Papa_Benedict_XVI_Joseph_Ratzinger  Happy Birthday
Saints of this Day April 15 Décimo séptimo Kaléndas Maji
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
(Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

April 15, 2007 Second Sunday of Easter or Divine Mercy Sunday; Sunday in White; and 5th year anniversary Pope John Paul II who died during 1st vespers

April 15 – Friday of Holy Week. Our Lady of Kiev (Ukraine) 
Mary's pain from losing Jesus
Mary's suffering from losing Jesus for three days surpassed not only the power of silence, but also the right of silence. Those days brought Mary's nature to the limits of its capacity to endure suffering (…). They forced her to react in proportion to the violence done to her, and to seek the last refuge given to a creature, by pouring out her heart before the Creator.

The perfection of Our Lord, in his human nature, reached its highest degree in the impact of one phrase. His silence certainly was an adorable perfection, but the cry that escaped his lips was even more sublime: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” This is where the Christ’s Passion reached the utmost limits of his humanity.

This is how our beloved Mother experienced her passion at the end of Jesus' childhood,
and her compassion during the Passion of Our Lord.
 Frederic William Faber (1814-1863)


Mary is a Woman Who Loves (I) April 15 - Our Lady of Keiff (Russia, 1010)
             Outstanding among the saints is Mary, Mother of the Lord and mirror of all holiness. In the Gospel of Luke we find her engaged in a service of charity to her cousin Elizabeth, with whom she remained for "about three months" (Lk 1:56) so as to assist her in the final phase of her pregnancy. Magnificat anima mea Dominum, she said on the occasion of that visit, "My soul magnifies the Lord" (Lk 1:46). In these words she expresses her whole program of life: not placing herself at the center, but leaving space for God, who is encountered both in prayer and in service of neighbor--only then does goodness enter the world.
Mary's greatness consists in the fact that she wants to magnify God, not herself.
She is lowly: her only desire is to be the handmaid of the Lord (cf. Lk 1:38, 48).
She knows that she will only contribute to the salvation of the world if, rather than carrying out her own projects, she places herself completely at the disposal of God's initiatives.
Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter, Deus Caritas Est #41 (2005)

Charity unites us to God... There is nothing mean in charity, nothing arrogant. Charity knows no schism, does not rebel, does all things in concord. In charity all the elect of God have been made perfect. -- Pope St. Clement I

April 14 – Our Lady of the Lakes (Italy, 1652)  
A Moorish chief surrenders 
 In 778, the Frankish Emperor Charlemagne, tired of the stubborn resistance of the Saracen Lord Mirat who occupied the citadel of Mirambel (today’s citadel of Lourdes in southern France), was preparing to lift the siege when one of his companions, the bishop of Le Puy-en-Velay, a city in region of Auvergne, had a sudden inspiration and obtained permission to go parley with the besieging army.

The bishop asked Mirat to surrender, not to the Frankish sovereign but to the Queen of Heaven. The idea was acceptable to the Moorish leader, who agreed to lay down his arms at the feet of the Black Virgin of Le Puy, and received baptism. On the day of his baptism, Mirat took the name of Lorus, which was later passed on to the city that was called Lourdes.

The written act of the surrender states that "Mirat recognizes no mortal above him and prefers death to the shame of surrender. Therefore he surrenders to the servant of Our Lady, and is ready to receive baptism, provided that his county will never belong, either for him or his descendants, to any other than her alone." Charlemagne signed the agreement.
On February 11, 1858, Our Lady appeared to Saint Bernadette and asked to be venerated in Lourdes.
Marquis de la Franquerie
Taken from La Vierge Marie dans l'histoire de France, Editions Résiac

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Divine Mercy Sunday COMPASSION
      The Departure of the Righteous Joachim, The Lord Christ Grandfather.
      Papa_Benedict_XVI_Joseph_Ratzinger  Happy Birthday
 62 Basilissa & Anastasia converted by preaching of SS. Peter and Paul MM buried their remains
 67 Aristarchus, Pudas and Trophymos from the 70 Disciples whom the Lord Jesus Christ sent before him with the good-news of the Gospel (Lk. 10: 1-24).
 99 Maro, Eutyches & Victorinus exile to Ponza island martyred in Rome MM (RM)
  100 Holy Martyr Sukhios and 16 Gruzian (Georgian) Companions new names: to the eldest -- Sukhios (replacing his old name Bagadras), and  companions Andrew, Anastasias, Talale, Theodorites, Juhirodion, Jordan, Kondrates, Lukian, Mimnenos, Nerangios, Polyeuktos, James, Phoki, Domentian, Victor and Zosima.
       Eutychius of Ferentino martyr in the Roman Campagna M (RM)
  130 Theodore and Pausilipus Martyrs near Byzantium under Hadrian MM (RM) (Benedictines).
      St. Crescens of Myra martyred in Lycia Asia Minor M (RM)
  251 St. Maximus & Olympiades Martyrs of Persia loyalty to the faith
       The Departure of St. Macrobius.
 372  Sabas der Gote Er missionierte unter seinen Landsleuten und wurde deshalb vom Ostgotenkönig Athanarich zweimal verhaftet und ins Exil geschickt
 485 Blessed Laurentinus Sossius five-year-old boy M (AC)
 500 St. Paternus hermit founder bishop preaching charity mortifications
 584 St. Ruadan 1/12 Apostles of Ireland abbot founder produced the masterpiece Stowe Missal
 625 Silvester of Réome, Abbot (AC)
 679 St. Hunna devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg
 829 Blessed Nidger of Augsburg bishop of Augsburg OSB B (AC)
 962 St. Mundus Scottish abbot founded abbeys excellent maxims to fraternal charity meekness value of solitude need be aware of the Divine presence
1607 Blessed Caesar de Bus military priest teaching catechism to ordinary people in neglected rural out-of-the-way places
1889 Bl. Damien de Veuster of Hawaii evangelize peoples of Puno Kohala destroyed pagan worship and Hero of Molokai leper colony
"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him" (Psalm 21:28)

The Departure of the Righteous Joachim, The Lord Christ Grandfather.

On this day the righteous Joachim (Yonakhir - Zadok) departed. He was the father of St. Mary, the Theotokos, the mother of God incarnate. He was of the seed of David, and of the tribe of Judah, for he was the son of Jotham, the son of Lazarus, the son of Eldad who ascended up in genealogy to Solomon the king, the son of David whom God promised that his seed should reign over the children of Israel for ever. The wife of this righteous man, Hannah was barren, and both of them prayed and entreated God continually to give them a child. Having accepted their petition He gave them a good and sweet fruit, which satisfied all the men of the world, and removed from them the bitterness of servitude, and He made Joachim worthy to be called the father of the Lord Christ in regard of His marvelous and wondrous Incarnation. After God had pleased him with the birth of our Lady, his heart was rejoiced and he offered his offerings, and the shame had been removed from him, he departed in peace when the Virgin was three years old.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.

62 Basilissa & Anastasia converted by preaching of SS. Peter and PaulMM buried their remains (RM)
Romæ sanctárum Basilíssæ et Anastásiæ, nobílium feminárum, quæ, cum essent Apostolórum discípulæ et constántes in fidei confessióne persísterent, sub Neróne Imperatóre, lingua pedibúsque præcísis, percússæ gládio, martyrii corónam adéptæ sunt.
    At Rome, the Saints Basilissa and Anastasia, noble women who were disciples of the apostles.  Because they persevered courageously  in the profession of their faith during the time of the Emperor Nero, they had their tongues and feet cut off, were put to the sword, and thus obtained the crown of martyrdom.

The Holy Women Martyrs Basilissa and Anastasia lived in Rome and were enlightened with the light of the Christian faith by the holy Apostles Peter and Paul. They devoted themselves to the service of the Lord. When the emperor Nero (54-68) persecuted Christians and gave them over to torture and execution, Saints Basilissa and Anastasia intrepidly took up the bodies of the holy martyrs and gave them reverent burial. Rumours about this reached Nero. Saints Basilissa and Anastasia were then locked up in prison. They subjected them to cruel tortures: they scourged them with whips, tore at their skin with hooks, and burned at them with fire. But the holy martyresses remained unyielding and bravely confessed their faith in Christ the Saviour. By command of Nero they were beheaded with the sword (+ c. 68).

65? Ss. Basilissa and Anastasia, Martyrs
According to their traditional history, Basilissa and Anastasia were noble Roman matrons who were converted to Christianity by the teaching of St Peter and St Paul. After the martyrdom of the apostles, the two women removed their bodies by night and caused them to be honourably buried. For this action, which became known to the authorities, they were cast into prison. When they were brought before the tribunal of Nero, they fearlessly acknowledged that they were Christians and were condemned by him to be cruelly mutilated and then beheaded.

Although these saints stand first in the Roman Martyrology on this day, it must be confessed that their very existence is extremely doubtful. We know nothing of them except through Greek sources, which offer no guarantee of reliability. The various entries in the Greek Menaia are collected in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii; and see also the Synaxarium Constantinopolitanae, edited by Fr Delehaye in the Acta Sanctorum for November, vol. ii, c. 106, where this commemoration is assigned to April 17.

The story is told that these two noble Roman women were converted to Christianity by the preaching of SS. Peter and Paul. After each of the apostles was martyred in Rome, Basilissa and Anastasia found their bodies and buried them secretly under the screen of night.
This infuriated the authorities, who discovered who had buried the apostles and cast the two women into jail, eventually bringing them before the tribunal of Nero. Neither Basilissa nor Anastasia would renounce their Christian faith. In consequence, both were sentenced to be savagely mutilated--tongues ripped out and limbs cut off--before they were beheaded. Only the Greeks have recorded their story; many modern hagiographers doubt the existence of these ladies (Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Butler, Coulson, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
In art, SS. Basilissa and Anastasia are portrayed with their hands, feet, and heads cut off. They may also be shown burying the bodies of SS. Peter and Paul (Roeder).
67 Aristarchus, Pudas and Trophymos from among the 70 Disciples, whom the Lord Jesus Christ sent before him with the good-news of the Gospel (Lk. 10: 1-24).
The Holy Disciples Aristarchus, Pudas and Trophymos were from among the Seventy Disciples, whom the Lord Jesus Christ had sent before him with the good-news of the Gospel (Lk. 10: 1-24).
The holy Disciple Aristarchus, a co-worker of the holy Apostle Paul, became bishop of the Syrian city of Apameia. His name is repeatedly mentioned in the book of the Acts of the Holy Apostles (Acts 19: 29, 20: 4, 27: 2) and in the Epistles of the Apostle Paul (Col. 4: 10, Philemon 1: 24).
The holy Disciple Pudas is mentioned in the 2nd Epistle of the Apostle Paul to Timothy (2 Tim. 4: 21). He occupied high position as a member of the Roman Senate. At his home the saint took in the First-Ranked Apostles Peter and Paul, and believing Christians gathered. His house was converted into a church, receiving the name "Pastorum". In it, according to tradition, the holy Apostle Peter himself served as priest.
The holy Disciple Trophymos hailed from the city of Edessa. His name is mentioned in the book of the Acts of the Holy Apostles (Acts 20: 4) and in the 2nd Epistle of the Apostle Paul to Timothy (2 Tim. 4: 20). He was a student and companion of the holy Apostle Paul, sharing with him all the sorrows and persecution.
All these three holy disciples accepted a martyr's death at Rome under the emperor Nero (54-68), concurrent with that of the Apostle Paul ( c. 67).
Aristarchos, Pudens und Trophimus Aristarchos, Zenas und Johannes Markus
Orthodoxe Kirche: 14. April (15. April) - Aristarchos, Pudens und Trophimus Orthodoxe Kirche: 27. September - Aristarchos, Zenas und Markus genannt Johannes
Aristarchos wird mehrmals (Apg. 19: 29; 20, 4; 27, 2; Kol. 4, 10, Philemon 1, 24 ) erwähnt. Er war Mitgefangener des Paulus (Kol. 4, 10) und später Bischof von Apameia (Syrien)
Dorotheus nennt noch einen zweiten Aristarchos, allerdings ohne weitere Angaben.
Pudens wird von Paulus in 2. Tim. 4, 21 genannt. Er war ein Mitglied des römischen Senates und stellte sein Haus den römischen Christen als Kirche zur Verfügung. Auch Petrus soll in seinem Haus, das Pastorum genannt wurde, Gottesdienste gehalten haben.
Trophimus wird Apg. 20, 4 und 2. Tim 4, 20 erwähnt. Er begleitete Paulus auf mehreren Reisen.
Aristarchos, Pudens und Trophimus wurden nach der Überlieferung mit Paulus unter Nero gefangengenommen und geköpft.
Zenas oder Zenon wird in Tit. 3, 13 als Rechtsgelehrter genannt. Er soll später Bischof von Diospolis oder Lydda in Palästina gewesen sein.
Johannes genannt Markus wird mehrmals genannt (Apg. 12, 25; 15, 37 ff.; Kol. 4, 10; Philemon 1, 23). In der Liste wird der Name Markus dreimal genannt, es ist aber unklar, ob es sich tatsächlich um drei Personen handelt. Dorotheus sagt, Johannes Markus war Bischof von Byblos. Weitere Informationen unter Evangelist Markus.
99 Maro, Eutyches & Victorinus exile to Ponza island martyred in Rome MM (RM)
Eódem die sanctórum Mártyrum Marónis, Eutychétis et Victoríni; qui, primo cum beáta Flávia Domitílla apud ínsulam Póntiam in Christi confessióne éxsules, póstmodum, sub Príncipe Nerva, liberáti, tandem, cum plúrimos ad fidem convertíssent, in persecutióne Trajáni, a Valeriáno Júdice váriis pœnis jussi sunt intérfici.
    The same day, the holy martyrs Maro, Eutyches, and Victorinus, who, along with blessed Flavia Domitilla, had been banished to the island of Pontia for the confession of Christ.  Being recalled in the reign of Nerva, and having converted many to the faith, they were put to death in different ways by the judge Valerian, during the persecution of Trajan.
Maro, Eutyches, and Victorinus belonged to the entourage of Saint Flavia Domitilla, whom they accompanied in her exile to the island of Ponza. Eventually they returned to Rome and were martyred under Trajan (98-117). Eutyches was stabbed; Victorinus, hung upside down over a sulphur spring; Maro, beheaded (Benedictines).
St. Maro Martyr with Eutyches and Victorinus followed St. Flavia into exile Ponza island

They were members of the group that followed St. Flavia into exile to the island of Ponza, Italy, and were reportedly martyred after returning to Rome
100 Holy Martyr Sukhios and 16 Gruzian (Georgian) Companions new names: to the eldest -- Sukhios (replacing his old name Bagadras), and  companions Andrew, Anastasias, Talale, Theodorites, Juhirodion, Jordan, Kondrates, Lukian, Mimnenos, Nerangios, Polyeuktos, James, Phoki, Domentian, Victor and Zosima.
They were illustrious dignitaries who served at the court of the Albanian (Hagbanite) ruler (i.e. "Caucasian Albania" -- a realm on the present day territory of Azerbaizhan).

Escorting the Albanian ruler's daughter Satenika, spouse of the Armenian emperor Artaxar (88-123), Saint Sukhios and his 16 Companions arrived in Artashat, the ancient capital of Armenia (the city was later destroyed by the Romans in the year 163).

Preaching there at the time was the Greek Christian named Chrysos, who had been enlightened and ordained by the holy Disciple Thaddeus (+ c. 44, Comm. 21 August).
The dignitaries came to believe in Christ the Saviour, and they firmly resolved to devote all their life to the service of God.
All seventeen of the newly-converted Gruzianians followed Chrysos into Mesopotamia. At the time of their Baptism in the waters of the Euphrates, made over them by Bishop Chrysos, they were vouchsafed to behold the Lord of Glory Jesus Christ.  At the place of their Baptism, the holy martyrs erected a venerable cross and named it the "Cross of the Annunciation". Bishop Chrysos at the Baptism gave all the saints new names: to the eldest -- Sukhios (replacing his old name Bagadras), and to his companions the names -- Andrew, Anastasias, Talale, Theodorites, Juhirodion, Jordan, Kondrates, Lukian, Mimnenos, Nerangios, Polyeuktos, James, Phoki, Domentian, Victor and Zosima.

After the martyr's death of Blessed Chrysos, Saint Sukhios became the spiritual leader of the brethren. All soon resettled in a wild locality on Mount Sukaketi, not far from the mountain village of Bagrevandi. Here the former dignitaries led very strict ascetic lives, the scant mountain vegetation sufficed them for food, and for drink -- a cold spring of water.
The new ruler of pagan Albania, Datianos, learned of this, that his former officials had accepted Christianity and had gone off into prayerful solitude. He commissioned his associate Barnapas with a detachment of soldiers to persuade them to return to court and return also to their former faith. Barnapas searched out Saint Sukhios and his companions, but in keeping of their vow of service to God, they refused all the entreaties.
Then by order of Barnapas, Saint Sukhios and his companions in cross-like form were nailed to the ground and consigned to burning. After the burning, their bodies were dismembered and scattered all about Mount Sukaketi, from which the martyrs received also the title the "Mesukevians" (more correctly -- "Sukaketians"). This occurred in the year 123 (by another account -- in the year 130; although an Athos parchment manuscript of the XI Century from the Iveria monastery indicates the year as 100).
The holy remains of the martyrs remained undecayed and unburied until the time of the IV Century, when they were placed in graves and consigned to earth by local Christians (the names of the holy martyrs were found written on a cliff).
The holy PriestMartyr Gregory, Enlightener of Armenia (+ c. 335, Comm. 30 September), built a church on this spot and established a monastery. And afterwards, a curative spring of water was discovered there.( shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) see map close to Yerevan {Even when Agathangelos describes well-known events, he borrows from the Bible. Diocletian's persecution of the Church is talked about completely in Bible images, with no reference to any actual events. Gregory is nourished in the terrible pit as Elijah was; Drtad's bestial transformation recalls that of Nebuchadnezzar. There are also countless references to liturgical and patristic writings, and it is unfortunate that we modern readers miss so many of these. Agathangelos presumed on the part of his readers an intimate familiarity with the Scriptures, Liturgy, and spiritual writings that most of us today simply do not possess.
Agathangelos had a purpose in mind as he wrote about Gregory. That purpose is reflected in some of the differences in emphasis between Agathangelos' work about the saint and the work of others. For example, Movses Khorenatsi gives us much more detail about Gregory's origins, and tries to tie him to the first enlightener, Thaddeus. In general, he gives more detail about all aspects of Gregory's life than Agathangelos does. But Agathangelos is not interested in establishing an apostolic tie for Gregory, or presenting his life in detail. His purpose is mainly to enhance Gregory's role as the first bishop, first church builder, and first establisher of a hierarchy in the Armenian Church. He wants to show the importance of the hierarchical structure of the Church, and emphasize the authority of the patriarch's position, and this he does by tying both to the great saint so highly venerated in the Church.
Central to this effort is Agathangelos' description of Gregory's vision of the burial place of the martyrs. Gregory is shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) is to be built. Thus Agathangelos establishes divine foundation for cathedral and for church leaders who reside there ­ so again, he makes a case for the "rightness" of the hierarchs and the hierarchical structure of the Church.}
130 Theodore and Pausilipus Martyrs near Byzantium under Hadrian MM (RM) (Benedictines)
In Thrácia sanctórum Mártyrum Theodóri et Pausilíppi, qui sub Hadriáno Imperatóre passi sunt.
    In Thrace, the holy martyrs Theodorus and Pausilippus, who suffered under Emperor Hadrian.

St. Eutychius of Ferentino martyr in the Roman Campagna M (RM)
Ferentíni, in Hérnicis, sancti Eutychii Mártyris.    At Ferentino in Campania, the martyr St. Eutychius.A martyr of Ferentino in the Roman Campagna (Benedictines).
St. Crescens of Myra martyred in Lycia Asia Minor M (RM)
Myræ, in Lycia, sancti Crescéntis, qui per ignem martyrium consummávit.
    At Myra in Lycia, St. Crescens, who was martyred by fire.
 A martyr in Myra, Lycia, Asia Minor, who perished at the stake (Benedictines).
Crescens von Myra

Orthodoxe Kirche: 13. April (russisch-orthodox) und 15. April (griechisch-orthodox) Katholische Kirche: 15. April
Crescens (Criscentius), Sohn einer angesehenen Familie, lebte in Myra. Als mehrere Einwohner der Stadt zu einem Fest zum heidnischen Tempel zogen, verkündete Crescens ihnen das Evangelium. Er wurde deshalb vor den Gouverneur gebracht, der ihn um seiner Familie willen bat, doch nur äußerlich die heidnischen Götzen zu verehren, innerlich könne er Christ bleiben. Aber Crescens erklärte, der Körper könne nur tun, was die Seele denke und deshalb könne er die Götzen nicht verehren. Crescens wurde daraufhin gefoltert und auf dem Scheiterhaufen verbrannt.

251 St. Maximus & Olympiades Martyrs of Persia loyalty to the faith
In Pérside sanctórum Mártyrum Máximi et Olympíadis, qui, sub Décio Imperatóre, fústibus et plumbátis cæsi sunt; et ad últimum cápita eórum sunt fústibus tunsa, donec ambo emítterent spíritum.
    In Persia, in the reign of Emperor Decius, the holy martyrs Maximus and Olympias, who were beaten with rods and whips, and struck on their heads with clubs until they breathed no more.
They were noblemen who were beaten to death with metal rods because of their loyalty to the faith.
Maximus and Olympiades MM (RM) These Persian noblemen were martyred by being beaten to death with crowbars under Decius (Benedictines).
372  Sabas der GoteEr missionierte unter seinen Landsleuten und wurde deshalb vom Ostgotenkönig Athanarich zweimal verhaftet und ins Exil geschickt
Orthodoxe Kirche: 15. April Katholische Kirche: 12. April
Sabas wurde 334 geboren. Er lebte im ostgotischen Reich und wurde schon in jungen Jahren Christ. Er missionierte unter seinen Landsleuten und wurde deshalb vom Ostgotenkönig Athanarich zweimal verhaftet und ins Exil geschickt. 372 wurde er von Soldaten des Königssohns Atharich gefangengenommen, gefoltert und am 12.4.372 im Fluß Musaeus (Rumänien) ertränkt. Sein Leichnam wurde nach Caesarea in Kappadokien übertragen.

The Departure of St. Macrobius.

On this day also the saint Anba Macrobius, the son of the governor of the city of Kaw, departed in peace. When Anba Severus, Archbishop of Antioch, was wondering around the cities of Upper Egypt, he came to the city of Kaw and Macrobius ministered unto him. He accompanied Anba Severus in his visit to the monastery of Anba Moses, where he saw from the holiness of the monks, their asceticism and devoutness, made him ask Anba Moses to accept him as a monk. Anba Moses indicated to him the hardship of the monastic life and its difficulties especially he was raised in luxury and family wealth, and the one that slept on silk, could not take the rough life.

When Anba Moses saw the insistence of Macrobius on the monastic life he asked him first to resign his job that he took after his father, and to relinquish all his money and possessions. He went to his city Kaw, appointed his brother in his place, returned and put on the monastic garb. When his brothers Paul, Ilias, and Joseph saw what their brother had done, they came to him and became monks by the hands of Anba Moses.

Anba Macrobius built many monasteries and many monks, about a thousand gathered around him, and he also built convents for about a thousand nuns. He used his money to build many places for those that did not desire the monastic life, and he supported those who sought his help. Then he sent to Anba Moses asking to send him brethren to prepare those gathered around him for the monastic life, they came and put on them the monastic garb.

Christians from the cities of Assuit, Shatb, and neighboring cities came and gave him many gifts and much money to help him in building the churches and monasteries. He accepted it from them and blessed them. Anba Macrobius increased in virtues, asceticism and giving alms to the weak, needy, widows, orphans and the lonely, beside caring for his monasteries. His alms were from his own money not from that was offered. God granted St. Macrobius the gift of healing, they brought him the sick and he healed them with the power of God and the strength of their faith.

The father the Patriarch Anba Theodosius, heard about him and he wrote to him praising and encouraging him to be steadfast in virtue, asceticism and loving the strangers and asked him to come for the people of Alexandria to be blessed by him. When he came to the Patriarch, he rejoiced with him and called the people of Alexandria to receive the blessing from him, and he ordained him a priest. Macrobius returned to his monastery, the people of Assuit and Shatb received him with songs and hymns until they came to the monastery. Many miracles were performed through his hands, and when he finished his good strife, he departed in peace. Multitudes gathered from Assuit, Shatb, Abu-Sergah, Kaw and the neighboring cities, and his brother Anba Yousab, who was appointed as his successor in running the monasteries in the fear of God, prayed and buried him.

The appearance of his body was on the seventh day of the blessed month of Tubah, seven hundred thirty three years after his departure by the hands of the deacon Los El-Talawy the servant of his monastery's church, during the days of Anba Yousab, bishop of Akhmeem and the notable Isaac the scribe of the prince Eiz-Eldeen El-Hamawy. Anba Yousab, bishop of Akhmeem, took the body out of its tomb in the mountain, down to the church of the monastery, where they buried him with hymns and praises.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.
485 Blessed Laurentinus Sossius five-year-old boy M (AC)
cultus approved in 1867. Laurentinus was a five-year-old boy presumed to have been killed by the Jews on Good Friday. Laurentinus died at Valrovina (diocese of Vicenza), Italy (Benedictines).
500 St. Paternus hermit founder bishop preaching charity mortifications.

5th - 6th V. St Padarn, or Patern, Bishop in Ceredigion
The existing life of Padarn, a saint formerly much honoured in Wales, was written at Llanbadarn Fawr, probably about the year 1120 ; it is a fusion of earlier legends of two separate people, St Paternus, an abbot-bishop in Wales, and another St Paternus, a fifth-century bishop at Vannes in Brittany. This document is a collection of untrustworthy tales and traditions. According to it Padarn was born in Letavia (Brittany; or possibly south-east Wales), the son of Petran and Gwen his father afterwards went off to Ireland to live as a hermit, leaving his wife to bring up their little boy in his native land. As soon as he had attained manhood, Padarn announced his intention of following his father’s example. With some companions he sailed away to Wales, where they decided to settle, and he founded a monastery at a place in Cardiganshire which became known as Llanbadarn Fawr, i.e. the great church of Paternus. Not only was he abbot but he is said to have been the first bishop of the region, ruling over it for twenty-one years. It is related of him that he went about the country like a true missionary, preaching the gospel to all sorts and conditions of men, “without pay or reward”, and that he was famous for his charity and mortifications. The monastery of Llanbadarn, near Aberyst­wyth, certainly became very influential, and Rhygyfarch’s Life of St David and the Book of Llandaff both witness to its importance. It did not finally disappear until between 1188 and 1247.

The story that St Padarn accompanied St David and St Teilo on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he received from the patriarch a staff and a “tunic” (which was subsequently coveted by “a certain tyrannus named Arthur”), is unquestion­ably a fable, but it appears in the Lives of St David and of St Teilo. According to this confused story St Padarn, after founding other monasteries and churches in Wales, returned in his old age to Brittany where, before he died, he became bishop of Vannes, but through jealousy was forced to take refuge among the Franks. Another tradition says he was buried on Ynys Enili, that is, Bardsey.

The Vita Paterni has been printed by Rees in his Lives of the Cambro-British Saints, critically supplemented by Kuno Meyer in Y Cymmrodor, vol. xiii (1900), pp. 88 seq. the text, with a translation, is also in A. W. Wade-Evans, Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae (1944). Canon Doble’s excellent examination of the problem, St Patern (1940), modifies some of the views of F. Duine in his Memento des sources hagiographiques de . . . Bretagne (1918), and cf. Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxvii (1948) pp. 388 seq. See also LBS., vol. iv, pp. 39—51 and F. R. Lewis, Short History of the Church of Llanbadarn Fawr (1937). There is an account of Llanbadarn in 1188 in the Welsh Itinerary of Giraldus, bk ii, cap. 4.

St. Paternus.The first 5th century saint. He followed his father's path by becoming a hermit in Wales. He founded the monastery at the great church of Paternus, and became a bishop of that region. He was known for his preaching, charity and mortifications. Scholars believe his story is an amalgam.

Padarn of Vannes B (AC) (also known as Patern(us), Pern) Born in Brittany; First, I have to admit that there is a confusion of saints named Paternus, who all lived about the same period. This one appears to have been consecrated bishop of Vannes, Brittany, c. 465. One source says: "Following his father's example he became a monk, founded convents, churches; he went on pilgrimages and was appointed bishop of Vannes from which post he retired to die in peace (565)." However, the date is different and appears to refer to a saint honored tomorrow (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
584 St. Ruadan 1/12 Apostles of Ireland abbot founder produced the masterpiece Stowe Missal

584 St Ruadan of Lothra, Abbot
St Ruadan, who was born in the western part of Leinster, was one of the chief disciples of St Finian of Clonard. In the district now known as County Tipperary he founded the monastery of Lothra, into which he gathered one hundred and fifty monks who divided their time between prayer and manual work. In virtue of his office as abbot he enjoyed episcopal honour and is reckoned as one of the twelve apostles of Ireland.

His Latin life, written centuries after his death, is wholly unreliable from the point of view of the historian. Unless the researches of scholars discover some new evidence, we must rest content with the eulogy contained in the Félire of St Oengus: “An excellent flame that waneth not; that vanquisheth urgent desires: fair was the precious stone, Ruadan, lamp of Lothra”. In reference to one incident in the extravagant stories handed down to us, Father John Ryan in his Irish Monasticism observes that “this saint has secured an unenviable notoriety in Irish hagiographical literature because of the leading part ascribed to him in a fantastic encounter with the civil authorities at Tara”. It is, however, satisfactory to note that this preposterous contest in vituperation has been shown to be his­torically impossible.

There is a Latin life preserved in the Codex Salmanticensis and other MSS. and also a life in Irish. Both have been edited by C. Plummer—the former in VSH., vol. ii, pp. 240—252; the latter in his Bethada Nâem n-Érenn, vol. i, pp. 356—329, with a translation in vol. ii. See also the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii, and MacNeill, Phases, p. 234.

One of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland, an abbot founder. He was born in Leinster, Ireland, and was a disciple of St. Finian of Clonard. Ruadan was the founder of the monastery of Lothra, in Tipperary, which had 150 monks.

Ruadan of Lothra (Lorrha), Abbot (AC) (also known as Ruadhan, Rodan) Born in Leinster, Ireland; Saint Ruadan, born of royal Munster stock, became a disciple of Saint Finian of Clonard. Because he was the founding abbot of Lothra Monastery in Tipperary, where he directed 150 fervent monks, who produced the masterpiece Stowe Missal, Ruadan is considered one of the 12 apostles of Ireland.

He divided his time between prayer and manual labor sanctified by prayer. One legend of Ruadan involves the Cursing of Tara, wherein the saintly abbot invoked a solemn curse against the High King of Tara for violating the sanctuary of the monastery to capture the king of Connaught. It is said that the curse was so efficacious that Tara was ruined and deserted. His hand was preserved in a silver shrine at Lothra until the Reformation. The parish church of Lothra was built on to an ancient oratory, which may have been that of Ruadan (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Montague).
625 Silvester of Réome, Abbot (AC)
Saint Silvester was the second abbot of Moutier- Saint-Jean at Réome in the diocese of Dijon, France (Benedictines).
679 St. Hunna noblewoman devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg.
Called “the Holy Washerwoman,” a noblewoman who devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg, France. The daughter of a duke and wife of Huno of Hunnaweyer, she even washed the poor's clothes, hence her name. She was canonized in 1520 by Pope Leo X.

679 St Hunna, Matron
St Hunna, or Huva, came of the reigning ducal family of Alsace and was married to a nobleman, Huno of Hunnaweyer, a village in the diocese of Strasbourg. Because she undertook to do the washing for her needy neighbours, she was nick­named by her contemporaries “The Holy Washerwoman”. Her family seems to have been influenced by St Deodatus (Dié), Bishop of Nevers, for St Hunna’s son, who was his namesake, was baptized by him and subsequently entered the monastery which he founded at Ebersheim. St Hunna died in 679 and was canonized in 1520 by Leo X at the instance of Duke Ulric of Würtemberg.

It is difficult to find satisfactory authority for what is recounted above. There is mention of Hunus and of “his holy wife” in the eleventh-century Life of St Deodatus of Nevers, and Henschenius in his note on the passage quotes a French work of John Ruyms upon the saints of the Vosges. See the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv (3rd ed), p. 731 and Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxvi, pp. 343-345. There seems, however, to be a local cultus of St Hunna, and the Abbé Hunckler in his Saints d’Alsace writes on the subject at some length. Hunna of Alsace, Matron (AC) also known as Huva); canonized by Pope Leo X in 1520 at the urging of Duke Ulric of Würtemberg. The daughter of an Alsatian duke and widow of the nobleman Huno of Hunnaweyer, Saint Hunna devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg. Hunna earned the title of "holy washerwoman" because she would lend a hand with any job--even to doing the laundry for the poor.
Her family appears to have been influenced by Bishop Saint Deodatus of Nevers, because Hunna's son was named for and baptized by him. When he was of age, he entered the monastery founded by Deodatus, Ebersheimmünster near Strasbourg. A local cult developed after her death (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Walsh).
Saint Hunna is represented as a noblewoman with linen near her; sometimes she is washing it for the poor and sick. She is venerated in Alsace. Patroness of laundresses (Roeder).
829 Blessed Nidger of Augsburg bishop of Augsburg OSB B (AC)
(also known as Nidgar, Nitgar) Nidger is said to have been abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Ottobeuren in Bavaria. He became bishop of Augsburg, Germany, in 822 (Benedictines).
962 St. Mundus Scottish abbot founded abbeys excellent maxims to fraternal charity meekness value of solitude need be aware of the Divine presence
sometimes called Mund, Munde, or Mond. He founded abbeys in Argyle, Scotland.

Mundus of Argyle, Abbot (AC) (also known as Munde, Mund, Mond) Saint Mundus was a Scottish abbot of a large abbey, who made several monastic foundations at Argyle, where he was once venerated as patron. His other heritage included excellent maxims relating to fraternal charity, meekness, the value of solitude, and the need to be aware of the Divine presence. The details of his career are obscure and he is often confused with Saint Fintan Munnu, but he was previously honored as the primary patron of Scotland (Attwater2, Benedictines, Husenbeth).
1607 Blessed Caesar de Bus military priest teaching catechism to ordinary people in neglected rural out-of-the-way places
b. 1544 Like so many of us, Caesar de Bus struggled with the decision about what to do with his life. After completing his Jesuit education he had difficulty settling between a military and a literary career. He wrote some plays but ultimately settled for life in the army and at court.
For a time life was going rather smoothly for the engaging, well-to-do young Frenchman. He was confident he had made the right choice. That was until he saw firsthand the realities of battle, including the St. Bartholomew's Day massacres of French Protestants in 1572.

He fell seriously ill and found himself reviewing his priorities, including his spiritual life. By the time he had recovered Caesar had resolved to become a priest. Following his ordination in 1582, he undertook special pastoral work: teaching the catechism to ordinary people living in neglected, rural, out-of-the-way places. His efforts were badly needed and well received.

Working with his cousin, Caesar developed a program of family catechesis. The goal—to ward off heresy among the people—met the approval of local bishops. Out of these efforts grew a new religious congregation: the Fathers of Christian Doctrine.

One of Caesar's works, Instructions for the Family on the Four Parts of the Roman Catechism, was published 60 years after his death. He was beatified in 1975.
Comment: “Family catechesis” is a familiar term in parish life today. Grounded in the certainty that children learn their faith first from their parents, programs that deepen parental involvement in religious education multiply everywhere. There were no such programs in Caesar’s day until he saw a need and created them. Other needs abound in our parishes, and it’s up to us to respond by finding ways to fill them or by joining in already established efforts.
1889 Bl. Damien de Veuster of Hawaii evangelize peoples of Puno Kohala destroyed pagan worship and Hero of Molokai leper colony
Born in Tremelo, Belgium, on January 3, 1840, he joined the Sacred Hearts Fathers in 1860. He was bom Joseph and received the name Damien in religious life. In 1864, he was sent to Honolulu, Hawaii, where he Was ordained. For the next nine years he worked in missions on the big island, Hawaii. In 1873, he went to the leper colony on Molokai, after volunteering for the assignment. Damien cared for lepers of all ages, but was particularly concerned about the children segregated in the colony. He announced he was a leper in 1885 and continued to build hospitals, clinics, and churches, and some six hundred coffins. He died on April 15 , on Molokai. Slandered by a Protestant minister, Mr. Hyde, Damien was defended by Robert Louis Stevenson, who wrote an impassioned defense of Damien in 1905. He was declared venerable in 1977. Pope John Paul II declared him beatified on June 4, 1995.

Joseph de Veuster (RM) (also known as Father Damien)
Image courtesy of Éditions Magnificat 

Born January 3, 1840 at Tremeloo, Belgium; died April 15, 1889; declared venerable by Pope Pius VI in 1977; canonized by Pope John Paul II on June 3, 1995.
Joseph de Veuster studied at the College of Braine-le-Comte, and in 1860 joined the Fathers of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary (the Picpus Fathers), taking the name Damien.
While still a novice in a Parisien monastery, volunteered for missionary work in the southern seas, and was refused because he was not yet ordained, but when one who should have gone was prevented through illness, Damien was allowed to go in his stead. His superiors need not have feared, for of the ten monks who sailed for Hawaii in 1864, Damien's name and work to outlive them all.
Damien was ordained in Honolulu two months after his arrival and was given a remote parish covering an area as large as his native Belgium, in a barren and volcanic land, where with no white colleague and no church building he began his work. He worked for nine years to evangelize the peoples of Puno and Kohala.
First he labored with his own hands under a blazing sun to build a chapel, then visited his parish from end to end, journeying past the craters and lakes of fire and through the sulphurous fumes or the mud which followed torrential rains.
Often he took his life in his hands, as when once at midnight he burst into a secret burial cave where 30 natives were engaged in a ghoulish ritual. Without hesitation he interrupted the ceremony, spilling their vessels of animal blood and with angry scorn tearing to shreds their pagan symbols.

He is remembered most for his work among the lepers of Molokai, where the authorities had established a self-supporting leper settlement to which all who had contracted the high-contagious disease were compulsorily deported and where under appalling conditions they were left to their fate.
When the call came in 1873 for a priest for Molokai, with the proviso that under new government regulations he must remain there for life, though whoever volunteered to go was almost certain to contract and die of the disease, Damien pleaded for the post. Within an hour he was on his way. At Honolulu he transferred to a ship carrying 50 lepers, and at Molokai he was greeted by his new parishioners, who lined the beach in the last stages of disease and despair. He found only one hopeful sign among the squalor of his new surroundings--a rude wooden chapel, where his first act was to kneel in prayer. He spent that night in cleaning it, and was disturbed by the drunken laughter of the dissolute--for it was a lawless community, by the cries of the dying, and by the howling of the wild dogs that devoured the dead.

There follows the epic of his transformation of this living hell. In 1885, at the age of 49 he himself caught the disease, but crippled and deformed, he carried on, refusing to be transhipped for treatment. Before he died, four other priests and a band of nurses had joined him, and under his influence the island of death became a civilized welfare community.

Though he was often slandered during his lifetime, his holiness and dedication were quickly recognized after his death. (Robert Louis Stevenson wrote an impassioned defense of his character in 1905, which was used to support the canonization.) His body was brought home, and this man who was born a peasant and had spent his life, and sacrificed it, among the banished lepers of Molokai, was buried like a prince in Antwerp Cathedral (Delaney, Gill).

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
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 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Jesus brings us many Blessings
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.

Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas

We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

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There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:


The Five Reasons
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
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Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005
 Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) Francis (2013

Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.
During his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis made this strong statement while continuing his catechesis on the family, with this and next week focusing on the elderly.  Confining this week’s address to their problematic current condition, the Holy Father said the elderly are ignored and that a society that does this is perverse.
While noting that life has been lengthened thanks to advances in medicine, he lamented that while the number of older people has multiplied, "our societies are not organized enough to make room for them, with proper respect and concrete consideration for their fragility and their dignity.”

“As long as we are young, we are led to ignore old age, as if it were a disease to be taken away. Then when we become older, especially if we are poor, sick and alone, we experience the shortcomings of a society planned on efficiency, which consequently ignores the elderly.”

He went on to quote his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI, who, when visiting a nursing home in November 2012, “used clear and prophetic words: ‘The quality of a society, I would say of a civilization, is judged also on how the elderly are treated and the place reserved for them in the common life.’"  Without a space for them, Francis highlighted, society dies.

Cultures, he decried, see the elderly as a burden who do not produce and should be discarded.
“You do not say it openly, but you do it!” he exclaimed. "Out of our fear of weakness and vulnerability, we do not tolerate and abandon the elderly," he said. “It’s sickening to see the elderly discarded. It is ugly. It’s a sin. Abandoning the elderly is a mortal sin.”
“Children who do not visit their elderly and ill parents have mortally sinned. Understand?”

The Pope expressed his dismay at children who go months without seeing a parent, or how elderly are confined to little tables in their kitchens alone, without anyone caring for them.  He noted that he observed this reality during his ministry in Buenos Aires.  Unwilling to accept limits, society, he noted, doesn’t allow elderly to participate and gives into the mentality that only the young can be useful and enjoy life.
The whole society must realize, the Pope said, the elderly contain the wisdom of the people.
The tradition of the Church, Pope Francis reaffirmed, has always supported a culture of closeness to the elderly, involving affectionately and supportively accompanying them in this final part of life.  The Church cannot, and does not want to, Francis underscored, comply with a mentality of impatience, and even less of indifference and contempt towards old age.
Sooner or later, we will all be old, he said. If we do not treat the elderly well, he stressed we will not be treated well either.
“We must awaken the collective sense of gratitude, of appreciation, of hospitality, which make them feel the elderly living part of his community.”

Concluding his address, Pope Francis noted how old age will come to all one day and reminded the faithful how much they have received from their elders. He also challenged them to not take a step back and abandon them to their fate.

The Church without Mary is an orphanage
Pope Francis:
Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (
Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
The Pope said this today before reciting the midday Angelus with several thousand people gathered in the courtyard of the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
Referring to the Gospel reading for today's Mass, the Holy Father reflected on the faith of Peter, which is shown to be "still immature and too much influenced by the 'mentality of this world.'”  He explained that when Christ spoke openly about how he was to "suffer much, be killed and rise again, Peter protests, saying: 'God forbid, Lord! No such thing shall ever happen to you.'"
"It is evident that the Master and the disciple follow two opposed ways of thinking," continued the Pontiff. "Peter, according to a human logic, is convinced that God would never allow his Son to end his mission dying on the cross.  "Jesus, on the contrary, knows that the Father, in his great love for men, sent him to give his life for them, and if this means the passion and the cross, it is right that such should happen."
Christ also knew that "the resurrection would be the last word," Benedict XVI added.
Serious illness
The Pope continued, "If to save us the Son of God had to suffer and die crucified, it certainly was not because of a cruel design of the heavenly Father.  "The cause of it is the gravity of the sickness of which he must cure us: an evil so serious and deadly that it will require all of his blood. 
"In fact, it is with his death and resurrection that Jesus defeated sin and death, reestablishing the lordship of God."
Popes Html link here: 
 “Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.” Pope Francis:
It Is a Mortal Sin When Children Don't Visit Their Elderly Parents.

Popes mentioned in todays  articles of Saints April 13
655 Saint Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome native of the Tuscany convened Lateran Council at Rome condemn Monothelite heresy last martyred Pope
Pope Paschal II, {Pope Paschal II Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 Jan., 1118.

 Popes mentioned in articles of Saints April 12
649-655 Pope St. Martin I defender of the faith; buried in the church of Our Lady, called Blachernæ, near Cherson
Sancti Martíni Primi, Papæ et Mártyris, cujus dies natális sextodécimo Kaléndas Octóbris recensétur.
    The Feast of St. Martin I, pope and martyr, whose birthday is mentioned on the 16th day of September.

Many miracles are related wrought by St Martin in life and after death;
Pope St. Martin I of noble birth, great student, commanding intelligence, profound learning, great charity to the poor Saint Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome native of the Tuscany convened Lateran Council at Rome condemn Monothelite heresy;
Last martyred Pope.
655 Martin I, Pope died in the Crimea great intellect and charity the last pope to die a martyr M (RM)
Born in Todi in Umbria, Italy; died in the Crimea, September 16, 655; feast day was previously November 12 (November 10 in York);
the Eastern Church celebrates his feast on September 20.

336 St. Julius elected Pope to succeed Pope St. Mark on February 6, 337 built several basilicas and churches in Rome
        declared that Athanasius was the rightful bishop of Alexandria and reinstated him

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
Pope St. Leo I (the Great) April 11
"And to the angel of the Church of Pergamum write: the words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. I know where you live, where the throne of Satan is, and you cleave unto My Name, and have not renounced My faith, even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwells" (Rev 2:12-13).  St. Antipas

Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed 1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards OP inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years.
432 Saint Celestine Pope of Rome (422-432) zealous champion of Orthodoxy virtuous life theologian authority denounced the Nestorian heresy

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
 180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}

432 Celestine I Pope treatise against semi-Pelagianism
Born in Campania, Italy; died at Rome, July 27, 432; feast day formerly on July 27 and/or August 1. Saint Celestine was a deacon in Rome when he was elected pope on September 20, 422, to succeed Saint Boniface. He was a staunch supporter of Saint Germanus of Auxerre in the fight against Pelagianism, and a friend of Saint Augustine with whom he corresponded, and which demonstrates that the bishop of Rome was the central authority even at that early date.

About the year 1234 Pope Gregory IX appointed 1252 St. Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominicinquisitor general for the Milanese territories.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
St Leo IX -- 1095 Saint Gerald of Sauve-Majeure monk cellarer of abbey Corbie; founded, directed, Benedictine Abbey of Grande -Sauveabbot  author of a hagiology His abbot chose him as companion to go with him to Rome, where he hoped the sufferer might be cured.Together they visited the tombs of the Apostles, and at the hands of St Leo IX Gerald was ordained priest.
Pope Urban IV) -- 1258 Blessed Juliana of Mount Cornillon visions in which Jesus pointed out that there was no feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament OSA V (AC) her mission to some of her friends, notably to Bd Eva, a recluse who lived beside St Martin’s church on the opposite bank of the river, and to a saintly woman, Isabel of Huy, whom she had received into her community. Encouraged no doubt by the support of these two, she opened her heart to a learned canon of St Martin’s, John of Lausanne, asking him to consult theologians as to the propriety of such a feast. James Pantaleon (afterwards Pope Urban IV), Hugh of St Cher, the Dominican prior provincial, Bishop Guy of Cambrai, chancellor of the University of Paris, with other learned men, were approached, and decided that there was no theological or canonical objection to the institution of a festival in honour of the Blessed Sacrament.
127 Sixtus I, Pope survived as pope for about 10 years before being killed by the Roman authorities M (RM)
 Romæ natális beáti Xysti Primi, Papæ et Mártyris; qui, tempóribus Hadriáni Imperatóris, summa cum laude rexit Ecclésiam, ac demum, sub Antoníno Pio, ut sibi Christum lucrifáceret, libénter mortem sustínuit temporálem.
      At Rome, the birthday of blessed Pope Sixtus the First, martyr, who ruled the Church with distinction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, and finally in the reign of Antoninus Pius he gladly accepted temporal death in order to gain Christ for himself. 
(also known as Xystus)

Saint Leo the Great --  469 St. Abundius Greek priest bishop noted theologian obvious intellect and holiness attended Councils of Chalcedon and Milan, Hermit (RM) (also known as Abondius, Abundias) Died c. 500. Saint Abundius, a Greek priest, was consecrated bishop of Como in northern Italy. Because he was an able theologian, Saint Leo the Great entrusted him with a mission to Emperor Theodosius the Younger, which led to the convening of the Council of Chalcedon in 451. At the council, Abundius presided as the pope's legate (Attwater2, Benedictines).
6th v. St. Musa Virgin child of Rome; a great mystic, visions and ecstasies, reported by St. Gregory I the Great

1220 Jacqueline V Hermit recluse in Sicily reprimanded Pope Innocent III

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
During his 52-year episcopacy, 1132 St. Hugh of Grenoble Benedictine bishop amazing modesty took upon himself all sins of others the cross he carried was heavy laden holy and redemptive great reputation for miracles:
vainly tendered his resignation to each pope--Gregory VII, Gelasius II, Calixtus II, Honorius II, Innocent II, and others--and they refused him because of his outstanding ability. He never ceased imploring them to release him from the duties of his episcopal office up to the day of his death. During his last, painful illness he was tormented by headaches and stomach disorders that resulted from his long fasts and vigils, yet never complained. For a short time before his death, he lost his memory for everything but prayer, and would recite the Psalter and the Our Father unceasingly.

 440 Pope St. Sixtus III approved Acts of the Council of Ephesus endeavoured to restore peace between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch prominent among the Roman clergy and in correspondence with St. Augustine
Romæ sancti Xysti Tértii, Papæ et Confessóris.    At Rome, St. Sixtus III, pope and confessor.
Pope Martin V -- The Observant reform which had been initiated in the middle of the fourteenth century still found itself hampered in many ways by the administration of superiors general who held a different standard of perfection, and on the other hand there had also been exaggerations in the direction of much greater austerity culminating eventually in the heretical teachings of the Fraticelli. All these difficulties required adjustment, and Capistran, working in harmony with St Bernardino of Siena, was called upon to bear a large share in this burden. After the general chapter held at Assisi in 1430, St John was appointed to draft the conclusions at which the assembly arrived, and these “Martinian statutes”, as they were called, in virtue of their confirmation by Pope Martin V, are among the most important in the history of the order.
Aeneas Sylvius (the future Pope Pius II) -- St John Capistran was sent as commissary and inquisitor general, and he set out for Vienna in 1451 with twelve of his Franciscan brethren to assist him. It is beyond doubt that his coming produced a great sensation. Aeneas Sylvius (the future Pope Pius II) tells us how, when he entered Austrian territory, “priests and people came out to meet him, carrying the sacred relics. They received him as a legate of the Apostolic See, as a preacher of truth, as some great prophet sent by God. They came down from the mountains to greet John, as though Peter or Paul or one of the other apostles were journeying there. They eagerly kissed the hem of his garment, brought their sick and afflicted to his feet, and it is reported that very many were cured. . . . The elders of the city met him and conducted him to Vienna. No square in the city could contain the crowds. They looked on him as an angel of God.”
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
 St. Venturino of Bergamo is also known for helping to organize a crusade, at the behest of Pope Clement VI (r. 1342-1352), against the Turks who were then menacing Europe.

150 St. Mark & Timothy Roman martyrs of post-apostolic times mentioned in a letter by Pope St. Pius I

 752 Pope St. Zachary 741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
Pope Zacharias_Zachary Pope Zachary was a peace-maker and judged no man without a hearing.
Zachary was also responsible for restoring Montecassino under Saint Petronax and himself consecrated its abbey church in 748. The saint was known for aiding the poor, provided refuge to nuns driven from Constantinople by the iconoclasts, ransomed slaves from the Venetians, forbade the selling of Christian slaves to the Moors of Africa, and translated Saint Gregory the Great's Dialogues into Greek. Since "Zacharias embraced and cherished all people like a father and a good shepherd, and never allowed even the smallest injustice to happen to anyone," he was venerated as a saint immediately after his death (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Schamoni).

Frequent and daily Communion is greatly desired by our Lord and the Church. Pope St. Pius X
A meditation during the Great Fast...

March 21 – Our Lady of Nowy Swierjan (Russia)
Hail, Holy Mother of God --
Pope Francis
Jesus Christ is the blessing for every man and woman ... The Church, in giving us Jesus, offers us the fullness of the Lord’s blessing. This is precisely the mission of the people of God: to spread to all peoples God’s blessing made flesh in Jesus Christ. And Mary, the first and most perfect disciple of Jesus, the first and most perfect believer, the model of the pilgrim Church, is the one who opens the way to the Church’s motherhood and constantly sustains her maternal mission to all mankind. Mary’s tactful maternal witness has accompanied the Church from the beginning. She, the Mother of God, is also the Mother of the Church, and through the Church, the mother of all men and women, and of every people. …

Let us look to Mary, let us contemplate the Holy Mother of God. I suggest that you all greet her together, just like those courageous people of Ephesus, who cried out before their pastors when they entered Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!” What a beautiful greeting for our Mother. There is a story – I do not know if it is true – that some among those people had clubs in their hands, perhaps to make the Bishops understand what would happen if they did not have the courage to proclaim Mary “Mother of God”! I invite all of you, without clubs, to stand up and to greet her three times with this greeting of the early Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!”  Pope Francis; Homily, Holy Mass on the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God
Vatican Basilica, January 1, 2015
Pope’s Prayer in Pompeii
Saturday, March 21, 2015
Virgin of the Holy Rosary, Mother of the Redeemer, our earthly Lady raised above the heavens, humble servant of the Lord, proclaimed Queen of the world, from the depth of our miseries we turn to you. With the faithfulness of children we look to your sweet gaze.

Crowned with twelve stars, you bring us to the mystery of the Father, you shine the splendor of the Holy Spirit, you give us our Divine Child, Jesus, our hope, our only salvation in the world. Comforted by your Rosary, you invite us to be fixed to his gaze. You open to us His heart, abyss of joy and sorry, of light and glory, mystery of the son of God, made man for us. At your feet in the footsteps of the saints, we feel as God’s family.

Mother and model of the Church, you are our guide and secure support. Make us one heart and one mind, a strong people on the way towards the heavenly homeland. We entrust our miseries, the many streets of hate and blood, the thousands of ancient and new poverties and above all, our sins. To you we entrust ourselves, Mother of Mercy: grant us the forgiveness of God, help us to build a world according to your heart.

O Blessed Rosary of Mary, sweet chain that ties us to God, chain of love that makes us brothers, we will not leave you again. You will be in our hands a weapon of peace and forgiveness, star that guides our path. And the kiss to you with our last breath, we plunge into a wave of light, in the vision of the beloved Mother and the Son of God, the desire and joy of our heart, with the Father and the Holy Spirit.

IT was in 1036 that St Anselm was born in Mantua, and in 1073 his uncle, Pope Alexander II, nominated him to the bishopric of Lucca, left vacant by his own elevation to the chair of St Peter, and sent him to Germany to receive from the Emperor Henry IV the crozier and the ring— in accordance with the regrettable custom of the time. Anselm, however, was so strongly convinced that the secular power had no authority to confer ecclesiastical dignities that he could not bring himself to accept investiture from the emperor and returned to Italy without it. Only after he had been consecrated by Alexander’s successor, Pope St Gregory VII, did he consent to accept from Henry the crozier and the ring, and even then he felt scruples of conscience on the subject. These doubts led him to leave his diocese and to withdraw to a congregation of Cluniac monks at Polirone. A dignitary of such high-minded views could ill be spared, and Pope Gregory recalled him from his retirement and sent him back to Lucca to resume the government of his diocese. Zealous with regard to discipline, he strove to enforce among his canons the common life enjoined by the decree of Pope St Leo IX. In acute discordance with the edifying example accredited to them above in our notice of St Frediano, the canons refused to obey, although they were placed under an interdict by the pope and afterwards excommunicated. Countess Matilda of Tuscany undertook to expel them, but they raised a revolt and, being supported by the Emperor Henry, drove the bishop out of the city in 1079.
752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
(also known as Zacharias) Born at San Severino, Calabria, Italy; died 752; feast day formerly on March 22; feast day in the East is September 5.

St. Irenaeus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the fifth pope in succession from the Apostles, though he says nothing of his martyrdom. His pontificate is variously dated by critics, e. g. 106-115 (Duchesne) or 109-116 (Lightfoot). In Christian antiquity he was credited with a pontificate of about ten years (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. IV, i,) and there is no reason to doubt that he was on the "catalogue of bishops" drawn up at Rome by Hegesippus (Eusebius, IV, xxii, 3) before the death of Pope Eleutherius (c. 189). According to a tradition extant in the Roman Church at the end of the fifth century, and recorded in the Liber Pontificalis he suffered a martyr's death by decapitation on the Via Nomentana in Rome, 3 May. The same tradition declares him to have been a Roman by birth and to have ruled the Church in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It likewise attributes to him, but scarcely with accuracy, the insertion in the canon of the Qui Pridie, or words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist, such being certainly primitive and original in the Mass. He is also said to have introduced the use of blessing water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences (constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedici in habitaculis hominum). Duchesne (Lib. Pont., I, 127) calls attention to the persistence of this early Roman custom by way of a blessing in the Gelasian Sacramentary that recalls very forcibly the actual Asperges prayer at the beginning of Mass. In 1855, a semi-subterranean cemetery of the holy martyrs Sts. Alexander, Eventulus, and Theodulus was discovered near Rome, at the spot where the above mentioned tradition declares the Pope to have been martyred. According to some archaeologists, this Alexander is identical with the Pope, and this ancient and important tomb marks the actual site of the Pope's martyrdom. Duchesne, however (op. cit., I, xci-ii) denies the identity of the martyr and the pope, while admitting that the confusion of both personages is of ancient date, probably anterior to the beginning of the sixth century when the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled [Dufourcq, Gesta Martyrum Romains (Paris, 1900), 210-211]. The difficulties raised in recent times by Richard Lipsius (Chronologie der römischen Bischofe, Kiel, 1869) and Adolph Harnack (Die Zeit des Ignatius u. die Chronologie der antiochenischen Bischofe, 1878) concerning the earliest successors of St. Peter are ably discussed and answered by F. S. (Cardinal Francesco Segna) in his "De successione priorum Romanorum Pontificum" (Rome 1897); with moderation and learning by Bishop Lightfoot, in his "Apostolic Fathers: St. Clement ' (London, 1890) I, 201-345- especially by Duchesne in the introduction to his edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" (Paris, 1886) I, i-xlviii and lxviii-lxxiii. The letters ascribed to Alexander I by PseudoIsidore may be seen in P. G., V, 1057 sq., and in Hinschius, "Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae" (Leipzig, 1863) 94-105. His remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria in 834 (Dummler, Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini, Berlin, 1884, II, 120). His so-called "Acts" are not genuine, and were compiled at a much later date (Tillemont, Mem. II, 590 sqq; Dufourcq, op. cit., 210-211).