Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
(Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

40 Days for Life Worldwide Celebration (video webcast) Monday, April 09
http://app.webinarjam.net/register/270/00eb0f3201

CAUSES OF SAINTS April 09  2016

April 9 – Holy Mary, The Empress (Russia)
Every Christian soul leaps to her in love
My soul trembles and is afraid when I consider
the glory of the Mother of God.
Small and of no account is my mind, poor and sickly my heart, but my soul rejoices and would fain set down if but a little concerning her.
My soul fears to touch upon this matter but love constrains me not to conceal my thankfulness for her compassion.
(…)
Verily is she our advocate before God, and alone the sound of her name rejoices the soul.
 But all heaven and earth, too, rejoice in her love.
Here is a wondrous thing which passes understanding: she dwells in heaven and ever beholds the glory of God, yet she does not forget us, poor wretches that we are, and spreads her compassion over the whole earth, over all peoples.
And this most pure Mother of His, the Lord has bestowed on us. She is our joy and our expectation.
She is our Mother in the spirit, and kin to us by nature, as a human being,
and every Christian soul leaps to her in love.
 Source:
archimandrite sophrony (Sakharov), Saint Silouan the Athonite, XI, On the Mother of God, translated from the Russian by Rosemary Edmonds, Stavropegic Monastery of Saint John the Baptist, Essex, 1991, p. 390-393.

 
April 9 - Our Lady of Myans (Savoy, France)
The Program set Before the Church of the Third Millennium
To contemplate the face of Christ, and to contemplate it with Mary, is the "program" which I have set before the Church at the dawn of the third millennium, summoning her to put out into the deep on the sea of history with the enthusiasm of the new evangelization. To contemplate Christ involves being able to recognize Him wherever He manifests Himself, in His many forms of presence, but above all in the living sacrament of His body and His blood.

The Church draws her life from Christ in the Eucharist; by Him she is fed and by Him she is enlightened. The Eucharist is both a mystery of faith and a "mystery of light". Whenever the Church celebrates the Eucharist, the faithful can in some way relive the experience of the two disciples on the road to Emmaus: "their eyes were opened and they recognized Him" (Lk 24:31).
John Paul II  Ecclesia de Eucharistia #6 (2003)

Consider Jesus' act of acceptance in the garden and how much it cost Him, making Him sweat a sweat of blood! Make this act yourself when things are going well and also when they go against you. If your will flees from rebellion you may be certain that the will, in its own way, has uttered its act of acceptance. -- Saint Pio of Pietrelcina


Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

April 9 - Our Lady of Myans (Savoy, France, 1249)  The Compassion of the Blessed Virgin (V)
Now we must understand that Mary gave birth twice: she gave birth to Jesus Christ, and she gave birth to the faithful; she brought forth both the sinless and the sinner.
She experienced no pangs in giving birth to the innocent: but was delivered of sinners with pain and cries of anguish.
You will be convinced of this, too, when you reflect carefully on how dearly they cost her.   Inevitably, it cost Mary her only Son; she was only able to become the mother of the Christian family because she sacrificed her dearly beloved Son. What pain she endured in her fruitfulness!  Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet (1627 - 1704)
1st v. St. Mary Cleophas Mother of St. James the Less and Joseph, wife of Cleophas. She was one of the “Three Marys” who served Jesus and was present at the Crucifixion, accompanied Mary Magdalen to the tomb of Christ.
1st v. Prochorus of Nicomedia One of the seven deacons ordained the by Apostles martyred at Antioch BM (RM)
303 Martyrs of Sirmium modem Mitrovica, in the Balkans
Hermogenes, Caius & Companions Armenian martyrs who are believed to have suffered at Melitene  MM (RM)
Massylitan Martyrs African martyrs, although they are mentioned by Saint Bede,  by Saint Augustine and in ancient calendars (RM)

Bishop Desan, Presbyter Mariabus, Abdiesus, and 270 Others
Holy Martyrs Put to death under the Persian emperor Sapor II
  362 St. Eupsychius Martyr of Caesarea, in Cappadocia destruction of the temple of the goddess Fortuna
Sírmii pássio sanctárum septem Vírginum et Mártyrum, quæ, dato simul prétio sánguinis, vitam mercátæ sunt ætérnam.
    At Sirmio, seven holy virgins and martyrs, who purchased eternal life together at the price of their own blood.
 362 Roman Captives Nine thousand Christians, including Bishop Heliodorus, the ancient priests Dausas and Mariabus, and many other priests and nuns, were captured by Persians who besieged Bethzarbe Castle on the Tigris

       Monk Martyr Archimandrite Bademus (Vadim) was born in the fourth century in the Persian city of Bithlapata, and was descended from a rich and illustrious family. In his youth, he was enlightened with the Christian teaching. The saint gave away all his wealth to the poor and withdrew into the wilderness, where he founded a monastery. He would go up on a mountain for solitary prayer, and once was permitted to behold the Glory of God. >>

      
St. Demetrius Martyr with Concessus, Hilary, and companions.
 421 St. Acacius bishop of Amida (Diarbekir), Mesopotamia sold sacred vessels of church aid victims of Persian persecution.
5th v. St. Madrun A Welsh or Cornish widow. No details of her life are extant, but some Welsh churches bear her name.
474 Marcellus of Avignon suffered much from the Arians and died after a long episcopate B (RM)
6th v. St. Dotto Abbot of a monastery of the Orkney Islands of Scotland.
 688 St. Waldetrudis ist Patronin von Mons 7 saints in family
renowned for   holiness and miracles.
 730 St. Hugh of Rouen Benedictine bishop of Rouen, Paris, and Bayeux, France, a nephew of Charles Martel

 
Martyrs of Pannonia A group of seven Christian men and women who died at Sirmium in Pannonia, on the Danube.
870 St. Hedda Martyred Benedictine abbot of Peterborough, England. He and eighty four monks were slain by Danes marauding the English coast
1050 St. Casilda Spanish martyr native of Toledo of Moorish parentage became a Christian and a hermitess near Briviesca, Burgos venerated in Burgos and Toledo.
1140 St. Gaucherius hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women
1315 Blessed Ubald Adimari converted by Saint Philip Benizi, who admitted him to the Servite institute model to penitent souls OSM (AC)
1322 Bl. Thomas of Tolentino preach in the difficult regions of Armenia and Persia (modern Iran) set out for China beheaded at Thame in Hindustan
1331 Blessed John of Vespignano  devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence
1348 Blessed Reginald Montesmarti, OP (AC)
1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards OP
At Rome, the transferring of the body of St. Monica, mother of the bishop St. Augustine.  It was brought from Ostia to Rome, under the Sovereign Pontiff, Martin V, and buried with due honours in the church of St. Augustine.
1463 Saint Eleni (also called Susanna) is one of the New Martyrs of Lesbos who are commemorated on Bright Tuesday
1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer Lektor an der Berliner Universität für aktiven Widerstand gegen das Unrechtsregime ein ermordet in das Konzentrationslager Flossenbürg.
April 8 – Our Lady of Basella (Italy, 1356) -
Saint Julie Billiart (Foundress of the Institute of the Sisters of Notre Dame of Namur (d.1816)
 
O Mother of Mercy
 Here is a prayer from Marthe Robin’s heart, a Catholic mystic, foundress of the Foyers de Charité in Chateauneuf de Galaure (France), now spread over five continents:
"I beg you, O Mary, be the rescue, the support of those who are afflicted, the consolation of those who mourn, the cure of the sick. You are the beloved daughter of God the Father, the immaculate Mother of God the Son, the spouse of the Holy Spirit. The Archangel greeted you as full of grace. Be our advocate, ask for mercy on behalf of sinners.O Mary, be the star that guides me, my light in the darkness, my courage in struggles, my refuge in suffering. O Mary, full of Mercy, my Mother, never abandon me. Obtain for me to share your happiness very soon in the bliss of angels and saints. O Virgin! Purer than Heaven, protect me, protect my dear family, protect all your children. Fill us with your favors, adorn us with your virtues. You are our advocate: ask for mercy on behalf of your poor sinners."

Marthe Robin (1902-1981)  www.pellevoisin.net



On Bright Monday the Church commemorates the Sweet-Kissing (Glykophilousa) Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos worked many miracles.
Russian icon of the Mother of God Sweet Kissing (Greek : Glykophilousa.) 
Like the Iveron Icon (March 31), the Sweet-Kissing Icon was also saved from the iconoclasts by a pious woman in the ninth century. It also traveled miraculously upon the sea, arriving at Mt. Athos, the "Garden of the Theotokos," where it was honored by the monks.

A nobleman named Simeon was an iconoclast who shared the emperor Theophilus's hatred for the holy icons. Simeon's wife Victoria, on the other hand, venerated icons, especially a certain icon of the Mother of God before which she prayed each day. Simeon could not tolerate his wife's piety, so he demanded that she give him the icon so he could burn it. Victoria threw the icon into the sea, hoping that it would be preserved through God's providence.  Years later, the icon appeared on the shores of Mt. Athos near the monastery of Philotheou.

The igumen and the brethren of the monastery retrieved the icon and placed it in the church, where it worked many miracles.

In 1830 a pilgrim came to the monastery from Adrianopolis. He listened to the history of the icon and the miracles associated with it, but regarded such things as childish fables. The monk who had related all this was surprised and grieved by the pilgrim's disbelief, fearing that such doubts indicated an unhealthy spiritual state. He did all that he could to remove the pilgrim's skepticism, but the man stubbornly adhered to his opinion.
The Mother of God, in her compassion, finally healed the pilgrim's soul in a rather dramatic way. On the very day that he had his discussion with the monk, the pilgrim was walking on an upper balcony. Suddenly, he lost his footing and began to fall. In his distress he called out, "Most Holy Theotokos, help me!" The Mother of God heard him, and he landed on the ground completely unharmed.

The icon is one of the Eleusa (Tenderness) type. It is unusual in that it shows the Virgin kissing her Child. Christ raises His hand as if to repulse His mother's caress.

Other Sweet-Kissing (Tenderness) icons are: Lubyatov (March 19)  Novgorod (July 28)  Pskov (May 21, June 23, August 26, October 7)  Smolensk (March 19)  Sviatogorsk (July 17)  Yaroslavl (May 14)
1st v. St. Mary Cleophas Mother of St. James the Less and Joseph, wife of Cleophas. She was one of the “Three Marys” who served Jesus and was present at the Crucifixion, and accompanied Mary Magdalen to the tomb of Christ.
In Judǽa sanctæ Maríæ Cléophæ, quam beátus Joánnes Evangelísta sorórem sanctíssimæ Dei Genitrícis Maríæ núncupat, et cum hac simul juxta crucem Jesu stetísse narrat.
    In Judea, St. Mary Cleophas, whom St. John the Evangelist calls the sister of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and says that she stood at her side beneath the Cross of Jesus.

1st v. ST MARY OF CLEOPHAS, MATRON
TO Mary of Cleophas whose name stands first in the Roman Martyrology on this day no general liturgical recognition is accorded, though her feast is kept by the Passionists, and by the Latins in Palestine. She seems to have been the wife of one Cleophas, who may or may not be identical with the Cleophas who is named as one of the two disciples who went to Emmaus on the day of our Lord’s resurrection.
Her identity among the various Marys mentioned by the evangelists is a matter of discussion among biblical commentators. The martyrology contents itself with saying that “Blessed John the Evangelist calls [her] sister of the most holy Mary, Mother of God, and relates that she stood with her by the cross of Jesus”. But it is possible that the sister of the mother of Jesus mentioned (John xix 25) was in fact a fourth, unnamed, woman.
Round the name of Mary of Cleophas all sorts of legendary excrescences gathered in later days. She was said to have travelled to Spain with St James the Greater, to have died at Ciudad Rodrigo, and to have been venerated with great honour at Compostela. On the other hand another extravagant legend connects her with the coming of SS. Lazarus, Mary Magdalen and Martha to Provence, and her body was believed to repose at Saintes-Maries near the mouth of the Rhone.

See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i Moroni, Dizionario di Erudizione, vol. xciv, pp. 10—60 Vigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, vol. iv, cc. 818—819 Durand, L’Enfance de Jésus Christ (1908).

Tradition reports that she went to Spain as a missionary. Mary reportedly died at Ciudad Rodrigo. Another tradition states that she went to France with St. Lazarus and his sisters.

Mary of Cleophas, Matron (RM) (also known as Mary of Alpheus or Clopas)
1st century. Mary of Cleophas, the 'other Mary,' followed our Lord to Calvary (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25) and saw Him after His Resurrection (Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10). She was the mother of James the Younger, Joseph (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40), Simon, and Jude; wife of Cleophas (John 19:25); and sister of the Blessed Virgin (John 19:25).
Later legend says that Mary went to Spain, where she died at Ciudad Rodrigo. Another legend had her accompanying Lazarus, Mary Magdalene, and Martha to Provence. Both these stories are unreliable (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Gill).

Mary Cleophas is normally portrayed with all four of her children. Occasionally the sons carry the following emblems: Jude, a boat; Simeon, a fish; James, a palm branch or a mill (probably a fuller's mill); and Joseph Barsabas, three leaves or a cup. Mary Cleophas may also be portrayed with Mary Salome who together support the Virgin during the Crucifixion or are present with Mary Magdalene at the Resurrection (Roeder).

1st v. Prochorus of Nicomedia One of the seven deacons ordained the by Apostles martyred at Antioch BM (RM)
Antiochíæ sancti Próchori, qui fuit unus de septem primis Diáconis; et, fide ac miráculis clarus, martyrio coronátus est.
    At Antioch, St. Prochorus who was one of the first seven deacons.  Renowned for faith and miracles, he received the crown of martyrdom.
One of the seven deacons ordained the by Apostles. Tradition says that he afterwards became bishop of Nicomedia and was martyred at Antioch (Benedictines).

Nikanor, Parmenas, Prochorus und Timon  Orthodoxe Kirche: 28. Juli  Katholische Kirche: Nikanor 10. Januar  Katholische Kirche: Parmenas 23. Januar  Katholische Kirche: Prochorus 9. April
Katholische Kirche: Timon 19. April
Nach dem Bericht in Apg. 6, 1-7 setzten die Apostel sieben Diakone in der Jerusalemer Gemeinde ein. Neben den vier hier genannten Nikolaus, Philippus und Stephanus.
Von Nikanor wird berichtet, nachdem Stephanus gesteinigt worden war, sei auch er gesteinigt worden. Andere Quellen berichten, er sei auf Zypern gefoltert worden und gestorben.
Über Parmenas gibt es widersprüchliche Berichte. Er soll nach Dorotheus während seines Diakonendienstes verstorben sein. In der Hippolyt zugeschriebenen Liste wird er als Bischof von Soli angegeben. Andere Quellen berichten, er sei nach Makedonien gegangen und sei dort (98 oder 117) unter Trajan als Märtyrer gestorben.
Prochorus soll Petrus begleitet haben und von diesem zum Bischof von Nikomedia eingesetzt worden sein. Später schloß er sich dem Apostel Johannes an und wurde mit diesem nach Patmos verbannt. Hier soll er dann die Schau des Johannes niedergeschrieben haben. Später kam er nach Nikomedien zurück und wurde in Antiochia hingerichtet.
Auch über Timon gibt es widersprüchliche BErichte. Er soll Bischof von Bastoria (Arabien) gewesen sein und (in Korinth) am Kreuz gestorben sein.

303 Martyrs of Sirmium modern Mitrovica, in the Balkans
Feastday: February 23 & April 9
Two groups of martyrs who suffered at Sirmium, modem Mitrovica, in the Balkans. One group was slain probably in 303 and was seventy in number.
The second group was composed of seven virgins probably martyred in 303.

Martyrs of Sirmium (RM). A group of seven aonymous virgin martyrs who suffered under Diocletian at Sirmium (Mitrovica) in the Balkans (Benedictines).

Martyrs of Pannonia (RM). This group may possibly be the same as the one above.
The Roman Martyrology states: "At Sirmium in Pannonia the passion of seven holy virgins and martyrs." Modern research has found no further particulars about them (Benedictines).

Bishop Desan, Presbyter Mariabus, Abdiesus, and 270 Others Holy Martyrs Put to death under the Persian emperor Sapor II
Imprisoned, they refused to turn away from the Christian Faith. In their number also was the Martyr Ia, who is commemorated also on September 11.

The Martyrdom of the Holy Virgins: Agape, Eirene, and Shiona.

On this day the three holy virgins: Agape, Eirene, and Shiona (Susinia) were martyred. They were from Thessalonica, and worshipped Christ as their parents. They chose the life of chastity and they agreed to devote themselves to the ascetic life. They fasted and prayed unceasingly, visited the convents often and participated with the virgins in their prayers and asceticism. When Maximianus the infidel, reigned, he restored the worship of the idols and shed the blood of many Christians. These saints were afraid and they fled to the mountain and hid themselves in a cave devoting themselves to their worship and asceticism.

Every week, an aged Christian woman visited them bringing all things needed and took the work of their hands to sell it, and distributed the remainder as alms to the poor. One day a malicious person observed the frequent visits of this old woman to the mountain, he followed her secretly until he knew the cave that she entered. He hid himself so she did not see him on her way back, and he thought that she was hiding precious things in it. After she left the cave by a distance he entered the cave and he found the precious pearls the prides of the Christ standing praying. He bound them, dragged them away, and brought them to the Governor of Thessalonica. He asked them about their faith, they confessed that they were Christians worshipping that Who was Crucified. The Governor became wrath with them, tortured them much, then cast them into the fire, and they delivered up their souls and received the crown of martyrdom.  May their prayers be with us. Amen.

The Martyrdom of the One Hundred and Fifty believers by the hand of king of Persia.
On this day also is the commemoration of the incident of the martyrdom of one hundred and fifty believers by the king of Persia. This king besieged Christian cities which were near the borders of his country, and captured many of them. When they refused to worship the sun and the stars, he commanded to cut off their heads, and they received the crowns of martyrdom.
May their prayers be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.

Monk Martyr Archimandrite Bademus (Vadim) was born in the fourth century in the Persian city of Bithlapata, and was descended from a rich and illustrious family. In his youth, he was enlightened with the Christian teaching. The saint gave away all his wealth to the poor and withdrew into the wilderness, where he founded a monastery. He would go up on a mountain for solitary prayer, and once was permitted to behold the Glory of God.

During this period the Persian emperor Sapor (310-381) began to persecute Christians. They arrested St Bademus and his seven disciples, and tortured them in prison, hoping that they would renounce Christ and worship the sun and fire. But St Bademus and his disciples held firmly to the Christian Faith. The confessors spent four months in jail. All this time St Bademus was a spiritual leader and support for the Christians living in Persia.

One of the associates of the emperor Sapor, Nirsanes, was a Christian and suffered imprisonment for this. He did not hold up under torture and denied Christ, promising to fulfill whatever the emperor commanded. Sapor demanded that Nirsanes personally cut off the head of St Bademus. For this he was promised a reprieve and great rewards. Nirsanes was not able to overcome his fear of new tortures, and he agreed to follow the path of betrayal walked by Judas.

When they brought St Bademus to him, he took the sword and turned toward him, but overcome by conscience, he trembled and stood petrified. St Bademus said to him, "Has your wickedness now reached this point, Nirsanes, that you should not only renounce God, but also murder His servants? Woe to you, accursed one! What will you do on that day when you stand before the Dread Judgment Seat? What answer will you give to God? I am prepared to die for Christ, but I don't want to receive death at your hands."

Nirsanes struck with the sword, but his hands shook, and he could not behead the saint immediately, and the fire-worshippers began to call him a coward. The holy martyr Bademus stood motionless, enduring many terrible blows, until the murderer succeeded in cutting off his head.

The just punishment for his misdeeds were not slow in overtaking the hapless fellow. Tormented by his conscience, he did away with himself, throwing himself on a sword. After the death of the emperor Sapor, the seven disciples of St Bademus were released from prison.
362 St. Eupsychius Martyr of Caesarea, in Cappadocia destruction of the temple of the goddess Fortuna
Cæsarǽæ, in Cappadócia, sancti Eupsychii Mártyris, qui ob evérsum Fortúnæ fanum, sub Juliáno Apóstata, martyrium consummávit.
    At Caesarea in Cappadocia, St. Eupsychius, martyr, who was persecuted under Julian the Apostate for having overthrown the temple of Fortune.

A young man, Eupsychius led a group of Christians who were charged with the destruction of the temple of the goddess Fortuna in that city. They were martyred as a result.

The Holy Martyr Eupsychius was born in the city of Caesarea in Cappadocia and received a Christian upbringing by his illustrious parents.  During the reign of Julian the Apostate (361-363), St Eupsychius entered into a Christian marriage. At Caesarea there was a pagan temple to the goddess Fortuna, whom Julian the Apostate revered. As Eupsychius was going to his wedding, the pagans were offering sacrifice to the goddess Fortuna.  St Eupsychius was filled with zeal for the Lord, and he destroyed the temple. He knew that this would inevitably result in his punishment. St Eupsychius distributed all his possessions to the poor and prepared himself for martyrdom.

The enraged emperor Julian loosed his wrath not only upon St Eupsychius, but against all the inhabitants of this city. Some of the citizens were executed, while the more respectable were sent into exile. Christian clergy were drafted into military service, and he looted the churches of anything valuable. The city was deprived of its title Caesarea [i.e. "Imperial"] and resumed its original name of Maza. He also imposed a severe tax on the inhabitants. The emperor threatened to annihilate the city altogether, if the people did not build a new pagan temple in place of the one destroyed.

Julian tried to compel St Eupsychius to offer sacrifice to idols. For many days they tormented the saint on a rack, and also with iron claws. But his faith was firm, and the judge sentenced the martyr to be beheaded with a sword.

Then Julian embarked on a campaign against the Persians, marching through Cappadocia and approaching Caesarea. Danger threatened the city, since the emperor intended to raze it to its foundations. But then St Basil the Great (January 1), showing Julian the proper respect as sovereign authority, came out to meet him carrying with him three loaves of barley bread, which he ate. The emperor ordered his retainers to take the loaves, and to give St Basil a pinch of hay saying, "You have given us barley, cattle fodder. Now receive hay from us in return."

The saint answered, "O Emperor, we bring you that which we ourselves eat, and you give us cattle feed. You mock us, since you, by your might, are not able to transform hay into bread, the essential food of mankind."
Julian angrily retorted, "I'll shove this hay down your throat when I return here from Persia. I shall raze this city to its very foundations, and plow over this ground and turn it into a field. I know that it was on your advice that the people dared to destroy the statues and temple of Fortuna."
After this the emperor continued on his way, but soon perished in his campaign against the Persians. He was struck down in the year 363 by the holy Great Martyr Mercurius (November 24).
After the emperor's demise, the Christians of the city of Caesarea built a splendid church over the grave of St Eupsychius, and from his holy relics they received help and healing.

Eupsychios von Caesarea Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 9. April
Eupsychios wurde in Caesarea in Kappadozien unter Kaiser Julian (361-363) geboren. Als er sich christlich trauen ließ, fand gleichzeitig ein Opferfest im Tempel der Götti Fortuna statt. Eupsychios beschloß, obwohl gerade getraut, den Tempel zu zerstören. Er sammelte einige Helfer, mit denen er den Tempel einriß, verteilte anschließend seine Habe an die Armen und bereitete sich auf das Martyrium vor. Kaiser Julian aber bestrafte die ganze Stadt. Vornehme Bürger wurden ins Exil geschickt, die Priester und Diakone wurden zum Militärdienst verpflichtet, die Kirchen geplündert und den Einwohnern eine hohe Sondersteuer auferlegt. Außerdem erhielt die Stadt wieder ihren alten Namen Maza und Julian drohte, die Stadt völlig zu zerstören, wenn die Bürger nicht umgehend einen neuen Tempel bauten. Eupsychios selber wurde gefoltert und 362 geköpft.

Kaiser Julian zog auf dem Feldzug gegen die Perser durch Maza und verkündete, er werde den Ort nach seiner Rückkehr zerstören. Julian wurde aber auf dem Feldzug (nach der Legende durch Merkurius) getötet. Die Christen erbauten auf dem Platz, auf dem der Tempel gestanden hatte, eine Kirche. Basilius feierte hier mit allen Bischöfen des Pontus am 8.4.380 eine Gedächtnismesse für Eupsychios.

Eupsychius of Caesarea M (RM) (also known as Eupsyque)  Died 362. Before he was martyred under Julian the Apostate, Saint Eupsychius was a newly-wed in Caesarea, Cappadocia, and the leader of a group of Christians accused of attacking the pagan god Fortuna by destroying her temple, the last in the area. In addition to the physical persecution of Christians here during his march to Antioch, Julian confiscated all the goods of the Christian churches, including books and sacred vessels. The clergy were forced into hard labor and Christians heavily taxed. Upon his departure, Julian ordered the Christians to rebuild the pagan temples; instead, they built a church on the site of the temple of Fortuna, where Saint Basil celebrated the feast of Eupsychius on April 8, 370, to which he invited all the bishops of Pontus (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
362 Roman Captives Nine thousand Christians, including Bishop Heliodorus, the ancient priests Dausas and Mariabus, and many other priests and nuns, were captured by Persians who besieged Bethzarbe Castle on the Tigris (RM)

Died in Persia, 362. Nine thousand Christians, including Bishop Heliodorus, the ancient priests Dausas and Mariabus, and many other priests and nuns, were captured by Persians who besieged Bethzarbe Castle on the Tigris. The bishop died on the road after ordaining Dausas as his successor, even though canon law requires three bishop for episcopal consecration except in necessity. Daily the captives celebrated the Eucharist with Dausas. When they arrived in Assyria, 300 were given the option of worshipping the sun or dying. Twenty-five apostatized and were rewarded with gifts of land. The others remained constant and were all massacred together. Details can be found in Sozomen (Ecclesiastical History 2) and their original Chaldaic acts (Husenbeth).

Hermogenes, Caius & Companions Armenian martyrs who are believed to have suffered at Melitene  MM (RM)
Hermogenes, Caius, Expeditus, Aristonicus, Rufus and Galata are Armenian martyrs who are believed to have suffered at Melitene (Benedictines).

St. Demetrius Martyr with Concessus, Hilary, and companions.
Romæ natális sanctórum Mártyrum Demétrii, Concéssi, Hilárii et Sociórum.
    At Rome, the birthday of the holy martyrs Demetrius, Concessus, Hilary, and their companions.
Massylitan Martyrs African martyrs, although they are mentioned by Saint Bede, by Saint Augustine and in ancient calendars (RM)
In Africa sanctórum Mártyrum Massylitanórum, in quorum die natáli sanctus Augustínus tractátum hábuit.
    In Africa the holy Massylitan Martyrs, on whose birthday was written a tract by St. Augustine.
Little is known of these African martyrs, although they are mentioned by Saint Bede and in ancient calendars. We have a sermon that was preached by Saint Augustine on their festivals. They probably suffered a Massyla, or the adjacent country, on the sea-coast of Africa (Husenbeth).
421 St. Acacius Acacius was bishop of Amida (Diarbekir), Mesopotamia. He sold the sacred vessels of his church to aid victims of the Persian persecution.
Amidæ, in Mesopotámia, sancti Acátii Epíscopi, qui pro rediméndis captívis étiam vasa Ecclésiæ conflávit ac véndidit.
    At Amida in Mesopotamia, St. Acatius, bishop, who even melted down and sold the sacred vessels in order to ransom captives.
His actions so impressed King Bahram V that he is reported to have ordered an end to the persecution of the Christians.
Bahram V, King of Persia (421–438), also called "Bahram Gur", son of Yazdegerd I of Persia (399–421), after whose sudden death (or assassination... ) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of Mundhir, the Arabic dynast of al-Hirah. Bahram V's mother was Soshandukht, the daughter of the Jewish Exilarch. He promised to rule otherwise than his father, who had been very energetic and at the same time tolerant in religion. So Bahram V began a systematic persecution of the Christians (one such persecuted figure was traditionally James Intercisus), which led to a war with the Roman Empire. But he had little success, and soon concluded a treaty by which both empires promised toleration to the worshippers of the two rival religions, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.  In 427 Bahram V crushed an invasion in the east by the nomadic Hephthalites, extending his influence into Central Asia, where his portrait survived for centuries on the coinage of Bukhara (in contemporary Uzbekistan).  Bahram V deposed the last vassal Arsacid king of the Persian part of Armenia and made of it a province. He is a great favourite in Persian tradition, which relates many stories of his valour and beauty, of his victories over the Romans, Turks, Indians and Africans, and of his adventures in hunting and in love; he is called Bahram Gur, "Onager," on account of his love for hunting, and in particular, hunting onagers.  Some have judged Bahram V to have been rather a weak monarch, after the heart of the grandees and the priests. He is said to have built many great "fire-temples", with large gardens and villages (Tabari).

Acacius of Amida B (RM) (also known as Agace) Died after 421. Bishop Acacius of Amida (Diarbekir) in Mesopotamia is distinguished for his heroic charity to Persian prisoners. In order to ransom them, Acacius melted down and sold the sacred vessels of the church. This won for him the friendship of King Bahram V (Varannes) of Persia, who is said to have forthwith ceased to persecute his Christian subjects (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

5th v. St. Madrun A Welsh or Cornish widow. No details of her life are extant, but some Welsh churches bear her name.
Madrun, Widow (AC) (also known as Materiana)
A second feast is celebrated on October 19. According to a dubious vita, Madrun was the daughter of Vortimer and wife of Ynyr Gwent, ruler of the area around Caerwent (Monmouthshire). Following the battle described by Nennius in which Vortigern was killed, Madrun fled with the youngest of her three children, Ceidio, first to Carn Fadryn and then to Cornwall. She was either Welsh or Cornish, and churches are dedicated to her honor in Tintagel and Minster (near Boscastle), where she was buried (Benedictines, Farmer).

474 Marcellus of Avignon suffered much from the Arians and died after a long episcopate B (RM)
In civitáte Diénsi, in Gállia, sancti Marcélli Epíscopi, miráculis clari.
    In the city of Die, in France, St. Marcellus, bishop, celebrated for miracles.
Born in Avignon, France. Saint Marcellus was educated by his own brother Saint Petronius, bishop of Die (not of Saint-Dié), and later succeeded him. Marcellus was consecrated by Bishop Saint Mamertius of Vienne. Marcellus suffered much from the Arians and died after a long episcopate. Meanwhile, Mamertius was censured by the Holy See for the consecration without the proper authority (Benedictines). Saint Marcellus is portrayed as a bishop leading a dragon with his stole around its neck. (This is typical of several saints because casting the stole round the creature's neck was the accepted way of subduing dragons or devils.) Marcellus is venerated at Avignon (Roeder).
6th v. St. Dotto Abbot of a monastery of the Orkney Islands of Scotland.
Dotto, Abbot (AC) 6th century. Saint Dotto is said to have been the abbot of a monastery in the Orkney Islands that is named after him and to have lived to a very venerable age (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
Martyrs of Pannonia A group of seven Christian men and women who died at Sirmium in Pannonia, on the Danube.
688 St. Waldetrudis ist Patronin von Mons 7 saints in family became celebrated for the miracles of healing which were wrought through her both before and after her death
Móntibus, in Hannónia, beátæ Waldetrúdis, vitæ sanctimónia et miráculis claræ.
    At Mons in Hainaut, blessed Waltrude, renowned for holiness and miracles.

688 ST WALDETRUDIS, or WAUDRU, WIDOW
ST WALDETRUDIS, called in French Waltrude or Waudru, who is venerated in Belgium, especially at Mons of which she is patron, belonged to a family of remarkable holiness. Her parents were St Walbert and St Bertilia, her sister St Aldegundis of Maubeuge, her husband St Vincent Madelgar, and their four children St Landericus, St Dentelinus, St Aldetrudis and St Madelberta, the last two named both being abbess of Maubeuge.
She married a young nobleman called Madelgar, with whom she led a happy life of devotion and good works. Some time after the birth of the last of their children, Madelgar withdrew into the abbey of Haumont which he had founded, taking the name of Vincent.  Waldetrudis remained in the world two years longer than her husband and then she also withdrew, retiring into a very humble little house, built in accordance with her instructions, where she lived in poverty and simplicity. Her sister repeatedly invited her to join her at Maubeuge, but she wished for greater austerity than she could have at the abbey. Her solitude was so often broken in upon by those who centre of what is now the town of Mons. Throughout her life St Waldetrudis was greatly given to works of mercy, and she became celebrated for the miracles of healing which were wrought through her both before and after her death.

There are two Latin lives of St Waldetrudis the first, written in the ninth century, has only been printed in Analectes pour servir a l’histoire ecclésiastique déjà Belgique, vol. iv, pp. 218—231 the second, at one time wrongly attributed to Philip de Harveng, is in fact a later adaptation of the former. It has been printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i, and by Mabillon. See especially L. Van der Essen, Saints Mérovingiens de Belgique, pp. 231—237, and Berlière, Monasticon Beige, vol. i, pp. 327—328.

Also known as Waltrude or Waudru, she was the daughter of Saints Walbert and Bertilia and sister of St. Aldegunus of Maubeuge. Marrying St. Vincent Madelgarius, she became the mother of saints Landericus, Madalberta, Adeltrudis, and Dentelin. When her husband chose to become a  monk about 643 in the monastery of Hautrnont, France, he had founded, she established a convent at Chateaulieu, around which grew up the town of Mons, Belgium.

688  Waltraud  Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 9. April
Waltraud (Waldetrudis = kraftvolle Herrscherin oder starke Göttliche) stammte aus einem adligen Geschlecht. Ihre Mutter Bertila (Berthild) wurde ebenso als Heilige verehrt wie ihre Schwester Adelgundis (Gedenktag 30.1.), die das Kloster Maubeuge gründete. Waltraud heiratete den Grafen des Hennegau Vinzenz Madelgar (Gedenktag 14.7.) und gebar 4 Kinder, von denen drei (Landicus, Madelberta und Adeltrud) ebenfalls Heilige wurden. Ihr Ehemann und ihre Kinder gingen auf ihren Wunsch in Klöster, sie selber erbaute das Kloster Mons in Castrilocus und wurde dessen Äbtissin. Sie starb am 9.4. um das Jahr 688 und wurde in der Kathedrale von Mons bestattet. Waltraud ist Patronin von Mons.

Waldetrudis of Mons, OSB Widow (RM) (also known as Vaudru, Waltrude, Waudru)  Died April 9, c. 686-688. The family of Saint Waudru, patroness of Mons (Belgium), was amazingly holy, too. Both her parents (Walbert and Bertille) and her sister (Aldegund) were canonized. Her four children were also declared saints (Landericus, Dentelin, Aldetrude, and Madelberte) and so was her husband (Madelgaire).
Madelgaire was the count of Hennegau (Hainault), and one of the courtiers of King Dagobert I. After their children were born both he and Waudru longed to live lives totally devoted to meditation and prayer. He retired to an abbey he had founded at Haumont near Maubeuge, where he took the name Vincent. For two additional years, Waudru remained in the world, devoting herself to the care of the poor and the sick under the direction of Saint Gislenus.
After Madelgaire's death, Waudru received the religious veil from Saint Autbert in 656, built a tiny home for herself near Castriloc (Châteaulieu), and, giving away her possessions, lived there alone. Though she clung to her solitude, her great wisdom and piety meant that countless men and women pressed on her for advice. Eventually Waudru had so many followers that she was obliged to found her own convent at Châteaulieu. She dedicated this convent to the Mother of Jesus, and around it grew the present town of Mons. By the time of Waudru's death she had become famous not only for her charity but also for her miraculous powers of healing, her patience in the face of trials, continual fasting, and prayer. Her relics are considered the most precious treasure of the church that bears her name in Mons (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth, Walsh).
In art, Saint Waudru is depicted protecting her children under her mantle, offering her husband a crucifix, and refusing a crown of roses (Roeder). She is venerated in Mons (Roeder).

730 St. Hugh of Rouen Benedictine bishop of Rouen, Paris, and Bayeux, France, a nephew of Charles Martel
Rotómagi sancti Hugónis, Epíscopi et Confessóris.    At Rouen, St. Hugh, bishop and confessor.
730 ST HUGH, BISHOP OF ROUEN
HISTORY has preserved few details about St Hugh of Rouen, who owed much of the fame he enjoyed among his contemporaries to his family connections. The son of Drogo, Duke of Burgundy, he was the grandson on the paternal side of Pepin de Herstal and nephew of Charles Martel. He was made primicerius of the church of Metz, and subsequently, no doubt through the influence of his uncle Charles, bishop of Rouen, Paris and Bayeux, and abbot of Fontenelle and Jumièges.
To be a pluralist in those days was unfortunately only too common, but Hugh, far from profiting by the revenues to which he became entitled, expended his own considerable wealth for the benefit of the churches which he governed. The Chronicle of Fontenelle, which is our chief source of information, expatiates upon the generous gifts with which he endowed that abbey alone. He died in the abbey of Jumièges in 730.

Our chief source of information is the Gesta Abbatum of the abbey of Fontenelle. The biography written by Bishop Baudri of Dol four hundred years after the death of the saint is of little worth. See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i. The life by Baudri is printed in Migne, PL., vol. clxvi, cc. 1163—1172. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, pp. 208 and 460.
The son of Duke Drogo of Burgundy, he was named the bishop of Rouen in 722. He then moved to Paris and later to Bayeux.
At the same time he was abbot of Fontenelles and Jumieges At the close of his life, Hugh retired to Jumieges and died as a simple choir monk.

Hugh of Rouen, OSB B (RM) . Saint Hugh became a monk at either Fontenelle or Jumièges at a very early age. Then he was called to be primicerius of Metz and, shortly thereafter, in 722, bishop of Rouen and Paris while still abbot of Fontenelle and Jumièges. During his tenure in these offices Hugh fostered piety and learning. Before his death, however, he resigned them all and died at Jumièges as a simple monk (Benedictines).   In art, Saint Hugh is a bishop with a monstrance that the devil tries to wrest from him (Roeder). He is venerated at Fontenelle, Jumièges (Roeder).
870 St. Hedda Martyred Benedictine abbot of Peterborough, England. He and eighty four monks were slain by Danes marauding along the English coast.
Hedda and Companions, OSB MM (AD) (also known as Haeddi). Hedda was the abbot of Peterborough (Medehampstead). He and 84 monks of his community were slain by the Danes, who that same year killed Saint Edmund of East Anglia. Hedda and his monks are venerated as martyrs, even though modern scholars believe that the motivation for the murders was booty and not the hatred of Christianity. In the later Middle Ages the "Hedda stone" stood in the cemetery over the grave of the martyrs. Holes were cut into the slab to hold candles for using it as an altar at which to say Mass--a custom started by abbot Godric. In the 17th century, pilgrims would put their fingers into the holes, perhaps to take dust as a souvenir (Benedictines, Farmer).
870 Martyrs of Croyland Benedictine monks who were slain by the Danes during an invasion of Croyland Abbey, England
And the surrounding area. The abbot was Theodore. Others suffering included Askega, the prior; Swethin, the subprior; and Elfgete, Savinus, Egdred, Agamund, Grimkeld, and Ulrick.
870 Theodore and Companions martyred by the invading Danes OSB MM (AC)
This is another group martyred by the invading Danes. Theodore, abbot of Croyland, and several others of his large community were mentioned by name: Askega, prior; Swethin, subprior; Elfgete, deacon; Savinus, subdeacon; Egdred and Ulrick, acolytes; Grimkeld and Agamund (Argamund), both centenarians (Benedictines).

1050 St. Casilda Spanish martyr native of Toledo of Moorish parentage became a Christian and a hermitess near Briviesca, Burgos venerated in Burgos and Toledo.
Casilda of Briviesca V (AC)

 Born in Toledo, Spain; died c. 1050. Saint Casilda was the daughter of a Moorish king of Toledo, who hated everything connected with Jesus Christ. Casilda secretly visited and fed Christian captives, which made her father angry. She escaped her father, illness, other horrors, and died as an anchorite near Briviesca in Burgos but with joy because she had been baptized (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Gill).
In art, Saint Casilda is a Saracen maiden carrying roses in her lap. Sometimes she is pictured as a Saracen princess with roses or as bread changes to roses--a story that is also told of Elizabeth of Hungary and Elizabeth of Portugal (Roeder). Casilda is still especially venerated at Saragossa, Toledo, and Burgos. She is invoked in time of war (Roeder).

Saint Casilda by Francisco de Zurbarán Museo del Prado, Madrid Courtesy of the Web Gallery of Art
 

1140 St. Gaucherius hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women

1140 ST GAUCHERIUS, ABBOT
St Gaucherius was only eighteen when he abandoned the world to live the solitary life. He was born at Meulan-sur-Seine, where he received a good and religious education. His director sent him to his own master, Humbert, one of the canons of Limoges, who happened to be staying in the neighbourhood. That wise man not only encouraged the youth, but offered to assist him in carrying out his heart’s desire by taking him back to the Limousin district which was suitable for the life of retirement which he was contemplating. After spending a night in prayer at the tomb of St Leonard of Limoges, Gaucherius and a friend called Germond struck out into the wild forest region which stretched away for miles without any human habitation. In a particularly remote and inaccessible spot, they constructed a hermitage, and there they lived for several years unknown and forgotten. But gradually, as knowledge of the hermits’ holy life spread, cells sprang up round about to accommodate disciples and visitors. Many holy men were trained in this community, which became known as Aureil. To them, and to a convent he founded for women, Gaucherius gave the rule of the canons and canonesses of St Augustine. St Lambert of Angouléme, and St Faucherus were amongst the disciples of St Gaucherius, and it was he who gave St Stephen of Grandmont his hermitage of Muret. The saint’s death took place as the result of a fall from his horse when, as an old man of eighty, he was returning to Aureil from a visit to Limoges. He was canonized in 1194.

There is an earlier and fuller Latin life than that printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i, but it only exists in manuscript and in a fragmentary condition. See the Catalogue of Paris Hagiographical MSS., vol. ii, p. 626.

Born 1060.  Also known as Walter, abbot founder and friend of St. Stephen of Grandmont. He was born in Meulan sur Seine, France, and became a hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion, Germond. Attracting disciples even though he was only eighteen, Gaucherius founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women. He died from a fall from a horse. He was canonized in 1194.

Gaucherius of Aureil, OSA Abbot (AC) (also known as Gaultier, Walter)
Died April 9, 1140; canonized by Pope Celestine III. His spiritual vocation led him to found and govern two monasteries in the Limousin region: Saint John at Aureil for Augustinian canons regular and Saint Stephen of Grandmont at Muret. He fell from a horse and died at the age of 80 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

1315 Blessed Ubald Adimari converted by Saint Philip Benizi, who admitted him to the Servite institute model to penitent souls OSM (AC)

1315 BD UBALD OF FLORENCE He had the gift of miracles
ONE of the most prominent leaders of the Ghibelline party in Florence in the year 1276 was the young Ubald Adimari. Well favoured by nature and fortune and belonging to a distinguished family, he had up to the age of thirty led a turbulent life with dissipated companions. One day, however, as he was listening to the preaching of St Philip Benizi, he was struck to the heart with shame for the past, and, with one of those sudden impulses to which generous souls are prone, he then and there vowed that he would never again bear arms. Attaching himself to St Philip, who admitted him into the Servite Order, he undertook severe penances to atone for his sins and to tame his proud and haughty spirit.
In after years those about him noted that he had grown so gentle that when he appeared in the garden of the monastery of Monte Senario the birds would perch upon his head and hands and shoulders. He had the gift of miracles, and it is recorded that once, when it was his turn to fetch water from the spring to serve to the brethren in the refectory and accidentally broke the pitcher, he filled his scapular with water and carried it safely home. There was enough, we are told, to satisfy the thirst of all.
St Philip dearly loved his devoted disciple. Not only did he make him for several years the companion of his journeys, but he chose him for his confessor. As Philip lay sick at Todi, Ubald was warned by a supernatural premonition that his master was dying and hastened to his bedside. When the saint asked for his “book”, eager hands offered the Bible, the Breviary and the rosary; but Ubald knew better, and gave him the book from which he had learnt all his wisdom—the crucifix and on that “book” he fixed his failing eyes until they finally closed in death. Ubald survived him for thirty years at Monte Senario. His cultus was confirmed in 1821.

See Gianni-Garbi, Annales Ordinis Servorum B.V.M., vol. i, pp. 228—229 Spörr, Lebensbilder aus dem Servitenorden, pp. 437 seq. Most of the lives of St Philip Benizi (e.g. that of P. Soulier) also contain some mention of Bd Ubald.

Born in Florence, Italy, in 1246; cultus confirmed in 1821. Born into Ghebelline nobility, Ubald was notorious for his wild and dissolute life. In 1276, he was converted by Saint Philip Benizi, who admitted him to the Servite institute. Ubald spent the rest of his life on Mount Senario, a model to penitent souls (Benedictines).

1322 Bl. Thomas of Tolentino preach in the difficult regions of Armenia and Persia (modern Iran) set out for China beheaded at Thame in Hindustan

1321 BD THOMAS OF TOLENTINO, MARTYR
AMONG the missionary pioneers who in the early fourteenth century strove to spread Christianity in the Far East was the Franciscan, Thomas of Tolentino, whose memory is still venerated by the faithful in India, the country in which he received the crown of martyrdom.
From the time he had entered, the Order of Friars Minor in early youth, Thomas had been known as a truly apostolic man, and when the ruler of Armenia sent to ask the Minorite minister-general for some priests to fortify true religion in his realm, Thomas was chosen for the mission with four of his brethren. Their labours were blessed with success, many schismatics being reconciled and infidels converted. Armenia, however, was being seriously threatened by the Saracens, and Thomas came back to Europe to solicit help from Pope Nicholas IV and the kings of England and France.
Although he duly returned to the Armenian mission with twelve other Franciscans, Thomas subsequently travelled farther afield to Persia. Again he was recalled or sent back to Italy, but this time it was to report to Pope Clement V with a view to a further advance into Tartary and China. His embassy resulted in the nomination of an ecclesiastical hierarchy consisting of John of Monte Corvino as archbishop and papal legate for the East, with seven Franciscans as suffragans. In the meantime Bd Thomas had returned to the field of his labours, full of zeal for the conversion of India and China. He appears to have been making for Ceylon and Cathay, but the ship was driven by contrary winds to Salsette Island, near Bombay. Thomas was seized by the Saracens with several of his brethren and imprisoned. After being scourged and exposed to the burning rays of the sun, the holy man was beheaded. Bd Odoric of Pordenone afterwards recovered his body and translated it to Xaitou. The cultus was approved in 1894.

There are various letters of Jordan de Severac, and others, which supply information concerning Bd Thomas see BHL., nn. 8257—8268. Some portion of these is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i (under April 1), and others in the Analecta Franciscana, vol. iii. Further materials are available in the volumes of Fr Jerome Golubovich, Bibliotheca bio-bibliographica della Terra Santa e deli’ Oriente Francescano. See also Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 61—64. On Bd Odoric of Pordenone, see under January 28 and the bibliography thereto appended, much of which has also a bearing upon the subject of the present notice.

Franciscan martyr. Born in Tolentino, Italy, he entered the Franciscans and was sent to preach in the difficult regions of Armenia and Persia (modern Iran). Convinced to head further East, he set out for China with three companions Blesseds James of Padua, Peter of Siena (both Franciscans), and a layman, Demetrius of Triflis. While traveling through Hindustan (modem northern India) they were beheaded at Thame.

Blessed Thomas of Tolentino & Comp., OFM MM (AC) Born in Tolentino, Italy; died 1321; cultus approved in 1894. Thomas became a Franciscan and went into the mission fields in Armenia and Persia. He was on his way to Ceylon (Sri Lanka), with a view to proceeding to China, when he was seized and beheaded by the Islamics in the East Indies. Three companions Blessed James of Padua (cultus approved 1809) and Peter of Siena, Franciscans, and Demetrius of Tiflis, layman, suffered with him (Benedictines).

1331 Blessed John of Vespignano  devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence (AC)
Born at Vespignano (diocese of Florence), Italy; cultus approved by Pius VII. During the civil wars, John devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence (Benedictines).

1348 Blessed Reginald Montesmarti, OP (AC)
Born in Montesmarti (near Orvieto), Italy, in 1292; died at Piperno, Italy; cultus approved in 1877 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards  OP M (AC) His tomb was the scene of miracles

1374 BD ANTONY PAVONI, MARTYR
ANTONY Pavoni was born at Savigliano in Piedmont and entered, while still young, the Dominican priory there. His reputation for fervour and learning caused him to be appointed inquisitor general over Piedmont and Liguria: as such he was called upon to refute and pass judgement on the opponents of the faith, notably the Vaudois. In the zealous performance of his office he made many enemies, as he himself knew full well. At Easter 1374, in the little town of Bricherasio he prophesied his own approaching death. He bade the barber who was shaving him give him a fine tonsure because he was invited to a marriage feast. The man who, like all those of his trade, was well up in the local news, exclaimed in surprise that no wedding was about to take place in the neighbourhood. “All the same I can assure you that I am telling you the truth”, was Antony’s reply. A few days later, on Low Sunday, as he left the church in which he had just offered Mass and preached, he was set upon by seven armed men, who killed him. His tomb was the scene of miracles (one of the beneficiaries being Bd Haymo Taparelli); and the cultus was authorized in 1856.

See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. i, and Archivio storico italiano, 3rd series, vol. xii, pp. 29 seq. A fuller bibliography in Taurisano, Catalogus hagiographicus OP. There is a short English account in Procter, Lives of the Dominican Saints, pp. 85—87.

Born in Savigliano, Italy, in 1326; died in Turino, Italy, in 1374; beatified in 1868. Antony was obviously martyred for the faith, yet it took more than 500 years before he was even beatified. He is still not canonized. Antony grew up to be a pious, intelligent youth. At 15, he was received into the monastery of Savigliano, was ordained in 1351, and almost immediately was engaged in combatting the heresies of the Lombards.

Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed him inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years. During this time, he accomplished a great deal by his preaching, and even more by his example of Christian virtue. He was elected prior of Savigliano, in 1368, and given the task of building a new abbey. This he accomplished without any criticism of its luxury--a charge that heretics were always anxious to make against any Catholic builders.

The consistent poverty of Antony's life was a reproach to the heretics, who had always been able to gain ground with the poor by pointing out the wealth of religious houses. He went among the poor and let them see that he was one of them. This so discomfited the heretics that they decided they must kill him. He was preaching in a little village near Turin when they caught him.

The martyrdom occurred in the Easter octave. On the Saturday after Easter, he asked the barber to do a good job on his tonsure because he was going to a wedding. Puzzled, the barber complied. On the Sunday after Easter, as he finished preaching a vigorous sermon against heresy at Brichera, seven heretics fell upon him with their daggers, and he hurried off to the promised "wedding." He was buried in the Dominican church at Savigliano, where his tomb was a place of pilgrimage until 1827. At that time the relics were transferred to the Dominican church of Racconigi (Benedictines, Dorcy).
Oddly enough, this Dominican Antony takes after his Franciscan namesake. He is also invoked to find lost articles (Dorcy).
Romæ Translátio córporis sanctæ Mónicæ, matris beáti Augustíni Epíscopi; quod, ex Ostiis Tiberínis, Martíno Quinto Summo Pontífice, in Urbem delátum, in Ecclésia ejúsdem beáti Augustíni honorífice recónditum fuit.
    At Rome, the transferring of the body of St. Monica, mother of the bishop St. Augustine.  It was brought from Ostia to Rome, under the Sovereign Pontiff, Martin V, and buried with due honours in the church of St. Augustine.

1463 Saint Eleni (who was also called Susanna) is one of the New Martyrs of Lesbos who are commemorated on Bright Tuesday
She was St. Irene's older cousin, and suffered along with Sts Raphael, Nicholas, and Irene on April 9, 1463 (Bright Tuesday).

On November 12, 1961 Mrs Basilike Rallis had a dream in which she saw herself by the church at Karyes near the town of Thermi on the Greek island of Lesbos. As she looked inside the church, she saw a young girl about fourteen or fifteen years old, with a dark complexion and dark hair. Since the girl was praying, Mrs Rallis also began to pray. The girl turned to her and said, "Do you know who I am? I am a martyr. Not like Renoula (a diminutive form of Irene), of course, but if you only knew what I endured! I lived with the mayor's family, and I was also with them when the Turks tortured them here. They mistreated me and gave me such a horrib le beating that I died from the pains. My name is Eleni."

The saint also told Mrs Rallis about an icon of the Mother of God that she had been asking about, revealing to her the place where it would be found.
When she awoke, Mrs Rallis was reluctant to mention this dream to anyone. She said to herself, "If there really is another martyr named Eleni, I'll see her again. Maybe someone else will see her, too, then I'll tell. But who was this Eleni who lived with the mayor's family? Perhaps she was thei r servant."

The next night, she dreamed that she was in the village church. She saw three clerics coming out through the left door of the altar. She made the Sign of the Cross at once, for she thought that Satan might be tempting her. Then ;she saw the three clerics make the Sign of the Cross, too. They looked at her and smiled as they slowly proceeded to the center of the church.
"I recognized St. Raphael and St. Nicholas right away," Mrs Rallis recalled, "but did not know the other saint. He was tall, middle-aged with a long grey beard and a lordly air about him."
At that moment, a girl with a round face came out by the same door. She was beautiful, and she wore a rose-colored dress. Mrs Rallis approached her and, kneeling before her, she asked, "Are you also a saint?"
"Yes," the girl replied. "Sit down beside me, watch quietly and I will explain some things to you."

Then other people began to come out from the same door and approached the saints. First, a man of medium height with civilian clothes and a long grey jacket. The girl said to Mrs Rallis, "The teacher, Theodore." He was followed by another well-formed man. The saint said, "The mayor, Basil (St Irene's father)." Then a tall, stout woman of about forty came forth with two girls whom Mrs Rallis recognized at once.They were Sts Irene and Eleni, of whom she had dreamt the night before.
The unknown saint who had appeared with Sts Raphael and Nicholas identified the tall woman as Maria, the mayor's wife, and the two girls as Renoula and Eleni. He asked Mrs Rallis, "Why, when you dreamed abou t her last evening, did you say that you would not say anything about it to anyone? Eleni is also a martyr, and she wishes to be remembered. She was not the mayor's servant, but his orphaned niece who lived with them. Her proper name, which she signed on papers, was Eleni. However, they also called her Susanna. She also had that name."
Mrs Rallis slowly approached St Irene. She embraced her and began to weep, saying, "O Renoula, my tortured little girl, how could these heartless evil-doers burn you?" Then St Irene also started to cry.
When Mrs Rallis woke up, her eyes were filled with tears, and she thought that she would faint. So powerful was the dream that she later said, "Ah, that tortured child! How I ached for her! Every time I go to Karyes I will sit by her little tomb and I will mourn as if she were my own child. Just think, they tortured the child in front of her father, in front of her mother who bore her. It seems to me that there does not exist a more terrible martyrdom for parents."

The Newly-Appeared Martyrs of Lesbos are also commemorated on April 9. Detailed accounts of these saints may be found in A GREAT SIGN (in Greek) by Photios Kontoglou (Astir, 1964).

Newly-Appeared Martyrs of Lesbos, Sts Raphael, Nicholas and Irene were martyred by the Turks on Bright Tuesday (April 9, 1463) ten years after the Fall of Constantinople. They began appearing to various inhabitants of Lesbos in 1959 and revealed the details of their lives and martyrdom. These accounts form the basis of Photios Kontoglou's 1962 book A GREAT SIGN (in Greek).

In 1453, St Nicholas was living in Macedonia with his fellow monastic, St Raphael. Deacon Nicholas was a native of Thessalonica. In 1454, the Turks invaded Thrace, so the two monks fled to the island of Lesbos. They settled in the Monastery of the Nativity of the Theotokos near Thermi, where St Raphael became the igumen.

In the spring of 1463, the Turks raided the monastery and captured the monks. They were tortured from Holy Thursday until Bright Tuesday. St Raphael was tied to a tree, and the ferocious Turks sawed through his jaw, killing him. St Nicholas was also tortured, and he died while witnessing his Elder's martyrdom. He appeared to people and indicated the spot where his relics were uncovered on June 13, 1960.

St Nicholas is short and thin, with a small blond beard. He stands before St Raphael with great respect. St Irene usually appears with a long yellow dress reaching to her feet. Her blonde hair is divided into two braids which rest on either side of her chest.

Sts Raphael, Nicholas, and Irene (and those with them) are also commemorated on Bright Tuesday. Dr. Constantine Cavarnos has given a detailed account of their life, miracles, and spiritual counsels in Volume 10 of his inspirational series MODERN ORTHODOX SAINTS (Belmont, MA, 1990).

Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1945 Lektor an der Berliner Universität für aktiven Widerstand gegen das Unrechtsregime ein ermordet in das Konzentrationslager Flossenbürg
Anglikanische und Evangelische Kirche: 9. April

Dietrich Bonhoeffer wurde am 4.2.1906 in Breslau geboren. Schon 1933, Bonhoeffer war Lektor an der Berliner Universität, setzte er sich für aktiven Widerstand gegen das Unrechtsregime ein. Er wurde als Pfarrer an die deutsche evangelische Gemeinde in London berufen, kehrte aber 1935 nach Deutschland zurück, um in der Heimat gegen die Unterdrückung des Evangeliums anzugehen. Er wurde zum Leiter des Predigerseminars der Bekennenden Kirche in Finkenwalde berufen. 1936 verlor er seinen Lehrauftrag an der Berliner Universität, auch das Predigerseminar wurde geschlossen. 1937 erschien sein Buch 'Nachfolge', das großes Aufsehen erregte. Kurze Zeit später erhielt Bonhoeffer nach dem Lehrverbot auch Predigtverbot.

Im Sommer 1942 reiste er unter Lebensgefahr nach Stockholm um dem schwedischen Bischof Bell über die Lage in Deutschland zu berichten. Auch von dieser Reise kehrte er nach Deutschland zurück. Am 5. April 1943 wurde er von der Gestapo verhaftet und in Berlin gefangengesetzt. Ende März 1945 wurde er mit anderen Leidensgenossen aus Berlin in das Konzentrationslager Flossenbürg gebracht und hier am 9. April 1945 auf Befehl Himmlers ermordet. Seine Verse 'Von guten Mächten wunderbar geborgen' (EG 65) hat er vermutlich zu Sylvester 1944 geschrieben.

Umfangreiches Material zu Bonhoeffer bieten die Seiten der ESH der Universität Linz
Weitere Informationen zu den Märtyrern im Nationalsozialismus unter Werner Sylten




Easter Weekday
God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
Listen to the podcast

 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798
 
Links to Related MarianWebsites  Angels and Archangels  Saints Visions of Heaven and Hell

Widowed Saints  html
Doctors_of_the_Church   Acts_Of_The_Apostles  Roman Catholic Popes  Purgatory  UniateChalcedon

Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles_BLay Saints  Miraculous_IconMiraculous_Medal_Novena Patron Saints
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Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005
 Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) Francis (2013

Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.
During his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis made this strong statement while continuing his catechesis on the family, with this and next week focusing on the elderly.  Confining this week’s address to their problematic current condition, the Holy Father said the elderly are ignored and that a society that does this is perverse.
While noting that life has been lengthened thanks to advances in medicine, he lamented that while the number of older people has multiplied, "our societies are not organized enough to make room for them, with proper respect and concrete consideration for their fragility and their dignity.”

“As long as we are young, we are led to ignore old age, as if it were a disease to be taken away. Then when we become older, especially if we are poor, sick and alone, we experience the shortcomings of a society planned on efficiency, which consequently ignores the elderly.”


He went on to quote his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI, who, when visiting a nursing home in November 2012, “used clear and prophetic words: ‘The quality of a society, I would say of a civilization, is judged also on how the elderly are treated and the place reserved for them in the common life.’"  Without a space for them, Francis highlighted, society dies.

Cultures, he decried, see the elderly as a burden who do not produce and should be discarded.
“You do not say it openly, but you do it!” he exclaimed. "Out of our fear of weakness and vulnerability, we do not tolerate and abandon the elderly," he said. “It’s sickening to see the elderly discarded. It is ugly. It’s a sin. Abandoning the elderly is a mortal sin.”
“Children who do not visit their elderly and ill parents have mortally sinned. Understand?”

The Pope expressed his dismay at children who go months without seeing a parent, or how elderly are confined to little tables in their kitchens alone, without anyone caring for them.  He noted that he observed this reality during his ministry in Buenos Aires.  Unwilling to accept limits, society, he noted, doesn’t allow elderly to participate and gives into the mentality that only the young can be useful and enjoy life.
The whole society must realize, the Pope said, the elderly contain the wisdom of the people.
The tradition of the Church, Pope Francis reaffirmed, has always supported a culture of closeness to the elderly, involving affectionately and supportively accompanying them in this final part of life.  The Church cannot, and does not want to, Francis underscored, comply with a mentality of impatience, and even less of indifference and contempt towards old age.
Sooner or later, we will all be old, he said. If we do not treat the elderly well, he stressed we will not be treated well either.
“We must awaken the collective sense of gratitude, of appreciation, of hospitality, which make them feel the elderly living part of his community.”

Concluding his address, Pope Francis noted how old age will come to all one day and reminded the faithful how much they have received from their elders. He also challenged them to not take a step back and abandon them to their fate.


The Church without Mary is an orphanage
 
Pope Francis:
Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (Zenit.org).-
Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
The Pope said this today before reciting the midday Angelus with several thousand people gathered in the courtyard of the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
Referring to the Gospel reading for today's Mass, the Holy Father reflected on the faith of Peter, which is shown to be "still immature and too much influenced by the 'mentality of this world.'”  He explained that when Christ spoke openly about how he was to "suffer much, be killed and rise again, Peter protests, saying: 'God forbid, Lord! No such thing shall ever happen to you.'"
"It is evident that the Master and the disciple follow two opposed ways of thinking," continued the Pontiff. "Peter, according to a human logic, is convinced that God would never allow his Son to end his mission dying on the cross.  "Jesus, on the contrary, knows that the Father, in his great love for men, sent him to give his life for them, and if this means the passion and the cross, it is right that such should happen."
Christ also knew that "the resurrection would be the last word," Benedict XVI added.
Serious illness
The Pope continued, "If to save us the Son of God had to suffer and die crucified, it certainly was not because of a cruel design of the heavenly Father.  "The cause of it is the gravity of the sickness of which he must cure us: an evil so serious and deadly that it will require all of his blood. 
"In fact, it is with his death and resurrection that Jesus defeated sin and death, reestablishing the lordship of God."
Popes Html link here: 
 “Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.” Pope Francis:
It Is a Mortal Sin When Children Don't Visit Their Elderly Parents.


Popes mentioned in todays  articles of Saints
Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed 1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards OP inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years.
432 Saint Celestine Pope of Rome (422-432) zealous champion of Orthodoxy virtuous life theologian authority denounced the Nestorian heresy

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
 180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}


432 Celestine I Pope treatise against semi-Pelagianism
Born in Campania, Italy; died at Rome, July 27, 432; feast day formerly on July 27 and/or August 1. Saint Celestine was a deacon in Rome when he was elected pope on September 20, 422, to succeed Saint Boniface. He was a staunch supporter of Saint Germanus of Auxerre in the fight against Pelagianism, and a friend of Saint Augustine with whom he corresponded, and which demonstrates that the bishop of Rome was the central authority even at that early date.

About the year 1234 Pope Gregory IX appointed 1252 St. Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominicinquisitor general for the Milanese territories.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
St Leo IX -- 1095 Saint Gerald of Sauve-Majeure monk cellarer of abbey Corbie; founded, directed, Benedictine Abbey of Grande -Sauveabbot  author of a hagiology His abbot chose him as companion to go with him to Rome, where he hoped the sufferer might be cured.Together they visited the tombs of the Apostles, and at the hands of St Leo IX Gerald was ordained priest.
Pope Urban IV) -- 1258 Blessed Juliana of Mount Cornillon visions in which Jesus pointed out that there was no feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament OSA V (AC) her mission to some of her friends, notably to Bd Eva, a recluse who lived beside St Martin’s church on the opposite bank of the river, and to a saintly woman, Isabel of Huy, whom she had received into her community. Encouraged no doubt by the support of these two, she opened her heart to a learned canon of St Martin’s, John of Lausanne, asking him to consult theologians as to the propriety of such a feast. James Pantaleon (afterwards Pope Urban IV), Hugh of St Cher, the Dominican prior provincial, Bishop Guy of Cambrai, chancellor of the University of Paris, with other learned men, were approached, and decided that there was no theological or canonical objection to the institution of a festival in honour of the Blessed Sacrament.
127 Sixtus I, Pope survived as pope for about 10 years before being killed by the Roman authorities M (RM)
 Romæ natális beáti Xysti Primi, Papæ et Mártyris; qui, tempóribus Hadriáni Imperatóris, summa cum laude rexit Ecclésiam, ac demum, sub Antoníno Pio, ut sibi Christum lucrifáceret, libénter mortem sustínuit temporálem.
      At Rome, the birthday of blessed Pope Sixtus the First, martyr, who ruled the Church with distinction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, and finally in the reign of Antoninus Pius he gladly accepted temporal death in order to gain Christ for himself. 
(also known as Xystus)



Saint Leo the Great --  469 St. Abundius Greek priest bishop noted theologian obvious intellect and holiness attended Councils of Chalcedon and Milan, Hermit (RM) (also known as Abondius, Abundias) Died c. 500. Saint Abundius, a Greek priest, was consecrated bishop of Como in northern Italy. Because he was an able theologian, Saint Leo the Great entrusted him with a mission to Emperor Theodosius the Younger, which led to the convening of the Council of Chalcedon in 451. At the council, Abundius presided as the pope's legate (Attwater2, Benedictines).
6th v. St. Musa Virgin child of Rome; a great mystic, visions and ecstasies, reported by St. Gregory I the Great

1220 Jacqueline V Hermit recluse in Sicily reprimanded Pope Innocent III

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
During his 52-year episcopacy, 1132 St. Hugh of Grenoble Benedictine bishop amazing modesty took upon himself all sins of others the cross he carried was heavy laden holy and redemptive great reputation for miracles:
vainly tendered his resignation to each pope--Gregory VII, Gelasius II, Calixtus II, Honorius II, Innocent II, and others--and they refused him because of his outstanding ability. He never ceased imploring them to release him from the duties of his episcopal office up to the day of his death. During his last, painful illness he was tormented by headaches and stomach disorders that resulted from his long fasts and vigils, yet never complained. For a short time before his death, he lost his memory for everything but prayer, and would recite the Psalter and the Our Father unceasingly.


 440 Pope St. Sixtus III approved Acts of the Council of Ephesus endeavoured to restore peace between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch prominent among the Roman clergy and in correspondence with St. Augustine
Romæ sancti Xysti Tértii, Papæ et Confessóris.    At Rome, St. Sixtus III, pope and confessor.
Pope Martin V -- The Observant reform which had been initiated in the middle of the fourteenth century still found itself hampered in many ways by the administration of superiors general who held a different standard of perfection, and on the other hand there had also been exaggerations in the direction of much greater austerity culminating eventually in the heretical teachings of the Fraticelli. All these difficulties required adjustment, and Capistran, working in harmony with St Bernardino of Siena, was called upon to bear a large share in this burden. After the general chapter held at Assisi in 1430, St John was appointed to draft the conclusions at which the assembly arrived, and these “Martinian statutes”, as they were called, in virtue of their confirmation by Pope Martin V, are among the most important in the history of the order.
Aeneas Sylvius (the future Pope Pius II) -- St John Capistran was sent as commissary and inquisitor general, and he set out for Vienna in 1451 with twelve of his Franciscan brethren to assist him. It is beyond doubt that his coming produced a great sensation. Aeneas Sylvius (the future Pope Pius II) tells us how, when he entered Austrian territory, “priests and people came out to meet him, carrying the sacred relics. They received him as a legate of the Apostolic See, as a preacher of truth, as some great prophet sent by God. They came down from the mountains to greet John, as though Peter or Paul or one of the other apostles were journeying there. They eagerly kissed the hem of his garment, brought their sick and afflicted to his feet, and it is reported that very many were cured. . . . The elders of the city met him and conducted him to Vienna. No square in the city could contain the crowds. They looked on him as an angel of God.”
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
 St. Venturino of Bergamo is also known for helping to organize a crusade, at the behest of Pope Clement VI (r. 1342-1352), against the Turks who were then menacing Europe.


150 St. Mark & Timothy Roman martyrs of post-apostolic times mentioned in a letter by Pope St. Pius I


 752 Pope St. Zachary 741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
Pope Zacharias_Zachary Pope Zachary was a peace-maker and judged no man without a hearing.
Zachary was also responsible for restoring Montecassino under Saint Petronax and himself consecrated its abbey church in 748. The saint was known for aiding the poor, provided refuge to nuns driven from Constantinople by the iconoclasts, ransomed slaves from the Venetians, forbade the selling of Christian slaves to the Moors of Africa, and translated Saint Gregory the Great's Dialogues into Greek. Since "Zacharias embraced and cherished all people like a father and a good shepherd, and never allowed even the smallest injustice to happen to anyone," he was venerated as a saint immediately after his death (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Schamoni).




Frequent and daily Communion is greatly desired by our Lord and the Church. Pope St. Pius X
 
A meditation during the Great Fast...

March 21 – Our Lady of Nowy Swierjan (Russia)
Hail, Holy Mother of God --
Pope Francis
Jesus Christ is the blessing for every man and woman ... The Church, in giving us Jesus, offers us the fullness of the Lord’s blessing. This is precisely the mission of the people of God: to spread to all peoples God’s blessing made flesh in Jesus Christ. And Mary, the first and most perfect disciple of Jesus, the first and most perfect believer, the model of the pilgrim Church, is the one who opens the way to the Church’s motherhood and constantly sustains her maternal mission to all mankind. Mary’s tactful maternal witness has accompanied the Church from the beginning. She, the Mother of God, is also the Mother of the Church, and through the Church, the mother of all men and women, and of every people. …

Let us look to Mary, let us contemplate the Holy Mother of God. I suggest that you all greet her together, just like those courageous people of Ephesus, who cried out before their pastors when they entered Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!” What a beautiful greeting for our Mother. There is a story – I do not know if it is true – that some among those people had clubs in their hands, perhaps to make the Bishops understand what would happen if they did not have the courage to proclaim Mary “Mother of God”! I invite all of you, without clubs, to stand up and to greet her three times with this greeting of the early Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!”  Pope Francis; Homily, Holy Mass on the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God
Vatican Basilica, January 1, 2015
Pope’s Prayer in Pompeii
Saturday, March 21, 2015
Virgin of the Holy Rosary, Mother of the Redeemer, our earthly Lady raised above the heavens, humble servant of the Lord, proclaimed Queen of the world, from the depth of our miseries we turn to you. With the faithfulness of children we look to your sweet gaze.

Crowned with twelve stars, you bring us to the mystery of the Father, you shine the splendor of the Holy Spirit, you give us our Divine Child, Jesus, our hope, our only salvation in the world. Comforted by your Rosary, you invite us to be fixed to his gaze. You open to us His heart, abyss of joy and sorry, of light and glory, mystery of the son of God, made man for us. At your feet in the footsteps of the saints, we feel as God’s family.

Mother and model of the Church, you are our guide and secure support. Make us one heart and one mind, a strong people on the way towards the heavenly homeland. We entrust our miseries, the many streets of hate and blood, the thousands of ancient and new poverties and above all, our sins. To you we entrust ourselves, Mother of Mercy: grant us the forgiveness of God, help us to build a world according to your heart.

O Blessed Rosary of Mary, sweet chain that ties us to God, chain of love that makes us brothers, we will not leave you again. You will be in our hands a weapon of peace and forgiveness, star that guides our path. And the kiss to you with our last breath, we plunge into a wave of light, in the vision of the beloved Mother and the Son of God, the desire and joy of our heart, with the Father and the Holy Spirit.

Amen.
1086 ST ANSELM, BISHOP OF Lucca
IT was in 1036 that St Anselm was born in Mantua, and in 1073 his uncle, Pope Alexander II, nominated him to the bishopric of Lucca, left vacant by his own elevation to the chair of St Peter, and sent him to Germany to receive from the Emperor Henry IV the crozier and the ring— in accordance with the regrettable custom of the time. Anselm, however, was so strongly convinced that the secular power had no authority to confer ecclesiastical dignities that he could not bring himself to accept investiture from the emperor and returned to Italy without it. Only after he had been consecrated by Alexander’s successor, Pope St Gregory VII, did he consent to accept from Henry the crozier and the ring, and even then he felt scruples of conscience on the subject. These doubts led him to leave his diocese and to withdraw to a congregation of Cluniac monks at Polirone. A dignitary of such high-minded views could ill be spared, and Pope Gregory recalled him from his retirement and sent him back to Lucca to resume the government of his diocese. Zealous with regard to discipline, he strove to enforce among his canons the common life enjoined by the decree of Pope St Leo IX. In acute discordance with the edifying example accredited to them above in our notice of St Frediano, the canons refused to obey, although they were placed under an interdict by the pope and afterwards excommunicated. Countess Matilda of Tuscany undertook to expel them, but they raised a revolt and, being supported by the Emperor Henry, drove the bishop out of the city in 1079.
752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
(also known as Zacharias) Born at San Severino, Calabria, Italy; died 752; feast day formerly on March 22; feast day in the East is September 5.

St. Irenaeus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the fifth pope in succession from the Apostles, though he says nothing of his martyrdom. His pontificate is variously dated by critics, e. g. 106-115 (Duchesne) or 109-116 (Lightfoot). In Christian antiquity he was credited with a pontificate of about ten years (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. IV, i,) and there is no reason to doubt that he was on the "catalogue of bishops" drawn up at Rome by Hegesippus (Eusebius, IV, xxii, 3) before the death of Pope Eleutherius (c. 189). According to a tradition extant in the Roman Church at the end of the fifth century, and recorded in the Liber Pontificalis he suffered a martyr's death by decapitation on the Via Nomentana in Rome, 3 May. The same tradition declares him to have been a Roman by birth and to have ruled the Church in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It likewise attributes to him, but scarcely with accuracy, the insertion in the canon of the Qui Pridie, or words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist, such being certainly primitive and original in the Mass. He is also said to have introduced the use of blessing water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences (constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedici in habitaculis hominum). Duchesne (Lib. Pont., I, 127) calls attention to the persistence of this early Roman custom by way of a blessing in the Gelasian Sacramentary that recalls very forcibly the actual Asperges prayer at the beginning of Mass. In 1855, a semi-subterranean cemetery of the holy martyrs Sts. Alexander, Eventulus, and Theodulus was discovered near Rome, at the spot where the above mentioned tradition declares the Pope to have been martyred. According to some archaeologists, this Alexander is identical with the Pope, and this ancient and important tomb marks the actual site of the Pope's martyrdom. Duchesne, however (op. cit., I, xci-ii) denies the identity of the martyr and the pope, while admitting that the confusion of both personages is of ancient date, probably anterior to the beginning of the sixth century when the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled [Dufourcq, Gesta Martyrum Romains (Paris, 1900), 210-211]. The difficulties raised in recent times by Richard Lipsius (Chronologie der römischen Bischofe, Kiel, 1869) and Adolph Harnack (Die Zeit des Ignatius u. die Chronologie der antiochenischen Bischofe, 1878) concerning the earliest successors of St. Peter are ably discussed and answered by F. S. (Cardinal Francesco Segna) in his "De successione priorum Romanorum Pontificum" (Rome 1897); with moderation and learning by Bishop Lightfoot, in his "Apostolic Fathers: St. Clement ' (London, 1890) I, 201-345- especially by Duchesne in the introduction to his edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" (Paris, 1886) I, i-xlviii and lxviii-lxxiii. The letters ascribed to Alexander I by PseudoIsidore may be seen in P. G., V, 1057 sq., and in