Popes of the Catholic Church
by Name and Date from First to last HERE

Where Peter is, there is the Church,
where the Church is there is Eternal Life
Peter 42-67 • Linus 67-79 • Anacletus 79-92 • Clement I 92-101 • Evaristus 101-105 • Alexander I 105-115 • Sixtus I 115-125 • Telesphorus 125-136 • Hyginus 136-140 • Pius I 140-155 • Anicetus 155-166 • Soter 166-175 • Eleuterus175-189 • Victor I 189-199 • Zephyrinus 199-217 • Callixtus I 218-223 • Urban I • Pontian 230-235 • Anterus • Fabian 236-250 • St Cornelius 251-253 • Lucius I • Stephen I 254-247• Sixtus II 257-258 • St. Dionysius 259-268 • St. Felix I 269-274 • Eutychian 275 -283 • Caius 283-296 • Marcellinus • Marcellus I 308-309 • Eusebius • Miltiades  311-314 Silvester I 314-335 • Mark 336• Julius I • Liberius 352 to his death in 366 • Damasus 366-374  I • Siricius 384 -399 • Anastasius I • Innocent I 401-417 St. Zosimus 417-418 • Boniface I 418-422 • Celestine I 422-432  • Sixtus III  432-440 • Leo I 400 – 10 November 461 • Hilarius 461-468 • Simplicius • Felix III 483-492 • Gelasius I 492-496 • Anastasius II 496-498 • Symmachus 498-514 • Hormisdas • John I 523-526 • Felix IV 526-530• Boniface II • John II 533-535 • Agapetus I 535-536 • St. Silverius 536-537 • Vigilius 537-555 • Pelagius I • John III • Benedict I • Pelagius II • Gregory I 590-604 • Sabinian • Boniface III • Boniface IV 608-615• Adeodatus I 615-618 • Boniface V • Honorius I • Severinus • John IV 640-642• Theodore I • Martin I 649-655 • Eugene I • Vitalian • Adeodatus II • Donus • Agatho • St. Leo II  682-683  • Benedict II 684-685• John V 685-686 • Conon • Sergius I 687-701• John VI • John VII • Sisinnius • Constantine • Gregory II 715-731 • Gregory III • Zachary 741-752 • Stephen II • Paul I • Stephen III • Adrian I • Leo III 795-816 • Stephen IV • Paschal I 817-824 • Eugene II • Valentine • Gregory IV 827-44 • Sergius II • Leo IV • Benedict III • Nicholas I 820-867 • Adrian II • John VIII • Marinus I • St. Adrian III St. Adrian III  884-885  • Stephen V • Formosus • Boniface VI • Stephen VI • Romanus • Theodore II • John IX • Benedict IV • Leo V • Sergius III • Anastasius III • Lando • John X • Leo VI • Stephen VII • John XI • Leo VII • Stephen VIII • Marinus II • Agapetus II • John XII • Leo VIII • Benedict V • John XIII • Benedict VI • Benedict VII • John XIV • John XV • Gregory V • Silvester II • John XVII • John XVIII • Sergius IV • Benedict VIII • John XIX • Benedict IX • Silvester III • Benedict IX • Gregory VI • Clement II • Benedict IX • Damasus II • Leo IX 1049-1054 • Victor II 1055-157 • Stephen IX • Nicholas II 1058 1061 • Alexander II 1061-1073  • Gregory VII 1073-1085 • Victor III 1086-1087 • Bl Urban II 1088-1099• Paschal II 1099-1118• Gelasius II • Callixtus II • Honorius II • Innocent II • Celestine II • Lucius II • Eugene III • Anastasius IV • Adrian IV 1154-1059 • Alexander III 1159-81• Lucius III • Urban III • Gregory VIII • Clement III • Celestine III 1191-1198 • Innocent III 1198 - 1216 • Honorius III 1216 1227 • Gregory IX 1227-1241 • Celestine IV • Innocent IV 1243-1254 • Alexander IV • Urban IV 1261-64 • Clement IV • Gregory X 1271-1276 • Innocent V 1276 • Adrian V • John XXI • Nicholas III • Martin IV • Honorius IV • Nicholas IV 1288-1292  • Celestine V 1294 • Boniface VIII • Benedict XI 1304 • Clement V • John XXII • Benedict XII • Clement VI • Innocent VI • Urban V 1310; died at Avignon, 19 Dec., 1370 Bl. Urban V 1362-1370 • Gregory XI 1370-78 • Urban VI 1378-89 • Boniface IX 1389-1404 • Innocent VII 1406 • Gregory XII • Martin V 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431• Eugene IV 1431 1447 • Nicholas V • Callixtus III • Pius II 1464 • Paul II 1471 • Sixtus IV 1471-1481 • Innocent VIII 1492 • Alexander VI 1503 • Pius III 1503 • Julius II 1513 Paul III 1534-1549 Julius III 1555  Marcellus II 1555  • Leo X • Adrian VI • Clement VII 1523-1534 •  Julius III •• Paul IV • Pius IV 1565  • St Pius V 1572 • Gregory XIII 1585•  Urban VII 1590 Gregory XIV 1591 Innocent IX 1591 Leo XI 1605  Urban VIII 1644  Alexander VII  1667  Clemens X 1676 Innocent XI 1689  • Alexander VIII 1691 • Innocent XII 1700 • Clement XI 1721 • Innocent XIII 1724 Benedict XIV 1758  Clement XIII 1769  Pius Pius VI 1799 VII 1823  Leo XII 1829 • Pius VIII 1830 Gregory XVI 1846 Pius IX 1878 Leo XIII 1903 Pius X 1914  Benedict XV 1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • St John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul 1978 • St John Paul II 2005 • Benedict XVI 2013 • Francis 2013
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May 01
600 BC Jeremiah,The Holy Prophet  one of the four great Old Testament prophets     In Egypt, St. Jeremias, prophet, who was stoned to death by the people at Taphnas, where he was buried.  St. Epiphanius tells that the faithful were accustomed to pray at his grave, and to take away from it dust to heal those who were stung by serpents.
Son of the priest Helkiah from the city of Anathoth near Jerusalem.  He lived 600 years before the Birth of Christ, under the Israelite king Josiah and four of his successors. He was called to prophetic service at the age of fifteen, when the Lord revealed to him that even before his birth the Lord had chosen him to be a prophet. Jeremiah refused, citing his youth and lack of skill at speaking, but the Lord promised to be always with him and to watch over him.
He touched the mouth of the chosen one and said, "Behold, I have put My words into your mouth. Behold, I have appointed you this day over nations and kingdoms, to root out and to pull down, to destroy and to rebuild, and to plant" (Jer. 1:9-10).
When Jeremiah prophesied that the King of Babylon would invade Egypt and annihilate the Jews living there, the Jews murdered him.  In that very same year the saint's prophecy was fulfilled.
There is a tradition that 250 years later, Alexander the Great transported the relics of the holy Prophet Jeremiah to Alexandria.

The Prophet Jeremiah wrote his Book of Prophecies and also the Book of Lamentations about the desolation of Jerusalem and the Exile.  The times in which he lived and prophesied are described in 4/2 Kings (Ch. 23-25) and in the Second Book of Chronicles (36:12) and in 2 Maccabbees (Ch. 2).

In the Gospel of Matthew it is said that the betrayal of Judas was foretold by the Prophet Jeremiah, "And they took thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom the sons of Israel had set a price, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed me" (Mt. 27:9-10). Perhaps Jeremiah 32:6-15 is meant.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 01
600 BC Jeremiah,The Holy Prophet  one of the four great Old Testament prophets     In Egypt, St. Jeremias, prophet, who was stoned to death by the people at Taphnas, where he was buried.  St. Epiphanius tells that the faithful were accustomed to pray at his grave, and to take away from it dust to heal those who were stung by serpents.
Son of the priest Helkiah from the city of Anathoth near Jerusalem.  He lived 600 years before the Birth of Christ, under the Israelite king Josiah and four of his successors. He was called to prophetic service at the age of fifteen, when the Lord revealed to him that even before his birth the Lord had chosen him to be a prophet. Jeremiah refused, citing his youth and lack of skill at speaking, but the Lord promised to be always with him and to watch over him.
He touched the mouth of the chosen one and said, "Behold, I have put My words into your mouth. Behold, I have appointed you this day over nations and kingdoms, to root out and to pull down, to destroy and to rebuild, and to plant" (Jer. 1:9-10).
When Jeremiah prophesied that the King of Babylon would invade Egypt and annihilate the Jews living there, the Jews murdered him.  In that very same year the saint's prophecy was fulfilled.
There is a tradition that 250 years later, Alexander the Great transported the relics of the holy Prophet Jeremiah to Alexandria.

The Prophet Jeremiah wrote his Book of Prophecies and also the Book of Lamentations about the desolation of Jerusalem and the Exile.  The times in which he lived and prophesied are described in 4/2 Kings (Ch. 23-25) and in the Second Book of Chronicles (36:12) and in 2 Maccabbees (Ch. 2).

In the Gospel of Matthew it is said that the betrayal of Judas was foretold by the Prophet Jeremiah, "And they took thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom the sons of Israel had set a price, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed me" (Mt. 27:9-10). Perhaps Jeremiah 32:6-15 is meant.
The birthday of the blessed apostles Philip and James.  Philip, after having converted nearly all of Scythia to the faith of Christ, went to Hieropolis, a city in Asia, where he was fastened to a cross and stoned, and thus ended his life gloriously.  James, who is also called the brother of our Lord, was the first bishop of Jerusalem.  Being hurled down from a pinnacle of the temple, his legs were broken, and being struck on the head with a dyer's staff, he expired and was buried near the temple. 
St. Joseph Feastday: March 19, May 1 Patron of the Universal Church.
We know he was a carpenter, a working man, for the skeptical Nazarenes ask about Jesus, "Is this not the carpenter's son?" (Matthew 13:55). He wasn't rich for when he took Jesus to the Temple to be circumcised and Mary to be purified he offered the sacrifice of two turtledoves or a pair of pigeons, allowed only for those who could not afford a lamb (Luke 2:24).
Despite his humble work and means, Joseph came from a royal lineage. Luke and Matthew disagree some about the details of Joseph's genealogy but they both mark his descent from David, the greatest king of Israel (Matthew 1:1-16 and Luke 3:23-38). Indeed the angel who first tells Joseph about Jesus greets him as "son of David," a royal title used also for Jesus.
We know Joseph was a compassionate, caring man. When he discovered Mary was pregnant after they had been betrothed, he knew the child was not his but was as yet unaware that she was carrying the Son of God. He planned to divorce Mary according to the law but he was concerned for her suffering and safety. He knew that women accused to adultery could be stoned to death, so he decided to divorce her quietly and not expose her to shame or cruelty (Matthew 1:19-25).
We know Joseph was man of faith, obedient to whatever God asked of him without knowing the outcome. When the angel came to Joseph in a dream and told him the truth about the child Mary was carrying, Joseph immediately and without question or concern for gossip, took Mary as his wife. When the angel came again to tell him that his family was in danger, he immediately left everything he owned, all his family and friends, and fled to a strange country with his young wife and the baby.
He waited in Egypt without question until the angel told him it was safe to go back (Matthew 2:13-23).
We know Joseph loved Jesus. His one concern was for the safety of this child entrusted to him. Not only did he leave his home to protect Jesus, but upon his return settled in the obscure town of Nazareth out of fear for his life. When Jesus stayed in the Temple we are told Joseph (along with Mary) searched with great anxiety for three days for him (Luke 2:48). We also know that Joseph treated Jesus as his own son for over and over the people of Nazareth say of Jesus, "Is this not the son of Joseph?" (Luke 4:22)
We know Joseph respected God. He followed God's commands in handling the situation with Mary and going to Jerusalem to have Jesus circumcised and Mary purified after Jesus' birth. We are told that he took his family to Jerusalem every year for Passover, something that could not have been easy for a working man.
Since Joseph does not appear in Jesus' public life, at his death, or resurrection, many historians believe Joseph probably had died before Jesus entered public ministry.
Joseph is the patron of the dying because, assuming he died before Jesus' public life, he died with Jesus and Mary close to him, the way we all would like to leave this earth.
208 St Andeolus Martyr sent to France by St Polycarp,     In France, in the Province of Vivarias, blessed Andeol, subdeacon, who was sent from the East into Gaul with others by St. Polycarp to preach the word of God.  Under Emperor Severus he was scourged with thorny sticks, and having his head split with a wooden sword into four parts, in the shape of a cross, he completed his martyrdom.
Martyr and companion of St. Polycarp. Originally from Smyrna, Andeolus was sent to France by Polycarp. There he labored until arrested and martyred at Viviers.
  604 St. Arigius Bishop 20 yrs greatest priest pastor of his era of Gap, France. He served as bishop for twenty years after earning a reputation as one of the greatest priest pastors of his era. His cult was confirmed by Pope St. Pius X.
  893 St Theodard Benedictine bishop rebuilt churches ransom captives selling treasures spending his own money to
feed poor suffering practiced severe austerities
.  The Montauban breviary describes him as “an eye to the blind, feet to the lame, a father of the poor, and the consoler of the afflicted”. Greatly beloved by all, he was unanimously chosen archbishop of Narbonne at the death of Sigebold, who had nominated him as his successor. The perils which then beset travellers did not deter the newly-elected prelate from undertaking a visit to Rome, where he received the pallium.  Born at Montauban (Monlauriol), France, he studied law at the University of Toulouse and then at the Benedictine abbey of Montauban before becoming a lawyer.
Appointed secretary to Archbishop Sigebold of Narbonne, he soon was named an archdeacon and finally succeeded Sigebold as archbishop. He devoted much of his effort to repairing the damage, physical and spiritual, caused by the raids of Saracens, including rebuilding churches, ransoming captives, selling off treasures, and spending his own money to feed the poor and suffering. His death at St. Martin's Abbey (where he received the Benedictine habit) was probably hastened by the severe austerities he practiced
1012 St Benedict of Szkalka hermit martyr gifted mystic of Hungary.   Benedict was a recluse on Mount Zabor, near a Benedictine monastery, trained by St. Andrew Zorard.
A gifted mystic, Benedict was murdered by a mob in 1012. He was canonized in 1083
Gregory VII 1073-1085.
1200 Tamar In 1166 a daughter, Tamar, was born to King George III (1155–1184) and Queen Burdukhan of Georgia.
The king proclaimed that he would share the throne with his daughter from the day she turned twelve years of age. The royal court unanimously vowed its allegiance and service to Tamar, and father and daughter ruled the country together for five years. After King George’s death in 1184, the nobility recognized the young Tamar as the sole ruler of all Georgia. Queen Tamar was enthroned as ruler of all Georgia at the age of eighteen. She is called “King” in the Georgian language because her father had no male heir and so she ruled as a monarch and not as a consort.
At the beginning of her reign, Tamar convened a Church council and addressed the clergy with wisdom and humility: “Judge according to righteousness, affirming good and condemning evil,” she advised. “Begin with me—if I sin I should be censured, for the royal crown is sent down from above as a sign of divine service. Allow neither the wealth of the nobles nor the poverty of the masses to hinder your work. You by word and I by deed, you by preaching and I by the law, you by upbringing and I by education will care for those souls whom God has entrusted to us, and together we will abide by the law of God, in order to escape eternal condemnation.… You as priests and I as ruler, you as stewards of good and I as the watchman of that good.”
Having encamped near Basiani, Rukn al-Din sent a messenger to Queen Tamar with an audacious demand: to surrender without a fight. In reward for her obedience, the sultan promised to marry her on the condition that she embrace Islam; if Tamar were to cleave to Christianity, he would number her among the other unfortunate concubines in his harem. When the messenger relayed the sultan’s demand, a certain nobleman, Zakaria Mkhargrdzelidze, was so outraged that he slapped him on the face, knocking him unconscious. At Queen Tamar’s command, the court generously bestowed gifts upon the ambassador and sent him away with a Georgian envoy and a letter of reply. “Your proposal takes into consideration your wealth and the vastness of your armies, but fails to account for divine judgment,” Tamar wrote, “while I place my trust not in any army or worldly thing but in the right hand of the Almighty God and the infinite aid of the Cross, which you curse. The will of God—and not your own—shall be fulfilled, and the judgment of God—and not your judgment—shall reign!”  The Georgian soldiers were summoned without delay. Queen Tamar prayed for victory before the Vardzia Icon of the Theotokos, then, barefoot, led her army to the gates of the city. Hoping in the Lord and the fervent prayers of Queen Tamar, the Georgian army marched toward Basiani. The enemy was routed. The victory at Basiani was an enormous event not only for Georgia, but for the entire Christian world.
1345 Peregrine Laziosi received a vision of Our Lady who told him to go to Siena, Italy, and there to join the Servites healed by Jesus incorrupt fervant preacher, excellent orator, and gentle confessor.  1345 St Peregrine Laziosi; he spent hours upon his knees in the chapel of our Lady in the cathedral. One day the Blessed Virgin herself appeared to him in that place, and addressed him, saying, “Go to Siena: there you will find the devout men who call themselves my servants: attach yourself to them”.  The only son of well-to-do parents, St Peregrine Laziosi was born in 1260 at Forli, in the Romagna.
After he had spent some years in Siena, his superiors sent him to Forli to found a new house for the order. By this time he had been ordained and had proved himself to be an ideal priest—fervent in the celebration of the holy mysteries, eloquent in preaching, untiring in reconciling sinners. A great affliction now befell him in the form of cancer of the foot, which, besides being excruciatingly painful, made him an object of repulsion to his neighbours. He bore this trial without a murmur. At last the surgeons decided that the only thing to do was to cut off the foot. St Peregrine spent the night before the operation in trustful prayer; he then sank into a light slumber, from which he awoke completely cured—to the amaze­ment of the doctors, who testified that they could no longer detect any trace of the disease. This miracle greatly enhanced the reputation which the holy man had already acquired by his exemplary life. He lived to the age of 80, and was canon­ized in
1726 Benedict XIV 1758.
1852 St John-Louis Bonnard priest Martyr of Vietnam.   Born at St. Christot-en-Jarret, France, he became a priest of the Paris Society of Foreign Missions and was ordained in 1850. Sent to western Vietnam, he was arrested in a persecution and beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988. 

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 02
373 St. Athanasius Bishop and Doctor of the Church refusal to tolerate Arian heresy refuge among desert monks became ascetic renowned for sanctity beloved by followers volumes of writings extant.   At Alexandria, the birthday of St. Athanasius, bishop of that city, confessor and doctor of the Church, most celebrated for sanctity and learning.  Although almost all of the world had formed a conspiracy to persecute him, he courageously defended the Catholic faith, from the reign of Constantine to that of Valens, against emperors, governors, and a multitude of Arian bishops, whose underhanded attacks forced him to wander as an exile over the whole earth without finding a place of security.  At length, however, he was restored to his church, and after overcoming many trials, and winning many crowns by his patience, he departed for heaven in the forty-sixth year of his priesthood, in the time of the emperors Valentinian and Valens.
born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 January, 395), is still used in the liturgy of the Catholic Church.
Five times Athanasius had been banished; seventeen years he had spent in exile: but for the last seven years of his life he was left in the unchallenged occupation of his see. It was probably at this time that he wrote the Life of St Antony.
St Athanasius died in Alexandria on May 2, 373, and his body was subsequently translated first to Constantinople and then to Venice.
The greatest man of his age and one of the greatest religious leaders of any age, Athanasius of Alexandria rendered services to the Church the value of which can scarcely be exaggerated, for he defended the faith against almost overwhelming odds and emerged triumphant. Most aptly has he been described by Cardinal Newman as “a principal instrument after the Apostles by which the sacred truths of Christianity have been conveyed and secured to the world”. Although the writings of St Athanasius deal mainly with controversy, there is beneath this war of words a deep spiritual feeling which comes to the surface at every turn and reveals the high purpose of him who writes. Take, for example, his reply to the objections which the Arians raised from the texts: “Let this chalice pass from me”, or “Why hast thou forsaken me?”
Is it not extravagant to admire the courage of the servants of the Word, yet to say that that Word Himself was in tenor, through whom they despised death? For that most enduring purpose and courage of the holy martyrs demonstrates that the Godhead was not in terror but that the Saviour took away our terror. For as He abolished death by death, and by human means all human evils, so by this so-called terror did He remove our terror, and brought about for us that never more should men fear death. His word and deed go together. . . . For human were the sounds: “Let this chalice pass from me”, and “Why hast thou forsaken me?” and divine the action whereby He, the same being, did cause the sun to fail and the dead to rise. And so He said humanly: “Now is my soul troubled”; and He said divinely: “I have power to lay down my life and power to take it again”. For to be troubled was proper to the flesh, but to have power to lay down His life and take it again when He would, was no property of man, but of the Word’s power. For man dies not at his own arbitrament, but by necessity of nature and against his will; but the Lord being Himself immortal, not having a mortal flesh, had it at His own free will, as God, to become separate from the body and to take it again, when He would. . . . And He let His own body suffer, for therefore did He come, that in the flesh He might suffer, and thenceforth the flesh might be made impassible and immortal; and that contumely and the other troubles might fall upon Him, but come short of others after Him, being by Him annulled utterly; and that henceforth men might for ever abide incorruptible, as a temple of the Word.

The principal source of information for the life of St Athanasius is the collection of his own writings, but his activities were so interwoven with not only the religious, but the secular history of his times that the range of authorities to be consulted is very wide. For English readers Cardinal Newman in his Anglican days, both in his special work on St Athanasius and in his tract on the “Causes of the Rise and Successes of Arianism”, rendered the whole complicated situation intelligible. There is also a brilliantly written chapter on St Athanasius in Dr A. Fortescue’s volume, The Greek Fathers (1908). Two excellent little monographs have appeared in France, by F. Cavallera (1908) and by G. Bardy (1914) in the series “Les Saints”. Reference should also be made to four valuable papers by E. Schwartz in the Nachrichten of the Göttingen Akademie from 1904 to 1911. For a fuller bibliography, see Bardenhewer in the latest edition of his Patrologie, or in his larger work, Geschichte des altkirchlichen Literatur, and for a survey of more recent work, F. L. Cross, The Study of St Athanasius (1945).
Even in exile Athanasius managed to tend his flock. It was primarily for them that he wrote the most illuminating theological treatises on Catholic dogma. He authored Against the Heathen (c. 318), Contra Arianos (c. 358 ?), Apologia to Constantius, (primary historical source), History of the Arians Defense of His Flight, many letters, The Life of Antony (c. 357), and other pieces. In Against the Arians, Athanasius drew on the work of Saints Justin (Born in Flavia Neapolis, Samaria, c. 100; died 165) and St Irenaeus (115-125? 200?), who interpreted Scripture in an orthodox tradition, to insist that the Nicene term homoousios, although not Scriptural itself, was necessary to formulate correctly the truth of Christ's Scriptural revelation.
His Life of Saint Antony showed his friend as singularly devoted to combatting the powers of evil. It became a widely diffused classic. From the time of Saint Bede (Born in Northumbria, England, 673; died at Jarrow, England, on May 25, 735; named Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII in 1899), it inspired other monastic hagiographers.
An 8th-century monk wrote, "If you find a book by Athanasius and have no paper on which to copy it, write it on your shirts."

All his thinking was soteriologically determined, {the branch of Christian theology that deals with salvation as the effect of a divine agency --  The theological doctrine of salvation as effected by Jesus.} hence 'the Word could never have divinized us if He were merely divine by participation and were not himself the essential Godhead.'
Athanasius defended the oneness of God, yet the separateness of the three Divine Persons. He also went forward to add the Holy Spirit to the Godhead to counter Tropici. His theology of the Holy Spirit is found in his letters to Serapion. In his enlightening treatises on Catholic dogma, Athanasius showed that asceticism and virginity were effective ways to restore the divine image in man.
Several of his works were addressed to monks, to whom he also gave repeated practical help.
When he returned to Alexandria after his final exile, Athanasius spent the last seven years of his life helping to build the Nicene party.

Before the outbreak of the Arian controversy, which began in 319, Athanasius had made himself known as the author of two essays addressed to a convert from heathenism, one of them entitled Against the Gentiles, and the other On the Incarnation of the Word. Both are of the nature of apologetical treatises, arguing such questions as monotheism, and the necessity of divine interposition for the salvation of the world; and already in the second may be traced that tone of thought respecting the essential divinity of Christ as the "God-man" for which he afterwards became conspicuous. There is no distinct evidence of the connection of Athanasius with the first contentions of Arius and his bishop, which ended in the exile of the former, and his entrance into Palestine under the protection of Eusebius the historian, who was bishop of Caesarea and subsequently of his namesake the bishop of Nicomedia. It can hardly be doubted, however, that Athanasius would be a cordial assistant of his friend and patron Alexander, and that the latter was strengthened in his theological position by the young enthusiastic student who had already expounded the nature of the divine Incarnation, and who seems about this time to have become archdeacon of Alexandria. At the Council of Nicaea, in the year 325, he appears prominently in connection with the dispute. He attended the council, not as one of its members (who were properly only bishops or delegates of bishops), but merely as the attendant of Alexander. In this capacity, however, he was apparently allowed to take part in its discussions, for Theodoret (i. 26) states that "he contended earnestly for the apostolic doctrines, and was applauded by their champions, while he earned the hostility of their opponents".
   Within `five months' after the return of Alexander to the scene of his episcopal labours he expired, and his friend and archdeacon was chosen to succeed him. He was elected in the sight and amidst the acclamations of the people. He was now about 30 years of age, and is spoken of as remarkable both for his physical and mental characteristics. He was small in stature, but his face was radiant with intelligence, as 'the face of an angel. This is the expression of Gregory of Nazianzus (Orat., xxii. 9), who has written an elaborate panegyric upon his friend, describing him as fit 'to keep on a level with common-place views yet also to soar high above the more aspiring,' as accessible to all, slow to anger, quick in sympathy, pleasant in conversation, and still more pleasant in temper, effective alike in discourse and in action, assiduous in devotions, helpful to Christians of every class and age, a theologian with the speculative, a comforter of the afflicted, a staff to the aged, a guide of the young."

686 St. Ultan Benedictine abbot founder chaplain to St Gertrude's nuns escaped Mercians  by supernatural revelation he knew of the death of St Foillan, who was murdered by robbers in the forest of Seneffe, and he foretold to St Gertrude, at her request, the day of her own death. He said that St Patrick was preparing to welcome her, and in point of fact she died on March 17.
ST ULTAN (or Ultain) and his more celebrated brothers, St Fursey and St Foillan, were Irish monks who crossed over to East Anglia, where they founded the abbey of Burgh Castle, near Yarmouth, on territory bestowed upon them by King Sigebert or Sigebert I. In consequence of raids by the Mercians, St Fursey went to France, where he died. When St Foillan and St Ultan visited their brother’s tomb at Péronne on their way back from a pilgrimage to Rome, they were warmly welcomed by Bd Itta and St Gertrude at Nivelles, who offered them land at Fosses on which to build a monastery and a hospice for strangers. Ultan became the abbot of Fosses. We are told that by supernatural revelation he knew of the death of St Foillan, who was murdered by robbers in the forest of Seneffe, and he foretold to St Gertrude, at her request, the day of her own death. He said that St Patrick was preparing to welcome her, and in point of fact she died on March 17. St Ultan later became abbot of, and died at, Péronne, but his relics were subsequently translated to Fosses.

 880  Departure of Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I), 55th Pope of Alexandria (coptic).  On this day, of the year 596 A.M. (April 19th., 880 A.D.), the great father Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I), 55th Pope of the See of St. Mark, departed. This holy father was a monk in the monastery of St. Macarius. He advanced in righteousness and worship, and was ordained archpriest for the monastery.

Shortly after, he was chosen for the Patriarchate with the recommendation of the people and bishops. He was enthroned on the 13th day of Tubah 575 A.D. (January 8th., 859 A.D.), and great tribulations and severe persecutions befell him. God performed through him many signs and healed many grievous sicknesses.

Once there was a drought in the city of Mariout for three years, the wells dried up and the farm land became barren. This father came to the church of St. Mina, celebrated the Divine Liturgy, and supplicated God to have mercy upon His creation. At the setting of the sun of that day, the rain began lightly then ceased. This father entered his room and stood up praying and he said: "O My Lord Christ, have mercy on Thy people with the riches of Thy compassion, and let them be filled with Thy good pleasure." Before he finished his prayer, mighty thunders and lightnings started, and the rain descended like a flood, until the wells, the vineyards, and the farms were filled with water. The people rejoiced, glorifying God the wonder worker.
907 The Holy Equal of the Apostles Tsar Boris, in Holy Baptism Michael on March 3, 870 Bulgaria was joined to the Eastern Church, and Orthodoxy was firmly established there.  His apostolic deeds were foretold by an uncle, St Boyan. The first years of the reign of Tsar Boris were marked by misfortune. The Bulgarians were frequently at war with surrounding nations, famine and plague beset the land, and in the year 860 Bulgaria found itself in dire straits. Tsar Boris saw the salvation of his land, which was darkened by paganism, in its enlightenment by the faith in Christ.

During one of the battles of the Bulgarians with the Greeks he captured the illustrious courtier Theodore Kuphares, who had become a monk. He was the first man to plant the seed of the Gospel in the soul of the Bulgarian tsar. In one of the campaigns with the Greeks the young sister of Tsar Boris was taken captive, and was raised in the Orthodox Faith at the court of the Byzantine Emperor.

When the emperor Theophilus died, Tsar Boris decided to take advantage of this circumstance to take revenge upon the Greeks for his former defeats. But the widow of the emperor, Theodora, showed courage and sent a messenger to the Bulgarian tsar saying that she was prepared to defend the Empire and humiliate its opponents. Tsar Boris agreed to a peace alliance, and Theodore Kuphares was exchanged for the Bulgarian princess, who influenced her brother toward Christianity. A while later St Methodius was sent into Bulgaria. He and his brother St Cyril were enlightening the Slavic peoples with the light of Christ. St Methodius baptized Tsar Boris, his family and many of the nobles.

When the pagan Bulgarians learned of this, they wanted to kill Tsar Boris, but their plot was frustrated by the tsar. Deprived of their rebellious leaders, the Bulgarian people voluntarily accepted Baptism. A peace was concluded between Byzantium and Bulgaria, based on their unity in faith, which was not broken until the end of the reign of the noble tsar.
The Patriarch Photius (February 6) took great interest in the spiritual growth of the Bulgarian nation.
1257 Mafalda of Portugal Queen slept on bare ground spent night in prayer fortune used to restore cathedral of Oporto founded a hospice for pilgrims hospital for 12 widows build a bridge over the Talmeda River died in sackcloth and ashes body exhumed 1617 found flexible and incorrupt OSB Cist. (AC).   IN the year 1215, at the age of eleven, Princess Mafalda (i.e. Matilda), daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal, was married to her kinsman King Henry I of Castile, who was like herself a minor. The marriage was annulled the following year on the ground of the consanguinity of the parties, and Mafalda returned to her own country, where she took the veil in the Benedictine convent of Arouca. As religious observance had become greatly relaxed, she induced the community to adopt the Cistercian rule. Her own life was one of extreme austerity. The whole of the large income bestowed upon her by her father was devoted to pious and charitable uses. She restored the cathedral of Oporto, founded a hostel for pilgrims, erected a bridge over the Talmeda and built an institution for the support of twelve widows at Arouca. When she felt that her last hour was approaching she directed, according to a common medieval practice, that she should be laid on ashes. Her last words were, “Lord, I hope in thee”. Her body after death shone with a wonderful radiance, and when it was exposed in 1617 it is said to have been as flexible and fresh as though the holy woman had only just died. Mafalda’s cultus was confirmed in 1793.
1459 Natalis of Antoninus of Florence great soul in a frail body, and of the triumph of virtue over vast and organized wickedness miracles after death body was found uncorrupted in 1559 OP B (RM)  Feast Day May 10.  From the cradle his inclination was to piety. His only pleasure was to read the lives of saints and other good books, converse with pious persons, or employ himself in prayer. Accordingly, if he was not at home or at school, he was always to be found at Saint Michael's Church before a crucifix or in our Lady's chapel there. He had a passion for learning, but an even greater ardor to perfect himself in the science of salvation. In prayer, he begged nothing of God but His grace to avoid sin, and to do His holy will in all things.

Antoninus hitched his wagon to the star of great austerity and, at 14, discovered the answer to all his questions in the preaching of Blessed John Dominici (Born in Florence, Italy, 1376 (or 1350?); died in Hungary 1419), who was then the prior of Santa Maria Novella and later became cardinal-archbishop of Ragusa and papal legate. Antoninus went to speak with the preacher and begged to be admitted to the order.

At the time, Blessed John was reforming the Dominican priories of the area according to the wishes of Blessed Raymond of Capua(Born 1330 at Capua, Italy as Raymond delle Vigne Died 5 Oct 1399 at Nuremberg Germany of natural causes). John planned to build a new and reformed house at Fiesole (near Florence), which he hoped to start again with young and fervent subjects who would revivify the order. It declined under the plague and effects of the schism. As yet, he had no building in which to house the new recruits.

Even were the monastery completed, it was to be a house of rigorous observance, and Antoninus looked far too small and frail for such an austere community. John Dominici, not wishing to quench the wick of youthful eagerness, had not the heart to explain all this. He told Antoninus to go home and memorize the large and forbidding book called Decretum Gratiani, supposing that its very bulk would discourage the lad.

{It was about 1150 that the Camaldolese monk, Gratian, professor of theology at the University of Bologna, to obviate the difficulties which beset the study of practical, external theology (theologia practica externa), i. e. canon law, composed the work entitled by himself "Concordia discordantium canonum", but called by others "Nova collectio", "Decreta", "Corpus juris canonici", also "Decretum Gratiani", the latter being now the commonly accepted name.

In spite of its great reputation the "Decretum" has never been recognized by the Church as an official collection. It is divided into three parts (ministeria, negotia, sacramenta).
The first part is divided into 101 distinctions (distinctiones), the first 20 of which form an introduction to the general principles of canon Law (tractatus decretalium); the remainder constitutes a tractatus ordinandorum, relative to ecclesiastical persons and function.
The second part contains 36 causes (causœ), divided into questions (quœstiones), and treat of ecclesiastical administration and marriage; the third question of the 33rd causa treats of the Sacrament of Penance and is divided into 7 distinctions.
The third part, entitled "De consecratione", treats of the sacraments and other sacred things and contains 5 distinctions. Each distinction or question contains dicta Gratiani, or maxims of Gratian, and canones. Gratian himself raises questions and brings forward difficulties, which he answers by quoting auctoritates, i. e. canons of councils, decretals of the popes, texts of the Scripture or of the Fathers. These are the canones; the entire remaining portion, even the summaries of the canons and the chronological indications, are called the maxims or dicta Gratiani. It is to be noted that many auctoritates have been inserted in the "Decretum" by authors of a later date. These are the Paleœ, so called from Paucapalea, the name of the principal commentator on the "Decretum". The Roman revisers of the sixteenth century (1566-82) corrected the text of the "Decree" and added many critical notes designated by the words Correctores Romani.}

Antoninus, however, was possessed of an iron will. He went home and began to read the book straight through. By the end of the year, he had finished the nearly impossible task set before him, and returned to Blessed John to recite it as requested. There was now no further way to delay his reception into the order, so he was received into the Dominican Order "for the future priory of Fiesole" in 1405 by Blessed John.

1654 Saint Athanasius III Patelarios, Patriarch of Constantinople, Wonderworker of Lubensk relics  glorified by numerous miracles and signs, rest in the city of Kharkov, in the Annunciation cathedral church.  The saint went to Athos, where for a certain time he pursued asceticism in solitude. Then he became Patriarch again, but was deposed after a year. After this, he returned to Thessalonica and renewed his connections with the Holy Mountain. In view of the intolerable persecution of Christians by the Moslems, St Athanasius was repeatedly (from 1633 to 1643) obliged to send petitions to the Russian tsar Michael (1613-1645) seeking alms for the hapless Church of Constantinople.
When living at Thessalonica became impossible for the saint, he was forced to journey to Moldavia under the protection of its sovereign, Basil Lukulos, and he settled there in the monastery of St Nicholas near Galats, but he longed for Mount Athos. He visited it often and hoped to finish his life there, but God ordained something else for him. In 1652 after the death of Patriarch Cyril I, St Athanasius was returned to the patriarchal throne. He remained only fifteen days, since he was not acceptable to the Moslems and Catholics. During his final Patriarchal service he preached a sermon in which he denounced papal pretensions to universal jurisdiction over the whole Church.

Persecuted by the Moslems and Jesuits, physically weakened, he transferred the administration of the Church of Constantinople to Metropolitan Paisius of Laureia, and he withdrew to Moldavia, where he was appointed administrator of the monastery of St Nicholas at Galats.

Knowing the deep faith and responsiveness of the Russian nation, St Athanasius undertook a journey to Russia. In April 1653 he was met with great honor in Moscow by Patriarch Nikon (1652-1658) and Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich. Having received generous alms for the needs of the monastery, Patriarch Athanasius left for Galats in December 1653. On the way he fell ill and stayed at the Transfiguration Mgarsk monastery in the city of Lubno in February 1654.
Sensing his impending death, the saint wrote his last will, and he fell asleep in the Lord on April 5. Igumen Petronios and the brethren of the monastery buried the Patriarch. By Greek custom the saint was buried in a sitting position. On February 1, 1662 St Athanasius was glorified as a saint and his Feastday was designated as May 2, the Feast of St Athanasius the Great.
The relics of holy Patriarch Athansios, glorified by numerous miracles and signs, rest in the city of Kharkov, in the Annunciation cathedral church.
1854 St. Joseph Luu native Vietnamese martyr died in prison for refusing to abjure the faith even under torture.  He was a catechist at the time of his arrest. He died in prison for refusing to abjure the faith, even under torture, and was canonized in 1988.  Blessed Joseph Luu M (AC) Born at Cai-nhum, Cochin-China, Vietnam; died at Vinh-long, 1854; beatified in 1909. Joseph was a native who died in prison for the faith. He may have been among those included in the canonization of the Martyrs of Vietnam in 1988, but the orthographic inconsistencies in the latinization of Chinese names makes it nearly impossible to tell without a complete list of those who were canonized at that time (Benedictines).

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 03
Sts. Philip and JameJames, Son of Alphaeus: We know nothing of this man but his name, and of course the fact that Jesus chose him to be one of the 12 pillars of the New Israel, his Church. He is not the James of Acts, son of Clopas, “brother” of Jesus and later bishop of Jerusalem and the traditional author of the Letter of James. James, son of Alphaeus, is also known as James the Lesser to avoid confusing him with James the son of Zebedee, also an apostle and known as James the Greater.

Philip: Philip came from the same town as Peter and Andrew, Bethsaida in Galilee. Jesus called him directly, whereupon he sought out Nathanael and told him of the “one about whom Moses wrote” (John 1:45).

Like the other apostles, Philip took a long time coming to realize who Jesus was. On one occasion, when Jesus saw the great multitude following him and wanted to give them food, he asked Philip where they should buy bread for the people to eat. St. John comments, “[Jesus] said this to test him, because he himself knew what he was going to do” (John 6:6). Philip answered, “Two hundred days’ wages worth of food would not be enough for each of them to have a little [bit]” (John 6:7).

     Kiev Caves Icon of the Uspenie (Dormition) of the Most Holy Theotokos one of the most ancient icons in the Russian Orthodox Church glorified by numerous miracles.  The Kiev Caves Icon of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos is one of the most ancient icons in the Russian Orthodox Church. The Mother of God entrusted it to four Byzantine architects, who in 1073 brought the icon to Sts Anthony and Theodosius of the Caves. The architects arrived at the monks' cave and asked, "Where do you want to build the church?" The saints answered, "Go, the Lord will point out the place."
"How is it that you, who are about to die, have still not designated the place?" the architects wondered. "And they gave us much gold."
Then the monks summoned all the brethren and they began to question the Greeks, saying, "Tell us the truth. Who sent you, and how did you end up here?"
The architects answered, "One day, when each of us was asleep in his own home, handsome youths came to us at sunrise, and said, 'The Queen summons you to Blachernae.' We all arrived at the same time and, questioning one another we learned that each of us had heard this command of the Queen, and that the youths had come to each of us. Finally, we beheld the Queen of Heaven with a multitude of warriors. We bowed down to Her, and She said,
'I want to build Myself a Church in Rus, at Kiev, and so I ask you to do this. Take enough gold for three years.'"
"We bowed down and asked, 'Lady Queen! You are sending us to a foreign land. To whom are we sent?' She answered,
'I send you to the monks Anthony and Theodosius.'"
"We wondered, 'Why then, Lady, do You give us gold for three years? Tell us that which concerns us, what we shall eat and what we shall drink, and tell us also what You know about it.'"
"The Queen replied,
'Anthony will merely give the blessing, then depart from this world to eternal repose. The other one, Theodosius, will follow him after two years. Therefore, take enough gold. Moreover, no one can do what I shall do to honor you. I shall give you what eye has not seen, what ear has not heard, and what has not entered into the heart of man (1 Cor.2:9). I, Myself, shall come to look upon the church and I shall dwell within it.'"
"She also gave us relics of the holy martyrs Menignus, Polyeuctus, Leontius, Acacius, Arethas, James, and Theodore, saying,
'Place these within the foundation.'
We took more than enough gold, and She said,
'Come out and see the resplendant church.'
We went out and saw a church in the air. Coming inside again, we bowed down and said, 'Lady Queen, what will be the name of the church?'"
"She answered,
'I wish to call it by My own name.'
We did not dare to ask what Her name was, but She said again,
 'It will be the church of the Mother of God.'
After giving us this icon, She said,
'This will be placed within.'
We bowed down to Her and went to our own homes, taking with us the icon we received from the hands of the Queen."

Having heard this account, all glorified God, and St Anthony said, "My children, we never left this place. Those handsome youths summoning you were holy angels, and the Queen in Blachernae was the Most Holy Theotokos. As for those who appeared to be us, and the gold they gave you, the Lord only knows how He deigned to do this with His servants. Blessed be your arrival! You are in good company: the venerable icon of the Lady." For three days St Anthony prayed that the Lord would show him the place for the church.
 369 Nárniæ sancti Juvenáli, Epíscopi et Confessóris.  First bishop of Narni, Italy, consecrated by Pope Damasus. He was a physician from the East, and he is credited with saving Narni from a Ligurian and Sarmatian invasion. The barbarian invaders were supposedly slain in a wondrous but deadly downpour. Juvenal is patron of Narni, but his cult was confined to local calendars in 1969.
 744 Saint Mamai martyr for Christ served as chief shepherd of the Georgian faithful from 731 to 744.   The information we have about his life is scarce, but it is known that St. Mamai was abbot of Zedazeni Monastery and died a martyr for Christ.
Outstanding in his achievements and endowed with profound spiritual wisdom.
St. Mamai was enthroned as Catholicos of Georgia at a time when the catholicos and the Georgian king were frequently the first victims of invading armies.

 770  St. Philip of Zell Benedictine hermit founded the monastery of Zell, so named because it had its start with his single “cell,” or room..   An Anglo Saxon, he undertook a pilgrimage and then became a hermit in the area around Worms. Meeting King Pepin the Short of the Franks, he became a friend and advisor to the monarch. He also attracted various followers and founded the monastery of Zell, so named because it had its start with his single “cell,” or room.
DURING the reign of Charlemagne’s father, King Pepin, there was living in the Rhenish palatinate, not far from the present city of Worms, a hermit named Philip who had an extraordinary reputation for sanctity and miracles. An Englishman by birth, he had settled in the Nahegau after he had made a pilgrimage to Rome, where he was ordained priest. Amongst those who sought out the recluse was King Pepin himself who, according to the legend, often visited him and conversed familiarly with him about holy things. The historian of St Philip, who wrote a century after his death, states that through his intercourse with the hermit, Pepin “began to fear as well as to love God and to place all his hope in Him”. As is so often the case with solitaires, Philip exercised a great attraction over the wild creatures of the forest: birds perched on his shoulder and ate from his hands, whilst hares frisked about him and licked his feet. He was joined in his solitude by another priest, Horskolf by name, who served God with him in prayer and helped to cultivate the land. One evening, thieves stole the two oxen which the hermits kept to aid them in their labours. All night long the miscreants wandered about the woods, unable to find their way out, and in the morning they discovered that they were back again in front of the hermitage. In dismay they threw themselves at St Philip’s feet, begging forgiveness. The holy man reassured them, entertained them as guests and sped them on their way. Gradually disciples gathered round the two hermits and a church was built.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 04
387 Saint Monica, mother of St Augustine of Hippo (June 15).  THE Church is doubly indebted to St Monica, the ideal of wifely forbearance and holy widowhood, whom we commemorate upon this day, for she not only gave bodily life to the great teacher Augustine, but she was also God’s principal instrument in bringing about his spiritual birth by grace. She was born in North Africa—probably at Tagaste, sixty miles from Carthage—of Christian parents, in the year 332. Her early training was entrusted to a faithful retainer who treated her young charges wisely, if somewhat strictly. Amongst the regulations she inculcated was that of never drinking between meals. “It is water you want now”, she would say, “but when you become mistresses of the cellar you will want wine—not water—and the habit will remain with you.”
But when Monica grew old enough to be charged with the duty of drawing wine for the household, she disregarded the excellent maxim, and from taking occasional secret sips in the cellar, she soon came to drinking whole cupfuls with relish. One day, however, a slave who had watched her and with whom she was having an altercation, called her a wine-bibber. The shaft struck home: Monica was overwhelmed with shame and never again gave way to the temptation. Indeed, from the day of her baptism, which took place soon afterwards, she seems to have lived a life exemplary in every particular.
409 Venerius of Milan ordained deacon by Saint Ambrose promoted to see of Milan following death of Saint Simplician loyal supporter of Saint John Chrysostom.. THE second bishop of Milan after St Ambrose was St Venerius, who was one of his deacons and who succeeded St Simplician in 400. Very little is known about him, but his cultus received a great impetus when St Charles Borromeo elevated his relics in 1579 and translated them to the cathedral. The saint enjoyed the friendship of St Paulinus of Nola, of St Delphinus of Bordeaux and of St Chromatius of Aquileia, and was a warm sympathizer with St John Chrysostom in his sufferings. When the bishops of Africa, assembled at Carthage in 401, appealed for the support of Pope Anastasius, they also addressed a similar appeal to Bishop Venerius. The Christian poet Ennodius celebrated his praises and describes him as a man of singular eloquence.
1038 Godehard of Hildesheim monk at Nieder-Altaich in 990  successfully accomplished reforms formed 9 abbots for  various houses over 9 years.   All these testimonies are gathered up in the account furnished in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i.
We have a full and trustworthy account of St Gothard written by his devoted disciple, Wolfher. There are, in fact, two lives by the same author, the one compiled before Gothard’s death, the other revised and completed some thirty years later. Both are printed in Pertz, MGH., Scriptores, vol. xi, pp. 167—218. There are also some letters by and to him which have survived and which have been printed in MGH., Epistolae Selectae, vol. iii, pp. 59-70 and 105—110. St Gothard figures prominently in the third volume of Hauck’s Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands. There are also modern biographies by F. K. Sulzbeck (1863) and 0. J. Blecher (1931). See further the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, and E. Tomek, Studien z. Reform d. deutsch. Kloster, vol. i (1910), pp. 23 seq.
Born at Reichersdorf, Bavaria, Germany, c. 960; died at Hildesheim, May, 4, 1038; canonized by Innocent II in 1131. Godehard was educated by the canons of Nieder-Altaich Abbey, who employed his father. Archbishop Frederick of Salzburg took him to Rome and made him a provost when he was 19. Godehard was ordained, and became a monk at Nieder-Altaich in 990 when the Rule of Saint Benedict was reintroduced there with the help of the prelates of Salzburg, Passau, and Regensburg.

When, in 996, Godehard became abbot, Duke Henry of Bavaria attended his installation. Under his direction the house kept such a good religious discipline that the emperor, Saint Henry II, entrusted him with the reform of several other monasteries, including those of Tegernsee (Freising), Hersfeld (Thuringia), and Kremsmünster (Passau). He successfully accomplished the reforms while retaining the direction of Nieder-Altaich through a deputy during his long absences. In the course of 23 years, Godehard formed nine abbots for various houses.

13th v. Blessed Catherine of Parc-aux-Dames convert from Judaism OSB Cist. BD CATHERINE of Parc-aux-Dames was the daughter of Jewish parents, resident in the city of Louvain. Amongst the constant visitors to their house was the duke of Brabant’s chaplain, Master Rayner, with whom his host used to have long discussions on religious subjects.
   From the time she was five years old, little Rachel— as she was then called—was an attentive listener to these talks and one day the priest, noticing her eager expression, said to her, “Rachel, would you like to become a Christian?” “Yes—if you would tell me how!” was the prompt reply. From that time Master Rayner began to give her instruction in the faith as occasion offered. Rachel’s parents, however, became uneasy at the change which was taking place in their child, and when she was in her seventh year decided to send her away beyond the Rhine, to remove her from Christian influences.
   Rachel was greatly distressed at the prospect, but one night she had a vision of our Lady, who gave her a staff and bade her escape. The girl arose at once, slipped out of the house and made her way to the priest, by whom she was taken to the Cistercian nuns in the abbey of Parc-aux-Dames, a mile and a half from Louvain. There she was baptized and clothed with the habit of the order, assuming the name of Catherine. Her parents appealed to the bishop of Louvain, to the duke of Brabant and even to Pope Honorius, that their daughter might be restored to them—at any rate till she was twelve years old. The bishop and the duke favoured the claim, but it was successfully opposed by Engelbert, archbishop of Cologne, and William, abbot of Clairvaux. Catherine accordingly remained at Parc-aux-Dames until her death, and became famous for her visions and miracles.

1485 Blessed Michael Gedroye famous for his gifts of prophecy and miracles: his cell adjoining church of the Augustinian canons regular at Cracow OSA (AC).   THE history of Bd Michael Giedroyc is the story of his infirmities and his austerities. Born at Giedroyc Castle, near Vilna in Lithuania, the only son of noble parents, it soon became evident that he could never bear arms, being a dwarf and very delicate. Moreover, an accident at a very early age deprived him of the use of one of his feet.
   His father and mother therefore destined him for the Church, and his natural piety pointed in the same direction. His studies being frequently interrupted by ill-health and the lack of good teachers, the boy occupied himself in making sacred vessels for the church when he was not engaged in prayer. Weakly as he was, he had begun almost from childhood to practise mortification, speaking seldom, fasting strictly four days in the week and living as far as possible in retirement.
   He joined the canons regular of St Augustine in the monastery of our Lady of Metro at Cracow, but was permitted at his request to take up his abode in a cell adjoining the church, There, in a space so restricted that he could scarcely lie down, he spent the rest of his life, only leaving his cell to go to church, and on very rare occasions to converse with holy men. He never ate meat, living on vegetables, or else on bread and salt. His austerities were extreme and were never relaxed during illness or in his old age. Moreover, he suffered much physical and mental torment from evil spirits. On the other hand, God gave him great consolations: once, it is said, our Lord spoke to him from the crucifix, and he was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.

An account of this beatus, based on materials which do not seem to be altogether reliable, is given in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i. The canons of our Lady of Metro were members of a penitential order of which a brief description may be found in Hélyot, Ordres religieux, vol. ii (1849), pp. 562—567.
1535 John Houghton  parish priest 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales O Cart. M (RM).  Born in Essex, England, in 1487; died at Tyburn on May 4, 1535; beatified in 1886; canonized by Pius VI in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. Saint John served as a parish priest for four years after his graduation from Cambridge. Then he joined the Carthusians, where he was named prior of Beauvale Charterhouse in Northampton and, just a few months later, prior of London Charterhouse.
In 1534, he and his procurator, Blessed Humphrey Middlemore, were arrested for refusing to accept the Act of Succession, which proclaimed the legitimacy of Anne Boleyn's children by Henry VIII. They were soon released when the accepted the act with the proviso "as far as the law of God allows."
The following year Father Houghton was again arrested when he, Saint Robert Lawrence, and Saint Augustine Webster went to Thomas Cromwell to seek an exemption from taking the oath required in the Act of Supremacy. He, as the first of hundreds to refuse to apostatize in favor of the crowned heads of England, gave a magnificent example to his monks and the whole of Britain of fidelity to the Catholic faith.
As the sentence of drawing and quartering was read to Father Houghton, he said, "And what wilt thou do with my heart, O Christ?" The three were dragged through the streets of London, treated savagely, and then hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn. After his death, John Houghton's body was chopped into pieces and hung in various parts of London (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
 IN addition to local feasts of individuals and groups there is to-day observed throughout England and Wales a collective festival, with proper Mass, of all the beatified among our martyrs from the Carthusians and others of 1535 to (at present) Bd William Howard in 1680 and Bd Oliver Plunket in 1681.
Already, while the persecution was at its height, Pope Gregory XIII informally approved certain recognitions of martyrdom, such as the public display of pictures of the victims in the church of the English College at Rome; These pictures are mentioned several times in these pages. They were a series of frescoes or wall-paintings of English saints and martyrs, made at the expense of George Gilbert, a friend of Bd Edmund Campion, and painted by Circiniani; Pope Gregory XIII gave permission for the inclusion of the English martyrs of between 1535 and 1583. The pictures were destroyed at the end of the eighteenth century, but a book of engravings of them (made in 1584) was preserved, and the equivalent beatification of certain martyrs was made on the strength of this evidence of ancient approved cultus.
And in 1642 Pope Urban VIII began a formal inquiry, which came to nothing because of the Civil War. Not till over three hundred years later, in 1874, was an ordinary process begun, when Cardinal Manning, Archbishop of Westminster, sent a list of 360 names to Rome, with the evidence. In December 1886 the Holy See announced that 44 of these names had been referred back (dilati); but of the remainder, 54 (9 more were added later) were recognized as having been equivalently beatified by the actions of Pope Gregory XIII in 1583 mentioned above, which cultus Pope Leo XIII now confirmed. Of the remaining 253 one, Archbishop Plunket, was separately beatified in 1920. The evidence concerning the rest was exhaustively examined in Rome, and on December 15, 1929, the centenary year of Catholic Emancipation, 136 more were solemnly beatified. There are therefore now, apart from the dilati, 126 undecided cases from the list submitted in 1874. But in 1889 a second and separate list of presumptive martyrs was drawn up, whose process continues; these number 242, and are known as the praetermissi. It includes the last confessor to die in prison, Father Matthew Atkinson, Franciscan, who died in Hurst Castle in 1729 after thirty years’ imprisonment.
The 200 martyrs beatified to date (of whom, of course, two have since been canonized, Fisher and More) are made up as follows: 2 bishops, 84 secular priests, 7 more secular priests who became regulars (6 Jesuits, one Benedictine), 16 Benedictine monks, 18 Carthusians (including 6 lay-brothers), one Bridgettine, 3 Franciscans, one Austin friar, one Minim friar, 19 Jesuits (2 lay-brothers), 44 laymen and 4 laywomen. Of these persons some twenty were Welsh and the remainder mostly English. They are all referred to individually herein, either separately or as members-of groups, e.g. the London Martyrs of 1588. 
The best general books are Bishop Challoner’s Memoirs of Missionary Priests (1741), edition by Fr. J. H. Pollen, s.j., 1924; Lives of the English Martyrs, first series from 1535 to 1538, in 2 volumes, edited by Dom Bede Camm (1904—5); second series 1583—1603 unfin­ished: vol. i, edited by Canon E. H. Burton and Fr Pollen (1914); T. P. Ellis, The Catholic Martyrs of Wales (1933). Fr Pollen’s Acts of English Martyrs (1891) is a valuable collection of contemporary documents.
1945 Archpriest Vasily Martysz missionary service in the land of St Herman., America and martyred in Poland.
The holy New Martyr Archpriest Vasily Martysz was born on February 20, 1874 in Tertyn, in the Hrubieszow region of southeastern Poland. His father Alexander was a judge in Molczyce near Pinsk. After his retirement, he was ordained a priest and became rector of a local parish.  Because of the long distances and severe climate, Fr Vasily's priestly work was extremely difficult and required many sacrifices. Often he would leave home for several weeks, in order to celebrate the services, to confess, baptize, marry the living, and to bury the dead, while traveling in a specially constructed kayak. Taught in the parish school and worked in two church homes for the poor. After serving nearly twelve years in America, Fr Martysz left the New World and returned to Europe in 1912.  Fr Vasily served as chief of Orthodox chaplains for the next twenty-five years. Within the Ministry of the Interior, he had his own cabinet, and was directly responsible to the Minister himself. He celebrated the Divine Liturgy their language in the Ukrainian internment camps for over 5,000 prisoners, while visiting this camp.  The Polish Secretary of the Army, Lucjan Zeligowski sent a congratulatory letter to Father Vasily on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his ordination, December 7, 1925, stating "The virtues of this remarkably talented, conscientious and diligent servant, completely devoted to the Polish nation, expressed in his receiving a high distinction, the Order of Polonia Restituta, which is conferred upon him for his efforts in securing the Autocephaly of the Orthodox Church in Poland."
1951 Blessed Mezlényi, martyr of the Hungarian communist regime.  Bishop Zoltán Lajos Meszlényi was a brave pastor and a martyr of the Hungarian communist regime, who died after being tortured in the Kistarcsa concentration camp on March 4th, 1951. Auxiliary Bishop of the diocese of Esztergom from 1937 to 1950, Meszlényi sacrificed his life for the Church during the dictatorial persecutions.

He was beatified on October 31st at the Esztergom Basilica during a Eucharistic celebration presided over by Cardinal Péter Erdö, the Primate of Hungary.

“Blessed Zoltán Meszlényi invites us to be faithful to the Gospel of life and truth. This is his message for today: to live in communion, in liberty, and in charity and to build, promote, and give testimony of a civilization of love, life, and universal fraternity.” Thus read the message from Archbishop Angelo Amato, the prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, who, as the Pope’s representative, read the beatification formula at the ceremony.

In his homily, Cardinal Péter Erdö, archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest, called the Servant of God Meszlényi an example of a Christian man who is strengthened by the Holy Sprit, a testimony fully relevant for our time: “Today we also perceive how our individual and collective egoism, our myopia, our desire for power, and our hatred make us fall into a trap from which we cannot free ourselves with our own strength. It is only the merciful love of God that can save us from this infernal circle.” In conclusion, the Cardinal said that “the martyrs’ fidelity is a source of hope for us”.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 05
    Silvanus, apostle of the Seventy Companion of Saint Paul.   For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us; by me, Silvanus, and Timothy; was not Yes and No, but in Him was Yes. (2 Corinthians 1:19).  Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, To the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. (1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1).  By Silvanus, our faithful brother as I consider him, I have written to you briefly. (1 Peter 5:12).

    Martyr Irene (peace) dedicated herself to Christ her miracles converted thousands blinded and healed an entire army beheaded, buried then resurected    At Thessalonica, the birthday of the holy martyrs Irenæus, Peregrinus, and Irene, who were burned alive.  Irene was born in the city of Magedon in Persia during the fourth century. She was the daughter of the pagan king Licinius, and her parents named her Penelope.
Since St Irene had dedicated herself to Christ, she refused to marry any of the suitors her father had chosen for her. When Licinius learned that his daughter refused to worship the pagan gods, he was furious. He attempted to turn her from Christ by having her tortured. She was tied up and thrown beneath the hooves of wild horses so that they might trample her to death, but he horses remained motionless. Instead of harming the saint, one of the horses charged Licinius, seized his right hand and tore it from his arm. Then it knocked Licinius down and began to trample him. They untied the holy virgin, and through her prayers Licinius rose unharmed in the presence of eyewitnesses with his hand intact.
Seeing such a miracle, Licinius and his wife, and many of the people, (about 3000 men) believed in Christ and turned from the pagan gods. Resigning his administrative duties, Licinius devoted himself to the service of the Lord Jesus Christ. St Irene lived in the house of her teacher Apellian, and began to preach Christ among the pagans, converting them to the path of salvation.

    St. Crescentia, Martyr, at Lucanium Commemorated on June 15, is also on May 16 .   St. Crescentia suffered for Christ during the reign of Emperor Diocletian along with the holy martyrs Vitus and Modestus. She was St. Vitus’ governess, and tried to save the boy when his father wanted to kill him because he would not abandon his faith in Christ.
St. Crescentia and the boy’s tutor, St. Modestus, were both Christians, and secretly took the child from his home. They found a boat at the river, and an angel entered the boat with them. They reached the Italian district of Lucanium, where they lived quietly, hiding from their persecutors. St. Vitus healed the sick and converted pagans to Christianity. His fame soon spread throughout the region.

 449 St. Hilary Bishop of Arles known for austerities aid to the poor and ransoming captives   At Arles in France, the bishop St. Hilary, noted for his learning and sanctity.
Born 400 France friend and relative of St. Honoratus. He was born to a noble family in Lorraine and was successful, although he gave up his secular career to join St. Honoratus at Lerins Abbey. When Honoratus died after being named the bishop of Arles, Hilary was chosen as his successor in 429. He was known for his austerities, his aid to the poor, and for ransoming captives.
On two occasions Hilary became embroiled in controversies with Pope St. Leo I the Great, but they were reconciled, and Hilary's sanctity brought him great veneration.  May 5, 2007 St. Hilary of Arles (400-449)

5th v.  Crescentiana 5th century Martyr honored by a church in Rome dating to the reign of Pope Symmachus.   Item Romæ sanctæ Crescentiánæ Mártyris.     Also at Rome, St. Crescentia, martyr.
 Crescentiana M (RM)  The only evidence for the life of Saint Crescentiana is a church in Rome dedicated to her that was already extant at the time of Pope Symmachus (498-514)

 701 St. Maurontus Benedictine abbot founder.  The eldest son of St. Adalbald and St. Rictrudis of Flanders, he served King Clovis II of the Franks. He entered Marchiennes Monastery at the urging of St. Amandus of Maestricht and founded the abbey of Breuil on his personal estate near Therouanne. His sister was an abbess at Marchiennes .

 767 St. Echa Anglo-Saxon priest monk-hermit link to early Desert Fathers of Egypt: also called Etha. He was a Benedictine who lived at Crayk, near York, England. Hermits such as Echa served as a link to the early Desert Fathers of Egypt. Echa of Crayk, OSB Hermit (AC) (also known as Etha) Echa was an Anglo-Saxon priest and monk-hermit at Crayk, near York, England (Benedictines).

1180 St Aventinus Hermit consecrated himself to service of the poor and strangers companion of St. Thomas Becket.   Avertinus, Deacon (AC) Died 1189. The deacon Avertinus accompanied Saint Thomas Becket into his exile in France. After Thomas was killed in his cathedral, Avertinus consecrated himself to the service of the poor and strangers at Vinzai, a village in Touraine. He is included in the new martyrology of Evreux and that of Tours (Husenbeth).

1220 St Angelo martyred early Carmelite Jews of Jerusalem parents converted to Christianity by vision of our Lady
       converted many sinners by teaching/miracles Our Lord appeared to him to offer the sacrifice of his life in Sicily
t ANGELO, who was one of the early members of the Carmelite Order, suffered martyrdom for the faith at Leocata, in Sicily. The story of his life, as it has come down to us, is not very reliable. It may be summarized as follows: The parents of St Angelo were Jews of Jerusalem who were converted to Christianity by a vision of our Lady. She told them that the Messias they were awaiting had already come and had redeemed His people, and she promised them two sons, who would grow up as flourishing olive-trees on the heights of Carmel—the one as a patriarch and the other as a glorious martyr.

1260 St. Jutta Widowed noblewoman of Thuringia: Jutta received wonderful graces, for besides being favoured with many visions and revelations, she was given an infused understanding of the Holy Scriptures. She once said that three things could bring one very near to God— painful illness, exile from home in a remote corner of a foreign land, and poverty voluntarily assumed for God’s sake.


MICHAEL GHISLIERI was born in 1504 at Bosco, in the diocese of Tortona, and received the Dominican habit at the age of fourteen in the priory of Voghera. After his ordination to the priesthood he was lector in theology and philosophy for sixteen years, and for a considerable time was employed as novice master and in governing houses of the order—everywhere endeavouring to maintain the spirit of the founder. In 1556 he was chosen bishop of Nepi and Sutri, and the following year was appointed inquisitor general, and also cardinal—in order, as he ruefully remarked, that irons should be riveted to his feet to prevent him from creeping back into the peace of the cloister. Pope Pius IV transferred him to the Piedmontese bishopric of Mondovi—a church reduced almost to ruin by the ravages of war. Within a short time of his accession the newly-appointed prelate had done much to restore calm and prosperity in his diocese, but he was soon recalled to Rome in connection with other business. Here, though his opinions were  often at variance with those of Pius IV, he never shrank from openly stating his convictions.

1535 Bl. John Haile elderly martyred secular priest.  Martyr of England, a companion in death of St. John Houghton at Tyburn. He was an elderly secular priest, the vicar of Isleworth, Middlesex, when he was arrested by King Henry VIII’s men. John was executed at Tyburn. He was beatified in 1886.
1844 Bl. Edmund Ignatius Rice founder of the Congregation of the Brothers of the Christian Schools devout man dedicated to charitable works attention to bands of ragged youth in the streets,
1900 Bl Anna Rose Gattorno co-founded an order of nuns dedicated to working with the sick and poor. By the time of her death the order had grown to more than 3500 sisters. 

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 06
 1350 BC Job The righteous (whose name means "persecuted"), God's faithful servant, the perfect image of every virtue.  The son of Zarah and Bossorha (Job 42), Job was a fifth-generation descendent of Abraham. He was a truthful, righteous, patient and pious man who abstained from every evil thing. Job was very rich and blessed by God in all things, as was no other son of Ausis (his country, which lay between Idoumea and Arabia).
However, divine condescension permitted him to be tested.  Job lost his children, his wealth, his glory, and every consolation all at once. His entire body became a terrible wound covered with boils. Yet he remained steadfast and patient in the face of his misfortune for seven years, always giving thanks to God.

Later, God restored his former prosperity, and he had twice as much as before.
Job lived for 170 years after his misfortune, completing his earthly life in 1350 B.C. at the age of 240.
Some authorities say that Job's afflictions lasted only one year, and that afterwards he lived for 140 years, reaching the age of 210.

64-67 Evodius of Antioch 1/72 disciples commissioned by Jesus believed Evodius coined the word 'Christian' (RM)   At Antioch, St. Evodius, who, as the blessed Ignatius wrote to the people of Antioch, was consecrated first bishop of that city by the apostle St. Peter, and ended his life by a glorious martyrdom.
Euodias Orthodoxe Kirche: 7. September  We learn from Origen and from Eusebius the predecessor of St Ignatius the God-bearer in the see of Antioch was Evodius, who had been ordained and consecrated by the Apostles themselves—doubtless when St Peter was about to leave Antioch for Rome. Later writers have tried to identify Evodius with the Evodias or Evodia mentioned by St Paul in his epistle to the Philippians—though this person was almost certainly a woman—and have also described him as a martyr.
According to tradition, he was one of the seventy disciples sent out by our Lord to preach. He is supposed to have coined the word “Christian”, which, as we know from the Acts of the Apostles, was first used in Antioch to denote members of the Church of Christ. This is stated by the chronicler Malalas, who wrote in the latter part of the sixth century, and we further learn from him that St Peter happened to be passing through Antioch at the time when St Evodius died, and that he thereupon consecrated St Ignatius to be bishop in his room. If this be true, Evodius must have died before A.D. 64.

There is a short notice in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i; but consult also G. Salmon in DCB., vol. ii, p. 428, and Harnack, Chronologie d. Altchrist. Literatur, vol. i, p. 94, as well as Die Zeit des Ignatius by the same author.
66    Photina (Svetlana) The Samaritan Woman  Holy Martyr Woman, with whom the Savior conversed at Jacob's
Well (John. 4:5-42). fearlessly preached the Gospel in Carthage she and family miracle workers
.  Her sons Victor (named Photinus) and Joses; and her sisters Anatola, Phota, Photis, Paraskeva, Kyriake; Nero's daughter Domnina; and the Martyr Sebastian: The holy Martyr Photina was the Samaritan Woman, with whom the Savior conversed at Jacob's Well (John. 4:5-42).
 94? Romæ sancti Joánnis, Apóstoli et Evangelístæ, ante Portam Latínam     At Rome, the Apostle and Evangelist St. John before the Latin Gate.  He was bound and brought to Rome from Ephesus by the order of Domitian, and the Senate condemned him to be taken to that gate and placed in a cauldron of boiling oil, from which he came forth more healthy and vigorous than before.     When the two sons of Zebedee, James and John, strangers as yet to the mystery of the cross and the nature of Christ’s kingdom, had, through their mother’s lips, petitioned for places of honour in the day of His triumph, He asked them if they were prepared to drink of His cup. They answered boldly, assuring their master that they were ready to undergo anything for His sake.
Our Lord thereupon promised them that their sincerity should be put to trial and that they should both be partakers of the cup of His sufferings. This was literally fulfilled in St James on his being put to death for the faith by Herod, and this day’s festival records in part the manner in which it was verified in St John. It may, indeed, be said that this favourite disciple who so tenderly loved his Master, had already had experience of the bitterness of the chalice when he was present on Calvary. But our Saviour’s prediction was to be fulfilled in a more particular manner, which should entitle him to the merit and crown of martyrdom, the instrument of this trial, postponed for more than half a century, being Domitian, the last of the twelve Caesars.

   The localization of the alleged miracle outside the Latin gate is certainly not historical, for the Ports Latina belongs to the walls of Aurelian, two centuries later than St John’s time. This particular festival cannot be traced farther back in the Roman church than the sacramentary of Pope Adrian, towards the close of the eighth century. There is a church of St John at the Porta Latina, replacing an older one which owed its existence to that pontiff and presumably was dedicated on this day.
   Mgr Duchesne suggests that the choice of this date (May 6) is connected with the occurrence in the Byzantine calendar of a feast on May 8, commemorating a miracle of St John at Ephesus. In the so-called Missale Gothicum there is a Mass of St John the Evangelist which must have fallen in May, not long after that of the Finding of the Cross. The incident of the boiling oil seems originally to have belonged to certain apocryphal but early “Acts of John”, of which we now only possess fragments.

In a Motu Proprio of John XXIII dated July 25 1960, this feast was dropped from the Roman Calendar.

On Tuesday of St Thomas week we remember those Orthodox Christians from all ages who have died in faith, and in the hope of resurrection.  here are indications of this commemoration in the sermons of the Fathers of the Church. St John Chrysostom, for example, mentions it in his homily "On the Cemetery and the Cross."
In pre-Revolutionary Russia bars remained closed and alcoholic beverages were not sold until this Day of Rejoicing so that the joy people felt would be because of the Resurrection, and not an artificial joy brought on by alcohol.
Today the Church remembers its faithful members at Liturgy, and kollyva is offered in remembrance of those who have fallen asleep. Priests visit cemeteries to bless the graves of Orthodox Christians, and to share the paschal joy with the departed. It is also customary to give alms to the poor on this day.

1st v. St Lucius Bishop of Cyrene 1/of “prophets and doctors” in Ptolemais, Africa
Bishop of Cyrene in Ptolemais, Africa. He is one of the “prophets and doctors” mentioned in Acts.
Lucius of Cyrene B (RM) 1st century.
Saint Lucius was one of the 'prophets and doctors' in the church at Antioch when Paul and Barnabas were consecrated for their apostolate (Acts 13:1). It is said that he was from 'Cyrene,' which is the source of the tradition that he was the first bishop of the city in the Ptolemais
(Africa) (Benedictines).

 259 Sts. Marian a lector or reader; and James a deacon; experienced visions, including martyred bishop.   Often, it’s hard to find much detail from the lives of saints of the early Church. What we know about the third-century martyrs we honor today is likewise minimal. But we do know that they lived and died for the faith. Almost 2,000 years later, that is enough reason to honor them.  Born in North Africa, Marian was a lector or reader; James was a deacon. For their devotion to the faith they suffered during the persecution of Valerian.
Prior to their persecution Marian and James were visited by two bishops who encouraged them in the faith not long before they themselves were martyred. A short time later, Marian and James were arrested and interrogated. The two readily confessed their faith and, for that, were tortured. While in prison they are said to have experienced visions, including one of the two bishops who had visited them earlier.  On the last day of their lives, Marian and James joined other Christians facing martyrdom. They were blindfolded and then put to death. Their bodies were thrown into the water. The year was 259.

 325 Theodotus Bishop of Cyprus suffered a long term of imprisonment B (RM)    In Cyprus, St. Theodotus, bishop of Cyrinia, who having undergone grievous afflictions under Emperor Licinius, at length yielded his soul to God when peace was restored to the Church.
Bishop Theodotus of Cyrenia, Cyprus,under Lucinius (Benedictines).
335 St. Heliodorus Martyred Persian bishop of Mesopotamia with two priests Desan and Marjab.     He died with his two priests, Desan and Marjab, and many others. King Shapur II instituted the persecution that brought about their martyrdom.
 698 St. Eadbert Abbot bishop of Lindisfarne Ireland learning and knowledge of the Scriptures obedience to God's
.   THE Venerable Bede, writing of St Edbert, states that he was remarkable for his knowledge of the Bible, as well as for his faithful observance of the divine precepts. All his life long he was extremely generous to the poor, for whose benefit he set aside a tenth part of his possessions.
   Ordained successor to St Cuthbert in the see of Lindisfarne, he governed wisely for eleven years, and covered with lead St Finan’s great wooden cathedral church which had previously been thatched only with reeds, Scottish fashion. He made it a practice to retire twice a year for forty days of solitary prayer to the retreat—probably the tiny island known as St Cuthbert’s Isle—where his great predecessor had spent some time before finally withdrawing to Farne. When the relics of St Cuthbert were found incorrupt, St Edbert gave instructions that the body should be put into a new coffin which was to be raised above the pavement for greater veneration. He added that the space below would not long remain empty. Scarcely had his orders been carried out when he was seized with a fever which proved mortal, and his own remains were laid in the empty grave. A commemoration of St Edbert is made to-day in the diocese of Hexham.

 747 St. Petronax Abbot “the Second Founder of Monte Cassino.” restored after Lombards destruction rule of St
THE second founder of the abbey of Monte Cassino, St Petronax, was a native of Brescia. When on a visit to Rome he seems to have been induced by Pope St Gregory II to make a pilgrimage to the tomb of St Benedict, in the year 717. There, among the ruins of the old monastery which had been destroyed by the Lombards in 581, he found a few solitaries, who elected him their superior. Other disciples soon gathered round them. Through the generosity of prominent nobles, chief amongst whom was the Lombard duke of Beneventum, and with the strong support of three popes, he succeeded in rebuilding Monte Cassino, which, under his long and vigorous rule, regained its old eminence.
The English St Willibald, afterwards bishop of Eichstätt, received the habit at his hands. St Sturmius, founder of the abbey of Fulda, spent some time at Monte Cassino learning the primitive Benedictine rule, and great men of all kinds, princes as well as ecclesiastics, stayed within its hospitable walls. St Petronax ruled over the community until his death, the date of which was probably 747. Recent investigation has shown that St Willibald himself, during the ten years he spent at Monte Cassino, contributed much to the restoration of Benedictine discipline and to the general development of this great abbey.

1300 Bl.  Bonizella Piccolomini Widow devoted herself and all her wealth to the service of the poor (PC).   When Naddo Piccolomini died, his Sienese wife Bonizella devoted herself and all her wealth to the service of the poor in the district of Belvederio, Italy (Benedictines).

1385 St Micah of Radonezh one of the first disciples of St Sergius of Radonezh Appearance of the Most Holy
Theotokos Holy Apostles Peter and John the Theologian to St Sergius of Radonezh.

He lived with him in the same cell, and under his guidance he attained a high degree of spiritual perfection. For his meekness of soul and purity of heart, St Micah was permitted to witness the appearance of the Mother of God to his great teacher. Once, after St Sergius had completed the morning Rule of prayer, sat down to rest for awhile, but suddenly he said to his disciple, "Be alert, my child, for we shall have a wondrous visitation."
    Hardly had he uttered these words when a voice was heard, "The All-Pure One draws near." Suddenly there shone a light brighter than the sun. St Micah fell down upon the ground in fear, and lay there as if he were dead. When St Sergius lifted up his disciple, he asked, "Tell me, Father, what is the reason for this wondrous vision? My soul has nearly parted from my body from fright." St Sergius then informed his disciple about the appearance of the Most Holy Theotokos.
St Micah fell asleep in the Lord in the year 1385.
   St Micah's relics rest in a crypt at the Trinity-Sergiev Lavra. On December 10, 1734, over St Micah's tomb, a church was consecrated in honor of the Appearance of the Most Holy Theotokos and the Holy Apostles Peter and John the Theologian to St Sergius of Radonezh.

1492 Bl.  Prudentia Castori abbess-founder  her fame rests on miracles reported wrought after her death; Her zeal was displayed not only amongst her nuns, whom she ruled with great prudence, but also in  bringing about the restoration of the church of the Visitation at Como OSA V (PC).   This life of Bd Prudence seems to have been quite uneventful, and her fame rests entirely upon the miracles she is reported to have wrought after her death. A member of the noble Milanese family of the Casatori, she joined the Hermitesses of St Augustine in her native city. She was promoted to be superior of the convent of St Mark at Como, and succeeded in settling the dissensions which were dividing the two communities. Her zeal was displayed not only amongst her nuns, whom she ruled with great prudence, but also in  bringing about the restoration of the church of the Visitation at Como. Full of years, labours and merits, she passed to her eternal reward after she had governed the house at Como for thirty-eight years.
1590 Bl.  Edward Jones missionary priest and Anthony Middleton priest.
EDWARD Jones was a Welshman from the diocese of St Asaph, and Antony Middle-ton was a Yorkshireman. Both were educated at the Douai College in Rheims, raised to the priesthood and chosen for the English mission. Middleton came to London in 1586, and owing to his juvenile appearance and small stature was able to labour for a considerable time without rousing suspicion. Jones, who followed two years later, at once made a name for himself as a fervent and eloquent preacher. They were tracked down by spies who professed to be Catholics, and they appear to have been hanged before the doors of the houses in Fleet Street and Clerkenwell within which they had been arrested, the words “For Treason and Foreign Invasion” being posted up in large letters as an explanation of this summary “justice” which, as attested by witnesses present at the trial, was full of irregularities. Middleton, whose request that he might address the people was refused, called God to witness that he died simply and solely for the Catholic faith and for being a priest and preacher of the true religion. He then prayed that his death might obtain the forgiveness of his sins, the advancement of the Catholic faith and the conversion of heretics.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 07
  669 St Serenidus & Serenus Benedictine hermits known for his miracles including ending plague and drought.  
669 680 SS. SERENICUS, or Cerenicus, and his brother Serenus, or Seneridus.

Young patricians from Spoleto who abandoned their family and their possessions at the bidding, it is said, of an angel, and betook themselves to Rome. The tombs of the Apostles were at that time under the care of the Benedictines, with whom the two strangers were brought into contact and from whom they received the habit. For some time they lived the community life in Rome, edifying their brethren by their youthful piety, but before long they withdrew, still under angelic guidance, to seek a new home beyond the Alps in France.

 717 St. John of Beverly John known for holiness preference for the contemplative life possessed the gift of healing many miracles are recounted in Bede's Ecclesiastical History the author of which he had ordained It was not just miracles that led to John's canonization. He led a life of remarkable holiness   721 ST JOHN OF BEVERLEY, BISHOP OF YORK.
FEW native saints enjoyed a greater reputation in Catholic England than St John of Beverley, whose shrine was one of the favourite places of pilgrimage until the Reformation. The learned Alcuin had an extraordinary devotion to him and celebrated his miracles in verse, whilst Athelstan ascribed to him his victory over the Scots and Henry V his defeat of the French at Agincourt. At the instance of the latter, a synod in 1416 ordered his feast to be kept throughout England. The saint was born at Harpham, a village in Yorkshire. As a young man, he was attracted to Kent by the famous school of St Theodore in which he became a dis­tinguished student under the holy abbot Adrian. Upon his return to his own county, he entered the double abbey of Whitby, then under the rule of the Abbess Hilda..  John founded a monastery in Humberside, England, on the site of a small church dedicated to Saint John the Evangelist, where he asked to be buried. In 687, after the death of Saint Eata (Died c. 686. It is impossible to write about Eata, the 7th century English saint, without going back to Saint Aidan ( Born in Ireland; died 651), and from Saint Aidan to Saint Paulinus of York ( Born c. 584; died at Rochester, England, 644. In 601), and from Saint Paulinus to Saint Augustine (Austin) of Canterbury ( Born probably in Italy, c. 996; died at Novara, Lombardy, Italy, c. 1081), and from Saint Augustine to Saint Gregory the Great(born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604) who began this chain reaction. Nor should we forget the Venerable Bede (Born in Northumbria, England, 673; died at Jarrow, England, on May 25, 735; named Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII in 1899). without whose Ecclesiastical History we would never have heard of Saint Eata, nor Saint Cuthbert (Born in Northumbria, England (?) or Ireland, c. 634; died on Inner Farne in March 20, 687), who was Eata's close friend), John he was consecrated bishop of Hexham.

1279  Bl Albert of Bergamo, OP Tert. (AC) peasant farmer who followed his pious and industrious father's example many practices of penance and piety;  In 1256, he met the Dominicans. Attracted by the life of Saint Dominic, Albert joined the Brothers of Penance, which later became the Order of Penance of Saint Dominic, and continued his works of charity in his new state. As a lay brother he was closely associated with the religious but lived in the world so that he was able to continue his pilgrimages. At home, he assisted the Dominican fathers in Cremona, working happily in their garden, cultivating the medicinal herbs so necessary at the time, and doing cheerfully all the work he could find that was both heavy and humble.
Falling very ill, Albert sent a neighbor for the priest, but there was a long delay, and a dove came bringing him Holy Viaticum. When he died, the bells of Cremona rang of themselves, and people of all classes hurried to view the precious remains. It was planned to bury him in the common cemetery, outside the cloister, as he was a secular tertiary, but no spade could be found to break the ground. An unused tomb was discovered in the church of Saint Matthias, where he had so often prayed, and he was buried there. Many miracles were attributed to him after his death, and the farmer- saint became legendary for his generosity to the poor (Benedictines, Bentley, Dominicans, Dorcy, Gill).

1728 Bl Rose BD ROSE VENERINI gift of ready and persuasive speech real ability to teach and teach others to teach not daunted by any difficulty when in service of God reputation of holiness confirmed by miracles.  BD ROSE was born at Viterbo in 1656, the daughter of Godfrey Venerini, a physician. Upon the death of a young man who had been paying court to her, she entered a convent, but after a few months had to return home to look after her widowed mother. Rose used to gather the women and girls of the neighbourhood to say the rosary together in the evenings, and when she found how ignorant many of them were of their religion she began to instruct them. She was directed by Father Ignatius Martinelli, a Jesuit, who convinced her that her vocation was as a teacher “in the world” rather than as a contemplative in a convent; whereupon in 1685, with two helpers, Rose opened a free school for girls in Viterbo: it soon became a success.

1902 Bl Agostino Roscelli (AC) spent endless hours hearing confessions 1876, he founded the Institute of Sisters of the Immaculata served as prison chaplain caring particularly for those condemned to death.  Born at Casarza Ligure, Italy, July 27, 1818; died May 7, 1902; beatified May 7, 1995.
Agostino Roscelli was not blessed with worldly wealth or rank. Instead God gave him virtuous parents, intelligence, and supportive friends. Surrounded by the silence of the mountains as he watched his family's sheep, Agostino's soul was opened to prayer and his heart drew close to God. But it was not until a parish mission in May 1835 (age 16) that he recognized he was being called to the priesthood. Most peasants would have found it impossible to answer that call without divine and human intervention; however, Agostino's vocation was supported by his own prayer life and the financial aid of generous people.

Following his studies at Genoa, Roscelli was ordained in 1846. His first appointment was in the parish of Saint Martin d'Albaro. Eight years later he was given the care of the parish Church of Consolation, where he spent endless hours hearing confessions.

1909 Alexis Toth Priest defender of the Orthodox Faith miracle worker and zealous worker in the Lord's vineyard 1889 appointed pastor of a Uniate parish in Minneapolis MN Archbishop Ireland greeted him with open hostility refused to recognize him as a legitimate Catholic priest or grant permission to serve in his diocese. Miracle of finding a lost son for a man, and that occurred after Alexis's death.  In his last will and testament St Alexis commended his soul to God's mercy, asking forgiveness from everyone and forgiving everybody.
Sancti Stanislái, Epíscopi Cracoviénsis et Mártyris.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 08
127 Sixtus I 115-125  , Pope survived as pope for about 10 years before being killed by the Roman authorities M (RM)
 Romæ natális beáti Xysti Primi, Papæ et Mártyris; qui, tempóribus Hadriáni Imperatóris, summa cum laude rexit Ecclésiam, ac demum, sub Antoníno Pio, ut sibi Christum lucrifáceret, libénter mortem sustínuit temporálem.
      At Rome, the birthday of blessed Pope Sixtus the First, martyr, who ruled the Church with distinction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, and finally in the reign of Antoninus Pius he gladly accepted temporal death in order to gain Christ for himself. 
(also known as Xystus)
496 Pope St. Gelasius I feast Nov 21 conspicuous for his spirit of prayer, penance, and study. He took great delight in the company of monks, and was a true father to the poor

684-685 Benedict II, Pope Scripture scholar and an expert in sacred chants amended the process to speed approval of papal elections by having the exarch of Ravenna confirm Papal elections patron saint of Europe brought back to orthodoxy Macarius, the ex-patriarch of Antioch, from his Monothelitism, restored several Roman churches upheld the cause of Saint Wilfred of York (RM)

608-615 Boniface IV, Pope student under Gregory the Great converted Roman temple of gods {Pantheon} into a Christian church dedicated to Our Lady and all saints corresponded with Saint Columba (RM)
Romæ sancti Bonifátii Papæ Quarti, qui Pántheon in honórem beátæ Maríæ ad Mártyres dedicávit.
    At Rome, Pope St. Boniface IV, who dedicated the Pantheon to the honour of our Lady and the martyrs.
St. Boniface IV  608-615  25 May converted Pantheon into a Christian Church, the temple by Agrippa to Jupiter the Avenger, to Venus, and to Mars consecrated by the pope to the Virgin Mary and all the Martyrs. (Hence the title S. Maria Rotunda.) the first instance at Rome of a pagan temple into a place of Christian worship.

684-685 Pope St. Benedict II distinguished knowledge of the Scriptures and by his singing, and as a priest was remarkable for his humility, love of the poor, and generosity; Many of the churches of Rome were restored by him; and its clergy, its deaconries for the care of the poor, and its lay sacristans all benefited by his liberality.

"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious."  1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina
God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven.
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR benefit of others.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 09
Pope Eugenius IV held Blessed Nicholas Albergati archbishop cardinal in the highest esteem; he consulted him in almost all things, made him chief penitentiary, and came to see him frequently when he was ill.
  1431 1447 Pope Eugenius IV Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1447. He sprang from a wealthy Venetia family and was a nephew, on the mother's side, of Gregory XII. His personal presence was princely and imposing. He was tall, thin, with a remarkably winning countenance. Coming at an early age into the possession of great wealth, he distributed 20,000 ducats to the poor and, turning his back upon the world, entered the Augustinian monastery of St. George in his native city. At the age of twenty-four he was appointed by his uncle Bishop of Siena; but since the people of that city objected to the rule of a foreigner, he resigned the bishopric and, in 1408, was created Cardinal-Priest of St. Clement. He rendered signal service to Pope Martin V by his labours as legate in Picenum (March of Ancona) and later by quelling a sedition of the Bolognesi. In recognition of his abilities, the conclave, assembled at Rome in the church of the Minerva after the death of Martin V, elected Cardinal Condulmaro to the papacy on the first scrutiny.
700 BC  Isaiah The Holy Prophet father Amos son Jashub during the reign of Oziah [Uzziah], king of Judea, kings Joatham, Achaz [Ahaz], Hezekiah and Manasseh vision the Lord God, sitting in a majestic heavenly temple upon a high throne. Six-winged Seraphim encircled Him. With two wings they covered their faces, and with two wings they covered their feet, and with two wings they flew about crying out one to another, "Holy, Holy, Holy Lord Sabaoth, heaven and earth are filled with His glory!" The pillars of the heavenly temple shook from their shouts, and in the temple arose the smoke of incense.  He lived 700 years before the birth of Christ, and was of royal lineage. Isaiah's father Amos raised his son in the fear of God and in the law of the Lord. Having attained the age of maturity, the Prophet Isaiah entered into marriage with a pious prophetess (Is 8:3) and had a son Jashub (Is 8:18).

St Isaiah was called to prophetic service during the reign of Oziah [Uzziah], king of Judea, and he prophesied for 60 years during the reign of kings Joatham, Achaz [Ahaz], Hezekiah and Manasseh. The start of his service was marked by the following vision: he beheld the Lord God, sitting in a majestic heavenly temple upon a high throne. Six-winged Seraphim encircled Him. With two wings they covered their faces, and with two wings they covered their feet, and with two wings they flew about crying out one to another, "Holy, Holy, Holy Lord Sabaoth, heaven and earth are filled with His glory!" The pillars of the heavenly temple shook from their shouts, and in the temple arose the smoke of incense.

  112 St Beatus monk hermit Baptized in England by St. Barnabas ordained by St. Peter ST BEATENBERG, above the lake of Thun, derives its name from St Beatus, a hermit who, at an early date, is said to have occupied a cave on its slope and died there— supposedly about the year 112. A whole legendary history afterwards grew up about him. It was believed that he had been baptized in England by the Apostle St Barnabas, and that he had been sent to evangelize Switzerland by St Peter, who ordained hint priest in Rome. His cave, where he was reputed to have slain a dragon, became a favourite place of pilgrimage, until it was closed by the Zwinglians. His cultus was then transferred to Lungern in Oberwalden, and St Peter Canisius did much to revive and propagate it. Modern research, however, has revealed that the tradition of St Beatus as the apostle of Switzerland is a late one, extending back no farther than the middle of the eleventh century— if so far.
The Swiss St Beatus is often confused with a namesake, honoured on the same day, viz. St Beatus of Vendôme, who preached the gospel first on the shores of the Garonne, then at Vendôme and Nantes, and who is stated to have died at Chevresson, near Laon, about the close of the third century. This St Beatus seems to have a better claim to be regarded as historical, for his name undoubtedly was entered on this day in the Hieronymianum, and his legend has seemingly supplied much that is attributed to the Swiss Beatus.
250 St Christopher The Holy Martyr miracles converted as many as 50 thousand pagans to Christ, as St Ambrose of Milan testifies.  He lived during the third century and suffered about the year 250, during the reign of the emperor Decius (249-251). There are various accounts of his life and miracles, and he is widely venerated throughout the world. St Christopher is especially venerated in Italy, where people pray to him in times of contagious diseases.

There are various suggestions about his descent. Some historians believe that he was descended from the Canaanites, while others say from the "Cynoscephalai" [literally "dog-heads"] of Thessaly. Perhaps this is why certain unlearned painters foolishly portray St Christopher with a dog's head.

292-346 St Pachomius Egypt Emperor's army anchorite extreme austerity and total dedication to God began
monasticism as we know it today
.  There is probably some foundation for that mitigation of austerity according to the capacity of the subject which Palladius makes so prominent. The angel-borne tablet is said to have enjoined: “Thou shalt allow each man to eat and drink according to his strength; and proportionately to the strength of the eaters appoint to them their labours. And prevent no man either from fasting or eating. However, assign the tasks that need strength to those who are stronger and eat, and to the weaker and more ascetic such as the weak can manage.” So, too, we have probably a glimpse of the practice actually followed, when Palladius quotes further: “Let them sleep not lying down full length, but let them make sloping chairs easily constructed and put their legs on them and thus sleep in a sitting posture”. Or again: “As they eat, let them cover their heads with their hoods, lest one brother see another chewing. A monk is not allowed to talk at meals, nor let his eye wander beyond his plate or the table.”
What is certain is that St Benedict’s Rule, which has shaped nearly all surviving monasticism in the West, borrowed a good deal from Pachomius. Abbot Cuthbert Butler, in his edition of the Regula S. Benedicti, makes thirty-two references to St Jerome’s Pachomiana, and several phrases in the rule can be traced to Pachomian sources, while the spirit of the so-called Angelic Rule is even more noticeable therein

383 Gregor von Nazianzus At Nazianzum, the birthday of St. Gregory, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church, surnamed the Theologian because of his remarkable knowledge of divinity.  At Constantinople, he restored the Catholic faith which was fast waning, and repressed the rising heresies.

Feast Eastern Orthodox Church: January 25 (primary feast day) January 30 (Three Great Hierarchs) Roman Catholic Church: January 2 (c. 1500-1969 May 9) Episcopal Church (USA): May 9
Feast, Roman Calendar, 9 May  Orthodoxe Kirche: 25. Januar und 30. Januar (Drei Hierarchen) Katholische und Anglikanische Kirche: 2. Januar Evangelische Kirche: 8. Mai

  501 St Gerontius Bishop of Cervia martyr   ALL that is known of St Gerontius is that he was bishop of Cervia (Ficocle) in the archdiocese of Ravenna, and that he was murdered by “ungodly men”—presum­ably bandits—at Cagli, on the Flaminian Way, near Ancona, as he was returning from a synod in Rome, presided over by Pope St Symmachus. A Benedictine abbey, dedicated in his honour, was afterwards erected on the spot where he fell, and the Church honours him as a martyr.

1443 Bl Nicholas Albergati archbishop cardinal mediate between the emperor and the pope generous patron of   learned men  O. Cart. Bd Nicholas died in Siena, when visiting a house belonging to the Augustinians, whose protector he was. Although it was an unprecedented thing for a pope to attend the obsequies of a cardinal, Eugenius IV took part in the funeral services at Bologna, being present also at his actual burial. Cardinal Albergati was a great patron of learning and the author of several literary works.
A full biography as well as a panegyric will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii, and another panegyric in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. vii (1888), pp. 381—386. A long account is also given in Le Couteulx, Annales. Ordinis Cartusiensis, vol. vii. See further Pastor, History of the Popes, vol. ii.

"Therefore, whoever wishes to carry the cross for his sake must take up the proper weapons for the contest, especially those mentioned here.
1463  St Catharine of Bologna served the Lord in obscurity
First, diligence; second, distrust of self; third, confidence in God; fourth, remembrance of the Passion; fifth, mindfulness of one’s own death; sixth, remembrance of God’s glory; seventh, the injunctions of Sacred Scripture following the example of Jesus Christ in the desert" (On the Seven Spiritual Weapons)
 Some Franciscan saints led fairly public lives; Catharine represents the saints who served the Lord in obscurity. Catharine, born in Bologna, was related to the nobility in Ferrara and was educated at court there. She received a liberal education at the court and developed some interest and talent in painting. In later years as a Poor Clare, Catharine sometimes did manuscript illumination and also painted miniatures.

1911 Saint Joseph of Optina at 8, "What makes you think you saw the Queen?" "Because she had a crown with
a cross," he replied.
  Several miracles took place on the day St  Joseph was laid to rest He was born on November 2, 1837 in the village of Gorodishcha in the province of Kharkov. His name in the world was John Litovkin, and his parents Euthymius and Maria were simple but pious people. They were generous to the poor, and often lent money to those in need even when there seemed little chance that it would be repaid. Euthymius also loved to receive monks who came to his door collecting alms for their monasteries. Invariably, he would give each one five rubles for the needs of the monastery

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 10
Saint Simon was from Cana in Galilee one of twelve Apostles receiving the Holy Spirit with others on Pentecost.       He and was known to the Lord and His Mother. Tradition says that he was the bridegroom at the wedding where the Savior performed His first miracle. After witnessing the miracle of the water which had been turned into wine, he became a zealous follower of Christ. For this reason, he is known as St Simon the Zealot.

 232 St Calepodius priest Roman martyr with Palmatius consular rank, Simplicius senator, Felix & Blanda a couple, & companions. At Rome, the blessed priest and martyr Caleposius, who was killed with the sword by order of Emperor Alexander.  His body was dragged through the city and thrown into the Tiber.  It was afterwards found and buried by Pope Callistus.  The consul Palmatius was also beheaded with his wife, his sons, and forty-two of both sexes belonging to his household; likewise the senator Simplicius with his wife, and sixty-eight of his house; Felix also with his wife Blanda.  The heads of all these martyrs were exposed over different gates of the city in order to terrify the Christians.
They suffered under Emperor Severus Alexander in the pontificate of St. Callistus I. Calepodius was a priest and the first of the group to suffer. His name is honored by a Roman catacomb. St. Palmatius was of consular rank, and he died with his wife, children, and household. St. Simplicius was a senator who suffered death with sixty-five members of his family and household. Sts. Felix and Blanda were husband and wife.

 601 St Comgall Abbot teacher of St Columbanus and monks who evangelized France & central Europe.   Saint Comgall (Comhghall), "the Father of Monks," was born in Ireland at Dalaradia, Co. Ulster sometime between 510 and 520. Unlike many of the early Irish saints, St Comgall was not of noble birth. He served as a soldier, then studied with St Finnian of Moville (September 10). He was ordained to the holy priesthood by Bishop Lugaid before the age of forty.

1459 Saint Antoninus of Florence great soul in a frail body, and of the triumph of virtue over vast and organized wickedness OP B (RM) miracles after death uncorrupted in 1559.  OF all the prelates who through many centuries have ruled the diocese of Florence, no one has gained so great and lasting a hold upon the loving veneration of the Florentines as St Antoninus. His father, a citizen of good family, who was notary to the republic, was called Nicholas Pierozzi, and he himself received in baptism the name of Antony. The diminutive Antonino, which clung to him all his life, was given him in childhood because of his small stature and gentle disposition. A serious boy, much addicted to prayer, he loved to listen to the sermons of Bd John Dominici, then prior of Santa Maria Novella, and when he was fifteen he asked the friar to admit him to the Dominican Order. The saintly John, judging him too weakly for the life, tried to put him off by bidding him study for a time and learn the Decretum Gratiani; but when, within a year, the lad returned, having committed the whole of the treatise to memory, he was received without further hesitation. He was the first postulant to take the habit in the new priory at Fiesole, which Bd John Dominici had built. For the novitiate Antonino was sent to Cortona, where he had as novice master Bd Laurence of Ripafratta and as companions Bd Peter Capucci and the future great artist Fra Angelico da Fiesole.

1569 St John of Avila The Apostle of Andalusia spiritual advisor of St Teresa St Francis Borgia St John of the Cross St Peter of Alcantara and others
1569 BD JOHN OF 
AMONGST the great religious leaders of sixteenth-century Spain, one of the most influential and most eloquent was Bd John of Avila, the friend of St Ignatius Loyola and the spiritual adviser of St Teresa, St John of God, St Francis Borgia, St Peter of Alcantara and of Louis of Granada, who became his biographer.
He was born in New Castile at Almodovar-del-Campo of wealthy parents, who sent him at the age of fourteen to Salamanca University to prepare to take up law. This career, however, had no attraction for the boy and he returned home, where for three years he gave himself up to devotional exercises and austerities. Then, at the suggestion of a Franciscan who was greatly impressed by his piety, he went to Alcalà to study philosophy and theology. There he had as his master the celebrated Dominic Soto; there also he laid the foundation of a life-long friendship with Peter Guerrero, afterwards archbishop of Granada.

1857 St Peter Van native catechist Vietnamese martyr
He was arrested by authorities and beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988. 

1889 Blessed Damien of Molokai Joseph de Veuster he took the name of a fourth-century physician and martyr caring for the leper people's physical, medical and spiritual needs.    When Joseph de Veuster was born in Tremelo, Belgium, in 1840, few people in Europe had any firsthand knowledge of leprosy (Hansen's disease). By the time he died at the age of 49, people all over the world knew about this disease because of him. They knew that human compassion could soften the ravages of this disease.

Forced to quit school at age 13 to work on the family farm, six years later Joseph entered the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, taking the name of a fourth-century physician and martyr. When his brother Pamphile, a priest in the same congregation, fell ill and was unable to go to the Hawaiian Islands as assigned, Damien quickly volunteered in his place. In May 1864, two months after arriving in his new mission, Damien was ordained a priest in Honolulu and assigned to the island of Hawaii.  In 1873, he went to the Hawaiian government's leper colony on the island of Molokai, set up seven years earlier. Part of a team of four chaplains taking that assignment for three months each year, Damien soon volunteered to remain permanently, caring for the people's physical, medical and spiritual needs. In time, he became their most effective advocate to obtain promised government support.
Soon the settlement had new houses and a new church, school and orphanage. Morale improved considerably. A few years later he succeeded in getting the Franciscan Sisters of Syracuse, led by Mother Marianne Kope, to help staff this colony in Kalaupapa.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 11
1055-1057 Pope Victor II  granted ST WALTER OF L’ESTERP special faculties for dealing with penitents—including the right to excommunicate and to restore to communion so great was his reputation for converting sinners.
1055-157 Pope Victor II  With untiring zeal he combated, like his predecessor, against simony and clerical concubinage. Being well supported by the emperor, he often succeeded where Leo IX had failed. On Pentecost Sunday, June 4, 1055, he held a large synod at Florence, in presence of the emperor and 120 bishops, where former decrees against simony and incontinence were confirmed and several offending bishops deposed. To King Ferdinand of Spain he sent messengers with threats of excommunication if he should continue in his refusal to acknowledge Henry III as Roman Emperor. Ferdinand submitted to the papal demands. Before the emperor returned to Germany he transferred to the pope the duchies of Spoleto and Camerino. Early in 1056 Victor II sent Hildebrand back to France to resume his labours against simony and concubinage, which he had begun under Leo IX. He appointed the archbishops Raimbaud of Arles and Pontius of Aix papal legates to battle against the same vices in Southern France.
1st v. St Jason Departure of one of the 70 disciples accompanied St. Paul Acts 17:9 ordained bishop by St. Paul over Tarsus God performed through him many miracles and signs.  On this day St. Jason, one of the seventy disciples who were chosen by the Lord, departed. He ministered with the disciples before the passion of the Savior, and performed many signs and wonders. Then he was supported by the grace and power on the day of Pentecost.

He was born in Tarsus, and was the first to believe from this city. He accompanied St. Paul on his evangelical missions, and journeyed with him to many countries. He was arrested with St. Paul and Silas in Thesalonica, and when they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go. (Acts 17:9)

475 St Mamertius Archbishop of Vienne originator of the penitential practice of abrogation days known for his learning.  WE do not know much about the life of St Mamertus. He was the elder brother of Claudian, the poet, author of De statu animae, whom he ordained priest, and both brothers seem to have enjoyed a deserved reputation for learning as well as piety. In 463 trouble arose in connection with the consecration of a bishop to the see of Die, which Pope St Leo I not long before had transferred from the province of Vienne to that of Arles. It was complained to Pope St Hilarus that Mamertus, without justification, had consecrated a new bishop for Die. A council of bishops was held at Arles to inquire into the matter and a report was sent to Rome. Though Hilarus wrote rather severely and declared that Mamertus deserved to be deposed for his usurpation, no change was, in fact, made, and the new bishop of Die was allowed to retain his see after confirmation from Arles. Somewhat later than this we learn that Mamertus translated to Vienne the remains of the martyr Ferreolus, who had been put to death in that part of the country a century or two earlier. But that which more than anything else has made the name of St Mamertus well known in ecclesiastical history is his institution of the penitential processions on what we now call the Rogation Days, the three days preceding the feast of the Ascension. These are the Litaniae Snores, which in the time of Pope St Leo III (795—816) were adopted in Rome itself, Frankish influence, under the Emperor Charlemagne, thus making itself felt throughout the whole of western Christendom.
That St Mamertus was the real author of the Rogation processions is proved by an abundance of early testimony. We have a letter addressed to him by St Sidonius Apollinaris, in which he speaks of these supplications which the bishop had instituted and which had proved so efficacious a remedy in the panic which had seized upon the populace. He enlarges at the same time on the courage this shepherd of his people had shown by standing his ground when others were taking to flight. St Avitus, who himself became bishop of Vienne only fifteen years after Mamertus’s death, and who as a child had received baptism at his hands, preached a homily, still preserved to us, on one of the occasions when the Rogation processions came round.

885 Sts Cyril and Methodius, Equals of the Apostles, Enlighteners of the Slavs miraculously discovered the relics of the hieromartyr Clement, Pope of Rome .  St Methodius came from an illustrious and pious family living in the Greek city of Thessalonica. St Methodius was the oldest of seven brothers, St Constantine [Cyril was his monastic name] was the youngest. At first St Methodius was in the military and was governor in one of the Slavic principalities dependent on the Byzantine Empire, probably Bulgaria, which made it possible for him to learn the Slavic language.
After living there for about ten years, St Methodius later received monastic tonsure at one of the monasteries on Mount Olympus (Asia Minor).

994 St Majolus Benedictine abbot abbey of Cluny friend of emperors and popes.  In 954, shortly after his profession, he was named abbot-coadjutor to the blind abbot, Saint Aymard. In 965, he succeeded as head of the Cluniac congregation, which grew and spread through Western Europe during his tenure. Emperor Otto the Great entrusted the monasteries of Germany to him and Majolus reformed many of them.
Majolus was a man of distinguished presence, devoted to learning and the monastic life, and a peace-maker: He settled a disagreement between Empress Saint Adelaide and her son, Emperor Otto II. Once Majolus was captured by Saracens as he crossed the Saint Bernard Pass, and ransomed by the monks of Cluny for a thousand pounds of silver. Majolus, friend of emperors and popes, was several times offered and refused to be made pope, preferring to remain a monk. In 991, he appointed Saint Odilo as his coadjutor and devoted himself to prayer and penance. He died while on his way to make a visitation of the abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris at the request of King Hugh Capet
(Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Gill).

1300 Bl Vivaldus nursed Bartholomew for twenty years, OFM Tert. (AC).   VIVALDO, or Ubaldo, was a disciple and fellow townsman of Bd Bartolo of San Gemignano whom he nursed for twenty years through a particularly distressing form of leprosy. Afterwards he lived as a solitary inside a hollow chestnut-tree at Montajone, in Tuscany. One day as a huntsman was seeking game in the mountains, his hounds discovered the hermit, who was kneeling in his retreat in an attitude of prayer, but was quite dead. It is stated that at the moment his soul passed to God the bells of Montajone began ringing of themselves and never ceased pealing until the huntsman came in with the news of the discovery of the body. Bd Vivaldo had been attached to the third order of St Francis, and the Observants built a convent on the site where he had lived and died.
The brief account printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, seems to contain all that has been recorded of Bd Vivaldo. The decree by which Pope Pius X confirmed his cultus may be read in the Analecta Ecclesiastica for 1908, p. 145, but it adds nothing material to the facts mentioned above. Neither is anything further to be learnt from the article of Father Ghilardi in the Miscellanea Storica della Valdelsa, vol. xi (1903), pp. 38—42.

1672 Joseph The Hieromartyr First Metropolitan of Astrakhan relics glorified by miracles
Joseph  was born at Astrakhan in 1579. After becoming a monk, St Joseph was made Archimandrite of the Astrakhan Trinity monastery at the age of fifty-two.
In 1656 he was at Moscow, after which he was chosen to be Metropolitan of Astrakhan. On May 11, 1672, during an uprising of the townspeople, St Joseph suffered martyrdom at Astrakhan. This sad event was recorded in detail by two eyewitnesses, priests of the Astrakhan cathedral, Cyril and Peter.
The priests took the body of the martyr, dressed it in bishop's vestments, and placed it in a prepared grave. On the following day, after serving a Panikhida, the saint's body was taken to a chapel, and it remained unburied for nine days. The relics of the holy hierarch were placed into the grave, and were soon glorified by miracles.
St Joseph was glorified at the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church in April

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 13
 Romæ Dedicátio Ecclésiæ sanctæ Maríæ ad Mártyres.   At Rome, in the time of Emperor Phocas, the dedication of the church of St. Mary of the Martyrs, formerly a temple of all the gods, called the Pantheon, which was purified and dedicated by the blessed Pope Boniface IV to the honour of the Blessed Mary ever Virgin, and of all the martyrs.  The solemn anniversary of this dedication was later ordered to be kept by Pope Gregory IV as the Feast of All Saints on the 1st of November.

St. Jeremiah the Prophet On this day, the prophet Jeremiah, one of the major prophets, the son of Hilkiah the priest, was martyred.  He prophesied in the days of Josiah son of Amon, king of Judah and Jehoiakim son of Josiah. God had chosen him for He said: "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you; before you were born I sanctified you; I ordained you a prophet to the nations" (Jr 1:5). He rebuked the children of Israel for they left the worship of God and rejected His Commandments. He warned them of the anger of God if they did not return on their transgressions. When he saw their hard hearts and the fast approaching judgement of the Lord, he prayed fervently weeping so that God might forgive the sins of his people. God rejected his prayers with regard to those who did not obey him, and He moved Nebuchadnezzar to besiege Jerusalem. His soldiers conquered it under the leadership of Nebuzardan who killed many of them inside the city. After they had taken all the precious possessions of the temple, the king's palace, and the nobles of the people, they took with them all those who were left alive to Babylon. Among those who were driven to exile was the prophet Jeremiah. Nevertheless, when Nebuzardan saw him bound with the rest, he set him free. He then wrote his "Lamentations" for the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, the temple and the exile of his people for 70 years in babylon.
This Prophet prophesied about the coming of Our Lord and Savior, and His sufferings and passion. His life ended when the jews themselves stoned him in Egypt, and he died a martyr in prison.
May his prayers be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.

 1028 Euthymius the Illuminator performed many miracles He translated from Greek into Iberian (Karthvelian) the
Bible 60 writings of the Fathers (Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Ephrem, Gregory the Great, John Cassian), biblical
commentaries, lives of the saints, and liturgical books Abbot (RM).  The work of predilection of St Euthymius was the translation of sacred books from Greek into Iberian, and George the Hagiorite names over sixty for which the Iberian church was indebted to him. Among them were biblical commentaries, writings of St Basil, St Gregory of Nyssa, St Ephrem and St John Damascene, the Institutes of St John Cassian, and the Dialogues of Pope St Gregory the Great. One of his translations, from Iberian into Greek this time, has an interest for hagiology:  this was the so-called History of Saints Barlaam and Josaphat (Joasaph), im­aginary people whose names Cardinal Baronius unfortunately added to the Roman Martyrology (November 27). Naturally enough, St Euthymius found that his duties as abbot seriously interfered with his work of translation, and after he had directed Iviron for fourteen years he resigned his charge, on the plea that the church of his people was crying out for more books that only he could efficiently supply.

1423  Bl. Juliana of Norwich Benedictine English mystic anchorite In 1373 experienced sixteen revelations. Her book,
Revelations of Divine Love - a work on the love of God, the Incarnation, redemption, and divine consolation. Among English mystics none is greater
.  APART from the autobiographical details given in the Revelations of Divine Love, history has preserved few records of the holy woman known as Dame Julian of Norwich. She lived as a strict recluse in the anchoress-house attached to the old church of St Julian, and had even in her lifetime a reputation for great sanctity. She is said to have survived to an advanced age, having two maids to wait upon her when she was old, but the actual date of her death is unknown, as is also her parentage. That she was certainly living at the age of seventy appears from a notice prefixed to a manuscript of her book purporting to have been transcribed by a contemporary, and now in the British Museum. It runs: “Here es a vision schewed be the goodenes of God to a deuoute Woman and hir name es Julyan that es recluse atte Norwyche and yitt ys on lyfe. Anno dni millmo CCCCXIII0. In the whilke Vision er fulle many comfortabylle wordes and gretly styrrande to alle thaye that desyres to be crystes looverse.”

1621 ST ROBERT BELLARMINE, ARCHBISHOP OF CAPUA AND CARDINAL, DOCTOR OF THF CHURCH ONE of the greatest polemical theologians the Church has ever produced, and her foremost controversialist against the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation.  Born in 1542 at Montepulciano in Tuscany, of a noble but impoverished family, he was the son of Vincent Bellarmino and Cynthia Cervini, half-sister to Pope Marcellus II.
Even as a boy Robert showed great promise. He knew Virgil by heart, he wrote good Latin verses, he played the violin, and he could hold his own in public disputations, to the great admiration of his fellow-citizens. Moreover, he was so deeply devout that in 1559, when Robert was seventeen, the rector of the Jesuit college at Montepulciano described him in a letter as “the best of our school, and not far from the kingdom of Heaven”.
It was his ambition to enter the Society of Jesus, but he had to encounter strong opposition from his father, who had formed other plans for his son. Robert’s mother, however, was on his side, and eventually he obtained the permission he desired. In 1560 he went to Rome to present himself to the father general of the order, by whom his noviciate was curtailed to enable him to pass almost immediately into the Roman College to enter upon the customary studies.

1917 Our Lady of Fatima three Portuguese children received apparitions of Our Lady at Cova da Iria, near Fatima, a city 110 miles north of Lisbon Between May 13 and October 13.  Between May 13 and October 13, 1917, three Portuguese children received apparitions of Our Lady at Cova da Iria, near Fatima, a city 110 miles north of Lisbon. (See February 20 entry for Blessed Jacinta and Francisco Marto). Mary asked the children to pray the rosary for world peace, for the end of World War I, for sinners and for the conversion of Russia.

Mary gave the children three secrets. Since Francisco died in 1919 and Jacinta the following year, Lucia, who later became a Carmelite nun, revealed the first secret in 1927, concerning devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. The second secret was a vision of hell.

Pope John Paul II directed the Holy See's Secretary of State to reveal the third secret in 2000; it spoke of a 'bishop in white' who was shot by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows into him. Many people linked this to the assassination attempt against Pope John Paul II in St. Peter's Square on May 13, 1981.

The feast of Our Lady of Fatima was approved by the local bishop in 1930; it was added to the Church's worldwide calendar in 2002. Sister Lucia died in 2005 at the age of 97.

Comment: The message of Fatima is simple: Pray. Unfortunately, some people—not Sister Lucia—have distorted these revelations, making them into an apocalyptic event for which they are now the only reliable interpreters. They have, for example, claimed that Mary's request that the world be consecrated to her has been ignored. Sister Lucia has agreed that Pope John Paul II's public consecration in St. Peter's Square on March 25, 1984, fulfilled Mary's request. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith prepared a June 26, 2000, document explaining the “third secret” (available at www.vatican.va).

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 14
Saint Matthias  In Judæa natális sancti Matthíæ Apóstoli, qui, post Ascensiónem Dómini ab Apóstolis in Judæ proditóris locum sorte eléctus, pro Evangélii prædicatióne martyrium passus est.
In Judea, birthday of St. Matthias the Apostle. 
After the Ascension of our Lord, the Apostles chose him, by lot, to fill the place of Judas the traitor, and he suffered martyrdom for the preaching of the Gospel.
  260 St. Pontius Deacon and witness to the execution of St. Cyprian of Carthage earliest Christian biography.  ST PONTIUS was long believed to be an illustrious primitive martyr who suffered in the persecution of Valerian about the year 258 at Cimelia, a city afterwards destroyed by the Lombards but rebuilt in modem times as Cimiez on the French Riviera, near Nice.
According to his legendary history he was the son of a Roman senator, and was instructed in the Christian faith as a lad by Pope Pontian.
Upon the death of his father he gave away his inheritance to the poor, devoting himself to good works. He was greatly esteemed by the Emperor Philip and by his son—both of whom he converted to Christianity. After the murder of his royal patron he fled to Cimella, but was arrested as a Christian and condemned to be tortured and exposed to the wild beasts. As the creatures would not attack him, the governor ordered him to be beheaded.

6th v St. Boniface Bishop of Ferentino, Italy, renowned for sanctity and miracles from his childhood, commemorated by Pope St. Gregory the Great.     At Ferentino in Tuscany, Bishop St. Boniface, who was renowned for sanctity and miracles from his childhood as is told by the blessed Pope Gregory.
Boniface of Ferentino B (RM) 6th century. Bishop Boniface of Ferentino, Tuscany, Italy, reigned during the time of Emperor Justin and was commemorated by Saint Gregory the Great (Benedictines).

1846 St Tikhon of Zadonsk incorrupt relics
The incorrupt relics of St Tikhon of Zadonsk were first uncovered in May 1846, during the construction of the new cathedral at Zadonsk.
They were found beneath the altar of the old church.
St Tikhon is also commemorated on August 13.

1823 The Yaroslavl (Pechersk) Icon of the Mother of God
In the city of Yaroslavl the townswoman Alexandra Dobychkina suffered terribly for seventeen years from emotional and bodily illness. In 1823 she saw in a dream a church with an icon of the Mother of God. She decided to seek out the Yaroslavl temple and icon she had seen in the vision.

This church turned out to be the temple in honor of the Procession of the Venerable Wood of the Cross of the Lord (August 1), under the belltower of the archbishop's residence. Entering the church, the afflicted Alexandra saw on the wall the depiction of the Kiev Caves Mother of God. Suddenly she had a powerful attack of fever, after which there was some relief at first, and later a full healing from the grievous illness. From that time, miraculous healings took place when people prayed to the Most Holy Theotokos.

spent her time giving religious instruction, working in hospitals and looking after children.
  Magdalen was now thirty-four years old, and it was not easy for her to leave the Canossa household, where among other responsibilities was an orphaned baby cousin. Her family looked on her projects as rather undignified for one of her birth. Pope Pius XI seems to have been glancing sideways at this when, in his address at the reading of the decree which declared Magdalen di Canossa's virtues to have been heroic, he quoted the great man "who was humble enough to serve the poor at table with his own hands, but not quite humble enough to sit at table with them". A remark which, as his Holiness added, "suggests a lot of things and goes a long way".
Magdalen's brother Boniface was especially sad that she should leave them. But it was done, and on May 8, 1808 Magdalen and her few companions opened the doors of their house to the poor girls of the San Zeno quarter, Verona's "east end". They began by teaching them the simplest prayers and the elements of the Christian faith, with a little reading, writing and sewing, and within a few months the effects of this centre of goodness and decency were seen in the quarter.

1900 St. Maria Dominic Mazzarello Co-foundress of Daughters of Mary Auxiliatrix or Our Lady Help of Christians
disciple of St. John Bosco
MORNESE is a mountain village in the south of Piedmont, near the border of Liguria and not far from Genoa. There lived there in the first half of the nineteenth century a certain energetic, hard-headed and honest peasant named Joseph Mazzarello and his wife Maddalena Calcagno, and to them was born in 1837 the first of several children, who was christened with the names Mary Dominica. Six years later the family moved to a new home on a hill, the Valponasca, some way out of Mornese, and here Mary was brought up, working long hours in the fields and vineyards so that she developed considerable physical toughness and strength.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 15
1st v. Saint Torquatus Christian missionary in Spain martyred w/others each disciples of Apostles Peter/Paul sent to
Spain to spread faith
    In Spain, the Saints Torquatus, Ctesiphon, Secundus, Indaletius, Cecilius, Hesychius, and Euphrasius, who were consecrated bishops at Rome by the holy apostles, and sent to Spain to preach the word of God.  When they had evangelized various cities, and brought innumerable multitudes under the yoke of Christ, they rested in peace in different places in that country: Torquatus at Cadiz, Ctesiphon at Vierco, Secundus at Avila, Indaletius at Portilla, Cecílius at Elvira, Hesychius at Gibraltar, and Euphrasius at Anduxar.

330 Saint Achillas attended 1st Council of Nicaea relics venerated Presba  gift of healing sickness, especially demonic
possession, and he worked many miracles (Achilli) Bulgaria
.  gift of healing sickness, especially demonic possession, and he worked many miracles (Achilli) Bulgaria
Saint Achilles, Bishop of Larissa, lived during the fourth century, during the reign of St Constantine the Great. Glorified for his holiness of life and erudition, he was made Bishop of Larissa in Thessaly.
St Achilles participated in the First Ecumenical Council, where he boldly denounced the heretic Arius. In his city he strove to promote Christianity, destroyed idolatrous pagan temples, and he built and adorned churches.
St Achilles had the gift of healing sickness, especially demonic possession, and he worked many miracles. The saint died peacefully in about the year 330. His relics have been in Prespa, Bulgaria (now the village of Akhila, renamed in honor of the saint) since 978.

348 Saint Pachomius the Great was a model of desert dwelling with Sts Anthony the Great, Macarius the Great, and
Euthymius the Great, founded cenobitic monastic life in Egypt
.   What is certain is that St Benedict’s Rule, which has shaped nearly all surviving monasticism in the West, borrowed a good deal from Pachomius. Abbot Cuthbert Butler, in his edition of the Regula S. Benedicti, makes thirty-two references to St Jerome’s Pachomiana, and several phrases in the rule can be traced to Pachomian sources, while the spirit of the so-called Angelic Rule is even more noticeable therein.
Of all the early saints of the East it is St Pachomius who seems of recent years to have attracted most attention. New discoveries have been made especially of Coptic (i.e. Sahidic) texts, though for the most part these unfortunately are only fragmentary. Other manuscripts previously neglected have now been collated in many different redactions and languages. The older generation of Bollandists (in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii) did a great deal, but in the seventeenth century no exhaustive research of oriental sources was possible. Their modern representatives, however, have published a thoroughly satisfactory edition of St Pachomii Vitae Graecae (1932), edited by Fr F. Halkin. With this great advance may be associated the not, less important study of L. T. Lefort, S. Pachomii Vitae Sahidice Scriptae (published in two parts in the Corpus Scriptorum (Christianorum Orientalium, 1933 and 1934), in the same series his edition of a Bohairic life of Pachomius (1925), and his Vies copter de S. Pacôme (1943) these are discussed in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lii (1934), pp. 286—320, and vol. lxiv (1946), pp. 258—277. A further piece of research is that of A. Boon, Pachomiana Latina (1932), an essay on St Jerome’s translation of the Rule with an appendix on the Greek and Coptic versions see also B. Albers, S. Pachomii . . . Regulae Monasticae (1923). Amongst a multitude of somewhat older studies the essay of F. Ladeuze, Le Cénobitisme Pakhômien, deserves special mention, and H. Leclercq in his long article “Monachisme” in DAC., vol. xi (1933), especially in cc. 1807—1831, has brought together a number of valuable bibliographical references. There are also biographies, with slight variations, in Syriac and Arabic. M. Amélineau, who was among the first to take account of the Coptic texts, published in 1887 an Etude historique sur S. Pacôme. After the sixteenth-centenary celebrations in Egypt in 1948 a volume of lectures, Pachomiana, by scholars of several national­ities and ecclesiastical obediences was published. For the Angelic Rule and Western monachism, see J. McCann’s St Benedict (1938), pp. 152 ss. and passim. In spite, however, of the research bestowed upon the subject, the life and work of St Pachomius still remain very much of a problem, as such an authority as Fr Paul Peeters is the first to confess.

4th v Saint Silvanus of Tabennisi actor abandoned world to be a monk Hermit sentiments of contrition helped him
progress in virtue a holy abbot proposed him as model of humility to the rest favored with a spirit of prophecy
explained the dreadful judgments which threaten those that mock God
.   Saint Silvanus was an actor who abandoned the world to become a monk at Tabennisi under Saint Pachomius (Born in the Upper Thebaîd near Esneh, Egypt, c. 290-292; died at Tabennisi, Egypt, on May 15, c. 346-348; feast day in the East is May 15.) For some time he led an undisciplined life, trying to entertain the other monks and often transgressing the rule of silence. Pachomius endeavored to reform him by remonstration, prayers, sighs, and tears, for his poor soul. It was a fruitless endeavor for a long time, but Pachomius persisted until one day he explained to the impenitent Silvanus the dreadful judgments which threaten those that mock God.

650 Saint Dymphna Many miracles have taken place at her shrine on the spot where she was buried in Gheel, Belgium Patron of those suffering for nervous and mental affictions.  
The body of Dympna is preserved in a silver reliquary in the church bearing her name. Only the head of Gerebernus rests there, the remains have been removed to Sonsbeck in the diocese of Muenster. Three churches in Belgium have altars dedicated to her (Attwater, Benedictines, D'Arcy, Delaney, Farmer, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon, White).

From Stories of the Saints by Kate Bolin
In art, Saint Dympna is a crowned maiden with a sword and the devil on a chain. Sometimes she may be shown (1) kneeling before her confessor, Saint Gerebernus, (2) kneeling at Mass while her father murders the priest Gerebernus (Roeder), (3) praying in a cloud surrounded by a group of lunatics bound with golden chains, or (4) being beheaded by the king (White). The more common image now seen of Saint Dympna (shown here and in a larger size), clearly illustrates that she is a virgin (lily) and Irish (note the shamrock on the book). For an interesting image that has larger cultural implications, see La Cadena--El Hogar.

Dympna is invoked against insanity, mental illness of all types, asylums for the mentally ill, nurses of the mentally ill, sleepwalking, epilepsy, and demoniac possession (Roeder). A lovely set of nine prayers to Saint Dymphna are worth studying.
Her feast day is kept in Ireland and Gheel. In the United States, her cultus centers on her shrine in Massillon, Ohio, which is next to one of the most modern hospitals in the world. The Franciscan Mission Associates in America conduct a world-wide correspondence in her name to fund their activities for the poor and suffering, especially in Central America (Montague).

1130 Saint Isidore the Farmer celestial visions angels sometimes helped him appeared in a vision to King Alphonsus of Castile in 1211 show him an unknown path used to surprise and defeat the Moors patron of farmers his master saw angels and oxen helping him  His wife survived him for several years and, like him, is honoured as a saint. In Spain she is venerated as Santa Maria de Ia Cabeza
1130 ST ISIDORE THE HUSBANDMAN In the United States of America this feast is celebrated on 25 October.
THE patron of Madrid was born in the Spanish capital of poor parents, and was christened Isidore after the celebrated archbishop of Seville. Although unable to procure educational advantages for their son, his father and mother early instilled into his mind a great horror of sin and a love of prayer. As soon as he was old enough to work, Isidore entered the service of John de Vergas, a wealthy resident of Madrid, as a farm labourer on his estate outside the city, and with that one employer he remained all his life. He married a girl as poor and as good as himself, but after the birth of one son, who died young, they agreed to serve God in perfect continence.

1465 Blessed Mary Magdalen Albrizzi prioress remarkable for her promotion of frequent communion among her nuns was endowed with supernatural gifts which precluded her from remaining as unknown as she could have wished. She healed the sick and foretold the future, while her trust in God was so perfect that many miracles were wrought in immediate response to her prayers
There existed, as she well knew, a very poor convent situated in an isolated spot up in the mountains at Brunate, and thither accordingly she betook herself. It contained only a few nuns, but after Bd Magdalen's reception the numbers increased considerably. She was soon chosen superior, and was able to affiliate the community to the Hermits of St Augustine.Lack of the bare necessities of life sometimes obliged the nuns to make begging expeditions into Como, where they were liable to be detained for the night by bad weather; so to obviate the undesirable necessity of their having to accept casual hospitality from strangers, and also to provide a hospice for young women stranded in Como without a home, Magdalen founded a kind of daughter house in the city, though she herself remained at Brunate. Hers was a hidden life, but she was endowed with supernatural gifts which precluded her from remaining as unknown as she could have wished. She healed the sick and foretold the future, while her trust in God was so perfect that many miracles were wrought in immediate response to her prayers. She also was constantly urging her nuns to frequent communion. Bd Magdalen appears to have died on May 15, 1465, at an advanced age, after a long and painful illness.

Eboræ, in Lusitánia, sancti Máncii Mártyris.    At Evora in Portugal, St. Mancius, martyr.
Rotómagi natális sancti Joánnis Baptístæ de La Salle, Presbyteri et Confessóris, qui, in erudiénda adolescéntia præsértim páupere excéllens, et de religióne civilíque societáte præcláre méritus, Fratrum Scholárum Christianárum Sodalitátem instítuit.  Eum Pius Duodécimus, Póntifex Máximus, ómnium Magistrórum  púeris adolescentibúsque instituéndis præcípuum apud Deum cæléstem Patrónum constítuit.  Ipsíus tamen festum Idibus Maji celebrátur.
    At Rouen, the birthday [april 08] of St. John Baptist de la Salle, priest and confessor.  He was prominent in the education of youth, especially those who were poor, for which he was acclaimed both by religious and civil society.  He was the founder of the Society of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.  Pius XII, Supreme Pontiff, declared him patron of all those who teach children and young people.  His feast is celebrated on the 15th of May.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 16
251 Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem,  At the beginning of the third century he was chosen bishop of Flavia, Cappadocia. He was arrested during the reign of the emperor Septimus Severus (193-211) and spent three years in prison.
After his release from prison he went to Jerusalem to venerate the holy places, and was told to remain there through a divine revelation. In 212 he was chosen as coadministrator with the elderly Patriarch Narcissus, an unusually rare occurrence in the ancient Church.
Following the death of St Narcissus (August 7), St Alexander succeeded him and governed the Church of Jerusalem for thirty-eight years, working for the enlightenment of Christians. He also established the first library of Christian theological works at Jerusalem.
St Alexander was arrested during the persecution of the Church under the emperor Decius (249-251). The holy martyr was sent to Cappadocia, where he suffered many tortures. He was condemned to be eaten by wild beasts, but they did not harm him. St Alexander was cast into prison, where he surrendered his soul to God in the year 251.
The hieromartyr Alexander is also commemorated on December 12.

1128 St Ubald Baldassini Bishop of Gubbio ordained cathedral deacon returned to Gubbio Dissuaded from the eremitical life by Peter of Rimini.   WE are fortunate in possessing an excellent and reliable biography of Ubald Baldassini, bishop of Gubbio, compiled by Theobald, his immediate successor. The saint, descended from a noble family in Gubbio, became an orphan at an early age and was educated by his uncle, also bishop of the same see, in the cathedral school. Having completed his studies, he was ordained priest and appointed dean of the cathedral, young though he was, that he might reform the canons amongst whom grave irregularities were rampant. The task was no easy one, but he succeeded before long in persuading three of the canons to join him in a common life. Then, that he might obtain experience in the management of a well-conducted household, he resided for three months with a community of regular canons which had been established by Peter de Honestis in the territory of Ravenna. The rule which they followed he brought back to Gubbio, and within a short time it was accepted by the whole chapter.

1247 St Margaret of Cortona established a hospital and founded a congregation of tertiary sisters devoted to the Eucharist and the passion of Jesus.   They then went to Cortona, where her son eventually became a friar. There she established a hospital and founded a congregation of tertiary sisters. The poor and humble Margaret was, like Francis, devoted to the Eucharist and to the passion of Jesus. These devotions fueled her great charity and drew sinners to her for advice and inspiration. She was canonized in 1728.

1834 Andrew Hubert Fournet early life was devoted to frivolity Inspired by his uncle he became protector of the poor studied theology ordained became his assistant changed for one of austerity and simplicity Founder Prayers to Saint Andrew miraculously increased food supplies for the nuns when they were in need (RM).   When Napoleon allowed the church back openly into France after the revolution (1807), Andrew was once again officially the parish priest at Maillé. He labored as a missionary, preacher, and confessor, and with Saint Elizabeth (Agnes) Bichier (f.d. August 26) founded the congregation of the Daughters of the Cross, dedicated to nursing and teaching. Andrew retired from his parish in 1820, but continued to direct the sisters until his death, at which time the order had over sixty convents in Poitou. Prayers to Saint Andrew were said to have miraculously increased food supplies for the nuns and their charges when they were in need (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, White).

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 17
893 Saint Stephen, Patriarch of Constantinople concerned himself with widows and orphans, and distinguished himself by his temperance.   He was ordained to the priesthood under Patriarch Photius. When St Photius was compelled to resign the patriarchal throne in the year 886, St Stephen was elevated to the See of Constantinople. The saint vigilantly stood watch over his spiritual flock, he was merciful and interceded for the defenseless, he concerned himself with widows and orphans, and distinguished himself by his temperance. He died peacefully in the year 893 and was buried in the Sikellian monastery.

The son of the Emperor Basil the Macedonian and brother of Leo the Wise, he came to the patriarchal throne after Photius, and governed the Church of God from 886 to 893. He died peacefully, and went to the Lord whom he had greatly loved.

he holy princess was a builder of churches. In 1387 she founded the Ascension women's monastery in the Moscow Kremlin. In 1395, during Tamerlane's invasion into the southern regions of Russia, the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God was transferred to Moscow upon her advice, miraculously defending the Russian land. During Lent, the princess secretly wore chains beneath her splendid royal garb. By her patronage the famous icon of the Archangel Michael was painted, and later became the patronal icon of the Kremlin's Archangel Cathedral.

1407 Saint Euphrosyne The holy princess was tonsured as a nun builder of churches founded Ascension women's monastery in the Moscow  Kremlin patronage the famous icon of the Archangel Michael .  After raising five sons (a sixth died in infancy), the princess was tonsured as a nun with the name Euphrosyne. She completed her earthly journey on July 7, 1407 and was buried in the Ascension monastery she founded.
An old Russian church poem has survived, the lament of the princess for her husband, who had died at the age of thirty-nine. St Euphrosyne is also commemorated on July 7.

 1592 St Paschal Baylon Franciscan lay brother mystic labored as shepherd for father performed miracles distinguished for austerity spent most of his life as a humble doorkeeper rigorous asceticism deep love for the Blessed Sacrament defended the doctrine of the Real Presence against a Calvinists born and died on Whitsunday    At Villareal in Spain, St. Paschal of the Order of Friars Minor, confessor.  He was a man remarkable for innocence of life and the spirit of penance, whom Pope Leo XIII declared to be the heavenly patron of Eucharistic Congresses and of societies formed to honour the Most Blessed Sacrament.
Patron of shepherds, the Eucharist and Eucharistic guilds, societies and congresses
THE notice of St Paschal Baylon in the Roman Martyrology tells us not only that he was a man of wonderful innocence and austerity of life, but also that he has been proclaimed by the Holy See patron of all eucharistic congresses and confraternities of the Blessed Sacrament. It is a striking fact that a humble friar, of peasant birth, who was never even a priest, whose name in his own day was hardly known to any but his townsfolk in a corner of Spain, should now from his place in Heaven preside over those imposing assemblies of the Catholic Church.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 18
526 St. Pope John I Martyr succeeded persuading Emperor Justin I mitigate treatment of Arians avoid reprisals against Catholics in Italy visit  brought reconciliation of Western and Eastern Churches plagued by a schism since 482 when Zeno's Henoticon had been published    The birthday of St. John I, pope and martyr, who was called to Ravenna by the Arian king of Italy, Theodoric, and died there after being in prison a long time for the true faith.  His feast, however, is celebrated on the 27th of May, the day on which his revered body was taken to Rome and buried in the basilica of St. Peter, prince of the apostles.

A native of Tuscany in Italy, John was elected Pope while he was still an archdeacon upon the death of Pope Hormisdas in 523. At that time, the ruler of Italy was Theodoric the Goth who subscribed to the Arian brand of Christianity, but tolerated and even favored his Catholic subjects during the early part of his reign. However, about the time of St. John's accession to the Papacy, Theodoric's policy underwent a drastic change as a result of two events:
the treasonable (in the sovereign's view) correspondence between ranking members of the Roman Senate and Constantinople
and the severe edict against heretics enacted by the emperor Justin I, who was the first Catholic on the Byzantine throne in fifty years.

1160    King Eric IX Patron of Sweden aid Christianity in his realm responsible for codifying laws of his kingdom.  1161 ST ERIC OF SWEDEN, MARTYR
ST ERIC was acknowledged king in most parts of Sweden in 1150, and his line subsisted for a hundred years. He did much to establish Christianity in Upper Sweden and built or completed at Old Uppsala the first large church to be erected in his country. It is said that the ancient laws and constitutions of the kingdom were by his orders collected into one volume, which became known as King Eric’s Law or the Code of Uppland. The king soon had to take up arms against the heathen Finns, who were making descents upon his territories and pillaging the country. He vanquished them in battle, and at his desire, St Henry, Bishop of Uppsala, an Englishman, who had accompanied him on the expedition, remained in Finland to evangelize the people.

   At Rome, St. Felix, confessor of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, celebrated for his evangelical simplicity and charity.  He was inscribed on the roll of the saints by the Sovereign Pontiff Clement XI.

1587 St. Felix of Cantalice noted for austerities, piety, 38 years in monastery as questor aiding sick the poor and revered by all; .  1587 ST FELIX OF CANTALICE “All earthly creatures can lift us up to God if we know how to look at them with an eye that is single.” He loved to dwell upon the sufferings of our Lord, never weary of contemplating that great mystery. Always cheerful, always humble, he never resented an insult or an injury. If reviled he would only say, “I pray God that you may become a saint”.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 19
Theophilus means "Friend of God"named in the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles Acts 1:1
         (Luke 1:3 KJV, p.59).1 in the Greek language θεόφιλος
.  Many conjectures and traditions around his identity. It is a common name among both Romans and Jews of the era. His life would coincide with the writing of Luke and Acts, sometime between AD 40-85, depending on which tradition one subscribes to.
Conjectures to his identity and traditional beliefs include:  Coptic tradition asserts he was a Jew of Alexandria
Another tradition claims a converted Roman official, possibly Titus Flavius Sabinus II, a former Prefect of Rome and older brother of future Roman Emperor Vespasian, owing to the honorific, "most excellent" (Lk. 1:3). As Titus Flavius Sabinus, Theophilus is given a crucial role in the novel The Flames of Rome by Paul Maier, where he is given the dedication of the "Gospel of Luke" and "Acts of the Apostles" by Luke the Evangelist.
Another maintains Theophilus not a specific person, as "θεόφιλος" means "he who loves God", and thus the books could be addressed to anyone who fits that description.
Some also believed that Theophilus could have been Paul's lawyer during his trial period in Rome.

804 Bl. Alcuin Benedictine scholar and counselor to Charlemagne, sometimes called Alcuin of York and in biblical commentaries; and as a liturgist—his work had a strong influence on the Roman liturgy as we have it to-day. But it was as an educator that his fame has been enduring, for he was the main channel between the English scholarship of St Bede’s era and the revival of western learning under Charlemagne he was “the schoolmaster of his age”; and like a good schoolmaster a primary activity was to spread enthusiasm for learning.   Alcuin is often called Blessed and his name appears in the Benedictine Martyrology and in some old calendars; this cultus has never been officially confirmed, but so significant a figure requires notice, however short. He was born, probably at York about 730, into the noble family to which St Willibrord belonged, and in 767 succeeded to the direction of the cathedral school of that city, where he had himself been educated. He was not a man of great originating mind; rather was he a conserver and spreader of learning, and he attracted numerous students, outstanding among them being St Ludger, the apostle of Saxony. He was especially careful for the management and building-up of the library, and under him the York school entered into the company of those of Jarrow and Canterbury.
During this period Alcuin visited Rome three times, and in 781 accepted an invitation to take up his residence at the court of Charlemagne, whose educational and ecclesiastical adviser he became. After two visits to England, in 786 and 790, he settled permanently in France, finally in the abbey of St Martin at Tours, of which Charlemagne had made him abbot.

1294 St. Celestine V Pope Born 1212 The birthday of St. Peter of Moroni who, while leading the life of an anchoret, was created Sovereign Pontiff and called Celestine V.  He later abdicated the pontificate, and led a religious life in solitude, where, renowned for virtues and miracles, he went to the Lord.  
The Church of Christ has judged differently: she canonized him in 1313, and his feast is kept in all the Western church.
Peter, who was the eleventh of twelve children, was born of peasant parents about the year 1210 at Isernia, in the Abruzzi. Because he showed unusual promise, his mother, though she was early left a widow, sent him to school—against  the advice of her relations. Even as a boy Peter was “different”, and when he was twenty he left the world to live as a hermit on a solitary mountain where he made himself a cell so circumscribed that he could scarcely stand upright or lie down in it. In spite of his desire to remain hidden, he had occasional visitors, some of whom persuaded him to seek holy orders. He accordingly went to Rome and was ordained priest, but in 1246 he returned to the Abruzzi. On the way back he received the Benedictine habit from the Abbot of Faizola, by whom he was permitted to resume his solitary life.
   For five years he dwelt on Mount Morone, near Sulmona, but in 1251 the wood was cut on the mountain, and Peter, finding his privacy too much invaded, took refuge with two companions in the fastnesses of Monte Majella. His disciples, however, tracked him thither. So, after two further ineffectual attempts to live in solitude, he resigned himself to the inevitable and, returning to Monte Morone, became the head of a community of hermits who lived at first in scattered cells, but afterwards in a monastery. He gave his disciples a strict rule based on that of St Benedict and in 1274 he obtained from Pope Gregory X the approbation of his order, the members of which were afterwards known as Celestines.* [* Not to be confused with the “Celestine” Franciscans. The congregation of hermit monks spread in Europe, and in France came to an end only at the Revolution.]
After the death of Nicholas IV, the chair of St Peter remained vacant for over two years owing to the rivalry between two parties, neither of which would give way. To the cardinals assembled at Perugia came a message, it is said, from the hermit of Monte Morone threatening them with the wrath of God if they continued to delay. In any case, to bring the deadlock to an end, the conclave chose the hermit himself to become Christ’s vicar upon earth. The five envoys who climbed the steeps of Morone to bear the official notification found the old man (he was eighty-four) red-eyed with weeping and appalled at the tidings of his election which had already reached him. Boundless enthusiasm prevailed at the choice of a pope so holy and so unworldly, while to many it seemed an inauguration of the new era foretold by Joachim del Fiore—the reign of the Holy Ghost, when the religious orders would rule the world in peace and love. Two hundred thousand persons are said to have been assembled in Aquila to acclaim the new pope as he rode to the cathedral on a donkey, its bridle held on the one side by the King of Hungary and on the other by Charles of Anjou, King of Naples.

1303 Ivo Hélory, OFM Tert. (RM).   THE patron of lawyers, St Ivo Hélory, was born near Tréguier in Brittany at Kermartin, where his father was lord of the manor. At the age of fourteen he was sent to Paris, and before the end of a ten years’ stay in its famous schools he had gained great distinction in philosophy, theology and canon law. He then passed on to Orleans to study civil law under the celebrated jurist Peter de la Chapelle. In his student days he began to practise austerities which he continued and increased throughout his life. He wore a hair shirt, abstained from meat and wine, fasted during Advent and Lent (as well as at other times) on bread and water, and took his rest—which was always short—lying on a straw mat with a book or a stone by way of a pillow. Upon his return to Brittany after the completion of his education, he was appointed by the archdeacon of Rennes diocesan “official”, in other words, judge of the cases that came before the ecclesiastical court. In this capacity he protected orphans, defended the poor and administered justice with an impartiality and kindliness which gained him the goodwill even of the losing side.

1308 Blessed John Duns Scotus 1308 Blessed John Duns Scotus one of the most important and influential Franciscan theologians. His major contributions included the founding of the Scotistic School in Theology and clarifying the theology of the Absolute Kingship of Jesus Christ, the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and his philosophic refutation of evolution. (AC)

1378-1397 Bl. Peter de Duenas Franciscan Martyr. Born at Palencia, Spain, he entered the Franciscans and set out in 1396 with Blessed John de Cetina to preach among the Moors of Granada. The following year both were seized and beheaded.

1651 Bl. Peter Wright  Jesuit (1629) martyr in England chaplain to the Royalist army; convert to Catholicism
given preparation for the priesthood in Ghent and Rome

1740 St. Theophilus of Corte Franciscan reformer. Born Biagio Arrighi at Corte, Corsica, Italy ordained at
Naples, taught at Civitella, and then embarked upon a mission to promote the faith in Corsica and Italy The influence exerted by his eloquent words was enhanced by the holiness of his life and by miracles. At Civitella, of which he became guardian, he won the love and veneration of the whole community
1750 --St. Crispin of Viterbo, taking the name, Crispin (after the patron of cobblers);  possessed an amazing ability to integrate a life of feverish activity, on the one hand, with a solid interior life. Without concern for his own well being, Crispin cared for those stricken during the epidemics at Farnese, Gallese and Bracciano. As questor, he begged for food not only on behalf of his Capuchin brothers, but also to provide for all the needy of his "big Orvietan family." For the friars, he would only beg for necessities, nothing more. OFM Cap
1854 Joaquina Vedruna de Mas, Widow Foundress founded the Institute of the Carmelites of Charity, whose
sisters are dedicated to tending the sick and teaching.
1875 Blessed Francis Coll Guitart, OP After several years of parish ministry, he pursued itinerant preaching along with his friend Saint Anthony Claret. He founded the Dominican Sisters of the Annunciation to teach the children of the poor in the village where he preached (AC)

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 20
   67 St. Plautilla baptized by St. Peter witnessed execution of St. Paul; wife of Emperor Vespasian   At Rome, St. Plautilla, wife of a consul, sister of the consul Flavius Clemens, and mother of the holy virgin Flavia Domitilla, both martyrs.  She was baptized by the apostle St. Peter, and after giving an example of all the virtues, she rested in peace.   A Roman widow, reputedly the mother of St. Flavia Domitilla and the wife of Emperor Vespasian, who was exiled by Emperor Domitian for being a Christian. It is unlikely that Plautilla was Flavia’s mother, as history records her mother to be Flavia Domitilla, wife of Vespasian. In legend, Plautilla was also said to have been baptized by St. Peter and to have witnessed the execution of St. Paul. 

1444 St. Bernardine of Siena He was called the "People's Preacher" because his sermons were filled with lively and realistic depictions of everything from a bachelor's household to women's fashions;  throughout his life he was noted for his unfailing affability, patience and courtesy; It is impossible to follow him on his missionary journeys, for in them he covered nearly the whole of Italy; His tomb at Aquila was honoured by many miracles.   ST BERNARDINO was born in the Tuscan town of Massa Marittima, in which his father, a member of the noble Sienese family of the Albizeschi, occupied the post of governor. The little boy lost both his parents before he was seven and was entrusted to the care of a maternal aunt and her daughter— both excellent women, who gave him a religious training and loved him as though he had been their own child.
Upon reaching the age of eleven or twelve he was placed by his uncles at school in Siena, where he passed with great credit through the course of studies deemed requisite for a boy of his rank. He grew up a good-looking lad, so merry and entertaining that it was impossible to be dull in his company; but a coarse or blasphemous remark would always bring a blush to his cheek and generally a remonstrance to his lips. Once when a man of position sought to lead him into vice, Bernardino struck him in the face with his fists, and on a second and similar occasion he incited his comrades to join him in pelting the tempter with mud and stones. Except when thus moved by righteous indignation, Bernardino was singularly sweet-tempered; indeed, throughout his life he was noted for his unfailing affability, patience and courtesy.

1501 Blessed Columba of Rieti pious mystics of the third order of Saint Dominic raising of a dead child to life
especially devoted to Our Lady modeled after Saint Catherine of Siena to OP Tert. V (AC)
Pope Alexander VI when he came to Perugia asked specially to see her, and was so impressed that at a later date he sent his treasurer to consult her on certain secret projects-only to receive reproaches and warnings the details of which were never made public. But if the pontiff himself was favourably disposed, it was otherwise with his daughter, Lucrezia Borgia, whom Columba had refused to meet and who, it is said, became her bitter enemy. Apparently as the result of her hostile influence, Bd Columba was subjected to a period of persecution, when a decree issued from Rome accused her of magic and deprived her of her confessor. She uttered no complaint and bore all in patience until the attack passed. Towards the end of her life she suffered much bodily pain, but her interest in Perugia continued to the end. To the city fathers who came to visit her in her last illness she gave an exhortation to observe Christian charity and to do justice to the poor. She died at the age of thirty-four, early in the morning on the feast of the Ascension, 1501. The magistrates contributed to provide for her a public funeral, which was attended by the whole city.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 21
327 Saint Helen mother of St Contantine the Great.  Probably born at Drepanum (Helenopolis) in Asia Minor to parents of humble means. She married Constantius Chlorus, and their son Constantine was born in 274. Constantius divorced her in 294 in order to further his political ambition by marrying a woman of noble rank. After he became emperor, Constantine showed his mother great honor and respect, granting her the imperial title "Augusta." Kaiserin Helena Orthodoxe und Anglikanische Kirche: 21. Mai Katholische Kirche: 18. August und 21. Mai

6th v. St. Barrfoin Irish missionary journeyed to spread the faith reported his adventures on a voyage to the Americas to St. Brendan the Navigator 6th century.  Saint Barrid tells of his visit to the Island of Paradise, which prompts Brendan to go in search of the isle.
possibly a bishop, and friend of Sts. Columba and Brendan. Barrfoin took charge of a church founded by St. Columba in Drum Cullen, Offaly. He lived at Killbarron. He also journeyed to spread the faith.
Barrfoin reported his adventures on a voyage to the Americas to St. Brendan the Navigator.

1170 ST GODRIC endowed with extraordinary powers—notably with the gifts of prophecy and a knowledge of distant events. He foretold the death of Bishop William of Durham, and the exile, return and martyrdom of St Thomas Becket, whom he had never seen. He often beheld scenes that were being enacted far away, breaking off a conversation to pray for vessels in imminent danger of shipwreck. He also knew beforehand the date of his own death which occurred on May 21, 1170, after he had spent some sixty years in his hermitage. At a later period there was built at Finchale a monastery, the ruins of which survive. St Godric is the co-titular of a Catholic church in Durham.  ST GODRIC was born of very poor parents at Walpole in Norfolk, and in his youth earned a living by peddling in the neighbouring villages. As he improved his stock he was able to go farther afield to the great fairs and cities. Then the spirit of adventure seized him, and he took to a seafaring life which he pursued for sixteen years. He made voyages to Scotland, Flanders and Scandinavia, and probably traded in the ports he visited, for he was able to purchase a half-share in one merchant vessel and a quarter-share in another. The life was a rough one with many temptations, and one chronicler refers to him as a pirate but on a visit which he paid to Lindisfarne he was deeply impressed by the account given him of the life of St Cuthbert, whom he ever afterwards regarded with special veneration. He undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, which had lately been captured by the Crusaders, and on the homeward journey he visited Compostela.* [* For the service rendered by “Gudericus pirata de regno Angliae” to King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, see S. Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. ii (1953), p. 79 (Albert of Aix, Chronicon, ix).]

1577 Blessed Catherine of Cardona hermit for 20 years Carmelite V (PC.  Born in Naples, Italy, 1519; Catherine was born in Italy of a noble Spanish family. She lived for a time at the court of Philip II of Spain. Then she retired near Roda in southern Spain to live as a hermit for 20 years until she was received into a Carmelite convent, where, however, she continued to live as an anchoress. Saint Teresa of Avila speaks very highly of her (Benedictines).

1657 Andrew Bobola Polish aristocrat who joined the Jesuits kindness to plague dying and care for the dead
martyred incorrupt after 150 years a specially remarkable circumstance in view of the respect for this phenomenon popularly shown among the dissident Orthodox. And the doctors were able to confirm the horrible details of his death SJ M (RM).  As soon as he was relieved of his charge, he resumed the missionary career which he had pursued for more than twenty years, travelling the country and bringing whole villages of separated Orthodox back to communion with the Holy See, besides converting numerous lax Catholics. His success brought upon him hatred and opposition. One form of petty persecution he found particularly trying. For several years, whenever he entered a village with a sufficiently large anti-Catholic population, he was met by an organized band of children who, in accordance with instructions from their elders, followed him about, hurling abusive epithets at him and trying to shout him down. He never lost patience with them, nor was he daunted or discouraged by threats or opposition. Poland at this time had become the scene of a sanguinary conflict in which the revolted Cossacks took a prominent part. The Jesuit missionaries were driven from their churches and colleges by these relentless foes, and they took refuge in a district of swamps, lakes and marshland formed by branches of the Pripet and Berezina and known as Podlesia. Thither Prince Radziwill invited the Jesuits, to whom he offered one of his residences at Pinsk in 1652. St Andrew accepted the invitation although he fully anticipated the fate that was in store for him.

1740 Theophilus of Corte priest taught theology OFM famous missioner throughout Italy Corsica zealous
worker for revival of Franciscan observance (RM)). 
At once it became evident that St Theophilus had great oratorical gifts, which enabled him to touch the hearts not only of careless Christians but also of hardened sinners. The influence exerted by his eloquent words was enhanced by the holiness of his life and by miracles. At Civitella, of which he became guardian, he won the love and veneration of the whole community. In 1730 his superiors sent him back to Corsica in order that he might form one or more houses there on the lines of Civitella. He found himself confronted by many difficulties, but he succeeded in establishing a retreat at Luani, where the rule of Civitella was followed in all its poverty and austerity. Four years later he was recalled to Italy to do similar work in Tuscany, and at Fucecchio, some twenty English miles from Florence, he made his second foundation. That same year he was summoned to Rome to give evidence for the beatification of Thomas of Cori. So great was the impression he then made upon the bishop of Nicotera, who was in charge of the case, that the prelate afterwards exclaimed, “I have been questioning one saint about another saint”.

Theophilus died at Fucecchio on May 20, 1740. As his body lay awaiting burial in the church, immense crowds gathered round to venerate it.  They kissed his hands and feet and tore so many pieces from his clothing that it became necessary to dress the body in a new habit. St Theophilus was canonized in 1930.

1915-1928  St. Cristóbal Magallanes and Companions:  These martyrs did not die as a single group but in eight Mexican states, with Jalisco and Zacatecas having the largest number. They were beatified in 1992 and canonized eight years later.  Like Blessed Miguel Agustín Pro, S.J., Cristóbal and his 24 companion martyrs lived under a very anti-Catholic government in Mexico, one determined to weaken the Catholic faith of its people. Churches, schools and seminaries were closed; foreign clergy were expelled. Cristóbal established a clandestine seminary at Totatiche, Jalisco. Magallanes and the other priests were forced to minister secretly to Catholics during the presidency of Plutarco Calles (1924-28).

All of these martyrs except three were diocesan priests. David, Manuel and Salvador were laymen who died with their parish priest, Luis Batis. All of these martyrs belonged to the Cristero movement, pledging their allegiance to Christ and to the Church that he established to spread the Good News in society—even if Mexico's leaders once made it a crime to receive Baptism or celebrate the Mass.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 22
    At Comana in Pontus, under Emperor Maximian and the governor Agrippa, the holy martyr Basiliscus, who was forced to wear iron shoes pierced with heated nails, and who endured many other trials.  He was finally beheaded and thrown into the river, which gained for him the crown of martyrdom.
He was the bishop of Comana, in Pontus and was beheaded. His remains were thrown into a river near Nicomedia. Basiliscus' body was taken to Comana.
Reappeared to St. John Chrysostom just before the death of that Doctor of the Church.
Basiliscus of Comana M (RM) Bishop Basiliscus of Comana, Pontus, Asia Minor, was beheaded under Maximin the Thracian (a.k.a. Maximinus Daia) and his body thrown into a river near Nicomedia. It was recovered and buried in Comana. This was the martyr who appeared to Saint John Chrysostom on the eve of the holy doctor's death in the church dedicated to Saint Basiliscus to encourage him (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

 600 St. Fulk pilgrim gave his life for others in time of plague.  Patron saint of Castrofuli, in south­ern Italy, a pilgrim who gave his life for others in time of plague. On his way to Rome, Fulk stopped at Castrofuli to help plague victims. He died of that pesti­lence, and his cult was approved in 1522

 1457 St. Rita of Cascia wife mother widow religious community member legendary austerity prayerfulness charity.   At Cascia in Umbria, St. Rita, a widow and nun of the Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine, who, after being disengaged from her earthly marriage, loved only her eternal spouse Christ. She is patron of those in desperate situations (perhaps an allusion to her own life), of parenthood, and against infertility. In Spain Rita is known as "La Abogada de Imposibles", the patron saint of desperate cases, particularly matrimonial difficulties. An Italian poll showed that her popularity is greater than that of the Madonna (White). Rita is especially venerated in Cascia and Spoleto (Roeder).

Also Peter of Cuerva, a martyr of Japan. A Spaniard from Cuerva, near Toledo, he entered the Franciscans and was sent to Japan in 1601 with fifty other members of the order. While there, he was named guardian of the Franciscan friary at Nagasaki.
Arrested by Japanese officials, he was imprisoned at Omura and, with Blessed John Machado, was beheaded at Nagasaki. Beatified in 1867, he is considered the first martyr of the second great Japanese persecution.

1614 Bl. Peter of the Assumption Spaniard martyr of Japan
1617 St. John Baptist Machado Azores Jesuit martyr of Japan
1622 Bl. Matthias of Arima native catechist Martyr of Japan
1857 St. Michael Ho-Dinh-Hy native Martyr of Vietnam arrested for his Christian activities

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 23
1st v.St.  Epitacius and Basileus body thrown into sea found by Elpidiphorus through angel revelation Martyrs both bishops.  In Hispánia sanctórum Mártyrum Epitácii Epíscopi, et Basiléi.
    In Spain, the holy martyrs Epitacius, a bishop, and Basileus.
Epitacius was the first bishop of Tuy, Spain. Basileus ruled Braga, Portugal. At Amasea in Pontus, St. Basileus, bishop and martyr, whose illustrious martyrdom occurred under Emperor Licinius.  His body was thrown into the sea, but was found by Elpidiphorus, through the revelation of an angel, and was honorably buried.
Epitacius and Basileus MM (RM) 1st century.
It is likely that Saint Epitacius was the first bishop of Tuy in Spanish Galicia and Basileus the first bishop of Braga, Portugal (Benedictines).

303 Martyrs of Cappadocia A group of Christians put to death In Cappadocia, the commemoration of the holy martyrs who died by having their legs crushed, in the persecution of Maximian Galerius.  Also in Mesopotamia, those martyrs who, at the same time, were suspended in the air with their heads downward, suffocated with smoke, and consumed by a slow fire, thus fulfilling their martyrdom.
A group of Christians who suffered martyrdom in Mesopotamia under the Roman imperial authorities.
Martyrs of Mesopotamia (RM) These martyrs suffered under Maximian Galerius (Benedictines).

307 Martyrs of Mesopotamia under Maximian Galerius    Martyrs of Cappadocia (RM) A group of martyrs who died under Galerius  after extreme torture (Benedictines).

407 St. Desiderius Bishop martyr attempt to convince warriors not to massacre his flock     At Langres in France, the martyrdom of the holy bishop Desiderius, who visited the king to offer entreaties in behalf of his people who were mistreated by the Vandal army.  He was immediately condemned to beheading, and willingly presenting his head to receive the blow of the sword, he died for the sheep committed to his charge and departed for heaven.  With him suffered many of his flock, who are buried in the same city; also called Dizier. A native of Genoa, Italy, he became bishop of Langres, in France. When the Vandals invaded the region, Desiderius pleaded for his people and was slain.

6th v. Eutychius and Florentius 2 monks Saint Gregory the Great praised their virtues and miracles (RM).   At Norcia, Saints Eutychius and Florentius, monks, mentioned by the blessed Pope Gregory.
Two monks who successively governed a monastery in Valcastoria near Norcia (Nursia?), Italy.
Saint Gregory the Great praised their virtues and miracles (Benedictines).

Dodo of the St David-Gareji Monastery, Georgia Venerable .  A companion of St. Davit of Gareji, St. Dodo belonged to the royal family Andronikashvili. He was tonsured a monk while still an youth, and was endowed with every virtue. An admirer of poverty and solitude, he labored as a hermit at Ninotsminda in Kakheti. Having heard about the miracles of Davit of Gareji, St. Dodo set off for the Gareji Wilderness to witness them himself. The venerable fathers greeted one another warmly and began laboring there together.
After some time, St. Davit became deeply impressed with Dodo’s devotion to the Faith, and he proposed that he take with him some of the other monks and begin to construct cells on the opposite mountain. The brothers built cells and began to labor there with great ardor. Before long the number of cells had reached two hundred. St. Dodo isolated himself in a narrow crevice, where there was barely room for one man. Day and night, winter and summer, in the heat and the cold, he prayed with penitent tears for the forgiveness of his sins, the strengthening of the souls of his brothers, and the bolstering of the true Faith throughout the country.

787 Saint Syagrius (Siacre) of Nice kinsman of Blessed Charlemagne monk of Lérins founder abbot bishop of Nice OSB B (AC).   Saint Syagrius, kinsman of Blessed Charlemagne, was a monk of Lérins.
Later he founded and became the abbot of Saint Pons at Cimiez in Provence, from where he was consecrated at bishop of Nice in 777 (Benedictines).

820 St. Michael of Synnada Bishop disciple of St. Tarasius of Constantinople enemy of Iconoclast heretics in the Byzantine Empire.  Synnadæ, in Phrygia, sancti Michaélis Epíscopi.    At Synnada in Phrygia, St. Michael, bishop.
St. Michael of Synnadawas bishop of Synnada, Phrygia, in modem Turkey. He carried a synodal document from St. Tarasius to Pope St. Leo III in Rome. An enemy of the Iconoclast heretics in the Byzantine Empire, Michael was exiled to Galatia by Emperor Leo V the Armenian. 

962 Guibert (Guibertus) of Gembloux abandoned his military career for the religious life active in missionary work among the Hungarian and Slav soldiers OSB Abbot (AC).   Died at Gorze on May 23, 962; canonized in 1211. Guibert, a noble of Lorraine, was a well-known military leader, but he abandoned his military career for the religious life. He became a hermit on his estate at Gembloux, Brabant, and with the help of his Grandmother Gisla, in 936 founded a Benedictine monastery on the estate with Herluin as abbot and donated the estate to the monastery.

1073 Saint Leonitus of Rostov Bishop and wonderworker of Rostov BM (RM).   1077 ST LEONTIUS, BISHOP OF ROSTOV, MARTYR Helped by the gift of miracles, he is said to have brought paganism to an end around Rostov; St Leontius was distinguished as "the hieromartyr", that is, the martyr who was a priest. Russian usage commemorates him at the preparation of the holy things in the Byzantine Mass,

This Leontius, who was a Greek from Constantinople, was the first monk of the Caves of Kiev to become a bishop, when soon after the year 1051 he was given charge of the eparchy of Rostov. He was one of a line of remarkable missionary bishops of this see, and though he received much persecution at the hands of the heathen he was reputed to be more successful in their conversion than any of his predecessors. Helped by the gift of miracles, he is said to have brought paganism to an end around Rostov, but in view of the mission of St Abraham fifty years later this can hardly be the case (unless St Abraham has been wrongly dated).
St Leontius died in or about 1077, and because of the ill-treatment he suffered from the heathen he has ever been venerated as a martyr. It is said that two laymen, Varangians, were the first to die for the Christian faith in Russia, in the time of St Vladimir the Great, and St Leontius was distinguished as "the hieromartyr", that is, the martyr who was a priest. Russian usage commemorates him at the preparation of the holy things in the Byzantine Mass.

1116 St. Ivo of Chartres One of the most notable bishops of France at the time of the Investiture struggles and the most important canonist before Gratian in the Occident.   To the order of Canons Regular of St Augustine the Church in the eleventh century was indebted for one of the most venerated of her episcopal rulers. Ivo, bishop of Chartres, was born in the territory of Beauvais and studied theology under the celebrated Lanfranc in the abbey of Bec. After occupying a canonry at Nesles in Picardy, he took the habit at the monastery of Saint-Quentin, a house of regular canons, where he was appointed to lecture on theology, canon law and the Holy Scriptures. Afterwards Ivo ruled as superior for fourteen years, during the course of which he raised the house to a high pitch of discipline and learning, so that he was constantly being called upon by bishops and princes to send his canons to other places either to reform ancient chapters or to found new ones. The observances of Saint-Quentin were adopted by St Botulf's at Colchester, the first Augustinian house in England.
When, in the year 1091, Geoffrey, bishop of Chartres, was deposed for simony and other misdemeanours, the clergy and
St. Ivo of Chartres people demanded Ivo for their bishop. He was very unwilling to emerge from his retirement, but Bd Urban II confirmed his election and Ivo set out for Capua, where he was consecrated by the pope, who subsequently checked the endeavours of Richerius, archbishop of Sens, to reinstate Geoffrey. Scarcely was St Ivo firmly established in his see than he found himself faced with the necessity of opposing the will of his sovereign. King Philip I had become so greatly enamoured of Bertrada, the third wife of Fulk, Count of Anjou, that he had determined to marry her and to divorce his queen Bertha, in spite of the fact that she had borne him two children. Ivo did his utmost to dissuade the king from proceeding further, but when he found his remonstrances unavailing he declared openly that he would prefer to be cast into the sea with a mill-stone round his neck rather than countenance such a scandal; and he absented himself from the wedding ceremony at which the bishop of Senlis connived. Philip in revenge had him put in prison, seized his revenues and sent officers to plunder his lands. Strong representations, however, were made by the pope, by other influential personages and by the citizens of Chartres, and he was released. Philip indeed could scarcely fail to realize that the bishop was amongst his most loyal subjects, for St Ivo, while actually in custody, nipped in the bud a conspiracy of nobles against their sovereign; and, when the affair had dragged on for years, he exerted himself to reconcile Philip to the Holy See and at the Council of Beaugency in 1104 recommended the absolution of the king, whose real wife had in the meantime died. Though he was devoted to the Holy See, St Ivo maintained a sufficiently independent attitude to enable him to act as mediator in the dispute over investitures and to protest openly against the greed of certain Roman legates and the simony of members of the papal court.
St Ivo died on December 23, 1116, after having governed his see for twenty-three years. He was a voluminous writer and many of his works have survived. His most famous literary undertaking was a collection of decrees drawn from papal and conciliar letters and canons accepted by the fathers. This is preserved to us in two, if not three, independent compilations. We have also 24 sermons and 288 letters which shed an interesting light on contemporary history and ecclesiastical discipline.

1173 Euphrosyne of Polotsk only East Slav virgin saint Euphrosyne earned $ copying books distributed to the poor.   WHEN Russia received the Christian faith from Constantinople at the end of the tenth century the Byzantine liturgy of worship also was adopted, including the calendar with its commemorations of numerous Greek and other saints. As time went by Russian holy ones were added to the sanctorale; but in this connection there were two rather curious modifications of Greek and Western practice.
The first was the very secondary place given to martyrs for the faith as compared with great ascetics or such "sufferers" as SS. Boris and Gleb.
The second was the lack of veneration for holy maidens (the All-Holy Mother of God of course excepted). Early Russian iconography ignored the virgin saints of the Greek calendar almost completely; and only twelve women have been canonized by the Russian Church, and of these, eleven have been married. The exception was St Euphrosyne of Polotsk.

1201 St. William of Rochester miracles occurred at grave experienced conversion as a young man devoted himself to the care of the poor and orphans.   THE story of this William is that he was a holy and charitable burgher of Perth, who set out from Scotland to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He took with him one David, a foundling whom he had adopted. In the neighbourhood of Rochester this lad murdered his benefactor. The body was found by a poor woman who roamed about the country crazy and half-naked; she made a garland of honeysuckle and laid it on the corpse. Afterwards, putting the wreath on her own head, she was restored to her right mind and gave notice to the people of Rochester. They came out and honourably buried the victim of this crime. Miracles followed, and it is even St. William of Rochester alleged that William was canonized by Pope Alexander IV in 1256. What is certain is that before this time there was already a shrine of "St William" in Rochester Cathedral, which was a notable centre of popular devotion.

1587 St. Felix of Cantalice the first Franciscan Capuchin ever canonized developed the habit of praying while he worked model of simplicity and charity.   AMONGST the numerous persons of all ranks who were led by the example of the early Franciscans to abandon all things in order to embrace holy poverty was a prominent citizen of Montepulciano named Bartholomew Pucci-Franceschi. He was a married man and had lived an exemplary Christian life with his family for many years when the call came to him to serve God in complete renunciation of the world. With the consent of his wife, who herself took the vow of chastity, he entered the Franciscan Order. Soon he surpassed all his brethren in piety, and was induced, though against his wish, to receive holy orders. He had frequent visions of our Lady and of angels, and performed many miracles, particularly in the multiplication of food. To avoid human respect he tried to become a "fool for Christ's sake", behaving at times in such a manner as to be ridiculed and pelted by children in the streets. He lived to be very old, and died at Montepulciano on May 6,

1750 St. Crispin of Viterbo Franciscan lay brother, noted for miracles, prophecies, and holiness
Born Peter Fioretti, in Viterbo, Italy, on November 13, 1668, he studied at the Jesuit College, and became a shoemaker. At twenty-five he entered the Franciscan Capuchins and took the name Crispin. He served as a gardener and as a cook. He called himself  “the little beast of burden of the Capuchins.” During an epidemic, Crispin effected many miraculous cures. He was also venerated for his prophecies and spiritual wisdom. Crispin died in Rome on May 19. He was beautified in 1806 and canonized in 1982.

1764 John Baptist de Rossi combined enfleshment of social Gospel with cure of souls catechized teamsters farmers cattlemen from the country sought help homeless women girls living in streets beggars prostitutes (RM)
THIS holy priest was born in 1698 at the village of Voltaggio in the diocese of Genoa, and was one of the four children of an excellent and highly respected couple. When he was ten, a nobleman and his wife who were spending the summer at Voltaggio obtained permission from his parents to take him back with them to Genoa to be trained in their house. He remained with them three years, winning golden opinions from all, notably from two Capuchin friars who came to his patron's home. They carried such a favourable report of the boy to his uncle, who was then minister provincial of the Capuchins, that a cousin, Lorenzo Rossi, a canon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, invited him to come to Rome. The offer was accepted, and John Baptist entered the Roman College at the age of thirteen. Popular with his teacher's and with his fellow pupils, he had completed the classical course with distinction when the reading of an ascetical book led him to embark on excessive mortifications. The strain on his strength at a time when he was working hard led to a complete breakdown, which obliged him to leave the Roman College. He recovered sufficiently to complete his training at the Minerva, but he never was again really robust. Indeed, his subsequent labours were performed under the handicap of almost constant suffering.
On March 8, 1721, at the age of twenty-three, John Baptist was ordained, and his first Mass was celebrated in the Roman College at the altar of St Aloysius Gonzaga, to whom he always had a special devotion. Even in his student days he had been in the habit of visiting the hospitals, often in the company of his fellow pupils, over whom he exercised the same influence that he had wielded over the children of Voltaggio. Now, as a priest, he could do far more for the patients. Very particularly did he love the hospice of St Galla, a night refuge for paupers which had been founded by Pope Celestine III.

1951 Army Chaplain Capt Emil J Kapaun  Servant of God

Kapaun, who volunteered for the Korean War after serving as a chaplain during World War II, is now being considered for sainthood by the Vatican.
Father Kapaun, was born in Pilsen, Kansas in the Diocese of Wichita, Kansas on Holy Thursday, April 20, 1916.  He was ordained as a Priest for the Diocese on June 9, 1940 and entered the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps in 1944. 
      Separated from the service in 1946, he re-entered the Army in 1948 and was sent to Japan the following year. 
      In July of 1950 Father Kapaun was ordered to Korea.  On November 2 of that same year he was taken as a prisoner of war. In the seven months in prison, Father Kapaun spent himself in heroic service to his fellow prisoners without regard for race, color or creed. 
      To this there is testimony of men of all faiths.  Ignoring his own ill health, he nursed the sick and wounded until a blood clot in his leg prevented his daily rounds.  Moved to a so-called hospital, but denied medical assistance, his death soon followed on May 23, 1951.
      The Diocese of Wichita and the Vatican have begun the formal process that could lead to Father Kapaun's canonization.  In 1993, it was announced that Fr. Kapaun would receive the title of "Servant of God".

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 25
St. Mary, the mother of James At Veroli Campania the translation of, revered body is noted for many miracles
At Veroli in Campania, the translation of St. Mary, the mother of James the Less, whose revered body is noted for many miracles.  James, the Apostle, son of Alphaeus;  James (son of Alphaeus) One of the 12 Apostles. He is named in the list of Apostles in Matthew 10:1-3, Mark 3:14-19, Luke 6:13-16, and Acts 1:13. His mother's name was Mary and she was one of the women who went to the tomb of Jesus, and found that it had been opened. James was also called "James the Less" and "James the Younger."

230 Pope Urban I Alexander Severus Roman emperor 222-35 favoured a religious eclecticism and also protected Christianity;  
Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," Urban was a Roman and his father's name was Pontianus. After the death of Callistus I (14 October, 222) Urban was elected Bishop of Rome, of which Church he was the head for eight years, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., VI, 23). The document called the Liberian catalogue of popes puts the beginning of his pontificate in the year 223 and its close in the year 230. The dissension produced in the Roman Church by Hippolytus (q.v.) continued to exist during Urban's pontificate. Hippolytus and his adherents persisted in schism; it was probably during the reign of Urban that Hippolytus wrote his "Philosophumena", in which he attacked Pope Callistus severely. Urban maintained the same attitude towards the schismatical party and its leader that his predecessor had adopted. The historical authorities say nothing of any other factious troubles in the life of the Roman Church during this era.
In 222 Alexander Severus became Roman emperor. He favoured a religious eclecticism and also protected Christianity. His mother, Julia Mammaea, was a friend of the Alexandrine teacher Origen, whom she summonded to Antioch. Hippolytus dedicated his work on the Resurrection to her. The result of the favourable opinion of Christianity held by the emperor and his mother was that Christians enjoyed complete peace in essentials, although their legal status was not changed. The historian Lampridius (Alex. Sever., c. xxii) says emphatically that Alexander Severus made no trouble for the Christians: "Christianos esse passus est." Undoubtedly the Roman Church experienced the happy results of these kindly intentions and was unmolested during this emperor's reign (222-235). The emperor even protected Roman Christians in a legal dispute over the ownership of a piece of land. When they wished to build a church on a piece of land in Rome which was also claimed by tavern-keepers, the matter was brought before the imperial court, and Severus decided in favour of the Christians, declaring it was better that God should be worshipped on that spot (Lampridius, "Alex. Sever.", c. xlix).

359 St. Dionysius of Milan Bishop defended Athanasius banished to Cappadocia with Eusebius of Vercelli and Lucifer of Cagliari;   360 ST DIONYSIUS, BISHOP OF MILAN
AMONGST the few faithful bishops who upheld the cause of St Athanasius when the whole world seemed to have turned against him, a place of honour must be accorded to St Dionysius, who succeeded Protasius in 351 as metropolitan of Milan. An ardent champion of the Catholic faith, he found himself summoned in 355 to attend, in his own episcopal city but at the imperial palace, a synod which the Arian Emperor Constantius had convoked to pronounce the condemnation of Athanasius.
Although nearly all the prelates present were overawed into signing the decree, St Dionysius, St Eusebius of Vercelli, and Lucifer of Cagliari refused to do so. They were accordingly banished, and St Dionysius retired into Cappadocia, where he died about the year 360, probably shortly before the Emperor Julian sanctioned the return of the exiles to their churches. A point of interest is the fact that the remains of the saint were sent back to Milan all the way from Cappadocia by St Basil. The letter in which Basil describes to St Ambrose the care taken to authenticate the relics is still preserved.

550 St. Leo of Troyes Abbot who succeeded St. Romanus at Mautenay;  550 ST LEO, or LYE, ABBOT
AT Mantenay, a village in the diocese of Troyes, St Leo’s whole life was passed:  there he was born and there he entered a monastery which had been built not very many years earlier by St Romanus, afterwards bishop of Rheims. First as a simple monk, afterwards as abbot in succession to Romanus, Leo led an edifying and uneventful existence. One night when he lay, as was his custom, on the baptistery floor, St Hilary, St Martin of Tours and St Anastasius of Orleans appeared to announce his death which, they told him, was to take place in three days. St Leo asked for a three days’ respite to enable him to obtain a mortuary habit which a good woman had promised him. The delay was granted and a messenger was despatched from the abbey to ask for the garment. The lady acknowledged that she had not yet made it as the father abbot seemed hale and hearty, but said he should have it in three days. The promise was kept: the habit was duly sent: and St Leo at the appointed time passed to his reward.
A short account of St Leo is given both in Mabillon and the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi, but the materials merit little confidence. His name, however, has been included in certain later recensions of the Hieronymianum.

735 Venerable St. Bede born near St. Peter and St. Paul monastery at Wearmouth-Jarrow, England Doctor of the Church {Pope Leo XIII}.   At Jarrow in England, the death of St. Venerable Bede, priest, confessor and doctor of the Church, well known for his sanctity and scholarship.  His feast, however, was celebrated on the 27th day of May.

His Ecclesiastical History of the English People is commonly regarded as of decisive importance in the art and science of writing history. A golden age was coming to an end at the time of Bede’s death: It had fulfilled its purpose of preparing Western Christianity to assimilate the non-Roman barbarian North. Bede recognized the opening to a new day in the life of the Church even as it was happening.

He was sent there when he was three and educated by Abbots Benedict Biscop and Ceolfrid. He became a monk at the monastery, was ordained when thirty, and except for a few brief visits elsewhere, spent all of his life in the monastery, devoting himself to the study of Scripture and to teaching and writing.
He is considered one of the most learned men of his time and a major influence on English literature.
His writings are a veritable summary of the learning of his time and include commentaries on the Pentateuch and various other books of the Bible, theological and scientific treatises, historical works, and biographies.

His best-known work is HISTORIA ECCLESIASTICA, a history of the English Church and people, which he completed in 731. It is an account of Christianity in England up to 729 and is a primary source of early English history. Called "the Venerable" to acknowledge his wisdom and learning, the title was formalized at the Council of Aachen in 853. He was a careful scholar and distinguished stylist, the "father" of English history, the first to date events anno domini (A.D.), and in 1899, was declared the only English doctor of the Church. He died in Wearmouth-Jarrow on May 25.
ALMOST all that is known about the life of St Bede is derived from a short account he has given of himself and from a touching description of his last hours written by one of his disciples, a monk called Cuthbert. In the closing chapter of his famous work, the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, the Venerable Bede says:
“Thus much concerning the ecclesiastical history of Britain and especially of the English nation, I, Bede, a servant of Christ and priest of the monastery of the Blessed Apostles St Peter and St Paul, which is at Wear-mouth and at Jarrow, have with the Lord’s help composed so far as I could gather it either from ancient documents or from the traditions of our forefathers or from my own knowledge. I was born in the territory of the said monastery and at the age of seven I was, by the care of my relations, given to the most reverend Abbot Benedict [St Benedict Biscop] and afterwards to Ceolfrid to be educated. From that time I have spent my whole life in that monastery, devoting all my efforts to the study of the Scriptures, and amid the observance of monastic discipline and the daily charge of singing in the church it has ever been my delight to learn or teach or write. In my nineteenth year I was admitted to the diaconate and in my thirtieth to the priesthood—both by the hands of the most reverend Bishop John [St John of Beverley] and at the bidding of Abbot Ceolfrid. From the time of my ordination up till my present fifty-ninth year I have endeavoured, for my own use and that of the brethren, to make brief notes upon the Holy Scriptures either out of the works of the venerable fathers or in conformity with their meaning and interpretation.”
He goes on to give a list of his writings and concludes with the words:
“And I pray thee, loving Jesus, that as thou hast graciously given me to drink in with delight the words of thy knowledge, so thou wouldst mercifully grant me to attain one day to thee, the fountain of all wisdom, and to appear for ever before thy face.”

   That Bede sometimes visited friends in other monasteries has been inferred from the fact that in 733 he stayed for a few days in York with Archbishop Egbert; but except for such brief interludes his life was spent in a round of prayer and praise, of writing and of study. A fortnight before Easter 735 he began to be much troubled by shortness of breath, and all seem to have realized that the end was near. Nevertheless his pupils continued to study by his bedside and to read aloud, their reading often interrupted by tears. He for his part gave thanks to God. During the “Great Forty Days” from Easter to the Ascension, in addition to singing the office and instructing his pupils, he was engaged on a translation of St John’s Gospel into English, and a collection of notes from St Isidore; for, he said,
“I will not have my scholars read what is false or labour unprofitably on this after my death.” On Rogation Tuesday he began to be much worse, but he passed the day peacefully and dictated in school, saying occasionally: “Go on quickly: I do not know how long I shall hold out and whether my Maker will soon remove me.”
After a wakeful night spent in thanksgiving he began to dictate the last chapter of St John. At three in the afternoon he sent for the priests of the monastery, distributed to them some pepper, incense and a little linen which he had in a box and asked for their prayers. They wept much when he said they would see his face on earth no more, but rejoiced that he was about to return to his Creator. In the evening the boy who was acting as his amanuensis said, “There is still one sentence, dear master, which is not written down”, and when that last passage had been supplied and he was told that it was finished, Bede exclaimed, “You have well said...all is finished. Take my head in your hands that I may have the comfort of sitting opposite the holy place where I used to pray and that, so sitting, I may call upon my Father.” And on the floor of his cell, singing “Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost”, he breathed his last.
Several fantastic stories have been invented to account for the title of “Venerable” by which Bede is known ; it was actually a term of respect not infrequently bestowed in days of old upon distinguished members of religious orders. We find it applied to Bede by the Council of Aáchen in 836, and the title seems to have struck the public imagination as peculiarly suitable. It has clung to him through the succeeding centuries and, though in 1899 he was authoritatively recognized as saint and doctor of the Church, it remains his special designation to this day.
Bede, the only English doctor of the Church, is the only Englishman who sufficiently impressed Dante to name him in the Paradiso. That that one should be Bede is not surprising: the monk who hardly left his monastery became known throughout England and far beyond—his homilies are read in the Divine Office everywhere in the Western church. But for his Ecclesiastical History—which is more than ecclesiastical—England’s history before 729, “the year of the comets” would be dark indeed; through the school of York, founded by his pupil Archbishop Egbert, and by his own writings, he was a power in the scholarship of Carolingian Europe; and if we know little enough about his personal life, that account of his last hours by the monk Cuthbert is enough—“the death of his saints is precious in the eyes of the Lord”. St Boniface said of Bede that he was “a light of the Church lit by the Holy Ghost”; and that light has never been quenched, even in this world.

Many books have been written about St Bede and his times, especially by Anglicans. Dr William Bright’s Chapters of Early English Church History (1878) is in some respects open to objection from a Catholic point of view, but no one has written more eloquently or sym­pathetically of Bede’s own character. Bede His Life, Times and Writings, ed. by A. Hamilton Thompson (1935), is a most valuable collection of essays by non-Catholic scholars. H. M. Gillett’s popular biography is excellent, as is the essay in R. W. Chambers’s Man’s Unconquerable Mind (1939), pp. 23—52. In the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi, we have little but what purports to be a life by Turgot, really an extract from Simeon of Durham, and an account of the translation of Bede’s remains to Durham cathedral. The definitive edition of the Ecclesiastical History and other historical works is C. Plummer’s (1896), but there are several more popular translated editions; Stapleton’s delightful version (1565) was reprinted in 1930, and modernized by P. Hereford in 1935. For Bede’s martyrology, see D. Quentin, Les martyrologes historiques (1908). See also T. D. Hardy, Descriptive Catalogue (RolIs Series), vol. i, pp. 450—455. “Remember”, writes Cardinal Gasquet, “what the work was upon which St Bede was engaged upon his deathbed—the translation of the gospels into English”…But of this work “ to break the word to the poor and unlearned” nothing is now extant.

1085  Pope Gregory VII  At Salerno, the death of blessed , a most zealous protector and champion of Church liberty.  1085 ST GREGORY VII, POPE
THE Bollandist compilers of the Acta Sanctorum remark by way of a preface to the life of Gregory VII that he suffered much from persecutions during his lifetime and from calumnies after his death. It is, however, satisfactory to note that, whereas it was once the fashion to depict this great pope as an ecclesiastical tyrant, modern historians are agreed in recognizing his whole policy to have been inspired, not by ambition, but by an unquenchable thirst for justice—the establishment of righteousness upon the earth.
    At Salerno, the death of blessed Pope Gregory VII, a most zealous protector and champion of Church liberty.
One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men of all times; born between the years 1020 and 1025, at Soana, or Ravacum, in Tuscany; died 25 May, 1085, at Salerno.

1607 St. Mary Magdalene de Pazzi virgin of the Order of the Carmelites famed for her holy life suffering mystic.  Her lifelong devotion to Pentecost can be easily understood because her trial ended in ecstasy in 1590. At this time she could have asked for any gifts but she wanted two in particular: to look on any neighbor as good and holy without judgment and to always have God's presence before her.
Far from enjoying the attention her mystical experiences brought her, she was embarrassed by it. For all her days, she wanted a hidden life and tried everything she could to achieve it. When God commanded her to go barefoot as part of her penance and she could not walk with shoes, she simply cut the soles out of her shoes so no one would see her as different from the other nuns. If she felt an ecstasy coming on, she would hurry to finish her work and go back to her room. She learned to see the notoriety as part of God's will. When teaching a novice to accept God's will, she told her, "I wanted a hidden life but, see, God wanted something quite different for me."
Some still might think it was easy for her to be holy with all the help from God. Yet when she was asked once why she was weeping before the cross, she answered that she had to force herself to do something right that she didn't want to do. It's true that when a sister criticized her for acting so different, she thanked her, "May God reward you! You have never spoken truer words!" but she told others it hurt her quite a bit to be nice to someone who insulted her.

1865 St. Madeleine Sophie Barat foundress of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, who devoted her labours for the Christian education   At Paris, St. Madeleine-Sophie Barat, foundress of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, who devoted her labours for the Christian education of girls.  She was added to the list of holy virgins by Pope Pius XI.
Her feast is observed on the 29th of May.
A deceased holy nun appeared before the same altar where Mary praying & levitating during an hour of devotion.  Mary asked her why she was here.  The nun said she had not performed the hour of devotion out of love for God but because she had to -- obligated to , grudgling-- and not a privelidge before the Lord and Savior.  Therefore, she was in purgatory for that, even thouth the nun was known for her piety and holiness, and faithful for to her duties.  Now the nun was only allowed to adore Jesus in the blessed sacrament for one hour.

At Assisi in Umbria, the translation of St. Francis, confessor, in the time of Pope Gregory IX 1227-1241.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 26
85 St. Alphaeus father of St. James the Less, mentioned in Matthew. His legends were popular in the early Church.
Saint Carpus was one of the Seventy Apostles chosen and sent forth to preach by Christ (Luke 10:1). He was bishop of Verria in Macedonia.

St Carpos and St Alphaeus were numbered with the Seventy, and ministered to the holy Apostle Paul, journeying with him and conveying his epistles to those to whom they were written. St Carpos became Bishop of Beroea in Thrace, where he endured great tribulations while bringing many of the heathen to holy Baptism, and suffered martyrdom there. St Paul mentions him in 2 Timothy 4:13

The Holy Apostle Alphaeus of the Seventy from the Galilean city of Capernaum  father of the Apostles James and Matthew.

  604 Saint Augustine was from Italy, and a disciple of St Felix, Bishop of Messana         At Canterbury in England, St. Augustine, bishop, who was sent there with others by blessed Pope Gregory, and who preached the Gospel of Christ to the English nation.  Celebrated for virtues and miracles, he went peacefully to his rest in the Lord.  The 28th of May is observed as his feast.
St Gregory Dialogus (March12) chose him to lead a mission of forty monks to evangelize the people of Britain.
They arrived at Ebbsfleet (on the isle of Thanet) in Kent in 597.

1154 ST LAMBERT, BISHOP OF VENICE instructing the people and healing many sick persons by prayer and the laying-on of hands. He was famous for his learning and for his miracles.  ST LAMBERT was born at Bauduen, in the diocese of Riez, and became a monk in the abbey of Lérins, where he had lived from his childhood. Though kindly to all and popular with his brethren, he was so great a lover of solitude and study that he never left his cell except when obedience required him to do so. Much against his will he was made bishop of Vence in 1114. For forty years he ruled his diocese, instructing the people and healing many sick persons by prayer and the laying-on of hands. He was famous for his learning and for his miracles. Beloved of all, he died in the year 1154, and was buried in his cathedral church.

1258 Blessed Eva of Liege
together w/Blessed Juliana prioress of Mount Cornillon, their enthusiastic purpose was to obtain the institution of a feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament--granted by Pope Urban IV.  WHEN Bd Juliana was prioress of Mount Cornillon, one of her closest friends was a holy recluse, Eva, or Heva, of Liège, whom she inspired with her own enthusiastic purpose to obtain the institution of a feast in honour of the Blessed Sacrament. It was in Eva’s cell near the church of St Martin that Juliana found refuge when she was driven for the first time from Cornillon, and it was Eva who took up her mission after she died. The accession of Pope Urban IV raised her hopes, for he had formerly shown himself sympathetic when, as Archdeacon James Pantaleon, he had been approached on the subject by Bd Juliana. Eva’s hopes were fulfilled. Not only did he institute the festival of Corpus Christi, but he sent to her the bull of authorization as well as the special office for the day which St Thomas Aquinas had compiled at his desire. The cultus of Bd Eva was confirmed in 1902.

1595 Saint Philip Neri Patron of Rome showed the humorous side of holiness known to be spontaneous and unpredictable, charming and humorous.    At Rome, St. Philip Neri, priest and confessor, founder of the Congregation of the Oratory, celebrated for his virginal purity, the gift of prophecy, and miracles.
Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595 
If one had to choose one saint who showed the humorous side of holiness that would Philip Neri.

1645  St. Mariana de Paredes Solitary and the “Lily of Quito,” Ecuador
    In the city of Quito in Ecuador, St. María Ana de Jesù de Paredes, a third order Franciscan, well known for her austerity and charity towards her neighbour.  Pope Pius XII numbered her in the book of Virgins.
1645 ST MARIANA OF QUITO, VIRGIN the recipient of many spiritual favours and was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.
THE present capital of Ecuador was a Peruvian town in 1618, the year which saw the birth of its famous citizen, Mariana Paredes y Flores, “the Lily of Quito”.

1747 Bl. Peter Sanz  Martyred bishop in China native of Catalonia, Spain Dominican
Peter entered the Dominicans in 1697 and was sent to the Pacific. In 1712 he arrived in the Philippines and then went to China the following year. Nominated a vicar apostolic in 1730, he later became the titular bishop of Mauricastro. Arrested by anti-Christian forces in 1746, he was imprisoned and finally beheaded. He was beatified in 1893.  1747 1748 BB. PETER SANZ, BISHOP, AND HIS COMPANIONS, MARTYRS
IT is one of the glories of the Church of Christ that so many of her sons in the prime of life have always been eager to surrender all that the world prizes in order to risk persecution and death on the foreign mission field. Amongst the number must be reckoned the five Dominican priests who were martyred in the Chinese province of Fu-kien in the years 1747 and 1748. Their names were Peter Martyr Sanz, Francis Serrano, Joachim Royo, John Alcober and Francis Diaz: all five were Spaniards and all five from early youth were inflamed with the desire to spread the gospel of Christ amongst the heathen. Their future leader, Peter San a native of Asco in Catalonia, was sent in 1714 to the Chinese province of Fu-kien, where he laboured successfully until 1730 when he was named bishop of Mauricastro i.p.i. and vicar apostolic of Fu-kien, with the general supervision of the whole mission.

1861 St. John Hoan  Martyr of Vietnam a Vietnamese priest beheaded during the anti-Christian persecutions. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.

1861 St. Matthew Phuong Martyr of Vietnam A native catechist and an ardent Christian
.   Matthew was arrested by government officials for his faith. He was tortured and then beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 27
 526 St. Pope John I Martyr succeeded persuading Emperor Justin I mitigate treatment of Arians avoid reprisals against Catholics in Italy visit also brought reconciliation of Western and Eastern Churches plagued by a schism since  482 when Zeno's Henoticon had been published.   A Tuscan by birth, John I joined the Roman clergy while still young and was archdeacon when, after the death of St Hormisdas in 523, he was chosen pope. Italy had been for some thirty years ruled by Theodoric the Goth who, though an Arian by birth and by conviction, treated his Catholic subjects with toleration and even with favour during the greater part of his reign. About this time, however, his policy changed—partly as the result of what he regarded as treasonable correspondence between leading members of the Roman Senate and Constantinople, partly in consequence of severe measures against Arians enacted by the Emperor Justin I.
   Appealed to by his co-religionists in the East, Theodoric decided to send an embassy to negotiate with the emperor. Much against his own wishes, John was made head of this mission, and his arrival in Constantinople was greeted with enthusiasm: all the inhabitants went out to meet him, headed by Justin, and on Easter day he pontificated in the cathedral. Accounts vary as to the exact nature of the message he bore and the manner in which he carried out his mission, but he appears to have induced the emperor to moderate his measures against the Arians lest reprisals should be made at the cost of the orthodox in Italy. But Theodoric’s suspicions had been growing. During the absence of the embassy he had ordered the execution of the philosopher St Severinus Boethius and his father-in-law Symmachus on a charge of high treason, and he seems to have regarded the friendly relations between the pope and the emperor as part of a great conspiracy against him. No sooner had the mission reached Ravenna, Theodoric’s capital, than Pope John was cast into prison, where he died not many days later from the treatment he received.

 605 St. Augustine of Canterbury respected monastery prior Monk and abbot of Saint Andrew's abbey in Rome Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons; Apostle to the English; called himself Austin.  
At the end of the sixth century anyone would have said that Augustine had found his niche in life. Looking at this respected prior of a monastery, almost anyone would have predicted he would spend his last days there, instructing, governing, and settling even further into this sedentary life.
Also known as Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons; Apostle to the English; Austin Memorial  27 May; 28 May on some calendars, 26 May in England and Wales
Alle Kirchen: 26. Mai Katholische Kirche auch 27. Mai (gebotener Gedenktag)
605 St Augustine, or Austin, archbishop of Canterbury

672 - 735 Saint Bede was a church historian who recorded the history of Christianity in England up to his own time
Bede was the author of many works of various type – biblical commentaries, saints' ‘Lives’, homilies, hymns; educational, scientific and historical texts. Into this last category falls the work for which he is best known today: the ‘Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum’ (Ecclesiastical History of the English People). Bede dedicated the work to Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria (729–737), indeed, he had submitted a draft for the king's criticism prior to finalising it. It is clear that Bede was anxious to record only information which he considered to have reliable origins, and his scrupulous approach has lead to him being referred to as ‘the Father of English History’. In the Preface, he writes:
“... to the end that I may remove all occasion of doubting what I have written, both from yourself [Ceolwulf] and other readers or hearers of this history, I will take care briefly to intimate from what authors I chiefly learned the same.

11th v. Saint Basil son of King Bagrat III Lived in the and labored at Khakhuli Monastery (in southwestern Georgia, present-day Turkey) a major figure in the spiritual and educational life of southern Georgia. The famous 19th-century scholar Prince John Bagrationi describes St. Basil in his work Kalmasoba: (the tradition of monks journeying throughout the land to collect alms for the Church. In his book Prince John follows a fictional monk traveling throughout the country on kalmasoba. With this literary device he describes the contemporary situation, the life of the people, diverse branches of knowledge, and Georgian literature and folk culture, creating a veritable Georgian encyclopedia.) “Basil Bagrationi was highly educated in philosophy and theology.

1426 Saint Therapon of White Lake Wonderworker of Luzhetsk raised in faith and piety throughout his life as a holy ascetic As a monk in this monastery Therapon became close to St Cyril of White Lake (June 9). Together they passed through their ascetic struggles of prayer and fasting.
They were under the spiritual guidance of St Sergius of Radonezh (September 25 and July 5), who visited the monastery to instruct the brethren.
St Therapon went north, to the frontier of White Lake, on monastery matters. The harsh northern land attracted the ascetic, and he decided to remain there for his ascetic endeavors.
After returning with St Cyril, to whom the Mother of God had appeared, also ordering him to go to the north, St Therapon received the blessing of the igumen to go to White Lake. For a while the ascetics lived together in a cell they built; later and by mutual consent, St Therapon moved to another place fifteen versts away from Cyril, between two lakes, Borodava and Pava.

1730 John the Russian The Holy Confessor kind and gentle nature effect souls of both the turkic master and slaves (Compare the story of Habakkuk, who miraculously brought a dish of porrage to Daniel in the lions' den [Dan. 14:33-39], in the Septuagint).  Born in Little Russia around 1690, raised in piety and love for the Church of God. Upon attaining the age of maturity he was called to military service, and he served as a simple soldier in the army of Peter I and took part in the Russo-Turkish War. During the Prutsk Campaign of 1711 he and other soldiers were captured by the Tatars, who handed him over to the commander of the Turkish cavalry. He took his Russian captive home with him to Asia Minor, to the village of Prokopion.
The Turks tried to convert the Christian soldiers to the Moslem faith with threats and flattery, but those who resisted were beaten and tortured. Some, alas, denied Christ and became Moslems, hoping to improve their lot. St John was not swayed by the promise of earthly delights, and he bravely endured the humiliation and beatings.

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 28
  480 St. Senator Archbishop of Milan, Italy, and papal legate  to the Council of Chalcedon 451.
Medioláni sancti Senatóris Epíscopi, virtútibus et eruditióne claríssimi.  
At Milan, St. Senator, bishop, who was very well known for his virtues and his learning.
475 ST SENATOR, BISHOP OF MILAN.  WHEN the Church in the East was threatened with schism or lapse into heresy as the result of the vindication of the monophysite Eutyches and the condemnation of St Flavian by the so-called "Robber Synod", St Leo the Great decided to send legates to Constantinople to urge upon the Emperor Theodosius II the calling of a general council at which the true doctrine of our Lord's two natures should be definitely and decisively enunciated. For this mission men of learning, tact and integrity were required, and the pope chose St Abundius, bishop of Como, and a distinguished priest called Senator as being suitable representatives. By the time these envoys reached Constantinople, Theodosius was dead, but their mission resulted in the summoning of the Council of Chalcedon under the Emperor Marcian. The year after his return to Italy, St Senator attended a synod at Milan in the same capacity of papal legate. Upon the death of St Benignus he succeeded to the bishopric of Milan, which he ruled for three years, dying probably in 475.

 527 St. Justus of Urgel  Bishop and writer, called by St. Isidore “among the illustrious.” He was the first recorded bishop of Urgel, Spain. He attended the Councils of Toledo in 527 and Larida in 546. Justus wrote a commentary on the Canticle of Canticles
THE Spanish bishopric of Urgel seems to have been founded in the first quarter of the sixth century, and its earliest recorded ruler is St Justus, whose three brothers were Justinian, bishop of Valencia, Nebridius, bishop of Egara, and Elpidius of Huesca, also a bishop. St Justus took part in the Councils of Toledo and Lerida in the years 527 and 546 respectively. He was the author of a short mystical exposition of the Canticle of Canticles which he dedicated to his metropolitan, Archbishop Sergius of Tarragona. The tone of this treatise and of its dedication leaves a very favourable impression of the writer’s intelligence and piety.

 576  Saint Germanus, Bishop Of Paris ordained priest by St. Agrippinus abbot of St. Symphorian's continual fasts and austerities miraculous healings while alive and wrought at his tomb: sight was restored to the blind and speech to the dumb prophesied.

 605 St. Augustine of Canterbury respected monastery prior Monk and abbot of Saint Andrew's abbey in Rome Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons; Apostle to the English; called himself Austin

800 St Nicetas, Bishop of Chalcedon distinguished himself by his charity always helped the poor he lodged travelers in his home cared for orphans widows, interceded for those wronged relics occurred many miracles of healing

1050 St. Bernard of Montjoux priest Vicar General of Aosta spent 40 yrs missionary work in the Alps built schools churches remembered for 2 Alpine hospices aid lost travelers in the  mountain passes named Great and Little Bernard after him.

1288 Saint Ignatius Bishop of Rostov shepherdeding flock for twenty-six years Many miracles took place at his grave

1373  Birgitta von Schweden Ihre Visionen wurden auch in deutscher Sprache veröffentlicht und haben das Werk Nithards beeinflußt. Das Kloster wurde 1384 eingeweiht

1541 Bl. Margaret Pole Martyr of England opposed Henry’s mar­riage to Anne Boleyn, exiled her from cour he called   her “the holiest woman in England; severly  martyred

1577 BD MARY BARTHOLOMEA OF FLORENCE, VIRGIN From her bed she exercised a wonderful influence over the numerous persons who visited her. Enemies were reconciled, the sorrowful consoled, sinners converted and the sick healed by one who forgot her own sufferings in her sympathy for others.

1582 Bl. Robert Johnson servant study at Rome and Douai Priest English martyr
1582 Bl. John Shert Priest English martyr Convert studied at Douai and Rome
1582 Bl. Thomas Ford priest Martyr of England educated at Oxford converted and set out for Douai companion of St. Edmund Campion

1645 St. Mariana lily of Quito  practiced great austerities ate hardly anything slept 3 hours a night for years gift of prophesy performed miracles  offered herself as victim for sins of the people

1859 St. Paul Hanh  Vietnamese martyr convert to Catholicism martyred

1865 St. Madeleine Sophie Barat nun teacher founded Society of the Sacred Heart, focus on schools for poor and boarding schools for young women of means during the French Revolution

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 29
  347 St. Maximinus Bishop of Trier, Germany miracle worker ardent enemy of the Arian heretics in the councils of Milan, Sardica, and Cologne apologist for orthodox Catholicism called “one of the most courageous bishops of his time” by St. Jerome.

750 St. John de Atares Spanish hermit in the Aragonese Pyrenees the Benedictine Abbey of St. John de Ia Pena.  It served as the cradle of the religious and spiritual life of Navarre and Aragon.

1242 Bl. Marytrs of Toulouse Twelve martyrs put to death by Albigensian heretics near Toulouse 4 diocesan priests, 3 Dominicans, 2 Benedictines, 2 Franciscans, and 1 layman died singing the Te Deum on the eve of the feast of the Ascension

1583 Bl. Richard Thirkeld priest English martyr receive preparation for priesthood at Reims and Douai, France educated at Queen's College, Oxford. He ministered to the Catholics of Yorkshire

1607 St. Mary Magdalene de Pazzi virgin of the Order of the Carmelites famed for her holy life suffering;  mystical experiences God gave this saint  saw her ecstasies as evidence of a great fault in her, not a reward for holiness

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 30

1st v. St. Andronicus 1/70 Disciples received Holy Spirit in Upper Room on day of the Pentecost:  Romans 16:7: "Greet Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen and my fellow prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me."  preached the Gospel in many cities in the company of Junia, and they guided many to the Christian faith, and performed many miracles, healed the sick, and transformed the temples of idols to churches.

  189 ST ELEUTHERIUS, POPE As in the case of all the other early Roman pontiffs, we have very little reliable information concerning Pope Eleutherius. It is stated that he was a Greek by origin. In his time Montanism was causing uneasiness in both West and East, and St Irenaeus came to Rome with a letter about it from the Christians of Lyons but it is not clear what action the pope took.

  189 ST ELEUTHERIUS, POPE.  Sancti Felícis Primi, Papæ et Mártyris, cujus dies natális tértio Kaléndas Januárii recensétur.      Pope St. Felix I, martyr, whose birthday is commemorated on the 30th of December.
St. Felix inherited from Dionysius the problems associated with the deposition of Bishop Paul of Samosata. Although he had been deposed legitimately, he refused to allow Domnus to succeed him. Emperor Aurelian helped to insure that Domnus was allowed to rule the see.

   370 St Basilíi et Emméliæ uxóris  Cæsaréæ in Cappadócia parents of St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Peter of Sebastopol, bishops, and St. Macrina, virgin lived in exile in the deserts of Pontus after the persecution they died in peace, leaving their children as heirs of their virtues.  At Caesarea in Cappadocia, the Saints Basil and his wife Emmelia, parents of St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Peter of Sebastopol, bishops, and St. Macrina, virgin.  They lived in exile in the deserts of Pontus during the reign of Galerius Maximian, and after the persecution they died in peace, leaving their children as heirs of their virtues.

1085 St. Gregory VII Hildebrand directed his reformer’s attention, first as counselor to the popes and later (1073-1085) as pope The Gregorian Reform, a milestone in the history of Christ’s Church, was named after this man who tried to extricate the papacy and the whole Church from undue control by civil rulers. Against an unhealthy Church nationalism in some areas, Gregory reasserted the unity of the whole Church based on Christ and expressed in the bishop of Rome, the successor of St. Peter.

1252 St. Ferdinand III of Castile extremely devoted to the Blessed Virgin Patron of engineers conquered the city of Cordoba from the Moors founded the Cathedral of Burgos University of Salamanca a great administrator and a man of deep faith. He founded hospitals and bishoprics, monasteries, chuches, and cathedrals during his reign. He also compiled and reformed a code of laws which were used until the modern era. Ferdinand rebuilt the Cathedral of Burgos and changed the mosque in Seville into a Cathedral. He was a just ruler, frequently pardoning former offenders to his throne. buried in the habit of his secular Franciscan Order

1401 Blessed Andrew Franchi bishop of Pistoia, an office he filled with distinction and holiness for 23 years good religious and an able administrator served as prior in three convents while still quite young, OP B (AC)

1431 St. Joan of Arc the patroness of soldiers and of France voices "of St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret" told Joan to go to the King of France and help him reconquer his kingdom

1483 Blessed James Bertoni At nine James joined Servites serving as procurator of the friary from the time of his ordination till death,
Miracles wrought at his tomb in the church of St John at Faenza led to a popular cultus, formally approved in 1766OSM (AC)

1582 Bl. William Filby
Martyr of England studied at Oxford converted to Catholicism  ordination as a priest in 1581 Reims, France arrested with St. Edmund
Campion executed at Tyburn

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 31
The Visitation  Mariä Heimsuchung Katholische und Anglikanische Kirche: 31. Mai und 2. Juli  Evangelische Kirche: 2 Juli

 512 St. Paschasius Roman deacon who gave his support to an antipope during the reign of Pope Symmachus. Pope St. Gregory I the Great wrote about him.

1160 St. Mechtildis nun and Benedictine abbess  mystical gifts and miracles.   THIS Mechtildis was only five years old when she was placed by her parents, Count Berthold of Andechs and his wife Sophia, in the double monastery they had founded on their own estate at Diessen, on the Ammersec in Bavaria. Trained by the nuns, Mechtildis grew up a devout and exemplary maiden, much given to prayer and austerities. Her one weakness in youth was a somewhat quick temper which occasionally betrayed her into hasty speech, but over this she obtained complete control. Indeed, in later life she was remarkable for her silence, and it was said of her by the Cistercian monk Engelhard that on the rare occasions when she opened her lips to speak her words were as those of an angel. After she had received the habit, she made still further advance along the path of perfection. Upon the death of the superior, she was elected abbess, in which capacity she raised the whole community to a high pitch of virtue. This she effected far more by her example than by the strictness of her rule.
So highly was she esteemed by the Bishop of Augsburg that he requested her to undertake the charge of the convent of Edelstetten which stood in great need of reform. Mechtildis shrank from the task: she was only twenty-eight, and felt incapable of coping with the difficulties of the situation. Nevertheless, in compliance with an injunction from Pope Anastasius IV, who reminded her that obedience is better than sacrifice, she allowed herself to be installed abbess of Edelstetten.

1163 Blessed Nicholas of Vaucelles an early Cistercian; He and his father gave up worldly success in order to profess
 their vows  before Saint Bernard, OSB Cist. Abbot (AC).  
Blessed Nicholas was an early Cistercian. He and his father gave up worldly success in order to profess their vows before Saint Bernard. Nicholas became abbot of Vaucelles and is venerated by the Cistercians (Benedictines).

1314 BD JAMES THE VENETIAN holy friar had many ecstasies, was endowed with the gift of prophecy, and miraculously healed a number of paralytics and other sick persons. Although he suffered for four years from cancer, he never complained, appearing always to be cheerful and calm.  JAMES SALOMONIUS was born of a noble family at Venice in 1235. His father having died when he was very young, he was brought up partly by his mother who, however, retired after a few years into a Cistercian convent, partly by a grandmother. James was devout almost from infancy, and at the age of seventeen he distributed all his property to the poor and joined the Dominicans. Very much against his will he was chosen to fill the office of prior at Forli, Faenza, San Severino and Ravenna, but he was finally allowed to settle down at Forli, where he led a life of great austerity, devoting himself especially to prayer, to reading and to charity towards the sick poor, for whom he had a great affection. In addition to the Bible he regularly studied the martyrology which, as he was wont to aver, provided him with constant food for meditation. The holy friar had many ecstasies, was endowed with the gift of prophecy, and miraculously healed a number of paralytics and other sick persons. Although he suffered for four years from cancer, he never complained, appearing always to be cheerful and calm. The cancer is said to have been healed shortly before his death, which took place on May 31, 1354, when he was eighty-two years of age. Many miracles were wrought at his intercession, and the year after he died a brotherhood was formed to promote his veneration. His cultus was sanctioned for Forli in 1526, for Venice by Pope Paul V, and for the Dominicans by Gregory XV.

1527 Blessed Camilla Varani, Poor Clare Abbess governed a convent founded by her father in Camerino, Italy (AC).   cultus confirmed in 1843. Camilla governed a convent founded by her father in Camerino, Italy (Benedictines).

1795  Layman Ibrahim El-Gohari The Departure of the most honored transscribed religion books and distributed them to the church at his own expense.  

On this day also of the year 1511 A.M. (1795 A.D.), the great layman Ibrahim El-Gohari, departed. He was born in the eighteenth century, and his parents were poor. His fathers name was Yousef El-Gohari whose trade was making clothing in Kalube. They taught him writing and arithmetic, and he excelled in them. He used to transscribe the religion books, and distribute them to the church at his own expense. He brought the books to Pope John (Youhanna) the Eighteenth, and 107th patriarch of Alexandria Who was enthroned from 1486-1512 A.M. (1769-1796 A.D.)

The many books presented to the church by Ibrahim El-Gohari got the attention of the pope, together with the high cost of transcribing the books and binding them. The pope asked Ibrahim about his resource, and Ibrahim revealed to them his zealously and his godly life. The pope blessed him saying:"may the lord uplift your name and bless your work, and keep your memory forever." The relation between Ibrahim El-Gohari and the pope became stronger from that time.

1839 St. Thomas Du Vietnamese martyr native entered the Dominicans as a tertiary and aided the Catholic cause in Vietnam until his arrest by authorities.  He was tortured and finally beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 01
120 -132 St. Theodora Roman martyr sister of  Saint Hermes aid and care to her brother in prison.  At Rome, the passion of St. Theodora, sister of the illustrious martyr Hermes.  She underwent martyrdom in the time of Emperor Adrian, under the judge Aurelian, and was buried at the side of her brother, on the Salarian Way, a short distance from the city.
According to the Acta of Pope St. Alexander (r 105-115), she was the sister of  Saint Hermes and was martyred some time after her brother. She had given aid and care to her brother during his difficult time in prison.
The council and the delegates from Grenoble severally and collectively appear to have looked on Canon Hugh as the one man who was capable of dealing with the disorders complained of; but though unanimously elected it was with the greatest reluctance that he consented to accept the office. The legate himself conferred on him holy orders up to the priesthood, and took him to Rome that he might receive consecration from the pope.
1132 St. Hugh of Grenoble Benedictine bishop amazing modesty took upon himself all sins of others the cross he carried was heavy laden holy and redemptive great reputation for miracles.   The kindness of the reception he met emboldened the young bishop elect to consult St Gregory VII about temptations to blasphemy which sometimes beset him, causing him great distress and, as he considered, rendering him unfit for the high office to which he was called. The pontiff reassured him, explaining that God permitted these trials to purify him and render him a more fitting instrument for the divine purposes. These particular temptations continued to assault him until his last illness, but he never yielded to them in any way.
The Countess Matilda gave the twenty-eight-year-old bishop his crozier and some books, including the De officiis ministrorum of St Ambrose and a psalter to which were appended the commentaries of St Augustine. Immediately after his consecration. St Hugh hurried off to his diocese, but he was appalled by the state of his flock. The gravest sins were committed without shame; simony and usury were rampant; the clergy openly flouted the obligation to celibacy; the people were uninstructed; laymen had seized church property and the see was almost penniless. It was indeed a herculean task that lay before the saint.
  For two years he laboured unremittingly to redress abuses by preaching, by denunciations, by rigorous fasts and by constant prayer. The excellent results he was obtaining were patent to all but to himself: he only saw his failures and blamed his own incompetence. Discouraged, he quietly withdrew to the Cluniac abbey of Chaise-Dieu, where he received the Benedictine habit. He did not remain there long, for Pope Gregory commanded him to resume his pastoral charge and return to Grenoble.
A short time before his death he lost his memory for everything but prayer, and would recite the psalter or the Lord’s Prayer without intermission.
During his 52-year episcopacy, Hugh vainly tendered his resignation to each pope--Gregory VII, Gelasius II, Calixtus II, Honorius II, Innocent II, and others--and they refused him because of his outstanding ability. He never ceased imploring them to release him from the duties of his episcopal office up to the day of his death. During his last, painful illness he was tormented by headaches and stomach disorders that resulted from his long fasts and vigils, yet never complained.
St Hugh died on April 1, 1132, two months before attaining the age of eighty, having been a bishop for fifty-two years.  Pope Innocent II canonized him two years later.
1194 Hugh of Bonnevaux possessed singular powers of discernment and exorcism OSB Cistercian, Abbot (AC).
The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.”
IN one of his letters St Bernard of Clairvaux mentions with great praise a novice called Hugh, who had renounced considerable riches and entered the abbey of Mézières at a very early age against the wishes of his relations. He was nephew to St Hugh of Grenoble. Once, when greatly troubled by temptations and longings to return to the world, he entered a church to pray for light and help. As he raised his eyes to the altar, he beheld above it a figure which he recognized to be that of our Lady, and then, beside her, appeared the form of her divine Son. The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.” Hugh afterwards gave himself up to such severe penances that his health broke down and he seemed to be losing his memory. He owed his recovery to the wise common-sense of St Bernard, who ordered him off to the infirmary with instructions that he should be properly tended and allowed to speak to anyone he liked.

Not long afterwards he was made abbot of Bonnevaux, and in Hugh’s care the abbey became very flourishing. It was noted that the abbot could read men’s thoughts and was quick to detect any evil spirit which had access to the minds of his brethren. The stories that have come down to us testify to his powers of divination and exorcism. Like so many of the great monastic luminaries, both men and women, Hugh did not confine his interests to his own house or even to his order. Moved by what he felt to be divine inspiration he went to Venice in 1177, there to act as mediator between Pope Alexander III and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. To him is due the credit of negotiating between them a peace which has become historic. St Hugh died in 1194, and his ancient cultus was approved in 1907.
1220 Jacqueline V Hermit recluse in Sicily reprimanded Pope Innocent III
1245 ST GILBERT, BISHOP OF CAITHNESS “Three maxims which I have always tried to observe I now commend to you: first, never to hurt anyone and, if injured, never to seek revenge secondly, to bear patiently whatever suffering God may inflict, remembering that He chastises every son whom He receives; and finally to obey those in authority so as not to be a stumbling-block to others.”
1849 BD LUDOVIC PAVONI, FOUNDER OF THE SONS OF MARY IMMACULATE OF BRESCIA.  THIS forerunner of St John Bosco in the education and care of boys, especially the orphaned and neglected, was born at Brescia in Lombardy in 1784. His parents were Alexander Pavoni and Lelia Pontecarali, and the family was of noble descent, with a sufficiency of property to maintain its position. Ludovic while still young showed a serious disposition; his sister Paolina said of him that “Ludovic was always a good religious youngster, while I was always a scamp”; and as a youth he already outlined his vocation when, during summer holidays at Alfianello, he played with the peasants’ children and taught them the catechism. On another occasion he threw his shirt out of the window to a beggar shivering in the street below. He had a taste and some capacity for the fine arts and might have become a painter or an architect, but probably nobody was surprised when he decided to study for the priesthood. This he did under the Dominicans (all the Lombard seminaries were closed in consequence of the revolution), and he was ordained priest in 1807.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 02
 469 St. Abundius Greek priest bishop noted theologian obvious intellect and holiness attended Councils of Chalcedon and Milan.   He became the bishop of Como, Italy, and attended the Council of Constantinople in 450. As a result of his obvious intellect and holiness, he was sent by Pope St. Leo I the Great to the Emperor Theodosius II as an envoy of the Holy See. His mission led to the and to the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Council of Milan in 452. Abundius served as the pope's representative in such councils, clearly stating the Church's role and concerns.
6th v. St. Musa Virgin child of Rome; a great mystic, visions and ecstasies, reported by St. Gregory I the Great

 952 Anba Macarius, the Fifty-Ninth Pope of Alexandria; The Departure of.  On this day also of the year 668 A.M. (May 20th. 952 A.D.) St. Macarius the fifty ninth Pope of Alexandria, departed. He was born in the city of Shoubra. He rejected the world since his youth and he desired the monastic life. He went to the monastery of St. Macarius at the wilderness of Sheahat (Scetis). He lived in virtues and good conduct made him worthy to be chosen a Patriarch, and a successor for Pope Cosma. He was enthroned on the first of Baramouda 648 A.M. (March 27th. 932 A.D.).

When he went forth from Alexandria going to visit the monasteries in the desert of Scetis according to the custom of his predecessors, he passed by his home town to visit his mother who was a righteous woman. When his mother heard that he had arrived she did not go out to meet him. When he had come to the house, he found her sitting down weaving and she did not greet him or paid attention to him. He thought that she did not know him. He told her: "Don't you know that I am your son Macarius who was elevated to a great position and became a head for a great nation?" She answered him with tears in her eyes: "I did not ignore you and I know what became of you, but I would have rather seen you dead than seen you as a Patriarch. Before, you were responsible only for your own soul but now your are responsible about the souls of all your flock: Now remember you are in danger and it is difficult to escape it." She said that and went on weaving as she did before.

The father the Patriarch left her sad, and attended to his office with delegant and care. He instructed his people with preaching and sermons. He did not touch any of the church revenue, and did not lay his hand on any one without people consent. He commanded the bishops and the priests to watch their flock and to protect them with homilies and admonitions. He sat on the throne of St. Mark twenty years in peace and tranquility, then departed in peace.
May his prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen

At Tours in France, St. Francis of Paula, founder of the Order of Minims.  Because he was renowned for virtues and miracles, he was inscribed among the saints by Pope Leo X.   ST FRANCIS was born about the year 1416 at Paola, a small town in Calabria. His parents were humble, industrious people who made it their chief aim to love and to serve God. As they were still childless after several years of married life, they prayed earnestly for a son, and when at last a boy was born to them, they named him after St Francis of Assisi, whose intercession they had specially sought.

In his thirteenth year he was placed in the Franciscan friary at San Marco, where he learnt to read and where he laid the foundation of the austere life which he ever afterwards led; although he had not professed the rule of the order, he seemed even at that tender age to outstrip the religious themselves in a scrupulous observance of its requirements. After spending a year there he accompanied his parents on a pilgrimage which included Assisi and Rome. Upon his return to Paola, with their consent, he retired first to a place about half a mile from the town, and afterwards to a more remote seclusion by the sea, where he occupied a cave. He was scarcely fifteen years old. Before he was twenty, he was joined by two other men. The neighbours built them three cells and a chapel in which they sang the divine praises and in which Mass was offered for them by a priest from the nearest church.

Besides the gift of miracles St Francis was endowed with that of prophecy, and long afterwards, writing to Pope Leo X for the canonization of St Francis, the Bishop of Grenoble (uncle to Bayard, the “Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche”) wrote, “Most holy Father, he revealed to me many things which were known only to God and to myself”. Pope Paul II sent one of his chamberlains into Calabria to inquire about the truth of the wonderful things that were reported of the saint. Upon seeing a visitor approach, St Francis, who was busy with the masons over the construction of his church, left his work to greet him. The envoy attempted to kiss his hand, but this Francis would not allow; he protested that it was for him to kiss the hands which for some thirty years had been sanctified by offering the holy Sacrifice. The chamberlain, surprised that Francis should know how long he, a stranger, had been a priest, did not disclose his mission, but asked to speak with him and was led within the enclosure. Here he expatiated eloquently on the dangers of singularity, and censured Francis’s way of life as too austere for human nature. The saint attempted humbly to vindicate his rule and then, to prove what the grace of God would enable single-minded men to bear, he lifted out of the fire some burning coals and held them for some time in his hands unscathed. It may be noted that there is record of several similar examples of his immunity from the effects of fire. The chamberlain returned full of veneration for the holy man, and the new order received the sanction of the Holy See in 1474. At that time the community was composed of uneducated men, with only one priest. They were then called Hermits of St Francis of Assisi, and it was not until 1492 that their name was changed to that of “Minims”, at the desire of the founder, who wished his followers to be reckoned as the least (minimi) in the household of God.
St Francis passed twenty-five years in France, and died there. On Palm Sunday 1507 he fell ill, and on Maundy Thursday assembled his brethren and exhorted them to the love of God, to charity and to a strict observance of all the duties of their rule. Then he received viaticum barefoot with a rope round his neck, according to the custom of his order. He died on the following day, Good Friday, being then ninety-one years of age. His canonization took place in 1519.  Besides the rule which St Francis drew up for his friars, with a correctorium or method of enjoining penances and a ceremonial, he also composed a rule for nuns, and regulations for a third order of persons living in the world. Today the number of members of the Order of Minims is considerably reduced they are mostly found in Italy.
1815 BD LEOPOLD OF GAICHE founded house for missioners and preachers could retire for their annual retreat other brethren and friends of the order could come for spiritual refreshment; numerous miracles reported at his grave.   When in 1808 Napoleon invaded Rome and imprisoned Pope Pius VII, religious houses were suppressed and their occupants turned out. Bd Leopold, a venerable old man of seventy-seven, was obliged to abandon his beloved convent, and with three of his brethren to live in a miserable hut in Spoleto. While there he acted as assistant to a parish priest, but afterwards he had charge of an entire parish whose pastor had been driven out by the French. Then he was himself imprisoned for refusing to take an oath which he considered unlawful. His imprisonment, however, was of short duration, for we soon find him giving missions once more. His fame was enhanced by his prophetical powers and by strange phenomena which attended him: for example, when he was preaching his head often appeared to his congregation as though it were crowned with thorns.
With the fall of Napoleon, Bd Leopold hurried back to Monte Luco, where he set about trying to establish things as they had been before but he only survived for a few months, dying on April 15, 1815, in his eighty-third year. The numerous miracles reported to have taken place at his grave caused the speedy introduction of the process of his beatification, which reached a favourable conclusion in 1893.

1839 St. Dominic Tuoc 3rd order Dominican martyr native of Vietnam.  Arrested and tortured, he died in prison. Dominic was a native of Vietnam. He was canonized in 1988.  Blessed Dominic Tuoc M, OP Tert. (AC) Born in Tonkin; died 1839; beatified in 1900. Saint Dominic was a priest of the third order of Dominicans, who died of his wounds in prison (Benedictines).
1968 The Apparition of the Pure Lady the Virgin in the church of Zeiton.  On the eve of this day of the year 1684 A.M. which coincide with tuesday the 2nd. of April 1968 A.D., during the papacy of Pope Kyrellos VI, the hundred sixteenth Pope of Alexandria, our Lady and the pride of our faith started to transfigure in luminous spiritual forms in and around the domes of the church dedicated to her immaculate name in Zeiton, a suburb of Cairo.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 03
127 Sixtus I, Pope survived as pope for about 10 years before being killed by the Roman authorities
Tauroménii, in Sicília, sancti Pancrátii Epíscopi
.  At Rome, the birthday of blessed Pope Sixtus the First, martyr, who ruled the Church with distinction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, and finally in the reign of Antoninus Pius he gladly accepted temporal death in order to gain Christ for himself.  (also known as Xystus)  ST XYSTUS I succeeded Pope St Alexander I about the end of the reign of Trajan, and governed the Church for some ten years at a period when the papal dignity was the common prelude to martyrdom. In all the old martyrologies he is honoured as a martyr, but we have no particulars about his life or death. He was by birth a Roman, his father’s house in the ancient Via Lata having occupied, it is supposed, the site now covered by the church of St Mary-in-Broad-Street. The Liber Pontificalis credits him with having laid down as ordinances that none but the clergy should touch the sacred vessels, and that the people should join in when the priest had intoned the Sanctus at Mass. The Sixtus mentioned in the canon of the Mass was probably not this pope but St Sixtus II, whose martyrdom was more widely famous.
1253 St. Richard of Wyche Ph.D. Priest missionary bishop denounced nepotism, insisted on strict clerical discipline, ever generous to poor and needy Many miracles healing recorded during  lifetime more after death. Richard was deep in the hearts of his people, the sort of saint that anyone can recognize by his simplicity, holiness, and endless charity to the poorRichard Backedine B (RM) (also known as Richard of Wyche, of Droitwich, of Chichester, of Burford)
Born at Droitwich (formerly called Wyche), Worchestershire, England, in 1197; died at Dover, England, 1253; canonized 1262 (Urban IV 1261-64 ).
  In 1244 Ralph Neville, bishop of Chichester, died, and Henry III, by putting pressure on the canons, obtained the election of Robert Passelewe, a worthless man who, according to Matthew Paris, “had obtained the king’s favour in a wonderful degree by an unjust inquisition by which he added some thousands of marks to the royal treasury.”
The archbishop refused to confirm the election and called a chapter of his suffragans who declared the previous election invalid, and chose Richard, the primate’s nominee, to fill the vacant see. Upon hearing the news, King Henry was violently enraged: he kept in his own hands all the temporalities and forbade the admission of St Richard to any barony or secular possession attached to his see. In vain did the bishop elect himself approach the monarch on two separate occasions: he could obtain neither the confirmation of his election nor the restoration of the revenues to which he was entitled. At last both he and the king carried the case to Pope Innocent IV, who was presiding over the Council of Lyons, and he decided in favour of St Richard, whom he consecrated himself on March 5, 1245.
Landing once more in England the new bishop was met by the news that the king, far from giving up the temporalities, had forbidden anyone to lend St Richard money or even to give him houseroom. At Chichester he found the palace gates closed against him: those who would gladly have helped him feared the sovereign’s anger, and it seemed as though he would have to wander about his diocese a homeless outcast. However, a good priest, Simon of Tarring, opened his house to him, and Richard, as Bocking informs us, “took shelter under this hospitable roof, sharing the meals of a stranger, warming his feet at another man’s hearth”.

"Thanks be to Thee, my Lord Jesus Christ For all the benefits Thou hast given me, For all the pains and insults Which Thou has borne for me.  O most merciful Redeemer, Friend, and Brother, May I know Thee more clearly, Love Thee more dearly, Follow Thee more nearly, Day by day. Amen." --Saint Richard of Chichester.
1271 Blessed John of Penna priest founding several Franciscan houses  visions gift of prophecywon all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light OFM (AC) .   Born at Penna San Giovanni (near Fermo), Ancona, Italy, c. 1193; died at Recanati, Italy, April 3, 1271; cultus approved 1806 by Pope Pius VII. Blessed John joined the Franciscans at Recanati about 1213, was ordained a priest, and was sent to France, where he worked for about 25 years in Provence, founding several Franciscan houses. About 1242, he returned to Italy, where he spent his last 30 years mainly in retirement, although he did serve as guardian several times. He experienced visions and had the gift of prophecy, but was also afflicted with extended periods of spiritual aridity. His life is described in chapter 45 of The Little Flowers of Saint Francis (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney).  

1271 BD JOHN OF PENNA won all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States incorrupt.   St. Benedict of San Philadelphio (Or BENEDICT THE MOOR) Born at San Philadelphio or San Fradello, a village of the Diocese of Messina in Sicily, in 1526; d. 4 April, 1589. The parents of St. Benedict were slaves from Ethiopia who were, nevertheless, pious Christians. On account of their faithfulness their master freed Benedict, the first-born child. From his earliest years Benedict was very religious and while still very young he joined a newly formed association of hermits. When Pope Pius IV dissolved the association, Benedict, called from his origin Æthiops or Niger, entered the Reformed Recollects of the Franciscan Order. Owing to his virtues he was made superior of the monastery of Santa Maria de Jesus at Palermo three years after his entrance, although he was only a lay brother. He reformed the monastery and ruled it with great success until his death. He was pronounced Blessed in 1743 and was canonized in 1807. His feast is celebrated 3 April.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 04
Thus there began to develop a special bond between this Mother and the Church.
For the infant Church was the fruit of the Cross and Resurrection of her Son.
Mary, who from the beginning had given herself without reserve to the person and work of her Son, could not but pour out upon the Church, from the very beginning, her maternal self-giving. After her Son's departure, her motherhood remains in the Church as maternal mediation: interceding for all her children, the Mother cooperates in the saving work of her Son, the Redeemer of the world.   Holy Father John Paul II    Redemptoris Mater #40

The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin  April 4 - Our Lady of Seven Sorrows (1897) - Francisco of Fatima (d. 1919)
1. The prophecy of Simeon. (Lk 2: 34, 35) 2. The flight into Egypt. (Mt 2:13-14) 3. The loss of the Child Jesus in the temple. (Lk 3: 43-45)  4. The meeting of Jesus and Mary on the Way of the Cross.  5. The Crucifixion.  6. The taking down of the Body of Jesus from the Cross.  7. The burial of Jesus.
"And Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary his mother: 'Behold this child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be contradicted; and thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed" (Lk 2: 34-35).

 636 St. Isidore of Seville Doctor of the Church In a unique move, he made sure that all branches of knowledge including the arts and medicine were taught in the seminaries. At Seville in Spain, St. Isidore, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church.  He was conspicuous for sanctity and learning, and had brightened all Spain by his zeal for the Catholic faith and his observance of Church discipline.  Isidore of Seville B, Doctor (RM) Born at Cartagena, Spain, c. 560; died in Seville, Spain, in April 4, 636; canonized by Pope Clement VIII in 1598; and declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Innocent XIII in 1722. Saint Isidore was born into a noble Hispano-Roman family, which also produced SS. Leander, Fulgentius, and Florentina. Their father was Severian, a Roman from Cartagena, who was closely connected to the Visigothic kings. Though Isidore became one of the most erudite men of his age, as a boy he hated his studies, perhaps because his elder brother, Saint Leander, who taught him, was a strict task master.
The more we are afflicted in this world, the greater is our assurance in the next;
the more we sorrow in the present, the greater will be our joy in the future.
- St. Isidore of Seville
 863 Saint Joseph the Hymnographer, "the sweet-voiced nightingale of the Church,".  At that time the Roman bishops were in communion with the Eastern Church, and Pope Leo III, who was not under the dominion of the Byzantine Emperor, was able to render great help to the Orthodox. The Orthodox monks chose St Joseph as a steadfast and eloquent messenger to the Pope. St Gregory blessed him to journey to Rome and to report on the plight of the Church of Constantinople, the atrocities of the iconoclasts, and the dangers threatening Orthodoxy. 

Born in Sicily in 816 into a pious Christian family. His parents, Plotinos and Agatha, moved to the Peloponnesos to save themselves from barbarian invasions. When he was fifteen, St Joseph went to Thessalonica and entered the monastery of Latomos. He was distinguished by his piety, his love for work, his meekness, and he gained the good will of all the brethren of the monastery. He was later ordained as a priest.

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States.   1589 ST BENEDICT THE BLACK His face when he was in chapel often shone with an unearthly light, and food seemed to multiply miraculously under his hands; reputation for sanctity and miracles;   Beatified 15 May 1743 by Pope Benedict XIV
Canonized 24 May 1807 by Pope Pius VIII

  BENEDICT was born in a village near Messina in Sicily. His parents were good Christians, but African slaves of a rich landowner whose name (Manasseri) they bore, according to the prevalent custom. Christopher’s master had made him foreman over his other servants and had promised that his eldest son, Benedict, should be free. The baby grew up such a sweet-tempered, devout child that when he was only ten years old he was called “The Holy Black” (Ii moro santo), a nickname which clung to him all his life. One day, when he was about twenty-one, he was grossly insulted by some neighbours, who taunted him with his colour and the status of his parents. There happened to be passing at the time a young man called Lanzi, who had retired from the world with a few companions to live the life of a hermit in imitation of St Francis of Assisi. He was greatly impressed by the gentleness of Benedict’s replies and, addressing the mockers, he said, “You make fun of this poor black man now; but I can tell you that ere long you will hear great things of him”. Soon afterwards, at Lanzi’s invitation, Benedict sold his few possessions and went to join the solitaries.
1726 The Departure of Pope Peter VI, the One Hundred and Fourth Pope of Alexandria.  On this day also the church commemorates the departure of Pope Peter VI (Petros), the one hundred and fourth Patriarch in the year 1442 A.M. (April 2nd., 1726 A.D.). This blessed father and spiritual angel was the son of pure and Christian parents from the city of Assiut. They raised him well, educated him with ecclesiastic subjects and manners and he excelled in them. His name was Mourgan, but later on he became known by the name Peter El-Assuity. The grace of God was on him since his young age, and when he came to the age of maturity, he forsook the world and what in it, and longed to the monastic life. He went to the monastery of the great St. Antonios in the mount of El-Arabah, he dwelt there, became a monk and put on the monastic garb. He exerted himself in worship, and when he achieved the ascetic life, purity, righteousness, and humility, the fathers the monks chose him to be a priest. They took him against his will to Cairo, and he was ordained a priest, for the monastery of the great Saint Anba Paula the first hermit, among others, by the hand of Pope Yoannis El-Toukhy (103), in the church of the Lady the Virgin in Haret El-Roum. He increased in virtues and he became well known among the people.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 05
 647 Ethelburga of Lyminge founded an abbey at Lyminge abbess.  ST ETHELBURGA was the daughter of St Augustine’s convert, King Ethelbert of Kent and of his wife Bertha. Ethelburga, also called Tata, was given in marriage to Edwin, the pagan king of Northumbria, and St Paulinus, one of St Augustine’s companions, accompanied her as chaplain. Although Edwin was well affected towards Christianity, he hesitated so long before accepting the faith that Pope Boniface V wrote expressly to Ethelburga, urging her to do her utmost to bring about his conversion. But it was not until 627 that Edwin himself received baptism. During the rest of his reign, Christianity made progress throughout Northumbria, encouraged as it was by the royal couple, but when Edwin had been killed at Hatfield Chase, his pagan adversaries overran the land. The queen and St Paulinus found themselves obliged to return to Kent where Ethelburga founded the abbey of Lyminge, which she ruled until her death.
1095 Saint Gerald of Sauve-Majeure monk cellarer of abbey Corbie; founded, directed, Benedictine Abbey of Grande -Sauveabbot  author of a hagiology.  Feeling that all he could do for God was to minister to others, he undertook, in honour of the Holy Trinity, the care of three poor men whom he looked after. His abbot chose him as companion to go with him to Rome, where he hoped the sufferer might be cured. Together they visited the tombs of the Apostles, and at the hands of St Leo IX Gerald was ordained priest. But from time to time the terrible headaches recurred, until one day when—at the intercession, he was convinced, of St Adelard, whose life he had written— the pains left him as suddenly as they had come, never to trouble him again. After this, in thanksgiving he redoubled his prayers and mortifications. In a vision he beheld our Lord come down from the crucifix towards him, he felt Him place His hand on his head, and heard Him say, “Son, be comforted in the Lord and in the power of His might”. A pilgrimage to Jerusalem was another source of inspiration and consolation.
1258 Blessed Juliana of Mount Cornillon visions in which Jesus pointed out that there was no feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament OSA V (AC).  The years passed and Juliana became a nun at Mount Cornillon; but she was unknown, without influence and in no position to do anything in the matter of the desired feast. Then in 1225 she was elected prioress and began to speak about what she felt to be her mission to some of her friends, notably to Bd Eva, a recluse who lived beside St Martin’s church on the opposite bank of the river, and to a saintly woman, Isabel of Huy, whom she had received into her community. Encouraged no doubt by the support of these two, she opened her heart to a learned canon of St Martin’s, John of Lausanne, asking him to consult theologians as to the propriety of such a feast. James Pantaleon (afterwards Pope Urban IV), Hugh of St Cher, the Dominican prior provincial, Bishop Guy of Cambrai, chancellor of the University of Paris, with other learned men, were approached, and decided that there was no theological or canonical objection to the institution of a festival in honour of the Blessed Sacrament.
Juliana’s great mission was carried on and completed by her old friend Eva, the recluse of St Martin’s. After the elevation to the papacy of Urban IV, who as James Pantaleon had been one of Juliana’s earliest supporters, Eva, through the bishop of Liege, begged him to sanction the new feast of the Blessed Sacrament. He did so; and afterwards, in recognition of the part she had taken, he sent her his bull of authorization together with the beautiful office for Corpus Christi which St Thomas Aquinas had composed at his desire. The bull was confirmed in 1312 by the Council of Vienne under Pope Clement V, and the celebration of the feast of Corpus Christi has from that time become of universal obligation throughout the Western church, and most Catholics of the Eastern rite have adopted it too. The observance of a feast in honour of Bd Juliana was allowed by the Holy See in 1869.

1574 St. Catherine Thomas Orphan strange phenomena mystical experiences visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine gifts of visions and prophecy In the monastery at Palma, in the diocese of Majorca, the birthday of St. Catherine Thomas, Canoness Regular of the Order of St. Augustine, whom Pope Pius XI, in the fiftieth year of his priesthood, placed among the number of virgin saints.  Felt a call to the religious life at age 15, but her confessor convinced her to wait a little. Domestic servant in Palma where she learned to read and write. Joined the Canonesses of Saint Augustine at Saint Mary Magdalen convent at Palma. Subjected to many strange phenomena and mystical experiences including visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine. Had the gifts of visions and prophecy. Assaulted spiritually and physically by dark powers, she sometimes went into ecstatic trances for days at a time; her wounds from this abuse were treated by Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian. During her last years she was almost continually in ecstasy. Foretold the date of her death. Born 1 May 1533 at Valldemossa, Mallorca, Spain Died    5 April 1574 at Saint Mary Magdalen convent, Palma, Spain of natural causes
1419 St. Vincent Ferrer Patron of Builders Dominican at 19 simply "going through the world preaching Christ,"
 eloquent and fiery preacher St Vincent declared himself to be the angel of the Judgement foretold by St John (Apoc. xiv 6). As some of his hearers began to protest, he summoned the bearers who were carrying a dead woman to her burial and adjured the corpse to testify to the truth of his words. The body was seen to revive for a moment to give the confirmation required, and then to close its eyes once more in death. It is almost unnecessary to add that the saint laid no claim to the nature of a celestial being, but only to the angelic office of a messenger or herald—believing, as he did, that he was the instrument chosen by God to announce the impending end of the world.
In 1405 St Vincent was in Genoa, from whence he reached a port from which he could sail for Flanders. Amongst other reforms he induced the Ligurian ladies to modify their fantastic head-dress—“the greatest of all his marvellous deeds”, as one of his biographers avers. In the Netherlands he wrought so many miracles that an hour was set apart every day for the healing of the sick. It has also been supposed that he visited England, Scotland and Ireland, but of this there is no shadow of proof. Although we know from the saint himself that beyond his native language he had learnt only some Latin and a little Hebrew, yet he would seem to have possessed the gift of tongues, for we have it on the authority of reliable writers that all his hearers, French, Germans, Italians and the rest, understood every word he spoke, and that his voice carried so well that it could be clearly heard at enormous distances. It is impossible here to follow him in all his wanderings. In fact he pursued no definite order, but visited and revisited places as the spirit moved him or as he was requested. In 1407 he returned to Spain. That terrible scandal had begun in 1378 when, upon the death of Gregory XI, sixteen of the twenty-three cardinals had hastily elected Urban VI in deference to the popular cry for an Italian pope. Under the plea that they had been terrorized, they then, with the other cardinals, held a conclave at which they elected Cardinal Robert of Geneva, a Frenchman. He took the name of Clement VII and ruled at Avignon, whilst Urban reigned in Rome. St Vincent Ferrer, who had been amongst those who recognized Clement, naturally upon his death accepted as pope his successor, Peter de Luna or Benedict XIII as he was called, who summoned the Dominican to his side. [* Because of their anomalous position this Clement VII and Benedict XIII are not referred to as antipopes but as “called popes in their obedience”.]
1744 Blessed Crescentia Höss, OFM Tert. blessed by celestial visions V (AC).   Her life for the next few years was to be one of humiliations and persecution, for the superioress and the older nuns could not forget that she had come to them penniless. They taunted her with being a beggar, gave her the most disagreeable work, and then called her a hypocrite. At first she had a little cell, but that was taken away to be given to a novice who had brought money. For three years she had to beg first one sister and then another to allow her to sleep on the floor of her cell: then she was allowed a damp dark little corner of her own. Taking all humiliations as her due, Crescentia refused the sympathy of some of the younger nuns when they exclaimed at the treatment meted out to her. In time, however, another superioress was appointed, who had more charity and discrimination. In time the nuns recognized that they had a saint amongst them and eventually chose her as novice mistress and finally as superioress. She had many visions and ecstasies, besides a mystical experience of the sufferings of our Lord which lasted every Friday from nine until three, culminating often in complete unconsciousness. On the other hand she suffered greatly from the assaults of the powers of evil.
Unkindly criticism of others Crescentia always repressed, invariably defending the absent. Stern to herself, she yet said to her daughters, “The practices most pleasing to God are those which He himself imposes—to bear meekly and patiently the adversities which He sends or which our neighbours inflict on us”. Gradually her influence spread beyond the walls of her convent, and people who came to consult her went away impressed by her wisdom and spoke of her to others: leaders in church and state visited the weaver’s daughter or corresponded with her, and to this day her tomb is visited by pilgrims. Pope Leo XIII beatified her in 1900.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 06
432 Celestine I Pope treatise against semi-Pelagianism
Born in Campania, Italy; died at Rome, July 27, 432; feast day formerly on July 27 and/or August 1. Saint Celestine was a deacon in Rome when he was elected pope on September 20, 422, to succeed Saint Boniface. He was a staunch supporter of Saint Germanus of Auxerre in the fight against Pelagianism, and a friend of Saint Augustine with whom he corresponded, and which demonstrates that the bishop of Rome was the central authority even at that early date.
582 Eutychius of Constantinople worked many miracles; healings; opposed Justinian's interference; vigorously denounced Aphthartodocetism [asartodoketai] or "imperishability" which taught that the flesh of Christ, before His death on the Cross and Resurrection, was imperishable and not capable of suffering.  ALTHOUGH the name of this Eutychius is not commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, and although his career belongs more to church history than to hagiography, still he has always been honoured as a saint among the Greeks (and at Venice, which claims his relics), and he set a noble example of resistance to the Emperor Justinian’s pretensions to figure as arbiter in theological matters. Thus, through his prayer the wife of a devout man, Androgenes, who had given birth only to dead infants, now gave birth to two sons who lived to maturity. Two deaf-mutes received the gift of speech; and two grievously ill children were restored to health. The saint healed a cancerous ulcer on the hand of an artist. The saint also healed another artist, anointing his diseased hand with oil and making over it the Sign of the Cross.
The saint healed not only bodily, but also spiritual afflictions: he banished the devil out of a girl that had kept her from Holy Communion; he expelled a demon from a youth who had fled from a monastery (after which the youth returned to his monastery); he healed a drunken leper, who stopped drinking after being cleansed of his leprosy.
During the Persian invasion of Amasea and its widespread devastation, they distributed grain to the hungry from the monastery granaries on the saint's orders, and by his prayers, the stores of grain at the monastery were not depleted.
St Eutychius received from God the gift of prophecy. He revealed the names of two of Emperor Justinian's successors: Justin (565-578) and Tiberias (578-582).
885 Saint Methodius, Archbishop of Moravia Life found May 11, when commemorated with Cyril, Teacher of Slavs. In Moravia, the birthday of St. Methodius, bishop and confessor.  Together with his brother, the bishop St. Cyril, whose birthday was the 14th of February, he converted many of the Slav races and their rulers to the faith of Christ.  Their feast is celebrated on the 7th day of July. 
These brothers, natives of Thessalonika, are venerated as the apostles of the Southern Slavs and the fathers of Slavonic literary culture.      The characters now called "cyrillic ", from which are derived the present Russian, Serbian and Bulgarian letters, were invented from the Greek capitals, perhaps by the followers of St Cyril ; the" glagolitic " alphabet, formerly wrongly attributed to St Jerome, in which the Slav-Roman liturgical books of certain Yugoslav Catholics are printed, may be that prepared for this occasion by Cyril himself, or, according to the legend, directly revealed by God.* {* Like so much to do with these brothers, the history of these alphabets is a matter of debate.  The southern Slavonic of SS. Cyril and Methodius is to this day the liturgical language of the Russians, Ukrainians, Serbs and Bulgars, whether Orthodox or Catholic.}

  In 863 the two brothers set out with a number of assistants and came to the court of Rostislav; they were well received and at once got to work.  The position was very difficult. The new missionaries made free use of the vernacular in their preaching and ministrations, and this made immediate appeal to the local people. To the German clergy this was objectionable, and their opposition was strengthened when the Emperor Louis the German forced Rostislav to take an oath of fealty to him.  The Byzantine missionaries, armed with their pericopes from the Scriptures and liturgical hymns in Slavonic, pursued their way with much success, but were soon handicapped by their lack of a bishop to ordain more priests.
The German prelate, the bishop of Passau, would not do it, and Cyril therefore determined to seek help elsewhere, presumably from Constantinople whence he came.

On their way the brothers arrived in Venice. It was at a bad moment. Photius at Constantinople had incurred excommunication; the East was under suspicion the proteges of the Eastern emperor and their liturgical use of a new tongue were vehemently criticized.  One source says that the pope, St Nicholas I, sent for the strangers.  In any case, to Rome they came, bringing with them the alleged relics of Pope St Clement, which St Cyril had recovered when in the Crimea on his way back from the Khazars.
Pope Nicholas in the meantime had died, but his successor, Adrian II, warmly welcomed the bearers of so great a gift.  He examined their cause, and he gave judgement: Cyril and Methodius were to receive episcopal consecration, their neophytes were to be ordained, the use of the liturgy in Slavonic was approved.  Although in the office of the Western church both brothers are referred to as bishops, it is far from certain that Cyril was in fact consecrated.  For while still in Rome he died, on February 14, 869.
1203 St. William of Eskilsoe reforming the canons life of prayer and austere mortification never approached the altar without watering it with his tears, offering himself to God in the spirit of adoration and sacrifice.   ON this day the Roman Martyrology mentions the death in Denmark of St William, “famous for his life and miracles”. He was born about 1125 at Saint-Germain, Crépy-en-Valois, and became a canon of the collegiate church of St Genevieve in Paris. In 1148 Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, carrying out the wishes of the pope, Bd Eugenius III, established canons regular in this church, and William was one of those who accepted a more austere and regular life with enthusiasm.
Peter was born at Verona, Italy, in 1205. Both of his parents were Catharists, a heresy that denied God created the material world. Even so, Peter was educated at a Catholic school and later at the University of Bologna. While in Bologna, Peter was accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic. He developed into a great preacher, and was well known for his inspiring sermons in the Lombardy region. In addition, around the year 1234, he was appointed by Pope Gregory IX as inquisitor of Northern Italy, where many Catharists lived. Peter's preaching attracted large crowds, but as inquisitor he made many enemies.

1252 St. Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic
Medioláni pássio sancti Petri, ex Ordine Prædicatórum, Mártyris, qui ab hæréticis, ob fidem cathólicam, interémptus est.  Ipsíus tamen festívitas recólitur tértio Kaléndas Maji.
       At Milan, the passion of St. Peter, a martyr belonging to the Order of Preachers, who was slain by the heretics for his Catholic faith.  His feast, however, is kept on the 29th of April.
 1252  St Peter Of Verona, Martyr; Having received the habit from St Dominic himself;  Once, as he knelt before the crucifix, he exclaimed, “Lord, thou knowest that I am not guilty. Why dost thou permit me to be falsely accused?” The reply came, “And I, Peter, what did I do to deserve my passion and death?” Rebuked yet consoled, the friar regained courage.

St Peter Martyr was born at Verona in 1205 of parents who belonged to the sect of the Cathari, a heresy which closely resembled that of the Albigenses and included amongst its tenets a denial that the material world had been created by God. The child was sent to a Catholic school, in spite of the remon­strances of an uncle who discovered by questioning the little boy that he had not only learnt the Apostles’ Creed, but was prepared stoutly to maintain in the orthodox sense the article “Creator of Heaven and earth”.

1744 St. Crescentia Hoess, humble, crippled; wise enough to balance worldly skills with acumen in spiritual matters; heads of State and Church both sought her advice.  Conditions improved four years later when a new superior was elected who realized her virtue. Crescentia herself was appointed mistress of novices. She so won the love and respect of the sisters that, upon the death of the superior, Crescentia herself was unanimously elected to that position. Under her the financial state of the convent improved and her reputation in spiritual matters spread. She was soon being consulted by princes and princesses as well as by bishops and cardinals seeking her advice. And yet, a true daughter of Francis, she remained ever humble.

Bodily afflictions and pain were always with her. First it was headaches and toothaches. Then she lost the ability to walk, her hands and feet gradually becoming so crippled that her body curled up into a fetal position. In the spirit of Francis she cried out, "Oh, you bodily members, praise God that he has given you the capacity to suffer." Despite her sufferings she was filled with peace and joy as she died on Easter Sunday in 1744.
She was beatified in 1900 and canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2001.  Comment:    Although she grew up in poverty and willingly embraced it in her vocation, Crescentia had a good head for business. Under her able administration, her convent regained financial stability. Too often we think of good money management as, at best, a less-than-holy gift. But Crescentia was wise enough to balance her worldly skills with such acumen in spiritual matters that heads of State and Church both sought her advice.
1857 St. Paul Tinh native Vietnamese priest martyr.   Born in Vietnam, he was converted to the Catholic faith and was ordained a priest. Seized by anti-Catholic forces, Paul was beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.
Blessed Paul Tinh M (AC) Born in Trinh-ha, Tonkin (Vietnam); died 1857; beatified in 1909. Paul became a priest and was beheaded at Son-tay in West Tonkin (Benedictines).

1896 Blessed Zefirino Agostini first priority to develop relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of joy and power to do good.   Born in Verona, Italy, September 24, 1813; died there on April 6, 1896; beatified October 24, 1998.
Blessed Zefirino was the elder son of the physician Antonio Agostini and his wife Angela Frattini. Upon the death of the pious Antonio, the two boys were raised by their mother with a gentleness and wisdom that left its mark on the souls of her children and led Zefirino to his priestly vocation. Following his ordination on March 11, 1837, at the hands of Bishop Grasser of Verona, Zefirino was assigned to the poor parish of Saint Nazarius, where he had been baptized on September 28, 1813. The first eight years he had responsibility for teaching the catechism and running the recreational program for boys. In 1845, he was named pastor. Although the parish was large and poor, Father Agostini never allowed his fatherly heart to be overcome by its problems. He knew that his first priority was to develop his relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of his joy and power to do good. God filled Father Agostini with apostolic zeal. He established an after-school program for girls and catechetical instruction for their mothers. To inspire women, he held up the ideal of Saint Angela Merici and celebrated her feast. Three young women followed that inspiration and devoted themselves to the neediest in the community.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 07
180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}.   IT is as the reputed Father of Church History that St Hegesippus is chiefly remembered to-day. By birth a Jew, and a member of the church of Jerusalem, he travelled to Rome, and there spent nearly twenty years, from the pontificate of St Anicetus to that of St Eleutherius.  At Rome, St. Hegesippus, who lived close to the time of the apostles.  He came to Rome while Anicetus was pope, and remained until the time of Eleutherius.  He wrote a history of the Church, from the Passion of our Lord to his own time, in a simple style, to make clear the character of those whose life he imitated.
In 277 he returned to the East, where he died in extreme old age, probably at Jerusalem. In the course of his travels, he seems to have visited the principal Christian centres in the West as well as in the East, and he noted with satisfaction that, although disturbances had been caused by individual heretics, hitherto no episcopal see or particular church had fallen into error:
everywhere he had found the unity of the faith as it had been delivered by our Lord to the saints. Unfortunately only a few chapters remain of the five books which he wrote on the history of the Church from the passion of our Lord down to his own time, but the work was highly esteemed by Eusebius and others, who drew largely upon it. He was a man filled with the spirit of the apostles and with a love of humility “which”, says St Jerome, “he expressed by the simplicity of his style”. St Hegesippus is named in the Roman Martyrology to-day.

345 Saint Aphraates Persian hermit  convert struggle against Arian heresy oldest extant Church document in Syria; miracles.  In Syria, in the time of Valens, St. Aphraates, an anchoret, who defended the Catholic faith against the Arians by the power of miracles.  Aphraates is sometimes identified as the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai, near Mosul Mesopotamia. Possibly a martyr, he is believed to have written a many-volumed defense of the faith called the Demonstrations, which is the oldest extant document of the Church in Syria. Aphraates is often referred to as "the Persian Sage."
According to the Bollandists, followed by Alban Butler, we owe our knowledge of the history of St Aphraates to Theodoret, who recalled how, as a boy, he had been taken by his mother to visit the saint and how Aphraates had opened his door to bless them, promising to intercede with God on their behalf. In his later years Theodoret continued to invoke that intercession, believing that it had become even more potent since the holy man had gone to God.
As the Arians had taken possession of their churches, the faithful were reduced to worshipping beside the river Orontes or in the large open space outside the city which was used for military exercises. One day, as St Aphraates was hurrying along the road which led from the city to this parade-ground, he was stopped by order of the emperor, who happened to be standing in the portico of his palace which overlooked the road. Valens inquired whither he was going: “To pray for the world and the emperor”, replied the recluse. The monarch then asked him how it happened that one dressed as a monk was gadding about far away from his cell. To this Aphraates answered with a parable: “If I were a maiden secluded in my father’s house, and saw it take fire, would you recommend me to sit still and let it burn? It is not I who am to blame, but rather you who have kindled the flames which I am striving to extinguish. We are doing nothing contrary to our profession when we gather together and nourish the adherents of the true faith.”
The emperor made no reply, but one of his servants reviled the venerable man, whom he threatened to kill. Shortly afterwards the same attendant was accidentally scalded to death, which so terrified the superstitious Valens that he refused to listen to the Arians when they tried to persuade him to banish St Aphraates. He was also greatly impressed by the miracles wrought by the hermit, who not only healed men and women but also—or at least so it was reported—cured the emperor’s favourite horse.

1078 Blessed Eberhard of Schaeffhausen protected and built convents OSB Monk (PC).   Born 1018; Pious prince Eberhard III, count of Nellenburg, was the husband of the pious Itta and a relative of both Pope Saint Leo IX and the emperor Saint Henry II.
Eberhard and Itta protected and built convents into which each was to retire later, including the Benedictine abbey of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, in 1050, where Eberhard retired (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1140 St. Aibert Benedictine ascetic monk 23 years then recluse; two Masses each day, one for living, second for dead.   St Aybert’s holiness began to attract visitors, who found themselves greatly helped by his spiritual advice and made him known to others. Bishops and laymen, grand ladies and canonesses, scholars and humble peasants flocked to him in such numbers that Bishop Burchard of Cambrai promoted him to the priesthood, providing him with a chapel beside his cell. Moreover Pope Innocent II granted him leave to absolve reserved cases—a right which he only exercised in exceptional circumstances. God crowned Aybert’s long penance with a happy death in the eightieth year of his age.
One phase of Aybert’s devotional practice is of great interest in its bearing on the controversy concerning the origin of the rosary. It is recorded that the saint used to repeat the Ave Maria fifty times in succession, accompanying each Ave with a prostration. A mention in the same context of his habit of dividing his recitation of the whole psalter into fifties makes the allusion still more significant.

1241 St. Herman Joseph Praemonstratensian and mystic visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph  b. 1150 German. Born in Cologne, he demonstrated at an early age a tendency toward mystical experiences, episodes which made him well known and deeply respected through much of Germany. He subsequently entered the Praemonstratensians at Steinfeld, Germany, where he was ordained. Herman experienced visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, and authored a number of mystical writings. Long considered a saint, he was given an equivalent canonization by Pope Pius XII in 1958. AMONGST the German mystics of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, special interest attaches to Bd Herman Joseph, not so much for his writings as for his visions, which were later a source of inspiration even to poets and painters. Herman, to give him his baptismal name, was born in Cologne, and lived from his seventh year until his death in extreme old age apparently in continual intercourse with the denizens of Heaven. As a little boy he would enter a church and converse familiarly with our Lady and the Holy Child, as he knelt before their statue. Once, indeed, when he offered them an apple he had the joy of seeing the hand of the Madonna extended to accept it. Sometimes he was uplifted to another plane and permitted to play with the Infant Saviour and the angels; and on one bitter winter’s day when he came to church barefoot, his parents being very poor, a kindly voice, which he took to be that of the Mother of Mercy, bade him look under a stone near by and he would find money wherewith to buy shoes. He looked, and the coins were there.
At no time robust, Bd Herman Joseph’s health became seriously affected by his fasts and austerities. Severe headaches attacked him, and his digestion became so impaired that he ate nothing and seemed a living skeleton. However, God granted him a reprieve from suffering towards the end, prolonging his life for nine years, and this was the period of his chief literary output. He had been sent in 1241 to the Cistercian nuns at Hoven for Passiontide and Easter when he was taken ill with fever from which he never recovered. The process of Herman’s canonization was introduced but never completed; his cultus, however, has been authoritatively sanctioned.
1410 Bl. Ursulina mystic accustomed to visions and ecstasies tried to end the scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity".  A vision which was vouchsafed to her on Easter day decided her purpose. With two companions, besides her mother who accompanied her on all her subsequent travels, the girl made the toilsome journey over the Alps and succeeded in obtaining an audience with Clement more than once. Her efforts to persuade him proving fruitless, she went back to Parma, but almost immediately proceeded to Rome where she delivered a similar message to the true pope, Boniface IX. He received her graciously and appears to have encouraged her to make another attempt to win over his rival. Thereupon she undertook a second expedition to Avignon, with no better success than before. Indeed this time she was separated from her mother, was accused of sorcery, and narrowly escaped a trial. Another journey to Rome was followed by a somewhat perilous pilgrimage to the Holy Land. If she and her mother had hoped to settle down in Parma on their return they were doomed to disappointment, for civil war broke out in the city and they were expelled. They made their way to Bologna and then to Verona, which Bd Ursulina seems to have made her home until her death at the age of thirty-five.
1595 St. Henry Walpole Jesuit missionary 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales
1595 Bl. Alexander Rawlins Martyr missionary fervent Catholicism

beatified in 1929
ALEXANDER RAWLINS, secular priest, and Henry Walpole, Jesuit, who suffered martyrdom together in 1595, were men of good family, born, the one on the borders of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, and the other in Norfolk. Whereas Rawlins seems to have gone directly to the English College at Rheims to prepare to receive holy orders, Walpole, who was intended for the law, continued his education at Cambridge and then took chambers at Gray’s Inn. Realizing that he was becoming an object of suspicion to the authorities and feeling himself called to the priesthood, he proceeded to Rheims and then to Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus. After taking his final vows, he was sent on missions, first to Lorraine and then to the Netherlands, where he was captured by Calvinists and imprisoned for a year. Upon being liberated, he asked to be allowed to go to England, but he was sent to teach in English seminaries at Seville and Valladolid. After another mission to Flanders, the long-desired permission was accorded, and he set out for England, landing at Flamborough Head on December 4, 1593. Within twenty-four hours he was arrested and was taken prisoner to York.
1606 Bl. Edward Oldcorne Jesuit & Ralph Ashley Jesuit lay- brother English martyrs alleged involve Gunpowder Plot.  He was born in York, England, and ordained in Rome. In 1587, he became a Jesuit. Returning to England, Edward worked in the Midlands from 1588 to 1606. He was then condemned to death at Worcester for alleged coinplicity in the Gunpowder Plot He was beatified in 1929.
1719 ST JOHN BAPTIST DE LA SALLE, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS.  At Rouen, the birthday of St. John Baptist de la Salle, priest and confessor.  He was prominent in the education of youth, especially those who were poor, for which he was acclaimed both by religious and civil society.  He was the founder of the Society of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.  Pius XII, Supreme Pontiff, declared him patron of all those who teach children and young people.  His feast is celebrated on the 15th of May.
But in 1679 he met a layman, Adrian Nyel, who had come to Rheims with the idea of opening a school for poor boys. Canon de La Salle gave him every encouragement, and, somewhat prematurely, two schools were started. Gradually the young canon became more and more drawn into the work and grew interested in the seven masters who taught in these schools. He rented a house for them, fed them from his own table, and tried to instil into them the high educational ideals which were gradually taking shape in his own mind. In 1681, though their uncouth manners repelled him, he decided to invite them to live in his own home that he might have them under his constant supervision. The result must have been a great disappointment. Not only did two of his brothers indignantly leave his house—a step he may have anticipated, for “ushers” were then ranked with pot-boys and hucksters—but five of the schoolmasters soon took their departure, unable or unwilling to submit to a discipline for which they had never bargained. The reformer waited, and his patience was rewarded. Other men of a better type presented themselves, and these formed the nucleus of what was to prove a new congregation. To house them the saint gave up his paternal home, and moved with them to more suitable premises in the Rue Neuve. As the movement became known, requests began to come in from outside for schoolmasters trained on the new method, and de La Salle found his time fully engrossed. Partly for that reason, and partly because he realized the contrast his disciples drew between his assured official income and their own uncertain position, he decided to give up his canonry. This he did.
Elsewhere the institute had been steadily developing. As early as 1700 Brother Drolin had been sent to found a school in Rome, and in France schools were started at Avignon, at Calais, in Languedoc, in Provence, at Rouen, and at Dijon. In 1705 the novitiate was transferred to St Yon in Rouen. There a boarding-school was opened, and an establishment for troublesome boys, which afterwards developed into a reformatory-school. From these beginnings grew the present world-wide organization, the largest teaching-order of the Church, working from primary schools to university-colleges. In 1717 the founder decided finally to resign; from that moment he would give no orders, and lived like the humblest of the brothers. He taught novices and boarders, for whom he wrote several books, including a method of mental prayer. St John Baptist lived at an important period in the history of spirituality in France, and he came under the influence of Bérulle, Olier and the so-called French “school” of de Rancé and of the Jesuits, his friends Canon Nicholas Roland and the Minim friar Nicholas Barré being specially influential. On the negative side he was distinguished by his strong opposition to Jansenism, illustrated positively by his advocacy of frequent and even daily communion. In Lent, 1719 St John Baptist suffered a good deal from asthma and rheumatism, but would give up none of his habitual austerities. Then he met with an accident, and gradually grew weaker. He passed away on Good Friday, April 7, 1719 in the sixty-eighth year of his age.
The example of St John Baptist de la Salle may well lead everyone of us to ask himself: “What have I done to help and to encourage this most necessary and divine work? What sacrifices am I prepared to make that the Christian education of our children may be carried on in spite of all the hindrances and hostilities which beset it?” The Church has shown her appreciation of the character of this man, a thinker and initiator of the first importance in the history of education, by canonizing him in 1900, and giving his feast to the whole Western church; and in 1950 Pope Pius XII declared him the heavenly patron of all school-teachers.
1919 Blessed Josaphata Micheline Hordashevska .  A native of Lviv in Ukraine, Josaphata Michaelina Hordashevska became a nun at age 18. Co-founder with Father Kyrylo Seletsky of the first female congregation of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, she devoted herself to caring for the sick, teaching the Catechism, and maintaining impoverished churches. Diagnosed with bone cancer, from which she endured terrible pain, she died at age 49. She was beatified in June 2001 in Lviv by Saint John Paul II.

The Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate lives out its special calling to serve others by following the example of the Virgin Mary—Handmaid of the Lord—Mary is also Servant of all humanity. Our Lady went speedily to assist Elizabeth; she intervened with simplicity at Cana; she courageously stood at the foot of the Cross where she received us as her children from the arms of her Son; with confidence, in union with the Apostles in the Upper Room, she prayed for the Church. As servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate try to answer God’s call, as He invites us to collaborate with him in the work of Salvation by serving other.  nominis.cef.fr

1925 St Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow Apostle to America led austere and chaste life; kindest of the Russian hierarchs "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake." t was extremely painful and hard for the Patriarch's loving, responsive heart to endure all the Church's misfortunes. Upheavals in and outside the church, the Renovationist schism, his primatial labors, his concern for the organization and tranquility of Church life, sleepless nights and heavy thoughts, his confinement that lasted more than a year, the spiteful and wicked baiting of his enemies, and the unrelenting criticism sometimes even from the Orthodox, combined to undermine his strength and health.
In 1924, Patriarch Tikhon began to feel unwell. He checked into a hospital, but would leave it on Sundays and Feast Days in order to conduct services. On Sunday, April 5, 1925, he served his last Liturgy, and died two days later. On March 25/April 7, 1925 the Patriarch received Metropolitan Peter and had a long talk with him. In the evening, the Patriarch slept a little, then he woke up and asked what time it was. When he was told it was 11:45 P.M., he made the Sign of the Cross twice and said, "Glory to Thee, O Lord, glory to Thee." He did not have time to cross himself a third time.
Almost a million people came to say farewell to the Patriarch. The large cathedral of the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow could not contain the crowd, which overflowed the monastery property into the square and adjacent streets. St Tikhon, the eleventh Patriarch of Moscow, was primate of the Russian Church for seven and a half years.
On September 26/October 9, 1989, the Council of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church glorified Patriarch Tikhon and numbered him among the saints. For nearly seventy years, St Tikhon's relics were believed lost, but in February 1992, they were discovered in a concealed place in the Donskoy Monastery.

It would be difficult to imagine the Russian Orthodox Church without Patriarch Tikhon during those years. He did so much for the Church and for the strengthening of the Faith itself during those difficult years of trial. Perhaps the saint's own words can best sum up his life: "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 08
This icon portrays three scenes:
1) The central and main scene is from Matthew 28:2-4: "And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. His appearance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow. And for fear of him the guards trembled and became like dead men."
2) The scene in the left bottom corner is from Matthew 28:5-7: "But the angel said to the women, "Do not be afraid; for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. he is not here; for he has risen, as he said. Come, see the place where He lay. Then go quickly and tell his disciples that he has risen from the dead, and behold, he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him. Lo, I have told you."
3) The scene in the bottom right corner is from John 20:16-17: "Jesus said to her, "Do not hold me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brethren and say to them, I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God."
DATE COMPLETED: 1991 DONATED BY: Emile Kouri, brothers & sisters (in memory of their father Abdallah Chahine Kouri)  MELKITES -- Saints Peter & Paul Parish 1161 North River Road Ottawa, Ontario K1K 3W5

The spiritually avaricious are those who can never have enough of embracing and seeking after countless exercises of piety, hoping thereby to attain perfection all that much sooner, they say. They do this as though perfection consisted in the multitude of things we do and not in the perfection with which we do them! I have already said this very often, but it is necessary to repeat it: God has not placed perfection in the multiplicity of acts we perform to please Him, but only in the way we perform them, which is simply to do the little we do according to our vocation, in love, by love, and for love. -- St. Francis de Sales

1st v. TORQUATUS AND HIS COMPANIONS, MARTYRS.   THE first Christian missionaries to attempt the evangelization of Spain are said to have been seven holy men who had been specially commissioned by St Peter and St Paul, and sent forth for that purpose.
According to the legend the party kept together until they reached Guadix in Granada, where they encamped in a field whilst their servants went into the town to buy food. The inhabitants, however, came out to attack them, and followed them to the river. A miraculously erected stone bridge enabled the Christians to escape, but it collapsed when their pursuers attempted to cross it. Afterwards the missionaries separated, each one selecting a different district in which he laboured and was made bishop. Torquatus chose Guadix as the field of his labours, and is honoured on this day in association with his companions, all six of whom, however, have also special feasts of their own.
St Torquatus and the other bishops appear to have suffered martyrdom.
  Saints Herodion (Rodion), Agabus, Asyncritus, Rufus, Phlegon and Hermes are among the Seventy Apostles, chosen by Christ and sent out by Him to preach All these disciples for their intrepid service to Christ underwent fierce sufferings and were found worthy of a martyr's crown.   The commemoration of Saints Herodian, Asyncritus, and Phlegon who are mentioned by blessed Paul the Apostle in his Letter to the Romans.
The holy Apostle Herodion was a relative of St Paul, and his companion on many journeys. When Christianity had spread to the Balkan Peninsula, the Apostles Peter and Paul established St Herodion as Bishop of Patara. St Herodion zealously preached the Word of God and converted many of the Greek pagans and Jews to Christianity.
Enraged by the preaching of the disciple, the idol-worshippers and Jews with one accord fell upon St Herodion, and they began to beat him with sticks and pelt him with stones.
One of the mob struck him with a knife, and the saint fell down. But when the murderers were gone, the Lord restored him to health unharmed.
After this, St Herodion continued to accompany the Apostle Paul for years afterward.
When the holy Apostle Peter was crucified (+ c. 67),
St Herodion and St Olympos were beheaded by the sword at the same time.
 170 St. Dionysius of Corinth Bishop of Corinth, Greece, famed for his letters commemorated the martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul.    At Corinth, Bishop St. Denis, who instructed not only the people of his own city and province by the learning and charm with which he preached the word of God, but also the bishops of other cities and provinces by the letters  he wrote to them.  His devotion to the Roman Pontiffs was such that he was accustomed to read their letters publicly in the church on Sundays. 
He lived in the time of Marcus Antoninus Verus{161-166} [161-180--Marcus Aurelius] and Lucius Aurelius Commodus{180-192}.
432 Saint Celestine Pope of Rome (422-432) zealous champion of Orthodoxy virtuous life theologian authority denounced the Nestorian heresy.   He lived during the reign of the holy Emperor Theodosius the Younger (408-450). He received an excellent education, and he knew philosophy well, but most of all he studied the Holy Scripture and pondered over theological questions.
The virtuous life of the saint and his authority as a theologian won him the general esteem and love of the clergy and people.

After the death of St Boniface (418-422), St Celestine was chosen to be the Bishop of Rome.
During this time, the heresy of Nestorius emerged. At a local Council in Rome in 430, St Celestine denounced this heresy and condemned Nestorius as a heretic. After the Council, St Celestine wrote a letter to St Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria (January 18), stating that if Nestorius did not renounce his false teachings after ten days, then he should be deposed and excommunicated.
St Celestine also sent a series of letters to other churches, Constantinople and Antioch, in which he unmasked and denounced the Nestorian heresy.
For two years after the Council, St Celestine proclaimed the true teaching about Christ the God-Man, and he died in peace on April 6, 432.
1095 St. Walter of Pontoise continued to live a life of mortification, spending entire nights in prayer establishing the foundation of a convent in honor of Mary at Bertaucourt.  IN studying the lives of the saints, we not infrequently meet with men and women whose lifelong aspiration it is to serve God in solitude, but who are recalled again and again by the voice of an authority which they dare not gainsay, and are forced to shoulder responsibilities from which they shrink, in a world from which they fain would flee. Such a saint was Walter (Gautier) of Pontoise. A Picard by birth, he received a liberal education at various centres of learning and became a popular professor of philosophy and rhetoric. Then he entered the abbey of Rebais-en-Brie, and was afterwards compelled by King Philip I to become the first abbot of a new monastery near Pontoise. Although, in accordance with the custom of the time, he received his investiture from the sovereign, the new abbot placed his hand not under but over that of the king, and said it is from God, not from your Majesty, that I accept the charge of this church .

His courageous words, far from offending Philip, won his approval; but the very honour in which he was held by persons in high office was a source of anxiety to Walter, and some time later he fled secretly from Pontoise and took refuge at Cluny, then under the rule of St Hugh, hoping there to lead a hidden life. His refuge was, however, discovered by his monks, who fetched him back to Pontoise. From the cares of office he would retire occasionally to a grotto in the abbey grounds, hoping for a little solitude; but his visitors followed him there, and he took to flight once more. This time he buried himself in a hermitage on an island in the Loire, but again he was forced to return.

            Some time later, St Walter went to Rome, where he requested St Gregory VII to relieve him of his burden. Instead of doing so, the pope told him to use the talents God had bestowed upon him, and bade him resume his charge. From that time Walter resigned himself to his fate. The mortifications he would have wished to practise in solitude were more than compensated for by the persecutions he had to undergo in consequence of his fearless opposition to simony and to evil-living
among the secular clergy ; there was even one occasion when he was mobbed, beaten and thrown into prison, but his friends procured his release. In spite of advancing age he never relaxed but rather increased the austerity of his habits ; he rarely sat down in church, but when his aged limbs would no longer support him, he leant upon his pastoral staff. After the other monks had retired at the close of the night offices, he would remain behind, lost in contemplation, until he sank to the ground, where in the morning he would sometimes be found lying helpless.
         His last public effort was to found, in honour of our Lady, a convent for women at Bertaucourt. He succeeded in building a church with a small house, but the community was not actually established there until after his death, which occurred on Good Friday 1095.

1816 St. Julie Billiart vision of crucified Lord with group wearing habits of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur which she founded great love for Jesus in the Eucharist carried on this mission of teaching throughout her life although occasionally paralyzed and sick most of the time.  THE origin of the Institute of Notre Dame was once described by Cardinal Sterckx as a breath of the apostolic spirit upon the heart of a woman who knew how to believe and how to love” . That woman was Bd Mary Rose Julia Billiart. She came of a family of fairly well-to-do peasant farmers, who also owned a little shop at Cuvilly in Picardy, where she was born in 1751. Reading and writing she learnt from her uncle, the village schoolmaster, but her special delight was in religious instruction and the things of God. By the time she was seven, she was in the habit of explaining the catechism to other children less intelligent than herself. The parish priest encouraged these good instincts, and allowed her to make her first communion at the age of nine-—a rare privilege in those days. He also permitted her to take a vow of chastity when shc was fourteen. Although Julia had to work very hard, especially after heavy losses had impoverished her family, yet she always found time to visit the sick, to teach the ignorant and to pray. Indeed, she had already begun to earn the title by which she was afterwards known, “The Saint of Cuvilly.
      Suddenly a complete change came over her hitherto active existence. As the result of shock caused by the firing of a gun through a window at her father, beside whom she was sitting, there came upon her a mysterious illness, attended with great pain, which gradually deprived her of the use of her limbs. Thus reduced to the condition of an invalid, she lived a life of even closer union with God, continuing on her sick-bed to catechize the children, to give wonderfully wise spiritual advice to visitors, and to urge all to practise frequent communion. “ Qu’il est bon le hon Dieu ! was a saying of hers long remembered and often quoted. In 1790, when the curé of Cuvilly was superseded by a so-called constitutional priest who had taken the oath prescribed by the revolutionary authorities, it was mainly Julia’s influence which induced the people to boycott the schismatic intruder. For that reason and because she was known to have helped to find hiding-places for fugitive priests, she became specially obnoxious to the Jacobins, who went so far as to threaten to burn her alive. She was with difficulty smuggled out of the house, hidden in a haycart, and taken to Compiègne, where she was hunted from one lodging to another until at last one day they heard her exclaim, “Dear Lord, will you not find me a corner in Paradise, since there is no room for me on earth?
In 1815, Mother taxed her ever poor health by nursing the wounded and feeding the starving left from the battle of Waterloo. For the last three months of her life, she again suffered much. She died peacefully on April 8, 1816 at 64 years of age. Julie was beatified on May 13, 1906, and was canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1969.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 09
1st v. St. Mary Cleophas Mother of St. James the Less and Joseph, wife of Cleophas. She was one of the “Three Marys” who served Jesus and was present at the Crucifixion, accompanied Mary Magdalen to the tomb of Christ.  TO Mary of Cleophas whose name stands first in the Roman Martyrology on this day no general liturgical recognition is accorded, though her feast is kept by the Passionists, and by the Latins in Palestine. She seems to have been the wife of one Cleophas, who may or may not be identical with the Cleophas who is named as one of the two disciples who went to Emmaus on the day of our Lord’s resurrection.
Her identity among the various Marys mentioned by the evangelists is a matter of discussion among biblical commentators. The martyrology contents itself with saying that “Blessed John the Evangelist calls [her] sister of the most holy Mary, Mother of God, and relates that she stood with her by the cross of Jesus”. But it is possible that the sister of the mother of Jesus mentioned (John xix 25) was in fact a fourth, unnamed, woman.
Round the name of Mary of Cleophas all sorts of legendary excrescences gathered in later days. She was said to have travelled to Spain with St James the Greater, to have died at Ciudad Rodrigo, and to have been venerated with great honour at Compostela. On the other hand another extravagant legend connects her with the coming of SS. Lazarus, Mary Magdalen and Martha to Provence, and her body was believed to repose at Saintes-Maries near the mouth of the Rhone.

1st century. Mary of Cleophas, the 'other Mary,' followed our Lord to Calvary (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25) and saw Him after His Resurrection (Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10). She was the mother of James the Younger, Joseph (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40), Simon, and Jude; wife of Cleophas (John 19:25); and sister of the Blessed Virgin (John 19:25).
1140 St. Gaucherius hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women.  St Gaucherius was only eighteen when he abandoned the world to live the solitary life. He was born at Meulan-sur-Seine, where he received a good and religious education. His director sent him to his own master, Humbert, one of the canons of Limoges, who happened to be staying in the neighbourhood. That wise man not only encouraged the youth, but offered to assist him in carrying out his heart’s desire by taking him back to the Limousin district which was suitable for the life of retirement which he was contemplating. After spending a night in prayer at the tomb of St Leonard of Limoges, Gaucherius and a friend called Germond struck out into the wild forest region which stretched away for miles without any human habitation. In a particularly remote and inaccessible spot, they constructed a hermitage, and there they lived for several years unknown and forgotten. But gradually, as knowledge of the hermits’ holy life spread, cells sprang up round about to accommodate disciples and visitors. Many holy men were trained in this community, which became known as Aureil.   Born 1060.  Also known as Walter, abbot founder and friend of St. Stephen of Grandmont. He was born in Meulan sur Seine, France, and became a hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion, Germond. Attracting disciples even though he was only eighteen, Gaucherius founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women.  Died April 9, 1140; canonized by Pope Celestine III. His spiritual vocation led him to found and govern two monasteries in the Limousin region: Saint John at Aureil for Augustinian canons regular and Saint Stephen of Grandmont at Muret. He fell from a horse and died at the age of 80 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
1322 Bl. Thomas of Tolentino preach in the difficult regions of Armenia and Persia (modern Iran) set out for China beheaded at Thame in Hindustan.   From the time he had entered, the Order of Friars Minor in early youth, Thomas had been known as a truly apostolic man, and when the ruler of Armenia sent to ask the Minorite minister-general for some priests to fortify true religion in his realm, Thomas was chosen for the mission with four of his brethren. Their labours were blessed with success, many schismatics being reconciled and infidels converted. Armenia, however, was being seriously threatened by the Saracens, and Thomas came back to Europe to solicit help from Pope Nicholas IV and the kings of England and France.
Although he duly returned to the Armenian mission with twelve other Franciscans, Thomas subsequently travelled farther afield to Persia. Again he was recalled or sent back to Italy, but this time it was to report to Pope Clement V with a view to a further advance into Tartary and China. His embassy resulted in the nomination of an ecclesiastical hierarchy consisting of John of Monte Corvino as archbishop and papal legate for the East, with seven Franciscans as suffragans. In the meantime Bd Thomas had returned to the field of his labours, full of zeal for the conversion of India and China. He appears to have been making for Ceylon and Cathay, but the ship was driven by contrary winds to Salsette Island, near Bombay. Thomas was seized by the Saracens with several of his brethren and imprisoned. After being scourged and exposed to the burning rays of the sun, the holy man was beheaded. Bd Odoric of Pordenone afterwards recovered his body and translated it to Xaitou. The cultus was approved in 1894.

1331 Blessed John of Vespignano  devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence.  Born at Vespignano (diocese of Florence), Italy; cultus approved by Pius VII. During the civil wars, John devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence (Benedictines).
1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards OP.   Born in Savigliano, Italy, in 1326; died in Turino, Italy, in 1374; beatified in 1868. Antony was obviously martyred for the faith, yet it took more than 500 years before he was even beatified. He is still not canonized. Antony grew up to be a pious, intelligent youth. At 15, he was received into the monastery of Savigliano, was ordained in 1351, and almost immediately was engaged in combatting the heresies of the Lombards.
Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed him inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years. During this time, he accomplished a great deal by his preaching, and even more by his example of Christian virtue. He was elected prior of Savigliano, in 1368, and given the task of building a new abbey. This he accomplished without any criticism of its luxury--a charge that heretics were always anxious to make against any Catholic builders.
At Rome, the transferring of the body of St. Monica, mother of the bishop St. Augustine.  It was brought from Ostia to Rome, under the Sovereign Pontiff, Martin V, and buried with due honours in the church of St. Augustine.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 10
6th v. BC.  Apud Babylónem sancti Ezechiélis Prophétæ, qui, a Júdice pópuli Israël, quod eum de cultu idolórum argúeret, interféctus, in sepúlcro Sem et Arpháxad, Abrahæ progenitórum.    At Babylon, the prophet Ezechiel, who was put to death by a{n apostatized judge} of the people of Israel because he reproved him for worshipping idols.  He was buried in the sepulchre of Sem and Arphaxad, ancestors of Abraham.  Many people{ early Christians } were in the habit of going to his tomb to pray.
Ezekiel, Prophet (RM) (also known as Ezechiel).  Ezekiel is one of the four major prophets of the Old Testament. Tradition says that he was put to death, while in captivity in Babylon, by one of the Jewish judges who had apostatized, and that he was buried there in the tomb of Shem. He grave was a site of pilgrimage for the early Christians (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). Raphael painted this Vision of Ezekiel.
VII B.C. The Holy Prophetess Oldama (Huldah) lived in the first half profesied  to Josiah he would not see the Woe
She foretold to the 16 year old king of Judah reigning at Jerusalem, Josiah, that for his humility the Lord would put him with his forefathers and he would be at peace in the grave, and his eyes would not see all the woe, which the Lord would bring upon the land (4 (2) Kings 22: 14-20; 2 Chron. 34: 28).
Martyrdom of St. James the Apostle Brother of St. John the Apostle.   copticchurch.net  On this day, St. James the Apostle, the son of Zebedee, and the brother of St. John, the Apostle, was martyred. After he had preached the Gospel in Judea and Samaria, he went to Spain. He preached the Gospel there, and its people believed in the Lord Christ. He returned to Jerusalem and pursued his ministry.
He always advised his flock to give alms to the poor, the needy, and the weak. They accused him before Herod who called him and asked him: "Are you the one that instigating the people not to give the taxes to Caesar but to give it to the poor and the churches?" Then he smote him with the sword, cutting off his head, and St. James received the crown of martyrdom.
Clement of Alexandria, from the fathers of the second century, said: "The soldier that seized the Saint, when he saw his courage, he realized that there must be a better life and asked the Saint for his forgiveness. Then the soldier confessed Christianity and received the crown of martyrdom (Acts 12:1,2) along with the Apostle in the year 44 A.D."
Because Herod saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to seize Peter also. So when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four squads of soldiers to keep him, intending to bring him before the people after Passover. (Acts 12:3-4)
So on a set day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat on his throne and gave an oration to them. And the people kept shouting, "The voice of a god and not of a man!" Then immediately an angel of the Lord struck him because he did not give glory to God. And he was eaten by worms and died. (Acts 12:21-23)
As of the body of St. James, the believers took it, shrouded it, and buried it by the Temple. It was said that the body of St. James was translated to Spain, where James the elder considered to be its Apostle.
His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.
115 Martyrs of Rome Saint Alexander while imprisoned he preached to criminals they converted and baptized     At Rome, the birthday of many holy martyrs, whom Pope St. Alexander baptized while he was in prison.  The prefect Aurelian had them all put in an old ship, taken to the deep sea, and drowned with stones tied to their necks
While Pope Saint Alexander was imprisoned in a public jail in Rome, he preached to the criminals he found there. They were converted and baptized. Later, the criminals were taken to Ostia and put on board an old boat which was then sent out to sea and scuttled. (Benedictines).
1028 St. Fulbert Bishop of Chartres France poet scholar aided Cluniac Reform defended monasticism orthodoxy.  WE learn from St Fulbert of Chartres himself that he was of humble extraction, but we know little of his early years beyond the fact that he was born in Italy and spent his boyhood there. He was later on a student in Rheims and must have been one of its most distinguished scholars, for when the celebrated Gerbert, who taught him mathematics and philosophy, was raised to the papacy under the title of Pope Silvester II, he summoned Fulbert to his side. When another pope succeeded, Fulbert returned to France, where Bishop Odo of Chartres bestowed upon him a canonry and appointed him chancellor. Moreover, the cathedral schools of Chartres were placed under his care, and he soon made them the greatest educational centre in France, attracting pupils from Germany, Italy and England.
Like most of the more eminent churchmen of his century he was an outspoken opponent of simony and of bestowing ecclesiastical endowments upon laymen. After an episcopate of nearly twenty-two years, he died on April 10, 1029. The writings of St Fulbert include a number of letters, a brief penitential, nine sermons, a collection of passages from the Bible dealing with the Trinity, the Incarnation and the Eucharist, and also some hymns and proses.
1460 Bl. Anthony Neyrot Dominican martyr in Tunis modem Tunisia.  Disaster followed disaster. He lost all faith in Christianity and began to translate the Koran. He was adopted by the king, married a Turkish lady of high rank, and was given the freedom of the city.  Into the false paradise came the news of the death of Saint Antoninus. Love for his old master stirred in Antony a yearning for the Truth he had abandoned. He resolved to return to the Christian faith, although it meant certain death.  In order that his return might be as public as his denial had been, he waited until the king returning in triumph from a victory over the Christians, had a public procession. Having confessed and made his private reconciliation with God, Antony, clothed in a Dominican habit, at that moment mounted the palace steps where all could see him.  In a loud voice he proclaimed his faith, and his sorrow at having denied it. The king at first disbelieved his ears, then he became angry. Failing to change the mind of the young man, he commanded that he be stoned to death.  Antony died under a shower of stones, proclaiming to the last his faith and his sorrow. It was Holy Thursday, 1460. His body was recovered at great expense from the Islamics and returned to Rivoli, where his tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage. Many miracles were performed there, and, until very recently, an annual procession was held at his shrine. In the procession, all the present-day members of his family, dressed in black, walked proudly behind the statue of Blessed Antony (Benedictines, Dorcy, Encyclopedia). ANTONY NEYROT was born at Rivoli in Piedmont, and entered the Dominican priory of San Marco in Florence, then under the direction of St Antoninus. After being professed he was sent to one of the houses of the order in Sicily. Between Naples and Sicily his ship was boarded by pirates, who carried him to Tunis, where he was sold as a slave. He succeeded in obtaining his freedom, but only to fall into a worse captivity, for the study of the Koran led him to abjure his faith and to become a Mohammedan. For several months he had practised the religion of the false prophet when his eyes were suddenly opened, in consequence, it is said, of a vision he had of St Antoninus. Smitten with contrition, he at once sent away his wife, did penance, and resumed the daily recitation of the office. Then he went before the ruler of Tunis in his friar’s habit and, in the presence of a great crowd, openly renounced his heresy and proclaimed the religion of Jesus Christ as the one true faith. Arguments, promises and threats were employed without being able to shake him. Eventually he was condemned to death, and perished by stoning and by sword cuts as he knelt in prayer with hands upraised. His body was given over to the flames, but portions of his relics which remained unconsumed were sold to Genoese merchants, who took them back to Italy. The cultus of Bd Antony was approved in 1767.
1479 Blessed Mark Fantucci preached throughout Italy, Istria, and Dalmatia. He also visited the friars in Austria, Poland, Russia, and the Levant OFM.  AMONGST the Franciscan leaders of the fifteenth century a special place must be assigned to Bd Mark Fantucci of Bologna, to whom was mainly due the preservation of the Observance as a separate body when it seemed on the point of being compulsorily merged into the Conventual branch. After having received an excellent education to fit him for the good position and large fortune to which he was left sole heir, he had given up all his worldly advantages at the age of twenty-six to receive the habit of St Francis. Three years after his profession, he was chosen guardian of Monte Colombo, the spot where St Francis had received the rule of his order. So successful was he in converting sinners that he was given permission to preach outside his province by St John Capistran, then vicar general of the Observants in Italy.
Having served twice as minister provincial, Bd Mark was elected vicar general in succession to Capistran, and showed himself zealous in enforcing strict observance of the rule the various reforms he brought about all tended to revive the spirit of the founder, After the taking of Constantinople so many Franciscans had been enslaved by the Turks, that Mark wrote to all his provincials urging them to appeal for alms to ransom the captives but in answer to a request for instructions how to act in the danger zone, he sent word to, Franciscan missionaries in places threatened by victorious Islam bidding them remain boldly at their posts and to face what might betide.

He was able to execute a long-cherished plan to form a convent of Poor Clares in Bologna.
St Catherine of Bologna came with some of her nuns from Ferrara to establish it, and found in Bd Mark one who could give her all the assistance she needed. He visited as commissary all the friaries in Candia, Rhodes and Palestine, and on his return to Italy he was elected vicar general for the second time. Never sparing himself he undertook long and tiring expeditions to Bosnia, Dalmatia, Austria and Poland, often travelling long distances on foot. Pope Paul II wished to make him a cardinal, but he fled to Sicily to avoid being forced to accept an honour from which he shrank.
The next pope, Sixtus IV, formed a project which was even less acceptable, for he had set his heart upon uniting all Franciscans into one body, without requiring any reform from the Conventuals. At a meeting convened to settle the matter, Bd Mark used all his eloquence to defeat the proposal, but apparently in vain. At last, in tears, throwing down the book of the rule at the pope’s feet, he exclaimed, “Oh my Seraphic Father, defend your own rule, since I, miserable man that I am, cannot defend it”; and thereupon left the hall. The gesture accomplished what argument had failed to do; the assembly broke up without arriving at a decision, and the scheme fell through. In 1479, white delivering a Lenten mission in Piacenza, Bd Mark was taken ill and died at the convent of the Observance outside the city. His cultus was confirmed in 1868.

1625 St. Michael de Sanctis life of exemplary fervor devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament his ecstacies during Mass many miracles After his death at 35.  Michael de los Santos was born in Catalonia, Spain around 1591. At the age of six he informed his parents that he was going to be a monk. Moreover, he imitated St. Francis of Assisi to such a great extent that he had to be restrained. After the death of his parents, Michael served as an apprentice to a merchant. However, he continued to lead a life of exemplary fervor and devotion, and in 1603, he joined the Trinitarian Friars at Barcelona, taking his vows at St. Lambert's monastery in Saragosa in 1607. Shortly thereafter, Michael expressed a desire to join the reformed group of Trinitarians and was given permission to do so. He went to the Novitiate at Madrid and, after studies at Seville and Salamanca, he was ordained a priest and twice served as Superior of the house in Valladolid.
His confreres considered him to be a saint, especially because of his devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament and his ecstacies during Mass. After his death at the age of thirty-five on April 10, 1625 many miracles were attributed to him. He was canonized in 1862 by Pope Pius IX. St. Michael de Sanctis is noted in the Roman Martyrology as being "remarkable for innocence of life, wonderful penitence, and love for God." He seemed from his earliest years to have been selected for a life of great holiness, and he never wavered in his great love of God or his vocation.
As our young people look for direction in a world that seems not to care, St. Michael stands out as worthy of imitation as well as of the prayers of both young and old alike.
Michael of Sanctis, O. Trin. (RM) (also known as Michael of the Saints) Born at Vich, Catalonia, Spain, in 1591; died at Valladolid, Spain, in 1625; canonized in 1862. Saint Michael joined the calced Trinitarians at Barcelona in 1603, and took his vows at Saragossa in 1607. That same year he migrated to the discalced branch of the order and renewed his vows at Alcalá. After his ordination he was twice superior at Valladolid. He was one of the greatest apostles of the order in the 17th century,

1835 Saint Madelaine was an orphan taught catechism and nursed the sick in Verona, Venice, Milan, and China Order of the Daughters of Charity.  Wealth and privilege did nothing to prevent today’s saint from following her calling to serve Christ in the poor. Nor did the protests of her relatives, concerned that such work was beneath her.
Born in northern Italy in 1774, Magdalen knew her mind—and spoke it. At age 15 she announced she wished to become a nun. After trying out her vocation with the cloistered Carmelites, she realized her desire was to serve the needy without restriction. For years she worked among the poor and sick in hospitals and in their homes and among delinquent and abandoned girls.
In her mid-twenties Magdalen began offering lodging to poor girls in her own home. In time she opened a school, which offered practical training and religious instruction. As other women joined her in the work, the new Congregation of the Daughters of Charity emerged. Over time, houses were opened throughout Italy.
Members of the new religious congregation focused on the educational and spiritual needs of women. Magdalen also founded a smaller congregation for priests and brothers. Both groups continue to this day.
She died in 1835. Pope John Paul II canonized her in 1988.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 11
The history of Our Lady of Pochaev begins in 1198, only about two centuries after Christianity:  became institutionalized following the conversion of St. Vladimir.  In this year a monk ascended Mount Pochaev in order to pray.  After beginning his prayers a pillar of fire appeared to him and to some shepherds that happened to be nearby.  The flames withdrew to reveal the Blessed Virgin.  The apparition of the Virgin Mary left behind a footprint, from which a spring of water flowed.  This first event would lead to many other supernatural events through the special dedication of the Blessed Virgin to this region
Many of these miracles are the result of the veneration of the icon of our Lady of Pochaev [see above].  It first arrived in the region as a gift of Metropolitan Neophit to Anna Hoyska, an important patron of the Church, in 1559.  The icon shows our Lady, wearing a crown, and holding the infant Jesus.  In her other hand “she holds the end of her veil.”  This being a 'tenderness' icon, Jesus and Mary’s face touch, while Jesus gives a blessing with his hand.  To Mary’s right are the prophet Elijah and Saint Myrna, while to her left are St. Stephen and the Reverend Abraymey.  Mary’s face is described as being “beautiful but sad.”   The icon itself is 29 x23 cm, and made out of red pitched cypress.  The origin of the icon remains a mystery.
  63. St. Domnio Possibly first bishop of Salona and one of 72 disciples of Christ sent to Dalmatia, a region in Croatia, by St. Peter.  The Hieromartyr Antipas, a disciple of the holy Apostle John the Theologian (September 26), was bishop of the Church of Pergamum during the reign of the emperor Nero (54-68).   During these times, everyone who would not offer sacrifice to the idols lived under threat of either exile or execution by order of the emperor. On the island of Patmos (in the Aegean Sea) the holy Apostle John the Theologian was imprisoned, he to whom the Lord revealed the future judgment of the world and of Holy Church.
"And to the angel of the Church of Pergamum write: the words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. I know where you live, where the throne of Satan is, and you cleave unto My Name, and have not renounced My faith, even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwells" (Rev 2:12-13).
  67 Sts. Processus and Martinian pagans guards at Mamertine prison in Rome  accepted holy Baptism from Peter.  The Holy Martyrs Processus and Martinian were pagans and they served as guards at the Mamertine prison in Rome.  State criminals were held in this prison, among them some Christians. Watching the Christian prisoners and listening to their preaching, Processus and Martinian gradually came to the knowledge of the Savior. When the holy Apostle Peter was locked up at the Mamertine prison, Processus and Martinian came to believe in Christ. They accepted holy Baptism from the apostle and released him from prison.
461 Pope St. Leo I (the Great)     St. Leo the First, pope and confessor, who was surnamed the Great.  His birthday falls on the 10th of November. (Reigned 440-461).
THE sagacity of Leo I, his successful defence of the Catholic faith against heresy, as well as his political intervention with Attila the Hun and Genseric the Vandal, raised the prestige of the Holy See to unprecedented heights and earned for him the title of “the Great”, a distinction accorded by posterity to only two other popes, St Gregory I and St Nicholas I. The Church has honoured St Leo by including him amongst her doctors on the strength of his masterly expositions of Christian doctrine, many extracts from which are incorporated in the Breviary lessons.
St Leo’s family was probably Tuscan, but he seems to have been born in Rome, as he always speaks of it as his “patria”. Of his early years and of the date of his ordination to the priesthood there are no records. It is clear from his writings that he received a good education, although it did not include Greek. We hear of him first as deacon under St Celestine I and then under Sixtus III, occupying a position so important that St Cyril wrote directly to him, and Cassian dedicated to him his treatise against Nestorius. Moreover, in 440, when the quarrels between the two imperial generals, Aetius and Albinus, threatened to leave Gaul at the mercy of the barbarians, Leo was sent to make peace between them.
At the time of the death of Pope Sixtus III he was still in Gaul, whither a deputation was sent to announce to him his election to the chair of St Peter.
Immediately after his consecration on September 29, 440, he began to display his exceptional powers as a pastor and ruler. Preaching was at that time mainly confined to bishops, and he set about it systematically, instructing the faithful of Rome whom he purposed to make a pattern for other churches. In the ninety-six genuine sermons which have come down to us, we find him laying stress on alms-giving and other social aspects of Christian life, as well as expounding Catholic doctrines—especially that of the Incarnation. Some idea of the extraordinary vigilance of the holy pontiff over the Church and its necessities in every part of the empire can be gathered from the 143 letters written by him, and the 30 letters written to him, which have fortunately been preserved. About the period that he was dealing with the Manichaeans in Rome, he was writing to the Bishop of Aquileia advising him how to deal with Pelagianism, which had made a reappearance in his diocese.

1079 St. Stanislaus ordained  at Szczepanow near Cracow noted for preaching sought after spiritual adviser martyred by cruel King.  Stanislaus was born of noble parents on July 26th at Szczepanow near Cracow, Poland. He was educated at Gnesen and was ordained there. He was given a canonry by Bishop Lampert Zula of Cracow, who made him his preacher, and soon he became noted for his preaching. He became a much sought after spiritual adviser. He was successful in his reforming efforts, and in 1072 was named Bishop of Cracow. He incurred the enmity of King Boleslaus the Bold when he denounced the King's cruelties and injustices and especially his kidnapping of the beautiful wife of a nobleman. When Stanislaus excommunicated the King and stopped services at the Cathedral when Boleslaus entered, Boleslaus himself killed Stanislaus while the Bishop was saying Mass in a chapel outside the city on April 11.
Stanislaus has long been the symbol of Polish nationhood. He was canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1253 and is the principle patron of Cracow.
1146  The Departure of the holy father Anba Michael, the Seventy First Pope of the See of St. Mark. {Coptic church}.  On this day also of the year 862 A.M. (March 29th. 1146 A.D.) the holy father Pope Michael, the seventy first Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, departed. He longed to the pure life since his young age so he became a monk in the monastery of St. Macarius. He lived in the desert until he was an old man, in a good pleasing life to God.
When Pope Gabriel (70) departed, the bishops, the priests and the lay leaders spent three month searching for who was best suited to succeed him. A monk from the monastery of St. Macarius, called Yoannis Ebn Kedran, came forward nominating himself supported in that by Anba Yacoub, bishop of Lekanah, Anba Christodolus, bishop of Fowa, and Anba Michael, bishop of Tanta.
1771 St. Mary Margaret d'Youville Foundress of the Sisters of Charity directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community.  Grey Nuns of Canada.
She was born at Varennes, Quebec, and was baptized Marie Marguerite Dufrost de Ia Jemmerais.
After being educated by the Ursulines, she was married to Francois d’Youville in 1722, becoming a widow eight years later. Mary Margaret worked to support herself and her children, aiding the Confraternity of the Holy Family as well. In 1737, she founded the Sisters of Charity, the Grey Nuns, with three companions. A formal declaration took place in 1745, and two years later she became directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community. The Grey Nuns expanded to the United States, Africa, and South America. Mary Margaret died in Montreal on December 23. She was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1990.
1903 St. Gemma Galgani stigmata many mystical experiences and special graces Gemma was miraculously cured by the Venerable Passionist Gabriel Possenti.   THE short life of this saint, who was born at Camigliano in Tuscany in 1878, and died at Lucca at the age of twenty-five, was in one sense uneventful. It is a story of very fervent piety, charity and continuous suffering. These sufferings were caused partly by ill-health, partly by the poverty into which her family fell, partly by the scoffing of those who took offence at her practices of devotion, ecstasies and other phenomena, partly by what she believed to be the physical assaults of the Devil. But she had the consolation of constant communion with our Lord, who spoke to her as if He were corporeally present, and she also met with much kindness from the Giannini family, who in her last years after her father’s death treated her almost as an adopted daughter.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 12
336 St. Julius elected Pope to succeed Pope St. Mark on February 6, 337 built several basilicas and churches in Rome declared that Athanasius was the rightful bishop of Alexandria and reinstated him.    THE name of Pope St Julius stands in the Roman Martyrology to-day with the notice that he laboured much for the Catholic faith against the Arians. He was the son of a Roman citizen named Rusticus, and succeeded Pope St Mark in 337. In the following year St Athanasius, who had been exiled at the instance of the Arians, returned to his see of Alexandria, but found himself opposed by an Arian or semi-Arian hierarch whose intrusion had been obtained by Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia. In response to the request of the followers of Eusebius, Pope Julius convoked a synod to examine into the matter, but the very people who had asked for the council refrained from attending it. The case of St Athanasius was, however, very carefully examined in their absence and the letter, which the pope subsequently sent to the Eusebian bishops in the East has been characterized by Tillemont as “one of the finest monuments of ecclesiastical’ antiquity”, and by Monsignor Batiffol as “a model of weightiness, wisdom and charity”. Calmly and impartially he meets their accusations one by one and refutes them. Towards the end he states the procedure they ought to have followed. “Are you not aware that it is customary that we should first be written to, that from hence what is just may be defined whereas you expect us to approve condemnations in which we had no part. This is not according to the precepts of Paul or the tradition of the fathers. All this is strange and new. Allow me to speak as I do: I write what I write in the common interest, and what I now signify is what we have received from the blessed apostle Peter.”
The council at Sardica (Sofia) convened in 342 by the emperors of the East and West, vindicated St Athanasius, and endorsed the statement, previously made by St Julius, that any bishop deposed by a synod of his province has a right to appeal to the bishop of Rome. Nevertheless it was not until the year 346 that St Athanasius was able to return to Alexandria. On his way thither he passed through Rome, where he was cordially received by Pope Julius, who wrote a touching letter to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, congratulating them on the return of their holy bishop, picturing the reception they would give him, and praying for God’s blessing on them and on their children.
St Julius built several churches in Rome, notably the Basilica Julia, now the church of the Twelve Apostles, and the basilica of St Valentine in the Flaminian Way. He died on April 12, 352. His body was buried at first in the cemetery of Calepodius, but was afterwards translated to Santa Maria in Trastevere which he had enlarged and beautified.

 371 St. Zeno Bishop of Verona, Italy, opponent of Arianism promoted discipline among clergy in liturgical life built cathedral founded convent wrote extensively on virgin birth of Christ.   From a panegyric he delivered on St Arcadius, a Mauretanian martyr, it has been conjectured that St Zeno was born in Africa; and from the excellent flowing Latin of his writings and from the quotations he makes from Virgil, it is evident that he received a good classical education. He seems to have been made bishop of Verona in 362. We gather a number of interesting particulars about him and about his people from a collection of his tractatus, short familiar discourses delivered to his flock. We learn that he baptized every year a great number of pagans, and that he exerted himself with zeal and success against the Arians, who had been emboldened by the favours they had enjoyed under the Emperor Constantius. When he had in a great measure purged the church of Verona from heresy and heathenism, his flock increased to an extent which necessitated the building of a large basilica. Contributions flowed in freely from the citizens, whose habitual liberality had become so great that their houses were always open to poor strangers, whilst none of their fellow citizens ever had occasion to apply for relief, so promptly were their wants forestalled. Their bishop congratulated them upon thus laying up for themselves treasure in Heaven.
After the battle of Adrianople in 378, when the Goths defeated Valens with terrible slaughter, the barbarians made numerous captives in the neighbouring provinces of Illyricum and Thrace. It appears to have been on this occasion that, through the bountiful charity of the inhabitants of Verona, many of the prisoners were ransomed from slavery, some rescued from a cruel death, and others freed from hard labour. Though this probably occurred after the death of St Zeno, the self-sacrifice of the townsmen may be traced to his inspiring zeal and example.

 372 St. Sabas & 50 others Goth converted to Christianity lector in Targoviste Romania martyr in the area of modern Romania by pagan Goths.   THE Goth’s in the third century swarmed over the Danube and established themselves in the Roman provinces of Dacia and Moesia, making expeditions from time to time into Asia Minor, especially into Galatia and Cappadocia, from which they brought back Christian slaves, priests and lay people. These prisoners soon began to make converts amongst their conquerors, with the result that Christian churches were founded. In 370 the ruler of one section of the Goths raised a persecution against his Christian subjects, out of revenge, it is supposed, for a declaration of war launched against him by the Roman emperor. The Greeks commemorate fifty-one Gothic martyrs, the most famous of whom were St Sabas and St Nicetas. Sabas, who had been converted to Christianity in early youth, acted as cantor or lector to the priest Sansala. When, at the outset of the persecution, the magistrates ordered the Christians to eat meat sacrificed to idols, certain pagans, who had Christian relations whom they wished to save, persuaded the officials to give them meat which had not been offered to idols. Sabas loudly denounced this ambiguous proceeding:  not only did he himself refuse to eat, but he declared that those who consented to do so had betrayed the faith. Some of the Christians applauded him, but others were so much displeased that they obliged him to withdraw from the town. He was, however, soon allowed to return. The following year, when the persecution broke out again, some of the principal inhabitants offered to swear that there were no Christians in the town. As they were about to take the oath, Sabas presented himself and said, “Let no one swear for me : I am a Christian!” The officer asked the bystanders how much he was worth, and, upon learning that he had nothing but the clothes he wore, contemptuously released him, remarking, “Such a fellow can do us neither good nor harm”.
 560 Isaak der Syrer/Isaak vom Monte Luco Er kam (auf der Flucht vor den Monophysiten?) aus Syrien nach Spoleto (Italien). St Isaac the Syrian lived during the mid-sixth century. He came to the Italian city of Spoleto from Syria. The saint asked permission of the church wardens to remain in the temple, and he prayed in it for two and a half days. One of the church wardens began to reproach him with hypocrisy and struck him on the cheek. Then the punishment of God came upon the church warden. The devil threw him down at the feet of the saint and cried out, "Isaac, cast me out!" Just as the saint bent over the man, the unclean spirit fled.
News of this quickly spread throughout the city. People began to flock to the saint, offering him help and the means to build a monastery. The humble monk refused all this. He left the city and settled in a desolate place, where he built a small cell. Disciples gathered around the ascetic, and so a monastery was formed.
When his disciples asked the Elder why he had declined the gifts, he replied, "A monk who acquires possessions is no longer a monk."
St Isaac was endowed with the gift of clairvoyance. St Gregory Dialogus (March 12) speaks of this in his "Dialogues About the Lives and Miracles of the Italian Fathers." Once, St Isaac bade the monks to leave their spades in the garden for the night, and in the morning he asked them to prepare food for the workers. Some robbers, equal to the number of spades, had come to rob the monastery, but the power of God forced them to abandon their evil intent. They took the spades and began to work. When the monks arrived in the garden, all the ground had been dug up. The saint greeted the toilers and invited them to refresh themselves with food. Then he admonished them to stop their thievery, and gave them permission to come openly and pick the fruits of the monastery garden.
Another time, two almost naked men came to the saint and asked him for clothing. He told them to wait a bit, and sent a monk into the forest. In the hollow of a tree he found the fine clothes the travelers had hidden in order to to deceive the holy igumen. The monk brought back the clothes, and St Isaac gave them to the wanderers. Seeing that their fraud was exposed, they fell into great distress and shame.
It happened that a certain man sent his servant to the saint with two beehives. The servant hid one of these hives along the way. The saint said to the servant, "I accept the gift, but be careful when you go back for the beehive that you hid. Poisonous snakes have entered into it. If you stretch forth your hand, they will bite you."
Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to succeed Pope Theodore I; died at Cherson in the present peninsulas of Krym, 16 Sept., 655, after a reign of 6 years, one month and twenty six days, having ordained eleven priests, five deacons and thirty-three bishops. 5 July is the date commonly given for his election, but 21 July (given by Lobkowitz, "Statistik der Papste" Freiburg, 1905) seems to correspond better with the date of his death and reign (Duchesne "Lib. Pont.", I, 336); his feast is on 12 November.The Greeks honor him on 13 April and 15 September, the Muscovites on 14 April. In the hymns of the Office the Greeks style him infallibilis fidei magister because he was the successor of St. Peter in the See of Rome (Nilles, "Calendarium Manuale", Innsbruck, 1896, I, 336).
 655 Martin I, Pope died in the Crimea great intellect and charity the last pope to die a martyr M (RM).   Martin, one of the noblest figures in a long line of Roman pontiffs (Hodgkin, "Italy", VI, 268) was, according to his biographer Theodore (Mai, "Spicil. Rom.", IV 293) of noble birth, a great student, of commanding intelligence, of profound learning, and of great charity to the poor. Piazza, II 45 7 states that he belonged to the order of St. Basil. He governed the Church at a time when the leaders of the Monothelite heresy, supported by the emperor, were making most strenuous efforts to spread their tenets in the East and West. Pope Theodore had sent Martin as apocrysiary to Constantinople to make arrangements for canonical deposition of the heretical patriarch, Pyrrhus. After his election, Martin had himself consecrated without waiting for the imperial confirmation, and soon called a council in the Lateran at which one hundred and five bishops met. Five sessions were held on 5, 8, 17, 119 and 31 Oct., 649 (Hefele, "Conciliengeschichte", III, 190). The "Ecthesis" of Heraclius and the "Typus" of Constans II were rejected; nominal excommunication was passed against Sergius, Pyrrus, and Paul of Constantinople, Cyrus of Alexandria and Theodore of Phran in Arabia; twenty canons were enacted defining the Catholic doctrine on the two wills of Christ. The decrees signed by the pope and the assembled bishops were sent to the other bishops and the faithful of the world together with an encyclical of Martin. The Acts with a Greek translation were also sent to the Emperor Constans II.
11th v. 13th v. SS. ALFERIUS AND OTHERS, ABBOTS OF LA CAVA St Alferius, the founder of the abbey, although his immediate successors, Leo I of Lucca, Peter I of Polycastro and Constabilis of Castelabbate were all saints; whilst eight later abbots, Simeon, Falco, Marinus, Benincasa, Peter II, Balsamus, Leonard and Leo II all received the title of Blessed.  OF the holy abbots of La Cava who are honoured upon April 12, November 16 and other dates a special notice can only be given here of St Alferius, the founder of the abbey, although his immediate successors, Leo I of Lucca, Peter I of Polycastro and Constabilis of Castelabbate were all saints; whilst eight later abbots, Simeon, Falco, Marinus, Benincasa, Peter II, Balsamus, Leonard and Leo II all received the title of Blessed.
Alferius belonged to the Pappacarboni family which was descended from the ancient Lombard princes. Sent by Gisulf, duke of Salerno, as ambassador to the French court, he fell dangerously ill, and vowed that if he should regain his health he would embrace the religious life. Upon his recovery he entered the abbey of Cluny, then under the rule of St Odilo, but was recalled by the duke of Salerno, who wished him to reform the monasteries in the principality. The task appeared beyond his power, and he retired about the year 1011 to a lonely spot, picturesquely situated in the mountainous region about three miles north-west of Salerno, where he was soon joined by disciples. Of these he would only accept twelve—at any rate at first—but they formed the nucleus around which gradually grew the abbey of La Cava which afterwards attained to great celebrity. Alferius is said to have lived to the age of 120 and to have died on Maundy Thursday, alone in his cell, after he had celebrated Mass and washed the feet of his brethren. Only a very few years after his death there were, in south Italy and Sicily, over 30 abbeys and churches dependent upon La Cava and 3000 monks. Amongst his disciples had been Desiderius, who subsequently became Pope Victor III and a beatus.  The cultus of the sainted abbots of La Cava was confirmed in 1893, that of the beati in 1928.

1495 BD ANGELO OF CHIVASSO; He always been humble: even as vicar general he would only wear the cast-off habits of others and delighted in doing the lowliest work. Now he begged to he allowed to go and beg for the poor; Franciscan friary of the Observance at Genoa.   Bd Angelo’s superiors soon realized that they had in him a recruit of exceptional merit as well as of great missionary zeal, and it was not long before he was admitted to the priesthood. At once he embarked upon a strenuous evangelistic campaign. Full of eloquence and zeal, he made his way into remote villages in the Piedmontese mountains and valleys, regardless of weather and of the roughness of the way. The poor he greatly loved: he sought them out, visited them in sickness, and would often beg on their behalf. He helped them in many ways, notably by encouraging the introduction of monti di pietà to save them from the clutches of money-lenders. His penitents, however, were not confined to the poor. St Catherine of Genoa consulted him, and Charles I, Duke of Savoy, chose him to be his confessor. His so-called Summa Angelica, a book of moral theology which he wrote, was much used. Bd Angelo filled a number of offices, and as superior he was extremely zealous in preserving the purity of the rule; his outstanding capabilities caused him to be three times re-elected vicar general.
When, after the taking of Otranto by the fleet of Mohammed II, Pope Sixtus IV appealed for recruits to fight the threatening forces of Islam, the Observants proved themselves specially zealous in rousing the people to meet the crisis, but it was Bd Angelo who always chose the places of greatest danger for his activities. Moreover, when in 1491, at the age of eighty, he had accepted the office of commissary apostolic to evangelize the Waldensians in the Piedmontese valleys, he displayed a fervour and intrepidity which were rewarded by a surprising measure of success. Many heretics as well as lapsed Catholics were brought back to the faith, so that Pope Innocent VIII wished to raise him to the episcopate, but he could not be induced to consent.
At last, in 1493, Bd Angelo was able to lay down office and to prepare his soul for death. He had always been humble: even as vicar general he would only wear the cast-off habits of others and delighted in doing the lowliest work. Now he begged to he allowed to go and beg for the poor. His last two years were spent at the convent of Cuneo in Piedmont where he died at the age of 84. His cultus was approved in 1753.

1920 St. Teresa of Los Andes; Carmelite nun, Chile’s first saint. (1900-1920) 
One needn’t live a long life to leave a deep imprint. Teresa of Los Andes is proof of that.
As a young girl growing up in Santiago, Chile, in the early 1900s, she read an autobiography of a French-born saint—Therese, popularly known as the Little Flower. The experience deepened her desire to serve God and clarified the path she would follow. At age 19 she became a Carmelite nun, taking the name of Teresa.

The convent offered the simple lifestyle Teresa desired and the joy of living in a community of women completely devoted to God. She focused her days on prayer and sacrifice. “I am God’s, ” she wrote in her diary. “He created me and is my beginning and my end. ”
Toward the end of her short life, Teresa began an apostolate of letter-writing, sharing her thoughts on the spiritual life with many people. At age 20 she contracted typhus and quickly took her final vows. She died a short time later, during Holy Week.
Teresa remains popular with the estimated 100,000 pilgrims who visit her shrine in Los Andes each year. She is Chile’s first saint.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 13
The Prophet Ezekiel ("God is strong") was the son of Buzi and a priest by rank.
He was taken captive and brought to Babylon during the reign of Jechonias.
In the fifth year of this captivity, about 594 or 593 B.C., he began to prophesy.

Having prophesied for about twenty-eight years, he was murdered, it is said, by the tribe of Gad, because he reproached them for their idolatry.

His book of prophecy, divided into forty-eight chapters, is ranked third among the greater Prophets. It is richly filled with mystical imagery and marvelous prophetic visions and allegories, of which the dread Chariot of Cherubim described in the first Chapter is the most famous; in the "gate that was shut," through which the Lord alone entered, he darkly foretold of the Word's Incarnation from the Virgin (44:1-3); through the "dry bones" that came to life again (37:1-14), he prophesied both of the restoration of captive Israel, and the general resurrection of our race.
656 Pope Saint Martin I martyred for defending dual nature of Jesus died at Kherson Crimea last pope die a martyr. Martin I, Pope M (RM) Born in Todi in Umbria, Italy; died in the Crimea, September 16, 655; feast day was previously November 12 (November 10 in York); the Eastern Church celebrates his feast on September 20.

Martin became a deacon in Rome. He displayed a great intellect and charity, was sent by Pope Theodore I as nuncio (apocrisiarius) to Constantinople, and was elected pope in 649 to succeed Theodore I. At once, he convened the council at the Lateran that condemned Monothelitism (the denial that Christ had a human will), the Typos--the edict of the reigning Emperor Constans II, which favored it, and Heraclius's Ekethesis. Although he was supported by the bishops of Africa, England, and Spain, the imperial wrath fell upon the pontiff who was arrested by Constans and taken to Constantinople in 653.
     When Martin I became pope in 649, Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine empire and the patriarch of Constantinople was the most influential Church leader in the eastern Christian world. The struggles that existed within the Church at that time were magnified by the close cooperation of emperor and patriarch.

A teaching, strongly supported in the East, held that Christ had no human will. Twice emperors had officially favored this position, Heraclius by publishing a formula of faith and Constans II by silencing the issue of one or two wills in Christ.
Shortly after assuming the office of the papacy (which he did without first being confirmed by the emperor), Martin held a council at the Lateran in which the imperial documents were censured, and in which the patriarch of Constantinople and two of his predecessors were condemned. Constans II, in response, tried first to turn bishops and people against the pope.
Comment:  The real significance of the word martyr comes not from the dying but from the witnessing, which the word means in its derivation. People who are willing to give up everything, their most precious possessions, their very lives, put a supreme value on the cause or belief for which they sacrifice. Martyrdom, dying for the faith, is an incidental extreme to which some have had to go to manifest their belief in Christ. A living faith, a life that exemplifies Christ's teaching throughout, and that in spite of difficulties, is required of all Christians. Martin might have temporized; he might have sought means to ease his lot, to make some accommodations with the civil rulers.
Quote:   The breviary of the Orthodox Church pays tribute to Martin: “Glorious definer of the Orthodox Faith...sacred chief of divine dogmas, unstained by error...true reprover of heresy...foundation of bishops, pillar of the Orthodox faith, teacher of religion.... Thou didst adorn the divine see of Peter, and since from this divine Rock, thou didst immovably defend the Church, so now thou art glorified with him.”

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 14
 190 St. Tiburtius Martyr with Valerian and Maximus     At Rome, on the Appian Way, the birthday of the holy martyrs Tiburtius, Valerian, and Maximus, who suffered in the time of Emperor Alexander and the prefect Almachius.  The first two were converted to Christ by the exhortations of blessed Cecilia, and baptized by Pope St. Urban.  They were beaten with clubs, then beheaded for the sake of the true faith.  Maximus, who had been the prefect's chamberlain, was touched by their constancy, and confirmed by the vision of an angel, believed in Christ, and was scourged with leaded whips until he died.
   564 St. Abundius Confessor sacrist St. Peter's in Rome humble many graces spiritual gifts   At Rome, St. Abundius, sacristan of the church of St. Peter.
Abundius served in St. Peter's in Rome. Pope St. Gregory I the Great wrote of his life, which was filled with many graces and spiritual gifts.

 655 Saint Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome native of the Tuscany convened Lateran Council at Rome condemn Monothelite heresy last martyred Pope.  He received a fine education and entered into the clergy of the Roman Church. After the death of Pope Theodore I (642-649), Martin was chosen to succeed him.
At this time the peace of the Church was disturbed by the Monothelite heresy (the false doctrine that in Christ there is only one will. He has a divine, and a human will).
"Even if they cripple me, I will not have relations with the Church of Constantinople while it remains in its evil doctrines." The torturers were astonished at the confessor's boldness, and they commuted his death sentence to exile at Cherson in the Crimea.
There the saint died, exhausted by sickness, hunger and deprivations on September 16, 655. He was buried outside the city in the Blachernae church of the Most Holy Theotokos, and later the relics of the holy confessor Martin were transferred to Rome.
The Monothelite heresy was condemned at the Sixth Ecumenical Council in 680.
1120 BD LANVINUS Carthusian monk, came to Rome and obtained from Pope Paschal a bull to protect the houses of the Carthusians from molestation. IN 1893 Pope Leo XIII confirmed the cultus of a Carthusian monk, Bd Lanvinus, {20 February, 1878; 20 July, 1903; Pope Leo XIII } who though little known to the world at large has always been held high in honour in his own order. He was a Norman by birth who seems to have made his way south to the Grande Chartreuse about the year 1090, and thence accompanied St Bruno to Calabria. When the holy founder died there in 1101, Lanvinus was elected to succeed him in the government of the two charterhouses which the order at that time possessed in the south of Italy. Some little difference of opinion had preceded this election, and we possess more than one letter addressed to the new superior by Pope Paschal II, {Pope Paschal II Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 Jan., 1118. }congratulating the brethren on this peaceful solution and admonishing them not to presume too much upon the austerity of their rule, but ever to seek perfect concord and union with God.
In 1102 Lanvinus was summoned to Rome to attend a synod. Other letters of the same pontiff were despatched to him in 1104 commending his zeal in carrying out the pope’s injunctions, and entrusting to his care a difficult negotiation which concerned one of the bishops of that province. In 1105 he was further appointed visitor of all monastic houses in Calabria and charged with the duty of restoring strict discipline; while eight years later he again came to Rome and obtained from Pope Paschal a bull to protect the houses of the Carthusians from molestation. He died greatly revered on April 11, 1120, but his feast is kept in the order on this day.

1124 Caradoc of Llandaff Abbot monk musician reputation for holiness miracles quieted wildest beasts healer incorrupt (AC).  As a young man St Caradoc lived at the court of Rhys ap Tewdwr, prince of South Wales, where he occupied the honourable post of harper. One day he fell into disgrace with his master who blamed him for the loss of two favourite greyhounds and threatened to kill him. Thus brought to realize the folly of trusting in the favour of earthly princes, Caradoc resolved from henceforth to give his services only to the King of kings. He accordingly abandoned the court and repaired to Llandaff, where he received the tonsure from the bishop who sent him to serve in the church of St Teilo. Afterwards he spent some years as a hermit near the abandoned church of St Cenydd in Gower and then retired with some companions to the still more remote solitude of an island off the coast of Pembroke. Here they suffered from Norse raiders, and St Caradoc eventually settled in St Ismael’s cell at Haroldston, of which he was given charge. Like so many other solitaries Caradoc had unusual power over the lower animals, illustrated on one occasion by his mastering a pack of hounds “by a gentle movement of his hand”, when they were quite out of the owner’s control.
St Caradoc was buried with great honour in the cathedral church of St David, where the remains of his shrine may be seen.
A still extant letter of Pope Innocent III directs certain abbots to make inquiry into the life and miracles of this Welsh hermit.
1246 St. Peter Gonzalez Dominican evangelized protector of captive Muslims and cared for sailors.   St. Peter Gonzales Peter Gonzales, also known as St. Elmo or St. Telmo, was born to a Castilian family of nobility. He was educated by his uncle, the Bishop of Astorga, named canon of the local cathedral, famous for his penances and mortifications, joined the Dominican Order, preached and made chaplain of the court of King St. Ferdinand III. He converted and influenced the soldiers of his country, evangelized, and died on Easter Sunday. He was canonized by Pope Benedict XIV in 1741. Peter evangelized throughout his country and all along the coast. He had a special fondness for sailors. He used to visit them aboard their ships, preaching the Gospel and praying for their needs.
1433 St. Lydwine heroically accepted plight as will of God offered her sufferings for humanity's sins Jesus Christ confided in her She experienced mystical gifts, including supernatural visions of heaven, hell, purgatory, apparitions of Christ, and the stigmata Patron of sickness & skaters.  About the year 1407 she began to have ecstasies and mystical visions. While her body lay in prolonged cataleptic trances, her spirit communed with our Lord, with the saints, and with her guardian angel, or it would visit the holy places of Rome and Palestine or else churches near at hand. Now she would help our Lord to carry His cross on Calvary, now she would witness the pains of purgatory and would be given a foretaste of the joys of Heaven.
Two points are emphasized by her biographers: never, in all her raptures, did she lose sight of her vocation, and always those spiritual privileges were followed by increase of suffering. Acclaimed as she was even then as a saint, she was not destined to escape detraction, which came in a very painful form.
 The biography of Bd Lydwina compiled by John Brugman has been printed, both in its first and latest form, by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii; and they have also given extracts from the memoir by Thomas a Kempis. John Gerlac’s narrative is in Dutch and was first printed at Delft in 1487. Full bibliographical details are provided in the excellent little volume Sainte Lydwine contributed by Hubert Meuffels to the series “Les Saints” (1925). This is by far the best popular life, and it corrects in many details the extravagances and inaccuracies of Huysmans’ Saints Lydwine de Schiedam which has gone through so many editions. There are several other lives of less value. That by Thomas a Kempis has been translated into English by Dom Vincent Scully (1912), with a useful introduction. In this introduction may be found a translation of the striking official document drawn up in 1421 by the municipality of Schiedam attesting among other things that “within the seven years last passed she (Lydwina) has used no food or drink at all nor does use any at present”. Although she is quite commonly called Saint Lydwina, she has never been officially canonized, but her cultus was formally confirmed by Pope Leo XIII in 1890.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 15
The Departure of the Righteous Joachim, The Lord Christ Grandfather.
On this day the righteous Joachim (Yonakhir - Zadok) departed. He was the father of St. Mary, the Theotokos, the mother of God incarnate. He was of the seed of David, and of the tribe of Judah, for he was the son of Jotham, the son of Lazarus, the son of Eldad who ascended up in genealogy to Solomon the king, the son of David whom God promised that his seed should reign over the children of Israel for ever.
The wife of this righteous man, Hannah was barren, and both of them prayed and entreated God continually to give them a child. Having accepted their petition He gave them a good and sweet fruit, which satisfied all the men of the world, and removed from them the bitterness of servitude, and He made Joachim worthy to be called the father of the Lord Christ in regard of His marvelous and wondrous Incarnation. After God had pleased him with the birth of our Lady, his heart was rejoiced and he offered his offerings, and the shame had been removed from him, he departed in peace when the Virgin was three years old.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.

  100 Holy Martyr Sukhios and 16 Gruzian (Georgian) Companions new names: to the eldest -- Sukhios (replacing his old name Bagadras), and  companions Andrew, Anastasias, Talale, Theodorites, Juhirodion, Jordan, Kondrates, Lukian, Mimnenos, Nerangios, Polyeuktos, James, Phoki, Domentian, Victor and Zosima.
The holy remains of the martyrs remained undecayed and unburied until the time of the IV Century, when they were placed in graves and consigned to earth by local Christians (the names of the holy martyrs were found written on a cliff).
The holy PriestMartyr Gregory, Enlightener of Armenia (+ c. 335, Comm. 30 September), built a church on this spot and established a monastery. And afterwards, a curative spring of water was discovered there.( shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) see map close to Yerevan {Even when Agathangelos describes well-known events, he borrows from the Bible. Diocletian's persecution of the Church is talked about completely in Bible images, with no reference to any actual events. Gregory is nourished in the terrible pit as Elijah was; Drtad's bestial transformation recalls that of Nebuchadnezzar. There are also countless references to liturgical and patristic writings, and it is unfortunate that we modern readers miss so many of these. Agathangelos presumed on the part of his readers an intimate familiarity with the Scriptures, Liturgy, and spiritual writings that most of us today simply do not possess.
Agathangelos had a purpose in mind as he wrote about Gregory. That purpose is reflected in some of the differences in emphasis between Agathangelos' work about the saint and the work of others. For example, Movses Khorenatsi gives us much more detail about Gregory's origins, and tries to tie him to the first enlightener, Thaddeus. In general, he gives more detail about all aspects of Gregory's life than Agathangelos does. But Agathangelos is not interested in establishing an apostolic tie for Gregory, or presenting his life in detail. His purpose is mainly to enhance Gregory's role as the first bishop, first church builder, and first establisher of a hierarchy in the Armenian Church. He wants to show the importance of the hierarchical structure of the Church, and emphasize the authority of the patriarch's position, and this he does by tying both to the great saint so highly venerated in the Church.
Central to this effort is Agathangelos' description of Gregory's vision of the burial place of the martyrs. Gregory is shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) is to be built. Thus Agathangelos establishes divine foundation for cathedral and for church leaders who reside there ­ so again, he makes a case for the "rightness" of the hierarchs and the hierarchical structure of the Church.}
 679 St. Hunna devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg.
Called “the Holy Washerwoman,” a noblewoman who devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg, France. The daughter of a duke and wife of Huno of Hunnaweyer, she even washed the poor's clothes, hence her name. She was canonized in 1520 by Pope Leo X.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 16
   460 St. Turibius of Astorga Bishop stern disciplinarian opponent of the heretical Priscillianist  At Paléntia, St. Turibius, bishop of Astorga.  With the aid of Pope St. Leo, he drove out of Spain completely the Priscillian heresy.  He went to rest in the Lord with a great renown for miracles.   St Turibius became bishop of Astorga when the errors of the Priscillianists were gaining many adherents in various parts of Spain. Based on forged apostolic writings, this heresy was a subtle form of Manichaeism which seems to have attracted both laymen and clergy: even Dictinus, the previous bishop of Astorga, is said at one time to have defended its teachings. St Turibius, on the other hand, came forward as an uncompromising champion of the Catholic faith. Not only did he boldly expose and denounce the new doctrines, but he took strong action against the leaders of the movement. He then appealed for support to Pope St Leo the Great, to whom he sent a report of the measures he was adopting. Leo in reply wrote a long epistle in which he categorically condemned the tenets of the Priscillianists. Mainly as a result of the efforts of St Turibius, thus backed by the authority of Rome, the spread of this heresy was checked, and the bishop was able to devote his energies to the enforcement of discipline amongst his clergy and the reform of morals amongst his people. His death occurred about the year 450.
900 St. Lambert of Saragossa servant Martyred by his Saracen master in Spain.   Lambert of Saragossa M (RM); cultus promoted by Pope Hadrian VI. Saint Lambert was a servant who was killed near Saragossa, Spain, by his Saracen master during the Moorish occupation (Benedictines).
1116 Magnus of Orkney Magnus stood against wanton violence and racism against foreigners).  Died on Igilsay Island, Norway, Earl Magnus Erlendsson of Norway, son of Erling, ruled over half the Orkney Islands. He was killed by his cousin Haakon, who ruled over the other half.   Magnus is venerated as the protector of Scotland and a martyr, even though as a young man he participated in the Viking raids on Scotland. .  After King Magnus Barefoot bad been killed in battle against the Irish, his son Sigurd allowed Haakon to return to the Orkneys, of which he wished to be the sole ruler. But Magnus, whose brother Erlend had also been slain, gathered a body of men and proceeded to his native country, where he vindicated his right to share in the government of the islands. Although the two cousins could unite against a common foe, disputes often arose between them. At last Haakon, whose overbearing spirit could no longer brook a rival, invited Magnus to meet him with a few followers on the island of Egilsay, under pretext of cementing a lasting peace. Magnus unsuspectingly complied, but was overpowered by a large band of men brought by Haakon and was treacherously slain, refusing to resist. The cathedral of Kirkwall, where he was buried (and where what seem to have been his bones were found in 1919, and many other churches have been dedicated in honour of St Magnus, who was regarded as a martyr, in spite of the fact that he was murdered on political rather than on religious grounds. He is said to have appeared to Robert Bruce with a promise of victory, on the eve of Bannockburn, and his feast is still observed in the diocese of Aberdeen.
1378 The Nun Theodora of Nizhegorod, in the world Anastasia (Vassa) entered the Nizhegorod Zachat'ev monastery attained the gift of humility and love.   The daughter of the Tver' boyar-noble Ioann and his spouse Anna. She was born in the year 1331. At 12 years of age they gave her in marriage to the Nizhegorod prince Andrei Konstantinovich. after 12 years of childless married life, the prince died, having accepted monasticism (+ 2 June 1365). The holy princess continued to live in the world for another four years, and then she set free her servants, distributed off her substance and entered the Nizhegorod Zachat'ev monastery. She was tonsured by Sainted Dionysii, afterwards the archbishop of Suzdal' (+ 1385, Comm. 15 October and 26 June).
In monastic life the saint often went without food for a day or two, and sometimes even five; her nights she spent in tearful prayers, and on her body she wore an hairshirt. She attained the gift of humility and love and she bore every abuse without malice. The example of the strict life of the Nun Theodora attracted others also: in her common-life monastery were tonsured princesses and boyaresses, and in all there about 100 sisters. The Nun Theodora died in the year 1378.

1783 St. Benedict Joseph Labré "the Beggar of Rome," a pilgrim recluse devoted to the Blessed Sacrament miracles soaring over the ground, as well as bilocation, is frequently attested in Benedict's case.  1783 St. Benedict Joseph Labré "the Beggar of Rome," a pilgrim recluse devoted to the Blessed Sacrament miracles soaring over the ground, as well as bilocation, is frequently attested in Benedict's case
Romæ natális sancti Benedícti-Joséphi Labre Confessóris, qui contémptu sui et extrémæ voluntáriæ paupertátis laude exstitit insígnis.
    At Rome, the birthday of St. Benedict Joseph Labre, confessor, who was famed for his contempt of self and his great voluntary poverty. miraculous multiplication of bread for some poor people and by the healing of a confirmed invalid. “God’s will be done”, he said, as he took a final farewell of the Cistercians of Septfons in 1770.
Benedict now determined to go on pilgrimage to Rome, walking all the way and living on alms. He set out accordingly, staying among other places at Ars, where he met Mr Vianney, father of the future curé. Having crossed the Alps into Italy, he wrote from Piedmont a touching letter to his parents—the last they ever received from him. In it he apologized for the uneasiness he may have caused them and announced his intention of trying to enter an Italian monastery. This he does not appear to have done, for his true vocation began to dawn upon him. Not by shutting himself up in any cloister was he to abandon the world, but by obeying the counsels of perfection without turning his back on the world. Literally and in spirit he must follow the example of our Lord and so many of His saints. With this object in view he embarked upon a life of pilgrimages which led him to the principal shrines in western Europe. Oblivious of wind and weather, he travelled everywhere on foot, carrying neither purse nor scrip nor yet provisions for the way. Often he slept in the open air upon the bare ground; at best he took his rest in a shed or a garret, for he could rarely be induced to accept a bed. He wished to be homeless like his Master. He saluted no man by the way unless specially moved to do so, he seldom opened his lips except to acknowledge or distribute to others the alms which he had received.

1879 St. Bernadette Mary appeared to Bernadette 18 times and spoke with her above a rose  bush in a grotto  called Massabielle dressed in blue and white with a rosary of ivory and gold.    In the city of Nevers in France, St. Mary Bernard Soubirous of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity, also called the Christian Institute.  She was favoured with frequent apparitions and conversations at Lourdes with Mary Immaculate, the Mother of God.  In 1933 her name was added to the roll of holy virgins by Pope Pius XI.   St. Bernadette Soubirous 1879 Famed visionary of Lourdes, baptized Mary Bernard. She was born in Lourdes, France, on January 7, 1844, the daughter of Francis and Louise Soubirous. Bernadette, a severe asthma sufferer, lived in abject poverty. On February 11, 1858, she was granted a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in a cave on the banks of the Gave River near Lourdes. She was placed in consider able jeopardy when she reported the vision, and crowds gathered when she had futher visits from the Virgin, from February 18 of that year through March 4.  The civil authorities tried to frighten Bernadette into recanting her accounts, but she remained faithful to the vision.

  On February 25, a spring emerged from the cave and the waters were discovered to be of a miraculous nature, capable of healing the sick and lame. On March 25, Bernadette announced that the vision stated that she was the Immaculate Conception, and that a church should be erected on the site. Thus, she lived out her self-effacing life, dying at the age of 35 as did Saint Benedict Labre. The events of 1858 resulted in Lourdes becoming one of the most important pilgrim shrines in the history of Christendom, ending with the consecration of the basilica in 1876. But Saint Bernadette took no part in these developments; nor was it for her visions that she was canonized, but for the humble simplicity and religious trust that characterized her whole life (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Sandhurst, Schamoni, Trochu, Walsh, White).
Saint Bernadette is the patron saint of shepherds (White).

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 17
Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I) the Fifty Fifth Patriarch commemoration of Wonder took place on his hand  (Coptic)
Tuesday of St Thomas week we remember those Orthodox Christians from all ages who have died in faith, and in the hope of resurrection. On this day also a great sign was made manifest through our holy father Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I) the fifty fifth Pope of Alexandria. This Pope went to the desert of Scetis in order to fast the Holy Lent with the fathers the monks. On Palm Sunday many Arabs came to the desert of Scetis to plunder the monasteries. They stood on the rock east of the church of St. Macarius. Their swords were drawn in their hands ready to kill and steal. The bishops and the monks gathered together and decided to leave the desert before the Holy Feast of Resurrection (Easter) and they took counsel with Pope Shenouda who told them; "As for me I will not leave the desert until I complete the Pascal week. On Maundy Thursday the situation became worse.
The Pope took his staff that had the sign of the cross on it and he wanted to go out to meet the Arabs saying: "It is better for me to die with the people of God" but they prevented him from going out, but instead, he strengthened and comforted them. Then he went forth to meet the Arabs with his staff in his hand. When they saw him, they retreated and fled away as if they were pursued by an army of soldiers and from this day onwards they never came back to do any harm.
The prayers of this father be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.
There are indications of this commemoration in the sermons of the Fathers of the Church.
St John Chrysostom, for example, mentions it in his homily "On the Cemetery and the Cross."
In pre-Revolutionary Russia bars remained closed and alcoholic beverages were not sold until this Day of Rejoicing so that the joy people felt would be because of the Resurrection, and not an artificial joy brought on by alcohol.
Today the Church remembers its faithful members at Liturgy, and kollyva is offered in remembrance of those who have fallen asleep.
Priests visit cemeteries to bless the graves of Orthodox Christians, and to share the paschal joy with the departed.
It is also customary to give alms to the poor on this day.

   At Rome, St. Anicetus, pope and martyr, who received the palm of martyrdom in the persecution of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Verus.
155-166 St. Anicetus pope a Syrian from Emesa actively opposed Marcionism and Gnosticism.  165 ST ANICETUS, POPE AND MARTYR
ST ANICETUS was raised to the chair of St Peter in the latter part of the reign of the Emperor Antoninus Pius. He is styled a martyr in the Roman and other martyrologies and, if he did not actually shed his blood for the faith, he at least purchased the title of martyr by the sufferings and trials he endured. His efforts appear to have been specially directed to combating the errors of Valentine and Marcion and to protecting his flock from heresy. It was whilst he was pope that St Polycarp, the great bishop of Smyrna, came to Rome in connection with the controversy about the date of Easter. The conference which took place led to no settlement, but, to quote the words of Eusebius, “the bonds of charity were not broken”. St Anicetus is said to have been a Syrian.

350  Innocent of Tortona priest for remaining steadfast to the Christian faith B (RM).   THE parents of St Innocent at Tortona in the north of Italy, although they were Christians living in times of persecution, were by imperial licence exempted from molestation. The exemption granted to the parents did not extend to the children, and after the death of his father and mother Innocent was summoned to appear before the magistrates. As the young man steadfastly refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was tortured and sentenced to perish at the stake. During the night before his execution he had a dream of his father, who bade him go at once to Rome, where he would find safety. He awoke to find his guards fast asleep, and easily succeeded in making his escape. Upon his arrival in Rome he was kindly received by Pope St Miltiades.
Pope St Silvester
raised him to the diaconate, and after the accession of the Emperor Constantine he was sent back to Tortona as bishop. During the twenty-eight years of his episcopate he showed great zeal in spreading the faith, in building churches, and in converting pagan temples into Christian sanctuaries.
We owe these details to a late and quite untrustworthy life of St Innocent which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii. But Father F. Savio has shown in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xv (1896), pp. 377—384, that the saint really existed, and that there are germs of truth in the legend, though the story is a fiction. See on the other hand the brochure of Canon V. Loge (1913) to which Fr Savio subsequently replied.
Departure of St. Zosimus (Zocima). On this day in the middle of the fifth century the ascetic father and the struggling monk Abba Zocima the priest, departed (Coptic).  The custom of those monks during the Holy Lent, was that after they had fasted the first weak they partook the Holy Communion, then they left the monastery singing the twenty six psalm, and at the end of it, they prayed together. Then the abbot blessed them and they bed farewell to each other. Then they dispersed in the desert of Jordan and each of them carried out his spiritual fight by himself. St. Zosimus used to go out with them each year wondering in the desert asking God to show him who was more perfect than him.
As he was wondering about he met Mary the Egyptian (Coptic). He learned from her about her life history and the reason for her wondering in the desert. She asked him to visit her after one year to give her the Holy Mysteries. He came to her in the next year and gave her the Holy Communion. In the year after he revisited her again but he found her had departed and he buried her and told the monks of the monastery concerning her strife. After he had lived ninety nine years he departed in peace.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.

 435 Saint Acacius, Bishop of Melitene support of Orthodoxy wonderworker made rain, checked flood, stopped dome from collapse 3rd Ecumenical Council 431 defended Orthodox teaching of 2 Natures (Divine /Human) of the Savior His seedless Birth from Most Holy Virgin Mother of God.  He wisely governed his diocese. By his firm faith, humility and deeds, the saint acquired the gift of wonderworking. Once, during a dry summer, the saint celebrated Liturgy in an open field, suddenly the wine in the Holy Chalice was mixed by the falling rain, which fell throughout the land.
He prayed during a flood, and the advancing river turned away and did not rise higher than the stone which he had placed at the riverbank. On one of the islands of the River Azar, despite the opposition of the pagans, the saint built a temple in honor of the Most Holy Theotokos. The builders of the church either through carelessness or through malice, were not careful in building the dome. During the Liturgy the dome was ready to collapse. The people rushed out of the church in terror. But the saint halted their flight saying, "The Lord is the defender of my life, of whom shall I be afraid?" (Ps. 26/27:1). The dome remained suspended in the air. Only when the services were ended, and the saint was the last one to emerge from the church, did the dome collapse, causing harm to no one. After this, the church was rebuilt.
St Acacius participated in the Third Ecumenical Council (431) and he defended the Orthodox teaching of the Two Natures (Divine and Human) of the Savior, and of His seedless Birth from the Most Holy Virgin Mother of God.
St Acacius peacefully fell asleep in the Lord around the year 435. He should not be confused with St Acacius the Confessor (March 31), who was also a bishop of Melitene.
During Alberic's reign, the new order received definitive approval from Pope Pascal II and was placed under the protection of the Holy See.
The Benedictines of Cîteaux received a white habit and made their solemn professions on March 21, 1098, Passion Sunday.

1134 Stephen Harding one of the founders of the Cistercians  OSB Cist. Abbot (RM).  At Citeaux in France, St. Stephen, abbot, who was first to live in the Cistercian desert and who joyfully welcomed St. Bernard and his companions when they came to him.
Born probably in Sherborne, Dorsetshire, England; died at Cîteaux, France, March 28; canonized in 1623; his feast is celebrated on July 16 among the Cistercians..  Stephen assisted at the death of Alberic on January 26, 1109. Alberic was the first of the trio to prepare a meeting place for them with God. Stephen missed Alberic, his friend, his "companion in arms," his "general in the battles of the Lord," in the time that they were placed "in the front line of the battle." Stephen's character and temperament are well expressed in this military language.
In the following year, on March 21, 1110, there was a second departure for eternity. Robert died. Stephen was the sole survivor of the three. This vouched-safe, original Cistercian, however, was not to conform in all points with the Benedictine prototype because he was to become the champion of the most absolute poverty with an almost Franciscan insistence. With the death of Alberic, Stephen found himself elected abbot of Cîteaux against his will.
1419 Blessed Clare Gambacorta both devout and penitential Poor Clares OP Widow (AC).   (also known as Thora or Theodora of Pisa) Born in Venice(?), Italy, in 1362; beatified by Pope Pius VIII in 1830. At last Peter Gambacorta relented, and not only allowed his daughter to enter the Dominican priory of Holy Cross, but promised to build another house of the order. She now became associated with Mary Mancini, also a widow, and destined like herself to be raised to the altars of the Church. The teaching of St Catherine of Siena strongly influenced the two women who, when they were transferred to Gambacorta’s new foundation in 1382, succeeded in inaugurating observance of their rule in its primitive austerity. This house, in which Bd Clare was at first sub-prioress and then prioress, became the training centre for many saintly women who afterwards carried the reform movement to other Italian cities. To this day, enclosed Dominican nuns are often spoken of in Italy as “Sisters of Pisa”. They led a contemplative life of prayer, manual work and study: “Never forget”, said Bd Clare’s director, “that in our order very few have become saints who were not likewise scholars.”   Bd Clare was a great sufferer towards the close of her life, and as she lay on her death-bed with outstretched arms, she was heard to murmur, “My Jesus, here I am upon the cross”. Just before she died, however, her face was illuminated with a radiant smile and she blessed her daughters absent as well as present. She had reached the age of fifty-seven years. Her cultus was confirmed in 1830.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 18
 185  St. Apollonius the Apologist Roman senator Martyr whose Apologia or defense of the faith is considered one of the most priceless documents of the early Church.   THE Emperor Marcus Aurelius had persecuted the Christians on principle, but his son Commodus, who succeeded him about the year 180, although a vicious man, showed himself not unfavourably disposed towards them. During the cessation of active persecution under his reign, the number of the faithful greatly increased, many men of rank enlisting themselves under the banner of the cross. Amongst these was a Roman senator called Apollonius, who was well versed in philosophy as well as in the Holy Scriptures. In the midst of the peace which the Church was enjoying, he was denounced as a Christian by one of his own slaves to Perennis, the praetorian prefect. The laws against the Christians had not been repealed and, although the slave was promptly put to death as an informer, Perennis called upon Apollonius to renounce his religion. As the saint refused, the prefect referred him to the judgement of the Roman senate. In their presence the martyr who, possibly on account of his learning and social position, seems to have been treated with a certain exceptional consideration, debated with Perennis and boldly gave an account of his faith. As Apollonius persisted in his refusal to offer sacrifice, he was condemned and decapitated; another, less probable, account tells us that he was put to death by having his legs crushed.
When the senator refused to apostatize, the case was remanded to the Senate, where a remarkable dialogue took place between Perennis and Apollonius. Because of his influence in society, those judging him paid close attention to his defense of Christianity, which is recorded in the Roman Martyrology.

"Are you bent on dying?" asked Perennis.
"No," said Apollinius, "I enjoy life; but love of life does not make me afraid to die. There is waiting for me something better: eternal life, given to the person who has lived well on earth."
Apollinius pointed out that everyone must die and that it was better to die for the sake of true belief and the true God than to die of some ordinary disease because a martyr becomes the seed of new Christians. He argued that Christianity is superior by its concepts of death and life: death is a natural necessity which has nothing frightening about it, while the true life is the life of the soul.  He explained that paganism is futile because idols are human artefacts without life, automony, reason, or virtue. Saint Apollinius then took the opportunity to give the whole court a reasoned apology of his Christian faith, which is a moving, direct summary of the entire Christian creed. Above all, he reasoned, Christianity surpasses paganism through the salvific work of Jesus Christ, the revealing Word of God and teacher of moral life, who became man to destroy sin by his death. Apollonius continued that Christ's death was prophesied both by Scripture and by Plato.
639 St. Laserian monk abbot Bishop papal legate brother of St. Goban ordained priest by Saint Gregory the Great.  
THE early history of St Laisren is very uncertain in view of the discrepancy between the various accounts which have come down to us. He is said to have spent several years at Iona, and then to have proceeded to Rome where he received ordination from Pope St Gregory the Great. We next find him at Leighlin, on the banks of the Barrow, in a monastery presided over by its founder, St Goban. At a synod held at White Fields in the immediate vicinity, St Laisren was foremost in upholding the Roman date for keeping Easter as against the Columban usage still widely prevalent in Ireland. The conference, which was conducted with great courtesy on both sides, could come to no conclusion, and it was decided to send St Laisren with a deputation to refer the matter to the pope. On this second visit to Rome, the saint was consecrated bishop by Honorius and appointed papal legate for Ireland. In this capacity he would seem to have succeeded in practically settling the paschal controversy as far as the south of Ireland was concerned. About two years after the synod, St Goban resigned the government of the monastery to St Laisren, who ruled it until his death. His feast is kept throughout Ireland.
820 Saint John disciple of St Gregory of Decapolis born end of the eighth century opposition to Iconoclast heresy    The post of cantor, which he held, was dear to him, for the Divine Office was his passion: he would become so much absorbed in it as to be oblivious to all things else. He eventually became abbot, and the monastery prospered greatly under his rule, his prestige being so great that outsiders eagerly assisted him in carrying out his schemes; and privileges were granted to the abbey by Pope Alexander III. When St Idesbald died, his brethren, in deference to his great sanctity, departed from the custom of the order and laid him in a coffin which they buried in their church. His body, which was found to be incorrupt 450 years after his death, now lies at Bruges.
1145 The Departure of Pope Gabriel II, the 70th Pope of Alexandria who was known as Ibn Turaik transcribed many Arabic and Coptic books retained its contents and comprehended its interpretations.  {Coptic}.  On this day of the year 861 A.M. (April 5th., 1145 A.D.) the great and holy father Pope Gabriel II, the seventy Pope of the See of St. Mark, who was known as Ibn Turaik, departed. This Pope was from the nobles of Cairo, and he was a writer, scribe, distinguished scholar, with a commendable conduct. He transcribed with his hand many Arabic and Coptic books, he retained its contents and comprehended its interpretations. The elders of the people and the clergy chose him for the Patriarchal Chair, and his enthronement was on the 9th day of Amshir, 847 A.M. (February 3rd., 1131 A.D.).
When he prayed his first Divine Liturgy in St. Macarius monastery as the custom of the previous Patriarchs, at the end of the Liturgy, he added to the profession after the saying: "I believe and confess to the last breath, that this is the life-giving Flesh that Thine Only-Begotten Son, our Lord, God and Savior, Jesus Christ, took from our Lady, the Lady of us all, the holy Mother of God, Saint Mary," this sentence "He made it one with His Divinity." The monks objected, lest it would be understood from that there was mingling between His Divinity and His Humanity, and asked him to refrain from using it. He refused saying: "This statement was added by a decree from the council of bishops." After a great and lengthy discussion, they decided to add this sentence: "Without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration," because of the fear of falling in the heresy of Eutyches, and he agreed with them.
During his papacy, he ordained 53 bishops and many priests, he drew up Canons and laws concerning inheritance, and many other matters. He never took any money from anyone, nor he touched the revenue of the churches, or that of the religious endowments for the poor. When the governor of that time asked him for money, the nobles and people collected three hundred Dinars in gold and gave them to the governor on his behalf. He remained on the Episcopal Chair for fourteen years, two month and two days, then departed in peace.
May his prayers be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.

1176 St. Galdinus Cardinal of Milan fierce opponent of the Lombards.  MILAN honours as one of its principal patrons the holy Galdinus, whose name appears associated with those of St Ambrose and St Charles Borromeo at the close of every litany of the Milanese rite. A member of the famous Della Scala family, he occupied the posts of chancellor and archdeacon under two archbishops of Milan, winning the confidence of clergy and people by the manner in which he shouldered his responsibilities at a very difficult epoch.
When Pope Alexander III was elected in 1159, a few dissentient cardinals promptly elected a rival pope more favourable to the pretensions of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Milan had already offended the emperor by claiming the right to select its own magistrates, but when the citizens acknowledged Alexander III he became further incensed against them. Archbishop Hubert and his archdeacon Galdinus were obliged to withdraw into exile, and the following year Frederick, with a great army, invested the city, which surrendered after a siege. It was by his orders that the reputed bodies of the Three Magi were then removed from the church of St Eustorgius to Cologne, where the greater part of these “relics” still remain.

1256  St. Buonfiglio Monaldo 1240 of Servants of Mary, or Servites  inspired by vision on feast of the Assumption to a life of solitude and prayer february 12.  Apud montem Senárium, in Etrúria, natális sancti Amidǽi Confessóris, e septem Fundatóribus Ordinis Servórum beátæ Maríæ Vírginis, flagrantíssima in Deum caritáte præclári.  Ipsíus tamen ac Sociórum festum prídie Idus Februárii celebrátur.

On Mount Senario in Tuscany, St. Amadeo, confessor, one of the seven founders of the Order of Servites of the Blessed Virgin Mary, famous for his ardent love for God. 
His feast, together with that of his companions, is kept on the 12th of February.

13th v. Saint Basil Ratishvili prominent figures 13th-century Church gift of prophecy the Most Holy Theotokos called him to censure King Demetre’s impious rule.He was the uncle of Catholicos Ekvtime III. He labored with the other Georgian fathers at the Iveron Monastery on Mt. Athos. Endowed with the gift of prophecy, St. Basil beheld a vision in which the Most Holy Theotokos called upon him to censure King Demetre’s impious rule. (This is actually St. Demetre the Devoted, who in his youth lived profligately but later laid down his life for his nation.)
Having arrived in Georgia and been brought before the king, the God-fearing father denounced the sovereign’s uncrowned marriage [i.e., a conjugal union without the blessing of the Church]. He promised the king that if he abandoned his present way of life, he would find great happiness and success. St. Basil also condemned the ungodly ways of Georgia’s apostate feudal lords.
But the king and his court disregarded the virtuous elder’s admonitions, and in response St. Basil prophesied: “A vicious enemy will kill you, and your kingdom will remain without refuge. Your children will be scattered, your kingdom conquered, and all your wealth seized. Know that, according to the will of the Most Holy Theotokos, everything I have told you will come to pass unless you repent and turn from this way of life. Now I will depart from you in peace.”
St. Basil returned to Mt. Athos and peacefully reposed at the Iveron Monastery.  His vision was fulfilled.
1602 Blessed Andrew Hibernon converted many Moors by his frank simplicity OFM (AC).   1602 BD ANDREW HIBERNON God was pleased to glorify him by giving him the gifts of prophecy and of miracles,  ANDREW HIBERNON came of noble Spanish stock, but his parents, who lived at Alcantarilla, near Murcia, were so poor that at a very early age the boy hired himself out to an uncle, in order to contribute to the support of his family. He had gradually amassed a sum sufficient to provide a dowry for his sister, and was taking it home in triumph, when he was set upon by thieves who robbed him of all. Bitterly disappointed, he now began to realize the uncertainty of earthly riches compared with the heavenly treasure which is eternal. He entered a house of Conventual Franciscans which he soon left to pass to a convent of the Alcantarine reform, where he was professed as a lay-brother. He sought to live a hidden life of self-effacement, humility and prayer, but God was pleased to glorify him by giving him the gifts of prophecy and of miracles. Many owed their conversion to him. The holy man foretold the date of his own death, which occurred at Gandia when he was in his sixty-eighth year.
St Pascal Baylon and Bd John de Ribera made Andrew’s name widely known; but he had been locally honoured as a saint even in his life-time, and he was beatified in 1791.

19 th v.    Departure of Anba Isaac, Disciple of Anba Apollo "I was not fleeing from men but from Satan. If a man hold a lighted lamp in the wind, it will be extinguished. So, it is with us when our hearts and minds shine because of the prayers and the Liturgy then we talk with each other, our hearts and minds become dark." {Coptic}

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 19
1st v. St. Timon 1/7 Deacons chosen by the Apostles to minister to Nazarene of Jerusalem.
1st v. St. Timon century 1/7 Deacons chosen by the Apostles to minister at Nazarene of Jerusalem
Corínthi natális sancti Timónis, qui fuit unus de septem primis Diáconis.  Hic primo apud Berœam Doctor resédit, ac deínde, verbum Dómini disséminans, venit Corínthum; ibíque, a Judǽis et Græcis (ut tráditur) injéctus flammis, sed nihil læsus, demum, cruci affíxus, martyrium suum implévit.
    At Corinth, the birthday of St. Timon, one of the first seven deacons, who was first a teacher at Berea.  Afterwards, while preaching the word of the Lord at Corinth, he was delivered to the flames by the Jews and the Greeks, but remaining uninjured, he ended his martyrdom by crucifixion.
One of the Seven Deacons chosen by the Apostles to assist in the ministering to the Nazarene community of Jerusalem. He was mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (6:5), although the traditions concerning him are confusing. Timon the Deacon M (RM) 1st century. One of the first seven deacons (Acts 6:5), Saint Timon is said to have been crucified in Corinth, though there are conflicting stories about his life (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

 396  St. Crescentius A disciple of St. Zenobius and St. Ambrose.  At Florence, St. Crescent, confessor, a disciple of the blessed Bishop Zenobius who served as a subdeacon of Florence, Italy. Crescentius of Florence (RM) Subdeacon to Saint Zenobius(c. 390) the bishop of Florence, Crescentius was also a disciple of Saint Ambrose (340-397). In art, Saint Crescentius is a deacon (1) with a censer and chalice, (2) with a censer and book, or (3) tending the sick (Roeder). He is especially venerated in Florence, Italy (Roeder). (Attwater2, Benedictines).
  814  George of Antioch monk bishop of Antioch Pisidia BM (RM)814 George of Antioch monk bishop of Antioch Pisidia second Council of Nicaea (797), which condemned the iconoclasts BM (RM)
Antiochíæ Pisídiæ sancti Geórgii Epíscopi, qui, ob sanctárum Imáginum cultum, exsul occúbuit.
    At Antioch in Pisidia, St. George, a bishop, who died in exile for the veneration of sacred images.  
Saint George was a monk before becoming bishop of Antioch, Pisidia. He participated in the second Council of Nicaea (797), which condemned the iconoclasts.
He stand against the heresy led him to be banished by emperor Leo V the Armenian. George died in exile (Benedictines).

1012   St. Alphege Archbishop "1st Martyr of Canterbury." famed for care of poor and austere life incorrupt in 1105.  St ALPHEGE (Aelfheah; Elphege) when a young man entered the monastery of Deerhurst in Gloucestershire. Afterwards he withdrew to a deserted place near been refounded by St Dunstan. As an abbot Alphege would never tolerate the slightest relaxation of the rule, for he realized how easily a small concession may begin to undermine the regular observance of a religious house; he used to say that it was far better for a man to remain in the world than for him to become an imperfect monk.
Upon the death of St Ethelwold in 984, St Dunstan obliged Alphege to accept the bishopric of Winchester, although he was only thirty years of age and shrank from the responsibility. In this position his high qualities and exceptional abilities found a wider scope. His liberality to the poor was so great that during the period of his episcopate there were no beggars in the diocese of Winchester. Adhering to the austerity of his monastic days, he became so thin through prolonged fasts that men declared they could see through his hands when he uplifted them at Mass. The holy prelate had ruled his see wisely for twenty-two years when he was translated to Canterbury in. succession to Archbishop Aelfric. In order to be invested with the pallium, he paid a visit to Rome, where he was received by Pope John XVIII. 
1054    Leo IX "the pilgrim pope" - reformer deacon a stern bishop holy man & army officer  Pope (RM).   1054 Leo IX "the pilgrim pope" - reformer deacon a stern bishop holy man & army officer attempted stopping the schism  (RM)
Romæ sancti Leónis Papæ Noni, virtútum et miraculórum laude insígnis.
    At Rome, Pope St. Leo IX, illustrious for his virtues and his miracles.
1054 ST LEO IX, POPE St Benedict, who touched him with a cross was completely cured severe blood-poisoning
ALSACE, at that period a part of the Holy Roman Empire, was the birthplace of St Leo IX in the year 1002.  His father Hugh, who was closely related to the emperor, and his mother Heilewide were a pious and cultured pair of whom it is recorded, as though it were somewhat unusual, that they spoke fluent French as well as their own German tongue.

In the summer of 1048 Pope Damasus II died after a pontificate of twenty-three days, and the Emperor Henry III chose his kinsman Bruno of Toul as his successor.  He set out for Rome, stopping at Cluny on the way, where he was joined by the monk Hildebrand, afterwards Pope St Gregory VII. His nomination having been endorsed in due form, Bruno was enthroned, taking the name of Leo IX, early in 1049.
It was Leo who first promulgated the proposal to vest the election of future popes exclusively in the Roman cardinals—a suggestion which became law five years after his death. Amongst the monarchs with whom St Leo maintained friendly relations was St Edward the Confessor, whom he authorized to refound Westminster Abbey in lieu of a pilgrimage he had undertaken to make to Rome. During his pontificate King MacBeth is said to have visited the Holy See—perhaps in expiation of his crimes.
Luchesio and his wife Buonadonna wanted to follow St. Francis as a married couple. Thus they set in motion the Secular Franciscan Order.
1260 Blessed Luchesio and Buonadonna they set in motion the Secular Franciscan Order.   Luchesio and Buonadonna lived in Poggibonzi where he was a greedy merchant. Meeting Francis—probably in 1213—changed his life. He began to perform many works of charity.
At first Buonadonna was not as enthusiastic about giving so much away as Luchesio was. One day after complaining that he was giving everything to strangers, Buonadonna answered the door only to find someone else needing help. Luchesio asked her to give the poor man some bread. She frowned but went to the pantry anyway. There she discovered more bread than had been there the last time she looked. She soon became as zealous for a poor and simple life as Luchesio was. They sold the business, farmed enough land to provide for their needs and distributed the rest to the poor.

In the 13th century some couples, by mutual consent and with the Church’s permission, separated so that the husband could join a monastery (or a group such as Francis began) and his wife could go to a cloister. Conrad of Piacenza and his wife did just that. This choice existed for childless couples or for those whose children had already grown up. Luchesio and Buonadonna wanted another alternative, a way of sharing in religious life, but outside the cloister.

To meet this desire, Francis set up the Secular Franciscan Order. Francis wrote a simple Rule for the Third Order (Secular Franciscans) at first; Pope Honorius III approved a more formally worded Rule in 1221.

1289 Blessed Conrad de'Miliani evangelize Libya advisor to cardinal Masci (later Pope Nicholas IV) OFM (AC)  great a devotion to the Sacred Passion that he was sometimes allowed to behold our Lord crowned with thorns and to take part in His sufferings.  1289 BD CONRAD OF ASCOLI great a devotion to the Sacred Passion that he was sometimes allowed to behold our Lord crowned with thorns and to take part in His sufferings
THE power of foreseeing the future is a gift which is seldom bestowed upon the young, but Conrad Miliani of Ascoli was a mere boy when, as we are told, he knelt before a peasant lad called Jerome Masci and greeted him, whether in jest or earnest, as destined to become pope. The prophecy was fulfilled in time, for Jerome in due course occupied the chair of St Peter as Nicholas IV. Although Conrad was of noble birth, there sprang up between the two youths a close friendship which was to prove lifelong. Together they entered the Franciscan Order, together they were professed, together they studied, and they received their doctor’s degree at Perugia on the same day.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 20
1st v. Apostle Zacchaeus climbed tree to see the Savior pass by accompanied St Peter Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine;   on his travels Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine
The holy Apostle Zacchaeus was a rich publican at Jericho. Since he was short of stature, he climbed a sycamore tree in order to see the Savior passing by. After the Ascension of the Lord, St Zacchaeus accompanied St Peter on his travels. Tradition says he became the Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, where he died in peace.
The Gospel (Luke 19:1-10) describing Zacchaeus' encounter with Christ is read on the Sunday before the TRIODION begins.
      Departure of St. Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem (Coptic).  On this day, the holy father Anba Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem, departed. This holy father was Bishop of Cappadocia, and he came to the city of Jerusalem to receive the blessing of the holy places and then return to his country.
St. Narcissus, who was the Bishop of Jerusalem at that time (Second century - his departure on the first day of Baramhat), was advanced in age and had reached over 110 years. He often asked his people that he wished to retire from his See, but they refused. When St. Alexander finished his visit and decided to return to his Chair in Cappadocia, the people of Jerusalem heard a voice from heaven saying: "Go to the gate of the city, and the first one to enter it, seize him and make him stay with Narcissus to assist him." When they went to the gate they met the Bishop Alexander, and they pleaded with him to stay with Abba Narcissus to assist him. He refused because he could not leave his flock that the Lord Christ had entrusted him with. They told him about the voice which they had heard from heaven and that it was God's Will. He accepted and wrote to the people of his parish what had happened, apologized, and allowed them to appoint another bishop in his place. He remained in Jerusalem, assisting its bishop Anba Narcissus, for about 5 years.
 330 St. Theodore Trichinas one of the most revered in the history of Orthodox monasticism; renowned for many miracles, especially for his power over the demons; from his body issues liquid that imparts health to the sick.  
His life was adorned with miracles, and he had the power to heal the sick. He reposed at the end of the fourth century, or the beginning of the fifth century. A healing myrrh flows from his relics.
The name of St Theodore Trichinas is one of the most revered in the history of Orthodox monasticism. St Joseph the Hymnographer (April 4) has composed a Canon to the saint.
Marcellinus crossed over to Europe with fellow missionaries Vincent and Domninus. They preached the Gospel in what was later called the Dauphiné. Marcellinus was consecrated the first bishop of Embrun by Saint Eusebius of Vercelli. Numerous legends tell of cures and other miracles worked by Marcellinus, some of which are reported by Saint Gregory of Tours. Near the end of his life, he was persecuted by the Arians, whom he bitterly opposed, and was forced to live in isolation in the Auvergne hills.
  374 Marcellinus African priest of Embrun BM Vincent, & Domninus missionaries MM (RM).  At Embrun in France, St. Marcellin, first bishop of that city.  By divine inspiration he came from Africa with his holy companions Vincent and Domninus, and converted the greater portion of the inhabitants of the Maritime Alps by his preaching, and by the wonderful prodigies which he still continues to work.  Marcellinus crossed over to Europe with fellow missionaries Vincent and Domninus. They preached the Gospel in what was later called the Dauphiné. Marcellinus was consecrated the first bishop of Embrun by Saint Eusebius of Vercelli. Numerous legends tell of cures and other miracles worked by Marcellinus, some of which are reported by Saint Gregory of Tours. Near the end of his life, he was persecuted by the Arians, whom he bitterly opposed, and was forced to live in isolation in the Auvergne hills.
  380 Sainted Betranes and Theotimos were bishops of Lesser Skythia, where the mouth of the Dunaj (Danube) flows into Thrace. Their diocesan cathedral was situated in the city of Toma (Kiustendji). They were Skythians.  The impressive miracles, worked by the saint in the Name of Jesus Christ, so astonished the pagans, that they called him a Roman god.Their diocesan cathedral was situated in the city of Toma (Kiustendji). They were Skythians.
The Church historian Sozomenes gives an account about Sainted Betranes. When the emperor Valens (364-378) stayed in Toma, he began in church to urge the saint to enter into communion with Arian heretics. Saint Betranes boldly answered, that he adhered to the teaching of the holy Nicean fathers and, in order to avoid bantering, he went off to another of the city churches. And all the people followed after him. There remained in the deserted church only the emperor with his retinue. For such audacity the emperor condemned the saint to exile, but he feared the grumbling of the crowd and let him go free. The Skyths loved their archpastor and they cared about him as a good and saintly man.

 685 Monk Saint Anastasius of Sinai one of the great ascetics who flourished on Mt. Sinai humility received wisdom and spiritual discernment from God wrote Lives of several holy Fathers & other spiritually instructive books.   ENGLISH-SPEAKING visitors to the crypt of St Peter’s at Rome often have their attention called to the epitaph which eulogizes an English king buried in that hallowed spot.
Caedwalla in 685 began a campaign to obtain and to enlarge the West Saxon kingdom. After several years of savage fighting he made a pilgrimage to Rome, where he received baptism at the hands of Pope St Sergius I on Easter eve in the year 689. The king was taken ill almost immediately afterwards, and died— as Bede tells us he had wished to die—while still wearing his white baptismal garment. He was buried in the archbasilica, and his long metrical epitaph (without the prose addition given by Bede) has been preserved from the original stone in old St Peter’s. Caedwalla was the first of several Anglo-Saxon kings who are recorded to have left their kingdoms to go ad limina Apostolorum, but there is no evidence that there was any ancient cultus of him.

1317 St. Agnes of Montepulciano Nun foundress in Tuscany noted for visions (of Christ Blessed Virgin angels) levitations miracles for the faithful (1435 - incorrupt).  She was born circa 1268 and at the age of nine entered the monastery of Montepulciano, near her home in Gracchiano-Vecchio. Four years later she was commissioned by Pope Nicholas IV to assist in the foundation of a new convent in Procena. At fifteen she became the head of the nuns there. About 1300, the people of Montepulciano built a new convent in order to lure Agnes back to them. She established a convent under the Dominican rule and governed there until her death in 1317.
Agnes was noted for her visions. She held the infant Christ in her arms and received Holy Communion from an angel. She experienced levitations and she performed miracles for the faithful of the region. She is still revered in Tuscany.
Agnes of Montepulciano, OP V (RM) Born in Gracchiano-Vecchio, Tuscany, Italy, in 1268; died at Montepulciano, Tuscany, on April 20, 1317; canonized by Benedict XIII in 1726.

1818-1894 St. Conrad of Parzham porter, a job Conrad held for 41 years;  enthusiastically promoted the Seraphic Work of Charity, which aided neglected children.  He made his profession in 1852 and was assigned to the friary in Altoetting. That city’s shrine to Mary was very popular; at the nearby Capuchin friary there was a lot of work for the porter, a job Conrad held for 41 years.  At first some of the other friars were jealous that such a young friar held this important job. Conrad’s patience and holy life overcame their doubts. As porter he dealt with many people, obtaining many of the friary supplies and generously providing for the poor who came to the door. He treated them all with the courtesy Francis expected of his followers.   Conrad’s helpfulness was sometimes unnerving. Once Father Vincent, seeking quiet to prepare a sermon, went up the belltower of the church. Conrad tracked him down when someone wanting to go to confession specifically requested Father Vincent.  Conrad also developed a special rapport with the children of the area. He enthusiastically promoted the Seraphic Work of Charity, which aided neglected children.  Conrad spent hours in prayer before the Blessed Sacrament. He regularly asked the Blessed Mother to intercede for him and for the many people he included in his prayers. The ever-patient Conrad was canonized in 1934.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 21
341 Simeon Barsabae B and 1000 Companions martyred in Persia under King Shapur MM (RM).  PERHAPS the longest individual notice which occurs in the Roman Martyrology is that devoted to a group of Persian martyrs on this day. It runs as follows: “In Persia the birthday of St Simeon, Bishop of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, who was taken by command of Sapor, King of the Persians, loaded with chains, and brought before iniquitous tribunals. As he refused to worship the sun, and bore testimony to Jesus Christ with clear and constant voice, he was first of all kept for a long time in prison with a hundred others, whereof some were bishops, others priests, others clerics of divers ranks; then when Usthazanes, the king’s tutor, who some time before had lapsed from the faith, but whom the bishop had recalled to repentance, had suffered martyrdom with constancy, on the next day, which was the anniversary of the Lord’s passion, the others were all beheaded before the eyes of Simeon, who meanwhile zealously exhorted each of them; and lastly he himself was beheaded. With him there suffered moreover the men of renown Abdechalas and Ananias, his priests; Pusicius also, the overseer of the king’s workmen, fell by a cruel death, because he had sttengthened Ananias when he was wavering, wherefore his neck was severed and his tongue removed; and after him his daughter also was slain who was a holy virgin.”
A hardly less lengthy eulogy is accorded on the next day to another group of Persian martyrs. St Simeon, called Barsabae, i.e. son of the fuller, is mentioned in the first place among the martyrs in the little supplement annexed to the Syriac “Breviarium” of 412 under the heading “The Names of our Masters the Confessors, Bishops of Persia”. There can be no question as to the reality and the cruelty of the persecution which was renewed by Sapor II in 340 or 341, for we hear much about it in Sozomen and other authorities.
 434 St. Maximian Patriarch of Constantinople priest.
Patriarch of Constantinople. He was a Roman priest and a friend of Pope Celestine I, who esteemed him.
Saint Maximian, Patriarch of Constantinople, was born in Rome from wealthy and pious parents. Upon receiving his inheritance, he provided tombs to bury those who led holy lives. St Maximian was a plain man and he preferred to live far from worldly vanity. Because of his pure and virtuous life, Patriarch Sisinius of Constantinople (426-427) ordained him presbyter.
     When the heretic Nestorius (428-431) was deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople, St Maximian replaced him on the patriarchal throne on October 25, 431, during the reign of the holy emperor Theodosius the Younger (408-450). 
The holy Patriarch Maximian died peacefully on April 12, 434, on Great and Holy Thursday.

599 St. Anastasius XI Antioch Patriarch learning holiness comforting afflicted; observed perpetual silence except for
.   ST ANASTASIUS I was a man of much learning and piety. According to Evagrius he was little given to speech, and when people discussed temporal affairs in his presence he seemed to have neither ears to bear nor tongue to make answer; yet he had a great gift for comforting the afflicted.
Anastasius was banished from his see for twenty-three years for opposing erroneous teaching that had the support of the Emperors Justinian I and Justin II, but was restored by the Emperor Maurice at the instance of his friend and correspondent Pope St Gregory I. Several of the bishop’s letters and sermons have survived.
 One would think that a man who did not speak would not get into trouble. Nevertheless, he was a resolute opponent of the imperial politico-theological rule. He vigorously opposed Emperor Justinian's heretical insistence that Jesus, during his mortal life, suffered no pain, i.e., that Christ simply appeared to be a man. For his opposition, Anastasius was threatened with deposition by Justinian, and actually banished from his see for 23 years by Justin II. Anastasius was finally restored to Antioch by Saint Gregory the Great and Emperor Maurice, but died five years later leaving us a legacy of several letters and pious sermons (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
678 Anastasius the Sinaite hermit on Mount Sinai left ascetical and theological writings of considerable value (RM).  A Palestinian hermit on Mount Sinai, Anastasius participated in all the Christological controversies of his time, in Syria, Egypt, and elsewhere. He has left ascetical and theological writings of considerable value (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
700 St. Anastasius the Sinaite Abbot He wrote "The Guide" faith defender  He was a Greek writer born in Alexandria. The abbot of the monastery of Mount Sinai, he was called "the New Moses" because of his outstanding attacks on the various groups trying to influence the Church. He wrote "The Guide", a book defending the faith. This work remained popular for centuries.
  1109 Anselm of Canterbury Doctor of the Church OSB B Cur Deus Homo, the most famous treatise on the Incarnation ever writtenAt Canterbury, England, St. Anselm, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church, renowned for sanctity and learning.
Born in Aosta, Piedmont, Italy, c. 1033; died at Canterbury, England, on Holy Wednesday, April 21, ; canonized and included among the Doctors of the Church by Pope Clement XI in 1720.
   An original and independent thinker, endowed with profound learning, St Anselm was the greatest theologian of his age and the “father of Scholasticism” as a metaphysician he surpassed all Christian doctors since the days of St Augustine. Whilst still prior of Bec, he wrote his Monologium, in which he gave metaphysical proofs of the existence and nature of God, his Proslogium, or contemplation of God’s attributes, as well as treatises on truth, on freewill, on the origin of evil, and a work on the art of reasoning.
    With regard to the training of the young, he held quite modern views.
To a neighbouring abbot, who was lamenting the poor success which attended his educational efforts, he said:
“ If you planted a tree in your garden, and bound it on all sides, so that it could not spread out its branches, what kind of a tree would it prove when in after years you gave it room to spread ? Would it not be useless, with its boughs all twisted and tangled?  But that is how you treat your boys...cramping them with fears and blows, debarring them also from the enjoyment of any freedom.”
    Finding that King William was determined on every possible occasion to oppress the Church unless the clergy would yield to his will, St Anselm sought permission to leave the country that he might consult the Holy See. Twice he was met with refusal, but eventually he was told by the monarch that he might depart if he liked, but that if he did so his revenues would be confiscated and he would never be allowed to return. Nevertheless he set out from Canterbury in October 1097, accompanied by Eadmer and another monk called Baldwin.
On his way, he stayed first with St Hugh, abbot of Cluny, and then with another Hugh, archbishop of Lyons. Upon his arrival in Rome, he laid his case before the pope, who not only assured him of his protection, but wrote to the English king to demand Anselms re-establishment in his rights and possessions. It was while the archbishop was staying in a Campanian monastery, whither he had betaken himself from Rome for the benefit of his health, that he completed his famous book, Cur Deus Homo, the most famous treatise on the Incarnation ever written.

1163 Blessed Fastred of Cambron abbot-founder of Cambron obligation to poverty OSB Cist. Abbot (AC).  At Wertingen in Bavaria, St. Conrad of Parzham, confessor, of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, outstanding both for prayer and for love of neighbour.  Being renowned for miracles, Pope Pius XI enrolled him among the number of the saints.
(also known as Fastrede de Cavamiez) Born in Hainault; Fastred de Cavamiez was received into the Cistercians by Saint Bernard (1153 Dr of the Church). In 1148, he was dispatched with a colony of monks to be abbot-founder of Cambron in Cambrai diocese. In 1157, he became abbot of Clairvaux and, in 1162, of Cîteaux itself. Nevertheless, he never released himself from the obligations of poverty (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Born at Savigliano, Italy, in 1420; died at Cervere, Piedmont, 1466; beatified by Pope Pius IX in 1853.
1466 Blessed Bartholomew of Cervere PhD. precocious solemnity pious converted many heretics worked steadfastly to eradicate heresy OP M (AC).  In the venerable tradition of death in the cause of truth, Blessed Bartholomew of Cerverio was the fourth Dominican inquisitor to win his crown in the Piedmont--the stronghold of the Catharists, who had taken the lives of Saint Peter of Verona, Blessed Peter de'Ruffi, and Blessed Anthony of Pavonio.
Even in his early years Bartholomew displayed a precocious solemnity and piety. He entered the Order of Preachers in Savigliano and progressed rapidly in his studies. On May 8, 1452, Bartholomew received his licentiate, doctorate, and master's degree from the University of Turin; the only time in the history of the university that anyone had acquired three degrees in one day.
Bartholomew taught for a year at the university, then was made prior of his monastery. In his short apostolate of 12 years, he converted many heretics and worked steadfastly to eradicate heresy. He was appointed inquisitor in Piedmont, which made it clear to him that a martyr's death was marked out for him. Being a Dominican in Lombardy was a dangerous business, at best; to be appointed inquisitor meant that the heretics were given a target for their hatred.
1894 St. Conrad of Parzham Franciscan mystic lay brother Marian devotions gift of prophecy read people’s hearts 1894 St. Conrad of Parzham Franciscan mystic lay brother Marian devotions gift of prophecy read people’s hearts
Œttingæ Véteris, in Bavária, sancti Conrádi a Parzham, Confessóris, Ordinis Minórum Capuccinórum, caritáte et oratióne insígnis; quem, miráculis clarum, Pius Papa Undécimus Sanctórum número adscrípsit.
    At Wertingen in Bavaria, St. Conrad of Parzham, confessor, of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, outstanding both for prayer and for love of neighbour.  Being renowned for miracles, Pope Pius XI enrolled him among the number of the saints.
In its external aspects nothing could offer less of sensation or romantic interest than the life of this humble Capuchin lay-brother. Born in the Bavarian village of Parzham of pious parents, simple folk, but not indigent, Conrad was the ninth and youngest of the family.
In Ins early years he set an example of conscientious industry and of great devotion to the Mother of God. After his parents’ death, he entered the noviceship of the Capuchins, being then thirty-one years of age, took his solemn vows in 1852, and shortly afterwards was sent to Altötting, famous for a much venerated shrine of our Lady. There for forty years he discharged the duties of porter, an office which, owing to the multitude of pilgrims who were continually coming and going, offered endless opportunities for the exercise of charity, patience, tact and apostolic zeal. In all these respects he left an ineffaceable impression of self-abnegation and union with God. He seemed to have the gift of reading hearts, and there were occasions on which he manifested a strange knowledge of the future. Worn out with his labours he fell grievously ill in 1894 and died on April 21 of that year. Perhaps the most conclusive testimony to St Conrad’s exceptional virtue is the fact that, though the process of beatification was held up by the war of 1914-1918, he was canonized in 1934, only forty years after his death.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 22
 174 Soter, Pope charity personal kindness care for persecuted condemned Montanists (RM).   Soter was pope for eight years, c. 167 to 175 (Harnack prefers 166-174). We possess a fragment of an interesting letter addressed to him by St. Dionysius of Corinth, who writes: "From the beginning it has been your custom to do good to all the brethren in many ways, and to send alms to many churches in every city, refreshing the poverty of those who sent requests, or giving aid to the brethren in the mines, by the alms which you have had the habit of giving from old, Romans keeping up the traditional custom of the Romans; which your blessed Bishop Soter has not only preserved, but has even increased, by providing the abundance which he has sent to the saints, and by further consoling with blessed words with brethren who came to him, as a loving father his children." "Today, therefore, we have kept the holy Lord's day, on which we have read your letter, which we shall always have to read and be admonished, even as the former letter which was written to us by the ministry of Clement." (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., IV, xxiv.) The letter which Soter had written in the name of his church is lost, though Harnack and others have attempted to identify it with the so-called "Second Epistle of Clement" (see CLEMENT OF ROME). The reverence for the pope's paternal letter is to be noticed. The traditional generosity of the Roman Church is again referred to by St. Dionysius of Alexandria to Pope Dionysius in the middle of the third century, and Eusebius says it still continued in his time. Nothing further is known of this pope.
According to the Roman Martyrology, St. Sotor was martyred on April 22 on the Appian Way in Rome. He is buried in the church of St. Sixtus; in the cemetery of St. Callistus, there is a cella (a memorial chapel) dedicated to his memory.

John II Pope 533-535 Pope Agapitus I archdeacon opposed Monophysites Pope (RM) in the opinion of Pope St Gregory I he was “a trumpet of the gospel and a herald of righteousness”.

536 Pope Agapitus I archdeacon opposed Monophysites Pope (RM)
Constantinópoli sancti Agapíti Papæ Primi, cujus sánctitas a beáto Gregório Magno commendátur.  Ipsíus autem corpus, póstea Romam relátum, in Vaticáno cónditum est.
    At Constantinople, Pope St. Agapitus the First, whose sanctity was praised by St. Gregory the Great.  His body was afterwards taken to Rome and buried in the Vatican.

BD BARTHOLOMEW OF CERVERE ancient cultus was approved by Pope Pius IX. 1846--1878 Pius IX (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, devotion to Mary led him to favor the Proclamation of the Immaculate Conception (December 8, 1854)

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 23
 994 Gerald of Toul reputation for piety rebuilt churches founded Hospital taught students to improve interior life more then science; miracles.  At Toul in France, St. Gerard, bishop of that city. B (RM).  (also known as Gerard, Geraud) Born in Cologne, Germany, 935; died at Toul in 994; canonized in 1050 by Pope Saint Leo IX, who succeeded him as bishop of Toul. Gerald was born into a noble family headed by his father Ingranne.
Gerald was educated at the cathedral school in Cologne. After his mother, Emma, was killed by lightning, he understood the precariousness of life and devoted himself to God. When his reputation for piety reached the ears of Archbishop Bruno of Cologne, Gerald was removed from the semi-monastery of the Canons of Saint Peter in Cologne and, in 963 at the age of 28, compelled to accept consecration as bishop of Toul, which he governed for 31 years.
997 Adalbert of Prague bishop founder  composition of Czech and Polish hymns preaching Poland Prussia Hungary Russia missionaries martyred there.  Born of a princely family and christened Voytech, Saint Adalbert took the name of the archbishop who healed and educated him, Saint Adalbert of Magdeburg.
Upon the death of his mentor, today's saint returned to Prague with a prized collection of books. In 983, while still under 30, he became bishop of Prague. As a man of high moral as well as intellectual standards, he visited the imprisoned and the poor, and divided his revenues according to the guidelines established by Saint Gregory the Great. With the zeal of Christian youth, he tried to convert Hungary and Bohemia, but the pastoral and political difficulties were such that in 990 he withdrew in desperation to Rome and there became a Benedictine at SS. Boniface and Alexius on the Aventine.
At the request of Duke Boleslas, who agreed to support Adalbert's exercise of authority, Pope John XV sent him back to his diocese. There he founded the great Benedictine monastery of Brevnov with the help of Majolus of Cluny; but again he met with trouble. A penitent adulterous noblewoman, who had been given sanctuary in a convent by Adalbert, was dragged out and killed by her accusers. He encountered such opposition to his ministry from the nobility whom he excommunicated because of this affair that he again retired to Rome in 995. This time some of Adalbert's relatives were massacred and the people of Prague refused to receive him back.
1262 Blessed Giles of Assisi 1/of 1st and liveliest companions of Saint Francis ecstasies vision of Christ considered most perfect example of primitive Franciscan humor deep understanding of human nature optimism OFM.      Born in Assisi, Italy; died at Perugia, Italy, 1262. One of the first and liveliest companions of Saint Francis, Giles is described delightfully as the "Knight of the Round Table" in the Fioretti . After receiving the habit from Francis in 1208, Giles accompanied Francis on many of his missions around Assisi.
He made pilgrimages to Compostella, the Holy Land, and Rome, then went to preach to the Saracens in Tunis. His mission was a failure; the Christians of Tunis, fearful of the repercussions of his religious fervor, forced him back on a boat as soon as he had landed.
The rest of his life he spent in Italy, being eagerly consulted by all sorts of people on spiritual matters. From about 1243, Giles could be found at the Monte Rapido hermitage on the outskirts of Perugia. He experienced ecstasies, had a vision of Christ at Cetona, and is considered the most perfect example of the primitive Franciscan.
 Known for his austerity and silence, Giles' The Golden Sayings of Brother Giles is noted for its humor, deep understanding of human nature, and optimism (Benedictines, Delaney, Gill).

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 24
1868 St Mary Euphrasia Pelletier, Virgin, Foundress Of The Institute Of Our Lady Of Charity Of The Good Shepherd.    At Angers in France, St. Mary Euphrasia Pelletier, virgin and foundress of the Institute of the Good Shepherd Sisters, whom Pius XII, Sovereign Pontiff, enrolled among the number of the saints.
While deeply humble and respectful of authority, the young prioress, who, as one of her admirers said, “était de taille a gouverner un Royaume”, succeeded, God’s providence helping, in creating at Angers what was virtually a new institute, “of the Good Shepherd”. Papal approbation was obtained in 1835, and the developments were rapid, immense good being visibly effected wherever new foundations were made. When Mother Euphrasia died in 1868, the Good Shep­herd nuns numbered 2760 and were known all over the world. In all her manifold trials and difficulties, including charges of rash innovation, personal ambition and impatience of authority, St Mary Euphrasia displayed heroic fortitude, cheerfulness and trust in God; “Having brought to birth all our young sisters in the Cross”, she said once, “I love them more than life itself. And the root of that love is in God and in the knowledge of my own unworthiness, for I realize that at the age at which they are professed I could not have supported such deprivations and hard work.” She was canonized in 1940.
   430 Medioláni Convérsio sancti Augustíni Epíscopi, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris.   At Milan, the Conversion of St. Augustine, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church, whom the bishop St. Ambrose had instructed in the truth of the Catholic faith, and baptized on this day.
 624 St Mellitus of Canterbury missionary Archbishop of Canterbury from 619.   ST MELLITUS was a Roman abbot — presumably from the monastery of St Andrew— whom Pope St Gregory the Great despatched to England in 601 at the head of a second band of missionaries to assist St Augustine. When he had laboured for three years in Kent, he was appointed first bishop of London or of the East Saxons, and baptized King Sabert as well as many of his subjects. At the death of Sabert his three sons, who had never been baptized, openly reverted to idolatry. Never­theless they demanded that Mellitus should give them the Blessed Sacrament— “the fine white bread” they called it—as he had been accustomed to give It to their father. Upon his refusal they banished him from the kingdom. Mellitus retired to France, but was soon recalled to Kent, the scene of his earlier labours, and succeeded St Laurence as archbishop of Canterbury in 619. While prostrate with gout, he stopped by his prayers a great conflagration which was threatening to destroy the city. The feast of this saint is kept in the dioceses of Westminster, Brentwood and Southwark.
6th or 9th V. Saint Elizabeth the Wonderworker from Constantinople chosen for the service of God at birth gift of healing physical and spiritual infirmities.   It was revealed to her mother that the girl would become a chosen vessel of the Lord (Acts 9:15).  The parents sent their daughter to a monastery as a child. She grew up in an atmosphere of fasting and constant prayer, and received the gift of healing physical and spiritual infirmities.

The sisters chose her to be abbess of the Sts Cosmas and Damian Monastery. She wore a coarse hairshirt all year round. Her body was chilled in winter, but her spirit blazed with ardent love for God.  The saint's asceticism was very strict. For many years she ate only grass and vegetables, but would not partake of bread, wine, or oil. Many times St Elizabeth ate nothing at all during the forty days of the Great Fast. Imitating the Publican in humility, for three years she did not lift up her eyes to the heavens, but she looked constantly to God with her spiritual eyes.

639 St Egbert English monk of Lindisfarne persuading monks adopt roman usage over celebration of Easter .   In Ióna, Scótiæ ínsula, sancti Egbérti, Presbyteri et Mónachi, admirándæ humilitátis et continéntiæ viri.
    In Iona, an island of Scotland, St. Egbert, priest and monk, a man of admirable humility and continency.
 ONE of the many Englishmen who in Anglo-Saxon days crossed the sea to acquire sanctity and learning in Ireland was a young monk from Lindisfarne called Egbert. Whilst living at the monastery of Rathmelsigi, during a terrible epidemic of plague, he vowed that if God would grant him time for repentance he would never return to his native land.
After his ordination to the priesthood he conceived an ardent desire to evangelize Friesland and the north of Germany. But it was revealed to him that Providence had another design for him, and he abandoned the enterprise to St Wigbert, St Willibrord and others.
His own task was to be less glorious, but no less difficult. The great paschal controversy had ended in the general accept­ance of the Roman use throughout the British Isles. The celebrated monastery of Iona alone held out, even the efforts of their own abbot Adamnan having been unable to shake the adherence of the monks to the Columban tradition. Thither went St Egbert, who spent the last thirteen years of his life upon the island. By his patient reasoning, enhanced by his reputation for holiness and learning, he suc­ceeded where all others had failed. The very day on which he died, an old man of ninety, the brethren of Iona were keeping Easter day for the first time with the rest of the Western church. It was April 24, 729. His feast is observed in the dioceses of Hexham and Argyll, as a confessor though Bede says he was a bishop.

  1622  St Fidelis of Sigmaringen Franciscan Capuchin martyr defending poor Congregation head for Spreading of the Faith  At Gruch in Switzerland, St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen, priest and martyr, of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin.  He was sent there to preach the Catholic faith, but was put to death by the heretics.  He was numbered among the holy martyrs by the Sovereign Pontiff, Benedict XIV. St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen (1577-1622) 1622 ST FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, MARTYR
THE Congregation de Propaganda Fide honours as its protomartyr the Capuchin priest St Fidelis, otherwise known as Mark Rey. A native of Sigmaringen in Hohenzollern and a youth of great promise, he was sent to the university of Freiburg in Breisgau, where he taught philosophy whilst he was working for a legal degree. Already he had begun to lead a penitential life, wearing a hair shirt and abstaining from wine. In 1604 he was appointed tutor to a small party of aristocratic Swabian youths who wished to complete their education by supplementary studies in the chief cities of western Europe.
During this tour, which seems to have lasted for six years, he won the affection and esteem of his companions, to whom he set the example of religious devotion and of liberality towards the poor, to whom he sometimes gave the clothes off his back. Upon his return to Germany, he took his degree as doctor of laws, and began to practise as an advocate at Ensisheim in Upper Alsace. He soon became known for his integ­rity and for his studied avoidance of the invective and personalities then too often employed to damage an opponent’s case.
His espousal of the cause of the oppressed earned him the nickname of The Poor Man’s Lawyer; but the unscrupulous and crooked expedients adopted by his colleagues gave him a disgust for the law, and he decided to enter the Capuchin branch of the Franciscan Order, of which his brother George was already a member. After having received holy orders Mark took the habit, together with the name of Fidelis, chosen in allusion to the promise of a crown of life to those who persevere (Apoc. ii, 10).

1683 Saint Sava {Simeon in Baptism}was born into an old Serbian family from Hertzegovina defender of the faith against calvinists used Saints in Sermons for his flock.  In 1668 Metropolitan Sava journeyed to Russia seeking help.
This led to his persecution by Prince Michael Apaffi and Protestant leaders, who did not appreciate his fierce opposition to their attempts to convert the Orthodox of Transylvania to Calvinism. In February of 1669 the prince issued a decree imposing many duties and restrictions on him.
St Sava convened a council at Alba Iulia in 1675. Among other things, the council decided to celebrate the Liturgy in the Romanian language rather than Slavonic, and to improve the spiritual and moral life of the clergy and laity.
In 1680 the Calvinist Superintendent of Transylvania made false accusations against St Sava and had him put on trial and thrown into prison. This effectively ended his career. Old and sickly, the Metropolitan endured three years of cruel torture in the Blaj Castle prison. He was finally released through the efforts of Prince Sherban of Wallachia, but died of his injuries on April 24, 1683.
St Sava served as Metropolitan for almost twenty-five years under very trying circumstances. In spite of this, he defended his clergy and his flock against the activities of the proselytizers. Since he endured all things with Christian patience, even the bitter sufferings to which he was subjected at the end of his life, St Sava is regarded as a martyr and a Confessor of the Orthodox Faith.
St Sava was glorified by the Church of Romania on October 21, 1955.
1711 Saint Joseph the confessor was born in the seventeenth century, and was consecrated as a bishop in Moldavia (northern Romania in 1690 by Metropolitan Dositheus.  
This was a period of great trials and sufferings for the people of Maramures (in northern Romania) because the Roman Catholic authorities wanted to wipe out Orthodoxy in the region.

St Joseph was a zealous defender of the Orthodox Faith, and therefore he was jailed by the civil authorities.
He died in 1711 after suffering for the truth and defending his flock.
St Joseph the Confessor was glorified by the Orthodox Church of Romania in 1992.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 25
Mark, Evangelist  
    At Alexandria, the birthday of St. Mark the Evangelist, disciple and interpreter of the apostle St. Peter.  He wrote his gospel at the request of the faithful at Rome, and taking it with him, proceeded to Egypt and founded a church at Alexandria, where he was the first to preach Christ.  Afterwards, being arrested for the faith, he was bound, dragged over stones, and endured great afflictions.  Finally he was confined to prison, where, being comforted by the visit of an angel, and even by an apparition of our Lord himself, he was called to the heavenly kingdom in the eighth year of the reign of Nero.
feast day in the East is September 23; feast of the translation of his relics to Venice is celebrated on January 31.
St. Mark (John Mark) 2nd Gospel before year 60 Greek for Christian Gentile converts St. Paul St. Barnabas associates (who was Mark's cousin) Patron of notaries.
St. Mark

The second Gospel was written by St. Mark, who, in the New Testament, is sometimes called John Mark. Both he and his mother, Mary, were highly esteemed in the early Church, and his mother's house in Jerusalem served as a meeting place for Christians there.  St. Mark was associated with St. Paul and St. Barnabas (who was Mark's cousin) on their missionary journey through the island of Cyprus. Later he accompanied St. Barnabas alone. We know also that he was in Rome with St. Peter and St. Paul. Tradition ascribes to him the founding of the Church in Alexandria.
St. Mark wrote the second Gospel, probably in Rome sometime before the year 60 A.D.; he wrote it in Greek for the Gentile converts to Christianity. Tradition tells us that St. Mark was requested by the Romans to set down the teachings of St. Peter. This seems to be confirmed by the position which St. Peter has in this Gospel. In this way the second Gospel is a record of the life of Jesus as seen through the eyes of the Prince of the Apostles.
The winged lion is used as Saint Mark's emblem. This is one of the four winged creatures of Ezekiel 1:10; 10:14 that were first applied by Jewish scholars to the four archangels (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel) with reference to and later used in reference to the four major prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel). Traditionally, it is explained that the winged lion is chosen for Mark because his gospel speaks of the royal dignity of Christ, and because he begins his account of Saint John the Baptist with the "voice crying is the desert" (Appleton).
 1st v. St Anianus Bishop St Mark shoemaker aide great fervor and virtue.   Also at Alexandria, Bishop St. Anian, disciple of blessed Mark, and his successor in the episcopate.  With a great renown for virtue, he rested in the Lord.
ACCORDING to the so-called “Acts of St Mark”, St Anianus, the second bishop of Alexandria, had been a shoemaker, whose hand, wounded by an awl, had been healed by the evangelist at his first entrance into the city. Other writers, on the other hand, assert that St Anianus was an Alexandrian of noble family. He is said to have been consecrated bishop in order that he might govern during the absence of St Mark, whom he afterwards succeeded. Eusebius speaks of him as “a man well pleasing to God and admirable in all things”, and Epiphanius mentions a church in Alexandria built in his honour.

See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii.
 539 Vedast of Arras holy from childhood instrumental in the conversion of Clovis I to Christianity B (AC).   St Vedast assisted St Remigius (Rémi) in instructing the Franks until that prelate consecrated him bishop of Arras that he might re-establish the faith where it had died out.  Entering the city in 499, he restored sight to a blind man and cured one who was lame. These miracles disposed the hearts of many unbelievers to accept the Gospel, which had suffered much from the inroads of the northern marauders.
   Vedast could find no traces of Christianity except the ruins of a church where, within the memory of certain old people, Christians had worshipped.  St  Vedast found the people boorish and obstinate, but he persevered, and in the  end we are told he succeeded in restoring Christianity throughout the land.
891 Photius career of scholarship and public service at the imperial court legitimate patriarch of Constantinople Orthodox objection to doctrine of the Holy Spirit.  Born in Constantinople, c. 810; died there c. 891; canonized by the Orthodox Church. Photius, a member of a patrician family, was a man of very great ability and learning who until mid-life followed a career of scholarship and public service at the imperial court, where he was secretary of state and filled other offices. Then, in 858, Emperor Michael III banished the patriarch Ignatius, and Photius, who until then had been a layman, was made patriarch.

From that time Photius's life is one of difficulties between himself and Pope Saint Nicholas I and his successor Adrian II, complicated by the fluctuations of Byzantine politics--a long, complex, and often obscure struggle that is a matter of ecclesiastical history. It did not end until 879 when, Ignatius being dead, Pope John VIII recognized Photius as the legitimate patriarch of Constantinople and peace was restored between the churches.

For Orthodox Catholics, Saint Photius was the standard-bearer of their church in its disagreements with the pope of Rome; to Roman Catholics, he was a proud and ambitious schismatic: the relevant work of scholars over the past generation has somewhat modified partisan judgements. All agree on the virtue of his personal life and his remarkable talents, even genius, and the wide range of his intellectual aptitudes. Pope Nicholas himself referred to his 'great virtues and universal knowledge.'

Of his extensive writings the one of most general interest is the Bibliotheca or Myriobiblion, which has been translated into English and which includes descriptions and summaries of 279 books of all kinds, including extracts from works whose original text no longer exists. His Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit is important as a classical statement of Orthodox objections to the doctrine of the Holy Spirit's proceeding from the Father and the Son (Filioque) (Attwater).
1586 Bl. Robert Anderton Jesuit Cardinal theology professor notable figure Catholic Reformation defended Gallileo.  1586 BR. ROBERT ANDERTON AND WILLIAM MARSDEN, MARTYRS
ROBERT ANDERTON and William Marsden were two young Lancashire men who were ordained priests at Rheims and sent upon the English mission. The ship which was conveying them to England was driven out of her course to the shore of the Isle of Wight, where the passengers were obliged to disembark. Suspicion at once fell upon the two young men: they were taken before a magistrate to be questioned, and, as they did not deny that they were priests, they were sent to prison.
At their trial they protested not only that they had made a forced landing, but also that at the time of their arrest they had not been in England for the statutory period which would bring them within the scope of the penal law. Although this was actually the case, they were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. A reprieve, however, was granted until the will of the Privy Council could be ascertained, and the prisoners were sent up to London for further examination. In the end they were executed in the Isle of Wight on April 25, 1586, their cheerful fortitude on the scaffold producing a profound impression upon all who witnessed it.

1597 Philip of Jesus friar Miracles attested the power before God of these first martyrs of Japan patron of Mexico City, MexicoOFM M (RM) (also known as Philip de las Casas Born in Mexico City, Mexico, May 1, 1571; died in Nagasaki, Japan, 1597; beatified by Pope Urban VIII; canonized by Pope Pius IX in 1862; feast day formerly February 5.

The life of Saint Philip points again to the importance of the domestic church--the family. Early in life Saint Philip ignored the pious teachings of his immigrant Spanish family, but eventually he entered the Reformed Franciscan Convent of Santa Barbara at Puebla, Mexico--and soon exited the novitiate in 1589. Grieved at the inconstancy of his son, Philip's father sent him on a business trip to the Philippines.

Like many of us, Philip sought to escape God's love in worldly pleasures but the Hound of Heaven tracked him down. Gaining courage by prayer, Philip was again able to follow his vocation, joined the convent of Our Lady of the Angels in Manila in 1590, and took his vows in 1594. The richest cargo Philip could have sent back to Mexico couldn't have pleased his father more than the message that Philip had been professed a friar. Alonso de las Casas obtained directions from the commissary of the order that Philip should be sent to Mexico to be ordained a priest.

He embarked with other religious on the Saint Philip in July 1596 but storms shipwrecked them in Japan. Amid the storm, Philip saw over Japan a white cross, in the shape used in that country, which after a time became blood-red, and remained so for some time. It was an omen of his coming victory.

The ship's captain sent Philip and two others to the emperor to gain permission for them to continue their voyage, but they could not obtain an audience. He then continued to the Franciscan house in Macao to see if they could apply pressure. In the meantime, the pilot of the Saint Philip had excited the emperor's fears of Christians, causing him to contemplate their extermination.

In December, officers seized a number of the Franciscan fathers, including Philip, three Jesuits, and several of their young pupils. When Philip had that they were to die, he responded with joy. His left ear was cut off, and he offered the first fruit of his blood to God for the salvation of Japan.

The martyrs were taken to Nagasaki, where crosses had been erected on a high hill. When Philip was led to the one on which he was to die, he knelt down, clasped it, and exclaimed, "O happy ship! O happy galleon for Philip, lost for my gain! Loss--no loss for me, but the greatest of all gain!" He was bound to the cross, but the footrest under him gave way, so that he was strangled by the cords that bound him. While repeating the name of Jesus, he was the first of the group to die. Philip was 25. Miracles attested the power before God of these first martyrs of Japan (Benedictines, Butler, Delaney).
1913 Blessed Giovanni Battista Piamarta (AC)
Born at Brescia, Italy, November 26, 1841; died at Remedello, April 25, 1913; beatified October 12, 1997.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 26
91 St. Cletus Pope eminent virtue martyr canon of the Roman mass among St. Peter's 1st disciple 3rd Pope after Linus.  At Rome, the birthday of St. Cletus, the pope who governed the Church the second after the apostle St. Peter, and was crowned with martyrdom in the persecution of Domitian.
THE exact order in the succession of the earliest popes has never been satisfactorily established, and it is still a moot point whether St Cletus was the third or the fourth occupant of the chair of St Peter. The fact that he is sometimes referred to by the name of Cletus and sometimes by the Greek equivalent of Anicetus has further confused the issue. It is now, however, agreed that the names belong to the same pope, and that he died about the year 91—probably as a martyr during the reign of Domitian. Nothing else is known about him. He is named, as the third pope, in the present Canon of the Mass, and the name Anacletus has now been expunged from the list of popes in the Annuario Pontifico.

  304 Marcellinus Pope M (RM).   St. Marcellinus, pope and martyr, whose birthday is commemorated on the 25th of October.
St Marcellinus followed St Caius in the bishopric of Rome in 296, and reigned eight years. Theodoret states that he acquired great glory in the stormy times of Diocletian’s persecution; on the other hand it was generally believed throughout the middle ages that under fierce trial he yielded up the holy books and offered incense to the gods. The legend, fostered by the Donatists, that he afterwards acknowledged his guilt at a certain Council of Sinuessa, pronouncing at the same time his own deposition, is now universally discredited, no such council having ever taken place but ancient breviaries and catalogues of popes certainly allude to the fall of Marcellinus and to his subsequent repentance crowned by martyrdom. If, as seems mote than probable, he was guilty of a temporary lapse, he expiated it by a holy death and is honoured as a saint and a martyr, though his actual martyrdom is far from certain. He was buried in the cemetery of St Priscilla which he built or enlarged.
319 St. Basileus Bishop martyr of Amasea in Pontus angel found his body.  The Hieromartyr Basil, Bishop of Amasea, lived at the beginning of the fourth century in the Pontine city of Amasea. He encouraged and comforted the Christians suffering persecution by the pagans. During this time the Eastern part of the Roman Empire was ruled by Licinius (311-324), the brother-in-law of the holy emperor Constantine the Great (May 21). Licinius deceitfully signed St Constantine's Edict of Milan (313), which granted religious toleration to Christians, but he hated them and continued to persecute them.
645 St Richarius young pagan protected 2 Irish missionaries Cadoc & Frichor; fast strenuously; cry copiously for sins pray without ceasing; Abbot; 1st to work ransoming captives.   He became a priest and went to England for several years. Upon his return to France, Richarius founded an abbey in Centula in 638, afterwards called Celles, became famous preacher admonished King Dagobert and other luminaries.
The gifts he received from the wealthy he handed on to the poor. He was the first to devote himself to the work of ransoming captives. After some years as abbot he resigned and spent the rest of his life as a hermit. His relics were moved to the town now called Saint- Riquier (Somme), where a monastery was later founded. Saint Riquier appears frequently in ancient calendars and litanies. His reputation extended across the Channel: A church in Aberford, West Yorkshire, England, is dedicated to his memory (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).

  860 Paschasius Radbertus abandoned at convent asked to be forgotten simply asks for prayers to God left works dealing with the body and blood of Christ the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist (De Corpore et Sanguine Christe) commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel (12 volumes) composed treatise on the Virgin defend her perpetual virginity long exposition on Psalm 44 and another on the Lamentations of Jeremiah wrote biographies of 2 abbots -Corbie OSB Abbot (AC)
 He assumed as a prefix the name of Paschasius in deference to the custom then prevalent amongst French men of letters of adopting a classical or scriptural name. Although Radbertus would never suffer himself to be promoted to the priesthood, yet he was elected to be abbot of Corbie—a post which he found difficult and uncongenial. Gladly at the close of seven years did he lay down his crozier to retire to the abbey of Saint-Riquier where he could write in peace. His last years, however, were spent at Corbie. St Paschasius Radbertus was a prolific writer. Amongst his works are lengthy commentaries on St Matthew and on the forty-fourth psalm, a treatise on the book of Lamentations, the two biographies already mentioned, and a famous book, De Corpore et Sanguine Christi. Radbertus was buried in Saint John's Chapel. His body was translated into the great church, in 1073, by authority of the Pope Saint Gregory VII
1218 St. Franca Visalta Benedictine Convent at 7 yr Cistercian nun foundress.  For years Franca had to suffer calumny and misrepresentation, as well as severe interior trials. Her one earthly solace was a young girl called Carentia who used to visit her. By her advice Carentia underwent a year’s novitiate in the Cistercian convent at Rapallo, and then persuaded her parents to build for the order a house at Montelana which she entered, while it was arranged that St Franca should be transferred from St Syrus to rule the new foundation. Later the community settled at Pittoli. They kept the Cistercian rule in all its poverty and austerity, but even that was not enough for the abbess. Night after night she would go to the chapel to spend in prayer hours which others devoted to sleep. Her daughters, marking with dismay her failing health, bade the sacristan withhold the key, but it would have required more than a key to keep her from her vigil. She died in 1218, and Pope Gregory X, Carentia’s kinsman, sanctioned her cultus for Piacenza.
1300 Blesseds Dominic & Gregory Dominican preachers died in cavein cave surrounded by lights and angelic music Miracles surrounded burials and tombs at Besians diocese of Barbastro.   Dominic and Gregory were two Dominican friars, living in the first century of the order, who were impelled by zeal for souls to leave their Castilian priory to preach the gospel in Aragon. Their labours lay specially in out-of-the-way districts among the hill folk inhabiting the steep southern spurs of the Pyrenees. Penniless and barefoot they went from hamlet to hamlet, giving spiritual instruction and receiving frugal hospitality. They had taken refuge under a cliff during a severe thunderstorm when a fall of rock buried them beneath it. The ringing of bells startled the inhabitants of the nearest villages, and a strange light is said to have revealed the scene of the catastrophe. The bodies of the two missionaries were recovered and buried at Besiano, where they have ever since been venerated, and their cultus was confirmed in 1854.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 27
100 Simeon der Bruder des Herrn.  Nach Matth. 13, 55 und Mark. 6, 3 sind Jakobus, Josef bzw. Joses, Simon und Judas Brüder Jesu. Da die immerwährende Jungfräulichkeit Marias Geschwister Jesu von der gleichen Mutter ausschließt, gibt es zwei Erklärungen: Nach einer Überlieferung (insbesondere im katholischen Raum) sind die vier Geschwister Söhne des Kleopas, des Bruders Josephs; nach einer anderen Überlieferung sind sie Söhne Josephs aus einer ersten Ehe mit Solomonia (vgl. auch Anna).
Simon (Simeon oder Symeon) begleitete Jesus und durfte ihn Bruder nennen. Origines und andere berichten, Simon sei der zweite Emmausjünger gewesen. Nach dem Tode seines Bruders Jakobus wurde Simon der zweite Patriarch von Jerusalem. Er starb in hohem Alter von 100 oder 120 Jahren unter Kaiser Trajan den Tod am Kreuz (als Todesjahr werden 98 und 107 angegeben).
303 Anthimus of Nicomedia for his confession of the Christian faith BM (RM).   At Nicomedia, during the persecution of Diocletian, the birthday of St. Anthimus, bishop and martyr, who obtained the glory of martyrdom by being beheaded for the faith.  Nearly all his numerous flock followed him. 
The judge ordered some to be beheaded, others to be burned alive, others to be put in boats and sunk in the sea.  
THE persecution under Diocletian and Maximian was waged, with particular ferocity at Nicomedia in Bithynia, where the emperors had a favourite residence. When the edict was first posted up, it was torn down by a Christian, moved by a zeal which Lactantius condemns but Eusebius commends. From that time the faithful could neither buy nor sell, draw water or grind corn without being called upon to offer incense to the gods.
   Eusebius, after relating that Anthimus the bishop was beheaded for confessing the Christian faith, states that an immense number of other martyrs perished also. He adds:
“In those days, I do not know how, a fire broke out in the palace, and a false report was spread that we originated it. By the emperor’s’ orders all who were servants of God perished in masses, some by the sword, others by fire. A certain number of men and women, spurred on by an inexplicable divine inspiration, are said to have rushed into the blazing pyre. Innumerable others, bound and placed on rafts or planks, were drowned in the sea.”
   Nearly the whole of the Christian population proved faithful and won the crown of martyrdom. With St Anthimus are also sometimes associated eleven of his fellow-martyrs.
 368 Theodore the Sanctified miracles holy water as a sacramental Abbot (RM).  St Theodore visited the monasteries one after the other, and instructed, comforted and encouraged every monk in particular, correcting faults with a sweetness which gained the heart. He wrought several miracles, and foretold things to come. Being one day in a boat on the Nile with St Athanasius, he assured him that his persecutor, Julian the Apostate, was that moment dead in Persia and that his successor would restore peace to him and the Church: both of which were soon confirmed.
   One of St Theodore's miracles provides an early example of the use of blessed water as a sacramental for the healing of body and soul. The story is told by a contemporary -- St Ammon. A man came to the monastery at Tabenna, asking St Theodore to come and pray over his daughter, who was sick. Theodore was not able to go, but reminded the man that God could hear his prayer wherever they were offered. To which the man replied that he had not a great faith, and brought a silver vessel of water, asking the monk that he would at least invoke the name of God upon that so it might be as a medicine for her. Then Theodore prayed and made the sign of the cross over the water, and the man took it home. He found his daughter unconscious, so he forced open her mouth and poured some of it down her throat. And by virtue of the prayer of St Theodore the girl was saved and recovered her health.

1278 St Zita miraculus life daily Mass recite many prayers generous gifts of food to the poor visits to sick & prisoners heavenly visions variety of miracles.  St. Zita  Zita (1218-1272) + Servant and miracle worker. Born at Monte Sagrati, Italy, she entered into the service of the Fratinelli family, wool dealers in Lucca, at the age of twelve. Immediately disliked by the other servants for her hard work and obvious goodness, she earned their special enmity because of her habit of giving away food and clothing to the poor including those of her employers. In time, she won over the members of the household. According to one tradition, the other servants were convinced when one day they found an angel taking Zita's place in baking and cleaning. Throughout her life she labored on behalf of the poor and suffering as well as criminals languishing in prisons. She was also credited with a variety of miracles. Canonized in 1696, she is the patroness of servants and is depicted in art with a bag and keys, or loaves of bread and a rosary.
1485 Blessed James of Bitetto heroic humility; levitate during prayer; accurately predict the future; incorrupted body remains; many miracles.  ALTHOUGH a native of Dalmatia, whence he is sometimes called “the Slav” or “the Illyrian”, Bd James spent the greater part of his life on the opposite coast of the Adriatic, where he became a lay-brother of the Friars Minor of the Observance at Bitetto, a small town nine miles from Ban.
Through humility, self-denial and contemplation he attained to great holiness. He was favoured by God with a prophetic spirit and, according to the deposition of a fellow friar in the process for his beatification, he was seen on occasions upraised from the ground when engaged in prayer. In another house of the order, at Conversano, he was employed for some years as cook. The sight of the kitchen fire led him at times to contemplate the flames of Hell and on other occasions to soar in spirit to the highest Heaven to dwell on the consuming fire of eternal love. Thus he often fell into ecstasies over his work, standing motionless and entirely absorbed in God. Afterwards Bd James was transferred back to Bitetto, where he closed a holy life by a happy death;      Many miracles were ascribed to his intercession, and in the garden at Bitetto there used to be a juniper tree which he had planted, the berries of which were said to possess healing properties. He was beatified by Pope Innocent XII.

The notice of James de Bitetto in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, is interesting because this is one of the cases in which the Bollandists have had access to the documents submitted for the beatification process, and have been able to print the evidence of the various witnesses. See also Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 104—105.
1565 Blessed Hosanna of Cattaro miracle child; several apparitions OP Tert. V (AC) (also known as Ossana) Born in Kumano, Montenegro, in 1493; cultus confirmed in 1928; beatified in 1934.
1565 BD OSANNA OF GATTARO, VIRGIN graced with many supernatural gifts, such as that of prophecy.
CATHERINE Cosie was a Montenegrin girl born in 1493, the daughter of dissident Orthodox parents. Her early years seem to have been spent mostly with the flocks and herds, but later she was allowed by her parents to enter the service of a Catholic lady at Cattaro, where she made herself beloved. After seven years she undertook the seclusion of an anchoress, first in a cell adjoining the church of St Bartholomew, and afterwards in one attached to the church of St Paul. On becoming a Dominican tertiary she had taken the name of Osanna in veneration for Bd Osanna Andreasi, who had died not long before, in 1505. Young women and matrons crowded to her anchorage and were guided by her counsels.
   Her prayers, it was believed, protected the city from the inroads of Turks and other raiders. She had much to suffer, both from the assaults of Satan within and from calumny without, but she was graced with many supernatural gifts, such as that of prophecy. Finally after a grievous illness of two months borne with exemplary patience, she went to her reward on April 27, 1565.

St. Peter Canisius, priest of the Society of Jesus, confessor and doctor of the Church, who departed to the Lord on the 21st of December.
At first Peter Canisius preached to almost empty churches, partly because of the general disaffection and partly because his Rhineland German grated on the ears of the Viennese; but he found his way to the heart of the people by his indefatigable ministrations to the sick and dying during an outbreak of the plague. The energy and enterprise of the man was astounding; he was concerned about everything and everybody, from lecturing in the university to visiting the neglected criminals in the jails. The king, the nuncio, the pope himself would fain have seen him appointed to the vacant see of Vienna, but St Ignatius could be induced only to allow him to administer the diocese for one year, and that without episcopal orders, title or emoluments. It was about this period that St Peter began work on his famous catechism, or Summary of Christian Doctrine, published in 1555; this was followed by a Shorter and a Shortest Catechism—both of which attained enormous popularity. These catechisms were to be to the Catholic Reformation what Luther’s catechisms were to the Protestant Reformation; they were reprinted over two hundred times and translated into fifteen languages (including English, Braid Scots, Hindustani and Japanese) even during the author’s lifetime. And he never by violently or rudely attacking his opponents, either in these catechisms or in any of his instructions, roused hostility towards the truths he wished to commend to his hearers.
1606 ST TURIBIUS, Archbishop of LIMA.   ST TURIBIUS is, equally with St Rose of Lima, the first known saint of the New World. It is true that he was not born on the American continent, and not canonized until fifty-five years after her; but they lived in the same place at the same time, Turibius died first, and it was he who conferred the sacrament of confirmation on Rose. His memory is held in great veneration throughout Peru, for although he did not plant Christianity in that land he greatly promoted it, and cleansed the Church there from grave abuses which were sapping its vitality and bringing discredit upon its name; his feast is, moreover, observed throughout South America.
Turibius, Toribio Alfonso de Morgobejo, was born in 1538 at Majorca in Spain. His childhood and youth were notably religious, but he had no intention of becoming a priest and was, in fact, educated for the law. He was so brilliant a scholar that he became professor of law in the University of Salamanca, and while there he attracted the notice of King Philip II (widower of Mary I of England), who eventually made him chief judge of the ecclesiastical court of the Inquisition at Granada. This was a surprising position for a layman to hold, and it was not a pleasant or easy post for anyone, lay or cleric. But it led to an even more surprising development. After some years the archbishopric of Lima in the Spanish colony of Peru became vacant. Turibius had carried out his judge’s duties so well, and displayed such a fine missionary spirit, that it was decided to send him to Peru as archbishop:  he seemed to be the one person who had force of character sufficient to remedy the serious scandals which stood in the way of the conversion of the Peruvians.

1624 Blessed Mariana of Jesus life of penance O. Merc. V (AC).   Born in Madrid, Spain, in 1565; died there in 1624; beatified by Pius VI. Known as the "Lily of Madrid," Mariana was a Discalced Mercedarian in Madrid, where she distinguished herself by her life of penance (Benedictines).
1716 St. Louis Mary de Montfort promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church. Totus tuus(completely yours) was Louis's personal motto.  b. 1673 Louis's life is inseparable from his efforts to promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church. Totus tuus (completely yours) was Louis's personal motto; Karol Wojtyla chose it as his episcopal motto.
Born in the Breton village of Montfort, close to Rennes (France), as an adult Louis identified himself by the place of his Baptism instead of his family name, Grignion. After being educated by the Jesuits and the Sulpicians, he was ordained as a diocesan priest in 1700.

Soon he began preaching parish missions throughout western France. His years of ministering to the poor prompted him to travel and live very simply, sometimes getting him into trouble with Church authorities. In his preaching, which attracted thousands of people back to the faith, Father Louis recommended frequent, even daily, Holy Communion (not the custom then!) and imitation of the Virgin Mary's ongoing acceptance of God's will for her life.

Louis founded the Missionaries of the Company of Mary (for priests and brothers) and the Daughters of Wisdom, who cared especially for the sick. His book, True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin, has become a classic explanation of Marian devotion.
Louis died in Saint-Laurent-sur-Sèvre, where a basilica has been erected in his honor. He was canonized in 1947.
1919 Blessed Maria Antonia Bandres y Elosegui (AC).
Born at Tolosa (Guipuzcoa), Spain, March 6, 1898; died at Salamanca, Spain, April 27, ; beatified May 12, 1996. More will be added in 2000.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 28
   Departure of St. Hierotheos of Athens priest  present at the time of the departure of the Lady Virgin Mary learned man in the city Athens met Apostle St. Paul visited St. Dionysius the Areopagite (coptic).   On this day also, St. Hierotheos (Berutawos) of Athens, departed. This father was one of the learned men in the city of Athens. He met the Apostle St. Paul, and many discussions took place between them which led to his belief on the Apostle's hand.
He baptized him, taught him the Ordinances and Law of the church, and then ordained him a priest for this city.
He frequently visited St. Dionysius the Areopagite, who was also one of the learned men in Athens.
This Saint was present at the time of the departure of the Lady Virgin Mary, and he stood in the midst of the apostles and comforted them with spiritual songs and hymns which he sang accompanied with musical instruments.

He converted many Jews and Gentiles to the knowledge of the Lord Christ. When the people wished to ordain him a bishop, he refused saying: "I just wish to be able to perform the duties of a priest."
Having finished his good strife, he went to the Lord Whom he loved.
His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.
63 Jason wurde von Paulus zum Bischof von Tarsus Sosipater und Gefährten eingesetzt und Sosipater zum Bischof von Ikonien mit sieben Dieben martyred zusammen:  Saturninus Iakischolus Faustianus Januarius Marsalius Euphrasius Mammius.  Orthodoxe Kirche: 28. April (Sosipater auch 10. November) Katholische Kirche: Jason - 12. Juli
Saturninus Iakischolus Faustianus Januarius Marsalius Euphrasius Mammius
Jason aus Tarsus und Sosipater aus Achaia waren Schüler und Gefährten des Apostels Paulus. Jason wurde von Paulus zum Bischof von Tarsus eingesetzt und Sosipater zum Bischof von Ikonien.
92 St. Mark of Galilee Martyred bishop of Marsi St. Theodora.    At Atino in Campania, St. Mark, who was made bishop by the blessed apostle Peter.  He was the first to preach the Gospel to the Equicoli, and received the crown of martyrdom in the persecution of Domitian, under the governor Maximus. A Galilean by birth, he was a missionary to Italy.
Mark of Galilee BM (RM) Saint Mark is said to have been a Galilean by descent and the first missionary bishop and martyr in the province of the Marsi (Abruzzi) in Italy (Benedictines).

304 St. Pollio Martyr Christian community lector of Cybalae Pannonia serving as a lector {READ HIS LAST SERMON}. THE scene of the martyrdom of St Pollio was the ancient town of Cybalae or Cibalis in Lower Pannonia (now Mikanovici in Yugoslavia), the birth-place of the Emperors Gratian, Valentinian and Valens. He was a lector in the church, and, after the martyrdom of his bishop Eusebius, he became the leader of those Christians in the diocese who disregarded the edicts of Diocletian. He was accordingly brought before Probus the president, before whom he made a bold confession. Because he refused to offer sacrifice to the gods and to render divine honours to the emperors he was condemned to death, and was burnt at the stake a few years after the martyrdom of Eusebius.
St. Patrick of Prusa; Several guards scalded Patrick untouched- "I do not condemn your gods, for no one can condemn what does not exist...".  Martyr with Polyaenus and Menander, put to death in Prusa, in the Roman province of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. No date can be attached to the event, but The account of his death, the Acts of Patrick, is considered by scholars to be authentic, although the names of the others were probably added to the calendar over succeeding centuries.
1260 St. Luchesio first Franciscan tertiary works of mercy nursing sick visiting prisons gave all possessions to the poor.  Blessed Luchesio's cultus was confirmed in 1694.  (also known as Luchesio, Lucius) Born near Poggibonsi, Umbria, Italy; Luchesius, a miserly grocer, money changer, and corn merchant, is venerated as the first Franciscan tertiary. About 1221, Saint Francis of Assisi relieved of him wicked practices by enlisting him in the Third Order along with his wife Blessed Bonadonna. Thereafter the couple spent their lives in almsdeeds and penance (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1716 Saint Louis de Monfort founded the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Wisdom
    At St. Laurent sur Sèvres, in the diocese of Luçon, St. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, confessor and founder of the Missionaries of the Company of Mary and the Sisters of Wisdom, a form of apostolic life.  He was renowned for his preaching and devotion to the Blessed Mother, and was added to the number of the saints by Pope Pius XII. Born: Jan 31. 1673 Canonized: 1947 by Pope Pius XII He was born poor. Studied in Paris, and ordained in 1700. While a seminarian he delighted in researching the writings of Church Fathers, Doctors, and Saints as they related to the Blessed Virgin Mary, to whom he was singularly devoted.   But St Louis did not confine his evangelistic efforts to his missions—he believed in preaching the word of God in season and out of season. On one occasion, when travelling on a market-boat between Rouen and Dinant, he asked his fellow passengers, who were singing obscene songs, to join him in the rosary. Twice they answered his invitation with jeers, but eventually they not only recited it reverently on their knees, but also listened attentively to the homily with which he followed it. Another day-it was a rough alfresco dance which he brought to an end in the same way. Perhaps his greatest triumphs were won in the Calvinistic stronghold of La Rochelle, where he held several crowded missions in rapid succession, and reconciled a number of Protestants to the Church.
St Louis had long desired to form an association of missionary priests, but it was only a few years before his death that he succeeded in attaching to himself a few ordained men who became the first Missionaries of the Company of Mary. He was in the midst of a mission at Saint-Laurent-sur-Sèvre when he was attacked by a sudden illness which proved fatal. He was only forty-three years of age when he died in 1716.
Apart from his verses and hymns, St Louis Mary Grignion’s chief literary work was the well-known treatise on “True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin”, in which a renewal of interest was caused by his canonization in 1947.

St. Paul of the Cross, priest and confessor, founder of the Congregation of the Cross and Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ.  He went to his repose in the Lord on the 18th of October.
1775 Sancti Pauli a Cruce, Presbyteri et Confessóris; qui Congregatiónis a Cruce et Passióne Dómini nostri Jesu Christi
Cross was endowed with extraordinary gifts. He prophesied future events, healed the sick, and even during his lifetime appeared on various occasions in vision to persons far away
.  St. Paul of the Cross Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775.
1775 St Paul Of The Cross, Founder Of The Barefooted Clerks Of The Holy Cross And Passion
THE founder of the Passionists, St Paul-of-the-Cross, was born at Ovada in the republic of Genoa in 1694—the year which saw also the birth of Voltaire.

1840 St. John Baptist Thanh native catechist Martyr of Vietnam
John was associated with priests of the Society of Foreign Missions. He was executed in the anti-Christian persecutions. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.
1840 St. Peter Hieu catechist native Vietnamese martyr
He joined the Foreign Missions of Paris and served as a catechist to his own people. Arrested by government authorities, he and two companions were beheaded. He was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1988.
Blessed Paul Khoan, Peter Hieu, & John Baptist Thauh MM (AC) beatified in 1900 (they may be included in the Martyrs of Vietnam who were canonized in 1988). During the first 20 years of the 19th century, Christianity made steady progress in Vietnam until it was dramatically interrupted by the persecution of the Annamite king Minh-Mang (1820-1841).

1841 St. Peter Chanel Priest Martyred in the New Hebrides model pupil vicar parish priest model missionary intelligence and simple piety
   However, in 1836, Pope Gregory XVI gave canonical approval to the new congregation, and St Peter was one of a small band of missionaries commissioned to carry the faith to the islands of the Pacific. Peter with one companion went to the island of Futuna in the New Hebrides. They were well received by the people, whose confidence they gained by healing the sick. But after the missionaries had acquired the language and had begun to teach, the chieftain’s jealousy was aroused. Suspicion turned to hatred when his own son expressed a desire for baptism, and on April 28, 1841, he sent a band of warriors, one of whom felled St Peter with his club and the rest cut up the martyr’s body with their hatchets. The missionary’s death swiftly completed the work he had begun, and within a few months the whole island was Christian.
     Peter was canonized in 1954, and his feast is kept in Australia and New Zealand as well as by the Marists.

1962 Saint Gianna Beretta Molla M.D. gave special attention to mothers babies elderly and the poor gave her life to save that of her child (AC).  
A few days before the child was due, although trusting as always in Providence, she was ready to give her life in order to save that of her child: "If you must decide between me and the child, do not hesitate: choose the child--I insist on it. Save the baby." Thus, Gianna Emanuela was born on the morning of April 21, 1962. Despite all efforts to save both mother and child, today's saint died less than a week later in horrible pain. After repeatedly exclaiming, "Jesus, I love you. Jesus, I love you," the mother died. She was 39 years old. Her funeral was an occasion of profound grief, faith and prayer. The body of the new blessed lies in the cemetery of Mesero near Magenta (L'Osservatore Romano, 4/27/94).

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 29
    33 The man who lay by the Sheep's Pool in Jerusalem for thirty-eight years.   On this day the Church remembers the man who lay by the Sheep's Pool in Jerusalem for thirty-eight years, waiting for someone to put him into the pool.  The first one to enter the pool after an angel troubled the water would be healed of his infirmities, but someone always entered the pool before him.
Seeing the man, the Lord felt compassion for him and healed him.
The Kontakion for this Fourth Sunday of Pascha asks Christ to raise up our souls, "paralyzed by sins and thoughtless acts."

    65 St Torpes Martyr.  At Pisa in Tuscany, the martyr St. Torpes, who filled a high office in the court of Nero, and was one of those of whom the apostle wrote from Rome to the Philippians: "All the saints salute you, especially those that are of the house of Caesar."  For the faith of Christ, he was, by order of Satellicus, beaten, cruelly scourged, and delivered to the beasts to be devoured, but remained uninjured.  He completed his martyrdom by being beheaded.   He was slain during the reign of Emperor Nero, although most of the accounts about him are considered unreliable.
Torpes of Pisa M (RM) All that is really known is that Torpes was martyred in Pisa under Nero. (Benedictines).

VM 1st v. St Tychicus 1st century disciple assistant of St. Paul.  A disciple of St. Paul who was mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. According to Paul’s Letters to the Colossians and Ephesians, he was an assistant to Paul, being described by him as "my beloved brother and trustworthy minister in the Lord." Tradition declares him to have become bishop of Paphos, Cyprus. Tychicus of Paphos B (RM) 1st century. A disciple of Saint Paul the Apostle (Acts 20:4, 21:29) and his fellow worker (Col. 4:7; Eph. 6:21ff), Saint Tychicus is said to have ended his days as bishop of Paphos in Cyprus (Benedictines).
290 Nine holy martyrs Cyzicus Dardenelles Thaumasius, Theognes, Rufus, Antipater, Theostichus, Artemas, Magnus, Theodotus, and Philemon.  The saints boldly confessed Christ and fearlessly denounced the pagan impiety. They were arrested and brought to trial before the ruler of the city. Over several days they were tortured, locked in prison and brought out again. They were promised their freedom if they renounced Christ. But the valiant martyrs of Christ continued to glorify the Lord. All nine martyrs were beheaded by the sword (+ ca. 286-299), and their bodies buried near the city. In the year 324, when the Eastern half of the Roman Empire was ruled by St Constantine the Great (May 21), and the persecutions against Christians ended, the Christians of Cyzicus removed the incorrupt bodies of the martyrs from the ground and placed them in a church built in their honor.
In Russia, not far from the city of Kazan, a monastery was built in honor of the Nine Martyrs of Cyzicus. It was built by the hierodeacon Stephen, who brought part of the relics of the saints with him from Palestine. This monastery was built in the hope that through their intercession and prayers people would be delivered from various infirmities and ills, particularly a fever which raged through Kazan in 1687. St Demetrius of Rostov (September 21), who composed the service to the Nine Martyrs, writes, "through the intercession of these saints, abundant grace was given to dispel fevers and trembling sicknesses." St Demetrius also described the sufferings of the holy martyrs and wrote a sermon for their Feast day.
 744 St Wilfrid the Younger Benedictine abbot bishop of York zealous for education.   Amongst the bishops mentioned by the Venerable Bede as having been educated at Whitby Abbey under the rule of St Hilda was Wilfrid the Younger, the favourite disciple of St John of Beverley. He was appointed bishop’s chaplain and ruled the establishment of cathedral clergy. As the years went by, he was employed more or less in the capacity of a coadjutor by St John, who before finally retiring to Beverley nominated him to be his successor. St Wilfrid showed great zeal in instructing his people; and like his predecessor he eventually laid down his office to end his days in a monastery—presumably Ripon—where he died. There seems to be only one old calendar known in which this bishop’s name appears.
1110 Robert of Molesme one of Cistercian founders movement a great reformer OSB Cist. Abbot (RM).  Born near Troyes, Champagne, France, in 1018; died on March 21, 1110; canonized in 1222. Born of noble parents, Robert was one of the founders of the Cistercian movement, which, like the monks of Cluny in the 10th century, was of Benedictine stock. The Rule of Saint Benedict had lost none of its value since its foundation in Italy in the 6th century. Absolute fidelity to this rule, and its greatest possible extension in the religious life were the two aims Robert pursued throughout his life.
Saint Alberic (1108) joined Robert in this pursuit, followed by Saint Stephen Harding (1134). But would they have taken the initiative without Robert? Or would they have postponed it. Or might they not have become discouraged while en route?
   For Robert was endowed with an uncommon will to overcome all obstacles.

There was no lack of obstacles. Like Stephen Harding, Robert had received Benedictine training at Moutier-La-Celle beginning when he was 15. He was appointed prior soon after his novitiate, then abbot of Saint Michael of Tonnerre at a very early age. He was unsuccessful in his attempts to reform the abbey. The scandals at the abbey were the motivation behind Robert's activity.

1109 St Hugh the Great Benedictine abbot founded hospital for lepers preached the First Crusade.  Soon after his promotion Hugh took part in the Council of Rheims, presided over by Pope St Leo IX. Placed second in rank amongst the abbots, the youthful superior of Cluny championed the reforms called for by the supreme pontiff, and denounced the prevalence of simony together with the relaxation of clerical celibacy in such eloquent terms that he was loudly applauded by the assembled dignitaries—many of whom had purchased their own offices.
   Hugh accompanied the pope back to Italy, and in Rome he took part in the synod which pronounced the first condemnation of the errors of Berengarius of Tours. In 1057 we find him at Cologne as godfather to the emperor’s infant son, afterwards Henry IV; a little later he is in Hungary, negotiating as papal legate a peace between King Andrew and the emperor; and in February 1058 he is summoned to the death-bed of Pope Stephen X in Florence.
   With the accession of St Gregory VII, who had been a monk at Cluny, the tie between St Hugh and the papacy became still closer. The two men worked together heart and soul to remedy abuses and to rescue the Church from subservience to the state. During the bitter feud between Gregory and the Emperor Henry IV, the holy abbot never relaxed his efforts to reconcile the two adversaries, both of whom loved and trusted him. In a letter addressed to St Hugh by the disappointed monarch shortly before his death he wrote: “Oh, that it were granted to us to behold once more with our bodily eyes your angelic face; to kneel before you; to lay this head, which you once held over the font, upon your breast, bewailing our sins and telling our sorrows

Notwithstanding his numerous enforced absences from Cluny, St Hugh raised his monks to a high level of religious perfection which was maintained throughout his life. On one occasion St Peter Damian, when in France, characteristically suggested that Hugh should make the rule more severe. “Come and stay with us for a week before you form your judgement”, was the abbot’s answer. The invitation was accepted and the point was not pressed.
1252 St Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic.  St. Peter, a martyr of the Order of Preachers, who was slain for the Catholic faith on the 6th day of April.
Peter was born at Verona, Italy, in 1205. Both of his parents were Catharists, a heresy that denied God created the material world. Even so, Peter was educated at a Catholic school and later at the University of Bologna. While in Bologna, Peter was accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic. He developed into a great preacher, and was well known for his inspiring sermons in the Lombardy region. In addition, around the year 1234, he was appointed by Pope Gregory IX as inquisitor of Northern Italy, where many Catharists lived. Peter's preaching attracted large crowds, but as inquisitor he made many enemies.
1380 St Catherine of Siena illiterate one of the most brilliant theological minds of her day mystical experiences when only 6 visions of Christ Mary and the saints gift of healing Stigmata visible only after her death Doctor of the Church;
Though she lived her life in a faith experience and spirituality far different from that of our own time, Catherine of Siena stands as a companion with us on the Christian journey in her undivided effort to invite the Lord to take flesh in her own life. Events which might make us wince or chuckle or even yawn fill her biographies: a mystical experience at six, childhood betrothal to Christ, stories of harsh asceticism, her frequent ecstatic visions. Still, Catherine lived in an age which did not know the rapid change of twenty-first-century mobile America. The value of her life for us today lies in her recognition of holiness as a goal to be sought over the course of a lifetime.
1716 St Louis de Montfort Confessor Marian devotee missionary apostolic famous for fostering devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Rosary founder of the Sisters of Divine Wisdom.   Louis Mary Grignion was born to a poor family on January 31, 1673 at Montfort, France. He was educated at the Jesuit college in Rennes and was ordained there in 1700. He was assigned as chaplain to a hospital at Poitiers, and his much needed reorganization of the hospital staff caused great resentment, leading to his resignation. However, during his stay there he organized a group of women into the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Wisdom.  Eventually Louis went to Rome where Pope Clement XI appointed him missionary apostolic, and he began to preach in Brittany. His emotional style caused much reaction, but he was successful, especially in furthering devotion to the Most Blessed Virgin through the Rosary. He also wrote a very popular book, True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin. In 1715, Louis organized several priests and formed the Missionaries of the Company of Mary. He died in 1716 at Saint-Laurent-sur-Sever, France, and was canonized in 1947 by Pope Pius XII.
1842 Joseph Benedict Cottolengo priest ministered to the sick "When I am in Heaven, where everything is possible, I will cling to the mantle of the Mother of God and I will not turn my eyes from you. But do not forget what this poor old man has said to you."(RM) Founder Of The Societies Of The Little House Of Divine Providence; “We are like the marionettes of a puppet-show. As long as they are held by a hand from above they walk, jump, dance and give signs of agility and life: they represent...now a king, now a clown...but as soon as the performance is over they are dropped and huddled together ingloriously in a dusty corner. So it is with us: amid the multiplicity of our various functions we are held and moved by the hand of Providence. Our duty is to enter into its designs, to play the part assigned to us...and respond promptly and trustfully to the impulses received from on high.”   Joseph Benedict Cottolengo was born in Bra, a town in the province of Cuneo, on May 3, 1786. The first born of 12 children, six of whom died at an early age, he showed from his boyhood great sensitivity toward the poor. He embraced the path of priesthood, imitated also by two brothers. The years of his youth were those of the Napoleonic venture and of the consequent hardships in the religious and social realm. Cottolengo became a good priest, sought after by many penitents and, in the Turin of that time, a preacher of spiritual exercises and conferences for university students, where he earned notable success.
At the age of 32, he was appointed canon of the Most Holy Trinity, a congregation of priests that had the task of officiating in the Church of Corpus Domini and of giving decorum to the religious ceremonies of the city, but he felt ill at ease in that post.

1928 St Nectarius Moscow Patriarchate authorized local veneration of the Optina Elders June 13,1996, glorifying for universal veneration August 7, 2000. Born in the city of Elets in the Orel province in 1853, the son of Basil and Elena Tikhonov.
At his baptism, he was named Nicholas.
St Nectarius completed the course of his earthly life on April 29, 1928.
The Moscow Patriarchate authorized local veneration of the Optina Elders on June 13,1996, glorifying them for universal veneration on August 7,

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 30
44 James son of Zebedee one of the Twelve Apostles 1st Apostles died as a martyr.   He and his brother, St John, were called to be Apostles by our Lord Jesus Christ, Who called them the "Sons of Thunder" (Mark 3:17).  It was this James, with John and Peter, who witnessed the Raising of the Daughter of Jairus, the Lord's Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, and His agony in the Garden of Gethsemane.
  At Saintes in France, blessed Eutropius, bishop and martyr, who was consecrated bishop and sent to France by St. Clement.  After preaching for many years, he had his skull crushed for bearing testimony to Christ, and thus gained victory by his death.  The town of Saintes in south-west France honours as its first bishop St Eutropius, who was sent from Rome in the third century to evangelize the inhabitants and who suffered martyrdom either at their hands or by order of the Roman authorities. The story locally told is that St Eutropius accompanied St Denis to France to share his apostolic labours. The people of Saintes, to whom he preached, expelled him from their city, and he went to live in a cell on a neighbouring rock where he gave himself to prayer and to instructing those who would listen. Amongst others he converted and baptized the Roman governor’s daughter, Eustella. When the girl’s father discovered that she was a Christian he drove her from his house, and charged the butchers of Saintes to slay Eutropius. Eustella found him dead with his skull split by an axe, and she buried his remains in his cell. 
 328  St. Alexander I, 19th Pope; Departure of; See of St. Mark.  On this day also of the year 44 A.M. (April 17th., 328 A.D.) the holy father Pope Alexander (Alexandros), 19th Pope of the See of St. Mark, departed. This Pope was born in the city of Alexandria from Christian parents, and he grew up in serving the church. Pope Maximus ordained him a reader, Pope Theonas ordained him a deacon. Pope Peter (Petros the Seal of the Martyrs) ordained him a priest, and he was virgin and chaste.
686-693 Erconwald of London bishop miracles at grave were reported (until the 16th century) miracles recorded touching his couch OSB B (RM).  In Saint Bede's (673-735) time, miracles were recorded as a result of touching the couch used by Erconwald in his later years. At his death, Erconwald's relics were claimed by Barking, Chertsey, and London; he was finally buried in Saint Paul's Cathedral in London, which he had enlarged. The relics escaped the fire of 1087 and were placed in the crypt. November 14, 1148, they were translated to a new shrine behind the high altar, from where they were again moved on February 1, 1326 (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer)
Erconwald is portrayed in art as a bishop in a small 'chariot' (the Saxon equivalent of a bath chair) in which he travelled because of his gout. Sometimes there is a woman touching it or he may be shown with Saint Ethelburga of Barking (Roeder).

819  St. Mark II, 49th Pope of the See of St. Mark Departure of. (Coptic).  This Pope was from Alexandria, and he a was chaste, learned, and honorable man. Pope John ordained him a deacon, and he was an eloquent speaker. His voice was sweet and all those who heard him rejoiced in him. The Pope handed him the administration of the papal place, and he did nothing without his advice. When Pope John put on him the garb of monks in the monastery, one of the elder monks shouted saying:
 "This deacon whose name is Mark shall, rightly and fittingly sit upon the throne of his father Mark, the Evangelist."
 851 St. Michael II, 53rd Pope of the See of St. Mark Departure of. (Coptic).   When pope John departed, the bishops unanimously agreed to choose him Patriarch. He fled to the desert, but they caught up with him, brought him back, and enthroned him Patriarch on the 2nd day of Amshir, 515 A.M. (January 26th., 799 A.D.).
On this day also, of the year 567 A.M. (April 17th., 851 A.D.), the holy father Pope Michael (Khail), 53rd Pope of Alexandria, departed.  This father was a righteous monk, and he was ordained hegumen for the monastery of the saint Abba John. Because of his good conduct, they chose him Patriarch, and he was enthroned in the 24th day of Hatour 566 A.M. (November 20th., 849 A.D.).
When the Holy Fast came, he went to the desert of Scetis to keep the fast there. He remembered his earlier life in the wilderness, so he asked God with tears and supplication saying: "O God, you know how much I love solitary life and I have no aptitude for the position that I am in." The Lord accepted his petition and he departed in peace after the feast of Passover. He stayed on the Chair one year, four months and twenty-eight days.  His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.

Sanctæ Catharínæ Senénsis Vírginis, ex tértio Ordine sancti Domínici, quæ ad cæléstem Sponsum transívit prídie hujus diéi.   ST Catherine was born in Siena on the feast of the Annunciation 1347, she and a twin sister who did not long survive her birth being the youngest of twenty-five children. Their father, Giacomo Benincasa, a well-to-do dyer, lived with his wife Lapa, daughter of a now forgotten poet, in the spacious house which the piety of the Sienese has preserved almost intact to the present day. Catherine as a little girl is described as having been very merry, and sometimes on her way up or downstairs she used to kneel on every step to repeat a Hail Mary. She was only six years old when she had the remarkable mystical experience which may be said to have sealed her vocation. In the company of her brother Stephen she was returning from a visit to her married sister Bonaventura when she suddenly came to a dead stop, standing as though spellbound in the road, with her eyes gazing up into the sky, utterly oblivious to the repeated calls of the boy who, having walked on ahead, had turned round to find that she was not following. Only after he had gone back and had seized her by the hand did she wake up as from a dream. “Oh!” she cried, “if you had seen what I saw you would not have done that!” Then she burst into tears because the vision had faded—a vision in which she had beheld our Lord seated in glory with St Peter, St Paul and St John. The Saviour had smiled upon the child: He had extended His hand to bless her . . . and from that moment Catherine was entirely His. In vain did her shrewish mother seek to inspire her with the interests common to girls of her age: she cared but for prayer and solitude, only mingling with other children in order to lead them to share her own devotion.
Such things as these, coupled with her reputation for holiness and wonders, had by this time won for her a unique place in the estimation of her fellow citizens, many of whom proudly called her “La Beata Popolana” and resorted to her in their various difficulties. So numerous were the cases of conscience with which she dealt that three Dominicans were specially charged to hear the confessions of those who were induced by her to amend their lives. Moreover, because of her success in healing feuds, she was constantly being called upon to arbitrate at a time when every man's hand seemed to be against his neighbour. It was partly no doubt with a view to turning the belligerent energies of Christendom from fratricidal struggles that Catherine was moved to throw herself energetically into Pope Gregory Xl's appeal for another crusade to wrest the Holy Sepulchre from the Turks. Her efforts in this direction brought her into direct correspondence with the pontiff himself.
1572 St. Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572 Catholic Reformation leader taught theology philosophy 16 years excessive zeal
as grand inquisitor wholeheartedly devoted to the religious life published Roman Catechism revised Roman Breviary and Roman Missal organized Battle of Lepanto
.   One of the foremost leaders of the Catholic Reformation. Born Antonio Ghislieri in Bosco, Italy, to a poor family, he labored as a shepherd until the age of fourteen and then joined the Dominicans, being ordained in 1528. Called Brother Michele, he studied at Bologna and Genoa, and then taught theology and philosophy for sixteen years before holding the posts of master of novices and prior for several Dominican houses.
Named inquisitor for Como and Bergamo, he was so capable in the fulfillment of his office that by 1551, and at the urging of the powerful Cardinal Carafa, he was named by Pope Julius III commissary general of the Inquisition. In 1555, Carafa was elected Pope Paul IV and was responsible for Ghislieri’s swift rise as a bishop of Nepi and Sutri in 1556, cardinal in 1557, and grand inquisitor in 1558.
In his personal life he continued to be a devout mendicant friar; as pope he set himself to enforce the decrees of the Council of Trent with energy and effect. The catechism ordered by the Council of Trent was completed during his rule (1566), and he ordered translations made. The breviary reformed (1568) and missal (1570). He also commissioned the best edition to date of the writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1159); it was he who made Thomas a Doctor of the Church in 1567.
He encouraged the new society founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) and established the Jesuits in the Gregorian University. He consecrated three Jesuit bishops for India, gave Saint Francis Borgia (1510-1572) his greatest cooperation, and helped to finance missionaries to China and Japan. He built the church of Our Lady of the Angels for the Franciscans and helped Saint Philip Neri (1515-1595) in his establishment of the Oratory. Probably the act for which he will be longest remembered in his leadership at the time of the Battle of Lepanto.
1590 St. Gerard Miles Martyr of England with Blessed Francis Dickinson.  1590 BB. FRANCIS DICKENSON AND MILES GERARD, MARTYRS. NATIVES respectively of Yorkshire and of Lancashire, Francis Dickenson and Miles Gerard crossed over to France to be educated for the priesthood in the Douai college at Rheims. In 1589, six years after Gerard’s ordination, they were despatched on the English mission, but the ship on which they embarked was wrecked, passengers as well as crew being cast up on the Kentish coast. Either on suspicion or on information, Dickenson and Gerard were promptly arrested and cast into prison. Brought up for trial, they were condemned to death as traitors for the offence of coming to England as priests. They suffered martyrdom together at Rochester, on April 13 or 30, 1590.
See Challoner, MMP., p. 162. There is further interesting information in the state papers which preserve a record of the examinations of these two martyrs. See Catholic Record Society Publications, vol. v, pp. 171—173 and cf. Pollen, Acts of English Martyrs, pp. 314--315.
1842 St. Joseph Cottolengo opened home/hospital for sick poor Piccola Casa became a great medical institution founded Daughters of Compassion Daughters of the Good Shepherd Hermits of the Holy Rosary Priests of the Holy Trinity.    At Chieri, near Turin, St. Joseph Cottolengo, confessor, founder of the Little House of Divine Providence, full of trust in God and remarkable for his charity toward the poor, whom Pope Pius XI enrolled among the saints.
    One day in 1827 Father Joseph Cottolengo was called upon to give the last sacraments to a young Frenchwoman who had taken ill in the city of Turin, Italy, while en route back to France with her family. Amazed at the fact that this foreign woman was dying uncared for in a slum - the only place in which she could find lodging - Cottolengo learned that there was no institution in the whole city where emergency medical care could be obtained.
     Father Joseph was a great devotee of the needy of any sort. Whenever he saw that aid was necessary, he dropped everything else until provision had been made. In this case, he at once rented five rooms in a house to serve as an emergency hospital. A good local woman supplied some beds, a doctor and a pharmacist offered their services, and soon he had five patients under care. What proved the need of such an institution was the way that the hospital grew. As more rooms were added, Father Cottolengo gathered and organized a permanent nursing staff of men and women. He called the men the Brothers of St. Vincent. The women he formed into a nursing order of nuns, the Vincentian Sisters.
     This “Volta Rossa” hospital suffered a brief setback in 1831. A cholera epidemic broke out, and the city authorities, fearing that the hospital would become a breeding ground for the disease, shut it down. Canon Cottolengo kept his cool, and simply planned to move the hospital to other quarters. Meanwhile, his nurses took care of the cholera victims in their own homes.
     The place to which the hospital was moved in 1832 was Valdocco, suburban to Turin. Not only did the transplanted emergency hospital thrive in its new locale; there soon sprang up alongside it a number of auxiliary institutions called into being by additional human needs. There was a nursing school, a building for epileptics, and others for deaf-mutes, the blind, orphans, homeless kids, prostitutes, the aged, and the mentally retarded (“My good boys and girls”, he affectionately termed his retarded children.) In the end, he had a vast complex of charitable homes.
     The most remarkable part of this “Little House of Divine Providence” is that the founder actually did leave the management completely in God's hands. He kept no books, no accounts. What he got he forthwith spent, never investing it as a cautionary or prudential measure. He even refused to put his center under royal patronage as a security, and would allow no endowments. Whenever a need arose, therefore, he trusted that the God who had allowed it to arise would provide funds to deal with it.

1922 Pandita Mary Ramabai ihr Werk leiten und den elenden Frauen Indiens helfen. Die von Pandita Ramabai ausgebildeten Lehrerinnen und Krankenpflegerinnen waren in Indien sehr angesehen und begehrt. 1904 gründete sie außerdem eine Bibelschule um Missionarinnen auszubilden. 1905 kam es zu einer Erweckung unter den Bewohnern, über 1.000 von ihnen ließen sich taufen. Bis zu ihrem Tod am 5.4.1922 konnte Pandita Ramabai ihr Werk leiten und den elenden Frauen Indiens helfen.

January 01 Saints
2nd v. St. Elvan & Mydwyn;   Supposedly two Britons sent by King St. Lucius to Pope St. Eleutherius (c. 174-189) to ask for missionaries.

3rd v. St. Martina, virgin Item Romæ, via Appia, corónæ sanctórum mílitum trigínta Mártyrum, sub Diocletiáno Imperatóre. In the same city, on the Appian Way, the crowning with martyrdom of thirty holy soldiers under Emperor Diocletian. Alban Butler informs us correctly that there was a chapel in Rome consecrated to her memory which was frequented with great devotion in the seventh century. We also may learn from him that her relics were discovered in a vault in the ruins of her old church, and translated in the year 1634 under Pope Urban VIII, who built. a new church in her honour and himself composed the hymns used in her office in the Roman Breviary. He adds further that the city of Rome ranks her amongst its particular patrons.

510 St. Eugendus 4th abbot of Condat, near Geneva Switzerland. Also called Oyand, Eugendus was never ordained, but he was a noted Scripture scholar.  In the lives of the first abbots of Condat it is mentioned that the monastery, which was built by St Romanus of timber, being consumed by fire, St Eugendus rebuilt it of stone; and also that he built a handsome church in honour of SS. Peter, Paul and Andrew.
   His prayer was almost continual, and his devotion most ardent during his last illness. Having called the priest among his brethren to whom he had committed the office of anointing the sick, Eugendus caused him to anoint his breast according to the custom then prevalent, and he breathed forth his soul five days after, about the year 510, and of his age sixty-one.*{* The rich abbey of Saint-Claude gave rise to a considerable town built about it, which was made an episcopal see by Pope Benedict XIV in 1748, who, secularizing the monastery, converted it into a cathedral. The canons to gain admittance were required to give proof of their nobility for sixteen degrees, eight paternal and as many maternal.}

533 St. Fulgentius Bishop of Ruspe, Tunisia friend of St. Augustine; “A person may be endowed with the gift of miracles, and yet may lose his soul. Miracles insure not salvation; they may indeed procure esteem and applause; but what will it avail a man to be esteemed on earth and afterwards be delivered up to torments?”   Born Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius of Carthage, he was a Roman of senatorial rank. His mother, widowed, opposed Fulgentius’ religious career, but he became a monk. He became abbot with Felix but had to flee the monastery in 499 when Vandals or Numidians invaded, going to Sicca Veneria. Retuming to the area, Fulgentius was named bishop of Ruspe, circa 508. King Thrasamund , an Arian, banished Fulgentius to Sardinia, Italy where he and other bishops were aided by Pope St. Symmachus. Fulgentius founded a monastery and wrote such eloquent defenses of orthodox Catholic doctrines that King Thrasamund returned him to his see, only to banish him again. In 523, Fulgentius returned to his see, where he set about rebuilding the faith.

660 ST CLARUS, ABBOT; many marvellous stories of the miracles he worked, *{* It is perhaps desirable to remind the reader once for all that only Almighty God can do miracles. The use of the above and similar expressions is permissible by custom, but in fact God does the miracle through the agency or at the intercession of the saint concerned.}  patron of tailors.  St. Clarus Abbot  numerous miracles  patron of tailors
Clarus was born near Vienne, Dauphine', France. He became a monk at St. Ferreol Abbey and later was spiritual director of St. Blandina Convent, where his mother and sister were nuns. In time he became Abbot of St. Marcellus monastery at Vienne and lived there until his death on January 1. He is reputed to have performed numerous miracles, and his cult was confirmed in 1903 by Pope Pius X. He is the patron of tailors.

1031 St William of Saint Benignus, Abbot; character was great zeal and firmness joined with tender affection for his subjects;  did not hesitate to oppose, both by action and writings, the most powerful rulers of his time, like Emperor St Henry, Robert, King of France, and Pope John XIX, when he felt the cause of justice was at stake; In interests of the Cluniac reform he was constantly active, making many journeys and travelling as far as Rome.

1048 St. Odilo monk at Cluny 5th abbot ecstacies great austerities inaugurated All Souls' Day.  Though he was a friend of princes and popes, he was exceedingly gentle and kind and known throughout Christendom for his liberality to the needy. Odilo's concern for the people was also shown by the lavish help he gave during several famines, especially in 1006, when he sold Church treasures to feed the poor, and again from 1028-1033.

1252 Bl. Berka Zdislava founded Dominican priory of St. Laurence Communion daily;   Zdislava had visions and ecstasies, and even in those days of infrequent communion she is said to have received the Blessed Sacrament almost daily. When she fell grievously ill she consoled her husband and children by saying that she hoped to help them more from the next world than she had ever been able to do in this. She died on January 1, 1252, was buried in the priory of St Laurence which she had founded, and is stated to have appeared to her husband in glory shortly after her death. This greatly strengthened him in his conversion from a life of worldliness. Pope Pius X approved the cult paid to her in her native country in 1907. The alleged connection of Bd Zdislava Berka with the third order of St Dominic remains somewhat of a problem, for the first formal rule for Dominican tertiaries of which we have knowledge belongs to a later date.

1713 St. Joseph Mary Tomasi;  Cardinal confessor of Pope Clement XI {1649 1721}; He answered that the days of actual physical martyrdom are over, and that we are now in the days of hidden martyrdom, seen only by God; the lesson of it all being trust in God; Even before his death the sick were healed through touching his clothing, and when the end had come cures multiplied round his bier. Bd Joseph Tommasi was beatified in 1803.
.  Born the son of the duke of Palermo, he became a member of the Theatine Order. Sent to Rome, he became the confessor of Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, proving instrumental in convincing the cardinal to accept elevation as pope in 1700 under pain of mortal sin. In return, the newly elected pontiff forced Joseph to accept appointment as a cardinal. While he served capably as a cardinal, his first preoccupation was as a brilliant liturgical scholar who published some of his works under the pseudonym J. M. Carus.Among his most notable contributions were: Codices Sacramentorunz Nongentis Annis Vetustiores (1680), including the Missale Gothicurn and the Missale Francorum; Responsalia etA ntiphonaria Ronzanae Ecclesiae a Sancto Gregorio Magno Disposita (1686); and the Antiqua Libri Missaruni Romanae Ecclesiae (1691). Beatified in 1803, he was canonized in 1986 by Pope John Paul II.

January 02 Saints
Saints of January 01 mention with Popes
2nd v. St. Elvan & Mydwyn;   Supposedly two Britons sent by King St. Lucius to Pope St. Eleutherius (c. 174-189) to ask for missionaries.

3rd v. St. Martina, virgin Item Romæ, via Appia, corónæ sanctórum mílitum trigínta Mártyrum, sub Diocletiáno Imperatóre. In the same city, on the Appian Way, the crowning with martyrdom of thirty holy soldiers under Emperor Diocletian. Alban Butler informs us correctly that there was a chapel in Rome consecrated to her memory which was frequented with great devotion in the seventh century. We also may learn from him that her relics were discovered in a vault in the ruins of her old church, and translated in the year 1634 under Pope Urban VIII, who built. a new church in her honour and himself composed the hymns used in her office in the Roman Breviary. He adds further that the city of Rome ranks her amongst its particular patrons.

510 St. Eugendus 4th abbot of Condat, near Geneva Switzerland. Also called Oyand, Eugendus was never ordained, but he was a noted Scripture scholar.  In the lives of the first abbots of Condat it is mentioned that the monastery, which was built by St Romanus of timber, being consumed by fire, St Eugendus rebuilt it of stone; and also that he built a handsome church in honour of SS. Peter, Paul and Andrew.
   His prayer was almost continual, and his devotion most ardent during his last illness. Having called the priest among his brethren to whom he had committed the office of anointing the sick, Eugendus caused him to anoint his breast according to the custom then prevalent, and he breathed forth his soul five days after, about the year 510, and of his age sixty-one.*{* The rich abbey of Saint-Claude gave rise to a considerable town built about it, which was made an episcopal see by Pope Benedict XIV in 1748, who, secularizing the monastery, converted it into a cathedral. The canons to gain admittance were required to give proof of their nobility for sixteen degrees, eight paternal and as many maternal.}

533 St. Fulgentius Bishop of Ruspe, Tunisia friend of St. Augustine; “A person may be endowed with the gift of miracles, and yet may lose his soul. Miracles insure not salvation; they may indeed procure esteem and applause; but what will it avail a man to be esteemed on earth and afterwards be delivered up to torments?”   Born Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius of Carthage, he was a Roman of senatorial rank. His mother, widowed, opposed Fulgentius’ religious career, but he became a monk. He became abbot with Felix but had to flee the monastery in 499 when Vandals or Numidians invaded, going to Sicca Veneria. Retuming to the area, Fulgentius was named bishop of Ruspe, circa 508. King Thrasamund , an Arian, banished Fulgentius to Sardinia, Italy where he and other bishops were aided by Pope St. Symmachus. Fulgentius founded a monastery and wrote such eloquent defenses of orthodox Catholic doctrines that King Thrasamund returned him to his see, only to banish him again. In 523, Fulgentius returned to his see, where he set about rebuilding the faith.

660 ST CLARUS, ABBOT; many marvellous stories of the miracles he worked, *{* It is perhaps desirable to remind the reader once for all that only Almighty God can do miracles. The use of the above and similar expressions is permissible by custom, but in fact God does the miracle through the agency or at the intercession of the saint concerned.}  patron of tailors.  St. Clarus Abbot  numerous miracles  patron of tailors
Clarus was born near Vienne, Dauphine', France. He became a monk at St. Ferreol Abbey and later was spiritual director of St. Blandina Convent, where his mother and sister were nuns. In time he became Abbot of St. Marcellus monastery at Vienne and lived there until his death on January 1. He is reputed to have performed numerous miracles, and his cult was confirmed in 1903 by Pope Pius X. He is the patron of tailors.

1031 St William of Saint Benignus, Abbot; character was great zeal and firmness joined with tender affection for his subjects;  did not hesitate to oppose, both by action and writings, the most powerful rulers of his time, like Emperor St Henry, Robert, King of France, and Pope John XIX, when he felt the cause of justice was at stake; In interests of the Cluniac reform he was constantly active, making many journeys and travelling as far as Rome.

1048 St. Odilo monk at Cluny 5th abbot ecstacies great austerities inaugurated All Souls' Day.  Though he was a friend of princes and popes, he was exceedingly gentle and kind and known throughout Christendom for his liberality to the needy. Odilo's concern for the people was also shown by the lavish help he gave during several famines, especially in 1006, when he sold Church treasures to feed the poor, and again from 1028-1033.

1252 Bl. Berka Zdislava founded Dominican priory of St. Laurence Communion daily;   Zdislava had visions and ecstasies, and even in those days of infrequent communion she is said to have received the Blessed Sacrament almost daily. When she fell grievously ill she consoled her husband and children by saying that she hoped to help them more from the next world than she had ever been able to do in this. She died on January 1, 1252, was buried in the priory of St Laurence which she had founded, and is stated to have appeared to her husband in glory shortly after her death. This greatly strengthened him in his conversion from a life of worldliness. Pope Pius X approved the cult paid to her in her native country in 1907. The alleged connection of Bd Zdislava Berka with the third order of St Dominic remains somewhat of a problem, for the first formal rule for Dominican tertiaries of which we have knowledge belongs to a later date.

1713 St. Joseph Mary Tomasi;  Cardinal confessor of Pope Clement XI {1649 1721}; He answered that the days of actual physical martyrdom are over, and that we are now in the days of hidden martyrdom, seen only by God; the lesson of it all being trust in God; Even before his death the sick were healed through touching his clothing, and when the end had come cures multiplied round his bier. Bd Joseph Tommasi was beatified in 1803.
.  Born the son of the duke of Palermo, he became a member of the Theatine Order. Sent to Rome, he became the confessor of Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, proving instrumental in convincing the cardinal to accept elevation as pope in 1700 under pain of mortal sin. In return, the newly elected pontiff forced Joseph to accept appointment as a cardinal. While he served capably as a cardinal, his first preoccupation was as a brilliant liturgical scholar who published some of his works under the pseudonym J. M. Carus.Among his most notable contributions were: Codices Sacramentorunz Nongentis Annis Vetustiores (1680), including the Missale Gothicurn and the Missale Francorum; Responsalia etA ntiphonaria Ronzanae Ecclesiae a Sancto Gregorio Magno Disposita (1686); and the Antiqua Libri Missaruni Romanae Ecclesiae (1691). Beatified in 1803, he was canonized in 1986 by Pope John Paul II.

Saints of January 02 mention with Popes
379 St. Basil the Great  vast learning and constant activity, genuine eloquence and immense charity Patron of hospital administrators.  379 St Basil The Great, Archbishop of Caesarea and Doctor of The Church, Patriarch of Eastern Monks
St Basil was born at Caesarea, the capital of Cappadocia in Asia Minor, in the year 329.
St. Basil the Great (329-379)
Basil was on his way to becoming a famous teacher when he decided to begin a religious life of gospel poverty. After studying various modes of religious life, he founded what was probably the first monastery in Asia Minor. He is to monks of the East what St. Benedict is to the West, and his principles influence Eastern monasticism today.

One of a family of ten, which included St Gregory of Nyssa, St Macrina the Younger, and St Peter of Sebaste, he was descended on both sides from Christians who had suffered persecution. His father, St Basil the Elder, and his mother, St Emmelia, were possessed of considerable landed property, and Basil’s early years were spent at the country house of his grandmother, St Macrina, whose example and teaching he never forgot. He was less successful in his efforts on behalf of the Church outside his own province. Left by the death of St Athanasius the champion of orthodoxy in the East, he strove persistently to rally and unite his fellow Catholics who, crushed by Arian tyranny and rent by schisms and dissensions amongst themselves, seemed threatened with extinction. His advances, however, were ill-received and he found himself misunderstood, misrepresented, and accused of ambition and of heresy. Even appeals which he and his friends made to Pope St Damasus and the Western bishops to intervene in the affairs of the East and to heal the troubles met with little response—apparently because aspersions upon their good faith had been made in Rome itself.
Nevertheless, relief was at hand, and that from an unexpected quarter. On August 9, 378, the Emperor Valens was mortally wounded at the battle of Adrian­ople, and with the accession of his nephew, Gratian, came the end of the Arian ascendancy in the East. When the news reached St Basil he was on his death-bed, but it brought him consolation in his last moments. He died on January 1, 379 at the age of forty-nine, worn out by his austerities, his hard work, and a painful disease. The whole of Caesarea mourned him as a father and protector—pagans, Jews, and strangers joining in the general lamentation. Seventy-two years after his death the Council of Chalcedon described him as “The great Basil, the minister of grace who has expounded the truth to the whole earth”. He was undoubtedly one of the most eloquent orators the Church has ever produced and his writings have entitled him to a high place amongst her doctors. In the Eastern church his chief feast-day is on January 1.

1146? BD AYRALD, Bishop of MAURIENNE; “Here lies Ayrald, a man of noble blood, monk of Portes, glory of pontiffs, a light of the Church, stay of the unfortunate, shining with goodness and unnumbered miracles.”   THE identity of this holy bishop is involved in much confusion and obscurity. His cultus was confirmed in 1863, and in the decree published on that occasion a summary of his life is given.
If we may credit this account, he was a son of William II, Count of Burgundy. Of his three brothers, one was elected pope under the name of Callistus II; another, Raymond, became king of Castile; and the third, Henry, count of Portugal.

1836 St. Caspar del Bufalo Various miracles many graces were obtained by his intercession.  In 1814 he founded the Congregation of the Most Precious Blood and in 1815, it was formally approved. The second foundation was made in 1819 and the third shortly afterwards at Albano. His wish was to have a house in every diocese, the most neglected and wicked town or district being chosen. The Kingdom of Naples in those days was a nest of crime of every kind; no one's life or property was safe, and in 1821 the pope asked del Bufalo to found six houses there. He joyfully responded but met with endless difficulties before subjects and funds were collected.

Saints of January 03 mention with Popes

236 ST ANTHERUS, POPE AND MARTYR; the Liber Pontificalis states that he was put to death for obtaining copies of the official proceedings against the martyrs with the view of preserving them in the episcopal archives.  THE name of St Antherus occurs in the list of popes after that of St Pontian. He is believed to have been elected November 21, 235, and to have died January 3, 236, thus reigning only forty-three days. Nothing certain is known regarding his martyrdom, though the Liber Pontificalis states that he was put to death for obtaining copies of the official proceedings against the martyrs with the view of preserving them in the episcopal archives. He was buried in the “papal crypt” in the catacombs (Cemetery of St Callistus), and De Rossi discovered the site in 1854, together with the fragments of a Greek inscription.

  512 St. Genevieve Paris averted Attila scourge by fasting/ prayer;  500 ST GENEVIEVE, or GENOVEFA, VIRGIN
GENEVIEVE’S father’s name was Severus, and her mother’s Gerontia; she was born about the year 422 at Nanterre, a small village four miles from Paris, near Mont Valérien. When St Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, went with St Lupus into Britain to oppose the Pelagian heresy, he spent a night at Nanterre on his way. The inhabitants flocked about them to receive their blessing, and St Germanus gave an address, during which he took particular notice of Genevieve, though she was only seven. After his sermon he inquired for her parents, and foretold their daughter’s future sanctity. He then asked Genevieve whether it was not her desire to serve God only and to be naught else but a spouse of Jesus Christ. She answered that this was what she desired, and begged that by his blessing she might be from that moment consecrated to God. The holy prelate went to the church, followed by the people, and during the long singing of psalms and prayers, says Constantius—that is during the recital of None and Vespers, as one text of the Life of St Genevieve expresses it—he laid his hand upon the maiden’s head. After he had supped he dismissed her, telling her parents to bring her again to him the next morning. The father obeyed, and St Germanus asked the child whether she remembered the promise she had made to God. She said she did, and declared that she hoped to keep her word. The bishop gave her a medal or coin, on which a cross was engraved, to wear about her neck, in memory of the consecration she had received the day before; and he charged her never to wear bracelets or jewels or other trinkets. The author of her life tells us that the child, begging one day that she might go to church, her mother struck her on the face, but in punishment lost her sight; she only recovered it two months after, by washing her eyes with water which her daughter fetched from the well and over which she had made the sign of the cross. Hence the people look upon the well at Nanterre as having been blessed by the saint.  

The city of Paris has frequently received sensible proofs of the divine protection, through St Genevieve’s intercession. The most famous instance is that called the miracle des Ardents, or of the burning fever. In 1129 a disease, apparently poisoning by ergot, swept off in a short time many thous and persons, nor could the art of physicians afford any relief. Stephen, Bishop of Paris, with the clergy and people, implored the divine mercy by fasting and sup­plications. Yet the epidemic did not abate till the shrine of St Genevieve was carried in a solemn procession to the cathedral. Many sick persons were cured by touching the shrine, and of all who then were suffering from the disease in the whole town only three died, and no others fell ill.

1130 Pope Innocent II, coming to Paris the year following, after due investigation ordered an annual festival in commemoration of the miracle on November 26, which is still kept in Paris. It was formerly the custom, in extraordinary public calamities, to carry the shrine of St Genevieve in procession to the cathedral. The greater part of the relics of the saint were destroyed or pillaged at the French Revolution.

Saints of January 04 mention with Popes
1821 St. ELIZABETH ANN SET0N (née Bayley). Born in New York City, 1774; married William Seton, 1794; widowed in 1803; received into the Catholic Church in 1805; made religious vows, 1809; died at Emmetsburg in Maryland, 4 January 1821. Mother Seton founded the American Sisters of Charity and was the first native-born American citizen to be beatified, in 1963.
Elizabeth Bayley Seton was the first native born American to be canonized by the Catholic Church.  Born two years before the American Revolution, Elizabeth grew up in the "cream" of New York society. She was a prolific reader, and read everything from the Bible to contemporary novels.  In spite of her high society background, Elizabeth's early life was quiet, simple, and often lonely. As she grew a little older, the Bible was to become her continual instruction, support and comfort; she would continue to love the Scriptures for the rest of her life.In 1794, Elizabeth married the wealthy young William Seton, with whom she was deeply in love. The first years of their marriage were happy and prosperous. Elizabeth wrote in her diary at first autumn, "My own home at twenty-the world-that and heaven too-quite impossible."
Born:  28 August 1774, New York City, New York, USA as Elizabeth Ann Bayley Died:  4 January 1821 Beatification:  17 March 1963 by Pope John XXIII Canonization:  14 September 1975 by Pope Paul VI Patronage:  death of children, in-law problems, loss of parents, opposition of Church authorities, people ridiculed for their piety, diocese of Shreveport Louisiana, widows.  
We must pray without ceasing, in every occurrence and employment of our lives - that prayer which is rather a habit of lifting up the heart to God as in a constant communication with Him.  Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton.  
Our God is God. All is as He pleases. I am the happiest creature in the thought that not the least thing can happen but by His will or permission; and all for the best.  Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton.  
The first end I propose in our daily work is to do the will of God; secondly, to do it in the manner he wills it; and thirdly to do it because it is his will.  Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton

Saints of January 05 mention with Popes
126 ST TELESPHORUS Pope in the time of Antoninus Pius, St. Telesphorus, pope, who, after many sufferings for the confession of Christ, underwent a glorious martyrdom.  Towards the year 126 he succeeded St Sixtus I, and saw the havoc which the persecution of Hadrian made in the Church. “He ended his life by a glorious martyrdom, says Eusebius, and he is the first one of the successors of St Peter whom St Irenaeus and other early writers refer to as a martyr. The ordinances attributed to him in the Liber Pontificalis, e.g. that the Mass of Christmas—a feast that did not then exist—should be celebrated at midnight, cannot with any probability be ascribed to his pontificate. St Teles­phorus is commemorated to-day in the Mass and Office of the vigil of the Epiphany.

 550 St. Emiliana Mystic aunt of Pope St. Gregory the Great    At Rome, the holy virgin Emiliana, aunt of Pope St. Gregory.  Being called to God by her sister Tharsilla, who had preceded her, she departed to heaven on this day.
She and a sister, Tharsilla, lived in Rome, in the home of their brother, Gregory’s father, practicing great austerity. Emiliana died on January 5, just a few days after Tharsilla.
550 Emiliana of Rome saintly life, visions  V (RM)

 868 St. Convoyon Benedictine abbot exiled by Norseman in Brittany
IN 1866 Pope Pius IX approved the cultus, which from time immemorial had been paid in the neighbourhood of Redon in Brittany to the Benedictine monk who was the founder and abbot of the monastery of Saint Saviour. He was himself a Breton by birth, and it was in 831 that he, with six companions, obtained a grant of land on which to build an abbey. In the disturbed political conditions of the time, the early years of the new foundation seem to have been full of privation and hardship. Owing in part to a charge of simony brought against certain bishops of the province, Convoyon in 848 found himself a member of a deputation sent to Rome to appeal to Pope Leo IV. He is said to have brought back with him to his monastery a chasuble which Leo gave him, and also the relics of Pope St Marcellinus.
Later Convoyon was driven from his monastery by the incursions of the Norsemen, and was absent from it at the time of his death in 868. In 1866 the abbey of Saint Saviour at Redon had passed into the hands of a community of
the Eudist fathers, who were very active in procuring the confirmation of cultus for this local saint.

St. Charles of Sezze a lay brother at Naziano.  John Charles Marchioni was born at Sezze, Italy, on October 19, of humble parents. He became a shepherd and wanted to become a priest. When unable to do so because of his poor scholarship (He barely learned to read and write), he became a lay brother at Naziano, served in various menial positions - cook, porter, gardener - at different monasteries near Rome and became known for his holiness, simplicity, and charity.
He wrote several mystical works, lived a life of great mortifications, and worked heroically to help the stricken in the plague of 1656. He died in Rome on January 6. His family name may have been Melchior, and he is also known as Charles of Sezze. He was canonized by Pope John XXIII in 1959.

1236 St. Roger  da Todi  received the habit from St. Francis of Assisi.   Ruggiero da Todi (Roger) was appointed spiritual director of Blessed Philippa Mareri's Community at Rieti by Francis.
Roger died at Todi, shortly after Philippa's death January 5; his cult was confirmed by Pope Benedict XIV.

1860  Bd John NEPOMUCEN NEUMANN. Born in Bohemia, 1811; he was ordained priest in New York City in 1836 and joined the Redemptorist congregation; consecrated fourth bishop of Philadelphia in 1852; he died there on 5 January 1860. Bishop Neumann, a naturalized American citizen, organized Catholic schools into a diocesan system. He was beatified in 1963.
 January 5, 2010 St. John Neumann (1811-1860). The first American bishop to be canonized and the fourth bishop of Philadelphia. A native of Bohemia, he studied at the University of Prague, became a noted scholar, and entered the religious life. Deeply inspired by the letters of Father Frederic Baraga to the Leopold Missionary Society, he volunteered to labor in America, arriving in New York and receiving ordination on June 25, 1836. The next four years were spent in missionary work among the members of the German community around Niagara Falls. In 1840, he joined the Redemptorists in 1842- the first member to be professed in America - and ten years later, on March 28, 1852, he was consecrated bishop of Philadelphia at the suggestion of Archbishop Francis Kenrick of Baltimore. As bishop, Neumann founded fifty churches in the diocese, advanced the program on the cathedral, and was noted especially for his contribution to Catholic education. Finding only two parochial schools at his arrival, Neumann established nearly one hundred by the time of his passing. He also cared for the poor and orphans, and founded the Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis. Beatified by Pope Paul VI in 1963, he was canonized in 1977.

Saints of January 06 mention with Popes
607 St. Peter of Canterbury  Benedictine 1st abbot monastery Sts. Peter/Paul - Canterbury. Peter was originally a monk in the monastery of St. Andrew’s, Rome, and was chosen by Pope St. Gregory I the Great {Doctor of the Church; b. Rome 540; d.12 March 604}to embark with St. Augustine of Canterbury and other monks on the missionary enterprise to England in 596.  Peter became the first abbot of the monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul at Canterbury in 602.  He died by drowning at Ambleteu, near Boulogne while on a mission to France.

 1275 St Raymond of Pennafort canon of Barcelona Dominican, Archbishop     At Barcelona in Spain, St. Raymond of Pennafort, of the Order of Preachers, celebrated for sanctity and learning.  His festival is kept on the 23rd of this month.
1175-1275) encouraged assisted and confessor for Peter Nolasco -- requested by the Blessed Virgin in a vision to found an order especially devoted to the ransom of captives from the Moors. The reputation of the saint for juridical science decided the pope to employ Raymond of Peñafort's talents in re-arranging and codifying the canons of the Church. He had to rewrite and condense decrees that had been multiplying for centuries, and which were contained in some twelve or fourteen collections already existing. We learn from a Bull of Gregory IX to the Universities of Paris and Bologna that many of the decrees in the collections were but repetitions of ones issued before, many contradicted what had been determined in previous decrees, and many on account of their great length led to endless confusion, while others had never been embodied in any collection and were of uncertain authority.

The pope announced the new publication in a Bull directed to the doctors and students of Paris and Bologna in 1231, and commanded that the work of St. Raymond alone should be considered authoritative, and should alone be used in the schools. When Raymond completed his work the pope appointed him Archbishop of Tarragona, but the saint declined the honour. Having edited the Decretals he returned to Spain. He was not allowed to remain long in seclusion, as he was elected General of the Order in 1238; but he resigned two years later.

1373 St. Andrew Corsini regarded as a prophet and a thaumaturgus miracles were so multiplied at his death that Eugenius IV permitted a public cult immediately; Feast kept on February 04.        At Florence, St. Andrew Corsini, a Florentine Carmelite and bishop of Fiesole.  Being celebrated for miracles, he was ranked among the saints by Urban VIII.  His festival is kept on the 4th of February.
He was born in Florence on November 30, 1302, a member of the powerful Corsini family. Wild in his youth, Andrew was converted to a holy life by his mother and became a Carmelite monk. He studied in Paris and Avignon, France, returning to his birthplace. There he became known as the Apostle of Florence. He was called a prophet and miracle worker. Named as the bishop of Fiesole in 1349, Andrew fled the honor but was forced to accept the office, which he held for twelve years. He was sent by Pope Urban V to Bologna to settle disputes between the nobles and commoners, a mission he performed well. Andrew died in Fiesole on January 6, 1373. So many miracles took place at his death that Pope Eugenius IV permitted the immediate opening of his cause.

1611  St. John de Ribera Archbishop Vice-roy of Valencia deported Moors Many miracles attributed his intercession.  Spain. He was the son of the duke of Alcala, and was born in Seville, Spain. Ordained a priest in 1557, he became archbishop in 1568, serving for more than four decades until he died on January 6, in Valencia. John ordered the Moors deported from his see. He was revered by Pope Pius V and King Philip II of Spain. Pope John XXIII canonized him in 1959.
 Providence seems perceptibly to have intervened to shield his virtue from danger. Realizing the perils to which he was exposed, he gave himself up to penance and prayer in preparation for holy orders. In 1557, at the age of twenty-five, Don John was ordained priest; and after teaching theology at Salamanca for a while, he was preconized bishop of Badajoz, much to his dismay, by St Pius V in 1562. His duties as bishop were discharged with scrupulous fidelity and zeal, and six years later, by the desire both of Philip II and the same holy pontiff, he was reluctantly constrained to accept the dignity of archbishop of Valencia. A few months later, filled with consternation at the languid faith and relaxed morals of this province, which was the great stronghold of the Moriscos, he wrote begging to be allowed to resign, but the pope would not consent; and for forty-two years, down to his death in 1611, St John struggled to support cheerfully a load of responsibility which almost crushed him. In his old age the burden was increased by the office of viceroy of the province of Valencia, which was imposed upon him by Philip III.

1925 BD RAPHAELA MARY, VIRGIN, FOUNDRESS OF THE HANDMAIDS OF THE SACRED HEART  her answer to misery was, I see clearly that God wants me to submit to all that happens to me as if I saw Him there commanding it.”  It cannot be doubted that it was in these years that she earned her halo of holiness.
The woman that inaugurated a religious congregation in the circum­stances that she did cannot have found such self-abnegation easy. Attention has several times been drawn in these pages to people who were popularly canonized because they accepted, not formal martyrdom, but simply an unjust death: Mother Raphaela is a beata who lived nearly half her life cheerfully carrying a weight of unjust treatment. Courage and sweetness shone out from her face in old age. The surgeon who operated on her in her last days said it all in a sentence:
Mother, you are a brave woman”; but she had said long before,
“I see clearly that God wants me to submit to all that happens to me as if I saw Him there commanding it.”
                           Bd Raphaela Mary died on the Epiphany in 1925, and she was beatified in 1952.

In English there is a good summary in pamphlet form, In Search of the Will of God (1950), by Fr William Lawson.

1937  Blessed André Bessette (b. 1845) expressed a saint’s faith by a lifelong devotion to St. Joseph.
 St. André Bessette  (1845-1937)  Brother André expressed a saint’s faith by a lifelong devotion to St. Joseph.
Sickness and weakness dogged André from birth. He was the eighth of 12 children born to a French Canadian couple near Montreal. Adopted at 12, when both parents had died, he became a farmhand. Various trades followed: shoemaker, baker, blacksmith—all failures. He was a factory worker in the United States during the boom times of the Civil War.

At 25, he applied for entrance into the Congregation of the Holy Cross. After a year’s novitiate, he was not admitted because of his weak health. But with an extension and the urging of Bishop Bourget (see Marie-Rose Durocher, October 6), he was finally received. He was given the humble job of doorkeeper at Notre Dame College in Montreal, with additional duties as sacristan, laundry worker and messenger. “When I joined this community, the superiors showed me the door, and I remained 40 years,” he said. He is buried at the Oratory. He was beatified in 1982 and canonized in 2010. At his canonization in October 2010, Pope Benedict XVI said that St. Andre "lived the beatitude of the pure of heart."

Saints of January 07 mention with Popes
St. Crispins 1/ Pavia Lombardy 30 yrs 2/bishop w Pope St. Leo I Great.
 Papíæ sancti Crispíni, Epíscopi et Confessóris.       At Pavia, St. Crispin, bishop and confessor.
Two brothers bore this name, both canonized. One served Pavia, in Lombardy, Italy, for thirty years.
The other was bishop in the reign of Pope St. Leo I the Great.

335-414 St. Nicetas of Remesiana Bishop Te Deum missionary friend of St. Paulinus of Nola who made fierce and barbarous nations humane and meek by preaching the Gospel to them.  Though a priest of Antioch, we find him at Nicomedia in the year 303, when Diocletian first published his edicts against the Christians. He there suffered a long imprisonment for the faith, for he wrote from out of his dungeon, “All the martyrs salute you. I inform you that the Pope Anthimus [Bishop of Nicomedia] has finished his course by martyrdom.” This happened in 303. Yet Eusebius informs us that St Lucian did not arrive himself at the crown of martyrdom till after the death of St Peter of Alexandria in 311, so that he seems to have continued nine years in prison.
856 St. Aidric Bishop court diplomat Charlemagne and son/successor Louis Raised at Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany, the royal residence of Charlemagne.   Aidric, or Aldericus, grew up serving Charlemagne and his son and successor, Louis. At twenty-one, Aidric left the honors of the court to study for the priesthood at Metz, France. After his ordination, he was recalled to the court by Louis. Nine years later he was made the bishop of Le Mans, where he became known for his sanctity and for his efforts on behalf of his people. When Louis died, Aidric supported Charles the Bald, one of Louis' sons fighting for the throne, and for this reason was forced out of Le Mans, only to be reinstalled by Pope Gregory IV. Aidric served as a legate to the court of King Pepin of Aquitaine, France, where he convinced that monarch to restore vast amounts of Church property stolen by the royal family.
Aidric also took part in the councils of Paris and Tours. He was paralyzed for the last two years of his life.

1131 St. Canute Lavard Martyred nephew of St. Canute son of King Eric the Good.  In Dánia sancti Canúti, Regis et Mártyris.  In Denmark, St. Canute, king and martyr.  Canute had spent part of his youth at the Saxon court, and in 1129 the Emperor Lothair III recognized his rule over the western Wends, with the title of king. This excited the anger of King Niels of Denmark, and on January 7, 1131, Canute was treacherously slain in the forest of Haraldsted, near Ringsted, by his cousins Magnus Nielssen and Henry Skadelaar. Canute, who had supported the missionary activities of St Vicelin, was canonized by Pope Alexander III in 1169 at the request of his son, Valdemar I of Denmark, and of Eskil, Archbishop of Lund. The Roman Martyrology, following the cultus, which Canute received in Denmark, calls him a martyr, but he seems to have been a dynastic hero rather than a martyr.
1225 St. Raymond of Peñafort Dominican Marian; sailed on water w/cloak; Patron of Canonists taught philosophy at 20-gratis. The brave religious of this Order devoted themselves to saving poor Christians captured by the Moors.  Raymund joined to the exercises of his solitude the functions of an apostolical life, by laboring without intermission in preaching, instructing, hearing confessions with wonderful fruit, and converting heretics, Jews, and Moors Among his penitents were James, king of Aragon, and St. Peter Nolasco, with whom he concerted the foundation of the Order of the B. Virgin of mercy for the redemption of captives. James, the young king of Aragon had married Eleonora of Castile within the prohibited degrees, without a dispensation. A legate was sent by pope Gregory IX. to examine and judge the case. In a council of bishops of the two kingdoms, held at Tar rayon, he declared the marriage null, but that their son Don Alphonso should be reputed lawfully born, and heir to his father's crown. The king had taken his confessor with him to the council, and the cardinal legate was so charmed with his talents and virtue, that he associated him in his legation and gave him a commission to preach the holy war against the Moors. The servant of God acquitted himself of that function with so much prudence, zeal, and charity, that he sowed the seeds of the total overthrow of those infidels in Spain.

Saints of January 08 mention with Popes
425 St. Atticus Bishop converted opponent of St. John Chrysostom then called a "true successor of Chrysostom" by Pope St. Celestine I.  Atticus was born in Sebaste. He was trained in a heretical sect but converted and was ordained in Constantinople. He and one Arsacacius aided in deposing St. John Chrysostom from the see of Constantinople at the Council of the Oak in 405. Atticus succeeded to the see of Constantinople in 406, recognized by Pope St. Innocent I. He was a tireless foe of heretics, called a "true successor of Chrysostom" by Pope St. Celestine I. Atticus died in Constantinople on October 10.

511 St. Maximus Bishop of Pavia, Italy. attended the councils of Rome convened by Pope Symmachus.  He attended the councils of Rome convened by Pope Symmachus.  

1309 Blessed Angela of Foligno dedicated to prayer and works of charity; her Book of Visions and Instructions Angela the title "Teacher of Theologians." She was beatified in 1693.  At her confessor’s advice, Angela wrote her Book of Visions and Instructions. In it she recalls some of the temptations she suffered after her conversion; she also expresses her thanks to God for the Incarnation of Jesus. This book and her life earned for Angela the title "Teacher of Theologians." She was beatified in 1693.
1456 St. Lawrence Justinian first Patriarch of Venice the death of Eminent for learning, and abundantly filled with the heavenly gifts of divine wisdom the 5th of September, on which day he ascended the pontifical throne.  The Diocese of Castello belonged to the Patriarchate of Grado. On 8 October, 1451, Nicholas V united the See of Castello with the Patriarchate of Grado, and the see of the patriarch was transferred to Venice, and Lawrence was named the first Patriarch of Venice, and exercised his office till his death somewhat more than four years later. His beatification was ratified by Clement VII in 1524, and he was canonized in 1690 by Alexander VIII. Innocent XII appointed 5 September for the celebration of his feast. The saint's ascetical writings have often been published, first in Brescia in 1506, later in Paris in 1524, and in Basle in 1560, etc. We are indebted to his nephew, Bernardo Giustiniani, for his biography.

Saints of January 09 mention with Popes
710 St. Adrian, African Abbot near Naples tomb famous for miracles.  710 ST ADRIAN, ABBOT OF CANTERBURY
ADRIAN was an African by birth, and was abbot of Nerida, not far from Naples, when Pope St Vitalian, upon the death of St Deusdedit, the archbishop of Canterbury, judged him for his learning and virtue to be the most suitable person to be the teacher of a nation still young in the faith. The humble servant of God found means to decline that dignity by recommending St Theodore in his place, but was willing to share in the more laborious part of the ministry. The pope therefore enjoined him to be the assistant and adviser of the archbishop, to which Adrian readily agreed.

Adrian was serving as an abbot in Italy when the new Archbishop of Canterbury appointed him abbot of the monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul in Canterbury. Thanks to his leadership skills, the facility became one of the most important centers of learning. The school attracted many outstanding scholars from far and wide and produced numerous future bishops and archbishops. Students reportedly learned Greek and Latin and spoke Latin as well as their own native languages.

He died there, probably in the year 710, and was buried in the monastery. Several hundred years later, when reconstruction was being done, Adrian’s body was discovered in an incorrupt state. As word spread, people flocked to his tomb, which became famous for miracles. Rumor had it that young schoolboys in trouble with their masters made regular visits there.

Saints of January 10 mention with Popes
681  Pope St. Agatho  678-681 a holy death, concluded a life remarkable for sanctity and learning.  AGATHO, a Sicilian Greek by birth, was remarkable for his benevolence and an engaging sweetness of temper. He had been married and engaged in secular pursuits for twenty years before he became a monk at Palermo; and was treasurer of the Church at Rome when he succeeded Donus in the pontificate in 678. He presided by his three legates at the sixth general council (the third of Constantin­ople) in 680 against the monothelite heresy, which he confuted in a learned letter by the tradition of the apostolic church of Rome “acknowledged”, says he, “by the whole Catholic Church to be the mother and mistress of all churches, and to derive her superior authority from St Peter, the prince of the apostles, to whom Christ committed His whole flock, with a promise that his faith should never fail”. This epistle was approved as a rule of faith by the same council, which declared, “Peter spoke by Agatho”.

1209 St. William of Bourges canon monk Cistercian many miracles deaf, dumb, blind, the mentally ill became sound. The stone of his tomb in the Cathedral Church of Bourges cured mortal wounds and illnesses and delivered possessed persons; the deaf and dumb, the blind, the mentally ill became sound. So many miracles occurred there that the monks could not record them all, and he was canonized nine years after his death, in 1218, by Pope Honorius III. At Bourges in Aquitaine, St. William, archbishop and confessor, renowned for miracles and virtues.  He was canonized by Pope Honorius III.
William de Don Jeon was born at Nevers France. He was educated by his uncle Peter, archdeacon of Soissons, became a canon of Soissons and of Paris and then became a monk at Grandmont Abbey. He became a Cistercian at Pontigny, served as Abbot at Fontaine-Jean in Sens, and in 1187 became Abbot at Chalis near Senlis. He was named Archbishop of Bourges in 1200, accepted on the order of Pope Innocent III and his Cistercian superior, lived a life of great austerity, was in great demand as a confessor, aided the poor of his See, defended ecclesiastical rights against seculars, even the king, and converted many Albigensians during his missions to them.

1276 Teobaldo Visconti Pope St. Gregory X 1210-1276; Arriving in Rome in March, he was first ordained priest, then consecrated bishop, and crowned on the 27th  of the same month, in 1272. He took the name of Gregory X, and to procure the most effectual succour for the Holy Land he called a general council to meet at Lyons. This fourteenth general council, the second of Lyons, was opened in May 1274. Among those assembled were St Albert the Great and St Philip Benizi; St Thomas Aquinas died on his way thither, and St Bonaventure died at the council. In the fourth session the Greek legates on behalf of the Eastern emperor and patriarch restored communion between the Byzantine church and the Holy See.;  miraculous cures performed by him.  At Arezzo in Tuscany, blessed Gregory X, a native of Piacenza, who was elected Sovereign Pontiff while he was archdeacon of Liege.  He held the second Council of Lyons, received the Greeks into the unity of the Church, appeased discords among the Christians, made generous efforts for the recovery of the Holy Land, and governed the Church in a most holy manner.
 1283 BD JOHN OF VERCELLI Immediately on his election to the see of Rome, Bd Gregory X imposed on John of Vercelli and his friars the task of again pacifying the quarrelling states of Italy, and three years later he was ordered to draw up a schema for the Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons. At the council he met Jerome of Ascoli (afterwards Pope Nicholas IV), who had succeeded St Bonaventure as minister general of the Franciscans, and the two addressed a joint letter to the whole body of friars. Later on they were sent together by the Holy See to mediate between Philip III of France and Alfonso X of Castile, continuing the work of peace-maker, in which John excelled.

Arriving in Rome in March, he was first ordained priest, then consecrated bishop, and crowned on the 27th  of the same month, in 1272. He took the name of Gregory X, and to procure the most effectual succour for the Holy Land he called a general council to meet at Lyons. This fourteenth general council, the second of Lyons, was opened in May 1274. Among those assembled were St Albert the Great and St Philip Benizi; St Thomas Aquinas died on his way thither, and St Bonaventure died at the council. In the fourth session the Greek legates on behalf of the Eastern emperor and patriarch restored communion between the Byzantine church and the Holy See. Pope Gregory, we are told, shed tears whilst the Te Deum was sung. Unhappily the reconciliation was short-lived.
After the council, Bd Gregory devoted all his energies to concerting measures for carrying its decrees into execution, particularly those relating to the crusade in the East, which, however, never set out. This unwearied application to business, and the fatigues of his journey across the Alps on his return to Rome brought on a serious illness, of which he died at Arezzo on January 10, 1276. The name of Gregory X was added to the Roman Martyrology by Pope Benedict XIV; his holiness was always recognized, and had he lived longer he would doubtless have left a deeper mark on the Church.

Saints of January 11 mention with Popes
137-140 St. Hyginus, Pope a Greek confronts Gnostic heresy       At Rome, St. Hyginus, pope, who suffered a glorious martyrdom in the persecution of Antoninus.
Pope from 137-140, successorto Pope St. Telesphorus. He was a Greek, and probably had a pontificate of four years. He had to confront the Gnostic heresy and Valentinus and Cerdo, leaders of the heresy, who were in Rome at the time. Some lists proclaim him a martyr. His cult was suppressed in 1969.

250 St. Alexander "The charcoal burner" Bishop of Comana, in Pontus martyr
The discovery of his virtues was due to the very contempt with which he had been regarded. St. Gregory Thaumaturgus had been asked to come to Comana to help select a bishop for that place. As he rejected all the candidates, someone in derision suggested that he might accept Alexander, the charcoal-burner. Gregory took the suggestion seriously, summoned Alexander, and found that he had to do with a saint and a man of great capabilities.
In the modern Roman Martyrology his name occurs, and he is described as a "philosophus disertissimus."
  570 St. Anastasius X Benedictine abbot angel summoned him and monks to heaven. At Suppentonia, near Mount Soracte, St. Athanasius, monk, and his companions, who were called by a voice from heaven to enter the kingdom of God.
Noted by Pope St. Gregory the Great. Anastasius became a monk at Suppentonia in the diocese of Nepi, Italy, serving in time as abbot. Pope St. Gregory the Great recorded that an angel appeared to summon Anastasius and his monks, all of whom died in rapid succession after the visitation.

Saints of January 12 mention with Popes
690 St. Benedict Biscop an English monastic founder; five pilgrimages to Rome; SS Peter and Paul monasteries became the best-equipped in England, and St Benedict’s purchase of books was of special significance, for it made possible the work of the Venerable Bede; On his return to England, Benedict introduced, whenever he could, the religious rites as he saw them practised in Rome; first to introduce into England the building of stone churches and the art of making glass windows; Pope Vitalian sent him and the monk Adrian as advisers with Theodore, the newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

1700 St. Marguerite Bourgeoys; Children from European as well as Native American backgrounds in seventeenth-century Canada benefited from her great zeal and unshakable trust in God’s providence.  
Comment: It’s easy to become discouraged when plans that we think that God must endorse are frustrated. Marguerite was called not to be a cloistered nun but to be a foundress and an educator. God had not ignored her after all.

Quote: In his homily at her canonization, Pope John Paul II said, “...in particular, she [Marguerite] contributed to building up that new country [Canada], realizing the determining role of women, and she diligently strove toward their formation in a deeply Christian spirit.” He noted that she watched over her students with affection and confidence “in order to prepare them to become wives and worthy mothers, Christians, cultured, hard-working, radiant mothers.”

1892 St. Anthony Mary Pucci Servite priest caring for sick poor pioneering Holy Childhood Society.  Born Ap16 1819 Poggiole, Italy christened Eustace. He entered the Servites about 1837, taking the name Anthony Mary, and ordained in 1843. Assigned to Viareggio, Italy, Anthony became pastor of the parish in 1847. His entire life was spent instructing children, caring for the sick and poor, and pioneering the Holy Childhood Society.  He was heroic during the epidemics of 1854 and Anthony Mary died on January 14, 1892, in Viareggio. He was canonized in 1962.

Saints of January 13 mention with Popes
368 St. Hilary gentle courteous devoted writing great theology on Trinity      At Poitiers in France, the birthday of St. Hilary, bishop and confessor of the Catholic faith which he courageously defended, and for which he was banished for four years to Phrygia, where, among other miracles, he raised a man from the dead.  Pius IX declared him a doctor of the Church.  His festival is celebrated tomorrow.

1497 Blessed Veronica of Binasco (b. 1445) known as a great contemplative who also gave loving care to sick sisters in her community and ministered to the people of Milan. She had the gifts of prophecy, discernment and miracles..  Although she never learned to read and write, she was known and respected by the secular and ecclesiastical leaders of her day. Several times Christ gave to St. Martha, blessed Veronica of Binasco, virgin, of the Order of St. Augustine in prayer important messages which she carried to influential persons such as the Duke of Milan and Pope Alexander VI.
Born Giovanna Negroni in Binasco, Milan, Italy in 1445, she was raised in a peasant family. When she was 22 years old, she joined the monastery of Saint Martha in Milan. She took the religious name Veronica, reflecting her devotion to the Passion of Christ.
She always spoke of her own sinful life, as she called it, though, indeed, it was most innocent, with feelings of intense compunction. Veronica was favoured by God with many extraordinary visions and consolations. A detailed account is preserved of the principal incidents of our Lord’s life as they were revealed to her in her ecstasies. By her moving exhortations she softened and converted several obdurate sinners. She died at the hour which she had foretold, in the year 1497, at the age of fifty-two, and her sanctity was confirmed by miracles. Pope Leo X in 1517 permitted her to be honoured in her monastery in the same manner as if she had been beatified according to the usual forms, and the name of Bd Veronica of Binasco is inserted on this day in the Roman Martyrology, an unusual distinction in the case of a servant of God who has not been formally canonized.

Saints of January 14 mention with Popes

   255 St. Felix of Nola Bishop distributed inheritance to the poor assistant to St. Maximus of Nola tomb famous for miracles      At Nola in Campania, the birthday of St. Felix, priest, who (as is related by bishop St. Paulinus), after being subjected to torments by the persecutors, was cast into prison, bound hand and foot, and extended on shells and broken earthenware.  In the night, however, his bonds were loosened and he was delivered by an angel.  The persecution over, he brought many to the faith of Christ by his exemplary life and teaching, and, renowned for miracles, rested in peace..  Pope St Damasus pays a tribute