There were on 31.07.1914 in Russian Poland, ie. the areas of Poland which the Soviet Russia recognised as part of Republic of Poland in the Treaty of Riga on 18.03.1921 6.316 km of 1524 mm gauge railways of which 2.860 km were double track lines.
In addition there were common carrier private narrow gauge lines 457 km and private 1524 mm gauge lines 216 km.

   During the the Great War further lines with total lenght of 715 km were built either by the Russians or by the Austrians and the Germans on this area. According to the offical statistics there were 1.750 1524 mm gauge locomotives accoted to the depots inside the Russian Poland with 2.364 passenger coaches and 46.558 freight cars.
   The most important railway in this area was the Privislinskij Zh.D. which might be transliterated in German language as Eisenbahn an der Weischel or in English language to Railways along the Vistula.
Some other state railways, such as Alexander, North Western, South Western, Polessian. and of course the Warsaw - Wien Railway. The last mentioned had been taken over by the state on 01.01.1912 with the idea to change its traditional 1435 mm gauge to the standard Russian 1524 mm gauge.
Lodz Industrial Railway was one of the Private Railway companies which existed there. In addition there were sevaral narrow gauge railway lines.

   In Austrian Poland were 2.942 km standard gauge lines of which 898 km were double track lines.
Recorded was also adminstrationally 1.215 km of private standard gauge railways, which were mostly operated by the kkStB. During the period of the Great War 92 km of new standard gauge lines were built in this area.In addition there were 25 km of private narrow gauge railways operated by the Austrian State and 47 km of narrow gauge lines in private ownership.
There were on 31.07.1914 1.124 stardard 1435 mm locomotives, 2.918 passenger coaches and about 28.000 freight cars.

  Railways in Russian Poland and Austrian Poland were very well intergated to MPS and kkStB total networks.

Maybe it is worth of mention here the matter which made both Austrian Poland and Russian Poland uniques in European map
by housing the majority of the European Jews which speked their own "unoffical" language Jiddish
in addition to Polish, Ukrainean, Russian, and Lithuanian and German languages spoken in the area.

   This made the train travelling in the area quite special when different languages were spoked among the passengers.
In Imperial Russia the Jews were allowed only to inhabite the so called Pale areas which included:
* In the Kingdom of Poland (or the region of the Vistula) the Province of Warsaw, Kalish, Kielce, Lomzha, Piortkow, Plotsk, Radom, Souvalki, and Sieldce.
* In Lithuania, the provinces of Vilna, Kovno, and Grodno.
* In White Russia, the provinces of Minsk, Vitiebsk and Mohiliev.
* In south-western Russia, the Provinces of Volhynia, Podolia, Kijev (except the city of Kijev), Tchernihov, and Poltava.
* In southern (new) Russia, the Provinces of Bessarabia, Herson, Jekaterinoslaff, and Taurida (except the town of Jalta).

    This information has been usually omitted from nearly all written sources both in east and west.
   The Jews formed quite number of the population in the area in these provinces. Their total number in 1897 (the last available reliable figure) was 5.215.805.
   This was a result of the historical reasons. As far it is known, the first Jewish immigrants reached Poland in very early times from the countries on the Lower danube and from the Kingdom of the Khazares, who had accepted the Jewish faith. In national sagas and legends show their importance at this early era.
   At the end of eleventh century many entered Poland from Germany, and in 1264 Boloslas the Pious granted them numerous privilidges which were extended by Casimir the Great in 1334, in which year the great statue concerning them, called the "Jus Magdeburgium", was enached, followed by another called the "Privilegia Judaeorum" in 1357.
The Jews soon spread through Courland, Lithuania, and the Ukraine, so that there were in the end of the 18th century number of Jews living in Poland and on the Russian frontier, the prohibitive policy of that country making any movement across the border impossible.
The law of 1789 gave the Jews the right to live in certain provinces, but in 1792 a great change took place. The first partiation of Poland gave to Russia, White Russia and part of Lithuania; the second in 1793, and the third in 1795, added the ten Vistula provinces, and, in annexing this land, Russia obtained at least a half of the entire European Jewish population as sublects.

   In 1835 the Jews were by the "Code of the Rights of Jews" confided to certain districts of the Russian Empire, these districts constituting the so called "Pale".
   The "Pale" consisted of twenty-five of the provinces of the entire Russian Empire. It begun immediately south of the Baltic Provinces, stretched throughout the west,and extended over the south as far east as the Don Cossack Territory. It covered 362.000 square miles, or less than 20 per cent of the European Russia, and only a little over four per cent of the entire Russian Empire. Their importance as railway empoyers in both Russian Poland and Austrian Poland was minimal. kkStB opened ones a course to the Jewish born young men in Lemberg to be teached to become as Locomotive drivers. From the 50 participants who were selected in this four year training only seven passed the examination, all others quited from the course.
   Compared with the parallel Polish course, where 38 passed the examination. Maybe because the Jews were much more oriented to their traditional professions, as shop keepers, mobile traders, tax collectors for the Crown or local adminstrations, etc. But they formed the majority of the train passengers in the 3rd class in all local passenger trains running in the area. Many of them travelled in weekly bases to neighbouring countries, Roumania, Austria, and Germany to make their living by participating in market "torgs" trade and bought small goods to be sold in local Jewish populated villages in the area. They were an every day sight on the railways and the history of railways in Russian Poland, Lithuania, Ukraina, and Galitzia (Austrian Poland), Bukowina and Bessarabia can not be written without mentioning them in railway history.
They formed even the majority of the population in certain important railway junction towns just as Wolkowysk (Vaukavis) being renamed in 1912 to Bagrationovskaja, in the honour of General Bagratin. But the railway line from Siedlets (Sieldce) to Bagrationovskaja (185 versts) remaided as "Volkovyskaja Linija Privislinskih Zhel.Dor." in offical timetables. Very little has been published of the railways in these areas, due lack of knowledge because many primary sources have been dissapeared over the times and the results of the 1914 - 1918 and 1939 - 1945 wars.
During the last forty years I have tried to collect some material out of the still existing sources and what I have found out the story forms a quite unique railway history in Europe with changing borders, different adminstrations, changes of gauges, fast groving railway networks, devastation of wars, period of rebuilding and again devastations as a result of next war, closed borders, and the change of the ethnic populations, formation of new (old) states, a story not found at all in Western Europe.

Pupulation figures in various towns in the Russian Poland and Lithuania on 01 / 14. 01.1913 as reported by the Imperial Statistical Central Bureau in Moscow. Rounded to nearest 1.000, or 500. (The list includes also towns in near-by areas important for railway network in Rissian Empire.) * Moscow 1.650.000 * St.Petersburg 1.500.000 * Brest Litovsk 47.500 * Brjansk (Grodno) 4.500 * Bielostok 78.500 * Dvinsk (Dünaburg / Daugavpils) 90.000 * Homiel (Gomel) 47.000 * Grodna (Gardinas) 44.000 * Ivangorod ? (not reported) * Kalish 28.000 * Kamenets Podolski 40.000 * Harkov (Kharkoff) 207.000 * Holm (Kholm) in Liubin (Lublin) 17.000 * Kieff 323.000 (the fifth largest town in Russian Empire) * Kielce 15.000 * Kishinieff ( Chisinau) 129.000 * Koursk (Kursk) 57.000 * Kovna (Kaunas) 76.000 * Libau (Libava) 65.000 * Liubin (Lublin) 59.500 * Lodz 328.000 * Lomzha 27.000 * Minsk (Mensk) 100.000 * Mitau (Mitava) 35.000 * Moghileff (Mohiliev) 35.000 * Odessa 510.000 (the fourth largest city in Russian Empire) * Petrokoff (Piortkoff) 37.000 * Plotsk 27.000 * Poltava 50.000 * Pskoff 31.500 * Radom 32.000 * Revel (Reval) 69.000 * Riga 283.000 * Siedlce (Seydlets) 23.000 * Smoliensk (Smolensk) 63.000 * Sokhachoff 8.000 * Souvalki (Suwalki / Suvalkai) 28.000 * Vilna (Wilno / Vilnius) 183.000 * Vitiebsk (Vitebsk) 81.000 * Warsaw 771.000 (the third largest city in Russian Empire) * Windau (Vindava) 7.000 * Jakobstadt (Jekapils) 6.000 * Zhitomir 88.000

Main railway workshops in Russian Poland and Austrian Poland; * Ateliers principaux pour locomotives á Varsovie (Gare principale) (Main Workshop for Warsaw - Wien (Vienna) Railway). Catered area 12.000 m2, total area 25.000 m2. Built 1867. * Ateliers principaux pour locomotives á Varsovie-Praga (Main Workshop for lacomotives and wagons at Warsaw - Praga). Catered area 21.550 m2, total area 86.820 m2. Built 1896 * Ateliers principaux pour wagons á Varsovie-Est. (Main Workshop for wagons at Warsaw-East) Catered area 17.740 m2, Total area 69.500 m2. * Ateliers principaux pour wagons á Pruszkow. Partly destroyed in 1915. * Chantiers principaux pour locomotives á Skarzysko. (Boiler repair workshop at Skarzysko). Catered area 8.460 m2, total area 21.970 m2. * Ateliers principaux pour wagons á Radom. (Main Workshop for wagon repairs at Radom). Catered area 7.740 m2, total area 78.000 m2. * Ateliers principaux de Lapy. (Main workshop at Lapy). Catered area 11.040 m2, total area 99.500 m2. * Ateliers pour wagons de Brzesc (Wagon Repair shop at Brest-Litowsk) Catered area 5.180 m2, total area 44.500 m2. * Ateliers pour wagons de Nowo-Wileija (Wagon Repair shop at Novoje-Vilna). Catered area 3.920 m2, total area 35.300 m2.

Austrian Poland (Direktions Lemberg / Lwow and Stanislau / Stanislawow). * Ateliers principaux pour locomotives et wagons á Lwow. (Main Workshop for locomotives and wagons at Lemberg / Lwow.) Catered area 29.610 m2, total area 82.940 m2. Opened in 1861 and enlargened several times up to 1914. The principal works in Galitzia. * Ateliers principuax pour wagons et locomotives á Stanislau / Stanislawow. (Main Workshop for wagons and locomotives at Stanislau / Stanislawow) Ex-main Workshop of Lemberg - Cernowirtz - Jassy Eisenbahn. Catered area 20.845 m2, total area 45.525 m2. Opened in 1866. * Ateliers principaux de Przemysl. (Main Workshop at Przemysl). Catered area 7.750 m2, total area 32.870 m2. Founded 1860. Enlargened sever times in 1874 - 1910. Desrtoyed in 1914 - 1915 in the siege of Przemysl. * Ateliers prinipaux de Stryj. (Main Workshop at Stryj). Catered area 12.760 m2, total area 32.870 m2. Opened in 1874 and enlargened in 1886. *Auxliary Workshops. Several locomotive depots were built in principe to carry on minor repairs of locomotives between major overhauls.

Jukka Nurminen Helsinki Finland. jl.nur@kolumbus.fi