Monday Saints of this Day April 11 Tértio Idus Aprílis  

Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

40 Days for Life Worldwide Celebration (video webcast) Monday, April 13
http://app.webinarjam.net/register/270/00eb0f3201
     40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world
It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

April 11 – Madonna and Child of Brindisi (Italy, 1598) –
Fire in the Cathedral of Turin and miraculous rescue of the Holy Shroud (1997)
 
500 Rosaries donated to inmates of an Italian prison   
Pope Francis has given 500 Rosaries to inmates of the prison of Padua, in northeast Italy.
The request for the Rosaries came from Zhang Agostino Jianqing, a young Chinese man currently incarcerated in the Padua prison, who also participated in an event for the presentation of Pope Francis’ book The Name of God is Mercy, in Rome on January 11, 2016.
Zhang Agostino Jianqing shared his story about finding Christ through the tears of his own mother—like the holy tears shed by Monica, the mother of Saint Augustine where his Christian name "Agostino" came from—and the social cooperative where he worked in prison.
He says: "I felt the Lord's presence in my mother’s love. Jesus sent his friends to find me—all the friends I met during catechism lessons. On April 17, 2015, I received baptism, confirmation and first communion
right here in prison where Jesus came to meet me and where I met Jesus."
Father Marco Sanavio, a priest in Padua, personally handed out the Rosaries to the prisoners.
 
fr.zenit.org

 
April 11 - Madonna Bambino di Brindisi (Italy, 1598) 
The Keystone 
The knowledge of the true Catholic doctrine on the Blessed Virgin Mary constitutes a keystone
to an unmistaken understanding of the mystery of Christ and the Church.
 

Pope Paul VI February 4 - Our Lady of Fire (Forli, Italy)


Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
I Will Be Your Mother (II)  April 11 - Our Lady of Montserrat (Spain)
- Saint Gemma Galgani (d. 1903)
Although Gemma, now in perfect health, desired to be a consecrated nun, God had other plans for her. On June 8, 1899, after receiving communion, Our Lord let His servant know that on the same evening He would give her a very great grace. Gemma went home and prayed. She fell into ecstasy and experienced a great remorse for sin.
Our Lady, to whom Gemma was strongly devoted, appeared to her and said, "My son Jesus loves you beyond measure and wishes to give you a grace. I will be your mother. Will you be my true child?" Then Mary opened her mantle and covered Gemma with it.
During the remainder of Gemma's life, several people, including eminent members of the Church, noticed that Gemma was stigmatized and that blood came from her hands in great abundance. Like Saint Francis of Assisi and more recently Saint Pio of Pietrelcina, Saint Gemma too can say: "Let no man harm me, for I bear the marks of the Lord Jesus in my body."
Gemma Galgani was canonized on May 2, 1940, by Pope Pius XII, only thirty-seven years after her death.
Adapted from http://www.stgemma.com/¹
April 11 – Madonna Bambino di Brindisi (Italy, 1598) -
The Cathedral of Turin's fire and miraculous rescue of the Shroud (1997)

 
How could she have the heart to abandon you? 
 The first reaction of a child when he is afraid, embarrassed or in pain, is to cry out for his mother. His counts totally on her. You too should get in the habit of calling to your mother: "Mother, I love you. You are everything to me!"

A mother loves her child, even if he is handicapped or ugly. No matter how lukewarm you are, no matter how many mistakes or sins you've committed, throw yourself into your mother's arms. Jesus' last words were, "This is your mother!" How could she have the heart to abandon you?

If you fall, go to your mother humbly and let your tears fall for her Son who died for you. She will open up her arms to embrace you. She received John as her child, as well as the good thief and Mary Magdalene…
 Cardinal François-Xavier NGUYEN VAN THUAN
Sur le chemin de l'espérance (The Road to Hope), Le Sarment, Fayard 1991
Pope St. Leo I (the Great)
"And to the angel of the Church of Pergamum write: the words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. I know where you live, where the throne of Satan is, and you cleave unto My Name, and have not renounced My faith, even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwells" (Rev 2:12-13).  St. Antipas
  63. St. Domnio Possibly first bishop of Salona and one of 72 disciples of Christ sent to Dalmatia, a region in Croatia, by St. Peter
  67 Sts. Processus and Martinian pagans guards at Mamertine prison in Rome  accepted holy Baptism from Peter
  68 St. Antipas Martyr and disciple of St. John the Apostle who called Antipas "my faithful witness."  body untouched bby fire - tomb was the site of many miracles
  180  St. Philip of Gortyna Bishop of Gortyna, Crete. Little known except his authorship of a now lost treatise against Marcionite Gnostics.
4th v. Saint Pharmuphios lived at the same desert monastery where St John (March 29) lived in asceticism within a well, to whom St Pharmuphios gave food.
5th v. St. Machai Abbot founder of a monastery on the isle of Bute in Ireland disciple of St. Patrick. and leader of the evangelical mission there
6th .  St. Maedhog Irish abbot also called Aedhan or Mogue ruled Clonmore Abbey Ireland associated with Sts. Oncho and Finan Aid of Achad-Finglas Abbot Saint Aid of Achard-Finglas, County Carlow, Ireland (AC)
 300 Eustorgius  a priest of Nicomedia, Asia Minor M (RM)
 550 Isaac of Spoleto a Syrian monk “A monk who wants earthly possessions is not a monk at all”. The holy man was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles
 550 St. Barsanuphius Hermit of Gaza, in Israel Egyptian renowned for holiness and wisdom refusing to speak communicating only in writing existing without food or water.
 680 Agericus of Tours disciple of Saint Eligius abbot of Saint Martin's in Tours, France, and spent himself entirely for his abbey OSB (PC)
 700 St. Godebertha establishing a convent in Noyon abbess  miracle worker who stopped a plague and a raging fire
 714 St. Guthlac of Croyland, OSB Hermit imitate rigors of old desert fathers "Those who choose to live apart from other humans become the friends of wild animals; and the angels visit them, too- -for those who are often visited by men and women are rarely visited by angels." prophet visions incorrupt (AC)
1079 St. Stanislaus ordained  at Szczepanow near Cracow noted for preaching sought after spiritual adviser martyred by cruel King
1138 Blessed Waltmann of Cambrai accompanied Saint Norbert to Cambrai preach against heresy O. Praem., Abbot
1146  The Departure of the holy father Anba Michael, the Seventy First Pope of the See of St. Mark. {Coptic church}
1209 Blesseds Stephen abbot & Hilderbrand  one of his monks, were killed by the Albigenses at Saint-Gilles, Languedoc OSB Cist. MM (PC)
1237 Blessed Raynerius Inclusus, Hermit (i.e., 'shut up') hermit in a cell near the cathedral of Osnabrück heavy chains next to his skin (AC)
1303 Blessed John of Cupramontana cave of Cupramonatan on Mount Massaccio for many years as a Camaldolese monk -hermit
XIV v. The Monk Jakov of Bryleevsk was a disciple of the Monk Jakov of Zheleznoborovsk founded the Bryleevsk wilderness-monastery
1442 Saint James of Zhelezny Bor sanctity prophet many years of common ascetical efforts monks entreated St James to be their igumen ordained a priest
XVI v. The Monk Evphymii {Euphymius} and his disciple the Monk Khariton example to the brethren in prayer, and in the works of construction and supervision
1576 Saint Barsanuphius of Tver captured by the Crimean Tatars After 3years John's father ransomed him became a monk proficient in virtue and piety
1576 Sainted Varsonophii bishop of Tver died at the Transfiguration monastery founded by him in the city of Kazan in the year 1576
1608 Blessed George Gervase adventurous career with Francis Drake ordained to the priesthood and died for his priesthood OSB M (AC)

1771 St. Mary Margaret d'Youville Foundress of the Sisters of Charity directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community

1845 holy monastic Fathers Saints Theocharis and Apostolos are local saints of Arta On Bright Wednesday we commemorate them
1878  George Augustus Selwyn studierte in Cambridge und wurde 1833 zum Diakon und 1834 zum Priester geweiht 1841 wurde er zum ersten Bischof Neuseelands ernannt
1903 St. Gemma Galgani stigmata many mystical experiences and special graces Gemma was miraculously cured by the Venerable Passionist Gabriel Possenti
Our Lady of Pochaev original
Fr_McNichols_with_John_Paul_II

The history of Our Lady of Pochaev begins in 1198, only about two centuries after Christianity:  became institutionalized following the conversion of St. Vladimir.  In this year a monk ascended Mount Pochaev in order to pray.  After beginning his prayers a pillar of fire appeared to him and to some shepherds that happened to be nearby.  The flames withdrew to reveal the Blessed Virgin.  The apparition of the Virgin Mary left behind a footprint, from which a spring of water flowed.  This first event would lead to many other supernatural events through the special dedication of the Blessed Virgin to this region

 "There will be a new springtime for the Church
If people will welcome the promptings of the Holy Spirit,
The 21st Century will usher in a new evangelization;
and, a tidal wave of coversions will sweep the earth."
Pope John Paul II
    Our_Lady_of_Pochaev_icon_Fr_McNicols
I honor and reverence the Byzantine icons and the profound spirituality of the Orthodox Churches.
I try to bring true devotion and prayer into the process of creating (writing) an icon - dependent upon the inspiration of the Blessed Trinity, the saints, holy ones, and the Mother of God.
As a Roman Catholic iconographer, I have no intention of assuming to be Orthodox, but continue to pray with many others, for holy unity brought about by the Spirit, amongst the Churches.
In the words of Julian of Norwich: "For love's sake, let its pray together to God, with God's working: thanking, trusting, enjoying for our good Lord desires to be prayed to in this way. "

-- William Hart McNichols,
Kasperov_Icon


The history of Our Lady of Pochaev begins in 1198, only about two centuries after Christianity became institutionalized following the conversion of St. Vladimir.  In this year a monk ascended Mount Pochaev in order to pray.  After beginning his prayers a pillar of fire appeared to him and to some shepherds that happened to be nearby.  The flames withdrew to reveal the Blessed Virgin.  The apparition of the Virgin Mary left behind a footprint, from which a spring of water flowed.  This first event would lead to many other supernatural events through the special dedication of the Blessed Virgin to this region.

Many of these miracles are the result of the veneration of the icon of our Lady of Pochaev [see above].  It first arrived in the region as a gift of Metropolitan Neophit to Anna Hoyska, an important patron of the Church, in 1559.  The icon shows our Lady, wearing a crown, and holding the infant Jesus.  In her other hand “she holds the end of her veil.”  This being a 'tenderness' icon, Jesus and Mary’s face touch, while Jesus gives a blessing with his hand.  To Mary’s right are the prophet Elijah and Saint Myrna, while to her left are St. Stephen and the Reverend Abraymey.  Mary’s face is described as being “beautiful but sad.”   The icon itself is 29 x23 cm, and made out of red pitched cypress.  The origin of the icon remains a mystery.

The miraculous character of the icon presented itself almost immediately, as only a short time later Anna Hoyska’s blind brother regained his sight. 

After Anna’s death in 1644 much of her property was donated, including the icon, to a nearby Basilian Monastery.  After some legal obstacles were resolved, the icon was finally placed in the brother’s Church of the Dormition of the Blessed Mother.  The monastery’s chronicles record numerous miracles during the icon's stay at their Church.  Two of these miracles are exceptionally noteworthy.
The first took place during the invasion of the Turks in 1675.  The populace of Pochaev gathered at the monastery in order to weather the attack.  Gathered together and facing certain death at the hands of the invaders, they “turned to Mary for protection and help.”  The Blessed Virgin appeared along with Venerable Job of Pochaev and a host of angels.  Her white mantle spread over the monastery and the arrows of the Turks were deflected.  This caused enough confusion among the invaders that they scattered, allowing the Ukrainian military to turn their enemies back.

The second notable miracle came during the construction of a large church in Pochaev in the 1780’s.  A monk ran into the church demanding that everybody leave.  After the approximately two hundred workers had left the church, the roof collapsed. 

In total, five-hundred-thirty-nine miracles have been recorded in the monastery chronicles.

After an investigation, the icon was crowned by Pope Clement in 1773.  However, in 1831 Tsar Mykola gave the monastery to Orthodox monks, and expelled the Basilians.  In 2001, the icon was temporarily moved from Pochaev to The Cathedra of the Trinity (Saint Daniel's Monastery) in Moscow.

More recently, Fr. William McNichols wrote a copy of the famous icon [see above].

This work was commissioned by the Archbishop of Anchorage, Alaska, to be given as a gift to the Russian Orthodox Monastery of Saint Sergius of Rodonezh Lavra in Magadan, Far East, Russia.  For more information on Fr. McNichols and his icons click into: http://puffin.creighton.edu/jesuit/andre/
63. St. Domnio Possibly first bishop of Salona and one of seventy-two disciples of Christ sent to Dalmatia, a region in Croatia, by St. Peter
Salónæ, in Dalmátia, sanctórum Mártyrum Domniónis Epíscopi, cum milítibus octo.
    At Salona in Dalmatia, the holy martyrs Domnio, bishop, and eight soldiers.
Another ver­sion of his life lists him martyred during the reign of co­Emperor Diocletian

Domnio and Companions MM (RM) According to an old legend, Saint Domnio was one of the 72 commissioned by Jesus to preach. The story continues that Saint Peter sent him from Rome to evangelize Dalmatia, where he was martyred as the first bishop of Salona. A more likely version of the tale says that Domnio was martyred during the persecution of Diocletian (Benedictines).
St. Antipas 68 Martyr and disciple of St. John the Apostle who called Antipas "my faithful witness." body untouched by fire tomb was the site of many miracles
Pérgami, in Asia, sancti Antípæ, testis fidélis, cujus méminit sanctus Joánnes in Apocalypsi.  Ipse autem Antípas, sub Domitiáno Imperatóre, in bovem æneum candéntem conjéctus, martyrium consummávit.
    At Pergamum in Asia, the faithful witness, St. Antipas, who was mentioned by St. John in the Apocalypse.  Under Emperor Domitian, he was enclosed in an ox made of brass that had been heated to redness, and thus completed his martyrdom.
The Hieromartyr Antipas, a disciple of the holy Apostle John the Theologian (September 26), was bishop of the Church of Pergamum during the reign of the emperor Nero (54-68).   During these times, everyone who would not offer sacrifice to the idols lived under threat of either exile or execution by order of the emperor. On the island of Patmos (in the Aegean Sea) the holy Apostle John the Theologian was imprisoned, he to whom the Lord revealed the future judgment of the world and of Holy Church.

"And to the angel of the Church of Pergamum write: the words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. I know where you live, where the throne of Satan is, and you cleave unto My Name, and have not renounced My faith, even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwells" (Rev 2:12-13).

By his personal example, firm faith and constant preaching about Christ, St Antipas began to turn the people of Pergamum from offering sacrifice to idols. The pagan priests reproached the bishop for leading the people away from their ancestral gods, and they demanded that he stop preaching about Christ and offer sacrifice to the idols instead.
St Antipas calmly answered that he was not about to serve the demons that fled from him, a mere mortal. He said he worshiped the Lord Almighty, and he would continue to worship the Creator of all, with His Only-Begotten Son, and the Holy Spirit. The pagan priests retorted that their gods existed from of old, whereas Christ was not from of old but was crucified under Pontius Pilate as a criminal. The saint replied that the pagan gods were the work of human hands and that everything said about them was filled with iniquities and vices. He steadfastly confessed his faith in the Son of God, incarnate of the Most Holy Virgin.
The enraged pagan priests dragged the Hieromartyr Antipas to the temple of Artemis and threw him into a red-hot copper bull, where usually they put the sacrifices to the idols. In the red-hot furnace the martyr prayed loudly to God, imploring Him to receive his soul and to strengthen the faith of the Christians. He went to the Lord peacefully, as if he were going to sleep (+ ca. 68).
At night Christians took the body of the Hieromartyr Antipas, which was untouched by the fire.hey buried him at Pergamum. The tomb of the hieromartyr became a font of miracles and of healings from various sicknesses.  We pray to the Hieromartyr Antipas for relief from toothache, and diseases of the teeth.
67 Processus and Martinian pagans guards at the Mamertine prison in Rome  accepted holy Baptism from Peter
The Holy Martyrs Processus and Martinian were pagans and they served as guards at the Mamertine prison in Rome.  State criminals were held in this prison, among them some Christians. Watching the Christian prisoners and listening to their preaching, Processus and Martinian gradually came to the knowledge of the Savior. When the holy Apostle Peter was locked up at the Mamertine prison, Processus and Martinian came to believe in Christ. They accepted holy Baptism from the apostle and released him from prison.
The jailer {torturer } Paulinus learned about this, and he demanded that Sts Processus and Martinian renounce Christ. But they fearlessly confessed Christ, and they spat at the golden statue of Jupiter. Paulinus ordered that they be slapped on the face, and then seeing the resolute stance of the holy martyrs, he subjected them to torture. The martyrs were beaten with iron rods, scorched with fire, and finally, thrown into prison.
A certain illustrious and pious woman, by the name of Lucina, visited them in prison and gave them help and encouragement. The torturer Paulinus was soon punished by God. He fell blind and died three days later. The son of Paulinus went to the city ruler demanding that the martyrs be put to death. Sts Processus and Martinian were beheaded by the sword (+ ca. 67).   Lucina buried the bodies of the martyrs. Today their tomb is in the south transept of St Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Pope St. Leo I (the Great) Sancti Leónis Papæ Primi, cognoménto Magni, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris, cujus dies natális recólitur quarto Idus Novémbris.
   St. Leo the First, pope and confessor, who was surnamed the Great.  His birthday falls on the 10th of November.
(Reigned 440-61).

461 ST LEO THE GREAT, POPE AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH
THE sagacity of Leo I, his successful defence of the Catholic faith against heresy, as well as his political intervention with Attila the Hun and Genseric the Vandal, raised the prestige of the Holy See to unprecedented heights and earned for him the title of “the Great”, a distinction accorded by posterity to only two other popes, St Gregory I and St Nicholas I. The Church has honoured St Leo by including him amongst her doctors on the strength of his masterly expositions of Christian doctrine, many extracts from which are incorporated in the Breviary lessons.
St Leo’s family was probably Tuscan, but he seems to have been born in Rome, as he always speaks of it as his “patria”. Of his early years and of the date of his ordination to the priesthood there are no records. It is clear from his writings that he received a good education, although it did not include Greek. We hear of him first as deacon under St Celestine I and then under Sixtus III, occupying a position so important that St Cyril wrote directly to him, and Cassian dedicated to him his treatise against Nestorius. Moreover, in 440, when the quarrels between the two imperial generals, Aetius and Albinus, threatened to leave Gaul at the mercy of the barbarians, Leo was sent to make peace between them.
At the time of the death of Sixtus III he was still in Gaul, whither a deputation was sent to announce to him his election to the chair of St Peter.
Immediately after his consecration on September 29, 440, he began to display his exceptional powers as a pastor and ruler. Preaching was at that time mainly confined to bishops, and he set about it systematically, instructing the faithful of Rome whom he purposed to make a pattern for other churches. In the ninety-six genuine sermons which have come down to us, we find him laying stress on alms-giving and other social aspects of Christian life, as well as expounding Catholic doctrines—especially that of the Incarnation. Some idea of the extraordinary vigilance of the holy pontiff over the Church and its necessities in every part of the empire can be gathered from the 143 letters written by him, and the 30 letters written to him, which have fortunately been preserved. About the period that he was dealing with the Manichaeans in Rome, he was writing to the Bishop of Aquileia advising him how to deal with Pelagianism, which had made a reappearance in his diocese.
From Spain St Turibius, Bishop of Astorga, sent him a copy of a letter he had circulated with reference to Priscillianism—~a sect which had made great headway in Spain, some of the clergy being favourable to it. Its tenets seem to have combined astrology with fatalism and with a Manichaean theory of the evil of matter. In his reply the pope refuted the Priscillianist doctrines at considerable length, and, after describing the measures he had taken against the Manichaeans, advised the summoning of a council of bishops to combat the heresy.
In the affairs of Gaul he was called upon several times to interfere: twice he had occasion to quash the proceedings of St Hilary, Bishop of Arles, who as metropolitan had exceeded his powers. Several letters are addressed to Anastasius, Bishop of Thessalonica, confirming his vicariate over the bishops of Illyricum; on one occasion recommending him to be more tactful and considerate, and on another reminding him that bishops had a right to appeal to Rome, “according to ancient tradition”. In 446 he wrote to the African church of Mauretania, forbidding the appointment of laymen to the episcopate, and of any man who had been twice married or who had married a widow, and dealing with such a delicate matter as the treatment of consecrated virgins who had been outraged by the barbarians. In a letter addressed to the bishops of Sicily, in consequence of complaints from the clergy of Palermo and Taormina, he lays down the axiom that church property may not be alienated by a bishop without the consent of all his clergy.
In these and in all Leo’s pronouncements, couched in authoritative and almost stern language, there is no personal note, no uncertainty: it is not the man who seems to speak, but the successor of Peter. Therein lies the secret of his greatness, that which gives unity to his career. Yet one little human touch, though it be only a tradition, may not be deemed out of place, illustrating as it does the extreme importance the saint attached to the selection of suitable candidates for holy orders. In the Spiritual Meadow of John Moschus, Amos, Patriarch of Jerusalem, is quoted as saying: “I have found it written that the blessed Pope Leo, equal to the angels, watched and prayed forty days at the tomb of St Peter, begging through the intercession of that apostle to obtain of God the pardon of his sins. After that period St Peter, in a vision, said to him: ‘Your sins are forgiven by God, except those committed in conferring holy orders: of these you will still have to render a strict account’.” St Leo prohibited the ordination of slaves or of men who had been employed in unlawful or unseemly occupations, and caused the insertion into the canon law of a special clause restricting elevation to the priesthood to candidates of mature age who had been thoroughly tested and had laboured in the service of the Church, giving evidence of submission to rule and love of discipline.
But the holy man, as pontiff of the Universal Church, found himself called upon to deal with difficulties in the East far greater than any which had hitherto met him in the West. In the year 448, he received a letter from a Constantinopolitan abbot, called Eutyches, complaining of a recrudescence of the Nestorian heresy. St Leo replied in guarded terms, promising to make inquiries. The next year came another communication from Eutyches, duplicates of which were sent to the patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem. In this he protested against a sentence of excommunication which had been passed upon him by St Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople, at the instance of Eusebius of Dorylaeum, and asked to be reinstated. The appeal was supported by a letter from the Emperor Theodosius II. As no official notice of the proceedings at Constantinople had reached Rome, Leo wrote to St Flavian, who sent a report of the synod at which Eutyches had been sentenced. From this it was abundantly clear that he had fallen into the error of denying the two natures of Christ—a heresy the reverse of Nestorianism. A council was now summoned at Ephesus by the Emperor Theodosius, ostensibly to inquire into the matter, but it was packed with the friends of Eutyches, and presided over by one of his strongest supporters, Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria. This gathering, nicknamed “The Robber Synod” acquitted Eutyches and condemned St Flavian, who was moreover subjected to such physical violence that he died soon after. The pope’s legates, on their refusal to subscribe to the unjust sentence, were not allowed to read St Leo’s letter. As soon as the proceedings of the synod became known to the pope, he declared their decisions null and void. This he followed up by a letter of remonstrance to the emperor in which he said: “Leave to the bishops the liberty of defending the faith: no worldly power or terrors will ever succeed in destroying it.  Protect the Church and seek to preserve its peace that Christ in His turn may protect your empire”.
Two years later, under the Emperor Marcian, a general council was held at Chalcedon. Six hundred bishops or more were present, and St Leo was represented by his legates. In this assembly the memory of St Flavian was vindicated and Dioscorus was declared excommunicated and deposed. On June 13, 449 St Leo had written to St Flavian a doctrinal letter in which he had clearly set out the Catholic faith with regard to the natures of our Lord, steering clear of the errors of Nestorianism and Eutychianism. This pronouncement, which has become famous as “The Dogmatic Letter” or “The Tome of St Leo”, had been suppressed by Dioscorus, but was read by the legates to the Council of Chalcedon. “Peter has spoken by Leo,” exclaimed the assembled bishops, when they had heard this lucid explanation of the two-fold nature of Christ, which has become for all subsequent ages the Church’s official teaching.

In the meantime serious political events had been happening in the West, and were being met by St Leo with the same firmness and wisdom. Attila with his Huns in 452 entered Italy, burning Aquileia and filling the country with blood and desolation. After sacking Milan and razing Pavia, he set out with his army to assault the capital. Panic seized the whole population: the general Aetius did nothing. All eyes turned to Leo—the one strong man—and the emperor, Valentinian III, and senate ordered him to negotiate with the enemy. Upheld as usual by the sense of his sacred office, and without a moment’s hesitation, he started out from the capital, accompanied by Avienus the consul, Trigetius the governor of the city, and some of his priests, and came face to face with the invaders on the site of the present town of Peschiera. The pope and his clergy interviewed the dreaded foe and induced him to retire and to accept an annual tribute instead of entering the holy city. Rome was freed for the moment, but not for long. Three years later, the Vandal Genseric (Gaiseric) appeared with an army before its walls, now almost defenceless. This time St Leo’s intervention was not so successful, but he obtained from the barbarian chief an undertaking to be satisfied with pillaging the city and to restrain his troops from slaughter and incendiarism. The Vandals withdrew after fifteen days, taking back to Africa many captives as well as immense booty.
St Leo immediately set about the task of repairing the damage and of finding a remedy for the evils caused by the barbarians. He sent priests to minister to the captives in Africa and alms to assist them. He also replaced, as far as he could, the vessels and ornaments of the devastated churches. It was characteristic of his trust in God that he was never discouraged, and that he maintained an unruffled equanimity even in the most difficult moments. In the twenty-one years of his pontificate he had won the love and veneration of rich and poor, emperors and barbarians, clergy and lay folk alike. He died on November 10, 461, and his relics are preserved in the Vatican basilica. He is, however, commemorated on this day, which is that of one of the translations of his remains which have since taken place. His Anglican biographer, Dr Jalland, sums up Leo’s personal character under four aspects—“his indomitable energy, his magnanimity, his consistency and his devotion to simple duty”. His exposition of the true doctrine of the incarnation of the Son of God was a “moment” of the highest importance in Christian history, and among all his personal achievements, “there was none greater than the success with which he vindicated the claim of the Roman see to a primacy in the sphere of
Doctrine”. This great pope was declared a doctor of the Church, rather belatedly, in 1754.
Amongst the sermons of St Leo which have been preserved is one which he preached on the festival of St Peter and St Paul, not long after the retreat of Attila. He begins by contrasting the fervour of the Romans at the moment of their deliver­ance with their increasing forgetfulness, and reminds them of the ingratitude of the nine lepers. “Therefore, my beloved”, he goes on to say, “lest you incur the like reproach, return to the Saviour: remember the marvels He has wrought amongst you. Beware of attributing your deliverance to the stars, as some people impiously do, but refer it only to the boundless mercy of God who softened the furious hearts of the barbarians. Your past negligence must be atoned for by an ex­piation which exceeds the offence. Let us use the respite accorded by our kind Master to work at amending our lives, so that St Peter and all the saints who have succoured us in countless afflictions may second the tender supplications which we address on your behalf to the God of mercy through our Lord Jesus Christ.”

Despite the prominent part played by St Leo in the history of his times, we have nothing in the nature of an early biography. The account given of him in the Liber Pontificalis amounts to very little. On a notice preserved in the Greek Menaia see the Analecta Bollan­diana, vol. xxix (1910), pp. 400—408. A convenient summary of the saint’s career and character is that of A. Régnier (1910) in the series “Lea Saints”. For a fuller bibliography see the excellent article of Mgr Batiffol in DTC., vol. ix, cc. 218—301. Naturally Pope Leo is accorded a conspicuous place in such general works as Duchesne’s Historie ancienne de l’Eglise (Eng. trans.), vol. iii Hefele-Leclercq, Conciles, vol. ii; and Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichhen Literatur, vol. iv. Special attention must be called to  C. H. Turner’s discussion of the dogmatic letters of St Leo in the Miscellanea Ceriani (1910) and to the most valuable Life and Times of St Leo the Great (1941), by the Rev. T. G. Jalland, which contains a bibliography.
Place and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, next to that of St. Gregory I, is the most significant and important in Christian antiquity. At a time when the Church was experiencing the greatest obstacles to her progress in consequence of the hastening disintegration of the Western Empire, while the Orient was profoundly agitated over dogmatic controversies, this great pope, with far-seeing sagacity and powerful hand, guided the destiny of the Roman and Universal Church. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Mommsen, I, 101 sqq., ed. Duchesne, I, 238 sqq.), Leo was a native of Tuscany and his father's name was Quintianus. Our earliest certain historical information about Leo reveals him a deacon of the Roman Church under Pope Celestine I (422-32). Even during this period he was known outside of Rome, and had some relations with Gaul, since Cassianus in 430 or 431 wrote at Leo's suggestion his work "De Incarnatione Domini contra Nestorium" (Migne, P.L., L, 9 sqq.), prefacing it with a letter of dedication to Leo. About this time Cyril of Alexandria appealed to Rome against the pretensions of Bishop Juvenal of Jerusalem. From an assertion of Leo's in a letter of later date (ep. cxvi, ed. Ballerini, I, 1212; II, 1528), it is not very clear whether Cyril wrote to him in the capacity of Roman deacon, or to Pope Celestine. During the pontificate of Sixtus III (422-40), Leo was sent to Gaul by Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute and bring about a reconciliation between Aëtius, the chief military commander of the province, and the chief magistrate, Albinus. This commission is a proof of the great confidence placed in the clever and able deacon by the Imperial Court. Sixtus III died on 19 August, 440, while Leo was in Gaul, and the latter was chosen his successor. Returning to Rome, Leo was consecrated on 29 September of the same year, and governed the Roman Church for the next twenty-one years.
 In the Latin Church the feast day of the great pope is held on 11 April, and in the Eastern Church on 18 February.
180 St. Philip of Gortyna Bishop of Gortyna, Crete. Little is known about him except for his authorship of a now lost treatise against Marcionite Gnostics.
Philip of Gortyna B (RM)
Gortynæ, in Creta, sancti Philíppi Epíscopi, vita et doctrína claríssimi, qui, tempóribus Marci Antoníni Veri et Lúcii Aurélii Cómmodi, Ecclésiam sibi créditam regens, a furóre Gentílium et ab hæreticórum insídiis eándem tutátus est.
    At Gortina in Crete, during the reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, St. Philip, bishop, well known for his life and his teaching.  He had defended the Church entrusted to his care against the fury of the heathen and the snares of the heretics.
An early bishop of Gortyna, Crete, Saint Philip authored a now-lost work against the Marcionite Gnostics (Benedictines).
300 Eustorgius  a priest of Nicomedia, Asia Minor M (RM)
Nicomedíæ sancti Eustórgii Presbyteri.      At Nicomedia, the priest St. Eustorgius.
Eustorgius, a priest of Nicomedia, Asia Minor, was probably martyred under Diocletian (Benedictines).
4th v. Saint Pharmuphios lived at the same desert monastery where St John (March 29) lived in asceticism within a well, to whom St Pharmuphios gave food.
Saint Pharmuphios lived during the fourth century at the same desert monastery where St John (March 29) lived in asceticism within a well, to whom St Pharmuphios gave food.
Saint John was a disciple of St Gregory the Decapolite (November 20). See April 18.

5th v. St. Machai Abbot founder of a monastery on the isle of Bute in Ireland disciple of St. Patrick. and leader of the evangelical mission there.
Machai of Bute, Abbot (AC) (also known as Maccai) . Machai, a disciple of Saint Patrick, founded a monastery on the isle of Bute (Benedictines, Husenbeth).


6th .  St. Maedhog Irish abbot also called Aedhan or Mogue ruled Clonmore Abbey Ireland associated with Sts. Oncho and Finan.
Maedhog- Aedhan, Abbot (AC) (also known as Aedhan, Mogue)
The Irish Abbot Saint Maedhog of Clonmore, was closely associated with SS. Onchu and Finan (Benedictines).
Aid of Achad-Finglas Abbot Saint Aid of Achard-Finglas, County Carlow, Ireland (AC)
 may be identical with Saint Aed Maedhog. He is the titular of a church, an abbey, and several chapels (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
550 Isaac of Spoleto a Syrian monk  Hermit one of the restorers of eremitical life in 6th century Italy (RM)  
Spoléti sancti Isaac, Mónachi et Confessóris, cujus virtútes sanctus Gregórius Papa commémorat.
    At Spoleto, St. Isaac, monk and confessor, whose virtues are recorded by Pope St. Gregory.
(also known as Isaac of Monteluco) Saint Isaac was a Syrian monk who fled from the Monophysite persecution and founded a laura at Monteluco, near Spoleto, Umbria, Italy. He was one of the restorers of eremitical life in 6th century Italy (Benedictines).
550 ST ISAAC OF SPOLETO “A monk who wants earthly possessions is not a monk at all”. The holy man was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.

THE ilex-covered slopes of Monte Luco, considered sacred since pagan times, are honeycombed by caves which sheltered many a Christian solitary in the early middle ages. One of the most famous of these recluses was St Isaac, a man well known to St Gregory’s friend St Eleutherius, who furnished the particulars about the hermit which are contained in the Dialogues.
Isaac was a Syrian, who left his native land in consequence of the monophysite persecution to take up his residence in Italy. Upon his first arrival, in Spoleto he entered a church, where he remained for three days and three nights, absorbed in prayer. Mistrusting his motives, one of the custodians of the building called him a hypocrite, struck him, and drove him from the church. Retribution immediately overtook the man, for the Devil entered into him and would not leave until St Isaac had stretched himself upon the body of his assailant. “Isaac is driving me out!” exclaimed the evil spirit, thus disclosing to the inhabitants of Spoleto the identity of the stranger. The townsfolk, convinced that they had in their midst a very holy man, offered him presents and would have built him a monastery, but he refused all gifts and retired to a cave on Monte Luco. After several years spent in solitude, he had a vision of our Lady in which she bade him train disciples. He then became the director of a kind of laura, although he never founded a monastery. Several times his followers asked him to sanction their acceptance of offerings from the faithful, but he always replied, “A monk who wants earthly possessions is not a monk at all”. The holy man was endowed with the gifts of prophecy and miracles.

All that we know of St Isaac is derived from the third book of the Dialogues of St Gregory. See also the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii.
550 St. Barsanuphius Hermit of Gaza in Israel Egyptian renowned for holiness and wisdom refusing to speak communicating only in writing existing without food or water.
Apud Gazam in Palæstína, sancti Barsanúphii Anachorétæ, sub Justiniáno Imperatóre.
    At Gaza in Palestine, in the time of Emperor Justinian, St. Barsanuphius, an anchoret.

550 ST BARSANUPHIUS
THE Greeks held St Barsanuphius in so great honour that his eikon was placed beside those of St Ephraem and St Antony in the church of the Holy Wisdom at Constantinople. He was an Egyptian by birth, who lived in a cell adjoining a monastery at Gaza in Palestine, in the time of the Emperor Justinian. He communicated with no one except, by writing, so that the story got around that he neither ate nor drank earthly food. Evagrius relates that Eustochius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, doubting whether anyone could really be tending such a life, caused the wall of the cell to be broken through, whereupon flames burst out and consumed the unfortunate masons for their curiosity. A less absurd version of this story says that Barsanuphius invited the doubters into his cell and demonstrated the actuality of his existence by washing their feet.
Whatever his own austerities, the anchorite’s written advice to others was to eat, drink, sleep and clothe themselves sufficiently. He was particularly resorted to by those who required assurance of the forgiveness of their sins, a subject on which Barsanuphius had often to write.
We have to depend on references in Evagrius (Eccl. Hist., iv, 33), the Life of St Dositheus (February 23), and what can be gathered from the saint’s “letters”, on which see two articles by S. Vailhé in Échos d’Orient, vol. vii (1904), pp. 268 seq., and vol. viii (1905), pp. 14 seq. The so-called “acts” of Barsanuphius are characterized by the Bollandists as partly fabulous and partly doubtful (Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii), while Fr Vailhé regards them as a tissue of fictions. In MS. 5290, fond, latin, of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, is contained a fanciful and no doubt wholly fictitious account of one Barsanorius, seemingly to be identified with the hermit referred to by Evagrius. This text has been printed in the Catalogus Codicum Hagiog. Paris, vol. i, pp. 525—535. The spiritual teaching of Barsanuphius and of his friend John the Prophet is of considerable interest cf. the article s.v. “Barsanuphe” by Fr I. Hausherr in the Dictionnaire de spiritualité, vol. (1938) and Writings from the Phlokalia (1951), pp. 341—381.
Hermit of Gaza, in Israel. An Egyptian, Barsanuphius maintained his hermitage near a monastery in Gaza. He was renowned for his holiness and wisdom, refusing to speak and communicating only in writing. He was famous for existing without food or water. Barsanuphius maintained his hermitage near a monastery in Gaza. He was renowned for his holiness and wisdom, refusing to speak and communicating only in writing. He was famous for existing without food or water.

Barsanuphius of Gaza, Hermit (RM) An Egyptian who for 50 years lived in absolute seclusion for the love of God, near the monastery of Saint Seridon of Gaza, Palestine, Saint Barsanuphius is greatly venerated by the Greeks who keep his feast on February 6. He 'conversed' only through his letters which have been preserved.
A village near Sipontum (current Manfredonia) in southern Italy claims to possess his relics (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Orthodoxe Kirche: 6. Februar
Barsanuphios und JohannesDie beiden Mönche lebten im 6. Jahrhundert unter Kaiser Justinian (483-565) in dem Kloster von Abba Serid nahe Gaza (Palästina). Barsanuphios wurde in Ägypten geboren und ging schon als Jugendlicher in das Kloster, um dort ein asketisches Leben zu führen. Er baute sich eine kleine Zelle in der Nähe des Klosters und lebte hier einige Jahre. Dann bezog Barsanuphios eine andere Zelle und sein Schüler Johannes lebte 18 Jahre in seiner alten Zelle. Barsanuphios wurde von vielen Menschen um Rat und Hilfe angegangen, er sprach aber nur mit Abba Serid, dem Abt des Klosters und Johannes und ließ den Ratsuchenden seine Antworten schriftlich oder über Johannes zugehen. Die Aufzeichnungen des Johannes wurden unter dem Titel "Antworten" als Buch herausgegeben und fanden besonders im slawischen Raum weite Verbreitung.
Über Johannes ist weder bekannt, woher er kam, noch, wann er geboren wurde und starb. Er hatte die prophetische Gabe und sagte neben vielen anderen Ereignissen auch den Tod von Abba Serid und seinen eigenen Tod voraus. Nachdem der Abt und Johannes kurz nacheinander gestorben waren, soll Barsanuphios noch 50 Jahre in seiner Zelle ohne jeden Kontakt zur Außenwelt gelebt haben. Einige Quellen geben an, Barsanuphios sei 563 gestorben, nach anderen Quellen starb er vor 600.
680 Agericus of Tours disciple of Saint Eligius abbot of Saint Martin's in Tours, France, and spent himself entirely for his abbey OSB (PC)
(also known as Acry, Agery, Aguy, Airy)
Saint Agericus was a disciple of Saint Eligius, who became abbot of Saint Martin's in Tours, France, and spent himself entirely for his abbey (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
700 St. Godebertha establishing a convent in Noyon abbess  miracle worker who stopped a plague and a raging fire.
Abbess who was received into the religious life by St. Eligius, the bishop of Noyon, France. Godebertha was from Amiens. After establishing a convent in Noyon, she was made abbess. King Clotaire III built her convent. Godebertha was a miracle worker who stopped a plague and a raging fire.

700 ST GODEBERTA, VIRGIN
WHEN the parents of St Godeberta considered that their daughter had reached a marriageable age, they took her to court in order that a suitable match might be arranged for her. That the maiden herself had a vocation for the religious life did not enter into their calculations, but St Eligius, Bishop of Noyon, who arrived during the deliberations and was perhaps in her confidence, slipped off his ring and, giving it to Godeberta, announced that he was thus affiancing her to our Lord Jesus Christ. She, greatly delighted, at once begged the prelate to give her the veil and to become her spiritual director. No serious opposition seems to have been made by her parents, who were no doubt well satisfied when King Clotaire III announced his intention of bestowing upon her his house of Noyon for a convent. Very soon there gathered round her twelve maidens, who led a life of prayer and mortification which must have contributed much to the Christian influences at work in a district which had hitherto remained partially pagan. When a terrible plague had broken out at Noyon, Godeberta urged the clergy to proclaim a three days’ fast and general penance. Her suggestion was adopted and the scourge abated. This was followed later on by a great fire. Godeberta was ill at the time, but she caused herself to be carried to the place where the flames were raging furiously and quenched them— tradition says—by making the sign of the cross. During her life, the saint had a great reputation as a wonder-worker, and ever since her death she has been invoked in the diocese of Noyon against calamities of all sorts, but especially against drought and epidemics.
There is a Latin life of St Godeberta which has been printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii; its authorship is ascribed to Radbod II, Bishop of Noyon. See also Laffineur, Vie de Ste Godeberthe (1856) and Corblet, Hagiographie d’Amiens (1870), vol. ii, pp. 550—569.
Godeberta of Noyon, Abbess V (AC) (also known as Godebertha) Born in the diocese of Amiens, France. Godeberta received the veil from Saint Eligius, bishop of Noyon, who also composed a rule for the convent of which she was the first abbess. It is said that she was a discrete advisor of Saint Eligius (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
714 Guthlac of Croyland, OSB Hermit imitate the rigors of the old desert fathers "Those who choose to live apart from other humans become the friends of wild animals; and the angels visit them, too- -for those who are often visited by men and women are rarely visited by angels." prophet visions incorrupt (AC)

714 ST GUTHLAC God gave the recluse great spiritual consolations, besides bestowing upon him the gifts of prophecy and miracles. “Have you not read that he who elects to be unknown of men becomes known of wild creatures and is visited by angels? For he who is frequented by men cannot be frequented by the holy angels.”

THE great Norman abbey of Croyland or Crowland, the ruins of which are still standing, replaced more than one earlier monastery on the site sanctified by the life and death of the holy hermit St Guthlac. Whilst it was the monks who reclaimed the swamp, joining the island to the mainland and rendering it arable and fertile, it was in the name of the recluse, their patron, that they obtained from the council of the realm permission to make of Croyland a sanctuary of refuge where fugitives could be secure from their pursuers.
St Guthlac, who was of noble race, joined the army of Ethelred of Mercia as a fighting man when he was very young. At the age of twenty-four, however, he laid down his arms to enter the double monastery of Repton, at that time under the rule of the abbess Elfrida. The handsome young novice, though amiable and courteous to all, was at first unpopular owing to his austerity and especially to his total abstinence from any intoxicating drink, but as soon as his brethren came to know him better they appreciated his sincerity and goodness. For two years he remained at Repton, acquiring monastic discipline and studying the Scriptures, and then he was seized with the desire to take up the life of a hermit. He was told of a dismal island in the Fens, described as being so dank and so haunted by monsters and evil spirits that no one had hitherto been able to live in it. He persuaded his informant to take him there in a fishing boat, and decided that it was the place he sought. He returned with two or three companions to Croyland, where he was to end his days.  With certain modifications necessitated by the difference in place and climate his life reproduced that of the fathers of the desert, and in addition to severe interior trials he experienced violent temptations, not unlike those which St Athanasius describes of St Antony. Moreover, he was savagely attacked by wild beings whom he regarded as monsters, but who seem to have been the descendants of Britons who had fled into the Fens to avoid their Saxon conquerors. On the other hand God gave the recluse great spiritual consolations, besides bestowing upon him the gifts of prophecy and miracles. St Hedda, Bishop of Dorchester, conferred holy orders upon him when he had been six years on the island. In his solitude St Guthlac possessed a great attraction for wild nature: the fish in the marshes would swim towards him at his call, and he was constantly surrounded by birds, who flocked into his cell, ate from his hands, and built their nests in the places he selected. When the crows robbed him of some of his few possessions, he bore with their depredations, “deeming that an example of patience ought to be set not only to men but also to birds and beasts”. One day, as he was talking with a man called Wilfrid, two swallows alighted on his shoulders and then perched on his arms and knees, chattering all the time as though quite at home. In reply to Wilfrid’s exclamations of surprise St Guthlac said, “Have you not read that he who elects to be unknown of men becomes known of wild creatures and is visited by angels? For he who is frequented by men cannot be frequented by the holy angels.”
When the saint had been living as a hermit for a period variously computed as fifteen and twenty-one years, God revealed to him the date of his death, which was very near. It also became known in some way to Edburga, abbess of Repton, for she sent him a leaden coffin and a shroud. On the Wednesday in Holy Week 714, he sent word to his sister St Pega, inviting her to come to his funeral. Although she had been living as an anchoress at Peakirk (Pegkirk), close to Croyland, her brother had always refrained from seeing her, deeming it desirable that they should not meet in this world that they might meet with greater joy in the next. On the seventh day of his illness, after taking viaticum from his altar, he passed to his eternal reward. His burial was attended by St Pega and by his disciples, Cissa, Egbert, Bettelin and Tatwin, who occupied cells not far from that of their master. St Guthlac’s tomb became a great place of pilgrimage, especially after Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury, had been cured of ague through the intercession of Guthlac in the year 851.
There is a trustworthy life of St Guthlac written in the eighth century by Felix which is printed both by Mabillon, Acta Sanctorum O.S.E. (vol. iii, part 1, pp. 264—284) and by the Bollandists. Though little fresh information is obtainable from any other source, there are two Anglo-Saxon poems of contemporary date which have been attributed to Cynewulf (on which see the Cambridge History of English Literature, vol. i, p. 58, etc.), which are of great literary interest. Other lives, such as that by Peter of Blois, have no historical value. See also W. de Gray Birch, Memorials of St Guthlac of Crowland (1881) and his edition of Felix’s vita; DNB., vol. xxiii, p. 373 and DCB., vol. ii, pp. 823—826. From the frequent occurrence of the name of St Guthlac in English calendars it is plain that there was a very general popular cultus. A new edition of the Felix vita, by B. Colgrave, is announced.
Born in Mercia, c. 673; died at Crowland, Lincolnshire, England, in 714; feast day formerly on April 12; feast of his translation is August 30 and there is a commemoration on August 26.
As a young man of royal blood from the tribe of Guthlacingas, Guthlac had been a soldier for nine years, fighting for Ethelred, the King of Mercia. At age 24, he renounced both violence and the life of the world and became a monk in an Benedictine double abbey at Repton, which was ruled by an abbess named Elfrida.

Even in these early years his discipline was extraordinary. Some of the monks in fact disliked him because he refused all wine and cheering drink. But he lived down the criticism and gained the respect of his brothers. After two years in the monastery it seemed to him far too agreeable a place. On the feast of Saint Bartholomew about 701, he found a wet, remote, unloved spot on the River Welland in the Fens, which could be reached only by boat, and lived there for the rest of his life as a hermit, seeking to imitate the rigors of the old desert fathers.

His temptations rivalled theirs. Wild men came out of the forest and beat him. Even the ravens stole his few possessions. But Guthlac was patient, even with wild creatures. Bit by bit the animals and birds came to trust him as their friend. A holy man named Wilfrid once visited Guthlac and was astonished when two swallows landed on his shoulders and then hopped all over him. Guthlac told him, "Those who choose to live apart from other humans become the friends of wild animals; and the angels visit them, too- -for those who are often visited by men and women are rarely visited by angels."

Apparently, Guthlac was also had a vision of Saint Bartholomew, his patron. Nor was he entirely alone in his refuge: He had several disciples, Saints Cissa, Bettelin, Egbert, and Tatwin, who had cells nearby. Bishop Hedda of Dorchester ordained him to the priesthood during a visit. The exiled prince Ethelbald, often came to him for advice, learned from Guthlac that he would wear the crown of the Mercians.

When he was dying, Guthlac sent for his sister, Saint Pega, who was a hermitess in the same neighborhood (Peakirk or Pega's church). Abbess Edburga of Repton sent him a shroud and a leaden coffin. A year after his death, Guthlac's body was exhumed and found to be incorrupt. Soon his shrine, to which his sister had donated his Psalter and scourge, began popular. When both King Wiglaf of Mercia (827-840) and Archbishop Ceolnoth of Canterbury (who was cured by Guthlac of the ague in 851) became devotees, Guthlac's cultus grew and spread.
A monastery was established on the site of Saint Guthlac's hermitage, which developed into the great abbey of Crowland, to which his relics were translated in 1136. There was another translation in 1196.
Guthlac's vita was recorded in Latin by his near contemporary Felix. Several others were composed in Old English verse and prose.
Together with Saint Cuthbert, Guthlac was one of England's most popular pre-Conquest hermit saints (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Farmer, Gill, Husenbeth).

In art, Saint Guthlac is depicted holding a scourge in his hand and a serpent at his feet. At times he may be shown (1) receiving the scourge from Saint Bartholomew; (2) being ordained priest by Saint Hedda of Winchester; or (3) with devils molesting and angels consoling him (Roeder). A magnificent pictorial record of his life survives in the late 12th-century Harleian Roll Y.6 at the British Museum, which is usually called the Guthlac Roll. This is a series of eighteen roundels, cartoons for stained glass windows, based on Felix's vita and the pseudo-Ingulph's history of Crowland.
Crowland also has several 13th-century sculptures of his life.
Abbot Henry of Crowland's 13th-century seal depicts Guthlac receiving a scourge from Saint Bartholomew for fending off diabolical attacks (Farmer). He is venerated in Lincolnshire (Roeder).
1079 St. Stanislaus  ordained  at Szczepanow near Cracow noted for preaching sought after spiritual adviser martyred by cruel King
Stanislaus was born of noble parents on July 26th at Szczepanow near Cracow, Poland. He was educated at Gnesen and was ordained there. He was given a canonry by Bishop Lampert Zula of Cracow, who made him his preacher, and soon he became noted for his preaching. He became a much sought after spiritual adviser. He was successful in his reforming efforts, and in 1072 was named Bishop of Cracow. He incurred the enmity of King Boleslaus the Bold when he denounced the King's cruelties and injustices and especially his kidnapping of the beautiful wife of a nobleman. When Stanislaus excommunicated the King and stopped services at the Cathedral when Boleslaus entered, Boleslaus himself killed Stanislaus while the Bishop was saying Mass in a chapel outside the city on April 11.
Stanislaus has long been the symbol of Polish nationhood. He was canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1253 and is the principle patron of Cracow.
Stanislaus Szczepanowsky BM (RM) (also known as Stanislaus of Cracow)  Born at Szczepanow, Poland, on July 26, 1030; died at Cracow, Poland, on April 11, 1079; canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1253; feast day formerly on May 7.  Stanislaus was born to noble parents who had been childless and prayed for a child. They raised him religiously, encouraging him in his devotion to God. He was educated at Gnesen and Paris, and was ordained a priest by Bishop Lampert Zula of Cracow. He was given a canonry in the cathedral and was later appointed preacher and archdeacon by the bishop.
His expressive preaching and good example brought about a spiritual revival among his congregation, and he was sought out by clergy and laymen for his spiritual advice. He was generous to the poor and was successful in bringing about religious reforms. The bishop wished to resign his office to Stanislaus, but Stanislaus convinced him not to. When the bishop died, however, Stanislaus was chosen to succeed him; after Pope Alexander II endorsed the choice, he was consecrated in 1072. He was a tireless preacher, zealous reformer, and generous benefactor to the poor.
At that time Poland was governed by Boleslaus II--"King Boleslav the Cruel"--whose virtues were eclipsed by his unbridled lust and savage cruelty. The story commonly told is that Stanislaus chastised King Boleslaus for his disordered private behavior. At first the king did what many of us do--he tried to justify his actions, but the saint pressed the ruler until he was temporarily brought to repentance. But his good intentions did not last long, and he had the beautiful wife of one of his noblemen kidnapped and taken to his palace. Stanislaus was the only one of the clergy or offended nobility brave enough to confront Boleslaus, whom he reprimanded for his action. Finding this to be in vain, he excommunicated the king, and the king feigned nonchalance.
When Boleslaus entered the cathedral of Cracow, Stanislaus halted the services. Enraged, Boleslaus followed him to the chapel of Saint Michael outside the city and ordered his guards to kill him. The men returned and said that they could not kill him because he was surrounded by a divine light. Upbraiding his men for their cowardice, the king himself entered the chapel and killed Stanislaus as he was celebrating the Mass. The guards cut the body up and scattered it to be eaten by wild animals. Three days later his remains were collected by cathedral canons and buried at the door of the chapel.
It is probable that the murder was motivated by politics--some historians hold that Stanislaus was conspiring to dethrone Boleslaus--but the available evidence is variously interpreted by historians. Boleslaus's action, however, did speed his fall from power. Pope Saint Gregory VII placed Poland under an interdict and Boleslaus fled the country, dying as a fugitive in Hungary (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Walsh, White).
Stanislaus, the symbol of Polish nationhood, is the patron saint of Poland and Cracow. He is depicted in art being hacked to pieces at the foot of an altar (Roeder, White). He is invoked by soldiers in battle (Roeder), and is the patron of Poland. His cultus extends also to Lithuania, Byelorussia, and the Ukraine (Farmer).
1138 Blessed Waltmann of Cambrai accompanied Saint Norbert to Cambrai to preach against heresy O. Praem., Abbot (AC)

1138 BD WALTMAN, ABBOT
TOWARDS the close of the first quarter of the twelfth century a layman called Tanchelm originated a new sect in Antwerp, which gained a considerable following. Its adherents held that bishops and priests were unnecessary and denied the efficacy of the sacraments, whilst permitting themselves great relaxation of morals. The archbishop of Cambrai, in whose diocese Antwerp then lay, greatly perturbed at the progress of the heresy, persuaded the canons of St Michael’s in the city to enlist the help of St Norbert to combat the evil. In response to the invitation, the great Premonstratensian founder duly arrived with two of his disciples, Evermod and a learned and pious canon of the name of Waltman. Thanks to the zeal and preaching of these three, the people were soon won back to the faith, the sect lost its hold, and Tanchelm had to beat an ignominious retreat. As a token of their gratitude the secular canons presented St Michael’s to St Norbert, they themselves retiring to Notre-Dame, now the cathedral. Waltman became abbot of the newly-formed Premonstratensian establishment.

No independent account of the activities of Bd Waltman seems to have come down to us from early times, but we hear of him in the Life of St Norbert (see the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. i) and in the notices which chroniclers have devoted to the heresy of Tanchelm. Cf. I. van Spillbeeck, Vie de saint Norbert; tableaux Historiques du XIIe siècle (1898), and C. J. Kirkfleet, History of St Norbert (1916).
Waltmann accompanied Saint Norbert to Cambrai to preach against heresy. He remained there as abbot of Saint Michael's of Anvers, which he directed with great vigor (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1146  The Departure of holy father Anba Michael, the Seventy First Pope of the See of St. Mark. {Coptic church}.
On this day also of the year 862 A.M. (March 29th. 1146 A.D.) the holy father Pope Michael, the seventy first Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, departed. He longed to the pure life since his young age so he became a monk in the monastery of St. Macarius. He lived in the desert until he was an old man, in a good pleasing life to God.
When Pope Gabriel (70) departed, the bishops, the priests and the lay leaders spent three month searching for who was best suited to succeed him. A monk from the monastery of St. Macarius, called Yoannis Ebn Kedran, came forward nominating himself supported in that by Anba Yacoub, bishop of Lekanah, Anba Christodolus, bishop of Fowa, and Anba Michael, bishop of Tanta.
Nevertheless, the bishops of Upper Egypt, the priests of Alexandria and the lay leaders of Cairo did not accept that choice. Finally they all agreed to choose three of the monks and those were: Yoannis Abu El-Fatah, Michael of St. Macarius monastery, and Soliman El-Dekhiary of El-Baramous monastery. They cast a lot among them, and the lot fell on the monk Michael, and they ordained him a Patriarch on the 5th of Mesra, 861 A.M. (July 29th, year 1145 A.D.). He was an honorable old man loving for the poor and the needy. He took for himself a scribe to write his sermons and teachings that he sent to the bishops and priests. When he fell sick, he went to the monastery of St. Macarius, where he departed in peace, after he stayed on the Chair for eight month. May his prayers be with us and glory be to God forever.
1209 Blesseds Stephen abbot & Hilderbrand  one of his monks, were killed by the Albigenses at Saint-Gilles, Languedoc OSB Cist. MM (PC)
Stephen, a Cistercian abbot, and Hilderbrand, one of his monks, were killed by the Albigenses at Saint-Gilles, Languedoc, where they are venerated through a popular cultus (Benedictines).
1237 Blessed Raynerius Inclusus, Hermit (i.e., 'shut up') lived as a hermit in a cell near the cathedral of Osnabrück heavy chains next to his skin (AC)

1237 BD RAINERIUS INCLUSUS
ADJOINING the cathedral of Osnabruck in the early part of the thirteenth century was a hermit’s cell, with a squint which commanded a view of the altar inside the church. Shut up (inclusus) for twenty-two years in the narrow enclosure lived a recluse called Rainerius (in English, Rayner) who, by his extraordinary austerities even more than by the few words he allowed himself to utter, recalled many a sinner and worldly man to repentance and newness of life. Although he had lived blamelessly from childhood, Rainerius used every device he could imagine to chastise and mortify his flesh. On his naked body he wore a shift of chain-mail and hair, concealed by a coarse habit, and he scourged himself regularly until the blood ran. When asked why he thus tortured his body, he would reply, “As our Lord Jesus Christ suffered in all His limbs for me, so do I wish, out of love for Him, to suffer in all my members”. On Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays he fasted on bread and vegetables, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays on bread and beer, while on Fridays he took only bread and water. He daily recited the psalter and so many other prayers for the living and the dead that sometimes he had not time enough to eat. He observed absolute silence except on feast-days, when he spoke a little but only for edification, usually keeping a stone in his mouth lest he might be tempted to vain words; his requirements were made known by nods and signs. Bd Rainerius is said to have died in 1237.

Raynerius Inclusus (i.e., 'shut up') lived as a hermit in a cell near the cathedral of Osnabrück. He spent 22 years in his cell wearing a coat of mail and heavy chains next to his skin (Benedictines).
1303 Blessed John of Cupramontana cave of Cupramonatan on Mount Massaccio for many years as a Camaldolese monk-hermit  OSB Cam. (AC)
John lived in the cave of Cupramonatan on Mount Massaccio for many years as a Camaldolese monk-hermit (Benedictines).
XIV v. The Monk Jakov of Bryleevsk was a disciple of the Monk Jakov of Zheleznoborovsk founded the Bryleevsk wilderness-monastery
(Comm. 11 April) and was a "trudnik" at his monastery (the word "trudnik" has two meanings: "truzhenik"-"toiler" and "posluzhnik"-"obedient"). He later founded the Bryleevsk wilderness-monastery in honour of the Entry into the Temple of the MostHoly Mother of God at a distance of 5 versts from the Zheleznoborovsk ForeRunner monastery, off in the direction of the city of Bua.
The Monk Jakov died during the XV Century and was buried in the Entry into the Temple church. His memory is marked likewise on the Day of the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles (i.e. Pentecost).
XVI v. The Monk Evphymii {Euphymius} and his disciple the Monk Khariton example to the brethren in prayer, and in the works of construction and supervision
They asceticised at the River Syanzhema during the close of the XV to the beginning XVI Centuries. The Monk Evphymii came to the Spasokamensk monastery from the Volokolamsk outskirts. For a long time he continued as a novice-obedient at the monastery, but later he settled on the eastern shore of Lake Kuben near the mouth of the River Kushta. Amidst the impenetrable swamps and dense woods there, the saint built himself a small cell, wherein he asceticised in total solitude. After a certain while there came to him the Monk Alexander of Kushtsk (+ 1439, Comm. 9 June), who also had set out from the Spasokamensk monastery and at first settled at the River Syanzhema. The Monk Alexander besought the Monk Evphymii to switch cells with him, since he was seeking a place of complete quiet.

Transferring himself over to the River Syanzhema, the Monk Evphymii did not refuse the local people his spiritual counsel and guidance. And there too the Monk Khariton came to him.

The Monk Evphymii built a church in honour of the Ascension of Christ and made next it a monastery. At Rostov, under Sainted Archbishop Dionysii (1418-1425), he received the permission to build, and evidently, he also received there the priestly dignity and was made hegumen of the monastery started by him.
Both monks were an example to the brethren in prayer, and in the works of construction and supervision. They made do with such food and clothing, as even the brethren reckoned worthless. In temple the Monk Evphymii stood in fear and trembling, and the brethren often saw upon his face tears of tenderness. Working at hand-crafts, the monk always sang psalms. The Monk Evphymii died in about the year 1465, though the actual day of his death is unknown.
His successor as hegumen was his beloved disciple -- the Monk Khariton. For more than 40 years he continued the work at the monastery, and he died in old age on 11 April 1509. Both monks were buried at the Ascension church. The memory of the Monk Evphymii is celebrated also on 20 January, and that of the Monk Khariton on 28 September, on the days of their saints-names in common.
1442  Saint James of Zhelezny Bor  sanctity prophet many years of common ascetical efforts monks entreated St James to be their igumen ordained a priest
Son of the noble Anosov (or Amosov) line, which had their lands at Kostroma Galich, was born in the second half of the fourteenth century.

As a youth he went to St Sergiua of Radonezh, received monastic tonsure from him, and lived at the Trinity monastery for several years.

In 1392 St James settled in a dense forest near iron mines, at a place which was called the Iron Pines, at the banks of the rivulet Tebza. His sanctity of life was already known in his own time. In 1415 the wife of Great Prince Basil (1389-1425), Sophia (in monasticism Syncletica, + 1453) fell seriously ill before childbirth. The Great Prince sent a message to St James begging the monk to pray for his wife, and asking whether she would live. The saint told him to pray to the holy Martyr Longinus and foretold the happy birth of a son, Basil.

(In 1450, this son, Great Prince Basil (1425-1462), visited the monastery of St James and prayed there with gratitude for his victory over Prince Demetrius Shemyaka).

The grateful Prince Basil generously rewarded St James and gave him money to build a monastery with a church in honor of the holy Prophet John the Forerunner. In 1429, the Khazan Tatars laid waste the surroundings of Galich. St James hid deep in the forest with his disciples. When they returned, they found the monastery in ruins. Everything had to be rebuilt. The saint built a church dedicated to St Nicholas, and he dug out ponds with the brethren. On the example of the Trinity-Sergiev monastery a strict cenobitic rule was introduced. Many of the hungry and destitute people, devastated by the Tatars, were fed at the monastery.

After many years of common ascetical efforts, the monks entreated St James to be their igumen. He humbly submitted to their request and journeyed to Moscow, where he was ordained a priest.
St James died on April 11, 1442 and was buried at the John the Forerunner church of the monastery he founded.
1576 Sainted Varsonophii bishop of Tver died at the Transfiguration monastery founded by him in the city of Kazan in the year 1576
Born in the year 1495.  In 1567 he was ordained bishop of Tver. He died at the Transfiguration monastery founded by him in the city of Kazan in the year 1576. © 1999 by translator Fr S Janos
1576 Saint Barsanuphius of Tver captured by the Crimean Tatars After 3 years John's father ransomed him became a monk proficient in virtue and piety
Born in the year 1495, and was from Serpukhov. He was named John in Baptism, and he was taught to read and write. While still a youth, he was captured by the Crimean Tatars. Accepting this as the Lord's will, he meekly submitted to his masters, and dutifully accomplished the work they assigned him to do. After three years, John's father ransomed him. He then went to Moscow and became a monk in the Andronikov Monastery, where he received the monastic name Barsanuphius.  Devoting himself to the ascetical life, he became proficient in virtue and piety.
In 1544, he was appointed as igumen of the Pesnosha Monastery. Later, he went to Kazan and founded a monastery dedicated to the Transfiguration of the Lord.

While in Kazan, Archimandrite Barsanuphius was able to help St Gurias (December 5) in spreading Christianity among the Moslems and pagans. His knowledge of the Tatar language proved to be very useful in this work.
In 1567, St Barsanuphius was consecrated Bishop of Tver. He healed many sick people with his knowledge of medicine, but he also healed those suffering from infirmities of the soul.
When the God-pleaser reached old age, he returned to Kazan and to the Transfiguration Monastery which he founded. There he received the Great Schema, and he died at the monastery in 1576.
The holy relics of Sts Gurias and Barsanuphius were uncovered on October 4, 1596. They were placed in shrines in a side chapel of the church at the orders of Patriarch Job. On June 20, 1630 their grace-filled relics were transferred from the Transfiguration Monastery to the Cathedral of the Annunciation
1608 Blessed George Gervase adventurous career with Francis Drake in the West Indies ordained to the priesthood and died for his priesthood OSB M (AC)

1608 BD GEORGE GERVASE, MARTYR
GEORGE GERVASE (Jervis) was born in 1569 at the port of Bosham in Sussex, in the register of whose famous parish church the entry of his christening may still be read. He was apparently brought up a Protestant, or else left the Church for a time, though his mother belonged to the, well-known Catholic family of Shelley that gave Bd Edward Shelley to the Church. Challoner relates that at the age of twelve George was kidnapped by pirates and carried off to the West Indies for the next twelve years of his life. What really happened was that, when he was twenty-six, he was with Sir Francis Drake’s last and disastrous expedition to the Indies, which left Plymouth in 1595 and for which George may well have been “ pressed” as he seems to have gone against his will. On his return he served for nearly two years in Flanders, with the Spanish army this time, and apparently it was not till the beginning of 1599 that he “enrolled himself in a better kind of service and became a soldier of Christ in the English College of Douay.”
Mr Gervase was ordained priest at Cambrai in 1603 and in the following year was sent on the mission. He ministered in various parts of the country for two years, till he was arrested at Haggerston; his examination by the dean of Durham is still extant, and valuable for Gervase’s own testimony about himself. Then he was imprisoned in London, till July 1606 when, with other priests, including several future martyrs, he was banished the realm. George Gervase then made a pilgrimage to Rome, and it is likely that there he determined to offer himself to the English Benedictines; for in the same year, 1607, between returning to Douay in July and again setting out for the mission in September, he was duly clothed a monk by the prior general, Dom Augustine Bradshaw. On account of the opposition of the English College to the Benedictines, this was done without the knowledge of the college authorities.
Father George had been back in England only two months when he was taken up and committed to the Gatehouse prison at Westminster. At his trial at the Old Bailey he refused the oath of allegiance, tendered in the form which had been condemned by the Holy See, while protesting his loyalty to the Crown; and when pressed for his opinion on the pope’s deposing power, replied, “I say that the pope can depose kings and emperors when they deserve it”. He also admitted that he was a priest, and so was condemned to death without more ado.
His confessor, Robert Chamberlain, records that as the rope was put round his neck Father George stretched out his arms and looked upward, standing like a monastic novice at his profession, singing the Suscipe. And so, “flinging out his hands like the wings of a bird”, he met his passion.
Bd George Gervase, the protomartyr of St Gregory’s, Douay (now St. Gregory’s, Downside), suffered on April ii, 1608. It was noted that at the same day and hour a fire consumed much of the town of Bury St Edmunds, where the martyr had spent much of his youth.

Camm gives a full account in Nine Martyr Monks (1931), drawing on Pollen’s Acts of the English Martyrs, letters in the Westminster Archives, vol. ix, the Middlesex County Records, vol. ii, an Italian account of the trial and execution in the Record Office, a letter of the Spanish ambassador, Don Pedro de Zuniga, in the Vatican Library, and other sources. The last-named library has a manuscript account of the martyr written from the persecutors’ point of view: Camm gives a translation of this.
Born in Bosham, Sussex, England; died at Tyburn, England, in 1608; beatified in 1929. In his youth, George had an adventurous career with Francis Drake in the West Indies. Later he was educated for the priesthood and entered the Benedictines at Douai. In 1603 George was ordained to the priesthood and sent to the English mission, where he was condemned and died for his priesthood (Benedictines).
1771 St. Mary Margaret d'Youville widow Foundress of the Sisters of Charity directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community
Grey Nuns of Canada.
She was born at Varennes, Quebec, and was baptized Marie Marguerite Dufrost de Ia Jemmerais.
After being educated by the Ursulines, she was married to Francois d’Youville in 1722, becoming a widow eight years later. Mary Margaret worked to support herself and her children, aiding the Confraternity of the Holy Family as well. In 1737, she founded the Sisters of Charity, the Grey Nuns, with three companions. A formal declaration took place in 1745, and two years later she became directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community. The Grey Nuns expanded to the United States, Africa, and South America. Mary Margaret died in Montreal on December 23. She was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1990.
1845 holy monastic Fathers Saints Theocharis and Apostolos are local saints of Arta On Bright Wednesday we commemorate them
who have shone forth on the God-trodden Mt Sinai. This commemoration was established by the Church of Russia on April 17, 1997.
Saints Theocharis and Apostolos are local saints of Arta. The first fell asleep in 1845 and the second a little later. St Theocharis was a teacher at Komboti, Arta.

The icons of these saints are in the church of Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) in Arta.

The Kasperov Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos is also commemorated today.

Tradition says that this holy icon had been brought to Cherson from Transylvania by a Serb at the end of the sixteenth century. Passing down from parent and child, the icon had come to a certain Mrs. Kasperova of Cherson in 1809. One night in February of 1840 she was praying, seeking consolation in her many sorrows. Looking at the icon of the Virgin, she noticed that the features of the icon, darkened by age, had suddenly become bright. Soon the icon was glorified by many miracles, and people regarded it as wonder-working.
During the Crimean War (1853-1856), the icon was carried in procession through the city of Odessa, which was besieged by enemy forces. On Great and Holy Friday, the city was spared. Since that time, an Akathist has been served before the icon in the Dormition Cathedral of Odessa every Friday.

The icon is painted with oils on a canvas mounted on wood. The Mother of God holds Her Son on her left arm. The Child is holding a scroll. St John the Baptist (Janurary 7) is depicted on one side of the icon, and St Tatiana (January 12) on the other. These were probably the patron saints of the original owners of the icon. The Kasperov Icon is commemorated on October 1, June 29, and Bright Wednesday.
1878  George Augustus Selwyn studierte in Cambridge und wurde 1833 zum Diakon und 1834 zum Priester geweiht 1841 wurde er zum ersten Bischof Neuseelands ernannt
Anglikanische Kirche: 11. April
George Augustus Selwyn wurde am 5.4.1809 in Middlesex geboren. Er studierte in Cambridge und wurde 1833 zum Diakon und 1834 zum Priester geweiht. 1841 wurde er zum ersten Bischof Neuseelands ernannt. Auf der langen Seereise nach Neuseeland erlernte er die Sprache der Maori und konnte bei seiner Ankunft in der Landessprache predigen. Er gründete Kirchen in Neuseeland ebenso wie in Melanesien (Aufgrund eines Irrtums der Verwaltung in der Ernennungsurkunde umfaßte seine Diözese die Gebiete bis zum 34. nördlichen Breitengrad - sie sollte aber nur bis zum 34. südlichen Breitengrad reichen). In dem zehn Jahre andauernden Krieg zwischen Maoris und europäischen Einwanderern versuchte Selwyn zu vermitteln. Auf der ersten Generalsynode der Kirche von Neuseeland 1859 konnte er eine Verfassung durchsetzen, die den Maori-Christen die volle Teilhabe in der Kirche sicherte. 1867 wurde Selwyn gegen seinen Willen zum Bischof von Lichfield in England ernannt. Er mußte Neuseeland verlassen und starb am 11.4.1878 in Lichfield. 1882 wurde zu seiner Erinnerung das Selwyn College in Cambridge gegründet.
1903 St. Gemma Galgani stigmata many mystical experiences and special graces Gemma was miraculously cured by the Venerable Passionist Gabriel Possenti
Lucæ, in Etrúria, sanctæ Gemmæ Galgáni, Vírginis, contemplatióne Domínicæ Passiónis et vitæ sanctitátis mirábilis, quam Pius Papa Duodécimus in Sanctárum númerum rétulit.
    At Luca in Etruria, St. Gemma Galgani, virgin, renowned for her contemplation of the Passion of our Lord, and for a life of holiness, and whom Pope Pius XII joined to the number of the Saints.

1903 ST GEMMA GALGANI, VIRGIN
THE short life of this saint, who was born at Camigliano in Tuscany in 1878, and died at Lucca at the age of twenty-five, was in one sense uneventful. It is a story of very fervent piety, charity and continuous suffering. These sufferings were caused partly by ill-health, partly by the poverty into which her family fell, partly by the scoffing of those who took offence at her practices of devotion, ecstasies and other phenomena, partly by what she believed to be the physical assaults of the Devil. But she had the consolation of constant communion with our Lord, who spoke to her as if He were corporeally present, and she also met with much kindness from the Giannini family, who in her last years after her father’s death treated her almost as an adopted daughter.
Gemma’s ill-health seems to have been congenital; she suffered from tuberculosis of the spine with aggravated curvature. The doctors despaired of any remedy, but she was cured (instantaneously and, it was then believed, completely) after an apparition of St Gabriel-of-the-Sorrows, to whom she was very devout. She earnestly desired to be a Passionist nun, but, the miracle notwithstanding, she could never obtain that medical certificate of sound health which was very wisely required before admission into the noviceship. She had periodically recurring stigmata from June 1899 to February 1901, as well as the marks of our Lord’s scourging at a later time. She was also at one period obsessed by the Devil, and in these attacks she even spat upon the crucifix ‘and broke her confessor’s rosary. On the other hand, her normal state was one of great spiritual peace and love. During her many ecstasies she used to commune with her heavenly visitants in a low sweet voice, and the bystanders often took down her words in writing. After a long and painful illness St Gemma died very peacefully on Holy Saturday, April 11, 1903.
A great popular cultus, stimulated by the accounts which were written of her by her spiritual directors, followed shortly after St Gemma Galgani’s death. She was beatified in 1933, and canonized in 1940. Her cause met with considerable opposition on account of the very extraordinary nature of some of her experiences. It is noteworthy that the Congregation of Rites, in declaring that Gemma practised the Christian virtues in a heroic degree, expressly refrained from passing any judgement upon the preternatural character of the phenomena recorded of her. This is a matter, the congregation added, upon which no decision is ever made.
For English readers the two fullest and most accessible biographies, both translations from the Italian, are those by Father Germanus, ce. (1914) and Father Amadeus, c.p. (1914). The later Italian editions of the first of these contain a considerable amount of matter not found in the translation. For a fuller insight into Gemma’s devotional spirit see Lettere ed Estasi della beata Gemma Galgani (1909), edited by Fr Germanus. There are other lives in English by Bishop Leo Prosperpio (1941) and Fr P. Coghlan (1949); Sr M. St Michael’s Portrait of St Gemma (1950) is made from her letters and reported speech. The decree of beatification is in Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xxv (1933), pp. 363—367 and see also vol. xxiv (1932), p. 57. Cf. H. Thurston, Physical Phenomena of Mysticism (1952).
Gemma Galgani was born on March 12, 1878, in a small Italian town near Lucca. At a very young age, Gemma developed a love for prayer. She made her First Communion on June 17, 1887. As a pupil at the school run by the Sisters of St. Zita, Gemma was loved by her teachers and her fellow pupils. Although quiet and reserved, she always had a smile for everyone. Although a good student, she had to quit school due to chronic ill health before completing the course of study.
Throughout her life, Gemma was to be favored with many mystical experiences and special graces. These were often misunderstood by others, causing ridicule.
Gemma suffered these heartaches in reparation, remembering that Our Lord Himself had been misunderstood and ridiculed.
Gemma had an immense love for the poor, and helped them in any way she could. After her father's death, the nineteen year old Gemma became the mother of her seven brothers and sisters. When some were old enough to share this responsibility, she lived briefly with a married aunt. At this time, two young men proposed marriage to her.
Gemma however, wanted silence and retirement, and more that ever, she desired to pray and speak only to God.
Gemma returned home and almost immediately became very ill with meningitis. Throughout this illness, her one regret was the trouble she caused her relatives who took care of her. Feeling herself tempted by the devil, Gemma prayed for help to the Venerable Passionist, Gabriel Possenti. (Gabriel was later canonized) Through his intercession, Gemma was miraculously cured.

Gemma wished to become a nun, but her poor health prevented her from being accepted. She offered this disappointment to God as a sacrifice.
Gemma predicted that the Passionists would establish a monastery at Lucca; this came to pass two years after her death.
Today, Gemma's mortal remains are still treasured at the Passionist monastery in Lucca.
On June 8, 1899, Gemma had an interior warning that some unusual grace was to be granted to her. She had pain in her hands, feet and heart and blood was coming from the places where she had pain. These were the marks of the stigmata. Each Thursday evening, Gemma would fall into rapture and the marks would appear. The stigmata remained until Friday afternoon or Saturday morning when the bleeding would stop, the wounds would close, and only white marks would remain in place of the deep gashes. Gemma's stigmata would continue to appear until the last three years of her life, when her confessor forbade her to accept them.
Through her prayers, this phenomenon ceased, but the whitish marks remained on her skin until her death.
Through the help of her confessor, Gemma went to live with a family named Giannini, where she was allowed more freedom than at home for her spiritual life. She had many ecstacies and her words spoken during these raptures, were recorded by her confessor and a relative of her adoptive family. At the end of her ecstacies, she returned to normal and went quietly and serenely about the family life. Gemma often saw her guardian angel, with whom she was on familiar terms.
She often sent her guardian angel on errands, usually to deliver a letter or oral message to her confessor in Rome.
During the apostolic investigations into her life, all witnesses testified that there was no artfulness in Gemma's manner. Most of her severe penances and sacrifices were hidden from most who knew her.

In January of 1903, Gemma was diagnosed as having tuberculosis. She died quietly in the company of the parish priest, on April 11 at age twenty-five. He said, "She died with a smile which remained upon her lips, so that I could not convince myself that she was really dead." She was beatified in 1933 and canonized on May 2, 1940, only thirty-seven years after her death.

Gemma Galgani V (RM)  Born at Borgo Nuovo di Camigliano near Lucca, Tuscany, Italy, 1878; died April 11, 1903; beatified in 1933; canonized in 1940.
Gemma's was the daughter of a poor pharmacist. Her mother died when she was seven, and from then on her life was one of domestic trials and great physical and spiritual pain. Through it all, however, she remained at peace and was the subject of extraordinary supernatural phenomena--visions, ecstasies, revelations, supernatural knowledge, visible conversations with her guardian angel, prophecy, miracles, recurring periodic stigmata, and diabolic assaults.

When she was 18, her father died, and Gemma joined the household of Matteo Giannini at Lucca as a domestic servant. She wished to join the Passionist congregation of which her spiritual director was a member, but she was prevented from doing so by her physical frailties, which included a condition of the spine (tuberculosis). Later Gemma believed herself to have been cured of the tuberculosis by the intercession of Saint Gabriel Possenti, who had himself died of consumption.

She was of a remarkably fervent religious disposition. Between 1899 and 1901, she was subject to various supernatural phenomena, which were carefully investigated by her confessor, Father Germano. For over 18 months she suffered the stigmata of Christ's Crucifixion and marks of His scourging while she prayed. She experienced visions of Christ, the Blessed Virgin, and her guardian angel. When she spoke in ecstasies, the sound of her voice changed, and listeners recorded her words.

At other times, however, she seemed to suffer possession and performed such acts as spitting on a crucifix and breaking a rosary. Throughout her life she patiently endured her spiritual and physical sufferings--which included the scorn of unbelieving relatives and townspeople--and practiced severe austerities.

She died an early death on Holy Saturday and shortly thereafter a popular cult developed. Her popularity increased in 1943, when her correspondence with her spiritual director was published. She was canonized, despite much opposition because of some of the phenomena connected with her, based not on the phenomenal nature of her religious experiences but on the holiness of her life (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, White).



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January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
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Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005
 Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) Francis (2013

Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.
During his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis made this strong statement while continuing his catechesis on the family, with this and next week focusing on the elderly.  Confining this week’s address to their problematic current condition, the Holy Father said the elderly are ignored and that a society that does this is perverse.
While noting that life has been lengthened thanks to advances in medicine, he lamented that while the number of older people has multiplied, "our societies are not organized enough to make room for them, with proper respect and concrete consideration for their fragility and their dignity.”

“As long as we are young, we are led to ignore old age, as if it were a disease to be taken away. Then when we become older, especially if we are poor, sick and alone, we experience the shortcomings of a society planned on efficiency, which consequently ignores the elderly.”


He went on to quote his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI, who, when visiting a nursing home in November 2012, “used clear and prophetic words: ‘The quality of a society, I would say of a civilization, is judged also on how the elderly are treated and the place reserved for them in the common life.’"  Without a space for them, Francis highlighted, society dies.

Cultures, he decried, see the elderly as a burden who do not produce and should be discarded.
“You do not say it openly, but you do it!” he exclaimed. "Out of our fear of weakness and vulnerability, we do not tolerate and abandon the elderly," he said. “It’s sickening to see the elderly discarded. It is ugly. It’s a sin. Abandoning the elderly is a mortal sin.”
“Children who do not visit their elderly and ill parents have mortally sinned. Understand?”

The Pope expressed his dismay at children who go months without seeing a parent, or how elderly are confined to little tables in their kitchens alone, without anyone caring for them.  He noted that he observed this reality during his ministry in Buenos Aires.  Unwilling to accept limits, society, he noted, doesn’t allow elderly to participate and gives into the mentality that only the young can be useful and enjoy life.
The whole society must realize, the Pope said, the elderly contain the wisdom of the people.
The tradition of the Church, Pope Francis reaffirmed, has always supported a culture of closeness to the elderly, involving affectionately and supportively accompanying them in this final part of life.  The Church cannot, and does not want to, Francis underscored, comply with a mentality of impatience, and even less of indifference and contempt towards old age.
Sooner or later, we will all be old, he said. If we do not treat the elderly well, he stressed we will not be treated well either.
“We must awaken the collective sense of gratitude, of appreciation, of hospitality, which make them feel the elderly living part of his community.”

Concluding his address, Pope Francis noted how old age will come to all one day and reminded the faithful how much they have received from their elders. He also challenged them to not take a step back and abandon them to their fate.


The Church without Mary is an orphanage
 
Pope Francis:
Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (Zenit.org).-
Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
The Pope said this today before reciting the midday Angelus with several thousand people gathered in the courtyard of the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
Referring to the Gospel reading for today's Mass, the Holy Father reflected on the faith of Peter, which is shown to be "still immature and too much influenced by the 'mentality of this world.'”  He explained that when Christ spoke openly about how he was to "suffer much, be killed and rise again, Peter protests, saying: 'God forbid, Lord! No such thing shall ever happen to you.'"
"It is evident that the Master and the disciple follow two opposed ways of thinking," continued the Pontiff. "Peter, according to a human logic, is convinced that God would never allow his Son to end his mission dying on the cross.  "Jesus, on the contrary, knows that the Father, in his great love for men, sent him to give his life for them, and if this means the passion and the cross, it is right that such should happen."
Christ also knew that "the resurrection would be the last word," Benedict XVI added.
Serious illness
The Pope continued, "If to save us the Son of God had to suffer and die crucified, it certainly was not because of a cruel design of the heavenly Father.  "The cause of it is the gravity of the sickness of which he must cure us: an evil so serious and deadly that it will require all of his blood. 
"In fact, it is with his death and resurrection that Jesus defeated sin and death, reestablishing the lordship of God."
Popes Html link here: 
 “Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.” Pope Francis:
It Is a Mortal Sin When Children Don't Visit Their Elderly Parents.


Popes mentioned in todays  articles of Saints
Pope St. Leo I (the Great) April 11
"And to the angel of the Church of Pergamum write: the words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. I know where you live, where the throne of Satan is, and you cleave unto My Name, and have not renounced My faith, even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwells" (Rev 2:12-13).  St. Antipas


Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed 1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards OP inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years.
432 Saint Celestine Pope of Rome (422-432) zealous champion of Orthodoxy virtuous life theologian authority denounced the Nestorian heresy

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
 180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}


432 Celestine I Pope treatise against semi-Pelagianism
Born in Campania, Italy; died at Rome, July 27, 432; feast day formerly on July 27 and/or August 1. Saint Celestine was a deacon in Rome when he was elected pope on September 20, 422, to succeed Saint Boniface. He was a staunch supporter of Saint Germanus of Auxerre in the fight against Pelagianism, and a friend of Saint Augustine with whom he corresponded, and which demonstrates that the bishop of Rome was the central authority even at that early date.

About the year 1234 Pope Gregory IX appointed 1252 St. Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominicinquisitor general for the Milanese territories.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
St Leo IX -- 1095 Saint Gerald of Sauve-Majeure monk cellarer of abbey Corbie; founded, directed, Benedictine Abbey of Grande -Sauveabbot  author of a hagiology His abbot chose him as companion to go with him to Rome, where he hoped the sufferer might be cured.Together they visited the tombs of the Apostles, and at the hands of St Leo IX Gerald was ordained priest.
Pope Urban IV) -- 1258 Blessed Juliana of Mount Cornillon visions in which Jesus pointed out that there was no feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament OSA V (AC) her mission to some of her friends, notably to Bd Eva, a recluse who lived beside St Martin’s church on the opposite bank of the river, and to a saintly woman, Isabel of Huy, whom she had received into her community. Encouraged no doubt by the support of these two, she opened her heart to a learned canon of St Martin’s