its bishop to found Moûtier-Saint-Jean in Reomay, he regulated his monastery according to them. He governed the abbey for many years with great sanctity, confirmed by many miracles. He was almost 120 years old at his death. Saint Gregory of Tours provides an account of this holy pioneer of French monasticism in his On the glory of confessors (chapter 87), as does Saint Columbanus
's disciple Jonas (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, Encyclopedia, Roeder, Husenbeth). In art, Saint John is portrayed as a Benedictine hermit-abbot near a well with a dragon on a chain (Roeder). He is venerated especially in Dijon, Lérins, and Réomé (Roeder).
539 Vedast of Arras holy from childhood instrumental in the conversion of Clovis I to Christianity B (AC).
(also known as Foster, Gaston, Vat, Vaast, Waast) Born in western France, died February 6, 539; other feasts at Arras are celebrated Feb 06, July 15 and October 1.

539   ST VEDAST, OR VAAST, BISHOP OF ARRAS
   ST VEDAST was very young when he left his own province, which seems to have been in the west of France. His aim was to live concealed from the world in the diocese of Toul, but there he came under the notice of the bishop who, recognizing his qualities, promoted him to the priesthood. When Clovis I, King of France, returning from his victory over the Alemanni, was hastening to Rheims to be baptized, he asked at Toul for some priest to accompany him on his journey and to prepare him. Vedast was presented to the monarch for that purpose. His biographers tell how, as they were about to cross the Aisne, a blind beggar on the bridge besought the saint to restore his sight. St Vedast prayed and made the sign of the cross on his eyes and immediately the power of vision was given back to him.
   This miracle confirmed the king in the faith and converted several of the courtiers.
   St Vedast assisted St Remigius (Rémi) in instructing the Franks until that prelate consecrated him bishop of Arras that he might re-establish the faith where it had died out.  Entering the city in 499, he restored sight to a blind man and cured one who was lame. These miracles disposed the hearts of many unbelievers to accept the Gospel, which had suffered much from the inroads of the northern marauders.
   Vedast could find no traces of Christianity except the ruins of a church where, within the memory of certain old people, Christians had worshipped.  St  Vedast found the people boorish and obstinate, but he persevered, and in the  end we are told he succeeded in restoring Christianity throughout the land.
         He laboured nearly forty years, and left his church at his death in a flourishing condition.
        
           There are two ancient lives of St Vedast, one seemingly by St Jonas of Bobbio, the other
         by Alcuin. Both will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. i, and in MGH.,
         Scriptores Merov., vol. iii. See also L. Van der Essen, Saints Merovingiens (1907); and
         W. S. Simpson, Life and Legend of St Vedast (1896); and E. Guilbert, St Vaast .
         (1938). Two English medieval churches were dedicated under the name of St Vedast,
         one of which is in London in
Foster  Lane.

   When he was still very young, Vedast had left his home and led a holy life concealed from the world in the diocese of Toul, where the bishop, charmed with his virtue, consecrated him to the priesthood. Vedast, a fellow-worker with Saint Remigius in the conversion of the Franks, was instrumental in the conversion of Clovis I to Christianity.
The occasion of Clovis's conversion was a victory over the Alemanni in 496.
   He had already been influenced by Saint Clothilde, whom he had married four years earlier.
After his victory, he was heading to Rheims to receive baptism at the hands of Remigius, but at Toul he requested the help of a priest who might instruct and prepare him for the holy sacrament as he travelled. Vedast was presented to his majesty for this purpose.
When Vedast restored the sight of a blind man along the Aisne River with a prayer and the sign of the cross, Clovis was strengthened in his resolve to become a Christian and some of his courtiers converted immediately.

After being consecrated in 499 as bishop of Arras (united with Cambrai in 510) by Remigius, Vedast ruled the united sees of Arras- Cambrai for about 40 years. Upon his arrival in Arras, he restored sight to a blind man, and cured another who was lame. These miracles excited the attention, and disposed the hearts of many to open themselves to receive the Gospel. Although the region had been Christianized during the Roman occupation, the repeated incursion of Vandals and Alans had virtually destroyed any remnant of the faith. At the beginning of episcopacy, the only vestige of Christianity in his see was a ruined church. Though nearly discouraged at the ravages done to the faith, Vedast's patience, meekness, charity, and most especially prayers, allowed God to triumph over superstition and lust, and the faith was restored throughout that area.

Vedast was buried in the cathedral, but 128 years later Bishop Saint Aubertus changed a little chapel which Vedast had built in honor of St. Peter into an abbey, and translated the Vedast's relics into this new church, leaving a small portion of them in the cathedral. The great abbey of Saint Vedast was finished by Bishop Saint Vindicianus and endowed by king Theodoric or Thierry, who lies buried in the church with his wife Doda.

Many sites through Arras, Cambrai, and Belgium commemorate his name, as do three ancient church in England (in London, Norwich, and Tathwell in Lincolnshire). Although it is unlikely that Vedast ever visited England, his cultus there dates to the 10th century, which was heightened in the 12th century by the presence of Arrouaise Augustinians in the country. In England, he is sometimes known as Saint Foster, which is the derivation of that family name.

The feast of Vedast was included in the Benedictional of Saint Ethelwold, the Missal of Robert of JumiŠges, and the Leofric missal, as well as the calendars of Sarum, York, and Hereford. Blessed Alcuin wrote a vita for Vedast, as well as an Office and Mass in his honor for usage at Arras. In a letter to the monks of Arras in 769, Alcuin calls Vedast his protector (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth).

As in the stained glass image in the church of Blythburgh, Suffolk, Saint Vedast is pictured as a bishop with a wolf carrying a goose in its mouth (Roeder) (which had been rescued by Vedast for its poor owners). Other attributes include a child at his feet or a bear (Farmer). He is invoked on behalf of children who walk with difficulty, and for diseases of the eyes (Roeder).

540 St. Berthaldus A hermit ordained by St. Remigius. Berthaldus, also called Bertaud, lived in the Ardennes region of France indulgences granted for pilgrimages to his shrine.
Berthaldus, Hermit (AC) (also known as Bertaud, Berthold). Saint Berthaldus was a hermit in the Ardennes who was ordained a priest by Saint Remigius. The town of Chaumont grew up around his titular abbey and church in the diocese of Rheims. Many miracles occurred at his death. Several popes, including Nicholas VI in 1451 and Paul II in 1466, have granted indulgences for pilgrimages to his shrine (Benedictines, Montague).
540 St. David  Hermit of Thessalonika Greece remained in his small hermitage for seventy years, attracting many followers  gift of wonderworking, and he healed many from sickness
He remained in his small hermitage for seventy years, attracting many followers. Thus Llandewi marks the spot where St. David, Bishop of Caerleon and then of Menevia (fifth century) is said to have finally refuted Pelagius;

In 1054, David’s relics were translated to pavia, Italy. David of Thessalonica, Hermit (RM) Born in Thessalonica, 5th century. Saint David lived for 70 years as a hermit, but he also served as a spiritual director. His relics were translated to Pavia, Italy, in 1054 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

Saint David of Thessalonica pursued asceticism at the monastery of the holy Martyrs Theodore and Mercurius. Inspired by the example of the holy stylites, he lived in an almond tree in constant prayer, keeping strict fast, and enduring heat and cold. He remained there for three years until an angel told him to come down.

St David received from God the gift of wonderworking, and he healed many from sickness. The holy ascetic gave spiritual counsel to all who came to him. Having attained to passionlessness, he was like an angel in the flesh, and he was able to take hot coals into his hands without harm. He died the year 540.
540-547 Saints Eutychius and Florentius were monks pursuing asceticism in the region of Nursa in Italy during the sixth century. St Eutychius converted many to God by his teaching. When the igumen of a nearby monastery died, they appealed to him to become its head. He consented, but continued to be concerned with the former place of his ascetic activity, where his companion Florentius remained. miracles

St Florentius worked many miracles during his lifetime. For example, he tamed a bear, which served him. It shepherded sheep, carried water and obeyed other commands of the Elder. Jealous of the fame of St Florentius, four monks killed the bear. The saint predicted that the wrath of God would fall upon the murderers. So it happened as he said. The monks were stricken with illness, and died shortly afterwards. On learning of the death of the monks, St Florentius was grievously saddened and distressed, considering himself the murderer of those monks. He wept for them the rest of his life.

St Eutychius did not work miracles during his lifetime, but after death his clothing began to produce healings. During a time of drought the people of Nursia went to the fields with his clothing, and God sent rain (this was in the year 1492). St Eutychius died on May 23, 540, and St Florentius, on June 1,547
.
544 John of Reomay hermit monk confirmed many miracles Abbot (RM).
(also known as John of Réomé)

544  ST JOHN OF REOMAY, ABBOT
ALTHOUGH we have a good early biography of Abbot John, the story it tells is a very simple one. He was a native of the diocese of Langres, and took the monastic habit at Lérins. Later on he was recalled into his own country by the bishop to found the abbey from which he received his surname, but which was afterwards called Moutier-Saint-Jean. He governed it for many years with a great reputation of sanctity, and was rendered famous by miracles. It is recorded of him that he refused to converse with his own mother when she came to the abbey to visit him. He showed himself to her, however, at a distance, sent her a message to encourage her to aim at a high standard of virtue, and warned her that she would not behold him again until they met in Heaven. He went to God about the year 544, when more than a hundred years old, and was one of the pioneers of the monastic state in France.

The biography of St John of Reomay has been edited by B. Krusch in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. iii, pp. 502—517. As Krusch has shown in his article “Zwei Heiligenleben des Jonas von Sosa”, in the Mittheilungen of the Austrian Historical Society, vol. xiv, pp.385 seq., the texts previously edited have no value. The author of the vita was Jonas of Susa, and not a contemporary.

Born in Dijon (diocese of Langres), France, 425; died at Reomay c. 544. This pioneer of the monastic life in France, was first a hermit at Reomay. When disciples gathered round him, he escaped in secret and became a monk at Lérins.
Here he learned the traditions of Saint Macarius, and when summoned back to his native Langres by its bishop to found Moûtier-Saint-Jean in Reomay, he regulated his monastery according to them. He governed the abbey for many years with great sanctity, confirmed by many miracles. He was almost 120 years old at his death. Saint Gregory of Tours provides an account of this holy pioneer of French monasticism in his On the glory of confessors (chapter 87), as does Saint Columbanus's disciple Jonas (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, Encyclopedia, Roeder, Husenbeth). In art, Saint John is portrayed as a Benedictine hermit-abbot near a well with a dragon on a chain (Roeder). He is venerated especially in Dijon, Lérins, and Réomé (Roeder).
539 St. John of Reomay  Pioneer of Western monasticism in France
He was born in Dijon, France, in 425, and became a hermit at Reomay. When too many disciples appeared at his hermitage, John went to Lerins. He returned to Reomay and introduced the rules of St. Macanus, founding an abbey that became Mount St. Jean. He was known for his holiness and miracles.
547 Fortunatus, Bishop of Tuderti, who had a most singular grace in casting out of devils
Tudérti, in Umbria, sancti Fortunáti Epíscopi, qui (ut beátus Gregórius Papa refert) in immúndis spirítibus effugándis imménsæ grátia virtútis emícuit.
    At Todi in Umbria, St. Fortunatus, bishop, who, as is mentioned by blessed Gregory, was endowed with an extraordinary gift for casting out unclean spirits.
In so much that sometime he did cast out of possessed bodies whole legions; and by the continual exercise of prayer, he overcame all their temptations. Julianus, who had an office here in our church, and not long since died in this city, was familiarly acquainted with him, by whose relation I learned that which I will now tell you: for by reason of his great and inward familiarity, often was he present at such miracles as he wrought, and did divers times talk of him to our instruction and his own comfort.

A certain noble matron there was, dwelling in the hither parts of Tuscania, that had a daughter-in-law, which, not long after the marriage of her son, was, together with her mother-in-law, invited to the dedication of the oratory of the blessed martyr, St. Sebastian: and the night before this solemnity, overcome with carnal pleasure, she could not abstain from her husband; and though in the morning her former delight troubled her conscience, yet shame drave her forth to the procession, being more ashamed of men than fearing the judgment of God, and therefore thither she went together with her mother-in-law. And behold, straight upon the bringing of the relics of St. Sebastian the martyr into the oratory, a wicked spirit possessed the foresaid matron's daughter-in-law, and pitifully tormented her before all the people. The Priest of the oratory, beholding her so terribly vexed and lifted up, took a white linen cloth and cast upon her; and forthwith the devil also entered |39 into him, and because he presumed above his strength, enforced also he was by his own vexation, to know what himself was. Those that were present took up the young gentlewoman in their hands, and carried her home to her own house. And for as much as she was by the enemy continually and cruelly tormented, her kinsfolk that carnally loved her, and with their love did persecute her, cause her to be carried for help to certain witches; so utterly to cast away her soul, whose body they went about by sorcery for a time to relieve. Coming into their hands, she was by them brought to a river, and there washed in the water, the sorcerers labouring a long time by their enchantments to cast out the devil, that had possessed her body: but by the wonderful judgment of almighty God, it fell out that whiles one by unlawful art was expelled, suddenly a whole legion did enter in. And from that time forward, she began to be tossed with so many varieties of motions, to shriek out in so many sundry tunes, as there were devils in her body. Then her parents, consulting together, and confessing their own wickedness, carried her to the venerable Bishop Fortunatus, and with him they left her: who, having taken her to his charge, fell to his prayers many days and nights, and he prayed so much the more earnestly, because he had against him, in one body, an whole army of devils: and many days passed not, before he made her so safe and sound, as though the devil had never had any power or interest in her body.

At another time, the same servant of almighty God cast forth a devil out of one that was possessed: which wicked spirit, when it was now night and saw few men stirring in the streets, taking upon him the shape of a stranger, began to go up and down the city, crying out: "O holy Bishop Fortunatus, behold what he hath done; he hath turned a stranger out of his lodging, and now |40 I seek for a place to rest in, and in his whole city can find none." A certain man, sitting in his house by the fire, with his wife and his little son, hearing one to cry out in that manner, went forth, and enquired what the Bishop had done, and withal invited him to his house, where he caused him to sit with them by the fire: and as they were among themselves discoursing of divers matters, the same wicked spirit on a sudden entered into his little child, cast him into the fire, and forthwith killed him: then the wretched father, by the loss of his son in this manner, knew full well whom he had entertained, and the Bishop turned out of his lodging.

PETER. What was the cause, that the old enemy presumed to kill his son in his own house: who, thinking him to be a stranger, vouchsafed him of lodging and entertainment?

GREGORY. Many things, Peter, seem to be good and yet are not, because they be not done with a good mind and intention; and therefore our Saviour saith in the gospel: If thy eye be naughty all thy body shall be dark. For when the intention is wicked, all the work that followeth is naught, although it seem to be never so good; and therefore this man who lost his child, though he seemed to give hospitality, yet I think that he took not any pleasure in that work of mercy, but rather in the detraction and infamy of the Bishop: for the punishment which followed did declare that his entertainment going before, was not void of sin. For some there be, which are careful to do good works, to the end they may obscure the virtue of another man's life; neither take they pleasure in the good thing which they do, but in the conceit of that hurt which thereby they imagine re-doundeth to others; and therefore I verily suppose that this man, which gave entertainment to the devil, was more desirous to seem to do a good work than to do
547 ST BENEDICT, ABBOT, PATRIARCH OF WESTERN MONKS
 In monte Cassíno natális sancti Benedícti Abbátis, qui in Occidénte fere collápsam Monachórum disciplínam restítuit ac mirífice propagávit; cujus vitam, virtútibus et miráculis gloriósam, beátus Gregórius Papa conscrípsit.
   At Monte Cassino, birthday of the holy abbot St. Benedict, who restored and wonderfully extended the monastic discipline in the West, where it had almost been destroyed.  His life, brilliant in virtues and miracles, was written by Pope St. Gregory.
IN view of the immense influence exerted over Europe by the followers of St Benedict, it is disappointing that we have no contemporary biography of the great legislator, the father of Western monasticism; for St Benedict, it has been said, “is a dim figure, and the facts of his life are given us in a clothing which obscures rather than reveals his personality”. The little we know about his earlier life comes from the Dialogues of St Gregory, who does not furnish a connected history, but merely a series of sketches to illustrate the miraculous incidents in his career.
Benedict was of good birth, and was born and brought up at the ancient Sabine town of Nursia (Norcia). Of his twin sister Scholastica, we read that from her infancy she had vowed herself to God, but we do not hear of her again until towards the close of her brother’s life. He was sent to Rome for his “liberal education”, being accompanied by a “nurse”, probably to act as housekeeper. He was then in his early teens, or perhaps a little more. Overrun by pagan and Arian tribes, the civilized world seemed during the closing years of the fifth century to be rapidly lapsing into barbarism: the Church was rent by schisms, town and country were desolated by war and pillage, shameful sins were rampant amongst Christians as well as heathens, and it was noted that there was not a sovereign or a ruler who was not an atheist, a pagan or a heretic. The youths in schools and colleges imitated the vices of their elders, and Benedict, revolted by the licentiousness of his companions, yet fearing lest he might become contaminated by their example, made up his mind to leave Rome. He made his escape without telling anyone of his plans excepting his nurse, who accompanied him. There has been considerable difference of opinion as to his age when he left the paternal roof, but he may have been nearly twenty. They made their way to the village of Enfide in the mountains thirty miles from Rome. What was the length of his stay we do not know, but it was sufficient to enable him to determine his next step.

Absence from the temptations of Rome, he soon realized, was not enough; God was calling him to be a solitary and to abandon the world, and the youth could no more live a hidden life in a village than in the city—especially after he had miraculously mended an earthenware sieve which his nurse had borrowed and had accidentally broken.
In search of complete solitude Benedict started forth once more, alone, and climbed further among the hills until he reached a place now known as Subiaco (Sublacum, from the artificial lake formed in the days of Claudius by the banking up of the waters of the Anio). In this wild and rocky country he came upon a monk called Romanus, to whom he opened his heart, explaining his intention of leading the life of a hermit. Romanus himself lived in a monastery at no great distance, but he eagerly assisted the young man, clothing him with a sheepskin habit and leading him to a cave in the mountain. It was roofed by a high rock over which there was no descent, and the ascent from below was rendered perilous by precipices as well as by thick woods and undergrowth. In this desolate cavern Benedict spent the next three years of his life, unknown to all except Romanus, who kept his secret and daily brought bread for the young recluse, who drew it up in a basket let down by a rope over the rock. Gregory reports that the first outsider to find his way to the cave was a priest who, when preparing a dinner for himself on Easter Sunday, heard a voice which said to him, “You are preparing yourself a savoury dish whilst my servant Benedict is afflicted with hunger”. The priest immediately set out in quest of the hermit, whom he found with great difficulty. After they had discoursed for some time on God and heavenly things the priest invited him to eat, saying that it was Easter day, on which it was not reasonable to fast. Benedict, who doubtless had lost all sense of time and certainly had no means of calculating lunar cycles, replied that he knew not that it was the day of so great a solemnity. They ate their meal together, and the priest went home. Shortly afterwards the saint was discovered by some shepherds, who took him at first for a wild animal because he was clothed in the skin of beasts and because they did not think any human being could live among the rocks. When they discovered that he was a servant of God they were greatly impressed, and derived much good from his discourses. From that time he began to be known and many people visited him, bringing such sustenance as he would accept and receiving from him instruction and advice.
Although he lived thus sequestered from the world, St Benedict, like the fathers in the desert, had to meet the temptations of the flesh and of the Devil, one of which has been described by St Gregory. “On a certain day when he was alone the tempter presented himself. For a small dark bird, commonly called a blackbird, began to fly round his face, and came so near to him that, if he had wished, he could have seized it with his hand. But on his making the sign of the cross, the bird flew away. Then such a violent temptation of the flesh followed as he had never before experienced. The evil spirit brought before his imagination a certain woman whom he had formerly seen, and inflamed his heart with such vehement desire at the memory of her that he had very great difficulty in repressing it; and being almost overcome he thought of leaving his solitude. Suddenly, however, helped by divine grace, he found the strength he needed, and seeing close by a thick growth of briars and nettles, he stripped off his garment and dast himself into the midst of them. There he rolled until his whole body was lacerated. Thus, through those bodily wounds he cured the wounds of his soul”, and was never again troubled in the same way.
Between Tivoli and Subiaco, at Vicovaro, on the summit of a cliff overlooking the Anio, there resided at that time a community of monks who, having lost their abbot by death, resolved to ask St Benedict to take his place. He at first refused, assuring the community, who had come to him in a body, that their ways and his would not agree—perhaps he knew of them by reputation. Their importunity, however, induced him to consent, and he returned with them to take up the government. It soon became evident that his strict notions of monastic discipline did not suit them, for all that they lived in rock-hewn cells; and in order to get rid of him they went so far as to mingle poison in his wine. When as was his wont he made the sign of the cross over the jug, it broke in pieces as if a stone had fallen upon it. “God forgive you, brothers”, the abbot said without anger. “Why have you plotted this wicked thing against me? Did I not tell you that my customs would not accord with yours? Go and find an abbot to your taste, for after this deed you can no longer keep me among you.”  With these words he returned to Subiaco—no longer, however, to live a life of seclusion, but to begin the great work for which God had been preparing him during those three hidden years.
Disciples began to gather about him, attracted by his sanctity and by his miraculous powers, seculars fleeing from the world as well as solitaries who lived dispersed among the mountains; and St Benedict found himself in a position to initiate that great scheme, evolved perhaps or revealed to him in the silent cave, of “gathering together in this place as in one fold of the Lord many and different families of holy monks, dispersed in various monasteries and regions, in order to make of them one flock after His own heart, to strengthen them more, and bind them together by fraternal bonds in one house of the Lord under one regular observance, and in the permanent worship of the name of God”. He therefore settled all who would obey him in twelve wood-built monasteries of twelve monks, each with its prior. He himself exercised the supreme direction over all from where he lived with certain chosen monks whom he wished to train with special care. So far they had no written rule of their own: but according to a very ancient document “the monks of the twelve monasteries were taught the religious life, not by following any written rule, but only by following the example of St Benedict’s deeds”. Romans and barbarians, rich and poor, placed themselves at the disposal of the saint, who made no distinction of rank or nation, and after a time parents came to entrust him with their sons to be educated and trained for the monastic life. St Gregory tells us of two noble Romans, Tertullus the patrician and Equitius, who brought their sons, Placid, a child of seven, and Maurus, a lad of twelve, and devotes several pages to these young recruits (see St Maurus, January 15, and St Placid, October 5).
In contrast with these aristocratic young Romans, St Gregory tells of a rough untutored Goth who came to St Benedict and was received with joy and clothed in the monastic habit. Sent with a hedge-hook to clear the thick undergrowth from ground overlooking the lake, he worked so vigorously that the head flew off the haft and disappeared into the lake. The poor man was overwhelmed with distress, but as soon as St Benedict heard of the accident he led the culprit to the water’s edge, and taking the haft from him, threw it into the lake. Immediately from the bottom rose up the iron head, which proceeded to fasten itself automatically to the haft, and the abbot returned the tool saying, “There! Go on with your work and don’t be miserable”. It was not the least of St Benedict’s miracles that he broke down the deeply rooted prejudice against manual work as being degrading and servile: he believed that labour was not only dignified but conducive to holiness, and therefore he made it compulsory for all who joined his community—nobles and plebeians alike.
We do not know how long the saint remained at Subiaco, but he stayed long enough to establish his monasteries on a firm and permanent basis. His departure was sudden and seems to have been, unpremeditated. There lived in the neighbourhood an unworthy priest called Florentius, who, seeing the success which attended St Benedict and the great concourse of people who flocked to him, was moved to envy and tried to ruin him. Having failed in all attempts to take away his character by slander, and his life by sending him a poisoned loaf (which St Gregory says was removed miraculously by a raven), he tried to seduce his monks by introducing women of evil life. The abbot, who fully realized that the wicked schemes of Florentius were aimed at him personally, resolved to leave Subiaco, lest the souls of his spiritual children should continue to be assailed and endangered. Having set all things in order, he withdrew from Subiaco to the territory of Monte Cassino. It is a solitary elevation on the boundaries of Campania, commanding on three sides narrow valleys running up towards the mountains, and on the fourth, as far as the Mediterranean, an undulating plain which had once been rich and fertile, but having fallen out of cultivation owing to repeated irruptions of the barbarians, it had become marshy and malarious.
   The town of Casinum, once an important place, had been destroyed by the Goths, and the remnant of its inhabitants had relapsed into—or perhaps had never lost—their paganism. They were wont to offer sacrifice in a temple dedicated to Apollo, which stood on the crest of Monte Cassino, and the saint made it his first work after a forty days’ fast to preach to the people and to bring them to Christ. His teaching and miracles made many converts, with whose help he proceeded to overthrow the temple, its idol and its sacred grove. Upon the site of the temple he built two chapels, and round about these sanctuaries there rose little by little the great pile which was destined to become the most famous abbey the world has ever known, the foundation of which is likely to have been laid by St Benedict in the year 530 or thereabouts. It was
from here that went forth the influence that was to play so great a part in the christianization and civilization of post-Roman Europe: it was no mere ecclesias­tical museum that was destroyed during the second World War

It is probable that Benedict, who was now in middle age, again spent some time as a hermit; but disciples soon flocked to Monte Cassino too. Profiting no doubt by the experience gained at Subiaco, he no longer placed them in separate houses but gathered them together in one establishment, ruled over by a prior and deans under his general supervision. It almost immediately became necessary to add guest-chambers, for Monte Cassino, unlike Subiaco, was easily accessible from Rome and Capua. Not only laymen but dignitaries of the Church came to confer with the holy founder, whose reputation for sanctity, wisdom and miracles became widespread. It is almost certainly at this period that he composed his Rule, of which St Gregory says that in it may be understood “all his manner of life and discipline, for the holy man could not possibly teach otherwise than he lived”. Though it was primarily intended for the monks at Monte Cassino, yet, as Abbot Chapman has pointed out, there is something in favour of the view that it was written at the desire of Pope St Hormisdas for all monks of the West. It is ad dressed to all those who, renouncing their own will, take upon them “the strong and bright armour of obedience to fight under the Lord Christ, our true king”, and it prescribes a life of liturgical prayer, study (“sacred reading”) and work, lived socially in a community under one common father. Then and for long afterwards a monk was but rarely in holy orders, and there is no evidence that St Benedict himself was ever a priest. He sought to provide a school for the Lord’s service” intended for beginners, and the asceticism of the rule is notably moderate. Self-chosen and abnormal austerities were not encouraged, and when a hermit, occupying a cave near Monte Cassino, chained his foot to the rock, Benedict sent him a message, saying, “If you are truly a servant of God, chain not yourself with a chain of iron but with the chain of Christ”.

The great vision, when Benedict saw as in one sunbeam the whole world in the light of God, sums up the inspiration of his life and rule.

The holy abbot, far from confining his ministrations to those who would follow his rule, extended his solicitude to the population of the surrounding country: he cured their sick, relieved the distressed, distributed alms and food to the poor, and is said to have raised the dead on more than one occasion. While Campania was suffering from a severe famine he gave away all the provisions in the abbey, with the exception of five loaves. “You have not enough to-day”, he said to his monks, marking their dismay, “but to-morrow you will have too much”. The following morning two hundred bushels of flour were laid by an unknown hand at the monastery gate. Other instances have been handed down in illustration of St Benedict’s prophetic powers, to which was added ability to read men’s thoughts. A nobleman he had converted once found him in tears and inquired the cause of his grief. The abbot replied, “This monastery which I have built and all that I have prepared for my brethren has been delivered up to the heathen by a sentence of the Almighty. Scarcely have I been able to obtain mercy for their lives.” The prophecy was verified some forty years later, when the abbey of Monte Cassino was destroyed by the Lombards.

When Totila the Goth was making a triumphal progress through central Italy, he conceived a wish to visit St Benedict, of whom he had heard much. He there­fore sent word of his coming to the abbot, who replied that he would see him. To discover whether the saint really possessed the powers attributed to him, Totila ordered Riggo, the captain of his guard, to don his own purple robes, and sent him, with the three counts who usually attended the king, to Monte Cassino. The impersonation did not deceive St Benedict, who greeted Riggo with the words, “My son, take off what you are wearing; it is not yours”. His visitor withdrew in haste to tell his master that he had been detected. Then Totila came himself to the man of God and, we are told, was so much awed that he fell prostrate. But Benedict, raising him from the ground, rebuked him for his evil deeds, and foretold in a few words all that should befall him. Thereupon the king craved his prayers and departed, but from that time he was less cruel. This interview took place in 542, and St Benedict can hardly have lived long enough to see the complete fulfil­ment of his own prophecy.

The great saint who had foretold so many other things was also forewarned of his own approaching death. He notified it to his disciples and six days before the end bade them dig his grave. As soon as this had been done he was stricken with fever, and on the last day he received the Body and Blood of the Lord. Then, while the loving hands of the brethren were supporting his weak limbs, he uttered a few final words of prayer and died—standing on his feet in the chapel, with his hands uplifted towards heaven. He was buried beside St Scholastica his sister, on the site of the altar of Apollo which he had cast down.

The fact that we know practically nothing of the life of St Benedict beyond what is told us by St Gregory, or what may be inferred from the text of the Rule, has not stood in the way of the multiplication of biographies of the saint. Among those in foreign languages, the lives by Abbots Tosti, Herwegen, Cabrol and Schuster have been translated into English perhaps the best life of English origin is that by Abbot Justin McCann (1938). See also T. F. Lindsay’s St Benedict (1950) ; High History of St Benedict and His Monks (1945), by a monk of Douay; and Zimmermann and Avery’s Life and Miracles of St Benedict (1950), being bk ii of St Gregory’s “Dialogues”. For those who wish to learn something of the spirit of the saint, Abbot Cuthbert Butler’s Benedictine Monachism (1924) and Abbot Chap­man’s St Benedict and the Sixth Century (1929) may be strongly recommended, especially the first. See also P. Renaudin, St Benoit dans l’Histoire (1928). A convenient edition of the Rule, Latin and English, has been published by Abbot Hunter-Blair (1914), a critical revision of the Latin text by Abbot Butler (1933), text and translation by Abbot McCann (1952), and a commentary by Abbot Delatte (Eng. trans., 1921). See too The Monastic Order in England (1940), pp. 3—15 and passim, by Dom David Knowles, and his The Bene­dictines (1929).
550 St. Benedict of Campania Benedictine hermit contemporary of St. Benedict of Nursia and Monte Cassino  miraculously escaped burning
Benedict lived in the Campania region of Italy. When captured by Totila the Goth, he was saved miraculously from the flames Of an execution fire.
He is also called Benedict the Hermit and is mentioned in the Dialogues of St. Gregory.

Benedict of Campania (RM) (also known as Benedict the Hermit) Died c. 550. This saint was a contemporary of Saint Benedict of Monte Cassino. He lived as a hermit in the Campagna region of Italy.
The Goths tried to burn the monk alive, but he miraculously escaped the next day (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
550  St Albinus, Or Aubin, Bishop Of Angers many miracles attributed during his life but more particularly after his death
THE great popularity of St Aubin appears to be due, not so much to his career, which presents no remarkable features, as to the many miracles attributed to him not only during his life but more particularly after his death. His cultus spread over France, Italy, Spain, Germany and even to distant Poland, and he became the titular patron of an immense number of French parishes. Born in the diocese of Vannes in Brittany, the saint belonged to a family said to have originally come from England or Ireland. While still young he entered the monastery of Tincillac, about which little is known, and there he led a life of great devotion. At the age of about thirty-five he was elected abbot, and, under his rule, the house flourished exceedingly and became a garden of virtues. Consequently, when the see of Angers fell vacant in 529 the clergy and citizens of Angers turned their eyes to Aubin. Greatly against his will, but much to the joy of the bishop of Rennes, St Melanius, he was appointed bishop of Angers and proved himself a capable and enlightened pastor.
St Aubin preached daily, and whilst always generous. to the sick and needy he was specially concerned with helping poor widows who were struggling to bring up large families. The ransoming of slaves was another good work very dear to his heart, and he spent large sums of money in buying back prisoners who had been carried off in the numerous raids of the barbarians. Tradition says that one of these captives was ransomed, not from the pirates, but from King Childebert himself. This was a lovely girl called Etheria upon whom the monarch had cast eyes. He caused her to be carried off from her home and imprisoned in a fortress. As soon as this came to the ears of the bishop, he went to the castle to demand her release, and such was the respect he inspired that the guards delivered her up at once. The legend adds that one soldier tried to detain the maiden and used threats and violence, but St Aubin breathed upon him and he fell down dead. The king made no further attempt to recapture the girl, but was undignified enough to demand a ransom which, we are told, was paid by the saint. Whether or not there is any truth in the story, it is certain that King Childebert had a great veneration for the bishop, but in other quarters he was very unpopular because of the energy with which he enforced the decrees of the Councils of Orleans in 538 and 541 against incestuous marriages.
St Aubin was credited with very many miracles. Besides numerous cases of the healing of the sick and the restoration of sight to the blind, we read of a youth called Alabald who was raised from the dead by his intercession. Once, after he had pleaded in vain with a judge to release some criminals, a great stone fell during the night from the prison wall and thus enabled the prisoners to regain their liberty. They immediately came to seek the saint and assured him that they would in future lead reformed lives.

The principal source for the life of St AIbinus is a short biography by Venantius Fortuna­tus, the most critical text of which is to be found in MGH., Auctores antiquissimi, vol. iv, "opera pedestria", pp. 27-33. His name is entered in the" Hieronymianum ", and St Gregory of Tours refers to the cultus paid to him. See Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, pp. 347-349, 353-354; DHG., vol. v. cc. 254-255 ; and the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. i,
550 Isaac of Spoleto a Syrian monk “A monk who wants earthly possessions is not a monk at all”. The holy man was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.
Spoléti sancti Isaac, Mónachi et Confessóris, cujus virtútes sanctus Gregórius Papa commémorat.
    At Spoleto, St. Isaac, monk and confessor, whose virtues are recorded by Pope St. Gregory.
(also known as Isaac of Monteluco) Saint Isaac was a Syrian monk who fled from the Monophysite persecution and founded a laura at Monteluco, near Spoleto, Umbria, Italy. He was one of the restorers of eremitical life in 6th century Italy (Benedictines).
550 ST ISAAC OF SPOLETO “A monk who wants earthly possessions is not a monk at all”. The holy man was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.

THE ilex-covered slopes of Monte Luco, considered sacred since pagan times, are honeycombed by caves which sheltered many a Christian solitary in the early middle ages. One of the most famous of these recluses was St Isaac, a man well known to St Gregory’s friend St Eleutherius, who furnished the particulars about the hermit which are contained in the Dialogues.
Isaac was a Syrian, who left his native land in consequence of the monophysite persecution to take up his residence in Italy. Upon his first arrival, in Spoleto he entered a church, where he remained for three days and three nights, absorbed in prayer. Mistrusting his motives, one of the custodians of the building called him a hypocrite, struck him, and drove him from the church. Retribution immediately overtook the man, for the Devil entered into him and would not leave until St Isaac had stretched himself upon the body of his assailant. “Isaac is driving me out!” exclaimed the evil spirit, thus disclosing to the inhabitants of Spoleto the identity of the stranger. The townsfolk, convinced that they had in their midst a very holy man, offered him presents and would have built him a monastery, but he refused all gifts and retired to a cave on Monte Luco. After several years spent in solitude, he had a vision of our Lady in which she bade him train disciples. He then became the director of a kind of laura, although he never founded a monastery. Several times his followers asked him to sanction their acceptance of offerings from the faithful, but he always replied, “A monk who wants earthly possessions is not a monk at all”. The holy man was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.

All that we know of St Isaac is derived from the third book of the Dialogues of St Gregory. See also the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii.
552 Saint Gregory, Bishop of Homer (Omirits) possessed gifts of healing and wonderworking even in his youth
 Antisiodóri sancti Gregórii, Epíscopi et Confessóris.       At Auxerre, St. Gregory, bishop and confessor.
Son of Agapius and Theodota, was filled with the grace of God and possessed gifts of healing and wonderworking even in his youth. The Providence of God led him to hierarchical service. While still a deacon at Mediolanum (Milan) he heard the foretelling of his destiny from a hermit, and then he received confirmation of these words from another spirit-bearing Elder who lived an ascetic life in the mountains.

When Gregory went to this holy schemamonk for guidance, a miracle occurred. As he approached the mountain, he saw a fiery column in the air. He soon realized that the fiery column was actually the man of God coming toward him. That night he saw the Elder standing in the air above the ground. The Elder revealed to St Gregory that he must go to Rome to pray in the church of Sts Boniface and Aglaida. Then he would go to Alexandria and to become a bishop. Then he would arrive in the city of Negran in the land of Homer (in southern Arabia) to proclaim the Gospel.

St Gregory felt himself unworthy of this, and wished to remain with the ascetic as his disciple. So that Gregory should have no doubts of the veracity of his words, the Elder revealed that he knew a secret about him. In a vision, Gregory had seen the First-Ranked Apostles Peter and Paul, and they had placed a bishop's omophorion upon him. St Gregory stayed a short time in Carthage (North Africa) serving as a deacon, then arrived in Rome. He went to the church of Sts Boniface and Aglaida, then to the tomb of St Peter. There he was granted a vision of the holy Apostle, who told him to walk the path of virtue and to live according to God's will. That night he saw the Apostle Paul in a dream bringing to him a cup filled with oil, foretelling that he should receive the grace of the priesthood and the episcopacy.

During this time the armies of the Ethiopian emperor Elesbaan (October 24) vanquished the Himyarite king Dunaan, who was of Jewish background. The city of Negran was liberated, and Christianity restored in the land of Homer. But all the clergy had been cruelly exterminated by Dunaan, and therefore Elesbaan sent emissaries to the Patriarch of Alexandria asking him to send a bishop to Negran, and clergy for the churches. While he was praying, the holy Apostle Mark appeared to the patriarch, bidding him to find a deacon named Gregory, who was to be ordained to the priesthood, consecrated as a bishop, and then to be sent to Elesbaan. The patriarch did this.
During the service a miracle took place. St Gregory's face shone with the grace of the Holy Spirit,
and from his vestments came a sweet fragrance like myrrh or incense, filling the whole church with the scent.
Arriving in Homer, St Gregory began to set the Church in order, preaching to both pagans and Jews. After three years Elesbaan returned to Ethiopia, leaving the noble Abramius behind as King of Homer. St Gregory crowned and anointed Abramius as king. Soon he issued a decree that all his subjects be baptized. Then certain prominent Jews turned to the emperor saying that it was better for people to believe willingly rather than under compulsion. They requested that he should permit a debate on faith to be held between them and the Christians, vowing that if the Christians proved victorious in this debate, the Jews would then accept Baptism.
The Jews were given forty days to prepare for the debate, which lasted for several days. St Gregory refuted all the arguments of the head of the Hebrew elder, Rabbi Ervan, using only texts from the Old Testament. In a vision Ervan beheld the holy Prophet Moses, who worshipped the Lord Jesus Christ. The prophet told Ervan that Ervan was in opposition to the truth and would be defeated.
By the grace of God Christian truth prevailed in the debate, but Ervan would not acknowledge his defeat. He made a last desperate attempt. He said, "If you want me to believe in your Christ, and to acknowledge that yours is the true God, then show Him to me, bishop!" The saint replied: "Your request is impertinent. It is not with man that you contend now, but with God. However, the Lord can do what you have asked in order to convince you.
Everyone waited to see what would happen. St Gregory, having steadfast faith in God and trusting in Him, began to pray aloud. He recalled the mystery of the Incarnation of God the Word, the miracles of His earthly life, the Three-day Resurrection and the Ascension into Heaven, and he invoked the power of the Life-Creating Cross. "Show Thyself to these people, O Lord," he prayed, "and glorify Thy holy Name!" When he finished the prayer, the earth quaked, and in the east the heavens were opened, and in a radiant cloud of light the Lord Jesus Christ came down on earth, and the Voice of the Lord was heard: "Through the prayers of Bishop Gregory, He Whom your fathers put to death will heal you." 
Like Saul, who was struck blind by the Heavenly light on the road to Damascus, the Jews were struck blind. Then they believed in Christ and they implored the holy bishop to heal them. Upon receiving holy Baptism, all of them were healed. Rabbi Ervan received the Christian name Leo (meaning "lion").  After this most extraordinary miracle, St Gregory guided the flock of Homer for another thirty years. He reposed in the year 552 and was buried in a crypt in the cathedral of Afar.
556 Leobinus priest abbot of Brou (Lubin); brought about various reforms and con­tinued to be very famous for his miracles. He took part in the Fifth Council of Orleans and in the Second Council of Paris B (RM)
Born near Poitiers, France; feast day formerly September 15. Saint Lubin was the son of a peasant family, who became a hermit early in life. After a time he was ordained a priest, became abbot of Brou, and finally was consecrated bishop of Chartres, where he was one of the most distinguished holders of that important see (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). In art, Saint Lubin is shown on his death-bed receiving the last rites from Saint Caletric, who succeeded him as bishop (Roeder).

558 ST LEOBINUS, OR LUBIN, Bishop OF CHARTRES
THE parents of St Lubin were peasants in the country near Poitiers, and from childhood he was set to work in the fields. As a boy he was keen to learn, and his thirst for knowledge increasing with years he went to a monastery—probably Noailles—where he was employed in menial tasks. His work occupied him all day, and he was obliged to do most of his studying at night, screening his lamp as best he could, because the monks complained that the light disturbed their slumbers. By humility and perseverance he advanced in religious knowledge until he had reached an honourable place in the house. In some way, however, he came into contact with St Carilef, and it was probably at his suggestion that Lubin sought out the hermit St Avitus, who recommended him to spend some time longer in a monastery and then to return to him in Le Perche.

After sundry misadventures Lubin settled down for five years in an abbey near Lyons, until in a war between the Franks and the Burgundians the monastery was raided and the monks took to flight, only Lubin and an old man remaining behind. The raiders, who were intent on plunder, tried to discover from the old man where the treasures were concealed, and he referred them to St Lubin. As they could obtain no information from him they had recourse to torture—fastening a cord round his head and tightening it. After this they tied his feet and dipped him, head first, into the river, but failing to make him divulge anything they eventually left him for dead. He recovered, however, and with two companions returned to Le Perche where St Avitus received him into his monastery. After the death of St Avitus, Lubin again lived the life of a hermit. Bishop Aetherius of Chartres nominated him abbot of Brou and raised him to the priesthood. He seems to have found his responsibilities too onerous and longed to lay down office and become a simple monk at Lérins, but St Caesarius, to whom his own bishop sent him for advice, told him to go back to Brou and not to leave his people like sheep with­out a shepherd. He obeyed, but soon after his return was promoted to succeed Aetherius as bishop of Chartres. He brought about various reforms and con­tinued to be very famous for his miracles. He took part in the Fifth Council of Orleans and in the Second Council of Paris, dying on March 14, about 558 after a long illness.

The ancient Life of St Leobinus has been edited by B. Krusch in MGH., Auct. Antiquiss., vol. iv, part 2, pp. 73—82, as an appendix to the works of Venantius Fortunatus, who was at one time believed to have been the author. Fr A. Poncelet considers that the biography in its present form cannot be older than the middle of the ninth century. See the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxiv (1905), pp. 25—31, and p. 82. Cf. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p. 422, and the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii.
  556 Saint Ciaran of Clonmacnoise 1/12 Apostles of Ireland his holiness spread abroad: miraculous events.
In monastério Cluanénsi, in Hibérnia, sancti Queráni, Presbyteri et Abbátis.
    In the monastery of Clonmacnoise in Ireland, St. Kiaran, priest and abbot.
(the Younger, Cluain Mocca Nois), Abbot (AC) (also known as Kieran, Kyran, Ceran, Queran)
Born in Connacht, Ireland, c. 516; died at Clonmacnoise, c. 556. Saint Ciaran is one of the 12 Apostles of Ireland.
Born into a Meath family of pre-Celtic descent, Saint Ciaran was the son of the carpenter Beoit. As a boy he left home with a dun cow for company in order to be trained for the monastic life in Saint Finnian's monastery at Clonard. At Clonard he taught the daughter of the king of Cuala because he was considered the most learned monk in the abbey.

About 534, he migrated to Inishmore in the Aran Islands, where he spent seven years learning from Saint Enda and was ordained priest. He left after having a vision that Enda interpreted for him. Ciaran travelled slowly eastward, first Scattery Island where he learned from Saint Senan, then to Isel in the center of Ireland. He was forced to leave here because of his excessive charity and moved on to Inis Aingin (Hare Island).

He left there with eight companions and eventually settled at Clonmacnoise on the Shannon River south of Athlone in the West Meath, where he built Clonmacnoise monastery. He gave his monks an extremely austere rule, known as the Law of Kieran. The saint is said to have lived only seven months after founding the great school of Clonmacnoise, dying at the age of 34. Clonmacnoise may have been one of the most famous in Ireland, attracting students from throughout the country. When Pope John Paul II visited Ireland, it was the only school that he visited. The monastery survived many invasions and raids until 1552, and there are still many notable ruins remaining from its early days. Although Ciaran's shrine was plundered several times during the medieval period, the Clonmacnoise crozier remains in the National Museum in Dublin.

Various legends, some outlandish, are told of Ciaran. One relates that a fox's whelp would carry his lessons to Ciaran's master until it was old enough to eat the satchel containing the saint's writings. Another says that the other Irish saints were so jealous of him that they fasted and prayed that he might die young--hardly to be given any credit. (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Macalister, Montague).

The following stories derive from the Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae as translated by Plummer, which includes the moving account of his death:
The abbot Ciaran "was like a burning lamp, of charity so rare that not only did the fervor and devotion of his pitiful heart go out to the relieving of the hunger of men, but he showed himself tireless in caring for the dumb beasts in their necessity. . . ."

Ciaran left Saint Senan to live for a time with his brethren Luchen, abbot, and Odran, prior, at Isel Monastery, where he was appointed almoner. One day "Ciaran was reading out of doors in the graveyard in the sun, when he suddenly spied some weary travellers going into the guest house; and hurriedly getting up, he forgot his book, and it lay open out of doors until the morrow.

"Meantime, as he busied himself settling his guests in their quarters and bathing their feet and eagerly tending them, the night fell. In that same night there fell great rains; but by God's will the open book was found dry and sound; not a drop of rain had fallen upon it, and all the ground round about it was damp. For which Saint Ciaran and his brethren gave Christ praise...
"One day, when Saint Ciaran was working in the field, there came to him a poor man asking for alms. At that very hour a chariot with two horses had been brought in offering to Saint Ciaran by a certain lord, the son of Crimthann, King of Connaught; and these horses and chariot gave Ciaran to this poor man.

"Now Saint Ciaran's brothers could not endure the vastness of his charity, for every day he divided their substance among the poor, and so they said to him, 'Brother, depart from us; for we cannot live in the same place with thee and feed and keep our brethren for God, because of thy unbounded lavishness.' To whom Saint Ciaran made reply: 'If I had remained in this place, it would not have been Isel (that is, the low-lying): not low but high, but great and honorable.'

"And with that Saint Ciaran blessed his brothers, and taking his wallet with his books on his shoulder, he set out from thence. And when he had gone a little way from the place, there met him on the path a stag, awaiting him in all gentleness; and Saint Ciaran set his wallet on his back, and wherever the stag went, the blessed Ciaran followed him. And the stag came to Lough Ree, which is in the east of Connaught, and stood over against Hare Island, which is in the lake.

"Then Saint Ciaran knew that God had called him to that island; and blessing the stag, he sent him away, and went to that island and dwelt there. And the fame of his holiness spread abroad, and from far and near good men came together to him, and Saint Ciaran made them his monks...
"And one day as they rowed across, Saint Ciaran's gospel which a brother was holding carelessly fell into the lake, and for a great while it lay under the waters and was not found. But one summer day the cows came into the lake, to cool themselves in the water from the great heat of the sun; and when they were coming out from it, the leather wallet in which the Gospel had been put had caught about the foot of one of the cows, and so the cow dragged the wallet with her back to dry land; and inside the sodden leather the book of the Gospel was found, clean and dry and shining white, with no trace of damp, as if it had been hidden in a library. For which Saint Ciaran rejoiced, and his brethren with him...

"And after these things came a man of Munster...Donnan by name, to Saint, Ciaran dwelling on Hare Island. And to him one day Saint Ciaran said, 'What seek you, my father, in these parts?' And Saint Donnan replied, 'Master, I seek a place to abide in, where I may serve Christ in exile.'

"Then said Saint Ciaran, 'Abide, father, in this place; for I shall go to some other; I know that this is not the place of my resurrection.' Then Saint Ciaran gave Hare Island with his household goods to Saint Donnan, and came to a place called Ard Mantain on the River Shannon; but he would not dwell in that place, and said, 'I will not to dwell in this place, for here there will be a great plenty of the things of this world, and worldly delight; and heard would it be for the souls of my disciples to go to heaven, if I should live here, for the place belongs to the men of this world.'

"And thereafter Saint Ciaran left that place and came to the place which was called of old Ard Tiprat, but is now called Clonmacnoise. And coming to the place he said: 'Here shall I dwell; for many souls shall go forth from this place to the Kingdom of God; and in this place shall my resurrection be.' So there the blessed Ciaran lived with his disciples, and began to found a great monastery there; and many found all sides came to him, and his parish spread about him far; and the name of Saint Ciaran was famous throughout all Ireland. And a famous and holy city rose in that place to the honor of Saint Ciaran, and its name was Clonmacnoise...and in it whether they be kings or princes, the chiefs of the sons of Niall and of Connaught are buried beside Saint Ciaran there...

"So for one year did our most holy patron Saint Ciaran dwell in his city of Clonmacnoise. And when he knew that the day of his death was drawing nigh, he prophesied, weeping, of the future evils that would fall after his day upon that place; and said that their life would be a poor thing. Then said the brethren: 'Father, what shall we do in the day of these calamities? Shall we abide here beside thy relics? Or shall we seek another place?'
"To whom Saint Ciaran said: 'Haste ye to some other place of peace, and leave my relics as it might be the dry bones of a stag on the mountain. Better for you that your life should be with my spirit in heaven, than that ye should abide dishonored beside my bones upon earth.'

"And when the hour of his departing drew nigh he bade them carry him out of doors from the house, and gazing up at the sky said, 'Steep is that road; and it must needs be.' The brethren said to him, 'Father, we know that nothing is hard for thee: but for us feeble folk, there is sore dread in this hour.'

"And again brought back into the house he lifted up his hand and blessed his people and his clergy, and having received the sacrifice of the Lord, on the ninth day of September he gave up the ghost, in the thirty-third year of his age" (Plummer).
558 St John the Silent of St Sabbas Monastery many miracles St John performed during this time in the desert discern secret thoughts of people healed sick and possessed
Saint John the Silent was born around 454 in the city of Nicopolis, Armenia into the family of a military commander named Enkratius and his wife Euphemia. The boy began to study Holy Scripture, and he loved solitude and prayer with all his heart.
With the inheritance his parents left him, John built a church dedicated to the Most Holy Theotokos. At eighteen years of age John became a monk, living an ascetic life of fasting, prayer and temperance with ten other monks at the church he had founded.
At the request of the citizens of Colonia, the Metropolitan of Sebaste consecrated the twenty-eight-year-old John as Bishop of Colonia. Having assumed the episcopal throne, the saint did not alter his strict ascetic manner of life. Under the influence of the saint his relatives, his brother Pergamios (an associate of the emperors Zeno and Anastasius) and his nephew Theodore (an associate of the emperor Justinian), also lived in a Christian manner.
In John's tenth year as bishop, the governorship of Armenia was assumed by Pazinikos, the husband of the saint's sister, Maria. The new governor began to interfere in spiritual and ecclesiastical matters, and there was unrest in the Church. St John then went to Constantinople, and through Archbishop Euthymius, he entreated the emperor Zeno to defend the Armenian Church from the evil Governor.
Overwhelmed by worldly quarrels, John secretly left his diocese and sailed to Jerusalem. With tears he besought God to show him a place where he might live and find salvation. A bright star appeared, which led St John to the Lavra of St Sava.
John, concealing his episcopal rank, was accepted in the community as a simple novice. Under the guidance of the igumen St Sava (December 5), Bishop John toiled obediently for more than four years at every task he was assigned. When a guesthouse was built at the Lavra, St John served the workers, serving their food and assisting in the construction of the building. When a cenobitic monastery for novices was being built, John was once again assigned to help the workers.
Seeing St John's humility and love of labor, St Sava deemed him worthy of ordination to presbyter. St John was forced to reveal his rank to Patriarch Elias of Jerusalem (494-517), who told St Sava that John could not be ordained. Moreover, he said that John was to live in silence, and that no one should trouble him. Soon the Lord also revealed St John's secret to St Sava. St John spent four years in his cell, receiving no one and not going out even for church.
Desiring ever greater solitude and increased abstinence, St John quit the Lavra and withdrew into the desert, where he spent more than nine years, eating plants and grass. He survived a devastating incursion of the Saracens and did not perish, only because the Lord sent him a defender: a ferocious lion. When the enemy tried to harm the saint, the lion attacked them and they scattered in fright. Tradition speaks of many miracles St John performed during this time in the desert.
When St Sava returned after an extended stay in Scythopolis, he persuaded St John to forsake the wilderness and to live at the monastery. After this, the Lord, in a miraculous way, revealed to everyone at the Lavra that the monk John was actually a bishop.
When St John reached age seventy, his holy and God-bearing spiritual Father St Sava died. The saint grieved deeply over this, since he was not present at the time. St Sava appeared to him in a vision, and having consoled him, he foretold that there would be much toil ahead in the struggle against heresy. St John even had to leave his solitude to strengthen the brethren in the struggle with the Origenists.
St John the Silent spent sixty-six years at the Lavra of St Sava the Sanctified. Through his constant ascetic efforts, by his untiring prayer and humble wisdom, St John acquired the grace of the Holy Spirit. At his prayers, many miracles took place, and he was able to discern the secret thoughts of people. He healed the sick and those possessed by demons. Even during his lifetime he saved those who invoked his name from certain destruction. Once, he scattered fig seeds on barren rock, and a beautiful and fruitful tree sprang up. In time, the tree grew so much that it overshadowed the saint's cell.
St John the Silent departed to the Lord in peace at the age of 104.
558 St. Victorian of Asan Abbot Italy native founded Asan monastery {San Victorian} his miracles and his great reputation as a teacher of monastic observance.
 he went to France, where he founded the monastery of Asan in the Pyrenees, which afterward was called San Victorian. Victorian was praised in the writings of Venantius Fortunatus.

558 ST VICTORIAN, ABBOT
IF anyone had been disposed to doubt the historic existence of St Victorian, the matter was set at rest by an inscription published by Hübner in 1900. It is certain that Victorian, who was apparently born in Italy and then lived for some time in France, became abbot of Asan in Aragon, where he ruled for many years a vigorous and devout community. Venantius Fortunatus, within thirty or forty years of his death, wrote a very laudatory epitaph eulogizing his virtues, his miracles and his great reputation as a teacher of monastic observance. A Latin life of him is extant, which probably dates from the eighth century or a little later. It is also now established that he died in 558.
See Acta Sanctorum, January 12; Venantius Fortunatus, Carmina (iv, 11), and especially Fita in Boletin de la real Academia de la Historia (1900), vol. xxxvii, pp. 491 seq.  
  559 St. Leonard of Noblac Hermit-abbot convert of St. Remigius.
Lemóvicis, in Aquitánia, sancti Leonárdi Confessóris, qui fuit beáti Remígii Epíscopi discípulus.  Hic, nóbili génere ortus, solitáriam vitam delégit, et sanctitáte ac miráculis cláruit; ejúsque virtus præcípue in liberándis captívis enítuit.
    At Limoges in Aquitaine, St. Leonard, confessor, disciple of the blessed bishop Remigius, who was born of a noble family but chose to lead a solitary life.  He was celebrated for holiness and miracles, but his virtue shone particularly in the deliverance of captives.
He was a French courtier offered a bishopric, but became a recluse at Micy, France. He then lived at Limoges, France, and he was given land by the royal court on which he founded Noblac Abbey, later called Saint-Leonard. He is a patron of Women in labor and prisoners of war.  St. Leonard invoked by women in labor prisoners of war miracles
According to unreliable sources, he was a Frank courtier who was converted by St. Remigius, refused the offer of a See from his godfather, King Clovis I, and became a monk at Micy. He lived as a hermit at Limoges and was rewarded by the king with all the land he could ride around on a donkey in a day for his prayers, which were believed to have brought the Queen through a difficult delivery safely. Numerous miracles are attributed to him, and in one small town alone, Inchenhofen, Bavaria, from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century, there are records of about 4000 favours granted through his intercession. The saint wrought the delivery of captives, women in confinement, those possessed of an evil spirit, people and beasts afflicted with diseases. At the end of the eleventh century his name had already become renowned among the Crusaders captured by the Mussulmans. He is generally represented holding chains in his hands.
He founded Noblac monastery on the land so granted him, and it grew into the town of Saint-Leonard. He remained there evangelizing the surrounding area until his death. He is invoked by women in labor and by prisoners of war because of the legend that Clovis promised to release every captive Leonard visited.

6th v. ST LEONARD OF NOBLAC
ALTHOUGH he was one of the most “popular” saints of Western Europe in the later Middle Ages, nothing is heard of this St Leonard before the eleventh century, when a life of him was written, upon which, however, no reliance at all can be put.


According to it he was a Frankish nobleman who was converted to the faith by St Remigius. Clovis I was his godfather, and offered St Leonard a bishopric, which he refused. He went into the country of Orleans, to the monastery of Micy, where he took the religious habit and lived until, aspiring after a closer solitude, he chose for his retirement a forest not far from Limoges. Here he built himself a cell, lived on vegetables and fruit, and had for some time no witness of his penance and virtues but God alone. One-day Clovis came hunting in that forest and his queen was there brought to bed by a difficult labour. The prayers of St Leonard safely delivered her, and the king in gratitude gave him as much land as he could ride round in a night on his donkey. Leonard formed a community, which in succeeding times became a flourishing monastery, first called the abbey of Noblac and now identified as the town of Saint-Leonard. From it the saint evangelized the surrounding neighbourhood, and died there, it is said, about the middle of the sixth century, revered for his holiness and miracles.
From the eleventh century devotion to St Leonard flourished remarkably, especially in northwest and central Europe. In England his name occurs in calendars and churches were dedicated in his honour: there is a St Leonard’s chapel so far west as Saint Ives at Worcester in the thirteenth century his feast was kept as a half-holyday, on which Mass was to be heard and only certain work (e.g. ploughing) might be done. The church at Noblac became a great pilgrimage shrine and the saint was invoked, on the one hand, by women in labour, and on the other, by prisoners of war (because, according to the legend, Clovis promised to release every captive Leonard visited); in one Bavarian town alone 4000 cures and other answers to prayer were attributed to his intercession from the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries. Of this great cultus there now remains only a certain amount of local popular devotion and the observance of his feast at Limoges, Munich and in a few other places.


The account of St Leonard furnished in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. iii, is exceptionally thorough and authoritative, for Fr Albert Poncelet, an expert in Merovingian and Carolingian hagiography, wrote it in 1910. The text of the Latin life, which had already been critically edited by B. Krusch in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. iii, is printed again by the Bollandist, with a long series of narratives of later miracles. Poncelet agrees with Krusch that the life was compiled somewhere about the year 1025, certainly not before 1017, and that of itself it does not provide evidence even that such a person as St Leonard ever existed. It seems that no trace of any cultus of the saint is to be found either in church-dedications, inscriptions, martyrologies or calendars earlier than the eleventh century. The special devotion to St Leonard as a liberator of prisoners of war probably gained popularity from the story of the release of Bohemund, Prince of Antioch, in 1103 after the Moslems had taken him captive. It is historically certain that he paid a visit to Noblac and there presented an ex-voto in gratitude on which see the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxi (1912), pp. 24—44. Canon Arbellot published a French Life in 1863, and there are others, mostly uncritical.
The anachronisms of the life of St Leonard are discussed by G. Kurth, Clovis, vol. ii, pp. 167 and 259—260. Much has been written on the popular practices of devotion and on the folk-lore associated with the St Leonard cult: consult, e.g. W. Hay, Volkstumliche Heiligentage (1932), pp. 264—269. Curiously enough this French saint was nowhere more honoured than in Bavaria, as has been shown by G. Schierghofer, Alt-Bayerns Umritte und Leonhardifahrten (1913), and in his Umrittbrauch (1922); also by Rudolf Kriss, Volkskundliches aus alt-bayerischen Gnaden­statten (1930), and Max Rumpf, Religiöse Volkskunde (1933), p. 166.
560 Isaak der Syrer/Isaak vom Monte Luco Er kam (auf der Flucht vor den Monophysiten?) aus Syrien nach Spoleto (Italien) 
Orthodoxe Kirche: 12. April Katholische Kirche: 11. April
Der Mönch Isaak lebte im 6. Jahrhundert. Er kam (auf der Flucht vor den Monophysiten?) aus Syrien nach Spoleto (Italien). Als er in der Kirche einen bösen Geist austrieb, bestürmten ihn die Menschen, ihnen zu helfen und ein Kloster zu gründen, aber Isaak zog sich in die Berge zurück und lebte hier auf dem Monte Luco in einer Zelle. Um seine Einsiedelei herum siedelten sich Schüler an und so entstand eine Einsiedlerkolonie, wie sie in der Ostkirche üblich war. Isaak lebte in franziskanischer Armut. Geschenke lehnte er mit der Begründung ab: Ein Mönch der Geschenke annimmt, ist kein Mönch mehr. Ihm wurde die Gabe der Prophetie verliehen und er konnte so sein Kloster mehrfach vor Räubern und Betrügern bewahren. Isaak starb 550 oder 560.
In Spoleto wird sein Gedenktag am 15. April begangen. Ein anderer Isaak der Syrer, der Bischof von Ninevah, lebte im 7. Jahrhundert (Gedenktag 28.1.)

St Isaac the Syrian lived during the mid-sixth century. He came to the Italian city of Spoleto from Syria. The saint asked permission of the church wardens to remain in the temple, and he prayed in it for two and a half days. One of the church wardens began to reproach him with hypocrisy and struck him on the cheek. Then the punishment of God came upon the church warden. The devil threw him down at the feet of the saint and cried out, "Isaac, cast me out!" Just as the saint bent over the man, the unclean spirit fled.
News of this quickly spread throughout the city. People began to flock to the saint, offering him help and the means to build a monastery. The humble monk refused all this. He left the city and settled in a desolate place, where he built a small cell. Disciples gathered around the ascetic, and so a monastery was formed.
When his disciples asked the Elder why he had declined the gifts, he replied, "A monk who acquires possessions is no longer a monk."
St Isaac was endowed with the gift of clairvoyance. St Gregory Dialogus (March 12) speaks of this in his "Dialogues About the Lives and Miracles of the Italian Fathers." Once, St Isaac bade the monks to leave their spades in the garden for the night, and in the morning he asked them to prepare food for the workers. Some robbers, equal to the number of spades, had come to rob the monastery, but the power of God forced them to abandon their evil intent. They took the spades and began to work. When the monks arrived in the garden, all the ground had been dug up. The saint greeted the toilers and invited them to refresh themselves with food. Then he admonished them to stop their thievery, and gave them permission to come openly and pick the fruits of the monastery garden.

Another time, two almost naked men came to the saint and asked him for clothing. He told them to wait a bit, and sent a monk into the forest. In the hollow of a tree he found the fine clothes the travelers had hidden in order to to deceive the holy igumen. The monk brought back the clothes, and St Isaac gave them to the wanderers. Seeing that their fraud was exposed, they fell into great distress and shame.

It happened that a certain man sent his servant to the saint with two beehives. The servant hid one of these hives along the way. The saint said to the servant, "I accept the gift, but be careful when you go back for the beehive that you hid. Poisonous snakes have entered into it. If you stretch forth your hand, they will bite you." Thus the saint unmasked the sins of people wisely and without malice, desiring salvation for all.
St Isaac died in 550. This saint should not be confused with the other St Isaac the Syrian, Bishop of Ninevah, who lived during the seventh century (January 28).
560 St. Kessag martyr worked miracles even as a child
Prince of Cashel, Ireland, and bishop of Scotland. sometimes called Mackessag. Kessag went to Scotland as a missionary bishop, using Monk’s Island in Loch Lomond as his center. He was martyred at Bantry or at some unknown site. Kessag is credited with some extraordinary miracles. He is patron of Lennox, England.

Kessog of Lennox BM (AC) (also known as Mackessog) Born in Cashel, Ulster, Ireland; Son of the king of Cashel (Munster), Saint Kessog is said to have worked miracles even as a child. He left Ireland to evangelize Scotland, where he was consecrated a missionary bishop. Using Monks' Island in Loch Lomond as his headquarters, he evangelized the surrounding area until he was martyred, though where is uncertain--some claim at Bandry where a heap of stones was known as St. Kessog's Cairn, and others abroad. Part of the cairn at Bandry was removed in the 18th century to clear the way for a road. At that time, a stone statue of Kessog was found inside it. Luss was the principal center of his cultus with a sanctuary granted by Robert the Bruce.
Many extravagant miracles were ascribed to Kessog, who is the patron of Lennox. A celebrated Scottish church still bears the title of St. Kessoge-Kirk. For a long time the Scots used his name for their cry in battle, but later changed it for that of Saint Andrew. They sometimes painted Kessog in a soldier's habit, holding a bow bent with an arrow in it (Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth)
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560 St. Senan of Scattery Ireland holiness miracles attracted great crowds to his sermons
Senan was born of Christian parents at Munster, Ireland. He was a soldier for a time and then became a monk under Abbot Cassidus, who sent him to Abbot St. Natalis at Kilmanagh in Ossory. Senan became known for his holiness and miracles and attracted great crowds to his sermons. He made a journey to Rome, meeting St. David on the way back. He built several churches and monasteries, and then settled on Scattery Island, where he built a monastery that soon became famous. He died at Killeochailli on the way back from a visit to St. Cassidus monastery.

Senan of Scattery (AC) (also known as Senames of Inis Cathaigh) Senan, best known of the numerous Irish saints with this name, is credited with making a remarkable succession of monastic foundations on islands at the mouths of rivers and elsewhere, from the Slaney in Wexford to the coast of Clare. The stories that have survived about Saint Senan suggest a man of considerable complexity of character. He is said to have visited Rome and on his way home stayed with Saint David in Wales. On his return to Ireland, he founded more churches and monasteries, notably one at Inishcarra near Cork. He finally settled on Scattery Island (Inis Cathaig) in the Shannon estuary, where he founded a bishopric, established a school, and was buried.
On the island there is still a fine round tower and other early remnants. There are indications that he spent some time in Cornwall, but appears to have had no connection with the Land's End parish of Sennen. The Cloghan Oir or Golden Bell of Saint Senan is in the National Museum of Dublin (Attwater, Benedictines, Montague)
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560 St. Medard famed preacher missioner became bishop patron of brewers, peasants, prisoners (Roeder), corn harvests, and vintage (White)
Apud Suessiónes, in Gálliis, natális sancti Medárdi, Epíscopi Novioménsis; cujus vita et mors pretiósa gloriósis miráculis commendátur.
560  At Soissons in France, the birthday of St. Medard, bishop of Noyon, whose life and precious death are commended by glorious miracles.
Bishop, born in Salency, Picardy 470, he was ordained at thirty three, attained fame as a preacher and missioner, and became bishop of Vermandois in 530.

Medard of Noyon B (RM) Born c. 470 in Salency, Picardy, France; Born of a Frankish noble father and a Gallo-Roman mother, Saint Medard was educated at Saint-Quentin. He is also the brother of Saint Gildard, archbishop of Rouen. At 33, he was ordained to the priesthood and became so successful as a missioner that he was chosen to succeed Bishop Alomer in 530 in the see of Vermandois. Medard may have been consecrated by Saint Remigius of Rheims.

According to an unreliable tradition, Medard moved his see from Saint-Quentin to Noyon after a raid by the Huns, then united it with the diocese of Tournai. Allegedly Noyon and Tournai remained under one bishop for 500 years.

Medard is known to have given the veil to Queen Saint Radegund. He is credited with the institution of the old local custom of Rosiere. Each year where his feast is celebrated, the young girl who has been judged the most exemplary in the district is escorted by 12 boys and 12 girls to the church, where she is crowned with roses and given a gift of money (Benedictines, White).

In art, an eagle shelters Saint Medard from the rain, a reference to the legend that this happened when he was a child (Roeder). This may explain the origins of the superstition that if it rains on his feast day, the next 40 days will be wet; if the weather is good, the next 40 will be fine as well (White). He might also be portrayed with two horses at his feet, leaving footprints on stone, or holding a citadel (Roeder). In Medieval art, Medard may be laughing with his mouth wide open (le ris de Saint Medard), and for this reason he is invoked against toothache (White).

Saint Medard is the patron of brewers, peasants, prisoners (Roeder), corn harvests, and vintage (White). He is invoked on behalf of idiots and lunatics, as well as for fruitfulness, both in child-bearing and in the fields, for rains and vineyards, and against bad weather and toothache (Roeder)
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564 St. Petroc known for his miracles b. 490
Petroc was born in Wales, possibly the son of a Welsh king. He became a monk and with some of his friends, went to Ireland to study. They immigrated to Cornwall in England and settled at Lanwethinoc (Padstow). After thirty years there, he made a pilgrimage to Rome and Jerusalem, at which time he is also reputed to have reached the Indian ocean where he lived for some time as a hermit on an island. He then returned to Cornwall, built a chapel at Little Petherick near Padstow, established a community of his followers, and then became a hermit at Bodmir Moor, where he again attracted followers and was known for his miracles. He died between Nanceventon and Lanwethinoc while visiting some of his disciples there
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564 St. Abundius Confessor sacristan St. Peter's in Rome humble many graces spiritual gifts
Romæ sancti Abúndii, Mansionárii Ecclésiæ sancti Petri.
  At Rome, St. Abundius, sacristan of the church of St. Peter.

Abundius served in St. Peter's in Rome. Pope St. Gregory I the Great wrote of his life, which was filled with many graces and spiritual gifts.  Abundius the Sacristan (RM)(also known as Abonde) Saint Abundius was sacristan (mansionarius) of the Church of Saint Peter in Rome. His humble, but divinely favored life, is described by Saint Gregory the Great. His feast is kept as a major feast at Saint Peter's (Benedictines, Encyclopedia)
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565 St. Samson Welsh bishop and evangelizer- even though he had long searched for solitude; disciple of St. Illtyd at the monastery of Lianwit (Llantwit) in southern Glamorgan and then lived as a monk (and later abbot) of a community on Caldey Island (Ynys Byr). He was joined there by his uncle, Umbrafel, and his father, Amon. After a trip to Ireland, Samson became a hermit with Amon whom he cured of a mortal illness. During a trip to Cornwall, he was consecrated a bishop and appointed an abbot. He then departed England and went to Brittany where he spent the rest of his life as a missionary, Many miraculous deed were attributed
Born at Glamorgan, Wales, he became a disciple of St. Illtyd at the monastery of Lianwit (Llantwit) in southern Glamorgan and then lived as a monk (and later abbot) of a community on Caldey Island (Ynys Byr). He was joined there by his uncle, Umbrafel, and his father, Amon. After a trip to Ireland, Samson became a hermit with Amon whom he cured of a mortal illness.
During a trip to Cornwall, he was consecrated a bishop and appointed an abbot. He then departed England and went to Brittany where he spent the rest of his life as a missionary, even though he had long searched for solitude. Samson founded monasteries, including one at Dol and another at Pental, in Normandy. He was one of the foremost (if not relatively unknown) evangelizers of his century and has long been venerated with enthusiasm in Wales and Brittany.

Samson (Sampson) of Brittany B (RM)
Born in Glamorgan, Wales, c. 485; died at Dol, Brittany, France, July 28, c. 565. The existing vita of Saint Samson may be the earliest biography of a British Celtic saint, but scholarly opinion is divided on whether it was written in the 7th century (within 50 years of his death) or the 9th. The earliest manuscripts date only from the 11th century.

He was one of the greatest missionaries ever to come from Britain. His parents--Ammon, a lord of Glamorgan, and Anna of Gwent-- dedicated him to the service of God because he was a "child of promise" after his parents prolonged period of childlessness. According to his biography he was raised in the abbey of Llanwit Major in Glamorgan, which at that time was ruled by Saint Illtyd, who ordained him deacon and priest.

After Samson's ordination an attempt was made on his life by two nephews of Saint Illtyd, who were jealous of his ordination. So Samson left the community and lived for a time under Piro on the island of Caldey (Ynys Byr) off the coast of Pembrokeshire, where he served as cellarer. His father and his uncle, Umbrafel, joined him there after his father had recovered from a serious illness during which he received the last rites from his son. When Piro died, Samson succeeded him as abbot of Caldey Abbey, but he resigned after a preaching tour to Ireland.

He returned to Wales, where he lived as a hermit with his father and two others in a retreat near the mouth of the Severn River. Then he sojourned to Cornwall, where he was consecrated bishop of Saint Dyfrig (Dubricius), bishop of Caerleon, and appointed abbot of its monastery. Samson travelled throughout Cornwall where he worked as a missionary, founded monasteries and churches at Padstow, Saint Kew, Southill, and Golant, probably visited the Scilly Islands, and gathered to himself disciples, such as Saints Austell, Mewan, and Winnoc (which doesn't make sense because Winnoc died in 717) .

Finally, Samson crossed the Channel to Armorica, where he landed at the mouth of the Guyoult, to continue his missionary activities in Brittany. Privatus, a Gallo-Roman, gave him a stretch of land nearby on which to build a monastery c. 525, and this became the site of the future town of Dol.  Under his leadership, Dol became the spiritual center of Brittany. A vigorous organizer and a zealous preacher, Saint Samson established numerous other abbeys, including Pental in Normandy, and spread the word of God far and wide. It appears that he exercised episcopal jurisdiction at Dol, although it was not a regular see until much later. He is probably the 'Samson peccator episcopus' who signed the acts of the Council of Paris (557).

His concern for justice, as well as the temporal importance of his position as bishop and abbot, often involved him in political affairs. When Conomor (Conmor) murdered the king of Domnonia and usurped the throne that rightly belonged to the Breton ruler Judwal (Judual), Saint Samson journeyed to Paris where, with the support of Saint Germain the bishop of Paris, he enlisted the help of the Frankish King Childebert. On his return he travelled down the Seine and founded an establishment for penitents at Vernier.

On a second visit to Paris he was granted lands in the region of Rennes and was also given jurisdiction over the Channel Islands-- and indeed it was from the Isle of Guernsey, where one town bears his name, that he and Judwal embarked on their campaign to depose the usurper Conomor. After three battles, Judwal won back his kingdom and Samson returned to his bishopric and monastery at Dol.

Towards the end of his life, when he felt that his end was near, he undertook an extensive journey throughout the whole of Neustria, a journey of which the Breton bards have left us a moving account. Accompanied by seven monks, seven disciples and seven escorts, he travelled slowly from parish to parish, often stopping to preach or to celebrate the Divine Office, bringing his mission to an end only with his death.
Many miraculous deed were attributed to Saint Samson, to which his anonymous biographer gives ample space. Recent research seems to demonstrate that Samson was the leading churchman of the colonists from Britain who founded Brittany, and a primary figure in the history of the evangelization of Cornwall and the Channel Islands.
Some of his relics, including an arm and a crozier, were acquired by King Athelstan of Wessex (924-939), for his monastery at Milton Abbas in Dorset, which is why Samson's feast is kept in many places in England. In addition, there are six ancient dedications there to him, as well as others in Cornwall and Brittany. Samson's name is still revered throughout Brittany and Wales. Usuard entered his name into the Roman Martyrology (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Taylor).
In art, Samson is depicted with a cross or staff together with a dove and book (Farmer) .
568 Saint Anastasia Patrician of Alexandria lived in ConstantinopleAlexandria founded a small monastery not far from the city & a remote skete 28 yrs Lord revealed her day of death
Descended from an aristocratic family. She was an image of virtue, and she enjoyed the great esteem of the emperor Justinian (527-565). Widowed at a young age, Anastasia decided to leave the world and save her soul far from the bustle of the capital. She secretly left Constantinople and went to Alexandria. She founded a small monastery not far from the city, and devoted herself entirely to God.  Several years later, the emperor Justinian was widowed and decided to search for Anastasia and marry her. As soon as she learned of this, St Anastasia journeyed to a remote skete to ask Abba Daniel (March 18) for help.
In order to safeguard Anastasia, the Elder dressed her in a man's monastic garb and called her the eunuch Anastasius.

Having settled her in one of the very remote caves, the Elder gave her a Rule of prayer and ordered her never to leave the cave and to receive no one. Only one monk knew of this place. His obedience was to bring a small portion of bread and a pitcher of water to the cave once a week, leaving it at the entrance. The nun Anastasia dwelt in seclusion for twenty-eight years.
Everyone believed that it was the eunuch Anastasius who lived in the cave.
The Lord revealed to her the day of her death. Having learned of her approaching death, she wrote several words for Abba Daniel on a potsherd and placed it at the entrance to the cave. The Elder came quickly and brought everything necessary for her burial. He found the holy ascetic still alive, and he confessed and communed her with the Holy Mysteries. At Abba Daniel's request, St Anastasia blessed him and the monk accompanying him. With the words: "Lord, into Thy hands I commend my spirit," the saint died in peace (ca. 567-568).

When the grave was prepared, the Elder gave his disciple his outer garment and ordered him to dress the deceased "brother" in it. As he was putting on the rassa, the monk noticed that she was a woman, but he did not dare to say anything. However, when they returned to the monastery after they buried the nun, the disciple asked Abba Daniel whether he knew the "brother" was a woman, and the Elder related to the young monk the life of St Anastasia. Later, the abba's narrative was written down and received wide acclaim.
Relics of St Anastasia were transferred to Constantinople in 1200, and put not far from the church of Hagia Sophia.
570 Saint Consortia Foundress of a convent endowed by King Clotaire I of Soissons and the Franks miraculously healed his dying daughter V (RM)
Consortia reportedly cured Clotaire’s daughter of a mortal illness. She has long been venerated at Cluny, in France, but nothing is known of her life.
Saint Consortia is said to have been the foundress of a convent generously endowed by King Clotaire out of gratitude for her having miraculously healed his dying daughter. She was venerated at Cluny, nothing certain is known about her (Benedictines)
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570 St. Ita virgin founded a community of women dedicated to God extravagant miracles attributed
Ita was reputedly of royal lineage. She was born at Decies, Waterford, Ireland, refused to be married, and secured her father's permission to live a virginal life. She moved to Killeedy, Limerick, and founded a community of women dedicated to God. She also founded a school for boys, and one of her pupils was St. Brendan. Many extravagant miracles were attributed to her (in one of them she is reputed to have reunited the head and body of a man who had been beheaded; in another she lived entirely on food from heaven), and she is widely venerated in Ireland. She is also known as Deirdre and Mida
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573 St. Nicetius bishop of Lyons extensive revival of ecclesiastical chant Humility and assiduous prayer Great miracles confirmed the opinion of his sanctity
 Lugdúni, in Gállia, sancti Nicétii, ejúsdem urbis Epíscopi, vita et miráculis clari.
       At Lyons in France, St. Nicetus, bishop of that city, renowned for his life and miracles.
Also Nizier, bishop of Lyons, France, from 553. The nephew of Bishop St. Sacerdos of Lyons, he was appointed successor to his uncle’s see. His time as bishop brought an extensive revival of ecclesiastical chant. He was also known for his abilities as an exorcist.

Nicetius of Lyons B (RM) (also known as Nizien, Nizier) Born in Burgundy; died in Lyons, France, on April 2, 573. Saint Nicetius was descended from an ancient family of Gaul. He was raised in piety and given a good education by his virtuous parents. Humility and assiduous prayer were his favorite virtues from the cradle. In his father's house he always chose to appear the lowest in the family, though by birth he had a right to claim the highest place next his parents. He readily gave a preference in all things to his brethren, and took a singular delight, during his hours of recreation, in performing the most servile offices. He instructed the servants and children in all Christian duties, and taught them the psalter and church office.
In 551, he succeeded his uncle Saint Sacerdos and governed the church of Lyons faithfully for 22 years, despite all the bad things that it is possible to say about him, and despite his violent temperament. Great miracles confirmed the opinion of his sanctity: his relics are preserved in the parish church of his name, in Lyons (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

Nicetius or Nizier, bishop of Lyon (537) - Great-uncle to Gregory of Tours. A determined opponent of loose and uncharitable speech, which he denounced on every possible occasion. He became famous for exorcising unclean spirits; revived and improved ecclesiastical chant in his diocese.
573 St. Paul Aurelian  Welsh bishop able to perform miracles exorbitant nature
Probably of Roman-Welsh descent, he was the son of a local Welsh chieftain. He studied under St. Illtyd at the Ynys Byr monastery and, according to tradition, was granted permission to become a hermit. Ordained, he nevertheless gathered around himself a group of followers and acquired such a reputation for goodness that a king in Brittany asked him to preach the Christian faith to his subjects. Paul sailed to Caldey Island in Brittany soon after and founded a monastery at PorzPol on the island of Quessant. Later he established himself and his followers at Ouismor. There, over his objections, he was made a bishop, although he was finally permitted to resign after several years and retire to Batz. He was reputed to be able to perform miracles, the accounts of which are generally considered unreliable owing to the exorbitant nature of the claims
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573 St. Cerbonius Africa bishop of Populonia St. Gregory relates that he was renowned for miracles, both during life and after death.
Populónii, in Túscia, sancti Cerbónii, Epíscopi et Confessóris, qui (ut sanctus Gregórius Papa refert) in vita et morte miráculis cláruit.
    At Piombino in Tuscany, St. Cerbonius, bishop and confessor.  St. Gregory relates that he was renowned for miracles, both during life and after death.
Cerbonius was driven from Africa by the Vandals. He imigrated with St. Regulus to Tuscany and succeeded Regulus as bishop of Populonia (Piombino). He was ordered to be killed by wild beasts by King Totila of the Ostrogoths, during his invasion of Tuscany, for hiding several Roman soldiers.
Cerbonius was miraculously saved, but he spent his last thirty years of his life in exile on Elba.
Cerbonius of Piombino B (RM) Died c. 580. This Saint Cerbonius is one of the many bishops driven from North Africa by the Arian Vandals. He settled at Piombino in Tuscany, Italy, where it is said he served the Church as bishop there (Benedictines). In art, Saint Cerbonius is depicted as a bishop with a bear licking his feet (Roeder). He is venerated in Tuscany. There is another Cerbonius who is venerated at Verona (Roeder).
Verónæ sancti Cerbónii Epíscopi.
    At Verona, another St. Cerbonius, bishop
574 St. Emilian Cucullatus shepherd hermit priest patron saint of Spain favoured with many miracles.
Turiasóne, in Hispánia Tarraconénsi, beáti Æmiliáni Presbyteri, qui innúmeris miráculis cláruit; cujus admirábilem vitam sanctus Bráulio, Cæsaraugustánus Epíscopus, descrípsit.
    At Tarazona in Aragon, blessed Emilian, a priest favoured with many miracles.  His admirable life was recorded by St. Braulio, bishop of Saragossa.
ST EMILIAN CUCULLATUS, ABBOT
THIS St Emilian, under the name of San Millán de la Cogolla, i.e. "with the Hood ", was a famous early saint of Spain and is regarded as a patron of that country.  The Roman Martyrology refers to the fact that his life was written by St Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa, about fifty years after his death. Emilian's birthplace has for centuries been a matter in dispute between Aragon and Castile.
As a youth he was a shepherd.  At the age of twenty he heard a call from God to His direct service and for a time he attached himself to a hermit.  Then he returned to his home, but so many people importuned him that he wandered off into the mountains above Burgos.  He lived there for forty years-according to tradition on the mountain where the abbey of San Milldn was afterwards built--till the bishop of Tarazona insisted on his receiving holy orders and becoming a parish priest. 
But the heroic virtues that the hermit had learned in the wilderness were not understood by his fellow clergy, and he was accused to the bishop of wasting the goods of the church, which he had given away in charity.  He was therefore deprived of his cure, and with some disciples returned to solitude and contemplation, and so spent the rest of his life. 
St Emilian is sometimes called the first Spanish Benedictine, but the monastery of La Cogolla of course did not have Benedictine Rule till long after his time.
The Latin biography by Braulio is printed by Mabillon, vol. i, pp. 198-207. In Florea, España Sagrada, vol. I, will also be found an account of the saint's translation and of the miracles wrought at his shrine.  See further T. Minguella, S. Millan de La Cogolla, estudios historicos (1883), and V. de Ia Fuente, San Millian, presbitero secular (1883). A new critical edition of the vita, ed. L. Vazquez de Parga, was published at Madrid in 1943.

One of the patron saints of Spain, called La Cogalla, “the Cowled.” A shepherd from La Rioja, in Navarre, Spain, he was ordained a priest after many years as a hermit. He was made pastor of the parish in Berceo but became a hermit again. In time so many joined him that he founded a hermitage that became the Benedictine Abbey of La Cogalla.

Emilian Cucullatus, Abbot (RM) (also known as Aemilian, Emilianus or Millan of Cucullatus or La Cogolla or de la Gogolla)
Died 574. A shepherd at La Rioja, Navarre, Spain, he became a hermit when 20. After a brief stay at home, he spent the next 40 years in extreme solitude as a hermit in the mountains around Burgos when at the insistence of the bishop of Tarazona, he was ordained.

He became a parish priest at Berceo but because of his excessive charity was forced to leave and with several disciples resumed his eremitical life. He died at the age of 100. Tradition says the mountain hermitage he occupied near Burgos became the site of the Benedictine monastery of La Cogolla. He is a minor patron of Spain, where he is known as San Millan de la Cogolla--the cowled Saint Emilian (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

Saint Millan is represented as a monk on horseback fighting the Moors, and sometimes as a Benedictine on horseback holding a banner and sword. Abbot of La Cogolla, Tarazona. Minor patron saint of Spain (Roeder).
575 St. Hervaeus, Herve or Harvey wolf, repenting, shouldered the dead donkey's harness stopped singning frogs angels sang at his death (after a sixth-century Breton monk). 
6th V. St Hervé, or Harvey, Abbot
St Hervé
is one of the most popular saints in Brittany, and figures largely in the folklore and ballads of the country. At one period his feast was a holiday of obligation in the diocese of Leon. His cultus, which originally centred in Lan­houarneau, Le Menez-Bré and Porzay, was propagated by a distribution of his relics in 1002, and is general throughout Brittany. No name, with the exception of Yves, is more commonly given to Breton boys than that of Hervé. Solemn oaths were taken over his relics until the year 1610, when the parlement made it obligatory for legal declarations to be made only upon the Gospels. In the absence of any reliable records it is unfortunately impossible to reconstruct St Hervé’s true history, but the legend, as set forth in a late medieval Latin manuscript, may be summarized as follows

In the early years of the reign of King Childebert, there came to the court of Paris a British bard named Hyvarnion, who had been driven from his country by the Saxons. He charmed all who heard him by his music, but worldly applause had no attraction for him. After two or three years he retired to Brittany, where he married a girl called Rivanon, and became the father of a little blind boy, who received the name of Hervé. The child, bereft in infancy of his father, was brought up until he was seven by his mother. She then confided him to the care of a holy man called Arthian, and afterwards he joined his uncle, who had founded a little monastic school at Plouvien, and helped him with his farm and his pupils. One day, as Hervé was working in the fields, a wolf came and devoured the ass which was drawing the plough; a young child, who was the saint’s guide, uttered cries of distress, but in answer to Hervé’s prayers the wolf meekly passed his head into the ass’s collar and finished his work. During these years his mother Rivanon had been living in the heart of a dense forest, seeing no human face except that of her niece, who waited on her. Now the hour of departure was at hand, and Hervé sought her out in time to receive her last blessing and to close her eyes.

Soon afterwards he was entrusted with the care of the community of Plouvien by his uncle, and the monastery continued to flourish; but after three years he was inspired to establish it elsewhere. Surrounded by a band of monks and scholars he went forth, directing his steps first to Leon. There he was cordially received by the bishop, who would have conferred the priesthood on him if the saint’s humility had not precluded him from accepting any higher order than that of exorcist. From Leon they made their way westward, and beside the road to Lesneven may still be seen the fountain of St Hervé, which he caused to spring forth to quench the thirst of his companions. They reached their final destination at the place now known as Lanhouarneau, where St Hervé founded a monastery which became famous throughout the country. It was his home for the rest of his life, although he sometimes left it in order to preach to the people and to exercise the duties of an exorcist, in which capacity some of his most outstanding miracles were worked. Venerated by all for his sanctity and for his miracles, the blind abbot lived on for many years; his monks, as they watched beside his death-bed, heard the music of the celestial choirs welcoming the saint to Heaven.
St Hervé is usually represented with the wolf, and with Guiharan, his child guide. He is invoked for eye-trouble of all sorts, and his wolf serves Breton mothers as a bugbear with which to threaten troublesome children.
The so-called life of St Hervé, which in the very competent judgement of A. de la Borderie cannot have been written (at any rate in the form in which it has been preserved to us) earlier than the thirteenth century, was published for the first time by the same distinguished scholar in 1892 in the Memoires de la Soc. d'Émulation des Cotes-du-Nord, vol. xxix, pp. 251-304. There is an account in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, mainly based on Albert Le Grand. See, further, LBS., vol. iii, pp. 270 seq., but Canon Doble affirms strongly that there is no ground for connecting Hervé in any way with either Cornwall or Wales; he had no cult in Britain. Cf. Duine, Memento, p. 91.
St. Harvey was blind, but became abbot of Plouvien; later he transferred his community to Lanhourneau, where he passed the rest of his days and was famous for miracles. Sixth Century.  Especially after St. Harvey's relics were distributed throughout Brittany in 1002, this monk-saint became intensely popular.  Indeed, up to 1610 when the local court ordered that all official oaths be taken on the bible only, the Bretons took solemn oaths on the relics of St. Herve.  His feast was also for some time listed as one of the holydays of obligation in the Breton diocese of Leon.
Abbot Harvey is often mentioned in the tales and songs of Brittany. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to discern what is told of him as fact or folklore.  The traditional legend of Herve is nevertheless charming enough to be related here. Around the year 520, we are told, a Celtic bard (folk singer/historian) driven out of Britain by the Anglo-Saxon invaders, came to the court of Childebert I, the Frankish king of Paris.  The bard's name was Hyvarnion.  Although Hyvarnion delighted the royal court with his songs, he was too earnest a man to desire to be a mere court musician.  A couple of years later, therefore, he moved to Brittany to be in the company of his exiled fellow countrymen.He married a girl named Rivanon, who bore him a son baptized Hervaeus.  Unfortunately, the child was born functionally blind. His father died soon after his birth.  Rivanon raised her child until he was seven.  Then she entrusted him to the care of Arthian, a holy man.  Later Herve joined his uncle, a monk who had launched a little school in his monastery in Plouvien.  Despite his poor sight, young Harvey was able to help the uncle with the children and the farm tasks of the monastery.  Eventually he became a monk of the Plouvien community.
One day, we are told, while he was plowing in the fields, a wolf attacked the donkey that was drawing his plow.  Guiharan, a small child who was assisting the monk, cried out in panic. But Harvey, already a devout young man, simply prayed for divine help.  The response, says the legend, was miraculous.  The wolf, repenting, shouldered the dead donkey's harness and meekly pulled the plow himself until the task was finished!
Harvey's mother had meanwhile been living far away in the depths of a forest, with only a niece to keep her company and do her service in her declining years.  Learning of her grave illness, the future saint traveled back to see her.  She gave him her last blessing, and he closed her eyes in death.
Not long after Herve returned to Plouvien, his uncle put him in charge of the little monastery.  Three years later, he decided to move the whole establishment elsewhere.  Accompanied by all his monks and students, he set out for western Brittany.  At Leon, the bishop cordially greeted the travelers.  He offered to ordain their superior a priest; but Herve, out of humility, would accept only the minor order of exorcist. Eventually his community reached the present Lanhouarneau.  There he established a new monastery that was to become famous throughout Brittany.
Abbot Hervaeus spent the rest of his life at Lanhouarneau, although from time to time he was called forth to preach to the people of the area and to exercise his office of exorcist.  It was in the latter capacities that he performed many of the miracles attributed to him. (Once, it is said, noisy frogs that interfered with his sermon stopped their croaking at his command.)
The older he grew, the more revered he became for his holiness.
Fr. Harvey lived a long life.  When he was breathing his last, says the legend, the monks at his bedside heard angel choirs singing him a song of welcome.
St. Hervaeus is identified in pictures and statues by a wolf, with or without his child-guide.  Sometimes he is also shown as a preacher quieting frogs.  The Bretons invoke his aid against diseases of the eye, and cite his wolf as a warning to disobedient children.
576 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker
of Spoleto, Italy, also called “the Illuminator.” He was a Syrian, forced to leave his homeland in 514 because of Arian persecution. He went to Rome and was ordained by Pope St. Honnisdas. He then preached in Umbria and founded a monastery in Spoleto. Named bishop of Spoleto, Lawrence was rejected as a foreigner until the city’s gates miraculously opened for his entrance. He is called “the Illuminator” because of his ability to cure physical and spiritual blindness. After two decades, Lawrence resigned to found the Farfa Abbey near Rome.
576 St. Senoch Benedictine abbot friend of St. Gregory of Tours; St Gregory narrates a number of miracles of healing vouchsafed by God at the prayer of St Senoch, who died in his arms.

This saint was a contemporary of St Gregory, Bishop of Tours, who knew him personally and wrote about him. Senoch (Senou) was born of barbarian parents in Poitou, and having been converted to Christ left his home with the intention of becoming a hermit.  He wandered into Touraine, and found there a suitable place, where is now the village of Saint-Senou.  He installed himself in some ruins, with the stones of which he built a dwelling for himself and a small chapel. Three disciples joined Senoch, but he preferred to be quite alone and spent most of his time shut up in his own cell.  Austerities of the new hermit earned him a great reputation for sanctity, and many visitors came to the place who insisted on making offerings, which St Senoch devoted to the relief of needy people.

When the bishop St Euphronius died in 573 Senoch went to Tours to pay his respects to his successor, St Gregory, with whom he exchanged the kiss of brother­hood and then returned quietly to his cell.  But soon after he made another journey, to visit his friends and relatives at home, and met with such signs of respect and veneration while he was away that he caste back rather proud of himself.

Gregory noticed this and rebuked him sharply, reminding him of the words of St Paul, that he would glory in nothing but his infirmities in order that the power of Christ might dwell in him.  Senoch humbly accepted the reprimand and agreed no longer to withdraw himself entirely from the company of his brethren. St Gregory narrates a number of miracles of healing vouchsafed by God at the prayer of St Senoch, who died in his arms. The bishop officiated at his funeral, for which an immense crowd gathered, and when he celebrated the Mass of the month’s mind a paralytic was cured at St Senoch’s grave.

Most of what we know concerning St Senoch comes from Gregory of Tours. All relevant material will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. x.
A native of Poitou, in Gaul (modern France), he was the son of pagan parents and was converted to Christianity. He later became a hermit and established a monastic community to house the various followers whom he attracted. His leadership was erratic, so much so that none other than St. Gregory admonished him for his poor attention of the monks. Nevertheless, he died with Gregory at his side.
Senoch, Abbot (RM) Born at Tiffauges, Poitou. Senoch founded a small monastery about the year 536, making himself abbot over three disciples. They built their house in some Roman ruins and there fasted or lived on bread and water. Senoch was friendly with Bishop Euphronius of Tours, and when that saint died, went to his funeral and there met Euphronius's successor, Saint Gregory of Tours.
The abbot was fond of spending much time alone in his cell, not speaking and hardly eating. He paid a visit to his home town and there was so much admired that he came back exceedingly conceited. Fortunately, St. Gregory reproved Senoch and made him spend far more time with his three fellow-monks (Bentley)
.
576  Saint Germanus, Bishop Of Paris ordained priest by St. Agrippinus abbot of St. Symphorian's continual fasts and austerities miraculous healings while alive and wrought at his tomb: sight was restored to the blind and speech to the dumb prophesied
Lutétiæ Parisiórum sancti Germáni, Epíscopi et Confessóris; qui quantæ sanctitátis quantíque fúerit mériti, quibus étiam miráculis clarúerit, litterárum moniméntis Fortunátus Epíscopus consignávit.
    At Paris, St. Germanus, bishop and confessor, whose fame for holiness, merit, and miracles has been handed down to us by the writings of Bishop Fortunatus.

576 ST GERMANUS, BISHOP OF PARIS
ST GERMANUS (Germain), one of the chief glories of France in the sixth century, was born near Autun about the year 496. After a careful training he was ordained priest by St Agrippinus, and was subsequently chosen abbot of St Symphorian in one of the suburbs of Autun. Happening to be in Paris when that see became vacant, he was nominated by King Childebert I to fill the chair. His promotion made no change in the austerity of his life he retained his simplicity of dress and food, but his house was always crowded by a throng of beggars whom he entertained at his own table. Through his eloquence and example he brought many sinners and careless Christians to repentance, including the king himself who, from being entirely absorbed in worldly interests, became a generous benefactor to the poor and the founder of religious establishments. When Childebert fell ill at his palace of Celles, near Melun, the saint visited him, and we are told that on hearing that he had been given up by the physicians, he spent the whole night in prayer for his recovery. In the morning he cured the royal patient by the imposition of his hands. The king is said to have related this miracle himself in letters patent in which he declared that, out of gratitude to God, he bestowed upon the church of Paris and Bishop Germanus the land of Celles where he had received this favour. Unfortunately, however, the authenticity of this charter is more than doubtful.
Among Childebert’s foundations was a church in Paris which, with the adjoining monastery, was dedicated to God in honour of the Holy Cross and St Vincent; it was consecrated by St Germanus, who added to it the chapel of St Symphorian, which eventually contained his tomb. After his death the church was renamed Saint—Germain-des-Pres and became for several generations the burial-place of the royal family. Throughout his episcopate St Germanus strove to check the licentiousness of the nobles. He did not scruple to reprove and even to excommunicate King Charibert for his shameless wickedness. During the fratricidal wars in which the nephews of Childebert became involved, he made every effort to induce them to suspend their hostilities, even writing to Queen Brunhildis in the hope of enlisting her influence with her husband to that end. All his remonstrances and appeals, however, were ineffectual. The saint died on May 28, 576, at the age of eighty, mourned by all the people; King Chilperic himself is said to have composed his epitaph in which he extolled the holy bishop’s virtues, his miracles and his zeal for the salvation of souls.
The principal source for the history of St Germanus is the life by Venantius Fortunatus, a contemporary. From a biographical point of view it leaves much to be desired and it is mainly a record of rather dubious miracles. It has been printed many times (e.g. in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi), but the most critical text is that of B. Krusch in MGH, Scriptores Merov., vol. vii (1920), pp. 337—428, with a valuable preface, notes and supple­mentary matter. There are satisfactory articles on St Germanus in the Kirchenlexikon and DCB. For the letters on liturgy, see the convincing article of A. Wilmart in DAC., vol. vi, cc. 1049 to 1102. There follows in the same volume a very full discussion by H. Leclercq of the history of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.

See his life by Fortunatus of Poitiers, St. Gregory of Tours, Hist. 1. 4, c. 26. Mabillon, Annal Bened. 1. 5. p. 132 and Acta Ord. Bened. t. 1, p. 234.
Also Dom. Bouillart, Hist. de l'Abbaye de St. Germain des Prez, de Paris, 1723. Dom. Lobineau, Hist. de Paris, n. 25, 29, &c.

St. Germanus, the glory of the church of France in the sixth age, was born in the territory of Autun about the year 469.
Saint Germanus was born near Autun in 496. He was abbot of St Symphorian's monastery at Autun, and was made Bishop of Paris around 536. He was tireless and courageous in his efforts to end civil strife and to restrain the viciousness of the Frankish kings, though he was not very successful in this. St Radegund (August 13) appealed to him for protection from her cruel husband King Chlotar I.
St Germanus founded a monastery at Paris, and was buried in its church after his death in 576. This is the renowned monastery of Saint Germaine-des-Pres.
He was brought up in piety and learning under the care of Scapilion his cousin, a holy priest.
In his youth no weather could divert him from always going to Matins at midnight, though the church was above a mile from the place of his abode. Being ordained priest by St. Agrippinus bishop of Autun, he was made abbot of St. Symphorian's in the suburbs of that city, a house since converted into a priory of regular canons. Fortunatus, bishop of Poitiers, who was well acquainted with our saint, tells us that he was favored at that time with the gifts of miracles and prophecy. It was his custom to watch great part of the night in the church in prayer, while his monks slept. One night in a dream he thought a venerable old man presented him with the keys of the city of Paris and said to him, that God committed to his care the inhabitants of that city, that he should save them from perishing.

Four years after this divine admonition, in 554, happening to be at Paris when that see became vacant, on the demise of the bishop Eusebius, he was exalted to the episcopal chair, though he endeavored by many tears to decline the charge. His promotion made no alteration in his continual fasts and other austerities; and the same simplicity and frugality appeared in his dress, table, and furniture. In the evening at nine o'clock he went to the church, and staved there in prayer till after Matins, that is, in summer till about break of day

His house was perpetually crowded with the poor and the afflicted. and he had always many beggars at his own table, at which no dainty meats were ever served; he took care that the souls of his guests should be refreshed at the same time with their bodies, by the reading of some pious book. God gave to his sermons a wonderful influence over the minds of all ranks of people; so that the face of the whole city was in a very short time quite changed. Vanities were abolished, dances and profane amusements laid aside, enmities and discord extinguished, and sinners reclaimed.

King Childebert, who till then had been an ambitious worldly prince, by the sweetness and the powerful discourses of the saint, was entirely converted to piety, and by his advice reformed his whole court. So desirous did that prince become of exchanging the perishing goods of this world for eternal treasures, that, not content with making many religious foundations, to be nurseries of piety in all succeeding ages, and with sending incredible sums of money to the good bishop, to be distributed among the indigent after his coffers were drained he melted down his silver plate, and gave away the chains which he wore about his neck, begging the bishop, whom he made the steward of his charities, never to cease giving, assuring him that on his side he should never be tired with supplying all things for the relief and comfort of the distressed.
In the year 542, king Childebert, together with his brother Clotaire, making war in Spain, besieged Saragossa.

The inhabitants of that city reposed a particular confidence in the patronage of St. Vincent, whose relics they carried in procession within sight of the French camp. King Childebert was moved with their devotion, and desiring to speak with the bishop of the city, promised to withdraw his army, on condition he might obtain some portion of the relics of St. Vincent. The bishop gave him the stole which that holy deacon wore at the altar. Upon which the king raised the siege, and, at his return to Paris, built a church in honor of St. Vincent, and of the Holy Cross; which is now called St. Germain's in the meadows, and stands in the suburbs of Paris.
Childebert falling sick at his palace at Celles, near Melun, at the confluence of the Yon and Seine, St. Germanus paid him a visit; and when the physicians had in vain tried every thing, all human means failing, the saint spent the whole night in prayer for his recovery, and in the morning laid his hands on him; and at the same moment the king found himself perfectly healed. The king relates himself this miracle in his letters patent, in which, in gratitude to God for this benefit, he gave to the church of Paris and the bishop Germanus, the land of Celles, where he had received this favor. The good king did not long survive. As the king had chosen the church of St. Vincent for the place of his burial, the saint, assisted by six other bishops, performed the ceremony of the dedication on the 23d of December, 558, the very day on which that prince died. The king likewise had built a large monastery joining to this new church, which he endowed most liberally with the fief of Issy and other lands, on part of which a considerable suburb of Paris has been since built.
This magnificent edifice was called the Golden Church, the walls being covered on the outside with plates of brass gilt, and within adorned with paintings on a rich gilt ground.1 This church was plundered by the Normans, in 845, 857, 858, and set on fire by them in 861 and 881; but rebuilt in 1014, and dedicated by pope Alexander III. in 1163. The lower part of the great tower and its gate with the statues of Clovis, Clodomir, Thierri, Childebert and his wife Ultrogotta, Clotaire, and others, seem to be as old as the time of king Childebert.
This prince committed the monastery and church to the care of our saint, who placed there monks under the holy abbot Droctoveus, whom he had invited from Autun, where he had formed him to a religious life.
Clotaire, who succeeded his brother Childebert, was the last of the sons of the great Clovis; and united again the four kingdoms of France into one monarchy.

 On his removing from Soissons to Paris, he at first seemed to treat the holy bishop coldly; but falling ill soon after of a violent fever, was put in mind by some that were about him to send for St. Germanus. He did so, and full of confidence in the power of God and the sanctity of his servant, took hold of his clothes and applied them to the parts of his body where he felt pain, and recovered immediately. From that moment he always treated the saint even with greater honor than Childebert had done.
That prince dying shortly after, in 561, his four sons, Charibert, Gontran, Sigebert, and Chilperic, divided the French monarchy into four kingdoms, in the same manner as the sons of Clovis had done.

That of Paris was given to Charibert or Aribert, Gontran was king of Orleans and Burgundy, Sigebert of Austrasia, and Chilperic of Soissons. Charibert sunk into a vicious indolence, yet was obstinate and headstrong in his passions not being divested of all the prejudices of paganism, he divorced his wife Ingoberga, and took to wife Marcovesa her maid, who had worn a religious habit; and after her death, he married her sister Merofleda, Ingoberga being still living.
Our saint many ways endeavored to make him sensible of the enormity of his crimes; but finding all his remonstrances lost on him, he proceeded so far as to excommunicate him and the accomplice of his sin, to hinder at least the dangerous influence of his scandalous example. The sinners were hardened in their evil courses; but God revenged the contempt of his laws and of the holy pastor as he has often done, by visible judgments; for the criminal lady fell ill and died in a few days, and the adulterous king did not long survive her, leaving by his lawful wife only three daughters, two of whom became nuns, the third, called Bertha, was married to Ethelbert, king of Kent.

Upon the death of Charibert in 570, his three brothers divided his dominions; but not being able to agree who should be master of Paris, the capital, came to an accommodation that they should hold it jointly, on condition that none of them should go into the city without the leave of the other two
St. Germanus found his flock involved by this agreement in great difficulties, and the city divided into three different parties, always plotting and counterplotting against one another.

He did all that the most consummate charity, prudence, and vigilance could do, to preserve the public peace; yet Sigebert and Chilperic appeared in arms, being fired by ambition, and stirred up by their wicked queens Fredegonda, wife of the latter, and Brunehaut of the former, burning with the most implacable jealousy against each other.
The saint prevailed with them to suspend their hostilities for some time. At length Chilperic invaded the territories of Sigebert, but being worsted in battle, fled to Tournay. This victory left Sigebert free liberty of going to Paris with his wife Brunehaut and children, where he was received as conqueror.

St. Germanus wrote to the queen, conjuring her to employ her interest with her husband to restore the peace of France, and to spare the life and fortune of a brother, whose ruin and blood would cry to heaven for vengeance. But Brunehaut's passion rendered her deaf to all remonstrances, and Sigebert was determined by her furious counsels to besiege Tournay.
As he was setting out for this enterprise, he was met by St. Germanus, who told him that if he forgave his brother, he should return victorious; but if he was bent on his death, divine justice would overtake him, and his own death should prevent the execution of his unnatural design. Sigebert allowed this wholesome advice no weight; but the event showed that God had put these words in the mouth of the good bishop; for queen Fredegonda, enraged at the desperate posture of her husband's affairs, hired two assassins, who dispatched him with poisoned daggers, while he made a halt in his march at Vitri, in 575, after he had reigned fourteen years, with some reputation of humanity, as Fortunatus tells us.

Chilperic, by his tyranny and oppressions, deserved to be styled the French Nero, as St. Gregory of Tours calls him.

He sacrificed his own children by former wives to the fury of Fredegonda, but having discovered her infidelity to him, he was, by her contrivance, murdered by her gallant in 584. Fredegonda was regent of the kingdoms of Soissons and Paris for her son Clotaire III., and continued her practices and wars against Brunehaut and her son till she died, in 601. Brunehaut governed the kingdom of Austrasia for her son Childebert II., and after his death for her grandson Theodebert; but afterwards persuaded Theodoric, her second grandson, who reigned at Challons, to destroy him and his whole family in fill. The year following Theodoric died, and Clotaire II., surnamed the Great, son of Fredegonda, inheriting both their estates, accused Brunehaut before the states of putting to death ten kings and St. Desiderius, bishop of Vienne, because he had reproved her for her public scandalous lusts, and many other illustrious persons. She had at first appeared liberal, and built several churches; but afterwards became infamous for her cruelty, avarice, restless ambition, and insatiable lusts, to which she sacrificed all things, and employed both the sword and poison in perpetrating her wicked designs. Being condemned by the states, she was put to the rack during three days, and afterwards dragged to death, being tied to the tail of a wild mare; or, according to others, drawn betwixt four horses, in 613.

St. Germanus lived not to see the miserable ends of these two firebrands of their country.
In his old age he lost nothing of that zeal and activity with which he had filled the great duties of his station in the vigor of his life, nor did the weakness to which his corporal austerities had reduced him, make him abate any thing in the mortifications of his penitential life, in which he redoubled his fervor as he approached nearer to the end of his course. By his zeal the remains of idolatry were extirpated in France. In the third council of Paris, in 557, he had the principal share in drawing up the canons. By his advice, king Childebert issued an edict commanding all idols to be destroyed throughout his dominions, and forbidding all indecent dances and diversions on Sundays and festivals. The saint continued his labors for the conversion of sinners till he was called to receive the reward of them on the 28th of May, 576, being eighty years old. King Chilperic composed his epitaph, in which he extols his zeal for the salvation of his people, and their affection and veneration for his person.
He mentions the miracles which were wrought at his tomb, and says that sight was restored to the blind and speech to the dumb.2

He was, according to his own desire, buried in St. Symphorian's chapel, which he built at the bottom of the church of St. Vincent already mentioned. Many miracles manifested his sanctity, of which Fortunatus, then a priest, afterwards bishop of Poitiers, has left us a history, in which he gives two on his own evidence. Also two anonymous monks compiled relations of several miracles of St. Germanus, which Aimoinus, a monk of this monastery in 870, and a careful writer, digested into two books.3 The relics of St. Germanus remained in the aforesaid chapel till the year 754, when the abbot removed them into the body of the church. The ceremony of this translation was performed with great solemnity; and king Pepin thought himself honored by assisting at it.

Prince Charles, known afterwards by the title of Charlemagne, who was then but seven years old, attended his father on this occasion.

Charlemagne was so strongly affected with the miracles performed at that time, that when he came to the crown, he took a particular pleasure in relating them, with all their circumstances. The greatest part of the relics of St. Germanus remain still in this church of St. Vincent, commonly called St. Germain-des-Prez. This abbey is possessed of the original privilege of its foundation and exemption, written on bark, and subscribed by St. Germanus, St. Nicetius, and several other bishops. The most valuable work of St. Germanus of Paris, is An Exposition of the Liturgy, published from an ancient manuscript by Dom. Martenne.4 The characteristical virtue of St. Germanus was his unbounded charity to the poor.
Liberality in alms moves God to be liberal to us in the dispensations of his spiritual graces; but he who hardens his heart to the injuries and wants of others, shuts against himself the treasury of heaven.

Endnotes
1 See the description of this church in the life of St. Droctoveus, written by Gislemar the monk.
2 Apud Aimoinum, 1. 2, c. 16.
3 Apud Mabil. saec. 4, Bened. t. 2, and Bolland. ad 28 Maij.
4 Anecdot. t. 5, p. 91.
(Taken from Vol. V of "The Lives or the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints" by the Rev. Alban Butler, the 1864 edition published by D. & J. Sadlier, & Company)
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579 St. Finian Irish abbot  disciple of Sts.Colman & Mochae miracles including moving a river
also called Winin. He was born in Strangford, Lough, Ulster, in Ireland, a member of a royal family. Studying under Sts. Colman and Mochae, he became a monk in Strathclyde and was ordained in Rome. Returning to Ulster, Finian founded several monasteries, becoming abbot of Moville, in County Down, Ireland. He became embroiled with St. Columba, a student, over a copy of St. Jerome’s Psalter, and St. Columba had to surrender that copy to Finian. He also founded Holywood and Dumfries in Scotland. Finian was known for miracles, including moving a river
.

580 St Martin, or Mark: St Gregory says that many of his friends knew Martin personally and had been present at his miracles, and that he had heard much of him from his predecessor, Pope Pelagius II

The Roman Martyrology today mentions Mark, a solitary in Campania, and refers to his famous deeds chronicled by St Gregory the Great, who, however, calls him Martin.  In his Dialogues St Gregory says that many of his friends knew Martin personally and had been present at his miracles, and that he had heard much of him from his predecessor, Pope Pelagius II.  He lived alone in a small cave on Mount Marsicus (Mondragone), and after miraculously overcoming the lack of water had for three years the daily company of the Devil, in the form of a serpent (“his old friend”). When he first took up his quarters in the cave the hermit fastened one end of a chain to his ankle and the other to the rock, so that he could not wander wantonly from his habitation. Word of this came to St Benedict at Monte Cassino (where Martin is said to have been a monk), and he sent a message in which the authentic voice of Benedict can be heard speaking: “If you are God’s servant, let yourself be held by the chain of Christ, not by any chain of iron.”

St Martin accordingly loosed himself and later gave the chain to his followers when they complained that the bucket rope of the well kept on breaking. There was a great rock overhanging Martin’s cave and his neighbours were much afraid that it would fall and crush him. Therefore one Mascator came with a number of people and offered to remove it. Martin refused to budge from the cave while it was done, telling them nevertheless to do whatever they thought necessary, and they set to work in fear and trembling with him inside. But when the rock was loosed it bounced harmlessly over the cave and rolled safely down the mountainside.

The Dialogues of St Gregory (iii, 16) are our only source of information.
September 19 580 St. Sequanus Abbot, also Seine; God was pleased to honour him with the gift of miracles; perfected himself in the study of the Holy Scriptures, and in the practice of all religious virtues
In território Lingoniénsi sancti Sequáni, Presbyteri et Confessóris.
    In the diocese of Langres, St. Sequanus, priest and confessor.
580 ST SEQUANUS, OR SEINE, ABBOT
This holy monk was born in the little town of Mesmont in Burgundy. He was for a time a solitary at Verrey-sous-Drée, where he lived in a hut that he built himself from forest timber, and was said to break his fast every day only after having recited the whole psalter. The bishop of Langres promoted him to the priesthood at a very early age.
  The saint having suffered some persecution in consequence from the local clergy, he put himself under direction of the holy abbot John, who governed the monastery of Réomé. Here he perfected himself in the study of the Holy Scriptures, and in the practice of all religious virtues. After some time he built a monastery in the forest of Segestre, near the source of the river Seine, and the monks did much to civilize the people of the neighbourhood, who were said to be cannibals.
   A Village, which grew up around the abbey, became known as Saint-Seine, after the founder, and the regular discipline, which he established there, rendered it famous and drew to it a number of disciples. God was pleased to honour him with the gift of miracles. He is mentioned in early martyrologies under the name of St Sigon.

Under the form “depositio sancti Sigonis, presbyteri et confessoris”, St Sequanus was commemorated in the Hieronymianum but he is called “Sequanus” by St Gregory of Tours, who mentions him at a still earlier date. There is an anonymous life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. vi, but its value as an historical source is very questionable.
Originally a monk at Reomay, he later founded the monastery at Segreste, which attracted many monks and over which he became abbot. He was born at Mesmont, in Burgundy, France, and lived as a hermit for a time at Verreysous-Dree. The monastery was renamed Saint-Seine in his honor.
582 Eutychius of Constantinople; worked many miracles, healings; opposed Justinian's interference vigorously denounced Aphthartodocetism [asartodoketai] or "imperishability" which taught that the flesh of Christ, before His death on the Cross and Resurrection, was imperishable and not capable of suffering.

582 ST EUTYCHIUS, PATRIARCH Of CONSTANTINOPLE
ALTHOUGH the name of this Eutychius is not commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, and although his career belongs more to church history than to hagiography, still he has always been honoured as a saint among the Greeks (and at Venice, which claims his relics), and he set a noble example of resistance to the Emperor Justinian’s pretensions to figure as arbiter in theological matters. Eutychius became a monk at Amasea in Pontus, having previously been ordained priest; and in 552 he was sent to Constantinople as the representative of his bishop; he there attracted the notice of Justinian who, on the death of the Patriarch Mennas, had Eutychius consecrated in his place. At the fifth oecumenical council, which met at Constantinople in 553, Eutychius presided along with the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, Pope Vigilius having, for reasons readily intelligible in view of the complications of that disturbed period, refused to attend. Some years later in the intricate theological controversies still connected with the monophysite heresy, Eutychius found himself in conflict with the emperor. The patriarch would not give way, and he was banished to an island in the Propontis. There he is stated by his biographer to have worked many miracles. He was only restored to his see when Justinian was dead, after twelve years of exile.
Towards the end of his days Eutychius was engaged in controversy with Gregory, then the representative of the Holy See at Constantinople, better known after his succession to the papacy as Pope St Gregory the Great. Eutychius before his death is said to have admitted his error.

There is a fairly lengthy biography of the saint by his chaplain Eustratius printed in Greek with a Latin translation in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i. For the controversies of the times, consult Hefele-Leclercq, Conciles, vol. iii, pp. 1—145 and also Duchesne, L’Eglise au VIeme siècle (1925), pp. 156—218.

After he was appointed patriarch of Constantinople in 552, Saint Eutychius bravely opposed Emperor Justinian's interference in Church affairs. For this reason, he was exiled for twelve years. Eutychius is highly honored in the Eastern Church (Benedictines). B (AC)

Saint Eutychius, Archbishop of Constantinople, was born in a village called "Divine" in the province of Phrygia. His father Alexander was a soldier, and his mother Synesia was the daughter of the priest Hesychius of Augustopolis. St Eutychius received the first rudiments of his education and a Christian upbringing from his grandfather the priest.  Once, while playing a childhood game, the boy wrote his own name with the title of Patriarch. By this he seemed to predict his future service. He was sent to Constantinople at age twelve for further education. The youth persevered in his study of science and realized that human wisdom is nothing in comparison to the study of divine Revelation. Therefore, he decided to dedicate himself to monastic life. St Eutychius withdrew into one of the Amasean monasteries and received the angelic schema.
For his strict life he was made archimandrite of all the Amasean monasteries, and in 552 was appointed to the Patriarchal throne.

When the Fifth Ecumenical Council prepared to assemble during the reign of the holy emperor Justinian (527-565), the Metropolitan of Amasea was ill and he sent St Eutychius in his place. At Constantinople the aged Patriarch St Menas (August 25) saw St Eutychius and predicted that he would be the next Patriarch.

After the death of the holy Patriarch Menas, the Apostle Peter appeared in a vision to the emperor Justinian
and, pointing his hand at Eutychius, said, "Let him be made your bishop."


At the very beginning of his patriarchal service, St Eutychius convened the Fifth Ecumenical Council (553), at which the Fathers condemned the heresies cropping up and anathematized them. However, after several years a new heresy arose in the Church:  Aphthartodocetism [asartodoketai] or "imperishability" which taught that the flesh of Christ, before His death on the Cross and Resurrection, was imperishable and not capable of suffering.  St Eutychius vigorously denounced this heresy, but the emperor Justinian himself inclined toward it, and turned his wrath upon the saint.
By order of the emperor, soldiers seized the saint in the church, removed his patriarchal vestments, and sent him into exile to an Amasean monastery (565).

The saint bore his banishment with meekness, and lived at the monastery in fasting and prayer, and he worked many miracles and healings.
Thus, through his prayer the wife of a devout man, Androgenes, who had given birth only to dead infants, now gave birth to two sons who lived to maturity. Two deaf-mutes received the gift of speech; and two grievously ill children were restored to health. The saint healed a cancerous ulcer on the hand of an artist. The saint also healed another artist, anointing his diseased hand with oil and making over it the Sign of the Cross.
The saint healed not only bodily, but also spiritual afflictions: he banished the devil out of a girl that had kept her from Holy Communion; he expelled a demon from a youth who had fled from a monastery (after which the youth returned to his monastery); he healed a drunken leper, whostopped drinking after being cleansed of his leprosy.
During the Persian invasion of Amasea and its widespread devastation, they distributed grain to the hungry from the monastery granaries on the saint's orders, and by his prayers, the stores of grain at the monastery were not depleted.
St Eutychius received from God the gift of prophecy. He revealed the names of two of Emperor Justinian's successors: Justin (565-578) and Tiberias (578-582).

After the death of the holy Patriarch John Scholastikos, St Eutychius returned to the cathedra in 577 after his twelve year exile, and he again wisely ruled his flock.
Four and a half years after his return to the Patriarchal throne, St Eutychius gathered together all his clergy on Thomas Sunday 582, blessed them, and peacefully fell asleep in the Lord.
586 St. Candida the Younger Miracle worker famed for her miracles.
who was a model wife and mother of Naples, Italy. The Roman Martyrology states that she was famed for her miracles
586 St. Cyprian A hermit near Perigueux.
Petragóricis, in Gállia, sancti Cypriáni Abbátis, magnæ sanctitátis viri.
    At Perigueux in France, St. Cyprian, abbot, a man of great sanctity.
France, whose life and miracles were recorded by St. Gregory of Tours.
585-590 Eleutherius of Spoleto, OSB Abbot  one favored by God with the gift of miracles (RM)
Died in Rome, Italy. The Dialogues of Saint Gregory the Great tell us of the wonderful simplicity of this holy man, who was abbot of Saint Mark's near Spoleto and well-known as one favored by God with the gift of miracles. When Eleutherius proudly rebuked the devil, after delivering a child from possession and educating him at Saint Mark's: "Since the child, is among the servants of God, the devil dares not approach him," the devil again tormented the boy. Eleutherius confessed his vanity and ordered the whole community to fast and pray until the child was again freed.

Later Saint Eleutherius resigned his abbacy and migrated to Saint Andrew's abbey founded by Saint Gregory in Rome, where he lived for many years as a simple monk. One Easter Eve Saint Gregory was unable to fast due to illness. He engaged Eleutherius to go with him to the church of Saint Andrew's and offer prayers to God for his health, that he might join the faithful in that solemn practice of penance. Eleutherius prayed with many tears, and the pope coming out of the church, found his himself so strengthened that he was able to fast as he desired. Saint Eleutherius raised a dead man to life. He died in Saint Andrew's monastery in Rome, but his body was translated to Spoleto (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
588 St. Frediano Irish bishop founded a group of eremetical canons  Miraculously, the river followed him
 Lucæ, in Túscia, natális sancti Frigdiáni Epíscopi, virtúte miraculórum illústris.       At Lucca in Tuscany, the birthday of the holy bishop Fridian, who was illustrious by the power of working miracles.
also called Frigidanus and Frigidian. He was reportedly a prince of Ireland who went on a pilgrimage to Rome and settled into a hermitage on Mount Pisano, near Lucca. The pope made him bishop of Lucca, but his see was attacked by Lombards. Frediano is believed to have founded a group of eremetical canons who merged with those of St. John Lateran in 1507.

Frigidian of Lucca B (RM) (also known as Frediano, Frigdianus) Born in Ireland; died 588; feast day formerly March 15.
In spite of the Italian name Frediano, by which he is usually called, St. Frigidian was an Irishman, the son of King Ultach of Ulster. He was trained in Irish monasteries and ordained a priest. His learning was imparted by such flowers of the 6th century Irish culture as Saint Enda and Saint Colman.
St. Frigidian arrived in Italy on a pilgrimage to Rome and decided to settle as a hermit on Mount Pisano. In 566, he was elected bishop of Lucca and was persuaded by Pope John II him to accept the position. Even thereafter the saint frequently left the city to spend many days in prayer and solitude. As bishop he formed the clergy of the city into a community of canons regular and rebuilt the cathedral after it had been destroyed by fire by the Lombards.
His most famous miracle is certainly legendary. The River Serchio frequently bursts its banks, causing great damage to the city of Lucca. The citizens reputedly called on their bishop for aid. He asked for an ordinary rake. Fortified by prayer, Frigidian commanded the Serchio to follow his rake. He charted a new, safer course for the water, avoiding the city walls, as well as the cultivated land outside. Miraculously, the river followed him.
Sometimes there is confusion between Saint Finnian of Moville and St. Frigidian. They could perhaps be the same person but the links have never been well established. Frigidian is still greatly venerated in Lucca (Attwater, Bentley, Encyclopedia).
In art, St. Frigidian walks in procession as the Volto Santo crucifix is brought to Lucca on an ox cart. He may also be shown changing the course of the Serchio River or as a bishop with a crown at his feet (Roeder).
589 St. Aedh MacBricc Miracle worker founder reputedly cured St. Brigid
of a headache. Aedh was the son of Bricc, or Breece, of the Hy Neill. He was robbed of his inheritance by his brother and came under the influence of bishop Illathan of Rathlihen, Offay. Admitted into the monastic life, Aedh founded a religious community in Westmeath. He is listed in some records as a bishop.
St. Servulus a beggar in Rome palsy thanked God all his life.
Romæ beáti Sérvuli, qui (ut sanctus Gregórius Papa scribit), a primæva sui ætáte usque ad finem vitæ, paralyticus jácuit in pórticu prope Ecclésiam sancti Cleméntis, et demum, Angelórum cántibus invitátus, ad paradísi glóriam transívit; ad cujus túmulum Deus mirácula crebérrime osténdit.
       At Rome, blessed Servulus of whom St. Gregory writes that from his early years to the end of his life he was a paralytic and had remained lying in a porch near St. Clement's Church, and being invited by the chant of angels, he went to enjoy the glory of Paradise.  At his tomb frequent miracles are wrought by God.

590 ST SERVULUS
IN this holy man was exemplified what our divine Redeemer taught of Lazarus, the poor man full of sores who lay at the gate of the rich man’s house. Servulus was a beggar, afflicted with the palsy from his infancy, so that he had never been able to stand, sit upright, lift his hand to his mouth, or turn himself from one side to another. His mother and brother carried him to the porch of St Clement’s church at Rome, where he lived on the alms of those that passed by, and whatever was left over he distributed among other needy persons. And for all that he was able to save enough to buy some books of Holy Scripture, which, as he could not read himself, he got others to read to him; and he listened with such attention as to learn them by heart. Much time he passed singing hymns of praise and thanksgiving to God in spite of continual pain. After years thus spent he felt his end draw near, and in his last moments he asked the poor and pilgrims who had often shared his charity to sing hymns and psalms by his bed. Whilst he joined his voice with theirs he on a sudden cried out, “Do you hear the great and wonderful music in heaven?” When he had spoken these words he died, and angels into everlasting bliss carried his soul. The body of Servulus was buried in St Clement’s church, and his feast is annually celebrated in that church on the Coelian Hill outside of which he was wont to lay.
St Gregory the Great concludes the account he gives of Servulus, in a sermon to his people, by observing that the behaviour of this poor sick beggar loudly condemns those who, when blessed with good health and fortune, neither do good works nor suffer the least cross with tolerable patience. He speaks of him as one who was well known both to himself and his hearers, and says that one of his monks, who was present at his death, used to speak of the fragrant smell which came from the dead beggar’s body. Servulus was a true lover of God, not careful and troubled about his own life, but solicitous that God be honoured, and all that he could suffer for this end he looked upon as reward. By his constancy and fidelity he overcame the world and all bodily afflictions.
We know nothing about Servulus but what we learn from St Gregory the Great. See his Dialogues, bk iv, ch. 14, and also one of his homilies, printed in Migne, PL., vol. lxxvi, g. 1333.

According to St. Gregory the Great (b. 540 d. 12 March 604), Servulus was a beggar in Rome, afflicted with palsy since infancy, who lived on alms he solicited from people passing St. Clement's Church. He spent his lifetime giving thanks to God for His goodness, despite the squalor and pain of his life.
Sixth Century

Pope St. Gregory the Great is the only writer who has recorded the touching story of this humble Roman saint of his own day. Like the Lazarus of our Lord's parable of the rich man and the poor man, St. Servulus was a crippled beggar whose piety won him a place "in Abraham's bosom."

Servulus, the pope tells us, was paralyzed from infancy. He could not stand. He could not sit up. He could not carry his hand to his mouth. He could not turn himself about. For even the basic services of life he had to depend on others.

The poor cripple could do nothing to support himself but beg alms. (There was no state welfare in those days, nor was there any system of private charities for the badly disabled.) So his mother and brother carried him daily to a spot in the porch of St. Clement's Church in Rome. There he besaught the charity of churchgoers and passersby.

What was remarkable about this poor man was his devout acceptance of disability. True to his name ("Servulus" means "little servant"), he did not use his ailments as an excuse to neglect the love of God and neighbor. Whatever alms he received beyond his own needs, he passed on to others. With some of the gifts, he brought books on sacred scripture. Although unable to read himself, he had others read to him; and he memorized, pondered and prayed over what he heard. He likewise learned a number of hymns of praise and thanksgiving, and often sang them as he lay on the cold threshold. Singing served the double effect of honoring God and dulling pain.

All this went on, we are told, for a good many years. Eventually, however, Servulus sensed that his life was coming to an end. Confined to his bed at home, he asked that the poor and the pilgrims whom he had come to know, gather at his bedside and join him in singing hymns. Suddenly he cried out. "Do you hear the great and beautiful music in heaven?" These were his last words. His soul, ever beautiful and agile, left the prison of his contorted frame.

The devout beggar of St. Clement's was buried in the very church where he had begged. Each year on December 23, St. Clement's celebrates the feast day of its own special mendicant.

St. Gregory speaks of St. Servulus as if he knew him well. He says that one of his own monks who attended the death and funeral commented on the sweet fragrance that arose from the body of the dead cripple.

The pope found a profound lesson in the virtues of this wise paralytic. He cried shame upon those people gifted with health and wealth who complained of far lighter crosses and were stingy with their possessions.
For St. Servulus, life itself was a gift beyond compare. Father Robert F. McNamara
590 Stephen of Rieti, Abbot of admirable sanctity despised all things for the love of heaven  extreme poverty, and a privation of all the conveniences of life In his agony angels were seen surrounding him to conduct his happy soul to bliss (RM)
Lugdúni, in Gállia, sancti Stéphani, Epíscopi et Confessóris.  At Lyons in France, St. Stephen, bishop and confessor.

Stephen was an abbot at Rieti whom Saint Gregory the Great in Dialogues, c. 19, describes as "rude of speech but of cultured life." He was a man of admirable sanctity, who despised all things for the love of heaven. He shunned all company to employ himself wholly in prayer. So wonderful was his patience, that he looked upon them as his greatest friends and benefactors, who did him the greatest injuries, and regarded insults as his greatest gain. He lived in extreme poverty, and a privation of all the conveniences of life. His barns, with all the corn in them, the whole subsistence of his family, were burned down by wicked men. He received the news with cheerfulness, grieving only for their sin by which God was offended.
In his agony angels were seen surrounding him to conduct his happy soul to bliss (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
590 St. Quadragesimus shepherd raising a man from the dead
Confessor and a shepherd known for miracles. He lived at Policastro, Italy, and served as a subdeacon. According to Pope St. Gregory I the Great, he was responsible for the remarkable achievement of raising a man from the dead.
590 St. Blane Scottish nephew of St. Cathan, and was educated in Ireland under Sts. Comgall and Kenneth Miracles restoration of a dead boy to life
Blane was born on the island of Bute, Scotland, he studied in Ireland for seven years, became a monk there, and on his return to Scotland was ordained and devoted himself to missionary work. He was consecrated bishop, made a pilgrimage to Rome, is credited with performing miracles, and died at Kingarth on Bute. He is also known as Blaan.
St. Blane (Or BLAAN). Bishop and Confessor in Scotland, b. on the island of Bute, date unknown; d. 590. His feast is kept on 10 August. He was a nephew of St. Cathan, and was educated in Ireland under Sts. Comgall and Kenneth; he became a monk, went to Scotland, and eventually was bishop among the Picts. Several miracles are related of him, among them the restoration of a dead boy to life.
The Aberdeen Breviary gives these and other details of the saint's life, which are rejected however, by the Bollandists. There can be no doubt that devotion to St. Blane was, from early times, popular in Scotland. His monastery became the site of the Cathedral of Dunblane. There was a church of St. Blane in Dumfries and another at Kilblane. The year of the saint's death is variously given as 446, 590, and 1000; 446 (Butler, Lives of the Saints) is evidently incorrect; the date 1000, found in Adam King, "Kalendar of Scottish Saints" (Paris, 1588), in Dempster, "Menologium Scotorum" (Bonn, 1622), and in the "Acta SS.", seems to have crept in by confusing St. Kenneth, whose disciple Blane was, with a Kenneth who was King of Scotland about A.D. 1000. The highest authorities say the saint died 590.
The ruins of his church at Kingarth, Bute, where his remains were buried, are still standing and form an object of great interest to antiquarians; the bell of his monastery is preserved at Dunblane.
March 28 592 Saint Guntramnus, King protector of oppressed care-giver to sick many miracles performed before and after death (Saint Gregory of Tours)
 Cabillóne, in Gálliis, deposítio sancti Gunthrámni, Regis Francórum, qui spiritálibus actiónibus ita se mancipávit, ut, relíctis, sæculi pompis, thesáuros suos lárgiter Ecclésiis et paupéribus erogáret.
       At Chalons in France, the death of St. Guntram, king of the Franks, who devoted himself to exercises of piety, despising the ostentation of the world, and who bestowed his treasures on the Church and the poor.
( (RM)
(also known as Contran, Gontran, Gontram, Gunthrammus)
Died March 28, 592. Saint Guntramnus, son of King Clotaire and Saint Clothildis, was crowned king of Orléans and Burgundy in 561, while his brothers Charibert reigned in Paris and Sigebert at Metz.

In general, his life was that of a peacemaker. He protected his nephews against the wickedness of the dowager queens, Sigebert's Brunehault and Chilperic's Fredegonde.  But he had a period of intemperance. He divorced his wife, Mercatrude, and hastily ordered the execution of his physician. He was overcome with remorse and lamented these sins for the rest of his life, both for himself and for his nation. In atonement, he fasted, prayed, wept, and offered himself to the God he had offended.

Throughout the balance of his prosperous reign he gave examples of how the maxims of the Gospel could be rendered into effective policy. He was the protector of the oppressed, care-giver to the sick, and the tender parent to his subjects. He was open-handed with his wealth, especially in times of plague and famine. He strictly and justly enforced the law without respect to person, yet was ever ready to forgive offenses against himself, including two attempted assassins.

Guntramnus munificently built and endowed many churches and monasteries. Saint Gregory of Tours relates many miracles performed by the king, both before and after his death, some of which he witnessed himself.

At the time of his death, Guntramnus had reigned for 31 years. Almost immediately he was proclaimed a saint by his subjects. He was buried in the church of Saint Marcellus, which he had founded. The Huguenots, who scattered his ashes in the 16th century, left only his skull untouched in their fury. It is now kept there in a silver case (Attwater2, Benedictines, Husenbeth)

In art, Saint Guntramnus is depicted as a king finding treasure and giving it to the poor. Sometimes there may be three treasure chests before him, a globe, and cross on one (Roeder).
6th v Saint Finan Disciple of St. Brendan abbot founder.
of a monastery in Kinitty, Offaly, Ireland. A native of Munster, he is also known as Finnian, and is the patron of the monastery.

Finan Cam, Abbot (AC) (also known as Finnian of Kinnitty) Born in Munster in the 6th century. Saint Finan was a disciple of Saint Brendan, at whose wish he founded and governed a monastery at Kinnitty (Cean-e-thich) in Offaly of which he is the patron (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).

6th v. St. Shio of Mgvime among the Thirteen Syrian Fathers who preached the Christian Faith in Georgia; miracles the Most Holy Theotokos and St. John the Baptist stood before him; performed many miracles
An Antiochian by birth,  was among the Thirteen Syrian Fathers who preached the Christian Faith in Georgia. His parents were pious nobles who provided their son with a sound education.  {SEE MAY 7 }

When the twenty-year-old Shio heard about the great ascetic labors of St. John of Zedazeni and his disciples who labored in the wilderness, he went in secret to visit them. St. John promised to receive Shio as a disciple, provided his parents agreed to his decision. But when Shio returned home he said nothing to his parents about what had transpired.  Time passed and Shio’s parents both entered the monastic life.  Then Shio sold all his possessions, distributed the profits to the poor, widows, orphans, and hermits, freed all his family’s slaves, and returned to Fr. John.  St. John received Shio joyfully, tonsured him a monk, and blessed him to remain in the wilderness. He labored there with St. John for twenty years.
Then John was told in a divine revelation to choose twelve disciples and travel to Georgia to increase the faith of its people. Shio was one of the disciples chosen to follow him on this holy mission.

The holy fathers arrived in Georgia and settled on Zedazeni Mountain. Then, with the blessings of Catholicos Evlavios and Fr. John, they dispersed throughout the country to preach the Word of God.  At his instructor’s command, St. Shio settled in the Sarkineti caves near Mtskheta and began to lead a strict ascetic life. There was no water there and many wild animals made their home in the caves, but the privations and tribulations he encountered did not shake St. Shio’s great faith. Like the Prophet Elijah, Shio received his food from the mouths of birds that carried it to him.

Once, after St. Shio had prayed at length, a radiant light appeared suddenly in the place where he was, and the Most Holy Theotokos and St. John the Baptist stood before him. After this miraculous visitation St. Shio began to pray with even greater zeal, and he would spend hours alone in the wilderness.

Another time, St. Evagre (at that time ruler of Tsikhedidi and military adviser to King Parsman) went hunting in the Sarkineti Mountains. There he encountered St. Shio and, astonished by his piety, resolved to remain there with him. The news of the ruler’s conversion soon spread through all of Georgia, and many people flocked to witness the venerable father’s miraculous deeds. Many remained there with them, following St. Evagre’s example.
Once St. Shio prayed to God to reveal to him the place where He desired a church to be built.

He placed a lump of hot coal in his hand and sprinkled incense on it, as though his hand were a censer. Then he followed the smoke as it swirled up from the hot coal. In the place where it rose straight up like a pillar, he took his staff and marked the ground where the church would be built.

When King Parsman heard about his military adviser’s radical change of life, he was deeply disturbed and wandered into the wilderness to find him. But when he witnessed the divine grace shining on St. Shio’s face, he took off his crown and knelt humbly before him. Fr. Shio reverently blessed the king, helped him to stand up, and replaced the crown on his head. Following the king’s example, all the royal court came to receive Shio’s blessing. A certain nobleman with an injured eye knelt before St. Shio, touched his eye to the holy father’s foot, and received healing at once.
At another time King Parsman asked St. Shio if there was anything he needed, and he answered, “O Sovereign King, God enlightens the hearts of kings. Do that which your heart tells you!” In response, the king donated much wealth for the construction of a church in the wilderness: the lands of four villages, a holy chalice and diskos, a gold cross, and an ornately decorated Gospel that had belonged to the holy king Vakhtang Gorgasali (†502).
When construction of the church was complete, the king traveled there in the company of the catholicos, several bishops and St. John of Zedazeni. The hierarchs consecrated the newly built church, and a monastic community soon grew up on its grounds. Eventually, the number of monks laboring at King Parsman’s monastery grew to nearly two thousand. Many people visited this place to receive St. Shio’s wonder-working blessings, and they were healed from many diseases.
St. Shio performed many miracles: Once a wolf that had been prowling the monastery grounds ravaged a herd of donkeys. When St. Shio heard this, he prayed to God to transform the wolf into the protector of the herd. From that time on the wolf grazed peacefully among the other animals.
With the blessings of both his teacher, John of Zedazeni, and the catholicos of Georgia, St. Shio gathered his disciples, advised them on the path they should follow, appointed Evagre his successor as abbot, and went into reclusion in a well that he had dug for himself. There St. Shio spent fifteen years in prayer and fasting. Finally, when God revealed to him that his death was approaching, St. Shio partook of the Holy Gifts and lifted up his hands, saying, “O Lord, receive the soul of Thy servant!”
Later, during one of the Persian invasions, the soldiers of Shah Abbas uncovered the holy father’s relics and carried them back to Persia.
In the same year Persia was ravaged by a terrible plague, and the frightened invaders returned the holy relics to the Shio-Mgvime Monastery.
6th v St. Boniface Bishop of Ferentino, Italy, renowned for sanctity and miracles from his childhood, commemorated by Pope St. Gregory the Great.
Ferénti, in Túscia, sancti Bonifátii Epíscopi, qui (ut refert beátus Gregórius Papa) sanctitáte et miráculis a puerítia cláruit.
    At Ferentino in Tuscany, Bishop St. Boniface, who was renowned for sanctity and miracles from his childhood as is told by the blessed Pope Gregory.
Boniface of Ferentino B (RM) 6th century. Bishop Boniface of Ferentino, Tuscany, Italy, reigned during the time of Emperor Justin and was commemorated by Saint Gregory the Great (Benedictines).

 596 St. Agnellus Miracle worker and abbot.
Neápoli, in Campánia, sancti Agnélli Abbátis, virtúte miraculórum illústris, qui obséssam urbem sæpe visus est Crucis vexíllo ab hóstibus liberáre.
    At Naples in Campania, St. Agnellus, abbot.  Illustrious for the gift of miracles, he was often seen with the standard of the Cross, delivering the city besieged by enemies.
patron of the city of Naples, Italy.
He started his religious career as a hermit then became the abbot of San Gaudioso near Naples.