Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
Day 38 of 40 Days For Life

April Is Child Abuse Prevention Month


 
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
Saving babies, healing moms and dads, Tuesday on 'The Gospel of Life'

And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.

Holy Week: A Liturgical Explanation for the Days of Holy Week
180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}
310 Rufinus the Deacon, the Martyr Aquilina and  converted 200 soldiers to Christ by their miracles
5th v St. Brynach Celtic hermit in Wales constant communication with angels
6th v Saint Finan Disciple of St. Brendan abbot founder

 888 St. Gibardus Benedictine abbot of Luxeuil martyred and his monks during the invasion of the Huns
1078 Blessed Eberhard of Schaeffhausen protected and built convents OSB Monk (PC)

1410 Bl. Ursulina mystic visions and ecstasies tried to end scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity"
1540 Saint Daniel of Pereslavl monk in monastery of St Paphnutius of Borovsk dedicated to love for neighbor buried; the neglected, the poor, and those without family: founded monastery on cemetery site
1595 St. Henry Walpole Jesuit missionary 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales
1595 Bl. Alexander Rawlins Martyr missionary fervent Catholicism
1606 Bl. Edward Oldcorne Jesuit & Ralph Ashley Jesuit lay- brother English martyrs alleged involve Gunpowder Plot
1719 ST JOHN BAPTIST DE LA SALLE, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS
1925 St Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow Apostle to America led austere and chaste life; kindest of the Russian hierarchs "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."


April 7 – Our Lady of Zyrovic (Lithuania, 1432)
Blessed Josaphata Micheline Hordashevska
 (foundress of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, d. 1919) 
 
Following the Virgin Mary’s example
 
A native of Lviv in Ukraine, Josaphata Michaelina Hordashevska became a nun at age 18. Co-founder with Father Kyrylo Seletsky of the first female congregation of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, she devoted herself to caring for the sick, teaching the Catechism, and maintaining impoverished churches. Diagnosed with bone cancer, from which she endured terrible pain, she died at age 49. She was beatified in June 2001 in Lviv by Saint John Paul II.

The Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate lives out its special calling to serve others by following the example of the Virgin Mary—Handmaid of the Lord—Mary is also Servant of all humanity. Our Lady went speedily to assist Elizabeth; she intervened with simplicity at Cana; she courageously stood at the foot of the Cross where she received us as her children from the arms of her Son; with confidence, in union with the Apostles in the Upper Room, she prayed for the Church.

As servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate try to answer God’s call, as He invites us to collaborate with him in the work of Salvation by serving other.  nominis.cef.fr

 
Lithuania, Land of Mary
A quarter of Lithuanian churches are dedicated to the Virgin Mary ... and yet it was only in 1387 that this country converted to Christianity, after King Jagiello embraced the Catholic faith.
Marian fervor in Lithuania, both in the nobility and the lower classes, was such that Pope Pius XI once said: "Lithuania is the land of Mary"...
Among the most important shrines dedicated to Mary there are: Siluva, Kalvarija (or Varduva), Pazaislis (near Kaunas), and Krekenava in the north.
Our Lady of Sorrows is venerated in the cathedral of Kaunas, the capital city. In Trakai, the people honor Our Lady of Good Counsel. In Palanga, the people pray to Our Lady of Lourdes; in Vilna, to Our Lady of the Gate of Dawn (the "Czestochowa" of Lithuania), etc.   www.mariedenazareth.com


Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary


The most Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Saviour of the human race,
preserved immune from all stain of original sin. -- Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus (1854)


April 7 - Our Lady of Zyrovic (Lithuania, 1432) - 17th Apparition in Lourdes - Saint John Baptist de La Salle (d. 1719)

Saint John Baptist de La Salle and Our Lady of Liesse
On May 10, 1684, the eve of the Ascension, Father de La Salle gathered twelve of his best disciples in Reims and gave them a retreat until Trinity Sunday. They needed to reflect upon whether it was a good idea to form a community and take vows. Finally, the group endorsed the founder's opinion and on Sunday, May 28th, they all met together and pronounced the vows of chastity and obedience in an oratory on the rue Neuve in Reims. The next day, after marching all night long, the thirteen pilgrims arrived at the Marian shrine of Liesse or All-Joy, about twenty-five miles north of Reims. They stood before Our Lady of All-Joy, renewed their vows, imploring the aid of the Mother of God. They chose her as the first Superior of their Institute. It was truly a pilgrimage of supplication and thanksgiving. The followers of Father de La Salle placed themselves under the protection of Our Lady, proclaimed her Principal and Queen of their schools. Subsequently, the pilgrimage became quite a habitual devotion to the holy man; when visiting religious Brothers in nearby towns, he could not pass by Liesse without paying his respects to their heavenly Protector. Arriving at the feet of Our Lady, he had great difficulty leaving. He would sometimes remain for as long as three hours in front of the altar of Our Lady, after celebrating Mass in her honor.
In the chapel, later dedicated to Saint John de La Salle, at the far left-hand side of the Basilica, a marble ex-voto recalls this act of consecration of the Community made in 1684. Since then, the Brothers have kept a tender devotion to Our Lady of Liesse. In 1902, the Superior General, Brother Gabriel Mary, cured of a dangerous chest infection through the intercession of Our Lady, testified his gratitude by having the chapel re-decorated and offering a stained-glass window representing the Act of Consecration of the Institute.
Brother J. Genest ARCHER  Told by Brother Albert Pfleger, Marist, in Le Recueil Marial (1981)

April 7 - Our Lady of Zyrovic (Lithuania, 1432) 
 
Mary gave birth to all of us
 At that moment, when Our Lady received the love of the Holy Spirit as the wedded love of her soul, she also received her dead son in her arms. (…) She trusted God, she understood on earth that which many mothers will only understand in heaven. She was able to see her boy killed, lying there (…), dead, and to believe the Father’s cry: “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

God asks for extreme courage in love, the Bride of the Spirit must respond with strength like His own strength. Our Lady did this. How much easier it would have been for her, had she been asked to withdraw from common life, (…) renouncing all “earthly joys,” bring forth Christ in cloistered security. (…) But she was consenting not only to bear her own child, Christ, but to bear Christ into the world in all men, (…) in all times (…).

She was consenting not only to give birth to Christ (…), but to give Him death. In her brief historical life (…) the history of the world is concentrated, particularly the lives of all the common people of the world, who often do not know themselves that they are Christbearers, living the life of the Mother of God.
 Caryll Houselander
In: The Reed of God, Sheed and Ward, New York, 1944, pp.32-33.

 
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

  descent_into_hades
 180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}
       St. Epiphanius African bishop with 13 members of his flock were martyred
       St. Pelagius Egyptian priest martyr refusing to abjure the faith unknown
 303 St. Calliopus Martyr at Pompeiopolis crucified upside down because of his fidelity to the Cross holy mother died on same day buried with son
 310 Rufinus the Deacon, the Martyr Aquilina and  converted 200 soldiers to Christ by their miracles
 310 St. Peleusius priest Martyr of Alexandria
       St. Cyriacus Martyr with ten companions at Nicomedia
 345 Saint Aphraates Persian hermit  convert struggle against Arian heresy oldest extant Church document in Syria; miracles
 356 St. Saturninus Bishop of Verona
5th v St. Brynach Celtic hermit in Wales constant communication with angels
6th v Saint Finan Disciple of St. Brendan abbot founder
 568 Villicus of Metz praised for his virtues by Venantius Fortunatus B (AC)
6th v St. Goran Missionary of district of Cornwall friend of Saint Patrick
6th v Saint Finan Disciple of St. Brendan abbot founder
6th v Llewellwyn (LLywelyn) & Gwrnerth  Welsh monks at Welshpool and afterwards at Bardsey (Benedictines)
 816 George the Younger Bishop George of Mitylene, Lesbos Island B
 888 St. Gibardus Benedictine abbot of Luxeuil martyred and his monks during the invasion of the Huns
1078 Blessed Eberhard of Schaeffhausen protected and built convents OSB Monk (PC)
1129 St. Celsus hereditary abbacy of Armagh in 1105 elected Bishop at 26 in 1106 effected many reforms to restore ecclesiastical discipline Blessed Christian priest of Douai Date  PC
1140 St. Aibert Benedictine ascetic monk 23 years then recluse; two Masses each day, one for living, second for dead
1140 Aybert of Crespin private in prayer & fasts devotional practice recite the Ave Maria 50 times in succession connected with origin of rosary
1241 St. Herman Joseph Praemonstratensian and mystic visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph
1410 Bl. Ursulina mystic accustomed to visions and ecstasies tried to end the scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity"
1411 Blessed William Cufitella Franciscan tertiary hermit at Scicli 70 yrs OFM
1508 Nilus of Sora study, translation, diffusion of Greek ascetical writings canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church
1540 Saint Daniel of Pereslavl monk in monastery of St Paphnutius of Borovsk dedicated to love for neighbor buried the neglected, the poor, and those without family: founded a monastery on the site of the cemetery
1595 St. Henry Walpole Jesuit missionary 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales
1595 Bl. Alexander Rawlins Martyr missionary fervent Catholicism
1606 Bl. Edward Oldcorne Jesuit & Ralph Ashley Jesuit lay- brother English martyrs alleged involve Gunpowder Plot
1719 ST JOHN BAPTIST DE LA SALLE, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS
1919 Blessed Josaphata Micheline Hordashevska
1925 St Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow Apostle to America led austere and chaste life; kindest of the Russian hierarchs "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."
Christ said his coming would bring not peace but a sword (see Matthew 10:34).  The Gospels offer no support for us if we fantasize about a sunlit holiness that knows no problems. Christ did not escape at the last moment, though he did live happily ever after —after a life of controversy, problems, pain and frustration.
St. Hilary  (315?-368), like all saints, simply had more of the same.

Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood
15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is general and binds all the followers of Christ.
"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him"
(Psalm 21:28)

180 Saint Hegesippus Jewish convert to Christianity considered Father of Church History Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)
Romæ sancti Hegesíppi, qui vicínus Apostolórum tempóribus, Romam venit ad Anicétum Pontíficem, ibíque mansit usque ad Eleuthérium, et Ecclesiasticórum Actuum a passióne Dómini usque ad suam ætátem sermóne símplici téxuit históriam; ut, quorum vitam sectabátur, dicéndi quoque exprímeret charactére.
 At Rome, St. Hegesippus, who lived close to the time of the apostles.  He came to Rome while Anicetus was pope, and remained until the time of Eleutherius.  He wrote a history of the Church, from the Passion of our Lord to his own time, in a simple style, to make clear the character of those whose life he imitated.

180 ST HEGESIPPUS
IT is as the reputed Father of Church History that St Hegesippus is chiefly remembered to-day. By birth a Jew, and a member of the church of Jerusalem, he travelled to Rome, and there spent nearly twenty years, from the pontificate of St Anicetus to that of St Eleutherius.
In 277 he returned to the East, where he died in extreme old age, probably at Jerusalem. In the course of his travels, he seems to have visited the principal Christian centres in the West as well as in the East, and he noted with satisfaction that, although disturbances had been caused by individual heretics, hitherto no episcopal see or particular church had fallen into error:
everywhere he had found the unity of the faith as it had been delivered by our Lord to the saints. Unfortunately only a few chapters remain of the five books which he wrote on the history of the Church from the passion of our Lord down to his own time, but the work was highly esteemed by Eusebius and others, who drew largely upon it. He was a man filled with the spirit of the apostles and with a love of humility “which”, says St Jerome, “he expressed by the simplicity of his style”. St Hegesippus is named in the Roman Martyrology to-day.

The scant notices concerning St Hegesippus furnished by St Jerome and others are collected in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i. See also Abbot J. Chapman in the Revue Bénédictine, xviii (1901) and xix (1902); and Bardenhewer, Gesch der altkirch. Literatur, vol. i, pp. 385—392. Another work in five books formerly attributed to Hegesippus, is a Latin rendering of Josephus on the Jewish War. This was a blunder, due to the fact that the name Iosippus was miswritten Egesippus and eventually Hegesippus.

Born in Jerusalem, Hegesippus spent twenty years in Rome. He was the first to record the succession of popes from St. Peter to St. Eleutherius. Only a fragment of his work remains. Hegesippus returned to Jerusalem in 177 after visiting most of the important Christan churches, and he died there.

Hegesippus (RM) Born in Jerusalem; died c. 180. Saint Hegesippus was a Jewish convert to Christianity in Jerusalem.

He spent 20 years in Rome, from the pontificate of Saint Anicetus (Born in Emesa, Syria; died c. 160-166) to that of Saint Eleutherius (Born in Nicopolis, Epirus, Greece; died in Rome, May 24, c. 189). He returned to Jerusalem in 177 after visiting most of the important Christian churches, and probably died at Jerusalem.
   He is considered the father of Church history for his five books on the history of the Church from the death of Christ up to the pontificate of Saint Eleutherius (c. 174-c. 189). Hegesippus was the first to trace the succession of popes from Saint Peter. Saint Jerome warmly commended the work and Eusebius drew on it heavily for his Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X). Unfortunately, only a few chapters of Hegesippus's work are extant. It should be noted that another man named Hegesippus is the compiler of the history of the destruction of Jerusalem, which was based on the history of Josephus (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

St. Epiphanius an African bishop with whom thirteen members of his flock were martyred
In Africa item natális sanctórum Mártyrum Epiphánii Epíscopi, Donáti, Rufíni et aliórum trédecim.
     In Africa, the birthday of the holy martyrs Epiphanius bishop, Donatus, Rufinus and thirteen others.
Martyr with Donatus, Rufinus, and companions. They are included in the Martyrology of Usuard. Epiphanius was a bishop in Africa.
Epiphanius, Donatus, Rufinus, & Comp. MM (RM) Date unknown. Epiphanius was an African bishop with whom thirteen members of his flock were martyred (Benedictines).
St. Pelagius An Egyptian priest martyr refusing to abjure the faith
He was a priest in Alexandria, Egypt ,and was put to death for refusing to abjure the faith. He is mentioned in the Martyrology of St. Jerome.
Pelagius of Alexandria M (AC)  A priest martyred at Alexandria, Egypt, who is mentioned in the Martyrology of Saint Jerome (Benedictines).
St. Cyriacus Martyr with ten companions at Nicomedia.
Nicomedíæ sancti Cyríaci et aliórum decem Mártyrum.   At Nicomedia, St. Cyriacus and ten other martyrs.
303 St. Calliopus Martyr at Pompeiopolis crucified upside down because of his fidelity to the Cross holy mother died on same day buried with son
In Cilícia sancti Calliópii Mártyris, qui, sub Maximiáno Præfécto, post ália torménta, cápite in terram verso cruci affíxus, nóbili coróna martyrii decorátus est.
In Cilicia, under the prefect Maximus, St. Calliopius, martyr.  After undergoing other torments, he was fastened to a cross with his head downward, and thus gained the noble crown of martyrdom.
He was crucified upside down in the reign of Emperor Diocletian.

Calliopus M (RM)(also known as Calliope)Died c. 303. Calliopus was martyred at Pompeiopolis, Cilicia, by being crucified upside down under Maximian (Diocletian) because of his fidelity to the Cross (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
The Holy Martyr Calliopius was born in Perge, Pamphylia of the pious woman Theoklia, wife of a renowned senator. Theoklia was childless for a long time. She fervently prayed for a son, vowing to dedicate him to God.  Soon after the birth of her son Theoklia was widowed. When St Calliopius reached adolescence, a fierce persecution against Christians began.
Theoklia, learning that her son would be denounced as a Christian, sent him to Cilicia in Asia Minor.
When the saint arrived at Pompeiopolis, Paphlagonia there was a celebration in honor of the pagan gods. They invited the youth to take part in the proceedings, but he said he was a Christian and refused. They reported this to the prefect of the city Maximus. St Calliopius was brought before him to be tried. At first, he attempted to persuade Calliopius to worship the gods, promising to give him his own daughter in marriage. After the youth rejected this offer, Maximus subjected him to terrible tortures. He ordered the martyr to be beaten on the back with iron rods, and on the stomach with ox-hide thongs. Finally, the prefect had him tied to an iron wheel, and he was roasted over a slow fire. After these tortures, they threw the martyr Calliopius into prison.
When Theoklia heard about the sufferings of her son, she wrote her last will, freed her slaves, distributed her riches to the poor, and hastened to St Calliopius.
The brave mother gave money to the guard and got into the prison to see her son. There she encouraged him to endure suffering to the end for Christ.  When on the following day the saint refused to renounce Christ, Maximus gave orders to crucify the martyr. The day of execution happened to be Great Thursday, when the Savior's last meal with His disciples is commemorated.
Theoklia begged the guard to crucify her son head downward, since she considered it unworthy for him to be crucified like the Lord. Her wish was granted.
 The holy martyr hung on the cross overnight and died on Great Friday in the year 304.

When the holy martyr was removed from the cross, Theoklia gave glory to the Savior. She embraced the lifeless body of her son and gave up her own spirit to God.
Christians buried their bodies in a single grave.
310 The Holy Martyr Rufinus the Deacon, the Martyr Aquilina and  converted 200 soldiers to Christ by their miracles
Synópe, in Ponto, sanctórum ducentórum Mártyrum.   At Sinope, in Pontus, two hundred holy martyrs.
suffered in the year 310 in the city of Sinope on the Black Sea during the reign of the emperor Maximian (305-311).
When the holy deacon Rufinus was put into prison for confessing Christianity, the martyr Aquilina showed concern.
Therefore, she was also placed under guard. In prison they converted 200 soldiers to Christ by their miracles, and all of them were beheaded by the sword.

310 St. Peleusius priest Martyr of Alexandria Egypt (RM)
Alexandríæ sancti Peléusii, Presbyteri, et Mártyris.  At Alexandria, St. Peleusius, priest and marty
The details of his martyrdom are lost, and virtually nothing is known about him, save for his being a priest in Alexandria.
The Roman Martyrology says that Peleusius was a priest of Alexandria (Benedictines).


345 St. Aphraates Persian hermit involved in the struggle against the Arian heresy by the power of miracles oldest extant document of the Church in Syria
In Syria sancti Aphraátis Anachorétæ, qui, Valéntis témpore, cathólicam fidem virtúte miraculórum advérsus Ariános deféndit.
In Syria, in the time of Valens, St. Aphraates, an anchoret, who defended the Catholic faith against the Arians by the power of miracles.

345 ST APHRAATES
According to the Bollandists, followed by Alban Butler, we owe our knowledge of the history of St Aphraates to Theodoret, who recalled how, as a boy, he had been taken by his mother to visit the saint and how Aphraates had opened his door to bless them, promising to intercede with God on their behalf. In his later years Theodoret continued to invoke that intercession, believing that it had become even more potent since the holy man had gone to God.
Aphraates came of a Persian family, but after his conversion to Christianity he settled at Edessa in Mesopotamia, then a stronghold of the faith, hoping to discover the most perfect way of serving God. When he had come to the conclusion that this could best be done in solitude, he shut himself up in a cell outside the city walls, where he gave himself up to penance and heavenly contemplation. His food consisted of bread, eaten after sunset; only in old age did he add a few vegetables his bed was a mat on the ground, and his clothing one coarse garment.
After some time he changed his residence to a hermitage beside a monastery near Antioch in Syria, and gradually people began to resort to him there for advice. Anthemius, who afterwards became consul for the East, once brought back from Persia a garment which he presented to the hermit as a product of his native land. Aphraates asked him whether he thought it would be reasonable to exchange a faithful old servant for a new one merely because he was a fellow countryman. “Certainly not
, replied Anthemius. “Then take back your tunic, said the recluse, “for I have one which I have used for sixteen years, and I do not need more than one.”
When the Emperor Valens had banished the bishop St Meletius and the Arian persecution was making great havoc of the church in Antioch, St Aphraates left his retreat to come to the assistance of Flavian and Diodorus who were governing the distressed Catholics during the exile of their pastor. His reputation for sanctity and miracles gave great weight to his actions and words.
As the Arians had taken possession of their churches, the faithful were reduced to worshipping beside the river Orontes or in the large open space outside the city which was used for military exercises. One day, as St Aphraates was hurrying along the road which led from the city to this parade-ground, he was stopped by order of the emperor, who happened to be standing in the portico of his palace which overlooked the road. Valens inquired whither he was going: “To pray for the world and the emperor”, replied the recluse. The monarch then asked him how it happened that one dressed as a monk was gadding about far away from his cell. To this Aphraates answered with a parable: “If I were a maiden secluded in my father’s house, and saw it take fire, would you recommend me to sit still and let it burn? It is not I who am to blame, but rather you who have kindled the flames which I am striving to extinguish. We are doing nothing contrary to our profession when we gather together and nourish the adherents of the true faith.”
The emperor made no reply, but one of his servants reviled the venerable man, whom he threatened to kill. Shortly afterwards the same attendant was accidentally scalded to death, which so terrified the superstitious Valens that he refused to listen to the Arians when they tried to persuade him to banish St Aphraates. He was also greatly impressed by the miracles wrought by the hermit, who not only healed men and women but also—or at least so it was reported—cured the emperor’s favourite horse.

Whether the Aphraates, described as above by Theodoret in his Philotheus and his Ecclesiastical History, is identical with the early Syriac writer whose homilies or dissertations are preserved to us, remains a great problem. These homilies, as all scholars agree, belong to the years 336—345. Valens died in 378 and Theodoret seems to have been born in 386 at the earliest. It is difficult to suppose that the latter, as a little boy, could have been taken to receive the blessing of the author of the homilies. On the other hand we know very little about the history of the great writer. He seems to have been invested with some ecclesiastical authority and was very possibly a bishop. The statement, however, that he lived near Mosul cannot be depended on. There is also an Aphraates mentioned in the Syriac “Breviarium”, seemingly a martyr in the early years of the persecution under Sapor. The works of Aphraates may best be consulted in Parisot’s edition, Syriac and Latin, in the Patrologia Syriaca, vols. i and ii. See also articles by Dom Connolly and F. C. Burkitt in the Journal of Theological Studies, vols. vi and vii; and Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur, vol. iv, pp. 327—342.

Aphraates was born on the Persian border with Syria. He converted to Christianity and became a hermit in Edessa moving in time to Antioch, Turkey. His hermitage attracted many, and miracles were reported. When Aphraates spoke publicly against the Arians, servant of Emperor Valens tried to murder Aphraates.
When the servant died suddenly, Valens took the death as a sign from God and protected Aphraates, refusing an Arian request to exile the hermit. Aphraates is sometimes identified as the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai, near Mosul Mesopotamia. Possibly a martyr, he is believed to have written a many-volumed defense of the faith called the Demonstrations, which is the oldest extant document of the Church in Syria. Aphraates is often referred to as "the Persian Sage."

Aphraates of Antioch, Hermit (RM) Born in Syria; died c. 345. Saint Aphraates was born into an illustrious pagan family on Syria's border with Persia (Iran). After his conversion to Christianity, he gave up all worldly possessions and became a hermit at Edessa in Mesopotamia, where he lived in severe austerity. He then moved to a hermitage next to a monastery in Antioch, Syria, and attracted numerous visitors with his reputation for holiness and as a miracle-worker.
He publicly and valiantly opposed Arians, who attempted to exile him, but Emperor Valens refused to allow it because he thought the death of his attendants who had threatened to murder Aphraates was retribution for his threat.

Some scholars considered Aphraates identical with the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai near Mosul, Mesopotamia, and the author of Demonstrations, 23 treatises written between 336 and 345 (the oldest document of the Church in Syria), which give a survey of the Christian faith. This Aphraates may have suffered persecution at the hands of King Shapur the Great and was known as 'the Persian sage' (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

In art, Saint Aphraates is a hermit striking a rock from which water gushes out, or refusing a rich robe (Roeder). 
356 St. Saturninus Bishop of Verona
Verónæ sancti Saturníni, Epíscopi et Confessóris.   At Verona, St. Saturninus, bishop and confessor.
His ministry is undocumented.
Saturninus of Verona B (RM) Bishop of Verona of whom nothing else is known (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
5th v St. Brynach Celtic hermit in Wales in constant communication with the angels
He built a hermitage at Carn-Englyi, near Nefyn, Gwynedd. He is identified by some with St. Brannock of Braunton.

Brynach of Carn-Engyle (AC)(also known as Bernach, Bernacus, Brenach or Bryynach the Irishman) 5th century. Brynach was an Irishman who settled in Wales, where he built a hermitage and a church at a place called Carn-Engyle (Mountain of Angels) overlooking the Nevern (Pembrokeshire). Traditionally, the place received its name because Brynach was in constant communication with the angels. His church became the principal church of the district. Some authors identify him with Saint Brannock of Braunton (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Montague, Moran).

6th v Saint Finan Disciple of St. Brendan abbot founder.
of a monastery in Kinitty, Offaly, Ireland. A native of Munster, he is also known as Finnian, and is the patron of the monastery.

Finan Cam, Abbot (AC) (also known as Finnian of Kinnitty) Born in Munster in the 6th century. Saint Finan was a disciple of Saint Brendan, at whose wish he founded and governed a monastery at Kinnitty (Cean-e-thich) in Offaly of which he is the patron (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).

6th v St. Goran Missionary of district of Cornwall friend of Saint Patrick
England. Also called Woronus, he was in the area before St. Petrac. Goran lived in Bodmin.
Goran (AC)(also known as Woranus)6th century. Several Cornish churches are dedicated to this friend of Saint Patrick (Benedictines).

568 Villicus of Metz praised for his virtues by Venantius Fortunatus B (AC)
feast day may be April 17 rather than 7th). Villicus governed the see of Metz from 543 to 568. He was praised for his virtues by Venantius Fortunatus (Benedictines).

6th v Llewellwyn (LLywelyn) & Gwrnerth  Welsh monks at Welshpool and afterwards at Bardsey (Benedictines).
816 George the Younger Bishop George of Mitylene, Lesbos Island B (AC) is called 'the Younger' because two of his predecessors in that see and century, also named George, are venerated as saints (Benedictines).
816 ST GEORGE THE YOUNGER, BISHOP OF MITYLENE
Lesbos in ancient days was the birthplace of several celebrated men and of one famous woman. Pittacus, one of the seven wise men of Greece, was born at its capital Mitylene, whilst the poet Alcaeon, the poetess Sappho, and the historian Theophanes were all natives of that same island. Moreover, three saints bearing the name of George occupied the bishopric of Mitylene within a hundred years.
 George the Younger was a man of position who had devoted his wealth to the relief of the sick and poor and had entered a monastery, from which he was taken to rule over the church of Lesbos as bishop of Mitylene. In that capacity he was remarkable for his generosity in almsgiving, for his singular humility, and for the rigorous and prolonged fasts which caused men to say that he must be an angel, because he lived without food or drink.
From the outbreak of the iconoclastic persecution under Leo the Armenian he was a staunch upholder of Catholic tradition, encouraging his flock to venerate the sacred images. For this reason he was exiled to the Chersonese, where he died about the year 816. His body was afterwards brought back to Mitylene where, according to the Greek account, it wrought so many cures that the saint was called “the doctor of incurable diseases and the great exorcist of unclean spirits”.

Our information, derived principally from the Greek Menaion, is not very satisfactory. See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i, and Nilles, Kalendarium Manuale, vol. i, p. 134.
888 St. Gibardus Benedictine abbot of Luxeuil martyred and his monks during the invasion of the Huns
France, during a period of much upheaval in the region. Fleeing, Gibardus and his monks were captured and slain.
Gibardus of Luxeuil, OSB Abbot (AC)(also known as Gibert) Abbot Gibardus of Luxeuil was murdered during the invasion of the Huns. He and his monks fled the abbey into the Vosges mountains but the barbarians found and killed them. Gibardus is venerated at Martinville in the Vosges (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1078 Blessed Eberhard of Schaeffhausen protected and built convents OSB Monk (PC) (also known as Evrard)
Born 1018; Pious prince Eberhard III, count of Nellenburg, was the husband of the pious Itta and a relative of both Pope Saint Leo IX and the emperor Saint Henry II.
Eberhard and Itta protected and built convents into which each was to retire later, including the Benedictine abbey of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, in 1050, where Eberhard retired (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

Blessed Christian priest of Douai PC. A priest of Douai, whose relics are in the church of Saint Albinus (Benedictines).
1140 St. Aibert Benedictine ascetic monk 23 years then recluse two Masses each day, one for the living, the second for the dead

1140 ST AYBERT
ST AYBERT or Aibert was born in 1060 at Espain, a village in the diocese of Tournai. From infancy his heart was wholly given to God. At night the little boy would rise from bed and slip away to pray without attracting the notice of his parents when he got older he played truant from caring for his father’s herds to go to church. One day a wandering minstrel sang in his hearing a lay about the life of a hermit—St Theobald of Provins—who had lately died. Forthwith there sprang up in Aybert’s heart a desire to imitate the recluse. He accordingly sought out a priest called John who belonged to the abbey of Crespin, but who was permitted to live as a solitary. Father John accepted the youth as a companion and together they lived a most austere and penitential life.
The abbot of Crespin had to go to Rome some time later and as his companions he chose the two hermits; and the party set off barefoot. The hardships they endured caused John to fall ill on the road, but he was nursed back to health by the kindly monks of Vallombrosa. Not long after their return, Aybert was moved by a dream or vision to seek admittance into the abbey itself, and for twenty-five years he was procurator and cellarer, dispensing hospitality and good cheer to others although never modifying his own austerities; he was always happy and very cheerful. The time came, however, when he felt the call to return to the solitary life which he had abandoned. With the abbot’s leave, he built himself a hermitage in a barren district, and there he lived for twenty-two years more.
St Aybert’s holiness began to attract visitors, who found themselves greatly helped by his spiritual advice and made him known to others. Bishops and laymen, grand ladies and canonesses, scholars and humble peasants flocked to him in such numbers that Bishop Burchard of Cambrai promoted him to the priesthood, providing him with a chapel beside his cell. Moreover Pope Innocent II granted him leave to absolve reserved cases—a right which he only exercised in exceptional circumstances. God crowned Aybert’s long penance with a happy death in the eightieth year of his age.
One phase of Aybert’s devotional practice is of great interest in its bearing on the controversy concerning the origin of the rosary. It is recorded that the saint used to repeat the Ave Maria fifty times in succession, accompanying each Ave with a prostration. A mention in the same context of his habit of dividing his recitation of the whole psalter into fifties makes the allusion still more significant.

The Latin biography from which all our information is derived was written by Robert, Archdeacon of Ostrevant, shortly after the saint’s death. The text may be consulted most conveniently in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i. See also the Biographic nationale de Belgique, vol. i.

Aibert, or Aybert, was born near Tournai, Belgium, and entered the Benedictine Monastery of St. Crespin. He remained a monk for twenty-three years, serving in several capacities. He then became a hermit. Aibert is recorded as celebrating two Masses each day, one for the living, the second for the dead.
1129 St. Celsus hereditary abbacy of Armagh in 1105 electec Bishop when he was twenty-six in 1106 effected many reforms to restore ecclesiastical discipline
1129 ST CELSUS, or CEALLACH, Archbishop OF ARMAGH
CELSUS is the Latin name given to Ceallach mac Aedha, in whose family the see of Armagh had become hereditary for several generations. Like his eight predecessors, Celsus himself was a layman when he succeeded to the see at the age of twenty-six in 1105; but he was then consecrated bishop and proved a good one. “He was a worthy and God-fearing man”, wrote St Bernard of Clairvaux. He was assiduous in conducting visitations, in conserving the temporalities of his see, and in restoring ecclesiastical discipline. For this last purpose he attended a great synod at Rath Breasail, whereat there were said to be no less than fifty bishops present, and Gilbert of Limerick presided as papal legate. Neither the liturgical reforms of this council nor the diocesan organization and boundaries that it drew up were well received. The Annals of the Four Masters says that St Celsus rebuilt the cathedral of Armagh. He lived in very troubled times and was called on to mediate between the warring Irish princes, while he himself suffered from the depredations of the O’Rourkes and O’Briens.
In all his labours St Celsus was supported by St Malachy, first as his archdeacon and then as bishop of Connor. On his death-bed at Ardpatrick in Munster in 1129, Celsus broke the evil custom of hereditary succession by nominating Malachy to succeed him at Armagh. By his own wish he was buried at Lismore.
The name of St Celsus was added by Cardinal Baronius to the Roman Martyrology, where it now appears on the day of his death, April 1. His feast is kept throughout Ireland to-day.

See Acta Sanctorum, April 6; St Bernard’s life of St Malachy (Migne, PL., vol. clxxxii, col. 1086; DNB., vol. ix, p. 418 ; O’Hanlon,   LIS., vol. iv, p. 43; and all modern lives of St Malachy.

Celsus of Armagh was a layman named Ceallach mac Aedha. He succeeded to the bishopric of Armagh (it was a hereditary See) in 1105 when he was twenty-six, was consecrated bishop, put into effect many reforms in his diocese, and ruled well and effectively. He mediated between warring Irish factions, was a friend of St. Malachy, and ended the hereditary succession to his See by naming Malachy as his successor on his deathbed. He died on April at Ardpatrick, Munster.

Celsus McAedh B (RM)(also known as Ceallach or Cellach of Armagh)
Born in Ireland in 1079; died at Ardpatrick, Munster, Ireland, April 1, 1129; feast day formerly celebrated on April 1. While still a layman (though perhaps a Benedictine monk of Glastonbury), Ceallach mac Aedha succeeded to the hereditary abbacy of Armagh, Ireland, in 1105 at age 26. He decided, however, to end the scandal of religious houses governed by secular rulers and was ordained.
In 1106, he was consecrated bishop of Armagh, a role in which he effected many reforms to restore ecclesiastical discipline. He ruled well and effectively and played a major role in restoring Armagh as the primatial see of Ireland. He presided over the synod of Rath Bresail in 1111 with Gilbert of Limerick, the papal legate, when normal diocesan and metropolitan organization was established and various liturgical reforms promulgated. This synod was one of many attempts to bring Irish practice into line with that of Western Europe.

Celsus's mediation was often sought between warring Irish factions. Celsus ended the hereditary succession to his see by sending his crozier to and naming Bishop Saint Malachy of Connor, as his successor on his deathbed--a nomination that caused much pain in the see as described in Saint Malachy's biography. The vita of Celsus was written by his friend, Bishop Saint Malachy (1094; died Clairvaux in 1148) (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth, Montague).

1140 Aybert of Crespin private in prayer & fasts His devotional practice reciting the Ave Maria 50 times in succession is connected with the origin of the rosary OSB (AC)
(also known as Aibert, Albert)
Born in the diocese of Tournai, France. A penitent recluse almost from childhood, Saint Aybert spent most of his time in prayer. Even as a child he kept watch through the night on his knees; when he was too tired to support himself, he would then prostrate himself in prayer. But he always tried to hide his devotion from others, so he would pray in the stable or in the fields. He was equally private in his fasts; therefore, he also ate some morsel so that he could answer his parents truthfully that he had eaten.
One day a poor minstrel came to his father's door and sang a hymn about the virtues and recent death of the hermit Saint Theobald (1017; died Salanigo, Italy, on June 30, 1066). This inspired the young saint to imitate the faith and action of his elder in faith. He immediately went to Father John at the Benedictine monastery of Crespin in the diocese of Cambrai. The good father lived as a recluse in a cell near the monastery and under its direction. John accepted Aybert as his companion, but soon the student traded places with his master. They rarely ate anything but wild herbs, rarely used a fire, and never cooked.

Eventually, Aybert was received by Abbot Rainer at Crespin Abbey where he was provost and cellarer for 25 years. Yet he never let his exterior occupations interrupt his tears, prayer, or penances. After receiving permission from Abbot Lambert , Aybert spent the next 22 years as a recluse under the obedience of the abbey. But he was never entirely alone; many flocked to him for spiritual advice--so many that Bishop Burchard of Cambray promoted him to the priesthood and erected a chapel near his cell. This gave Aybert the power to minister to his visitors in the confessional and in the Eucharist. Each day he said two Masses: one for the dead and the other for the living. His devotional practice of reciting the Ave Maria 50 times in succession is connected with the origin of the rosary (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

1241 St. Herman Joseph Praemonstratensian and mystic visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph
b. 1150 German. Born in Cologne, he demonstrated at an early age a tendency toward mystical experiences, episodes which made him well known and deeply respected through much of Germany. He subsequently entered the Praemonstratensians at Steinfeld, Germany, where he was ordained. Herman experienced visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, and authored a number of mystical writings. Long considered a saint, he was given an equivalent canonization by Pope Pius XII in 1958.

1241 BD HERMAN JOSEPH
AMONGST the German mystics of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, special interest attaches to Bd Herman Joseph, not so much for his writings as for his visions, which were later a source of inspiration even to poets and painters. Herman, to give him his baptismal name, was born in Cologne, and lived from his seventh year until his death in extreme old age apparently in continual intercourse with the denizens of Heaven. As a little boy he would enter a church and converse familiarly with our Lady and the Holy Child, as he knelt before their statue. Once, indeed, when he offered them an apple he had the joy of seeing the hand of the Madonna extended to accept it. Sometimes he was uplifted to another plane and permitted to play with the Infant Saviour and the angels; and on one bitter winter’s day when he came to church barefoot, his parents being very poor, a kindly voice, which he took to be that of the Mother of Mercy, bade him look under a stone near by and he would find money wherewith to buy shoes. He looked, and the coins were there
At the age of twelve, Herman offered himself to the Premonstratensian monastery of Steinfeld, but as he was far too young to receive the habit he was sent on to one of the order’s houses in Friesland to study. There he profited by the general education that was imparted, though he deplored the time spent over profane literature all study seemed to him unprofitable if it did not lead to the knowledge of God. His schooling completed, he returned to Steinfeld, where he was professed and afterwards set to serve the brethren in the refectory. His duties were exactly performed, but he was perturbed to find that they left him very little leisure for prayer. He was reassured by a vision in which our Lady told him that he could do nothing more pleasing to God than to wait upon others in charity. Afterwards he was promoted to be sacristan, an office after his own heart, because he was able to spend the greater part of the day in church. His life was so blameless and his innocence so candid that he was jestingly called “Joseph”—a nickname he modestly disclaimed until it was confirmed by a vision in which, in the character of an earthly Joseph, he was mystically espoused by our Lady with a ring. This is the scene which Van Dyck has painted in a celebrated picture.
 It is not known at what date Herman received ordination, but the offering of the Holy Sacrifice was to him a time of extraordinary exaltation. Often he would be rapt in ecstasy, and would remain so long in that condition that it came to be increasingly difficult to find anyone who was willing to act as his server. Nevertheless he gained the love of his brethren for his eagerness to do kindnesses to others.
Visionary as he was, he had a practical side, and, as he was a clever mechanic, he would go from monastery to monastery adjusting or repairing the clocks for them. He is said also to have composed a number of prayers as well as hymns and one or two mystical treatises, including one on the Canticle of Canticles which, though it has not come down to us, was greatly admired. He also wrote a hymn in honour of St Ursula and her maidens, whose reputed relics are venerated in his native city and whose cultus he did much to spread. On the other hand the two books of revelations concerning their lives and death sometimes attributed to him are probably by another hand; some, indeed, have claimed that they were no more than a very ill-considered joke.
At no time robust, Bd Herman Joseph’s health became seriously affected by his fasts and austerities. Severe headaches attacked him, and his digestion became so impaired that he ate nothing and seemed a living skeleton. However, God granted him a reprieve from suffering towards the end, prolonging his life for nine years, and this was the period of his chief literary output. He had been sent in 1241 to the Cistercian nuns at Hoven for Passiontide and Easter when he was taken ill with fever from which he never recovered. The process of Herman’s canonization was introduced but never completed; his cultus, however, has been authoritatively sanctioned.
We are fortunate in possessing a detailed biography of Bd Herman Joseph which was written by a contemporary, said to have been the prior of Steinfeld. It is printed with some other materials in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i. Other adaptations and condensations based on this primitive life were produced at a later period, notably one by Raso Bonus Vicinus (Goetgebuer). The legend as presented in German by F. Kaulen has a charm and simplicity which reminds one of the Little Flowers of St Francis English translation by Wilfrid Galway (1878). There are popular modern German lives by Pösl and others, and in French by Timmermans (1900) and Petit (1929). See also Michael, Geschichte des deutschen Volkes…vol. iii, pp. 211 seq. R. van Waefelghem, Repertoire de l’Ordre de Prémontré (1930) and Histoire littéraire de Ia France, vol. xxi, p. 583.

Hermann Joseph, O. Praem. (AC)
Born in Cologne, Germany, in 1150; died in Steinfeld, April 7, 1241; equivalently canonized by Pope John XXIII in 1960. His baptismal name, Hermann, was apt for it means 'vir honorabilis, vir exercitus.' Early in life Hermann pictured himself as a handsome knight and the Virgin was to be his lady fair. He had the physical strength of a knight and his capacity for work was exceptional.
Hermann was reportedly as handsome and charming as Saint Norbert, who founded the order Hermann entered. He was of noble bearing, calm appearance, dignified and reserved--master of himself. Yet his face betrayed his extreme sensibility. His gentle eyes gave off 'little sparks' according to those who knew him. He treated his body as a knight does his horse: he mastered it without brutality.

And his mind was as solid as his body. Hermann was of moderate intelligence but he cultivated his mind methodically. At age 7 he began to study literature and gained an appreciation for ancient writers. Nevertheless, he felt his time was better occupied. As severe as he could be with himself, Hermann preserved a courteousness towards others that gave irrefutable evidence that he remained in the presence of his Lady.

Hermann was both an ascetic and a poet. His precocious devotion to the Virgin was inspired by poetry and courtliness. The child was frequently seen absorbed in meditation before the image of Mary; he spoke to her Son spontaneously. Perhaps God blessed him so because his soul would melt in tender love when he remembered the incarnation, and he went into raptures whenever he recited the canticle Benedictus at Lauds. One day he brought some food to symbolize an offering and the image of the Virgin extended her hand to accept his gift. On another occasion this familiarity permitted him to play with Jesus and Saint John. Young Hermann's mental balance forbids us to reject these charming visions. These continuing visions that he experienced made him famous throughout Germany.

At age 12, Hermann decided to abandon the world and enter the monastery of Steinfeld, which had been founded in 920. Between 1121 and 1126, it was occupied by Premonstratensian canons. The monastery authorities decided that Hermann should complete his studies at the order's school in Friesland prior to admittance. With his education completed Hermann returned to Steinfeld and was assigned menial duties, such as serving at table.

Soon Hermann received an assignment that delighted him: He was named sacristan which allowed him to reconcile art and piety. The community soon employed him also to minister to the Cistercian nuns at a nearby convent. Up to the day of his death, he was to have a particular fondness for this ministry.

But Hermann was also an ascetic. He subjected himself to mortifications that his artist's temperament could not properly endure. The slackening of his muscles was accompanied by a weakening of his nerves.

Hermann slept on a hard couch for only a short time each night. After keeping vigil up to the first stroke of Matins (about 3 a.m.), he would throw himself on his plank and get up at the third stroke (6 a.m.) for Lauds. Bread and water were the usual fare of this high-strung young man and he did all his travelling on foot. When he became older, the symptoms that cropped up were to be aggravated: intestinal troubles, nausea, pains that travelled all over his body, fainting spells, and extreme fatigue that engendered light psychasthenic manifestations: an unreasonable fear of forgetting a particle of the Host, or a drop of the Precious Blood, on the altar or his beard.

But Hermann's spiritual balance preserved its stability despite his physical disturbances. The wounded knight was to preserve his soul intact at the center of the marvels, the course of which was to continue without interruption.

Hermann Joseph underwent a final ordeal before he was to be delivered from his tortured body. No doubt it was the only spiritual ordeal of this kind that he had ever experienced: frightful spiders and flies seemed to invade his cell. The presence of a priest dispelled the nightmare, and Hermann Joseph died in peace.

In accordance with his wishes, he was buried in the Cistercian convent at Hoven. His body was exhumed after seven weeks and returned to Steinfeld. An inquisitorial investigation was ordered in 1628, and the body was found to be in a state of perfect preservation. The process of Hermann's canonization was never brought to completion, but he was beatified.

Hermann Joseph's spiritual exercises, as he called them, were surprisingly modern. The five poems he dedicated to the Virgin and Jesus, which seem to have belonged to a private devotion, have been preserved. He also wrote a commentary on the "Song of Songs," which is the only courtly romance read by mystics. He also had a special devotion to Saint Ursula.

Should we be surprised that the monk who sang the praises of the Rose was also the first to sing the praises of the Sacred Heart? In singing the praises of the Sacred Heart, Hermann Joseph did not separate the heart of Mary and that of her Son, the uncreated Wisdom of which she was the Vase of honor and its most perfect receptacle. Just as the Crusade had established the cult of the Holy Sepulchre, that is, of the empty tomb and the Risen Christ, likewise Hermann Joseph did not propose the adoration of the bleeding internal organ which was to mark, in a sometimes disquieting manner, the private revelations of Margaret-Mary Alacoque. The singer of the Sacred Heart honored the organ of tenderness, the Holy Grail.

Most of Hermann's relics rest in a titular altar at Steinfeld, where pilgrim priests say a votive Mass in his honor. Small portions of his relics have been given to several other churches. Some are enshrined and exposed to public veneration Antwerp, Louvain, and Cologne. Emperor Ferdinand II solicited his canonization at Rome, and offered several proofs of miracles for that purpose (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

In art, Saint Hermann is depicted as a young Premonstratensian (white habit) with three roses. At times he may be shown (1) carrying the Child Jesus and a branch of roses; (2) with a chalice from which roses spring; (3) kneeling before the Virgin, who touches his hand and gives him an apple; or (4) as a schoolboy with a pen, book, and inkpot (Roeder). He is still venerated in Cologne, Steinfeld, and the Low Countries (Husenbeth, Roeder).
1411 Blessed William Cufitella Franciscan tertiary hermit at Scicli  70 yrs OFM Tert., Hermit (AC)
Born in Noto, Sicily; cultus approved in 1537. For 70 years William lived as a Franciscan tertiary hermit at Scicli (Benedictines).
1411 BD WILLIAM OF SCICLI
WILLIAM CUFITELLA was a Franciscan tertiary who became a hermit near Scicli in Sicily, and spent about seventy years in his little cell, giving himself up to prayer and to very severe mortifications. He lived on the vegetables which he cultivated in his garden and on a small part of what the faithful brought to him. He seldom left his hermitage except to visit and relieve the sick poor for whom he had great compassion, or to tend the adjacent chapel of our Lady of Pity which had been committed to his charge. Many people came to him for guidance and direction in their spiritual life. A very close friendship united him to another saintly solitary, Bd Conrad of Piacenza, who would come over from Pizzoni to pass Lent with him.
Bd William was ninety-five years of age when he died. The people of Scicli, hearing the sound of bells, hurried out and found the old man dead on his knees, hands joined in prayer, surrounded by beams of heavenly light. The town, which afterwards made him its protector in thanksgiving for preservation from plague, still keeps his feast. His cultus was approved in 1537.
See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i (under April 4), where some fragments are printed from the beatification process Cf. also Fr Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 34-35.

1410 Bl. Ursulina mystic accustomed to visions and ecstasies tried to end the scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity"
1410 BD URSULINA, VIRGIN enjoyed heavenly visions / mystical experiences, at fifteen a supernatural voice several times bade her go to Avignon urge Clement VII renunciation of  the papacy
OF the intrepid women who made noble efforts to end the scandals of the “Babylonish Captivity” of Avignon and of the Great Schism which ensued, not the least courageous, though certainly the youngest, was Bd Ursulina of Parma. From her tenth year she had enjoyed heavenly visions and mystical experiences, and when she was fifteen a supernatural voice several times bade her go to Avignon to urge upon Clement VII the renunciation of his claim to the papacy.
A vision which was vouchsafed to her on Easter day decided her purpose. With two companions, besides her mother who accompanied her on all her subsequent travels, the girl made the toilsome journey over the Alps and succeeded in obtaining an audience with Clement more than once. Her efforts to persuade him proving fruitless, she went back to Parma, but almost immediately proceeded to Rome where she delivered a similar message to the true pope, Boniface IX. He received her graciously and appears to have encouraged her to make another attempt to win over his rival. Thereupon she undertook a second expedition to Avignon, with no better success than before. Indeed this time she was separated from her mother, was accused of sorcery, and narrowly escaped a trial. Another journey to Rome was followed by a somewhat perilous pilgrimage to the Holy Land. If she and her mother had hoped to settle down in Parma on their return they were doomed to disappointment, for civil war broke out in the city and they were expelled. They made their way to Bologna and then to Verona, which Bd Ursulina seems to have made her home until her death at the age of thirty-five.

Our information comes almost entirely from the Latin life by Simon Zanachi, a Carthusian of Parma. It is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i. A popular adaptation was published by H. M. Garofani in 1897, Vita e Viaggi della B. Orsolina di Parma.
Virgin and visionary. A young woman of Parma, Italy, she received visions and experienced ecstasies. At the age of fifteen she was told by the visions to go to Avignon, France, to convince the antipope there, Clement VII (1378-1394), to step down and so end the Great Western Schism which had troubled the Church since 1378. Failing in this, she journeyed to Rome and pleaded with Pope Boniface IX (r. 1389-1404) to resign. The pontiff refused, so she made one more unsuccessful attempt to beg Clement to give up his claim. Ursulina then went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and then returned home to Parma. She was soon expelled from the city during some civil conflict, going to Bologna and then Verona, where she died.

Blessed Ursulina of Bologna V (AC) Born in Parma, Italy, in 1375; died in Verona, Italy, in 1410. Ursulina was much like Saint Catherine of Siena
(Born in Siena, Italy, March 25, 1347, in Florence, Italy; died there on April 29, 1380). She was a mystic accustomed to visions and ecstasies. At age 15, in response to a supernatural voice, Ursulina tried to end the scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity" of Avignon by visiting the antipope Clement VII to persuade him to give up the throne. Unsuccessful, she next went to Rome to ask Pope Boniface IX to resign, and then back again to petition Clement. After a pilgrimage to Rome and the Holy Land, she returned home and narrowly escaped being burned as a sorceress during a civil war in Parma. She fled to Bologna, where she lived for a time before retiring to Verona (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
1508 Nilus of Sora study, translation, and diffusion of Greek ascetical writings canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church
(also known as Nil Maikov)
Born c. 1433; canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1903.
Nilus, of peasant origin, was a monk of Belozersk near Lake Beloe in Russia. From there he went to Greece and lived for a long time of Mount Athos, where he made a deep study of monastic discipline and mysticism. Returning to Belozersk, in 1480, he established a small colony of semi-hermits near by on the River Sora; they devoted themselves particularly to the study, translation, and diffusion of Greek ascetical writings.

Nilus was essentially a man of freedom and moderation, who opposed religious formalism, exaggeration, and intolerance; but on the subject of monastic property his ideas were severe - uncompromising. Five years before his death he took the lead against Saint Joseph of Volokolamsk and the 'possessors'; monks ought not to own landed estates, said Nilus, but should work for what they need; even their churches should be plain and bare, lest worshippers be distracted from the beauty of God.

He had many supporters, but these 'non-possessors' were destined to lose the day after he was dead. During the 19th century there was a renewal of interest in Saint Nilus and his writings. A short instruction to his monks and a 'monastic rule,' which is really a treatise on religious life, have been translated into English (Attwater).

1540 Saint Daniel of Pereslavl monk in the monastery of St Paphnutius of Borovsk dedicated himself to love for neighbor buried the neglected, the poor, and those without family: founded a monastery on the site of the cemetery
In the world Demetrius was born around 1460 in the city of Pereslavl-Zalessk. His parents were the pious Constantine and Theodosia (in monasticism Thekla).

From his childhood, Daniel had a love for the pious life and Christian deeds. He became a monk in the monastery of St Paphnutius of Borovsk. He attained spiritual maturity under the guidance of St Leucius of Volokolamsk (August 17). Afterwards, in his native land, he dedicated himself to love for neighbor.

He buried the neglected, the poor, and those without family. The saint founded a monastery on the site of the cemetery.

He died April 7, 1540. He is also commemorated on December 30 and July 28.
1595 Bl. Alexander Rawlins Martyr missionary fervent Catholicism
1595 BDs. ALEXANDER RAWLINS and HENRY WALPOLE, MARTYRS beatified in 1929
ALEXANDER RAWLINS, secular priest, and Henry Walpole, Jesuit, who suffered martyrdom together in 1595, were men of good family, born, the one on the borders of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, and the other in Norfolk. Whereas Rawlins seems to have gone directly to the English College at Rheims to prepare to receive holy orders, Walpole, who was intended for the law, continued his education at Cambridge and then took chambers at Gray’s Inn. Realizing that he was becoming an object of suspicion to the authorities and feeling himself called to the priesthood, he proceeded to Rheims and then to Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus. After taking his final vows, he was sent on missions, first to Lorraine and then to the Netherlands, where he was captured by Calvinists and imprisoned for a year. Upon being liberated, he asked to be allowed to go to England, but he was sent to teach in English seminaries at Seville and Valladolid. After another mission to Flanders, the long-desired permission was accorded, and he set out for England, landing at Flamborough Head on December 4, 1593. Within twenty-four hours he was arrested and was taken prisoner to York.
In reply to interrogations Father Walpole owned quite frankly that he was a Jesuit priest, and that he had come to gain souls to God. Thereupon he was imprisoned, first at York and then in the Tower of London, where he was tortured fourteen times. In these straits he seems to have shown a certain weakness, but it is clear that he betrayed no one and never surrendered the faith in any essential point. The brutality of his torturer Topcliffe was such that the stern lieutenant of the Tower in pity gave him a little straw to lie on, and intimated to his relations that he was without bed or covering in the depth of winter. After a year’s confinement he was taken back to York, tried at the Mid-Lent Assizes, and condemned to death on a charge of treason. It was decided that he should suffer at the same time as Mr Rawlins, who, ever since his ordination in March 1590, had been labouring in the English mission, and had been arrested about the date of Walpole’s return from the Tower to York Castle. They were drawn to execution on the same hurdle, but, lest they should have the consolation of speaking to each other, they were laid with the head of the one beside the feet of the other. Bd Alexander suffered first Bd Henry, obliged to look on while the usual barbarities were carried out upon his fellow-martyr, displayed the same fortitude as his brother priest.

See Challoner’s MMP., pp. 217—227; and, for Walpole especially, the publications of the Catholic Record Society, vol. v, Documents relating to the English Martyrs, pp. 244—269, etc. Cf. also A. Jessopp, One Generation of a Norfolk House (1878), and John Gerard’s autobiography (1951).
Companion in death with Henry Walpole. Alexander was born in Worcestershire, England, where he was jailed twice for his fervent Catholicism. In 1589 he went to the English seminary in Reims and was ordained there in 1590. Returning to England the following year, Alexander was arrested. He was condemned to death and on April 7, 1595, and along with Henry Walpole was hanged, drawn, and quartered in York, England. He was beatified in 1929.
Blessed Alexander Rawlins M (AC) Born in Gloucestershire; died April 7, 1595; beatified in 1929. Blessed Alexander was a secular priest who was educated at Rheims and ordained in 1590.
He was captured while laboring in the York mission and martyred with Saint Henry Walpole for his priesthood (Benedictines).
1595 St. Henry Walpole Jesuit missionary 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales
b. 1558 . He was born in Docking, Norfolk, England, and was educated at Cambridge and Day’s Inn. Converted to Catholicism, he went to Rome where he entered the Jesuits in 1584. Ordained in 1588, Henry was sent to York, England, where he was arrested and martyred. He was beatified in 1929 and canonized in 1970.

Henry Walpole, SJ M (RM) Born in Docking, Norfolk, England, in 1558; died April 7, 1595; beatified in 1929; canonized as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales in 1970 by Pope Paul VI.
Saint Henry studied at Norwich, Cambridge (Peterhouse), and law at Gray's Inn. He was reconciled to the Church when he witnessed the execution of Saint Edmund Campion(1581). He immediately quit studying law in order to study theology at Rheims.
Henry entered the Society of Jesus in Rome, 1584, and was ordained there four years later after completing his studies at the English College.

He was sent on the missions to Lorraine, and in 1589, while acting as chaplain to the Spanish troops in the Netherlands, he was imprisoned by the Calvinists at Flushing for a year. When released he taught at Seville and Valladolid, Spain. Thereafter, Henry engaged in missionary activities in Flanders and, in 1593, was sent to the English mission.

Arrested almost on landing, he was imprisoned for a year in York and then in the Tower of London, subjected to numerous tortures, and then convicted of treason for his priesthood at York, where he was hanged, drawn, and quartered with Blessed Alexander Rawlins (a secular priest) (Benedictines, Delaney).

1606 Bl. Edward Oldcorne Jesuit & Ralph Ashley Jesuit lay- brother English martyrs allegedly involved in the Gunpowder Plot. He was born in York, England, and ordained in Rome. In 1587, he became a Jesuit. Returning to England, Edward worked in the Midlands from 1588 to 1606. He was then condemned to death at Worcester for alleged coinplicity in the Gunpowder Plot He was beatified in 1929.

1606 BDs. EDWARD OLDCORNE and RALPH ASHLEY, MARTYRS
A YORK man by birth, Edward Oldcorne pursued his ecclesiastical studies first at Rheims and then in Rome, where, after a stay of six years, he was ordained priest with a view to proceeding at once to the English mission. As he was very desirous of joining the Society of Jesus, Father Aquaviva admitted him without requiring the usual period of noviciate, because of the perilous nature of the enterprise to which he was committed. He landed in England with Father Gerard, but they separated almost immediately, and Father Oldcorne was sent to Worcester, where for seventeen years, under the name of Hall, he laboured zealously and had some hairbreadth escapes. He was successful in reconciling many lapsed Catholics and in converting a number of Protestants, amongst others Mrs Dorothy Abington, formerly one of Queen Elizabeth’s ladies and a sister of the Catholic gentleman whose house at Henlip became Oldcorne’s headquarters during the time he spent in Worcestershire. After the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot there was a great recrudescence of hostility to Catholics, and a proclamation was issued directed more particularly against Father Garnet, the superior of the English Jesuits, who was charged with knowledge of the plot. Garnet came to Henlip, and when the house was searched he was found in the priests’ hiding-hole together with Father Oldcorne —their place of concealment having been betrayed by a prisoner who hoped to save his own life by turning informer. Father Oldcorne was taken to Worcester and then to the Tower of London. Although he was racked five times, he could not be shaken in his repudiation of any cognizance of the scheme of the conspirators, and in reply to a charge of having approved of the plot, he persistently denied having either known or approved of it. He was nevertheless found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, and with him was condemned and executed also his servant, Ralph Ashley, a Jesuit lay-brother, against whom nothing could be proved except that he was in attendance upon the father. Littleton, the man upon whose information Father Oldcorne had been caught and upon whose evidence he had been condemned, publicly asked pardon for his treachery and false accusations, and died with the martyrs. Bd Edward was cut down and butchered while still alive, and the different parts of his body set up upon the gates of the city of Worcester.

See Challoner’s MMP., pp. 289—291; John Morris, Life of Father John Gerard; Foley, REPSJ., vol. iv and Gerard’s autobiography (1951)
Blessed Edward Oldcorne & Ralph Ashley, SJ MM (AC) Died 1606; beatified in 1929. Edward Oldcorne was born in York, ordained for the priesthood in Rome, and received into the Society of Jesus in 1587. He worked in the Midlands from 1588 until his arrest. He was condemned to death at Worcester for alleged complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. Ralph Ashley was a Jesuit lay- brother who was martyred with Fr. Oldcorne, whom he was attending (Benedictines).
1719 ST JOHN BAPTIST DE LA SALLE, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS
Rotómagi natális sancti Joánnis Baptístæ de La Salle, Presbyteri et Confessóris, qui, in erudiénda adolescéntia præsértim páupere excéllens, et de religióne civilíque societáte præcláre méritus, Fratrum Scholárum Christianárum Sodalitátem instítuit.  Eum Pius Duodécimus, Póntifex Máximus, ómnium Magistrórum  púeris adolescentibúsque instituéndis præcípuum apud Deum cæléstem Patrónum constítuit.  Ipsíus tamen festum Idibus Maji celebrátur.
 At Rouen, the birthday of St. John Baptist de la Salle, priest and confessor.  He was prominent in the education of youth, especially those who were poor, for which he was acclaimed both by religious and civil society.  He was the founder of the Society of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.  Pius XII, Supreme Pontiff, declared him patron of all those who teach children and young people.  His feast is celebrated on the 15th of May.
THE founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools was born at Rheims on April 30, 1651. His parents were both of noble family. From the instructions of a devout mother, the boy, John Baptist, early gave evidence of such piety that he was designated for the priesthood. He received the tonsure when he was only eleven, and became a member of the cathedral chapter of Rheims at the age of sixteen in 1670 he entered the seminary of St Sulpice in Paris, being ordained priest in 1678. A young man of striking appearance, well connected, refined and scholarly, he seemed assured of a life of dignified ease or of high preferment in the Church. But God in His providence had other designs for him—of which he himself had no presentiment, apparently not even when one of his fellow canons on his deathbed committed to his care the spiritual direction of a girls’ orphanage and school as well as of the sisters who conducted it.
But in 1679 he met a layman, Adrian Nyel, who had come to Rheims with the idea of opening a school for poor boys. Canon de La Salle gave him every encouragement, and, somewhat prematurely, two schools were started. Gradually the young canon became more and more drawn into the work and grew interested in the seven masters who taught in these schools. He rented a house for them, fed them from his own table, and tried to instil into them the high educational ideals which were gradually taking shape in his own mind. In 1681, though their uncouth manners repelled him, he decided to invite them to live in his own home that he might have them under his constant supervision. The result must have been a great disappointment. Not only did two of his brothers indignantly leave his house—a step he may have anticipated, for “ushers” were then ranked with pot-boys and hucksters—but five of the schoolmasters soon took their departure, unable or unwilling to submit to a discipline for which they had never bargained. The reformer waited, and his patience was rewarded. Other men of a better type presented themselves, and these formed the nucleus of what was to prove a new congregation. To house them the saint gave up his paternal home, and moved with them to more suitable premises in the Rue Neuve. As the movement became known, requests began to come in from outside for schoolmasters trained on the new method, and de La Salle found his time fully engrossed. Partly for that reason, and partly because he realized the contrast his disciples drew between his assured official income and their own uncertain position, he decided to give up his canonry. This he did.
The next question for consideration was the use he should make of his private fortune, which he no longer wished to retain for his own use. Should he employ it for the infant community, or should he give it away? He went to Paris to consult Father Barré, a saintly man greatly interested in education, whose advice had helped him in the past. Father Barré was strongly opposed to the idea of endowment. “Si vous fondez, vous fondrez” (“If you endow, you will founder”), he said, and the saint, after fervent prayer for light, determined to sell all he had and to distribute the proceeds to the poor—who at that time were in the direst need, as a famine was raging in Champagne. His life from that time became even more austere. He had naturally a very delicate palate, but he deliberately starved himself until hunger enabled him to swallow any food, however coarse or ill-prepared.
Four schools were soon opened, but de la Salle’s great problem at this stage was that of training teachers. Eventually he called a conference of twelve of his men, and it was decided to make provisional regulations, with a vow of obedience yearly renewable until vocations became certain. At the same time a name was decided upon for members of the community. They were to be called the Brothers of the Christian Schools. The first serious trial that befell them was illness amongst the brothers. De la Salle seems to have attributed this visitation to his own incapacity to rule, and he consequently persuaded his disciples to elect another superior. No sooner, however, did this become known than the archiepiscopal vicar general ordered him to resume his office. His wisdom and his guiding hand were indeed necessary, for external pressure was about to cause unforeseen developments in the new congregation—developments which would greatly widen its field of operation. Hitherto recruits had been full-grown men, but now applications began to be received from boys between the ages of fifteen and twenty. To reject promising lads at a malleable age might mean losing them altogether, and yet they were not old enough to be subjected to a rule framed for adults. De la Salle, in 1685, accordingly decided to set up a junior novitiate. He lodged the youths in an adjoining house, gave them a simple rule of life, and entrusted their training to a wise brother, whilst retaining supervision of them himself. But soon there appeared another class of candidate who also, like the boys, could not well be refused and who likewise required to be dealt with apart. These were young men who were sent by their parish priests to the saint with a request that he would train them as schoolmasters, and send them back to teach in their own villages. He accepted them, found them a domicile, undertook their training, and thus founded the first training-college for teachers, at Rheims in 1687; others followed, at Paris (1699) and at Saint-Denis (1709).
All this time the work of teaching poor boys had been steadily going on, although hitherto it had been restricted to Rheims. In 1688 the saint, at the request of the curé of St Sulpice in Paris, took over a school in that parish. It was the last of seven free schools founded by M. Olier, which had eventually been compelled to close for lack of satisfactory teachers. The brothers were so successful that a second school was opened in the same district. The control of these Paris foundations was entrusted to Brother L’Heureux, a gifted and capable man whom de la Salle designed to be his successor, and whom he was about to present for ordination. It had been his intention to have priests in his institution to take charge of each house, but Brother L’Heureux’s unexpected death made him doubt whether his design had been according to God’s will. After much prayer it was borne in upon him that if his order was to confine itself strictly to the work of teaching, for which it had been founded, and to remain free from “caste” distinctions the brothers must continue to be laymen. He therefore laid down the statute—perhaps the most self-denying ordinance which could be imposed upon a community of men— that no Brother of the Christian Schools should ever be a priest, and that no priest should ever become a member of the order. That regulation is in force to this day.
Troubles which had affected the work during the founder’s absence in Paris led him afterwards to take a house at Vaugirard to serve as a retreat where his sons could come to recruit body and spirit; it also became the novitiate-house. Here, about 1695, de la Salle drew up the first draft of the matured rule, with provision for the taking of life vows. Here also he wrote his manual on the Conduct of Schools in which he sets forth the system of education to be carried out—a system which revolutionized elementary education and is successfully pursued at the present day. It replaced the old method of individual instruction by class teaching and the “simultaneous method”, it insisted on silence while the lessons were being given, and it taught in French and through French—not through Latin. Up to this period the schools opened by the brothers had all been intended for poor children, but in 1698 a new departure was made at the request of King James II of England, then an exile in France. He wanted a college for the sons of his Irish adherents, and at his request the saint opened a school for fifty boys of gentle birth. About the same tune he started for the benefit of youths of the artisan class the first “Sunday academy”, in which more advanced instruction was combined with religious teaching and exercises, and it at once became extremely popular.
St John Baptist de la Salle had not been able to carry out all these schemes without experiencing many trials. He had heartrending disappointments and defections amongst his disciples, and bitter opposition from the secular schoolmasters, who resented his intrusion into what they regarded as their special preserves. At one time the very existence of the institute seems to have been jeopardized through the injudicious action of two brothers occupying posts of authority. Complaints of undue severity towards novices reached the archbishop of Paris, who sent his vicar general to make investigations. The brothers unanimously exonerated their superior from blame in the matter, but the vicar general was prejudiced and drew up an unfavourable report. The result was that St John Baptist was told to regard himself as deposed—a verdict he received without a murmur. When, however, the vicar attempted to impose on the brothers a new superior—an outsider from Lyons—they indignantly exclaimed that M. de la Salle was their superior, and that they would one and all walk out of the house rather than accept another. Though the saint afterwards induced them to make a formal submission, the fresh appointment was allowed to lapse, and the founder remained in charge of his congregation. Somewhat later than this the removal of the novitiate from Vaugirard to larger premises inside Paris, together with the opening of new schools in connection with it, led to a violent organized attack on the Paris schools in which the lay schoolmasters were joined by the Jansenists, and by those who, on principle, were opposed to education other than manual for the children of the poor. St John Baptist found himself involved in a series of law-suits, and obliged to close all his Parisian schools and houses. Eventually the storm died down, the persecution ended as suddenly as it had begun, and before long the brothers were able to resume and even extend their educational work in the capital.
Elsewhere the institute had been steadily developing. As early as 1700 Brother Drolin had been sent to found a school in Rome, and in France schools were started at Avignon, at Calais, in Languedoc, in Provence, at Rouen, and at Dijon. In 1705 the novitiate was transferred to St Yon in Rouen. There a boarding-school was opened, and an establishment for troublesome boys, which afterwards developed into a reformatory-school. From these beginnings grew the present world-wide organization, the largest teaching-order of the Church, working from primary schools to university-colleges. In 1717 the founder decided finally to resign; from that moment he would give no orders, and lived like the humblest of the brothers. He taught novices and boarders, for whom he wrote several books, including a method of mental prayer. St John Baptist lived at an important period in the history of spirituality in France, and he came under the influence of Bérulle, Olier and the so-called French “school” of de Rancé and of the Jesuits, his friends Canon Nicholas Roland and the Minim friar Nicholas Barré being specially influential. On the negative side he was distinguished by his strong opposition to Jansenism, illustrated positively by his advocacy of frequent and even daily communion. In Lent, 1719 St John Baptist suffered a good deal from asthma and rheumatism, but would give up none of his habitual austerities. Then he met with an accident, and gradually grew weaker. He passed away on Good Friday, April 7, 1719 in the sixty-eighth year of his age.
The example of St John Baptist de la Salle may well lead everyone of us to ask himself: “What have I done to help and to encourage this most necessary and divine work? What sacrifices am I prepared to make that the Christian education of our children may be carried on in spite of all the hindrances and hostilities which beset it?” The Church has shown her appreciation of the character of this man, a thinker and initiator of the first importance in the history of education, by canonizing him in 1900, and giving his feast to the whole Western church; and in 1950 Pope Pius XII declared him the heavenly patron of all school-teachers.
There is no lack of excellent lives of St John Baptist de Ia Salle, especially in French. The foundation of all is the biography by J. B. Blain, the intimate friend of the saint, which appeared in 1733. Of modern works the most important is probably that of J. Guibert, Historie de St Jean Baptiste de la Salle (1900). Shorter works are those of A. Delaire (1900) in the series “Les Saints”, F. Laudet (1929), and G. Bernoville (1944). In English, Francis Thompson’s sketch was republished in 1911, and there are other good biographies but the best and moat thorough work is Dr W. J. Battersby’s De la Salle, vol. (1845), as educational pioneer, vol. ii (1950), as saint and spiritual writer, vol. iii (1950), letters and documents.
John Baptist de la Salle was born at Rheims, France on April 30th. He was the eldest of ten children in a noble family. He studied in Paris and was ordained in 1678. He was known for his work with the poor. He died at St. Yon, Rouen, on April 7th. He was canonized by Pope Leo XIII in 1900. John was very involved in education. He founded the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (approved in 1725) and established teacher colleges (Rheims in 1687, Paris in 1699, and Saint-Denis in 1709). He was one of the first to emphasize classroom teaching over individual instruction. He also began teaching in the vernacular instead of in Latin. His schools were formed all over Italy. In 1705, he established a reform school for boys at Dijon.
 John was named patron of teachers by Pope Pius XII in 1950.
John-Baptist de la Salle, Priest (RM) Born at Rheims, France, April 30, 1651; died at Rouen, France, on April 7, 1719; canonized by Pope Leo XIII in 1900; named patron of teachers by Pope Pius XII in 1950; feast day formerly on May 15.
John-Baptist de la Salle was the eldest of ten children of a wealthy and noble family. He was destined for the priesthood at age 10, tonsured the following year, and was actually made a canon of Rheims cathedral 11 years (1667) before he was ordained a priest in 1678, following his seminary training at Saint Sulpice in Paris. He seemed set for a brilliant ecclesiastical career for he was striking in appearance, well connected, refined, and scholarly. Soon after his ordination, however, he met Adrian Nyel, a layman who was opening a school in Rheims for poor boys in 1679.

He found himself drawn more and more into the project. First he rented a house for the seven masters and fed them at his table. In 1681, he invited them to share his own home in order to instill in them the high educational ideals forming in his own mind. Two of his own brothers left soon after, then five of the school masters. The endeavor seemed about to fail.
 
Finally, John-Baptist decided to devote himself to the mission. In 1683, he resigned his canonry and distributed his family inheritance for the relief of the famine-stricken in Champagne. Thus freed of other obligations, he dedicated himself to the education of the poor. After a false start, he realized that the first problem was the provision of teachers, so he himself began to train laymen as teachers. He called the twelve young men he gathered together the "Brethren of the Christian Schools' (which did not receive papal approval until 1725). La Salle's original intention was to have priests in his institution to take charge of each house, but when his designated successor Brother L'Heureux, whom he was about to present for ordination, died unexpectedly, he doubted whether he design had been according to God's plan. It was ultimately decided when he drew up the rule in 1695 that they should all in fact be laybrothers and no priest could become a Christian Brother. This work went on simultaneously with opening schools. 
Saint John-Baptist de la Salle established the first teachers' colleges because parish priests continually sent him young men to train as teachers before returning to schools in their own villages. He sought to inspire his teachers with "a father's love for their pupils, ready to devote all their time and energies to them, as concerned to save them from wickedness as to dispel their ignorance. There were no such teachers for the poor."
In 1688, he took over a free school in Paris and started teacher training colleges in Rheims (1687), Paris (1699), and Saint-Denis (1709), and established a junior novitiate in 1685 for boys aged 15 to 20. In Paris he also introduced Sunday-schools. In 1700, the brothers opened a school in Rome. By that point they had opened schools in Avignon, Calais, Languedoc, Provence, Rouen, and Dijon.

In 1698, he began teaching the children of those who had come into exile in France with the deposed King James II of England. This brought his ideas and techniques into contact with a more influential sector of society. He was also the first to set up a reform school for delinquent boys at Dijon and even taught prisoners. Today about 20,000 of his brothers, the Christian Brothers, are still teaching throughout the world.

The successful growth of the new congregation provoked violent opposition from professional school-masters and others. In 1702 his enemies managed to get him dismissed, but all his teachers threatened to leave with him, so John-Baptist managed to keep control of his brethren.

His system of education, outlined in The Conduct of Christian Schools (Conduite des ecoles Chretiennes, English translation, 1935), was a milestone in the schooling of the young, with its use of the "simultaneous method" (as opposed to individual instruction) and its teaching through the mother tongue rather than Latin. John-Baptist believed that to teach the poor in Latin (as was the custom) was absurd. They needed to be taught to write and read their own language, and given religious and vocational training.

Matthew Arnold said of this book that later works on the subject hardly improved on its precepts and had none of its religious feeling. La Salle, who had studied at Saint-Sulpice under Louis Tronson, also wrote several works of value on prayer and meditation, including Meditations for Sundays, which was influenced by Bérulle.

Later, spurred by the Jansenists, an attack on teaching anything but manual labor to poor students caused his schools in Paris to be closed, but the storm subsided and they reopened.

John-Baptist resigned in 1717 and retired to Saint Yon, Rouen, where he lived as the humblest of brothers. He suffered from asthma and rheumatism, but would give up none of his habitual austerities. He died on Good Friday at Rouen. In 1937, his relics were translated to Rome (Attwater, Battersby, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer, Walsh).

1919 Blessed Josaphata Micheline Hordashevska (foundress of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, d. 1919) 
Following the Virgin Mary’s example
A native of Lviv in Ukraine, Josaphata Michaelina Hordashevska became a nun at age 18. Co-founder with Father Kyrylo Seletsky of the first female congregation of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, she devoted herself to caring for the sick, teaching the Catechism, and maintaining impoverished churches. Diagnosed with bone cancer, from which she endured terrible pain, she died at age 49. She was beatified in June 2001 in Lviv by Saint John Paul II.

The Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate lives out its special calling to serve others by following the example of the Virgin Mary—Handmaid of the Lord—Mary is also Servant of all humanity. Our Lady went speedily to assist Elizabeth; she intervened with simplicity at Cana; she courageously stood at the foot of the Cross where she received us as her children from the arms of her Son; with confidence, in union with the Apostles in the Upper Room, she prayed for the Church.

As servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate try to answer God’s call, as He invites us to collaborate with him in the work of Salvation by serving other.  nominis.cef.fr

1925 St Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow Apostle to America led an austere and chaste life the kindest of the Russian hierarchs "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."
Born as Vasily Ivanovich Belavin on January 19, 1865 into the family of Ioann Belavin, a rural priest of the Toropetz district of the Pskov diocese. His childhood and adolescence were spent in the village in direct contact with peasants and their labor. From his early years he displayed a particular religious disposition, love for the Church as well as rare meekness and humility.

When Vasily was still a boy, his father had a revelation about each of his children. One night, when he and his three sons slept in the hayloft, he suddenly woke up and roused them. He had seen his dead mother in a dream, who foretold to him his imminent death, and the fate of his three sons. She said that one would be unfortunate throughout his entire life, another would die young, while the third, Vasily, would be a great man. The prophecy of the dead woman proved to be entirely accurate in regard to all three brothers.

From 1878 to 1883, Vasily studied at the Pskov Theological Seminary. The modest seminarian was tender and affectionate by nature. He was fair-haired and tall of stature. His fellow students liked and respected him for his piety, brilliant progress in studies, and constant readiness to help comrades, who often turned to him for explanations of lessons, especially for help in drawing up and correcting numerous compositions. Vasily was called "bishop" and "patriarch" by his classmates.

In 1888, at the age of 23, Vasily Belavin graduated from the St Petersburg Theological Academy as a layman, and returned to the Pskov Seminary as an instructor of Moral and Dogmatic Theology. The whole seminary and the town of Pskov became very fond of him. He led an austere and chaste life, and in 1891, when he turned 26, he took monastic vows. Nearly the whole town gathered for the ceremony. He embarked on this new way of life consciously and deliberately, desiring to dedicate himself entirely to the service of the Church. The meek and humble young man was given the name Tikhon in honor of St Tikhon of Zadonsk.
He was transferred from the Pskov Seminary to the Kholm Theological Seminary in 1892, and was raised to the rank of archimandrite.

Archimandrite Tikhon was consecrated Bishop of Lublin on October 19, 1897, and returned to Kholm for a year as Vicar Bishop of the Kholm Diocese. Bishop Tikhon zealously devoted his energy to the establishment of the new vicariate. His attractive moral make-up won the general affection, of not only the Russian population, but also of the Lithuanians and Poles. On September 14, 1898, Bishop Tikhon was made Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska. As head of the Orthodox Church in America, Bishop Tikhon was a zealous laborer in the Lord's vineyard.
He did much to promote the spread of Orthodoxy, and to improve his vast diocese. He reorganized the diocesan structure, and changed its name from "Diocese of the Aleutians and Alaska" to "Diocese of the Aleutians and North America" in 1900. Both clergy and laity loved their archpastor, and held him in such esteem that the Americans made Archbishop Tikhon an honorary citizen of the United States.
On May 22, 1901, he blessed the cornerstone for St Nicholas Cathedral in New York, and was also involved in establishing other churches.

On November 9, 1902, he consecrated the church of St Nicholas in Brooklyn for the Syrian Orthodox immigrants. Two weeks later, he consecrated St Nicholas Cathedral in NY.
In 1905, the American Mission was made an Archdiocese, and St Tikhon was elevated to the rank of Archbishop. He had two vicar bishops: Bishop Innocent (Pustynsky) in Alaska, and St Raphael (Hawaweeny) in Brooklyn to assist him in administering his large, ethnically diverse diocese. In June of 1905, St Tikhon gave his blessing for the establishment of St Tikhon's Monastery.

In 1907, he returned to Russia, and was appointed to Yaroslavl, where he quickly won the affection of his flock. They came to love him as a friendly, communicative, and wise archpastor. He spoke simply to his subordinates, never resorting to a peremptory or overbearing tone. When he had to reprimand someone, he did so in a good-natured, sometimes joking manner, which encouraged the person to correct his mistakes.  When St Tikhon was transferred to Lithuania on December 22, 1913, the people of Yaroslavl voted him an honorary citizen of their town. After his transfer to Vilna, he did much in terms of material support for various charitable institutions. There too, his generous soul and love of people clearly manifested themselves. World War I broke out when His Eminence was in Vilna. He spared no effort to help the poor residents of the Vilna region who were left without a roof over their heads or means of subsistence as a result of the war with the Germans, and who flocked to their archpastor in droves.

After the February Revolution and formation of a new Synod, St Tikhon became one of its members. On June 21, 1917, the Moscow Diocesan Congress of clergy and laity elected him as their ruling bishop. He was a zealous and educated archpastor, widely known even outside his country.  On August 15, 1917, a local council was opened in Moscow, and Archbishop Tikhon was raised to the dignity of Metropolitan, and then elected as chairman of the council. The council had as its aim to restore the life of Russian Orthodox Church on strictly canonical principles, and its primary concern was the restoration of the Patriarchate. All council members would select three candidates, and then a lot would reveal the will of God. The council members chose three candidates: Archbishop Anthony of Kharkov, the wisest, Archbishop Arseny of Novgorod, the strictest, and Metropolitan Tikhon of Moscow, the kindest of the Russian hierarchs.

On November 5, following the Divine Liturgy and a Molieben in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, a monk removed one of the three ballots from the ballot box, which stood before the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God. Metropolitan Vladimir of Kiev announced Metropolitan Tikhon as the newly elected Patriarch. St Tikhon did not change after becoming the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church. In accepting the will of the council, Patriarch Tikhon referred to the scroll that the Prophet Ezekiel had to eat, on which was written, "Lamentations, mourning, and woe."
He foresaw that his ministry would be filled with affliction and tears, but through all his suffering, he remained the same accessible, unassuming, and kindly person.

All who met St Tikhon were surprised by his accessibility, simplicity and modesty. His gentle disposition did not prevent him from showing firmness in Church matters, however, particularly when he had to defend the Church from her enemies. He bore a very heavy cross. He had to administer and direct the Church amidst wholesale church disorganization, without auxiliary administrative bodies, in conditions of internal schisms and upheavals by various adherents of the Living Church, renovationists, and autocephalists.
The situation was complicated by external circumstances: the change of the political system, by the accession to power of the godless regime, by hunger, and civil war. This was a time when Church property was being confiscated, when clergy were subjected to court trials and persecutions, and Christ's Church endured repression. News of this came to the Patriarch from all ends of Russia. His exceptionally high moral and religious authority helped him to unite the scattered and enfeebled flock. At a crucial time for the church, his unblemished name was a bright beacon pointing the way to the truth of Orthodoxy. In his messages, he called on people to fulfill the commandments of Christ, and to attain spiritual rebirth through repentance. His irreproachable life was an example to all.

In order to save thousands of lives and to improve the general position of the church, the Patriarch took measures to prevent clergy from making purely political statements.
On September 25, 1919, when the civil war was at its height, he issued a message to the clergy urging them to stay away from political struggle.

The summer of 1921 brought a severe famine to the Volga region. In August, Patriarch Tikhon issued a message to the Russian people and to the people of the world, calling them to help famine victims. He gave his blessing for voluntary donations of church valuables, which were not directly used in liturgical services. However, on February 23, 1922, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee published a decree making all valuables subject to confiscation.
According to the 73rd Apostolic Canon, such actions were regarded as sacrilege, and the Patriarch could not approve such total confiscation, especially since many doubted that the valuables would be used to combat famine. This forcible confiscation aroused popular indignation everywhere. Nearly two thousand trials were staged all over Russia, and more than ten thousand believers were shot.
The Patriarch's message was viewed as sabotage, for which he was imprisoned from April 1922 until June 1923.

His Holiness, Patriarch Tikhon did much on behalf of the Russian Orthodox Church during the crucial time of the so-called Renovationist schism. He showed himself to be a faithful servant and custodian of the undistorted precepts of the true Orthodox Church. He was the living embodiment of Orthodoxy, which was unconsciously recognized even by enemies of the church, who called its members "Tikhonites."
When Renovationist priests and hierarchs repented and returned to the church, they were met with tenderness and love by St Tikhon. This, however, did not represent any deviation from his strictly Orthodox policy. "I ask you to believe me that I will not come to agreement or make concessions which could lead to the loss of the purity and strength of Orthodoxy," the Patriarch said in 1924.

Being a good pastor, who devoted himself entirely to the church's cause, he called upon the clergy to do the same: "Devote all your energy to preaching the word of God and the truth of Christ, especially today, when unbelief and atheism are audaciously attacking the Church of Christ. May the God of peace and love be with all of you!"

It was extremely painful and hard for the Patriarch's loving, responsive heart to endure all the Church's misfortunes. Upheavals in and outside the church, the Renovationist schism, his primatial labors, his concern for the organization and tranquility of Church life, sleepless nights and heavy thoughts, his confinement that lasted more than a year, the spiteful and wicked baiting of his enemies, and the unrelenting criticism sometimes even from the Orthodox, combined to undermine his strength and health.

In 1924, Patriarch Tikhon began to feel unwell. He checked into a hospital, but would leave it on Sundays and Feast Days in order to conduct services. On Sunday, April 5, 1925, he served his last Liturgy, and died two days later. On March 25/April 7, 1925 the Patriarch received Metropolitan Peter and had a long talk with him. In the evening, the Patriarch slept a little, then he woke up and asked what time it was. When he was told it was 11:45 P.M., he made the Sign of the Cross twice and said, "Glory to Thee, O Lord, glory to Thee." He did not have time to cross himself a third time.

Almost a million people came to say farewell to the Patriarch. The large cathedral of the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow could not contain the crowd, which overflowed the monastery property into the square and adjacent streets. St Tikhon, the eleventh Patriarch of Moscow, was primate of the Russian Church for seven and a half years.

On September 26/October 9, 1989, the Council of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church glorified Patriarch Tikhon and numbered him among the saints. For nearly seventy years, St Tikhon's relics were believed lost, but in February 1992, they were discovered in a concealed place in the Donskoy Monastery.

It would be difficult to imagine the Russian Orthodox Church without Patriarch Tikhon during those years. He did so much for the Church and for the strengthening of the Faith itself during those difficult years of trial. Perhaps the saint's own words can best sum up his life: "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR APRIL
Young People. 
That young people may respond generously to their vocations and seriously consider
offering themselves to God in the priesthood or consecrated life.


ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
Day 38 of 40 Days For Life

April Is Child Abuse Prevention Month

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
 
                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 01
120 -132 St. Theodora Roman martyr sister of  Saint Hermes aid and care to her brother in prison.  At Rome, the passion of St. Theodora, sister of the illustrious martyr Hermes.  She underwent martyrdom in the time of Emperor Adrian, under the judge Aurelian, and was buried at the side of her brother, on the Salarian Way, a short distance from the city.
According to the Acta of Pope St. Alexander (r 105-115), she was the sister of  Saint Hermes and was martyred some time after her brother. She had given aid and care to her brother during his difficult time in prison.
The council and the delegates from Grenoble severally and collectively appear to have looked on Canon Hugh as the one man who was capable of dealing with the disorders complained of; but though unanimously elected it was with the greatest reluctance that he consented to accept the office. The legate himself conferred on him holy orders up to the priesthood, and took him to Rome that he might receive consecration from the pope.
1132 St. Hugh of Grenoble Benedictine bishop amazing modesty took upon himself all sins of others the cross he carried was heavy laden holy and redemptive great reputation for miracles.   The kindness of the reception he met emboldened the young bishop elect to consult St Gregory VII about temptations to blasphemy which sometimes beset him, causing him great distress and, as he considered, rendering him unfit for the high office to which he was called. The pontiff reassured him, explaining that God permitted these trials to purify him and render him a more fitting instrument for the divine purposes. These particular temptations continued to assault him until his last illness, but he never yielded to them in any way.
The Countess Matilda gave the twenty-eight-year-old bishop his crozier and some books, including the De officiis ministrorum of St Ambrose and a psalter to which were appended the commentaries of St Augustine. Immediately after his consecration. St Hugh hurried off to his diocese, but he was appalled by the state of his flock. The gravest sins were committed without shame; simony and usury were rampant; the clergy openly flouted the obligation to celibacy; the people were uninstructed; laymen had seized church property and the see was almost penniless. It was indeed a herculean task that lay before the saint.
  For two years he laboured unremittingly to redress abuses by preaching, by denunciations, by rigorous fasts and by constant prayer. The excellent results he was obtaining were patent to all but to himself: he only saw his failures and blamed his own incompetence. Discouraged, he quietly withdrew to the Cluniac abbey of Chaise-Dieu, where he received the Benedictine habit. He did not remain there long, for Pope Gregory commanded him to resume his pastoral charge and return to Grenoble.
A short time before his death he lost his memory for everything but prayer, and would recite the psalter or the Lord’s Prayer without intermission.
During his 52-year episcopacy, Hugh vainly tendered his resignation to each pope--Gregory VII, Gelasius II, Calixtus II, Honorius II, Innocent II, and others--and they refused him because of his outstanding ability. He never ceased imploring them to release him from the duties of his episcopal office up to the day of his death. During his last, painful illness he was tormented by headaches and stomach disorders that resulted from his long fasts and vigils, yet never complained.
St Hugh died on April 1, 1132, two months before attaining the age of eighty, having been a bishop for fifty-two years.  Pope Innocent II canonized him two years later.
1194 Hugh of Bonnevaux possessed singular powers of discernment and exorcism OSB Cistercian, Abbot (AC).
The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.”
IN one of his letters St Bernard of Clairvaux mentions with great praise a novice called Hugh, who had renounced considerable riches and entered the abbey of Mézières at a very early age against the wishes of his relations. He was nephew to St Hugh of Grenoble. Once, when greatly troubled by temptations and longings to return to the world, he entered a church to pray for light and help. As he raised his eyes to the altar, he beheld above it a figure which he recognized to be that of our Lady, and then, beside her, appeared the form of her divine Son. The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.” Hugh afterwards gave himself up to such severe penances that his health broke down and he seemed to be losing his memory. He owed his recovery to the wise common-sense of St Bernard, who ordered him off to the infirmary with instructions that he should be properly tended and allowed to speak to anyone he liked.

Not long afterwards he was made abbot of Bonnevaux, and in Hugh’s care the abbey became very flourishing. It was noted that the abbot could read men’s thoughts and was quick to detect any evil spirit which had access to the minds of his brethren. The stories that have come down to us testify to his powers of divination and exorcism. Like so many of the great monastic luminaries, both men and women, Hugh did not confine his interests to his own house or even to his order. Moved by what he felt to be divine inspiration he went to Venice in 1177, there to act as mediator between Pope Alexander III and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. To him is due the credit of negotiating between them a peace which has become historic. St Hugh died in 1194, and his ancient cultus was approved in 1907.
1220 Jacqueline V Hermit recluse in Sicily reprimanded Pope Innocent III
1245 ST GILBERT, BISHOP OF CAITHNESS “Three maxims which I have always tried to observe I now commend to you: first, never to hurt anyone and, if injured, never to seek revenge secondly, to bear patiently whatever suffering God may inflict, remembering that He chastises every son whom He receives; and finally to obey those in authority so as not to be a stumbling-block to others.”
1849 BD LUDOVIC PAVONI, FOUNDER OF THE SONS OF MARY IMMACULATE OF BRESCIA.  THIS forerunner of St John Bosco in the education and care of boys, especially the orphaned and neglected, was born at Brescia in Lombardy in 1784. His parents were Alexander Pavoni and Lelia Pontecarali, and the family was of noble descent, with a sufficiency of property to maintain its position. Ludovic while still young showed a serious disposition; his sister Paolina said of him that “Ludovic was always a good religious youngster, while I was always a scamp”; and as a youth he already outlined his vocation when, during summer holidays at Alfianello, he played with the peasants’ children and taught them the catechism. On another occasion he threw his shirt out of the window to a beggar shivering in the street below. He had a taste and some capacity for the fine arts and might have become a painter or an architect, but probably nobody was surprised when he decided to study for the priesthood. This he did under the Dominicans (all the Lombard seminaries were closed in consequence of the revolution), and he was ordained priest in 1807.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 02
 469 St. Abundius Greek priest bishop noted theologian obvious intellect and holiness attended Councils of Chalcedon and Milan.   He became the bishop of Como, Italy, and attended the Council of Constantinople in 450. As a result of his obvious intellect and holiness, he was sent by Pope St. Leo I the Great to the Emperor Theodosius II as an envoy of the Holy See. His mission led to the and to the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Council of Milan in 452. Abundius served as the pope's representative in such councils, clearly stating the Church's role and concerns.
6th v. St. Musa Virgin child of Rome; a great mystic, visions and ecstasies, reported by St. Gregory I the Great

 952 Anba Macarius, the Fifty-Ninth Pope of Alexandria; The Departure of.  On this day also of the year 668 A.M. (May 20th. 952 A.D.) St. Macarius the fifty ninth Pope of Alexandria, departed. He was born in the city of Shoubra. He rejected the world since his youth and he desired the monastic life. He went to the monastery of St. Macarius at the wilderness of Sheahat (Scetis). He lived in virtues and good conduct made him worthy to be chosen a Patriarch, and a successor for Pope Cosma. He was enthroned on the first of Baramouda 648 A.M. (March 27th. 932 A.D.).

When he went forth from Alexandria going to visit the monasteries in the desert of Scetis according to the custom of his predecessors, he passed by his home town to visit his mother who was a righteous woman. When his mother heard that he had arrived she did not go out to meet him. When he had come to the house, he found her sitting down weaving and she did not greet him or paid attention to him. He thought that she did not know him. He told her: "Don't you know that I am your son Macarius who was elevated to a great position and became a head for a great nation?" She answered him with tears in her eyes: "I did not ignore you and I know what became of you, but I would have rather seen you dead than seen you as a Patriarch. Before, you were responsible only for your own soul but now your are responsible about the souls of all your flock: Now remember you are in danger and it is difficult to escape it." She said that and went on weaving as she did before.

The father the Patriarch left her sad, and attended to his office with delegant and care. He instructed his people with preaching and sermons. He did not touch any of the church revenue, and did not lay his hand on any one without people consent. He commanded the bishops and the priests to watch their flock and to protect them with homilies and admonitions. He sat on the throne of St. Mark twenty years in peace and tranquility, then departed in peace.
May his prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen

At Tours in France, St. Francis of Paula, founder of the Order of Minims.  Because he was renowned for virtues and miracles, he was inscribed among the saints by Pope Leo X.   ST FRANCIS was born about the year 1416 at Paola, a small town in Calabria. His parents were humble, industrious people who made it their chief aim to love and to serve God. As they were still childless after several years of married life, they prayed earnestly for a son, and when at last a boy was born to them, they named him after St Francis of Assisi, whose intercession they had specially sought.

In his thirteenth year he was placed in the Franciscan friary at San Marco, where he learnt to read and where he laid the foundation of the austere life which he ever afterwards led; although he had not professed the rule of the order, he seemed even at that tender age to outstrip the religious themselves in a scrupulous observance of its requirements. After spending a year there he accompanied his parents on a pilgrimage which included Assisi and Rome. Upon his return to Paola, with their consent, he retired first to a place about half a mile from the town, and afterwards to a more remote seclusion by the sea, where he occupied a cave. He was scarcely fifteen years old. Before he was twenty, he was joined by two other men. The neighbours built them three cells and a chapel in which they sang the divine praises and in which Mass was offered for them by a priest from the nearest church.

Besides the gift of miracles St Francis was endowed with that of prophecy, and long afterwards, writing to Pope Leo X for the canonization of St Francis, the Bishop of Grenoble (uncle to Bayard, the “Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche”) wrote, “Most holy Father, he revealed to me many things which were known only to God and to myself”. Pope Paul II sent one of his chamberlains into Calabria to inquire about the truth of the wonderful things that were reported of the saint. Upon seeing a visitor approach, St Francis, who was busy with the masons over the construction of his church, left his work to greet him. The envoy attempted to kiss his hand, but this Francis would not allow; he protested that it was for him to kiss the hands which for some thirty years had been sanctified by offering the holy Sacrifice. The chamberlain, surprised that Francis should know how long he, a stranger, had been a priest, did not disclose his mission, but asked to speak with him and was led within the enclosure. Here he expatiated eloquently on the dangers of singularity, and censured Francis’s way of life as too austere for human nature. The saint attempted humbly to vindicate his rule and then, to prove what the grace of God would enable single-minded men to bear, he lifted out of the fire some burning coals and held them for some time in his hands unscathed. It may be noted that there is record of several similar examples of his immunity from the effects of fire. The chamberlain returned full of veneration for the holy man, and the new order received the sanction of the Holy See in 1474. At that time the community was composed of uneducated men, with only one priest. They were then called Hermits of St Francis of Assisi, and it was not until 1492 that their name was changed to that of “Minims”, at the desire of the founder, who wished his followers to be reckoned as the least (minimi) in the household of God.
St Francis passed twenty-five years in France, and died there. On Palm Sunday 1507 he fell ill, and on Maundy Thursday assembled his brethren and exhorted them to the love of God, to charity and to a strict observance of all the duties of their rule. Then he received viaticum barefoot with a rope round his neck, according to the custom of his order. He died on the following day, Good Friday, being then ninety-one years of age. His canonization took place in 1519.  Besides the rule which St Francis drew up for his friars, with a correctorium or method of enjoining penances and a ceremonial, he also composed a rule for nuns, and regulations for a third order of persons living in the world. Today the number of members of the Order of Minims is considerably reduced they are mostly found in Italy.
1815 BD LEOPOLD OF GAICHE founded house for missioners and preachers could retire for their annual retreat other brethren and friends of the order could come for spiritual refreshment; numerous miracles reported at his grave.   When in 1808 Napoleon invaded Rome and imprisoned Pope Pius VII, religious houses were suppressed and their occupants turned out. Bd Leopold, a venerable old man of seventy-seven, was obliged to abandon his beloved convent, and with three of his brethren to live in a miserable hut in Spoleto. While there he acted as assistant to a parish priest, but afterwards he had charge of an entire parish whose pastor had been driven out by the French. Then he was himself imprisoned for refusing to take an oath which he considered unlawful. His imprisonment, however, was of short duration, for we soon find him giving missions once more. His fame was enhanced by his prophetical powers and by strange phenomena which attended him: for example, when he was preaching his head often appeared to his congregation as though it were crowned with thorns.
With the fall of Napoleon, Bd Leopold hurried back to Monte Luco, where he set about trying to establish things as they had been before but he only survived for a few months, dying on April 15, 1815, in his eighty-third year. The numerous miracles reported to have taken place at his grave caused the speedy introduction of the process of his beatification, which reached a favourable conclusion in 1893.

1839 St. Dominic Tuoc 3rd order Dominican martyr native of Vietnam.  Arrested and tortured, he died in prison. Dominic was a native of Vietnam. He was canonized in 1988.  Blessed Dominic Tuoc M, OP Tert. (AC) Born in Tonkin; died 1839; beatified in 1900. Saint Dominic was a priest of the third order of Dominicans, who died of his wounds in prison (Benedictines).
1968 The Apparition of the Pure Lady the Virgin in the church of Zeiton.  On the eve of this day of the year 1684 A.M. which coincide with tuesday the 2nd. of April 1968 A.D., during the papacy of Pope Kyrellos VI, the hundred sixteenth Pope of Alexandria, our Lady and the pride of our faith started to transfigure in luminous spiritual forms in and around the domes of the church dedicated to her immaculate name in Zeiton, a suburb of Cairo.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 03
127 Sixtus I, Pope survived as pope for about 10 years before being killed by the Roman authorities
Tauroménii, in Sicília, sancti Pancrátii Epíscopi
.  At Rome, the birthday of blessed Pope Sixtus the First, martyr, who ruled the Church with distinction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, and finally in the reign of Antoninus Pius he gladly accepted temporal death in order to gain Christ for himself.  (also known as Xystus)  ST XYSTUS I succeeded Pope St Alexander I about the end of the reign of Trajan, and governed the Church for some ten years at a period when the papal dignity was the common prelude to martyrdom. In all the old martyrologies he is honoured as a martyr, but we have no particulars about his life or death. He was by birth a Roman, his father’s house in the ancient Via Lata having occupied, it is supposed, the site now covered by the church of St Mary-in-Broad-Street. The Liber Pontificalis credits him with having laid down as ordinances that none but the clergy should touch the sacred vessels, and that the people should join in when the priest had intoned the Sanctus at Mass. The Sixtus mentioned in the canon of the Mass was probably not this pope but St Sixtus II, whose martyrdom was more widely famous.
1253 St. Richard of Wyche Ph.D. Priest missionary bishop denounced nepotism, insisted on strict clerical discipline, ever generous to poor and needy Many miracles healing recorded during  lifetime more after death. Richard was deep in the hearts of his people, the sort of saint that anyone can recognize by his simplicity, holiness, and endless charity to the poorRichard Backedine B (RM) (also known as Richard of Wyche, of Droitwich, of Chichester, of Burford)
Born at Droitwich (formerly called Wyche), Worchestershire, England, in 1197; died at Dover, England, 1253; canonized 1262 (Urban IV 1261-64 ).
 
  In 1244 Ralph Neville, bishop of Chichester, died, and Henry III, by putting pressure on the canons, obtained the election of Robert Passelewe, a worthless man who, according to Matthew Paris, “had obtained the king’s favour in a wonderful degree by an unjust inquisition by which he added some thousands of marks to the royal treasury.”
The archbishop refused to confirm the election and called a chapter of his suffragans who declared the previous election invalid, and chose Richard, the primate’s nominee, to fill the vacant see. Upon hearing the news, King Henry was violently enraged: he kept in his own hands all the temporalities and forbade the admission of St Richard to any barony or secular possession attached to his see. In vain did the bishop elect himself approach the monarch on two separate occasions: he could obtain neither the confirmation of his election nor the restoration of the revenues to which he was entitled. At last both he and the king carried the case to Pope Innocent IV, who was presiding over the Council of Lyons, and he decided in favour of St Richard, whom he consecrated himself on March 5, 1245.
Landing once more in England the new bishop was met by the news that the king, far from giving up the temporalities, had forbidden anyone to lend St Richard money or even to give him houseroom. At Chichester he found the palace gates closed against him: those who would gladly have helped him feared the sovereign’s anger, and it seemed as though he would have to wander about his diocese a homeless outcast. However, a good priest, Simon of Tarring, opened his house to him, and Richard, as Bocking informs us, “took shelter under this hospitable roof, sharing the meals of a stranger, warming his feet at another man’s hearth”.

"Thanks be to Thee, my Lord Jesus Christ For all the benefits Thou hast given me, For all the pains and insults Which Thou has borne for me.  O most merciful Redeemer, Friend, and Brother, May I know Thee more clearly, Love Thee more dearly, Follow Thee more nearly, Day by day. Amen." --Saint Richard of Chichester.
1271 Blessed John of Penna priest founding several Franciscan houses  visions gift of prophecywon all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light OFM (AC) .   Born at Penna San Giovanni (near Fermo), Ancona, Italy, c. 1193; died at Recanati, Italy, April 3, 1271; cultus approved 1806 by Pope Pius VII. Blessed John joined the Franciscans at Recanati about 1213, was ordained a priest, and was sent to France, where he worked for about 25 years in Provence, founding several Franciscan houses. About 1242, he returned to Italy, where he spent his last 30 years mainly in retirement, although he did serve as guardian several times. He experienced visions and had the gift of prophecy, but was also afflicted with extended periods of spiritual aridity. His life is described in chapter 45 of The Little Flowers of Saint Francis (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney).  

1271 BD JOHN OF PENNA won all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States incorrupt.   St. Benedict of San Philadelphio (Or BENEDICT THE MOOR) Born at San Philadelphio or San Fradello, a village of the Diocese of Messina in Sicily, in 1526; d. 4 April, 1589. The parents of St. Benedict were slaves from Ethiopia who were, nevertheless, pious Christians. On account of their faithfulness their master freed Benedict, the first-born child. From his earliest years Benedict was very religious and while still very young he joined a newly formed association of hermits. When Pope Pius IV dissolved the association, Benedict, called from his origin Æthiops or Niger, entered the Reformed Recollects of the Franciscan Order. Owing to his virtues he was made superior of the monastery of Santa Maria de Jesus at Palermo three years after his entrance, although he was only a lay brother. He reformed the monastery and ruled it with great success until his death. He was pronounced Blessed in 1743 and was canonized in 1807. His feast is celebrated 3 April.






Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 04
Thus there began to develop a special bond between this Mother and the Church.
For the infant Church was the fruit of the Cross and Resurrection of her Son.
Mary, who from the beginning had given herself without reserve to the person and work of her Son, could not but pour out upon the Church, from the very beginning, her maternal self-giving. After her Son's departure, her motherhood remains in the Church as maternal mediation: interceding for all her children, the Mother cooperates in the saving work of her Son, the Redeemer of the world.   Holy Father John Paul II    Redemptoris Mater #40

The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin  April 4 - Our Lady of Seven Sorrows (1897) - Francisco of Fatima (d. 1919)
1. The prophecy of Simeon. (Lk 2: 34, 35) 2. The flight into Egypt. (Mt 2:13-14) 3. The loss of the Child Jesus in the temple. (Lk 3: 43-45)  4. The meeting of Jesus and Mary on the Way of the Cross.  5. The Crucifixion.  6. The taking down of the Body of Jesus from the Cross.  7. The burial of Jesus.
"And Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary his mother: 'Behold this child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be contradicted; and thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed" (Lk 2: 34-35).

 636 St. Isidore of Seville Doctor of the Church In a unique move, he made sure that all branches of knowledge including the arts and medicine were taught in the seminaries. At Seville in Spain, St. Isidore, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church.  He was conspicuous for sanctity and learning, and had brightened all Spain by his zeal for the Catholic faith and his observance of Church discipline.  Isidore of Seville B, Doctor (RM) Born at Cartagena, Spain, c. 560; died in Seville, Spain, in April 4, 636; canonized by Pope Clement VIII in 1598; and declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Innocent XIII in 1722. Saint Isidore was born into a noble Hispano-Roman family, which also produced SS. Leander, Fulgentius, and Florentina. Their father was Severian, a Roman from Cartagena, who was closely connected to the Visigothic kings. Though Isidore became one of the most erudite men of his age, as a boy he hated his studies, perhaps because his elder brother, Saint Leander, who taught him, was a strict task master.
The more we are afflicted in this world, the greater is our assurance in the next;
the more we sorrow in the present, the greater will be our joy in the future.
- St. Isidore of Seville
 863 Saint Joseph the Hymnographer, "the sweet-voiced nightingale of the Church,".  At that time the Roman bishops were in communion with the Eastern Church, and Pope Leo III, who was not under the dominion of the Byzantine Emperor, was able to render great help to the Orthodox. The Orthodox monks chose St Joseph as a steadfast and eloquent messenger to the Pope. St Gregory blessed him to journey to Rome and to report on the plight of the Church of Constantinople, the atrocities of the iconoclasts, and the dangers threatening Orthodoxy. 

Born in Sicily in 816 into a pious Christian family. His parents, Plotinos and Agatha, moved to the Peloponnesos to save themselves from barbarian invasions. When he was fifteen, St Joseph went to Thessalonica and entered the monastery of Latomos. He was distinguished by his piety, his love for work, his meekness, and he gained the good will of all the brethren of the monastery. He was later ordained as a priest.

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States.   1589 ST BENEDICT THE BLACK His face when he was in chapel often shone with an unearthly light, and food seemed to multiply miraculously under his hands; reputation for sanctity and miracles;   Beatified 15 May 1743 by Pope Benedict XIV
Canonized 24 May 1807 by Pope Pius VIII

  BENEDICT was born in a village near Messina in Sicily. His parents were good Christians, but African slaves of a rich landowner whose name (Manasseri) they bore, according to the prevalent custom. Christopher’s master had made him foreman over his other servants and had promised that his eldest son, Benedict, should be free. The baby grew up such a sweet-tempered, devout child that when he was only ten years old he was called “The Holy Black” (Ii moro santo), a nickname which clung to him all his life. One day, when he was about twenty-one, he was grossly insulted by some neighbours, who taunted him with his colour and the status of his parents. There happened to be passing at the time a young man called Lanzi, who had retired from the world with a few companions to live the life of a hermit in imitation of St Francis of Assisi. He was greatly impressed by the gentleness of Benedict’s replies and, addressing the mockers, he said, “You make fun of this poor black man now; but I can tell you that ere long you will hear great things of him”. Soon afterwards, at Lanzi’s invitation, Benedict sold his few possessions and went to join the solitaries.
1726 The Departure of Pope Peter VI, the One Hundred and Fourth Pope of Alexandria.  On this day also the church commemorates the departure of Pope Peter VI (Petros), the one hundred and fourth Patriarch in the year 1442 A.M. (April 2nd., 1726 A.D.). This blessed father and spiritual angel was the son of pure and Christian parents from the city of Assiut. They raised him well, educated him with ecclesiastic subjects and manners and he excelled in them. His name was Mourgan, but later on he became known by the name Peter El-Assuity. The grace of God was on him since his young age, and when he came to the age of maturity, he forsook the world and what in it, and longed to the monastic life. He went to the monastery of the great St. Antonios in the mount of El-Arabah, he dwelt there, became a monk and put on the monastic garb. He exerted himself in worship, and when he achieved the ascetic life, purity, righteousness, and humility, the fathers the monks chose him to be a priest. They took him against his will to Cairo, and he was ordained a priest, for the monastery of the great Saint Anba Paula the first hermit, among others, by the hand of Pope Yoannis El-Toukhy (103), in the church of the Lady the Virgin in Haret El-Roum. He increased in virtues and he became well known among the people.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 05
 647 Ethelburga of Lyminge founded an abbey at Lyminge abbess.  ST ETHELBURGA was the daughter of St Augustine’s convert, King Ethelbert of Kent and of his wife Bertha. Ethelburga, also called Tata, was given in marriage to Edwin, the pagan king of Northumbria, and St Paulinus, one of St Augustine’s companions, accompanied her as chaplain. Although Edwin was well affected towards Christianity, he hesitated so long before accepting the faith that Pope Boniface V wrote expressly to Ethelburga, urging her to do her utmost to bring about his conversion. But it was not until 627 that Edwin himself received baptism. During the rest of his reign, Christianity made progress throughout Northumbria, encouraged as it was by the royal couple, but when Edwin had been killed at Hatfield Chase, his pagan adversaries overran the land. The queen and St Paulinus found themselves obliged to return to Kent where Ethelburga founded the abbey of Lyminge, which she ruled until her death.
1095 Saint Gerald of Sauve-Majeure monk cellarer of abbey Corbie; founded, directed, Benedictine Abbey of Grande -Sauveabbot  author of a hagiology.  Feeling that all he could do for God was to minister to others, he undertook, in honour of the Holy Trinity, the care of three poor men whom he looked after. His abbot chose him as companion to go with him to Rome, where he hoped the sufferer might be cured. Together they visited the tombs of the Apostles, and at the hands of St Leo IX Gerald was ordained priest. But from time to time the terrible headaches recurred, until one day when—at the intercession, he was convinced, of St Adelard, whose life he had written— the pains left him as suddenly as they had come, never to trouble him again. After this, in thanksgiving he redoubled his prayers and mortifications. In a vision he beheld our Lord come down from the crucifix towards him, he felt Him place His hand on his head, and heard Him say, “Son, be comforted in the Lord and in the power of His might”. A pilgrimage to Jerusalem was another source of inspiration and consolation.
1258 Blessed Juliana of Mount Cornillon visions in which Jesus pointed out that there was no feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament OSA V (AC).  The years passed and Juliana became a nun at Mount Cornillon; but she was unknown, without influence and in no position to do anything in the matter of the desired feast. Then in 1225 she was elected prioress and began to speak about what she felt to be her mission to some of her friends, notably to Bd Eva, a recluse who lived beside St Martin’s church on the opposite bank of the river, and to a saintly woman, Isabel of Huy, whom she had received into her community. Encouraged no doubt by the support of these two, she opened her heart to a learned canon of St Martin’s, John of Lausanne, asking him to consult theologians as to the propriety of such a feast. James Pantaleon (afterwards Pope Urban IV), Hugh of St Cher, the Dominican prior provincial, Bishop Guy of Cambrai, chancellor of the University of Paris, with other learned men, were approached, and decided that there was no theological or canonical objection to the institution of a festival in honour of the Blessed Sacrament.
Juliana’s great mission was carried on and completed by her old friend Eva, the recluse of St Martin’s. After the elevation to the papacy of Urban IV, who as James Pantaleon had been one of Juliana’s earliest supporters, Eva, through the bishop of Liege, begged him to sanction the new feast of the Blessed Sacrament. He did so; and afterwards, in recognition of the part she had taken, he sent her his bull of authorization together with the beautiful office for Corpus Christi which St Thomas Aquinas had composed at his desire. The bull was confirmed in 1312 by the Council of Vienne under Pope Clement V, and the celebration of the feast of Corpus Christi has from that time become of universal obligation throughout the Western church, and most Catholics of the Eastern rite have adopted it too. The observance of a feast in honour of Bd Juliana was allowed by the Holy See in 1869.

1574 St. Catherine Thomas Orphan strange phenomena mystical experiences visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine gifts of visions and prophecy In the monastery at Palma, in the diocese of Majorca, the birthday of St. Catherine Thomas, Canoness Regular of the Order of St. Augustine, whom Pope Pius XI, in the fiftieth year of his priesthood, placed among the number of virgin saints.  Felt a call to the religious life at age 15, but her confessor convinced her to wait a little. Domestic servant in Palma where she learned to read and write. Joined the Canonesses of Saint Augustine at Saint Mary Magdalen convent at Palma. Subjected to many strange phenomena and mystical experiences including visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine. Had the gifts of visions and prophecy. Assaulted spiritually and physically by dark powers, she sometimes went into ecstatic trances for days at a time; her wounds from this abuse were treated by Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian. During her last years she was almost continually in ecstasy. Foretold the date of her death. Born 1 May 1533 at Valldemossa, Mallorca, Spain Died    5 April 1574 at Saint Mary Magdalen convent, Palma, Spain of natural causes
1419 St. Vincent Ferrer Patron of Builders Dominican at 19 simply "going through the world preaching Christ,"
 eloquent and fiery preacher St Vincent declared himself to be the angel of the Judgement foretold by St John (Apoc. xiv 6). As some of his hearers began to protest, he summoned the bearers who were carrying a dead woman to her burial and adjured the corpse to testify to the truth of his words. The body was seen to revive for a moment to give the confirmation required, and then to close its eyes once more in death. It is almost unnecessary to add that the saint laid no claim to the nature of a celestial being, but only to the angelic office of a messenger or herald—believing, as he did, that he was the instrument chosen by God to announce the impending end of the world.
In 1405 St Vincent was in Genoa, from whence he reached a port from which he could sail for Flanders. Amongst other reforms he induced the Ligurian ladies to modify their fantastic head-dress—“the greatest of all his marvellous deeds”, as one of his biographers avers. In the Netherlands he wrought so many miracles that an hour was set apart every day for the healing of the sick. It has also been supposed that he visited England, Scotland and Ireland, but of this there is no shadow of proof. Although we know from the saint himself that beyond his native language he had learnt only some Latin and a little Hebrew, yet he would seem to have possessed the gift of tongues, for we have it on the authority of reliable writers that all his hearers, French, Germans, Italians and the rest, understood every word he spoke, and that his voice carried so well that it could be clearly heard at enormous distances. It is impossible here to follow him in all his wanderings. In fact he pursued no definite order, but visited and revisited places as the spirit moved him or as he was requested. In 1407 he returned to Spain. That terrible scandal had begun in 1378 when, upon the death of Gregory XI, sixteen of the twenty-three cardinals had hastily elected Urban VI in deference to the popular cry for an Italian pope. Under the plea that they had been terrorized, they then, with the other cardinals, held a conclave at which they elected Cardinal Robert of Geneva, a Frenchman. He took the name of Clement VII and ruled at Avignon, whilst Urban reigned in Rome. St Vincent Ferrer, who had been amongst those who recognized Clement, naturally upon his death accepted as pope his successor, Peter de Luna or Benedict XIII as he was called, who summoned the Dominican to his side. [* Because of their anomalous position this Clement VII and Benedict XIII are not referred to as antipopes but as “called popes in their obedience”.]
1744 Blessed Crescentia Höss, OFM Tert. blessed by celestial visions V (AC).   Her life for the next few years was to be one of humiliations and persecution, for the superioress and the older nuns could not forget that she had come to them penniless. They taunted her with being a beggar, gave her the most disagreeable work, and then called her a hypocrite. At first she had a little cell, but that was taken away to be given to a novice who had brought money. For three years she had to beg first one sister and then another to allow her to sleep on the floor of her cell: then she was allowed a damp dark little corner of her own. Taking all humiliations as her due, Crescentia refused the sympathy of some of the younger nuns when they exclaimed at the treatment meted out to her. In time, however, another superioress was appointed, who had more charity and discrimination. In time the nuns recognized that they had a saint amongst them and eventually chose her as novice mistress and finally as superioress. She had many visions and ecstasies, besides a mystical experience of the sufferings of our Lord which lasted every Friday from nine until three, culminating often in complete unconsciousness. On the other hand she suffered greatly from the assaults of the powers of evil.
Unkindly criticism of others Crescentia always repressed, invariably defending the absent. Stern to herself, she yet said to her daughters, “The practices most pleasing to God are those which He himself imposes—to bear meekly and patiently the adversities which He sends or which our neighbours inflict on us”. Gradually her influence spread beyond the walls of her convent, and people who came to consult her went away impressed by her wisdom and spoke of her to others: leaders in church and state visited the weaver’s daughter or corresponded with her, and to this day her tomb is visited by pilgrims. Pope Leo XIII beatified her in 1900.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 06
432 Celestine I Pope treatise against semi-Pelagianism
Born in Campania, Italy; died at Rome, July 27, 432; feast day formerly on July 27 and/or August 1. Saint Celestine was a deacon in Rome when he was elected pope on September 20, 422, to succeed Saint Boniface. He was a staunch supporter of Saint Germanus of Auxerre in the fight against Pelagianism, and a friend of Saint Augustine with whom he corresponded, and which demonstrates that the bishop of Rome was the central authority even at that early date.
Benedict_XVI_Patriarch_Bartholomew
582 Eutychius of Constantinople worked many miracles; healings; opposed Justinian's interference; vigorously denounced Aphthartodocetism [asartodoketai] or "imperishability" which taught that the flesh of Christ, before His death on the Cross and Resurrection, was imperishable and not capable of suffering.  ALTHOUGH the name of this Eutychius is not commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, and although his career belongs more to church history than to hagiography, still he has always been honoured as a saint among the Greeks (and at Venice, which claims his relics), and he set a noble example of resistance to the Emperor Justinian’s pretensions to figure as arbiter in theological matters. Thus, through his prayer the wife of a devout man, Androgenes, who had given birth only to dead infants, now gave birth to two sons who lived to maturity. Two deaf-mutes received the gift of speech; and two grievously ill children were restored to health. The saint healed a cancerous ulcer on the hand of an artist. The saint also healed another artist, anointing his diseased hand with oil and making over it the Sign of the Cross.
The saint healed not only bodily, but also spiritual afflictions: he banished the devil out of a girl that had kept her from Holy Communion; he expelled a demon from a youth who had fled from a monastery (after which the youth returned to his monastery); he healed a drunken leper, who stopped drinking after being cleansed of his leprosy.
During the Persian invasion of Amasea and its widespread devastation, they distributed grain to the hungry from the monastery granaries on the saint's orders, and by his prayers, the stores of grain at the monastery were not depleted.
St Eutychius received from God the gift of prophecy. He revealed the names of two of Emperor Justinian's successors: Justin (565-578) and Tiberias (578-582).
885 Saint Methodius, Archbishop of Moravia Life found May 11, when commemorated with Cyril, Teacher of Slavs. In Moravia, the birthday of St. Methodius, bishop and confessor.  Together with his brother, the bishop St. Cyril, whose birthday was the 14th of February, he converted many of the Slav races and their rulers to the faith of Christ.  Their feast is celebrated on the 7th day of July. 
These brothers, natives of Thessalonika, are venerated as the apostles of the Southern Slavs and the fathers of Slavonic literary culture.      The characters now called "cyrillic ", from which are derived the present Russian, Serbian and Bulgarian letters, were invented from the Greek capitals, perhaps by the followers of St Cyril ; the" glagolitic " alphabet, formerly wrongly attributed to St Jerome, in which the Slav-Roman liturgical books of certain Yugoslav Catholics are printed, may be that prepared for this occasion by Cyril himself, or, according to the legend, directly revealed by God.* {* Like so much to do with these brothers, the history of these alphabets is a matter of debate.  The southern Slavonic of SS. Cyril and Methodius is to this day the liturgical language of the Russians, Ukrainians, Serbs and Bulgars, whether Orthodox or Catholic.}

  In 863 the two brothers set out with a number of assistants and came to the court of Rostislav; they were well received and at once got to work.  The position was very difficult. The new missionaries made free use of the vernacular in their preaching and ministrations, and this made immediate appeal to the local people. To the German clergy this was objectionable, and their opposition was strengthened when the Emperor Louis the German forced Rostislav to take an oath of fealty to him.  The Byzantine missionaries, armed with their pericopes from the Scriptures and liturgical hymns in Slavonic, pursued their way with much success, but were soon handicapped by their lack of a bishop to ordain more priests.
The German prelate, the bishop of Passau, would not do it, and Cyril therefore determined to seek help elsewhere, presumably from Constantinople whence he came.

On their way the brothers arrived in Venice. It was at a bad moment. Photius at Constantinople had incurred excommunication; the East was under suspicion the proteges of the Eastern emperor and their liturgical use of a new tongue were vehemently criticized.  One source says that the pope, St Nicholas I, sent for the strangers.  In any case, to Rome they came, bringing with them the alleged relics of Pope St Clement, which St Cyril had recovered when in the Crimea on his way back from the Khazars.
Pope Nicholas in the meantime had died, but his successor, Adrian II, warmly welcomed the bearers of so great a gift.  He examined their cause, and he gave judgement: Cyril and Methodius were to receive episcopal consecration, their neophytes were to be ordained, the use of the liturgy in Slavonic was approved.  Although in the office of the Western church both brothers are referred to as bishops, it is far from certain that Cyril was in fact consecrated.  For while still in Rome he died, on February 14, 869.
1203 St. William of Eskilsoe reforming the canons life of prayer and austere mortification never approached the altar without watering it with his tears, offering himself to God in the spirit of adoration and sacrifice.   ON this day the Roman Martyrology mentions the death in Denmark of St William, “famous for his life and miracles”. He was born about 1125 at Saint-Germain, Crépy-en-Valois, and became a canon of the collegiate church of St Genevieve in Paris. In 1148 Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, carrying out the wishes of the pope, Bd Eugenius III, established canons regular in this church, and William was one of those who accepted a more austere and regular life with enthusiasm.
Peter was born at Verona, Italy, in 1205. Both of his parents were Catharists, a heresy that denied God created the material world. Even so, Peter was educated at a Catholic school and later at the University of Bologna. While in Bologna, Peter was accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic. He developed into a great preacher, and was well known for his inspiring sermons in the Lombardy region. In addition, around the year 1234, he was appointed by Pope Gregory IX as inquisitor of Northern Italy, where many Catharists lived. Peter's preaching attracted large crowds, but as inquisitor he made many enemies.

1252 St. Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic
Medioláni pássio sancti Petri, ex Ordine Prædicatórum, Mártyris, qui ab hæréticis, ob fidem cathólicam, interémptus est.  Ipsíus tamen festívitas recólitur tértio Kaléndas Maji.
       At Milan, the passion of St. Peter, a martyr belonging to the Order of Preachers, who was slain by the heretics for his Catholic faith.  His feast, however, is kept on the 29th of April.
 1252  St Peter Of Verona, Martyr; Having received the habit from St Dominic himself;  Once, as he knelt before the crucifix, he exclaimed, “Lord, thou knowest that I am not guilty. Why dost thou permit me to be falsely accused?” The reply came, “And I, Peter, what did I do to deserve my passion and death?” Rebuked yet consoled, the friar regained courage.

St Peter Martyr was born at Verona in 1205 of parents who belonged to the sect of the Cathari, a heresy which closely resembled that of the Albigenses and included amongst its tenets a denial that the material world had been created by God. The child was sent to a Catholic school, in spite of the remon­strances of an uncle who discovered by questioning the little boy that he had not only learnt the Apostles’ Creed, but was prepared stoutly to maintain in the orthodox sense the article “Creator of Heaven and earth”.

1744 St. Crescentia Hoess, humble, crippled; wise enough to balance worldly skills with acumen in spiritual matters; heads of State and Church both sought her advice.  Conditions improved four years later when a new superior was elected who realized her virtue. Crescentia herself was appointed mistress of novices. She so won the love and respect of the sisters that, upon the death of the superior, Crescentia herself was unanimously elected to that position. Under her the financial state of the convent improved and her reputation in spiritual matters spread. She was soon being consulted by princes and princesses as well as by bishops and cardinals seeking her advice. And yet, a true daughter of Francis, she remained ever humble.

Bodily afflictions and pain were always with her. First it was headaches and toothaches. Then she lost the ability to walk, her hands and feet gradually becoming so crippled that her body curled up into a fetal position. In the spirit of Francis she cried out, "Oh, you bodily members, praise God that he has given you the capacity to suffer." Despite her sufferings she was filled with peace and joy as she died on Easter Sunday in 1744.
She was beatified in 1900 and canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2001.  Comment:    Although she grew up in poverty and willingly embraced it in her vocation, Crescentia had a good head for business. Under her able administration, her convent regained financial stability. Too often we think of good money management as, at best, a less-than-holy gift. But Crescentia was wise enough to balance her worldly skills with such acumen in spiritual matters that heads of State and Church both sought her advice.
1857 St. Paul Tinh native Vietnamese priest martyr.   Born in Vietnam, he was converted to the Catholic faith and was ordained a priest. Seized by anti-Catholic forces, Paul was beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.
Blessed Paul Tinh M (AC) Born in Trinh-ha, Tonkin (Vietnam); died 1857; beatified in 1909. Paul became a priest and was beheaded at Son-tay in West Tonkin (Benedictines).

1896 Blessed Zefirino Agostini first priority to develop relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of joy and power to do good.   Born in Verona, Italy, September 24, 1813; died there on April 6, 1896; beatified October 24, 1998.
Blessed Zefirino was the elder son of the physician Antonio Agostini and his wife Angela Frattini. Upon the death of the pious Antonio, the two boys were raised by their mother with a gentleness and wisdom that left its mark on the souls of her children and led Zefirino to his priestly vocation. Following his ordination on March 11, 1837, at the hands of Bishop Grasser of Verona, Zefirino was assigned to the poor parish of Saint Nazarius, where he had been baptized on September 28, 1813. The first eight years he had responsibility for teaching the catechism and running the recreational program for boys. In 1845, he was named pastor. Although the parish was large and poor, Father Agostini never allowed his fatherly heart to be overcome by its problems. He knew that his first priority was to develop his relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of his joy and power to do good. God filled Father Agostini with apostolic zeal. He established an after-school program for girls and catechetical instruction for their mothers. To inspire women, he held up the ideal of Saint Angela Merici and celebrated her feast. Three young women followed that inspiration and devoted themselves to the neediest in the community.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 07
180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}.   IT is as the reputed Father of Church History that St Hegesippus is chiefly remembered to-day. By birth a Jew, and a member of the church of Jerusalem, he travelled to Rome, and there spent nearly twenty years, from the pontificate of St Anicetus to that of St Eleutherius.  At Rome, St. Hegesippus, who lived close to the time of the apostles.  He came to Rome while Anicetus was pope, and remained until the time of Eleutherius.  He wrote a history of the Church, from the Passion of our Lord to his own time, in a simple style, to make clear the character of those whose life he imitated.
In 277 he returned to the East, where he died in extreme old age, probably at Jerusalem. In the course of his travels, he seems to have visited the principal Christian centres in the West as well as in the East, and he noted with satisfaction that, although disturbances had been caused by individual heretics, hitherto no episcopal see or particular church had fallen into error:
everywhere he had found the unity of the faith as it had been delivered by our Lord to the saints. Unfortunately only a few chapters remain of the five books which he wrote on the history of the Church from the passion of our Lord down to his own time, but the work was highly esteemed by Eusebius and others, who drew largely upon it. He was a man filled with the spirit of the apostles and with a love of humility “which”, says St Jerome, “he expressed by the simplicity of his style”. St Hegesippus is named in the Roman Martyrology to-day.

345 Saint Aphraates Persian hermit  convert struggle against Arian heresy oldest extant Church document in Syria; miracles.  In Syria, in the time of Valens, St. Aphraates, an anchoret, who defended the Catholic faith against the Arians by the power of miracles.  Aphraates is sometimes identified as the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai, near Mosul Mesopotamia. Possibly a martyr, he is believed to have written a many-volumed defense of the faith called the Demonstrations, which is the oldest extant document of the Church in Syria. Aphraates is often referred to as "the Persian Sage."
According to the Bollandists, followed by Alban Butler, we owe our knowledge of the history of St Aphraates to Theodoret, who recalled how, as a boy, he had been taken by his mother to visit the saint and how Aphraates had opened his door to bless them, promising to intercede with God on their behalf. In his later years Theodoret continued to invoke that intercession, believing that it had become even more potent since the holy man had gone to God.
As the Arians had taken possession of their churches, the faithful were reduced to worshipping beside the river Orontes or in the large open space outside the city which was used for military exercises. One day, as St Aphraates was hurrying along the road which led from the city to this parade-ground, he was stopped by order of the emperor, who happened to be standing in the portico of his palace which overlooked the road. Valens inquired whither he was going: “To pray for the world and the emperor”, replied the recluse. The monarch then asked him how it happened that one dressed as a monk was gadding about far away from his cell. To this Aphraates answered with a parable: “If I were a maiden secluded in my father’s house, and saw it take fire, would you recommend me to sit still and let it burn? It is not I who am to blame, but rather you who have kindled the flames which I am striving to extinguish. We are doing nothing contrary to our profession when we gather together and nourish the adherents of the true faith.”
The emperor made no reply, but one of his servants reviled the venerable man, whom he threatened to kill. Shortly afterwards the same attendant was accidentally scalded to death, which so terrified the superstitious Valens that he refused to listen to the Arians when they tried to persuade him to banish St Aphraates. He was also greatly impressed by the miracles wrought by the hermit, who not only healed men and women but also—or at least so it was reported—cured the emperor’s favourite horse.

1078 Blessed Eberhard of Schaeffhausen protected and built convents OSB Monk (PC).   Born 1018; Pious prince Eberhard III, count of Nellenburg, was the husband of the pious Itta and a relative of both Pope Saint Leo IX and the emperor Saint Henry II.
Eberhard and Itta protected and built convents into which each was to retire later, including the Benedictine abbey of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, in 1050, where Eberhard retired (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1140 St. Aibert Benedictine ascetic monk 23 years then recluse; two Masses each day, one for living, second for dead.   St Aybert’s holiness began to attract visitors, who found themselves greatly helped by his spiritual advice and made him known to others. Bishops and laymen, grand ladies and canonesses, scholars and humble peasants flocked to him in such numbers that Bishop Burchard of Cambrai promoted him to the priesthood, providing him with a chapel beside his cell. Moreover Pope Innocent II granted him leave to absolve reserved cases—a right which he only exercised in exceptional circumstances. God crowned Aybert’s long penance with a happy death in the eightieth year of his age.
One phase of Aybert’s devotional practice is of great interest in its bearing on the controversy concerning the origin of the rosary. It is recorded that the saint used to repeat the Ave Maria fifty times in succession, accompanying each Ave with a prostration. A mention in the same context of his habit of dividing his recitation of the whole psalter into fifties makes the allusion still more significant.

1241 St. Herman Joseph Praemonstratensian and mystic visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph  b. 1150 German. Born in Cologne, he demonstrated at an early age a tendency toward mystical experiences, episodes which made him well known and deeply respected through much of Germany. He subsequently entered the Praemonstratensians at Steinfeld, Germany, where he was ordained. Herman experienced visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, and authored a number of mystical writings. Long considered a saint, he was given an equivalent canonization by Pope Pius XII in 1958. AMONGST the German mystics of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, special interest attaches to Bd Herman Joseph, not so much for his writings as for his visions, which were later a source of inspiration even to poets and painters. Herman, to give him his baptismal name, was born in Cologne, and lived from his seventh year until his death in extreme old age apparently in continual intercourse with the denizens of Heaven. As a little boy he would enter a church and converse familiarly with our Lady and the Holy Child, as he knelt before their statue. Once, indeed, when he offered them an apple he had the joy of seeing the hand of the Madonna extended to accept it. Sometimes he was uplifted to another plane and permitted to play with the Infant Saviour and the angels; and on one bitter winter’s day when he came to church barefoot, his parents being very poor, a kindly voice, which he took to be that of the Mother of Mercy, bade him look under a stone near by and he would find money wherewith to buy shoes. He looked, and the coins were there.
At no time robust, Bd Herman Joseph’s health became seriously affected by his fasts and austerities. Severe headaches attacked him, and his digestion became so impaired that he ate nothing and seemed a living skeleton. However, God granted him a reprieve from suffering towards the end, prolonging his life for nine years, and this was the period of his chief literary output. He had been sent in 1241 to the Cistercian nuns at Hoven for Passiontide and Easter when he was taken ill with fever from which he never recovered. The process of Herman’s canonization was introduced but never completed; his cultus, however, has been authoritatively sanctioned.
1410 Bl. Ursulina mystic accustomed to visions and ecstasies tried to end the scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity".  A vision which was vouchsafed to her on Easter day decided her purpose. With two companions, besides her mother who accompanied her on all her subsequent travels, the girl made the toilsome journey over the Alps and succeeded in obtaining an audience with Clement more than once. Her efforts to persuade him proving fruitless, she went back to Parma, but almost immediately proceeded to Rome where she delivered a similar message to the true pope, Boniface IX. He received her graciously and appears to have encouraged her to make another attempt to win over his rival. Thereupon she undertook a second expedition to Avignon, with no better success than before. Indeed this time she was separated from her mother, was accused of sorcery, and narrowly escaped a trial. Another journey to Rome was followed by a somewhat perilous pilgrimage to the Holy Land. If she and her mother had hoped to settle down in Parma on their return they were doomed to disappointment, for civil war broke out in the city and they were expelled. They made their way to Bologna and then to Verona, which Bd Ursulina seems to have made her home until her death at the age of thirty-five.
1595 St. Henry Walpole Jesuit missionary 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales
1595 Bl. Alexander Rawlins Martyr missionary fervent Catholicism

1595 BDs. ALEXANDER RAWLINS and HENRY WALPOLE, MARTYRS
beatified in 1929
ALEXANDER RAWLINS, secular priest, and Henry Walpole, Jesuit, who suffered martyrdom together in 1595, were men of good family, born, the one on the borders of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, and the other in Norfolk. Whereas Rawlins seems to have gone directly to the English College at Rheims to prepare to receive holy orders, Walpole, who was intended for the law, continued his education at Cambridge and then took chambers at Gray’s Inn. Realizing that he was becoming an object of suspicion to the authorities and feeling himself called to the priesthood, he proceeded to Rheims and then to Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus. After taking his final vows, he was sent on missions, first to Lorraine and then to the Netherlands, where he was captured by Calvinists and imprisoned for a year. Upon being liberated, he asked to be allowed to go to England, but he was sent to teach in English seminaries at Seville and Valladolid. After another mission to Flanders, the long-desired permission was accorded, and he set out for England, landing at Flamborough Head on December 4, 1593. Within twenty-four hours he was arrested and was taken prisoner to York.
1606 Bl. Edward Oldcorne Jesuit & Ralph Ashley Jesuit lay- brother English martyrs alleged involve Gunpowder Plot.  He was born in York, England, and ordained in Rome. In 1587, he became a Jesuit. Returning to England, Edward worked in the Midlands from 1588 to 1606. He was then condemned to death at Worcester for alleged coinplicity in the Gunpowder Plot He was beatified in 1929.
1719 ST JOHN BAPTIST DE LA SALLE, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS.  At Rouen, the birthday of St. John Baptist de la Salle, priest and confessor.  He was prominent in the education of youth, especially those who were poor, for which he was acclaimed both by religious and civil society.  He was the founder of the Society of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.  Pius XII, Supreme Pontiff, declared him patron of all those who teach children and young people.  His feast is celebrated on the 15th of May.
But in 1679 he met a layman, Adrian Nyel, who had come to Rheims with the idea of opening a school for poor boys. Canon de La Salle gave him every encouragement, and, somewhat prematurely, two schools were started. Gradually the young canon became more and more drawn into the work and grew interested in the seven masters who taught in these schools. He rented a house for them, fed them from his own table, and tried to instil into them the high educational ideals which were gradually taking shape in his own mind. In 1681, though their uncouth manners repelled him, he decided to invite them to live in his own home that he might have them under his constant supervision. The result must have been a great disappointment. Not only did two of his brothers indignantly leave his house—a step he may have anticipated, for “ushers” were then ranked with pot-boys and hucksters—but five of the schoolmasters soon took their departure, unable or unwilling to submit to a discipline for which they had never bargained. The reformer waited, and his patience was rewarded. Other men of a better type presented themselves, and these formed the nucleus of what was to prove a new congregation. To house them the saint gave up his paternal home, and moved with them to more suitable premises in the Rue Neuve. As the movement became known, requests began to come in from outside for schoolmasters trained on the new method, and de La Salle found his time fully engrossed. Partly for that reason, and partly because he realized the contrast his disciples drew between his assured official income and their own uncertain position, he decided to give up his canonry. This he did.
Elsewhere the institute had been steadily developing. As early as 1700 Brother Drolin had been sent to found a school in Rome, and in France schools were started at Avignon, at Calais, in Languedoc, in Provence, at Rouen, and at Dijon. In 1705 the novitiate was transferred to St Yon in Rouen. There a boarding-school was opened, and an establishment for troublesome boys, which afterwards developed into a reformatory-school. From these beginnings grew the present world-wide organization, the largest teaching-order of the Church, working from primary schools to university-colleges. In 1717 the founder decided finally to resign; from that moment he would give no orders, and lived like the humblest of the brothers. He taught novices and boarders, for whom he wrote several books, including a method of mental prayer. St John Baptist lived at an important period in the history of spirituality in France, and he came under the influence of Bérulle, Olier and the so-called French “school” of de Rancé and of the Jesuits, his friends Canon Nicholas Roland and the Minim friar Nicholas Barré being specially influential. On the negative side he was distinguished by his strong opposition to Jansenism, illustrated positively by his advocacy of frequent and even daily communion. In Lent, 1719 St John Baptist suffered a good deal from asthma and rheumatism, but would give up none of his habitual austerities. Then he met with an accident, and gradually grew weaker. He passed away on Good Friday, April 7, 1719 in the sixty-eighth year of his age.
The example of St John Baptist de la Salle may well lead everyone of us to ask himself: “What have I done to help and to encourage this most necessary and divine work? What sacrifices am I prepared to make that the Christian education of our children may be carried on in spite of all the hindrances and hostilities which beset it?” The Church has shown her appreciation of the character of this man, a thinker and initiator of the first importance in the history of education, by canonizing him in 1900, and giving his feast to the whole Western church; and in 1950 Pope Pius XII declared him the heavenly patron of all school-teachers.
1919 Blessed Josaphata Micheline Hordashevska .  A native of Lviv in Ukraine, Josaphata Michaelina Hordashevska became a nun at age 18. Co-founder with Father Kyrylo Seletsky of the first female congregation of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, she devoted herself to caring for the sick, teaching the Catechism, and maintaining impoverished churches. Diagnosed with bone cancer, from which she endured terrible pain, she died at age 49. She was beatified in June 2001 in Lviv by Saint John Paul II.

The Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate lives out its special calling to serve others by following the example of the Virgin Mary—Handmaid of the Lord—Mary is also Servant of all humanity. Our Lady went speedily to assist Elizabeth; she intervened with simplicity at Cana; she courageously stood at the foot of the Cross where she received us as her children from the arms of her Son; with confidence, in union with the Apostles in the Upper Room, she prayed for the Church. As servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate try to answer God’s call, as He invites us to collaborate with him in the work of Salvation by serving other.  nominis.cef.fr

1925 St Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow Apostle to America led austere and chaste life; kindest of the Russian hierarchs "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake." t was extremely painful and hard for the Patriarch's loving, responsive heart to endure all the Church's misfortunes. Upheavals in and outside the church, the Renovationist schism, his primatial labors, his concern for the organization and tranquility of Church life, sleepless nights and heavy thoughts, his confinement that lasted more than a year, the spiteful and wicked baiting of his enemies, and the unrelenting criticism sometimes even from the Orthodox, combined to undermine his strength and health.
In 1924, Patriarch Tikhon began to feel unwell. He checked into a hospital, but would leave it on Sundays and Feast Days in order to conduct services. On Sunday, April 5, 1925, he served his last Liturgy, and died two days later. On March 25/April 7, 1925 the Patriarch received Metropolitan Peter and had a long talk with him. In the evening, the Patriarch slept a little, then he woke up and asked what time it was. When he was told it was 11:45 P.M., he made the Sign of the Cross twice and said, "Glory to Thee, O Lord, glory to Thee." He did not have time to cross himself a third time.
Almost a million people came to say farewell to the Patriarch. The large cathedral of the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow could not contain the crowd, which overflowed the monastery property into the square and adjacent streets. St Tikhon, the eleventh Patriarch of Moscow, was primate of the Russian Church for seven and a half years.
On September 26/October 9, 1989, the Council of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church glorified Patriarch Tikhon and numbered him among the saints. For nearly seventy years, St Tikhon's relics were believed lost, but in February 1992, they were discovered in a concealed place in the Donskoy Monastery.

It would be difficult to imagine the Russian Orthodox Church without Patriarch Tikhon during those years. He did so much for the Church and for the strengthening of the Faith itself during those difficult years of trial. Perhaps the saint's own words can best sum up his life: "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 08



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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not: