Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Easter Weekday



 We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
 Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life.

The Virgin I had defended protected me
 
A Marist Brother told this story:

During the Spanish civil war, I heard a sergeant read an article from a magazine out loud that attacked the virginity of Mary. So I invoked Mary, "Mother, help me," and snatched the magazine from his hands. "This is a pack of lies and slander against the Virgin. Who are you?" The sergeant replied, "A peasant." And I said, "Listen, I’m sure there are things you don’t understand about farming; it’s the same water that waters plants; we add the same manure, but some plants are sweet and others bitter; some are one color, and others another color.
And you, like the brute that you are, you understand religion even less!"

The man became furious. He shouted, "You’re a priest!" I answered, "No, I'm a Catholic, and I’m willing to defend my religion with anyone." He retorted, "If you had told me this before (it was towards the end of the war) and we were alone, I would have killed you."

Later, a Communist lieutenant told me, "We know you are a Marist brother, but you behave well with the most modest militiamen and poor people. You have been brave. So the officers and I have sworn to defend you against this sergeant..." They kept their word.

The Virgin I had defended protected me


CAUSES OF SAINTS April   2016
 Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world
It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life


The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Totus tuus (completely yours)  Saint Louis Mary de Montfort personal motto
“Mary is the fruitful Virgin, and in all the souls in which she comes to dwell she causes to flourish purity of heart and body, rightness of intention and abundance of good works. Do not imagine that Mary, the most fruitful of creatures who gave birth to a God, remains barren in a faithful soul. It will be she who makes the soul live incessantly for Jesus Christ, and will make Jesus live in the soul” (True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin).

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary  .

Rejoice, Full of Grace April 27 - Our Lady of La Moreneta (Spain)
Fr. Albert Enard, O.P., a French Dominican priest, suggested a modification of the present form of the Hail Mary. He proposed a new translation of the opening word of the Angel's greeting to the Virgin Mary at the Annunciation (Lk 1: 28) to indicate that the angel's message is one of joy. The angel at the Annunciation said chaire: "rejoice" in St Luke's Gospel--translated into Latin as ave. In Latin, ave was a simple word of greeting. Consequently, all the Western European languages (dependent upon the Latin) translated ave as a simple word of greeting:
Hail, Mary; Je vous salue Marie; Dios te salve Maria, etc.

In 1969, a change in the wording of this popular prayer first occurred in Lourdes. "Rejoice" (réjouis-toi) began to be used as the opening words of Ave Maria. Four years later, as the French bishops submitted the texts of the Lectionary to the Congregation for Divine Worship; they requested that the word "Rejoice" (rejouis-toi) be retained in the official liturgical texts. However, their request was denied. "The reasons for the change," the congregation averred, "appear to be less weighty than the reasons for not changing the words of the Hail Mary which are so dear to the Christian people." Accordingly, all the English Lectionaries have retained the phrase Hail Mary.

Meanwhile, Fr. Enard continued his work of showing that the angel's words were not simply words of greeting but a call to great joy. In 1983, his book Réjouis-toi Marie appeared with translations of the commentaries of Greek writers. The Akathist Hymn of the Byzantine Church is an extended meditation on the Annunciation scene, with the refrain "Rejoice, rejoice, o wedded virgin" repeated throughout. St Sophronias, patriarch of Jerusalem, commented, "What will the angel say to the blessed and pure Virgin? How will he communicate the great message? 'Rejoice, you have been filled with grace, the Lord is with you.' When he addressed her, he begins with joy, he who is the announcer of great joy."
Adapted from an article written by Rev. Thomas A. Thompson, SM, The Marian Library Newsletter, Summer 2000 ed.

In all He did from the Incarnation to the Cross, the end Jesus Christ had in mind was the gift of the Eucharist, his personal and corporal union with each Christian through Communion. He saw in It the means of communicating to us all the treasures of His Passion, all the virtues of His Sacred Humanity, and all the merits of His Life.
-- St. Peter Julian Eymard


April 27 – Our Lady of Montserrat (Spain) – Our Lady of Vilnius (Lithuania) 
 
It was a Saturday in 880 AD… 
On a Saturday in the year 880, in Montserrat, province of Catalonia, Spain, some young shepherds saw a bright light coming down from heaven, accompanied by a beautiful melody. The event happened several times, until the bishop himself decided to see the occurrence for himself. He arrived on the scene and saw the same light.
All the visions occurred in a cave on Montserrat mountain. When this cave was explored the people found a statue of the Madonna and Child. After trying to move the statue to a different location without any success, they thought it was God's will that the statue be venerated on the mountain of Montserrat.
The first written mention and the historical origin of the Shrine of Our Lady of Montserrat dates from the year 888, when Count Velloso gave the hermitage of Saint Mary to the monastery of Ripoll. Then in 1025, the bishop in charge of the premises founded the monastery of Montserrat, which quickly became a shrine of national importance. Eventually, the current Romanesque church was built, and the statue of the Madonna and Child venerated today was carved.
fr.rutamariana.com
 
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

 100 Simeon der Bruder des Herrn
 303 Anthimus of Nicomedia for his confession of the Christian faith BM (RM)
       Tarsi, in Cilícia, sanctórum Cástoris et Stéphani Mártyrum.
4th v. Saint Eulogius the Hospitable
 368 Theodore the Sanctified miracles holy water as a sacramental Abbot (RM)
 400 St Liberalis Priest worked to convert Arian heretics
 427 St. Theophilus Bishop of Brescia Italy succeeded St. Gaudentius

  470 ST ASICUS, OR TASSACH, BISHOP OF ELPHIN The Félire of Oengus commemorates St Asicus (on April 14)
 in these terms: “The royal bishop, Tassach, gave when he came unto him the body of Christ, the truly strong King, at the communion unto Patrick”. His feast is observed in all Ireland.

 488 Saint Maughold of Man Irish prince reputedly captain of robbers converted by Patrick B (AC)
 490 St Asicus Abbot-Bishop of Ireland Humble not believing worthy of the office disciple of St. Patrick
 490 St Tertullian 8th Bishop of Bologna, Italy
       St Castor & Stephen 2 martyrs at Tarsus in Cilicia unknown
6th v. St Enoder abbot Grandson of Welsh chieftain Brychan of Brecknock
 731 St Winewald Second abbot of Beverley monastery in England
 746 St Floribert Bishop a man avid in correcting others of Liege Belgium
 813 St John of Constantinople Abbot inveterate opposition to the destruction of icons
1094 Stephen Pechersky abbot of the monastery of the Caves in Kiev
1152 St Adelelmus Hermit founder disciple of St. Bernard of Thiron
1278 St Zita miraculus life daily Mass recite many prayers generous gifts of food to the poor visits to sick & prisoners heavenly visions variety of miracles
1304 Bl Peter Armengol twice went from Spain to Africa to redeem captives continued for 10 more years after being hung
1311 Blessed Antony de'Patrizi superior of hermit friars of Saint Augustine at Monticiano OSA (AC)
1485 Blessed James of Bitetto heroic humility; levitate during prayer; accurately predict the future; incorrupted body remains; many miracles
1565 Blessed Hosanna of Cattaro miracle child;
several apparitions OP Tert. V (AC)
1597  Sancti Petri Canísii, Sacerdótis e Societáte Jesu et Confessóris atque Ecclésiæ Doctóris
1606 ST TURIBIUS, Archbishop of LIMA
1624 Blessed Mariana of Jesus life of penance O. Merc. V (AC)
1678 Blessed Nicolas Roland (AC)
1716 St. Louis Mary de Montfort promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church. Totus tuus(completely yours) was Louis's personal motto
1919 Blessed Maria Antonia Bandres y Elosegui (AC).

"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him" (Psalm 21:28)

100 Simeon der Bruder des Herrn
Orthodoxe Kirche: 27. April Katholische Kirche: 18. Februar

Nach Matth. 13, 55 und Mark. 6, 3 sind Jakobus, Josef bzw. Joses, Simon und Judas Brüder Jesu. Da die immerwährende Jungfräulichkeit Marias Geschwister Jesu von der gleichen Mutter ausschließt, gibt es zwei Erklärungen: Nach einer Überlieferung (insbesondere im katholischen Raum) sind die vier Geschwister Söhne des Kleopas, des Bruders Josephs; nach einer anderen Überlieferung sind sie Söhne Josephs aus einer ersten Ehe mit Solomonia (vgl. auch Anna).

Simon (Simeon oder Symeon) begleitete Jesus und durfte ihn Bruder nennen. Origines und andere berichten, Simon sei der zweite Emmausjünger gewesen. Nach dem Tode seines Bruders Jakobus wurde Simon der zweite Patriarch von Jerusalem. Er starb in hohem Alter von 100 oder 120 Jahren unter Kaiser Trajan den Tod am Kreuz (als Todesjahr werden 98 und 107 angegeben).
 

303 Anthimus of Nicomedia for his confession of the Christian faith BM (RM)
Nicomedíæ natális sancti Anthimi, Epíscopi et Mártyris; qui in persecutióne Diocletiáni, ob confessiónem Christi, martyrii glóriam obtruncatióne cápitis accépit.  Secúta est quoque illum univérsa ferme gregis sui multitúdo; quorum álios Judex gládio obtruncári, álios conflagrári ígnibus, álios, navículis impósitos, pélago immérgi fecit.
 At Nicomedia, during the persecution of Diocletian, the birthday of St. Anthimus, bishop and martyr, who obtained the glory of martyrdom by being beheaded for the faith.  Nearly all his numerous flock followed him. 
The judge ordered some to be beheaded, others to be burned alive, others to be put in boats and sunk in the sea.

303 ST ANTHIMUS Bishop OF Nicomedia

THE persecution under Diocletian and Maximian was waged, with particular ferocity at Nicomedia in Bithynia, where the emperors had a favourite residence. When the edict was first posted up, it was torn down by a Christian, moved by a zeal which Lactantius condemns but Eusebius commends. From that time the faithful could neither buy nor sell, draw water or grind corn without being called upon to offer incense to the gods.
   Eusebius, after relating that Anthimus the bishop was beheaded for confessing the Christian faith, states that an immense number of other martyrs perished also. He adds:
“In those days, I do not know how, a fire broke out in the palace, and a false report was spread that we originated it. By the emperor’s’ orders all who were servants of God perished in masses, some by the sword, others by fire. A certain number of men and women, spurred on by an inexplicable divine inspiration, are said to have rushed into the blazing pyre. Innumerable others, bound and placed on rafts or planks, were drowned in the sea.”
   Nearly the whole of the Christian population proved faithful and won the crown of martyrdom. With St Anthimus are also sometimes associated eleven of his fellow-martyrs.
See the Acts Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, where besides the allusions of Eusebius and the martyrologies, there is printed a late Greek text of the supposed Acts of St Anthimus. The unreliable legend of SS. Indes and Domna speaks of letters addressed to these martyrs by St Anthimus, but there is no reason to believe him to have been an author. Consequently a curious fragment which Cardinal G. Mercati edited in Studi e Testi, n. 5 (1901), and which purports to be part of a dissertation “on the Holy Church” by St Anthimus, is not likely to be authentic. See Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur, vol. ii, pp. 333~334.

Born in Nicomedia, Bithynia; Bishop Anthimus of Nicomedia was beheaded under Diocletian for his confession of the Christian faith. His death was followed by a wholesale slaughter of the Christian communities in the area. In addition, life in the area was made unbearable for altars to the pagan gods were set up in every public place, including the courts and markets. Individuals were required to sacrifice in order to transact any type of business (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
Tarsi, in Cilícia, sanctórum Cástoris et Stéphani Mártyrum.
 At Tarsus in Cilicia, the Saints Castor and Stephen, martyrs.
 St. Castor & Stephen 2 martyrs at Tarsus in Cilicia unknown
They were possibly the martyrs listed in the preceding entry.
Castor and Stephen MM (RM) Date unknown. Castor and Stephen suffered martyrdom at Tarsus in Cilicia in one of the early persecutions. They may be identical to Saints Castor and Dorotheus (Benedictines).
4th v. Saint Eulogius the Hospitable lived during the fourth century in the Thebaid.
He served the Lord by offering hospitality to wanderers (Mark 9:41).

368 Theodore the Sanctified; miracles holy water as a sacramental Abbot (RM)
In Ægypto sancti Theodóri Abbátis, qui fuit discípulus sancti Pachómii. In Egypt, St. Theodore, abbot, who was a disciple of St. Pachomius.
(also known as Theodore of Tabenna) Died April 27, c. 368; feast day in the East is May 16. Saint
Theodore was a disciple of Saint Pachomius, whom he succeeded as abbot of Tabennisi and superior general of the whole "congregation." One of his miracles provides an early example of the efficacy of holy water as a sacramental (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia)
368 ST THEODORE THE SANCTIFIED, ABBOT many miracles
SUCH was the glory which the Church received in the fourth and fifth centuries from the light of the monastic order which then shone in the deserts of Egypt that Theodoret and Procopius apply to the state of these holy recluses those passages of the prophets in which it is said of the age of the new law of grace that,
"The wilderness shall rejoice and shall flourish like the lily; it shall bud forth and blossom, and shall rejoice with joy and praise" (Isaias xxxv 1, 2, etc.).
   One of the most eminent among these saints was the abbot Theodore, disciple of St Pachomius. He was born in the Upper Thebaid about the year 314, of wealthy parents, and when he was between eleven and twelve years of age, on the feast of the Epiphany, he gave himself to God with precocious fervour, determining that he would never prefer anything to the divine love and service. Eventually the reputation of St Pachomius drew him to Tabenna, where he appeared among the foremost in promise of his followers, and Pachomius made him his companion when he made the visitation of his monasteries. Pachomius had him promoted to the priesthood and committed to him the government of Tabenna, shutting himself up in the little monastery of Pabau.
   St Pachomius died in 346, and Petronius, whom he had declared his successor, died thirteen days after him. St Orsisius was then chosen abbot, but finding the burden too heavy for his shoulders and the group of monasteries threatened with rising factions, he placed St Theodore in charge. He assembled the monks, exhorted them to unanimity, inquired into the cause of the divisions and applied effectual remedies. By his prayers and endeavours union and charity was restored.
   St Theodore visited the monasteries one after the other, and instructed, comforted and encouraged every monk in particular, correcting faults with a sweetness which gained the heart. He wrought several miracles, and foretold things to come. Being one day in a boat on the Nile with St Athanasius, he assured him that his persecutor,
Julian the Apostate, was that moment dead in Persia and that his successor would restore peace to him and the Church: both of which were soon confirmed.
   One of St Theodore's miracles provides an early example of the use of blessed water as a sacramental for the healing of body and soul. The story is told by a contemporary -- St Ammon. A man came to the monastery at Tabenna, asking St Theodore to come and pray over his daughter, who was sick. Theodore was not able to go, but reminded the man that God could hear his prayer wherever they were offered. To which the man replied that he had not a great faith, and brought a silver vessel of water, asking the monk that he would at least invoke the name of God upon that so it might be as a medicine for her. Then Theodore prayed and made the sign of the cross over the water, and the man took it home. He found his daughter unconscious, so he forced open her mouth and poured some of it down her throat. And by virtue of the prayer of St Theodore the girl was saved and recovered her health.

It is related that once while St Theodore was giving a conference to his monks, who were working at the same time making mats, two vipers crawled about his feet from under a stone. So as not to interrupt himself or disturb his audience he set his foot upon them till he had finished his discourse. Then taking away his foot he let them be killed, having received no harm.
One of his monks happening to die on Holy Saturday in 368, Theodore went to assist him in his last moments, and said to those that were present, "This death will shortly be followed by another which is little expected". At the close of the week St Theodore made a customary discourse to his monks, for it was their custom to meet all together in the monastery of Pabau for the celebration of Easter, and had no sooner dismissed them to their own monasteries than he was taken ill, and died peacefully on April 27. His body was carried to the top of the mountain, and buried in the cemetery of the monks there, but it was soon removed and laid with that of St Pachomius. St Athanasius wrote to the monks of Tabenna to comfort them for the loss of their abbot, and bids them have before their eyes the glory of which he was then possessed.

Such information as was available in the seventeenth century concerning the history of St Theodore will be found collected in the account of St Pachomius which was published in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii. A number of new texts have come to light, mostly in Coptic, or in translations from Coptic sources: see the bibliography given herein under St Pachomius (May 9). But for the life of St Theodore the Epistola Ammonis is especially important: it is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, pp. 63-71. For English readers much may be learnt from H. G. Evelyn White, The Monasteries of the Wadi n'Natrun, pt ii, but heed must be paid also to the criticisms published thereon by P. Peeters in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. li (1933), pp. 152-157. The Greeks commemorate this saint in May, and the Roman Martyrology formerly on December 28, but in the latest editions he is named on the date of his death, April 27.
400 St. Liberalis Priest worked to convert Arian heretics
who worked to convert the Arians and was persecuted in turn in Ancona, Italy. His relics are in Treviso.
Liberalis of Ancona (AC) Father Liberalis worked zealously in the district around Ancona to convert the Arians and, of course, he suffered much at their hands. His relics are enshrined at Treviso (Benedictines).
427 St. Theophilus Bishop of Brescia Italy succeeded St. Gaudentius.
Bríxiæ sancti Theóphili Epíscopi. At Brescia, St. Theophilus, bishop. 

He succeeded St. Gaudentius in this holy office.
Theophilus of Brescia B (RM) Died after 427. Bishop of Brescia and successor to Saint Gaudentius (Benedictines).

470 ST ASICUS, OR TASSACH, BISHOP OF ELPHIN The Félire of Oengus commemorates St Asicus (on April 14) in these terms: “The royal bishop, Tassach, gave when he came unto him the body of Christ, the truly strong King, at the communion unto Patrick”. His feast is observed in all Ireland.

ST Asicus (Tassach) is the principal patron of Elphin in County Roscommon, and is traditionally regarded as having been the first bishop of that diocese. From some of the early lives of St Patrick it appears that he was one of the great apostle’s earliest disciples in Ireland, that he was married, and that he was a clever brass worker or copper smith.
   He was placed over the church of Elphin but it is uncertain whether he became a bishop before or after the death of St Patrick. According to one account he resigned his see because he had told an untruth, according to another he presided over an episcopal seminary or monastery; in any case he seems to have failed as a ruler, and he fled to the island of Rathlin O’Birne in Donegal Bay, where he lived in solitude for seven years. When his monks found him and took him back, he died on the way at Raith Cungi, or Racoon. The Félire of Oengus commemorates St Asicus (on April 14) in these terms: “The royal bishop, Tassach, gave when he came unto him the body of Christ, the truly strong King, at the communion unto Patrick”. His feast is observed in all Ireland.

There seems to be no proper biography of Asicus, but he is mentioned more than once in Tirechan’s collections in the Book of Armagh and in the Tripartite Life of St Patrick. See also references in J. Ryan’s Irish Monasticism (1931) and O’Hanlon, LIS., vol. iv, pp. 406 seq.
488 Saint Maughold of Man; Irish prince, reputedly captain of robbers, converted by Patrick B (AC)
(also known as Macaille, Maccaldus, Machalus, Machella, Maghor, Maccul) feast day formerly December 28.
498 ST MAUGHOLD, OR MACCUL, BISHOP OF MAN
IT is from some of the early lives of St Patrick that we derive the little we know of St Maccul, or Maughold. A bloodthirsty and wicked freebooter, he was converted by the apostle of Ireland. As a penance, and to cut him off from his evil associates, St Patrick bade him leave his native land, and he embarked alone, without rudder or oars, in a leather-covered coracle which bore him to the shores of the Isle of Man. Two missionaries had already been sent there by St Patrick, and they gave a kindly reception to the new-comer, who, until their death, led an austere penitential life in that part of the island which afterwards adopted his name.
He is said to have been chosen bishop by the general consent of the Manx people and to have done much by his example and labours to extend the Church of Christ in this land. To him is attributed the division of the diocese into seventeen parishes. His feast is kept in the archdiocese of Liverpool, which includes Man.

The name of this saint is very variously written. He is mentioned (under April 25) in the Félire of Oengus as “a rod of gold, a vast ingot, the great Bishop MacCaille”. Forbes in KSS, p. 380, gives a notice of him under “Machalus”. See also O’Hanlon, LIS., vol. iv, p. 478.

Saint Maughold was an Irish prince and reputedly a captain of robbers who was converted by Patrick. Upon his conversion, he became a new man by putting on the spirit of Christ. One version of the legend says that Patrick told him to put to sea in a coracle without oars as a penance for his evil deeds. Another says that he set sail in order to avoid the temptations of the world. In both stories, he retired to the Isle of Man (Eubonia) off the coast of Lancashire, England.


Earlier Patrick had sent his nephew, Saint Germanus, as bishop to plant the Church on the island. Germanus was succeeded by Saints Romulus and Conindrus during whose time Maughold arrived on the island and began to live an austere, penitential life in the mountainous area now named after him Saint Maughold. After their deaths, Maughold was unanimously chosen as bishop by the Manks.

In one of the 18 parish churchyards on the island can be found Saint Maughold's well. The very clear water of the well is received in a large stone coffin. Those seeking cures of various ailments, particularly poisoning, are seated in the saint's chair just above the well and given a glass of well-water to drink. Maughold's shrine was here until the relics were scattered during the Reformation.

Maughold, commemorated in both the British and Irish calendars, is described in the Martyrology of Oengus as "a rod of gold, a vast ingot, the great bishop MacCaille." Many topological features on the Isle of Man, which he divided into 25 parishes, bear Maughold's name. A church at Castletown, Scotland, is dedicated to him. William Worcestre said that he was a native of the Orkneys, and that his shrine was on the Isle of Man (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Husenbeth, Montague).
490 St. Asicus Abbot-Bishop of Ireland Humble accomplished coppersmith not believing worthy of the office disciple of St. Patrick

also called Ascicus and Tassach. Asicus was a coppersmith and was married when he first met St. Patrick. In time he was made the first abbot-bishop of Elphim Monastery in Roscommon, Ireland. Humble and not believing he was worthy of the office, Asicus went to an island in Donegal Bay, where he resigned his rank and became a hermit. After seven years the monks of Elphin found him and persuaded him to return to the monastery. He died at Raith Cungilor on the return journey.

Asicus of Elphin B (AC) (also known as Assicus, Assic, Tassach)
Died c. 470-490. Saint Asicus, an accomplished coppersmith, was one of the earliest disciples of Saint Patrick. When Patrick established the diocese of Elphin, County Mayo, in 450, he appointed Asicus as its first bishop. He is now venerated as the patron of the diocese, and his feast is kept throughout Ireland. Some remarkable specimens of his handicraft are extant. There is confusion between this saint and Tassach, which suggests that they may be the same person. They were both skilled metal workers, their names are similar, and they died the same year (Attwater2, Benedictines, Montague).
490 St. Tertullian 8th Bishop of Bologna, Italy.
Bonóniæ sancti Tertulliáni, Epíscopi et Confessóris. At Bologna, St. Tertullian, bishop and confessor.
 
No details concerning the programs of his ministry are available.
Tertullian of Bologna B (RM) Died c. 490. Eighth bishop of Bologna (Benedictines).
6th v. St. Enoder abbot Grandson of Welsh chieftain Brychan of Brecknock 6th century also called Cnydr, Keneder, and Quidic. There is considerable dispute as to his identity, as he could be St. Enoder or Enodoc of Cornwall, England. Llangynidir of Powys wrote of him. Enoder was an abbot.
Enoder, Abbot (AC) (also known as Cynidr, Keneder, Quidic) 6th century. Saint Enoder is said to be one of the grandsons of the prolific Welsh chieftain, Brychan. He may be identical to Saint Enodoch. Enoder's memory is perpetuated by Llangynidr in Brecknockshire, and possibly Saint Enoder or Enodoc in Cornwall (Benedictines).
731 St. Winewald Second abbot of Beverley monastery in England
Winewald + Second abbot of Beverley monastery in England succeeding St. Berchtun. He was successful in his efforts to make Beverley a center for English cultural and spiritual growth.
Winebald of Beverley, OSB Abbot (AC) (also known as Winewald)Saint Winebald succeeded Saint Bercthun as abbot of Beverley (Benedictines).
746 St. Floribert Bishop a man avid in correcting others of Liege , Belgium
746 ST FLORIBERT, BISHOP OF LIÉGE
THE parents of St Floribert were St Hubert and his wife Floribane who died at the birth of her son. Nothing is known of his earlier years, a tradition that he was abbot of Stavelot and of St Peter’s, Ghent, being almost certainly based on confusion between him and some of his namesakes. He succeeded Hubert as bishop of Liege, which he ruled for eighteen years. He enshrined the bodies of his father, of his great-aunt St Oda and of St Landoaldus and his companions. The saint is described as a man of great humility, a lover of the poor, and “vehement in correcting”.
A short account of St Floribert, compiled from various sources, is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, under April 25. There seems to be no formal biography of early date. cf. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. iii, p. 192.

The son of St. Hubert and Floribane, who died giving him birth. He succeeded his father in 727 and was described as a man avid in correcting others.

Floribert of Liége B (AC) Floribert is often confused with the abbot of Ghent who bears the same name. This bishop is described as "vehement in correcting" (Attwater2, Benedictines).
813 St. John of Constantinople Abbot; inveterate opposition to the destruction of icons
Constantinópoli sancti Joánnis Abbátis, qui pro cultu sacrárum Imáginum, sub Leóne Isáurico, plúrimum decertávit.
 At Constantinople, the abbot St. John, who valiantly defended the veneration of sacred images, under Leo the Isaurian.
of Constantinople. He was exiled by the Iconoclast Emperor Leo III the Armenian because of his inveterate opposition to the destruction of icons.
John of Constantinople, Abbot (RM) Died 813. Abbot Saint John governed Cathares Abbey in Constantinople. For his staunch defense of the veneration of images, he was imprisoned and exiled by the iconoclastic Emperor Leo the Armenian (Benedictines).
1094 Stephen Pechersky abbot of the monastery of the Caves in Kiev B
1094 ST STEPHEN PECHERSKY, BISHOP OF VLADIMIR
THIS Stephen was a disciple of St Theodosius at the monastery of the Caves at Kiev. He absorbed so much of the spirit of his master and walked so closely in his footsteps that when Theodosius died in the year 1074, Stephen was unanimously chosen to take his place at the head of the community. Hitherto he had been engaged in such offices as those of sacristan and precentor, for he was skilled in singing and knowledge of the rites of worship, and one of his first undertakings was to finish building the church which St Theodosius had begun.
   But after only four years St Stephen was displaced, for what reason is not known. Thereupon he established a new community at Klov, conducting it on the principles he had learned from St Theodosius. This monastery was known as the Blakhernae, from the dedication of its church in honour of our Lady of Blakhernae (a famous shrine church in Constantinople).
St Stephen became bishop of Vladimir in Volhynia in 1091, and died only three years later, leaving a great reputation for the holiness of his life.

From Martynov’s Annus ecclesiasticus Graeco-Slavicus in Acta Sanctorum, October, xi.

St Stephen, Igumen of the Caves, Bishop of Vladimir in Volhynia, pursued asceticism at the Kiev Caves monastery under the guidance of St Theodosius (May 3). St Theodosius sometimes entrusted him to exhort the brethren with edifying words.

Before the death of St Theodosius the monks asked him to appoint St Stephen as Igumen, who was the domesticus (chief arranger for the choir). "He grew up under your instruction," they said, "and he served you. Give him to us." So St Theodosius transferred the guidance of the monastery to St Stephen.

During his tenure as Superior, he laid the foundations of a spacious church in honor of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos, begun under St Theodosius. The cells of the brethren were moved near the new church. At the front of the place there were several cells for monks who were entrusted with burying the dead. They served the Divine Liturgy each day, and also commemorated the dead.

In 1078 St Stephen was removed from office and driven from the monastery through the malice of an evil monk. He endured his meekly and without bitterness, and continued to pray for those who had turned against him.

St Stephen learned that master builders had come from Greece with an icon of the Theotokos, and they told him of the appearance of the Heavenly Queen at Blachernae. Because of this, St Stephen also built a church at Klovo in honor of the Theotokos (in memory of the Placing of Her Robe at Blachernae). The monastery was founded in thanksgiving for solicitude of the Most Holy Theotokos for the Caves monastery.

In 1091 St Stephen was made Bishop of Vladimir in Volhynia, and he participated in the transfer of the relics of St Theodosius from the cave to the monastery (August 14). He also labored to convert the inhabitants of Volhynia to Christianity.
St Stephen died on April 27, 1094 during the sixth hour of the night.

Saint Stephen, a disciple of Saint Theodosius, became abbot of the monastery of the Caves in Kiev upon the death of its founder. Later he built Blakhernae Monastery at Klov. In 1091, Stephen was consecrated bishop of Vladimir (Attwater2).
1152 St. Adelelmus Hermit founder disciple of St. Bernard of Thiron
Adelelmus was born in Flanders, Belgium. He founded the monastery of Etival-en-Charnie.
Adelelmus of Flanders, Hermit (PC) Born in Flanders; died 1152. Saint Adelelmus was a disciple of Saint Bernard of Thiron. He founded the monastery of Etival-en-Charnie (Benedictines).
1278 St. Zita; miraculus lif,e daily Mass recite many prayers, generous gifts of food to the poor visits to sick & prisoners heavenly, visions credited with a variety of miracles patroness of domestic workers
Lucæ, in Túscia, beátæ Zitæ Vírginis, virtútum et miraculórum fama conspícuæ.    At Lucca in Tuscany, blessed Zita, a virgin renowned for virtues and miracles.
 
1278 ST ZITA, VIRGIN
IT was in a humble household, as pious as it was poor, that St Zita, the patroness of domestic workers, first saw the light. Her parents were devout Christians, her elder sister afterwards became a Cistercian nun, and her uncle Graziano was a hermit who was locally regarded as a saint. As for Zita herself, it was enough for her mother to say to the child, “This is pleasing to God” or “That would displease God”, to ensure her immediate obedience. At the age of twelve, she went to be a servant at Lucca, eight miles from her native village of Monte Sagrati, in the house of Pagano di Fatinelli, who carried on a wool and silk-weaving business.

From the outset she formed the habit of rising during the night for prayer and of attending daily the first Mass at the church of San Frediano. The good food with which she was provided she would distribute to the poor, and more often than not she slept, on the bare ground, her bed having been given up to a beggar. For some years she had much to bear from her fellow servants, who despised her way of living, regarded her industry as a silent reproach to themselves, and resented her open abhorrence of evil suggestions and foul language. They even succeeded for a time in prejudicing her employers against her. But she bore all her trials uncomplainingly. After a man-servant had made dishonorable advances from which she had defended herself by scratching his face, she made no attempt to explain or justify her action when her master inquired the cause of the man’s disfigurement. Gradually her patience overcame the hostility of the household, and her master and mistress came to realize what a treasure they possessed in Zita.
Her work indeed was part of her religion. In after life she was wont to say, “A servant is not good if she is not industrious: work-shy piety in people of our position is sham piety.” The children of the family were committed to her care, and she was made housekeeper. One day the master suddenly expressed his intention of inspecting the stock of beans, for which he thought he could obtain a good sale. Every Christian family in that land and at that period gave food to the hungry, but Zita, as she acknowledged to her mistress, had been led by pity to make considerable inroads on the beans, and Pagano had a violent temper. She could but tremble in her shoes and send up an earnest prayer to Heaven. But no diminution could be detected in the store: that it had been miraculously replenished seemed the only possible explanation. On another occasion when she had unduly protracted her devotions, forgetting that it was baking day, she hurried home to find that she had been forestalled: a row of loaves had been prepared and lay ready to be placed in the oven.
One bitterly cold Christmas eve when Zita insisted upon going to church, her master threw his fur coat over her, bidding her not to lose it. In the entrance to San Frediano she came upon a scantily clad man, whose teeth were chattering with the cold. As he laid an appealing hand upon the coat, Zita immediately placed it upon his shoulders, telling him that he might retain it until she came out of church. When the service was over, neither the man nor the coat were anywhere to be seen. Crestfallen, Zita returned home to encounter the reproaches of Pagano, who was naturally extremely annoyed at so serious a loss. He was about to sit down to his Christmas dinner a few hours later, when a stranger appeared at the door of the room, bearing on his arm the fur coat which he handed to Zita. Master and maid eagerly addressed him, but he disappeared from their sight as suddenly as he had come, leaving in the hearts of all who had seen him a wonderful celestial joy. Since that day the people of Lucca have given the name of “The Angel Door” to the portal of San Frediano in which St Zita met the stranger.
In time Zita became the friend and adviser of the whole house, and the only person who could cope with the master in his rages; but the general veneration with which she was regarded embarrassed her far more than the slights she had had to bear in her earlier years. On the other hand, she found herself relieved of much of her domestic work and free to visit to her heart’s content the sick, the poor and the prisoners. She had a special devotion to criminals under sentence of death, on whose behalf she would spend hours of prayer. In such works of mercy and in divine contemplation she spent the evening of her life. She died very peacefully, on April 27, 1278. She was sixty years of age and had served the same family for forty-eight years. The body of St Zita lies in the church of San Frediano at Lucca, which she had attended so regularly for the greater part of her life.
The principal source is the biography by Fatinellus de Fatinellis printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii; but there are many lives of more recent date, notably that of Bartolommeo Fiorito in 1752, and in quite modem times those of Toussaint (1902) and Ledochowski (1911). See also the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlviii (1930), pp. 229—230.

St. Zita was born into a poor but holy Christian family. Her older sister became a Cistercian nun and her uncle Graziano was a hermit whom the local people regarded as a saint. Zita herself always tried to do God's will obediently whenever it was pointed out to her by her mother. At the age of twelve Zita became a housekeeper in the house of a rich weaver in Lucca, Italy, eight miles from her home at Monte Sagrati. As things turned out, she stayed with that family for the last forty-eight years of her life.
She found time every day to attend Mass and to recite many prayers, as well as to carry out her household duties so perfectly that the other servants were jealous of her. Indeed, her work was part of her religion! She use to say: "a servant is not holy if she is not busy; lazy people of our position is fake holiness."
At first, her employers were upset by her generous gifts of food to the poor, but in time, they were completely won over by her patience and goodness and she became a very close friend. St. Zita was given a free reign over her working schedule and busied herself with visits to the sick and those in prison. Word spread rapidly in Lucca of her good deeds and the heavenly visions that appeared to her. She was sought out by the important people, and at her death in 1278 the people acclaimed her as a saint. She is the patroness of domestic workers.
St. Zita  Zita (1218-1272) + Servant and miracle worker. Born at Monte Sagrati, Italy, she entered into the service of the Fratinelli family, wool dealers in Lucca, at the age of twelve. Immediately disliked by the other servants for her hard work and obvious goodness, she earned their special enmity because of her habit of giving away food and clothing to the poor including those of her employers. In time, she won over the members of the household. According to one tradition, the other servants were convinced when one day they found an angel taking Zita's place in baking and cleaning. Throughout her life she labored on behalf of the poor and suffering as well as criminals languishing in prisons. She was also credited with a variety of miracles. Canonized in 1696, she is the patroness of servants and is depicted in art with a bag and keys, or loaves of bread and a rosary.

Zita of Lucca V (RM) (also known as Sitha, Citha) Born at Monte Sagrati, near Lucca, Tuscany, Italy; died in Lucca on April 27, 1278; liturgical cultus permitted locally by Leo X (early 16th century); canonized in 1696; name added to the Roman Martyrology in 1748 by Benedict XIV.
For two hundred years before and after the crowning of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day in 800 AD, female saints were obscured by time and circumstance. Thereafter, in the Age of Mysticism from about 1000 to 1500, we witness the re-emergence of saintly female mystics, such as Hildegard and Catherine of Siena.

Christian mysticism is an endeavor to reach a knowledge of and union with God directly and experientially.
The mystic renounces his senses and the images they offer of God, seeking instead to wander down a negative road. Often, this type of contemplative prayer leads to abnormal psychic states that culminate in ecstasy, which is sanctified when perfectly united with God. The individuals who reach this state normally exhibit extraordinary self-knowledge and become fully free, unique human beings. The heightened mystical sense also leads to an ever more passionate love of God.

As will be shown frequently in these biographies of the saints, the mystical life in no way conflicts with the duties of any Christian state of life: married (e.g., Francis of Rome), avowed celibate (Saint Teresa of Avila), or domestic servant.

Saint Zita was born in a mountain village near Lucca into a very devout family. Her elder sister became a Cistercian nun and her uncle, Graziano, was a hermit who was locally regarded as a saint. From the age of 12, Zita was a domestic servant in the family of Pagano di Fatinelli of Lucca, a wool and silk merchant. This devoted woman, who was deeply religious, remained with this family all her life. She served it for 48 years--as maid servant, then housekeeper, and governess--and every member of the family had the deepest respect and affection for her.

There are numerous stories of her attention to household duties, of her care for beggars, of her devotion to religious practices, and of the fidelity with which she attended Mass each day of her adult life at the Church of San Frediano. The good food she was provided by her employer, she would distribute to the poor. More often than not, she could be found sleeping on the bare ground or lost in prayer, after having given up her bed to a beggar. Her work was part of her religion, as it should be for us, a way of serving God in our neighbor.
At first her fellow servants mocked her piety and kindness. Zita paid no attention, and in the end they grew to admire her. But her master was often irritated that she gave away so much. During a local famine she secretly gave away much of the family supply of beans. When her master inspected the kitchen cupboards, to Zita's relief the beans had been miraculously restocked (recall the similar story about Saint Frances 1384-1440 of Rome). Another story tells that angels baked her bread while she was rapt in ecstasy
 
A characteristic story of her generous nature is of how one Christmas Eve, when she was setting out for the early morning service, the cold was so intense that her employer, seeing her in her thin gown, wrapped his own fur cloak round her shoulders, and insisted on her taking it. "But take care of it," he said, "and be sure to bring it back."
At the church door, however, Zita saw a poor man in rags, numb with cold and begging for alms. She could never resist a beggar and on the impulse of the moment she took off her master's cloak and put it round him. "It will keep you warm," she said, "and you can return it to me when the service is over." But when she came out of the church, the man had gone, and in great distress she returned home without the cloak. Her employer, naturally, was angry, but what troubled Zita most was that, out of pity for another, she had abused his kindness.

The story had a happy sequel, for the next day a stranger came to the door and restored the missing cloak. People later decided that the poor old man must have been an angel in disguise, and so the door of the Church of San Frediano, Lucca, where he first appeared, is called the Angel Portal.

Zita was always moved by generous impulse, and endeared herself to all by her compassionate nature, and all her life long she was sustained by a simple and strong faith in God. Zita was embarrassed by the veneration in which her employers and neighbors held her later in life. Nevertheless, she was happy that some of her domestic duties were relieved because it gave her the time to tend to the sick, the poor, and prisoners. She had a special devotion to criminals awaiting execution, on whose behalf she would spend hours in prayer.

Zita died peacefully at the age of 60, having sanctified herself in a life of humble domestic tasks, and as the little Maid of Lucca is numbered among the saints. Immediately, a popular cultus developed around her tomb at San Frediano. Her cultus spread to other countries in the later Middle Ages, as testified by chapels in her honor as scattered as at Palermo, Sicily, and Ely, England (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer, Gill, Encyclopedia, Martindale, Walsh, White).

In art, Saint Zita is depicted in the working clothes of a maid servant with her emblem: keys. She may be shown (1) with a rosary, bag, and keys; (2) with a rosary; (3) with two keys and three loaves; (4) with keys and a book; (5) with a basket of fruit; (6) with a bag and book; (7) with a book and rosary; or (8) praying at a well (Roeder, White). She appears in mural paintings (Shorthampton, Oxon.), in stained glass (Mells and Langport, Somerset), and on rood screens in Norfolk (Barton Turf), Suffolk (Somerleyton), and Devon (Ashton) (Farmer).

Saint Zita is the patroness of housewives and servants. In England, she was known as Sitha and invoked by housewives and servants searching for lost keys or crossing raging rivers (White). She is still venerated at Lucca, where her body is housed in the Cappella di Santa Zita in the church of San Frediano (Jepson, Roeder).
1304 Bl. Peter Armengol twice went from Spain to Africa to redeem captives continued for 10 more years after being hung
Tarracóne, in Hispánia, beáti Petri Armengáudii, ex Ordine beátæ Maríæ de Mercéde redemptiónis captivórum; qui, multa pro fidélibus rediméndis in Africa passus, tandem, in convéntu sanctæ Maríæ Pratórum, beáto fine quiévit.
 At Tarragona in Spain, the blessed Peter Armengaudius, of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mercy for the Redemption of Captives.  He endured many tribulations in Africa in ransoming the faithful, and finally closed his career peacefully in the convent of St. Mary of the Meadows.
1304 BD PETER ARMENGOL
IT is very difficult to credit the story of Bd Peter Armengol as it is recounted in Mercedarian sources. He is alleged to have been born about the year 1238 of the family of the counts of Urgel at Guardia in Catalonia, and while yet in his teens to have joined a band of brigands. When King James of Aragon in 1258 sought to pass through that district, an armed guard was sent on ahead under the command of Peter’s father. They encountered the brigands, and father and son were on the point of engaging in combat when Peter recognized his opponent. Stricken with remorse, he implored pardon, was converted and spent the rest of his life in doing penance, joining, for that purpose, the Order of Mercedarians (for the redemption of captives).
    Twice he was sent to Africa to ransom prisoners in captivity among the Moors. On the second occasion, the money he had taken with him was insufficient to secure the release of eighteen young boys; whereupon he volunteered to remain as a hostage himself until his companion returned with the ransom demanded. But the religious who brought it only arrived in time to learn that Peter had been hanged as a defaulter some days before. He went to secure the remains of the martyr, but discovered on cutting the body down that Peter was still living. He was allowed to return to his fellow religious at Guardia, and there living on for ten years, with twisted neck and contorted limbs, he gave a wonderful example of virtue. His cultus was formally approved in 1686, and his name has since been inserted in the Roman Martyrology.

A sufficient account of Peter Armengol is given in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. i; but doubts may very well be felt regarding the authenticity of most of the scanty documents there reprinted from the process of beatification. Cf. under St Peter Nolasco, on January 28, concerning the early records of the Mercedarian Order. A short account of Bd Peter in French, by J. Cattier, appeared in 1898.

b. 1238 Member of a noble Catalonian family, he is said in an extravagant story to have become an outlaw, almost killing his father in an ambush, whereupon he joined the Mercedarians. He twice went from Spain to Africa to redeem captives/ held as a hostage, he was hanged , but found to be alive by another missioner who had been delayed. He continued his work of rescuing Christians from the Mooors for ten more years. He died near Tarragona, Spain

Peter Armengol, O. Merc. M (RM) Born in Tarragona, Spain, in 1238; died there in 1304; cultus confirmed 1686. Peter, born into the family of the counts of Urgell, exercised his boldness with a band of brigands before joining a Mercedarian community of monks in 1258. He devoted all his energy to the ransoming of captives, going so far as to offer himself as a hostage for 18 Christian children. His offer was accepted. Peter underwent horrible tortures during his African captivity, for which his is considered a martyr, although he actually died back in his hometown. His story, as we have received it, is unreliable (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1311 Blessed Antony de'Patrizi; superior of hermit friars of Saint Augustine at Monticiano OSA (AC)
1311 BD ANTONY OF SIENA
A MEMBER of one of the principal Sienese families, Bd Antony de’ Patrizi entered the Order of the Hermits of St Augustine and afterwards became superior of their house at Monteciano. The only notable fact which seems to be recorded of him is that he was possessed by a very great desire of conversing with another holy hermit, Peter of Camerata. He set out to find him, fell grievously ill upon the way, but after fervent prayer was miraculously restored and was able to accomplish the object of his journey. The meeting of the two men is compared by his biographer to the meeting of St Paul the Hermit and St Antony at the very beginning of Christian ascetic history. This Antony lived a very holy life and died in the year 1311.

There is a short biography printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii (under April 30) but it is mainly taken up with the miracles wrought after the hermit’s death. See also G. Ballati, Vita, miracoli a grazie del B. Antonio Patrizi (1728).

Born in Siena, Italy; cultus confirmed in 1804. Antony joined the hermit friars of Saint Augustine at Monticiano, where he later became the superior (Benedictines).
1485 Blessed James of Bitetto heroic humility; levitate during prayer, accurately predict the future, incorrupted body remains, many miracles  OFM (AC)
(also known as James of Sclavonia, of Illyricum, of Zara, of Dalmatia) Born in Sebenico, Dalmatia; died April 27, c. 1485; feast day within the Franciscan order is celebrated on April 20; cultus approved by Innocent XII.

1485 BD JAMES OF BITETTO Many miracles were ascribed to his intercession
ALTHOUGH a native of Dalmatia, whence he is sometimes called “the Slav” or “the Illyrian”, Bd James spent the greater part of his life on the opposite coast of the Adriatic, where he became a lay-brother of the Friars Minor of the Observance at Bitetto, a small town nine miles from Ban.
Through humility, self-denial and contemplation he attained to great holiness. He was favoured by God with a prophetic spirit and, according to the deposition of a fellow friar in the process for his beatification, he was seen on occasions upraised from the ground when engaged in prayer. In another house of the order, at Conversano, he was employed for some years as cook. The sight of the kitchen fire led him at times to contemplate the flames of Hell and on other occasions to soar in spirit to the highest Heaven to dwell on the consuming fire of eternal love. Thus he often fell into ecstasies over his work, standing motionless and entirely absorbed in God. Afterwards Bd James was transferred back to Bitetto, where he closed a holy life by a happy death;      Many miracles were ascribed to his intercession, and in the garden at Bitetto there used to be a juniper tree which he had planted, the berries of which were said to possess healing properties. He was beatified by Pope Innocent XII.

The notice of James de Bitetto in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, is interesting because this is one of the cases in which the Bollandists have had access to the documents submitted for the beatification process, and have been able to print the evidence of the various witnesses. See also Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 104—105.

James received the habit of Saint Francis at Zara, but served as a lay brother at Bitetto, near Bari in southern Italy. James possessed heroic humility and reached heights of heaven in his contemplation. During the process of beatification, a fellow friar testified that he had seen James levitate during prayer and heard him accurately predict the future.

While James was the cook of the abbey at Conversano (18 miles from Bari), he would contemplate the cooking fire and see the fires of hell or the spark of God's love that ignites hearts. Often he would be found in the kitchen, motionless, rapt in ecstatic contemplation. This happened one morning as he was fixing beans for that night's dinner. He stood with his hand in the beans, tears streaming down his face into the vessel before him. Thus he was found by the duke on whose estate the monastery was founded. King Ferdinand I's courtier watched in amazement before declaring, "Blessed are the religious brethren whose meals are seasoned with such tears." Later that day James, learning of the duke's presence, went to him and asked what he would like for his dinner. The nobleman replied that he wanted nothing but some of the beans seasoned with James' tears.

Eventually James was sent back to Bitetto where he died and where his incorrupted body remains. Many miracles attributed to James' intercession have been recorded (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
1565 Blessed Hosanna of Cattaro; miracle child, several apparitions OP Tert. V (AC).
(also known as Ossana) Born in Kumano, Montenegro, in 1493; cultus confirmed in 1928; beatified in 1934.


1565 BD OSANNA OF GATTARO, VIRGIN graced with many supernatural gifts, such as that of prophecy.
CATHERINE Cosie was a Montenegrin girl born in 1493, the daughter of dissident Orthodox parents. Her early years seem to have been spent mostly with the flocks and herds, but later she was allowed by her parents to enter the service of a Catholic lady at Cattaro, where she made herself beloved. After seven years she undertook the seclusion of an anchoress, first in a cell adjoining the church of St Bartholomew, and afterwards in one attached to the church of St Paul. On becoming a Dominican tertiary she had taken the name of Osanna in veneration for Bd Osanna Andreasi, who had died not long before, in 1505. Young women and matrons crowded to her anchorage and were guided by her counsels.
   Her prayers, it was believed, protected the city from the inroads of Turks and other raiders. She had much to suffer, both from the assaults of Satan within and from calumny without, but she was graced with many supernatural gifts, such as that of prophecy. Finally after a grievous illness of two months borne with exemplary patience, she went to her reward on April 27, 1565.
The cultus was confirmed in 1928.

The decree in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xx (1928), pp. 39—42, sets out the above facts and appeals to the testimony of earlier authors, in particular to Father Bazzi in 1589 and to Father Cerva in 1738, who have borne witness to the holiness of her life and to the veneration uninterruptedly shown since her death.
Catherine Kosic (Cosie) was baptized in the Greek Orthodox Church. As a young girl, whe tended her family's sheep; thus, left alone for long periods of time, she developed a habit of contemplative prayer. One day while watching the flocks, she saw a pretty child lying asleep on the grass. Attracted by its beauty, she went to pick up the baby, but it disappeared, leaving Catherine with a feeling of great loneliness.
She told her mother about the incident but received little understanding; her mother told her that God didn't appear to such poor people, and that the Christ Child was simply a figment of her imagination. After several more apparitions of which she wisely said nothing, Catherine developed a desire to visit Cattaro because there were several churches there in which she felt that she could pray better. Her mother thought this urge was unreasonable, but she finally arranged for Catherine to go to Cattaro as a servant of a wealthy woman. Her mother gave little thought to the fact that the woman was a pious Catholic, but the girl rejoiced in her good luck. At the age of 12, Catherine settled down as a servant to the kindly woman who made no objection to the fact that Catherine's errands invariably led her past the church, where she would stop for a visit.

After a few years of the pleasant life, Catherine consulted her spiritual director about becoming a recluse. He thought her too young, but she continued to insist. After much prayer and discussion, they decided that she should follow the life of a hermit.

In the Middle Ages, it was common for every church or place of pilgrimage to have one or more cells in which solitaries dwelt in prayer and penance. Such a cell was built near the Saint Bartholomew's in Cattaro. It had a window through which the anchorite could hear Mass and another tiny window to which people would come occasionally to ask for prayers or to give food. Catherine was conducted to her cell in solemn ceremony, and, after making promises of stability, the door was sealed.

In response to a vision, she was later transferred to a cell at the Church of St. Paul, where she followed the rule of the tertiaries of Saint Dominic for 52 years. Upon becoming a Dominican, she chose the name Osanna, in honor of Blessed Osanna of Mantua, a Dominican tertiary who had died in 1505.

The life of an anchorite is barren of comforts and replete with penances. Even without the spiritual punishments that she endured, it was a rugged life. Osanna wore the coarsest of clothes, ate almost nothing, and endured the heat and cold and misery of enclosure in a small space for half a century. Her tiny cell, however, was often bright with heavenly visitors. Our Lord appeared to her many times, usually in the form of the beautiful baby she had seen while tending her flocks. Our Lady visited, too, with several of the saints, as well as demons who attempted to distract her from prayer. Once the devil appeared to her in the form of the Blessed Virgin and told her to modify her penances. By obedience to her confessor, she managed to penetrate this clever disguise and vanquish her enemy.

Although she lived alone, there was nothing selfish about Osanna's spirituality. A group of her Dominican sisters, who considered her their leader, consulted her frequently and sought her prayers. A convent of sisters founded at Cattaro regarded her as their foundress, because of her prayers, although she never saw the place.
When the city was attacked by the Turks, the people ran to her for help, and they credited their deliverance to her prayers.
 Another time, her prayers saved them from the plague (Benedictines, Dorcy).

1597 Sancti Petri Canísii, Sacerdótis e Societáte Jesu et Confessóris atque Ecclésiæ Doctóris; qui duodécimo Kaléndas Januárii migrávit ad Dóminum.
 St. Peter Canisius, priest of the Society of Jesus, confessor and doctor of the Church, who departed to the Lord on the 21st of December.
1597 27 ST PETER CANISIUS, DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH
ST PETER CANISIUS has been called the Second Apostle of Germany— our English St Boniface being the first—but he is also honoured as one of the creators of a Catholic press: he was, moreover, the first “literary” Jesuit—the forerunner of a great band of writers.
Born in the year 1521 at Nij­megen in Holland, then a German Reichstadt in the archdiocese of Cologne, he was the eldest son of Jacob Kanis, who had been ennobled after acting as tutor to the sons of the Duke of Lorraine and who was nine times burgomaster of Nijmegen.

Although Peter had the misfortune to lose his mother at an early age, his father’s second wife proved an excellent stepmother, and he grew up having before his eyes the fear of God. He accuses himself of having wasted time as a boy in unprofitable amusement, but in view of the fact that he took his master of arts degree at Cologne University when he was only nineteen, it is difficult to believe that he was ever really idle. To please his father, who wished him to be a lawyer, he proceeded to Louvain, where for a few months he studied canon law. Realizing, however, that he was not called to this career he refused marriage, took a vow of celibacy, and returned to Cologne to read theology.

Great interest had been aroused in the Rhineland towns by the preaching of Bd Peter Faber (Favre), the first disciple of St Ignatius; Canisius attended an Ignatian retreat which Faber gave at Mainz; and during the second week made a vow to join the new order. Admitted as a novice, he lived for some years a community life in Cologne, spending his time in prayer, in study, in visiting the sick and instructing the ignorant. The money which he inherited upon his father’s death was devoted to the relief of the poor and the necessities of the house. He had already begun to write, his first publications having been editions of the works of St Cyril of Alexandria and St Leo the Great.* [* That he was the editor of the Cologne, 1543, edition of John Tauler’s sermons has not been proved.]

After his ordination to the priesthood, he came into prominence for his preaching; and as a delegate to the Council of Trent he had attended two of its sessions, the one at Trent and the other at Bologna, when he was summoned to Rome by St Ignatius, who retained him by his side for five months and proved him to be a model religious, prepared to go anywhere and to do anything. He was sent to Messina to teach in the first Jesuit school known to history, but very shortly was recalled to Rome for his solemn profession and to be given a more important charge.

The order was to return to Germany, he having been selected to go to Ingolstadt with two brother Jesuits, in response to an urgent appeal from Duke William IV of Bavaria for Catholic professors capable of counteracting the heretical teaching which was permeating the schools. Not only was Peter Canisius successful in reforming the university, of which he was made rector and afterwards vice-chancellor, but he also effected a real religious revival amongst the people by his sermons, his cate­chizing, and his campaign against the sale of immoral or heretical books. Great was the general regret when in 1552 the saint was withdrawn to undertake, at the request of King Ferdinand, a somewhat similar mission in Vienna. He found that great city in a worse condition than Ingolstadt. Many parishes were without clergy, and the Jesuits had to supply the lack as well as to teach in their newly-founded college. Not a single priest had been ordained for twenty years; monas­teries lay desolate; members of the religious orders were jeered at in the streets; nine-tenths of the inhabitants had abandoned the faith, whilst the few who still regarded themselves as Catholics had, for the most part, ceased to practise their religion.

At first Peter Canisius preached to almost empty churches, partly because of the general disaffection and partly because his Rhineland German grated on the ears of the Viennese; but he found his way to the heart of the people by his indefatigable ministrations to the sick and dying during an outbreak of the plague. The energy and enterprise of the man was astounding; he was concerned about everything and everybody, from lecturing in the university to visiting the neglected criminals in the jails. The king, the nuncio, the pope himself would fain have seen him appointed to the vacant see of Vienna, but St Ignatius could be induced only to allow him to administer the diocese for one year, and that without episcopal orders, title or emoluments. It was about this period that St Peter began work on his famous catechism, or Summary of Christian Doctrine, published in 1555; this was followed by a Shorter and a Shortest Catechism—both of which attained enormous popularity. These catechisms were to be to the Catholic Reformation what Luther’s catechisms were to the Protestant Reformation; they were reprinted over two hundred times and translated into fifteen languages (including English, Braid Scots, Hindustani and Japanese) even during the author’s lifetime. And he never by violently or rudely attacking his opponents, either in these catechisms or in any of his instructions, roused hostility towards the truths he wished to commend to his hearers.

In Prague, whither he had gone to assist in founding a college, he learnt with dismay that he had been appointed provincial of a new province which was to include South Germany, Austria and Bohemia. He wrote to St Ignatius: “I am entirely lacking in the tact, prudence and decision essential for ruling others. My temper is hasty and fiery, and my inexperience renders me quite unsuitable for the post.” St Ignatius, however, knew better. In the course of his two years’ residence in Prague, Peter Canisius in great measure won back the city to the faith, and he established the college on such excellent lines that even Protestants were glad to send their sons to it. In 1557 he went by special invitation to Worms to take part in a discussion between Catholic and Protestant divines, although he was firmly convinced from past experience that all such conferences on doctrine were worse than useless, the heated discussions which always took place only widening the chasm between the disputants. It is quite impossible in limited space to follow the saint on his numerous journeys as provincial, or to provide any adequate survey of his extraordinary activities. Father James Brodrick calculates that he covered 6000 miles during 1555—1558, and 20,000 in thirty years—on foot and on horseback. Canisius was wont to say—no doubt in answer to those who thought he was over­worked—“If you have too much to do, with God’s help you will find time to do it al.

    Apart from the colleges he actually founded or inaugurated, he prepared the way for many others. In 1559, at the wish of King Ferdinand, he took up his residence in Augsburg, and this town continued to be his headquarters for six years. Here again the lamp of faith was rekindled by his efforts as he encouraged the faithful, reclaimed the lapsed, and converted many heretics. Moreover he succeeded in persuading the Reichstag to decree the restoration of the public schools, which had been destroyed by the Protestants. Whilst he strove most strenuously to prevent the dissemination of immoral and unorthodox literature he encouraged good books to the utmost of his ability, for he clearly foresaw the future importance of the press.  Amongst the works he himself produced at the time may be mentioned a selection of St Jerome’s letters, a “Manual for Catholics”, a martyrology and a revision of the Augsburg Breviary. The General Prayer which he composed is still recited in Germany on Sundays.

At the close of his term of office as provincial, St Peter took up his abode at Dillingen in Bavaria, where the Jesuits not only had a college of their own but also directed the university. The town had for him the additional attraction of being the favourite place of residence of Cardinal Otto Truchsess who had long been his close friend. He occupied himself mainly in teaching, in hearing confessions, and in the composition of the first of a series of books he had undertaken by order of his superiors. They were intended as a reply to a strongly anti-Catholic history of Christianity which was being published by certain Protestant writers commonly known as the Centuriators of Magdeburg—“the first and worst of all Protestant church histories”. This work he continued afterwards whilst acting as court chaplain for some years at Innsbruck, and until 1577, when he was dispensed from proceeding with it on the score of his health. There seems to have been no curtailment of his activities in other directions, for we find him still preaching, giving missions, accompanying the provincial on his visitations, and even filling the post of vice-provincial.

Canisius was at Dillingen when, in the year 1580, he was instructed to go to Fribourg in Switzerland. That city, which was the capital of a Catholic canton wedged in between two powerful Protestant neighbours, had long desired a college for its sons, but had been handicapped by lack of funds and other difficulties. These obstacles were surmounted within a few years by St Peter, who obtained the money, selected the site, and superintended the erection of the splendid college which developed into the present University of Fribourg. He was, however, neither its rector nor one of its professors, although always keenly interested in its progress. For over eight years his principal work was preaching: on Sundays and festivals he delivered sermons in the cathedral, on weekdays he visited other parts of the canton. It may confidently be asserted that to St Peter Canisius is due the credit of having retained Fribourg in the Catholic fold at a critical period of its history. Increasing bodily infirmities obliged him to give up preaching, and in 1591 a paralytic seizure brought him to the brink of the grave, but he recovered sufficiently to continue writing, with the help of a secretary, until shortly before his death, which took place on December 21, 1597.

St Peter Canisius was canonized and declared a doctor of the Church in 1925. Among the general considerations which arise from his life and personality one of the most important is still his insistence on the spirit and manner in which Christian apologetics and controversy should be conducted.
    St Ignatius himself had stressed the necessity for “an example of charity and Christian moderation to be given in Germany” and among the practical points laid down by Canisius was that it is a mistake “to bring up in conversation subjects to which the Protestants have an antipathy...such as confession, satisfaction, purgatory, indulgences, monastic vows and pilgrimages; the reason being that, like fever patients, they have infected palates and so are incapable of judging aright about such foods. Their need, as that of children, is for milk, and they should be led gently and gradually to those dogmas about which there is dispute”.

 Canisius was stern towards the leaders and propagators of heresy, and like most other people in those days he was prepared to use force to repress their activities. But the rank and file who had been born in Lutheranism, or had drifted into it, were another matter. He spent a lifetime opposing heresy and restoring Catholic faith and life: and he declared of the Germans that “Certainly an infinite number of them adhere to the new sectaries and err in religious belief, but they do so in such a way as proves that their errors proceed from ignorance rather than malice. They err, I repeat, but without contention, without wilfulness, without obstinacy.” And even those who were more consciously and defiantly unorthodox should not be met, he wrote, “in a temper of asperity or...with discourtesy, for this is nothing else than the reverse of Christ’s example inasmuch as it is to break the bruised reed and quench the smoking flax,”

The activities of St Peter Canisius were so intimately bound up with the whole religious history of Central Europe in his day that no bibliography can be anything but superficial. It is, however, necessary to call attention to the collection of his letters edited in eight stout volumes by Fr 0. Braunsberger, with abundant footnotes and rnarvellously detailed indexes. There is also useful material in the book of J. Metzler, Die Bekenntnisse des heiligen P. Canisius und rein Testament, and in many of the volumes of the Monumenta Histories S.J. Among biographies, which in the German tongue especially are very numerous, may be mentioned those of 0. Braunsberger, J. Metzler and A. 0. Pfulf. In French there are lives by L. Michel, J. Genoud and E. Morand. The neglect of Canisius by English writers has now been amply compensated for by Fr James Brodrick’s magnificent, definitive and most readable work, St Peter Canisius (1935). There is a smaller popular book by W. Reany, A Champion of the Church (1931).
  
Petrus Kanisius  Katholische Kirche: 27. April
Petrus Kanijs (Canisius) wurde am 8.5.1521 in Nijmwegen geboren. 1536 begann er in Köln zu studieren. Hier lernte er die devotio moderna kennen und beschloß Theologie zu studieren. 1543 nahm er an ignatianischen Exertitien teil, die von Petrus Faber, einem der ersten Gefährten des Ignatius, angeboten wurden. Wenige Wochen später trat Petrus als erster Deutscher in die Societas Jesu ein. Er hielt nun Vorlesungen in Köln und gab die Werke mehrerer großer Theologen in deutscher Sprache heraus. 1546 wurde er zum Priester geweiht. Er war in diesem Jahr auch maßgeblich an der Absetzung Hermann von Wieds beteiligt. 1547 nahm er als Berater am Konzil von Trient teil, 1548 lehrte er für ein Jahr nach Messina, dann legte er 1549 seine Profeß ab, erwarb den Doktor der Theologie an der Universität Bologna und lehrte nun an verschiedenen Universitäten im deutschsprachigen Raum. Daneben predigte er besonders in verschiedenen Bischofskirchen, schrieb zahlreiche Bücher und war auch im politischen Raum erfolgreich tätig. Leo XIII. nannte ihn den zweiten Apostel Deutschlands und Canisius war sicher die treibende Kraft der deutschen Gegenreformation. Dabei begegnete er seinen Gegnern mit Achtung und Toleranz. Canisius starb am 21.12.1597 in Fribourg, wo er in der Michaelskirche begraben liegt. Er wurde besonders in Süddeutschland sehr verehrt und schon kurz nach seinem Tode wurde ein Seligspechungsprozeß eingeleitet. Durch das Verbot des Jesuitenordens wurde das Verfahren längere Zeit unterbrochen. Am 21.5.1925 wurde Canisius heiliggesprochen und zum Kirchenlehrer ernannt. Canisius ist auch Patron der Diözesen Brixen und Innsbruck.

1606 ST TURIBIUS, Archbishop of LIMA
ST TURIBIUS is, equally with St Rose of Lima, the first known saint of the New World. It is true that he was not born on the American continent, and not canonized until fifty-five years after her; but they lived in the same place at the same time, Turibius died first, and it was he who conferred the sacrament of confirmation on Rose. His memory is held in great veneration throughout Peru, for although he did not plant Christianity in that land he greatly promoted it, and cleansed the Church there from grave abuses which were sapping its vitality and bringing discredit upon its name; his feast is, moreover, observed throughout South America.
Turibius, Toribio Alfonso de Morgobejo, was born in 1538 at Majorca in Spain. His childhood and youth were notably religious, but he had no intention of becoming a priest and was, in fact, educated for the law. He was so brilliant a scholar that he became professor of law in the University of Salamanca, and while there he attracted the notice of King Philip II (widower of Mary I of England), who eventually made him chief judge of the ecclesiastical court of the Inquisition at Granada. This was a surprising position for a layman to hold, and it was not a pleasant or easy post for anyone, lay or cleric. But it led to an even more surprising development. After some years the archbishopric of Lima in the Spanish colony of Peru became vacant. Turibius had carried out his judge’s duties so well, and displayed such a fine missionary spirit, that it was decided to send him to Peru as archbishop:  he seemed to be the one person who had force of character sufficient to remedy the serious scandals which stood in the way of the conversion of the Peruvians.
Turibius himself was shocked by the decision, and he wrote forthwith to the royal council, pleading his incapacity and appealing to the canons which forbade the promotion of lay men to ecclesiastical dignities. His objections were overruled he received all the orders and episcopal consecration, and immediately afterwards sailed for Peru. Arriving in Lima in 1581, it did not take him long to realize the arduous nature of the charge which had been laid upon him. His diocese stretched for some 400 miles along the coast, and inland amongst the spurs of the Andes, a most difficult country to traverse. Far more serious, however, than the physical difficulties were those created by the attitude of the Spanish conquerors towards the native population. With few exceptions the officials and colonists had come there to make their fortunes, and they made the Indians serve that purpose by every sort of extortion and tyranny. Communications with the central authority at home were incredibly slow. The most flagrant abuses might continue for years without the possibility of redress and, the Spaniards quarrelling continually among themselves and sending home contradictory reports, it was often impossible for the supreme Council of the Indies to know whom to believe. Worse than all the sense of religion seemed to be completely lost, and the example given to the natives was one of almost universal rapacity and self-indulgence.
The clergy themselves were often among the most notorious offenders, and it was the first care of Turibius to restore ecclesiastical discipline. He at once undertook a visitation of his diocese, and was inflexible in regard to scandals amongst the clergy. Without respect of persons, he reproved injustice and vice, using his authority always to protect the poor from oppression. He naturally suffered persecution from those in power, who often thwarted him in the discharge of his duties, but by resolution and patience he overcame their opposition in the end.
To those who tried to twist God’s law to make it accord with their evil practice he would oppose the words of Tertullian: “Christ said, ‘I am the truth’. He did not say, I am the custom’.” The archbishop succeeded in eradicating some of the worst abuses, and he founded numerous churches, religious houses and hospitals; in 1591 he established at Lima the first ecclesiastical seminary in the New World.
Right on into old age St Turibius continued to study the Indian dialects so that he could address the people in their own speech and not through an interpreter. Thus he succeeded in making many conversions. In order to teach his flock he would sometimes stay two or three days in a place where he had neither bed nor sufficient food. Every part of his vast diocese was visited, and when danger threatened from marauders or physical obstacles he would say that Christ came from Heaven to save man and that we ought not to fear danger for His glory.
   The archbishop offered Mass daily, even when on a journey, and always with intense fervour, and every morning he made his confession to his chaplain.
Among those St Turibius confirmed, as well as St Rose, are said to have been Bd Martin Porres and Bd John Massias. From 1590 he had the help of another great missionary, the Franciscan St Francis Solano, whose denunciations of the wickedness of Lima so alarmed the people that the viceroy had to call on the archbishop to calm them.
   The charities of St Turibius were large, and he had feeling for the sensitive pride of the Spaniards in his flock. He knew that many were shy of making their poverty or other needs known, that they did not like to accept public charity or help from those they knew: so he did all he could to assist them privately, without their knowing from whom their benefactions came.

St Turibius was in his sixty-eighth year when he fell ill at Pacasmayo, far to the north of Lima. Working to the last, he struggled as far as Santa, where he realized
the end was at hand. He made his will, giving his personal belongings to his servants and all the rest of his property for the benefit of the poor. He asked to be carried into the church to receive viaticum, and was then brought back to bed and anointed. While those about him sang the psalm, “I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord”, St Turibius died on March 23, 1606. In 1726 he was canonized.

The four volumes compiled by Mgr C. G. lrigoyen, Santo Toribio Obra escrita con motivo del tercer centenario de la muerte del Santo Arzobispo de Lima (1906) are of the first importance, most of the documents being previously unpublished. But see also the less exhaustive biographies by Fr Cyprian de Herrera and A. Nicoselli, and in French that by T. Bérengier (1872).
1624 Blessed Mariana of Jesus life of penance O. Merc. V (AC).
Born in Madrid, Spain, in 1565; died there in 1624; beatified by Pius VI. Known as the "Lily of Madrid," Mariana was a Discalced Mercedarian in Madrid, where she distinguished herself by her life of penance (Benedictines).
1678 Blessed Nicolas Roland (AC).
Born at Rheims, France, 1642; died April 27, 1678; beatified October 16, 1994. More will be added in 2000.
1716 St. Louis Mary de Montfort promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church. Totus tuus (completely yours) was Louis's personal motto

b. 1673 Louis's life is inseparable from his efforts to promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church. Totus tuus (completely yours) was Louis's personal motto; Karol Wojtyla chose it as his episcopal motto.
Born in the Breton village of Montfort, close to Rennes (France), as an adult Louis identified himself by the place of his Baptism instead of his family name, Grignion. After being educated by the Jesuits and the Sulpicians, he was ordained as a diocesan priest in 1700.

Soon he began preaching parish missions throughout western France. His years of ministering to the poor prompted him to travel and live very simply, sometimes getting him into trouble with Church authorities. In his preaching, which attracted thousands of people back to the faith, Father Louis recommended frequent, even daily, Holy Communion (not the custom then!) and imitation of the Virgin Mary's ongoing acceptance of God's will for her life.

Louis founded the Missionaries of the Company of Mary (for priests and brothers) and the Daughters of Wisdom, who cared especially for the sick. His book, True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin, has become a classic explanation of Marian devotion.

Louis died in Saint-Laurent-sur-Sèvre, where a basilica has been erected in his honor. He was canonized in 1947.

Comment: Like Mary, Louis experienced challenges in his efforts to follow Jesus. Opposed at times in his preaching and in his other ministries, Louis knew with St. Paul, “Neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God, who causes the growth” (1 Corinthians 3:7). Any attempt to succeed by worldly standards runs the risk of betraying the Good News of Jesus. Mary is “the first and most perfect disciple,” as the late Raymond Brown, S.S., described her.

Quote:  “Mary is the fruitful Virgin, and in all the souls in which she comes to dwell she causes to flourish purity of heart and body, rightness of intention and abundance of good works. Do not imagine that Mary, the most fruitful of creatures who gave birth to a God, remains barren in a faithful soul. It will be she who makes the soul live incessantly for Jesus Christ, and will make Jesus live in the soul” (True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin).
1856 St. Lawrence Huong native priest Martyr of Vietnam

He was a, beheaded during the anti-Christian persecution. Lawrence was canonized in 1988 by Pope John Paul II.

Laurence Hung M (AC) Born in Tonkin (Vietnam), c. 1802; died 1856; beatified in 1909; canonized in 1988 as one of the Martyrs of Vietnam. There were several major persecutions of Christians in was is today known as Vietnam.

In 1847, they were revived when Christians were suspected of complicity in rebellion, while Spanish and French efforts to protect their nationals created a xenophobic and anti-Christian fervor. Christians were marked on their faces with the words ta dao (false religion). Families were separated. Christian villages were destroyed and their possessions distributed. Laurence was a native priest, who was beheaded near Ninh-biuh in western Tonkin, during this period (Benedictines, Farmer).
1919 Blessed Maria Antonia Bandres y Elosegui (AC)
Born at Tolosa (Guipuzcoa), Spain, March 6, 1898; died at Salamanca, Spain, April 27, ; beatified May 12, 1996. More will be added in 2000.  Beatified By: Pope John Paul II
Maria Antonia's death profoundly touched the heart of these intellectual agnostics and stirred in them disquieting questions. Seeing the 21-year-old Maria Antonia Bandres die with the security of "knowing where she was going", according to Unamuno's expression, made a tremendous impact, and all of them have left oral or written testimonies about it.

God accepted the offering that this young Daughter of Jesus made of her life for the conversion and eternal salvation of her uncle and godfather, Antonio Bandres, who was I living contrary to Christian faith and morals. She died in Salamanca on 27 April 1919, the feast of Our Lady of Montserrat, while singing and calling upon Mary as "Mother of mercy".

Maria Antonia Bandres, a woman endowed with deep humanity, was sensitive to the love of her family and friends in the world and in religious life. Always open to the grace and love of God, she was able to suffer with a smile. Then God permeated the deepest core of her littleness and ushered her into the mystery of the Father's love.

The life of this young religious is a marvellous witness to divine grace, which seeks out the simple-hearted. In her shines forth the beauty of a life totally consecrated to God.

Biography Provided By: EWTN


Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR APRIL
Young People. 
That young people may respond generously to their vocations and seriously consider
offering themselves to God in the priesthood or consecrated life.


ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Easter Weekday

April Is Child Abuse Prevention Month

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
 
                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 01
120 -132 St. Theodora Roman martyr sister of  Saint Hermes aid and care to her brother in prison.  At Rome, the passion of St. Theodora, sister of the illustrious martyr Hermes.  She underwent martyrdom in the time of Emperor Adrian, under the judge Aurelian, and was buried at the side of her brother, on the Salarian Way, a short distance from the city.
According to the Acta of Pope St. Alexander (r 105-115), she was the sister of  Saint Hermes and was martyred some time after her brother. She had given aid and care to her brother during his difficult time in prison.
The council and the delegates from Grenoble severally and collectively appear to have looked on Canon Hugh as the one man who was capable of dealing with the disorders complained of; but though unanimously elected it was with the greatest reluctance that he consented to accept the office. The legate himself conferred on him holy orders up to the priesthood, and took him to Rome that he might receive consecration from the pope.
1132 St. Hugh of Grenoble Benedictine bishop amazing modesty took upon himself all sins of others the cross he carried was heavy laden holy and redemptive great reputation for miracles.   The kindness of the reception he met emboldened the young bishop elect to consult St Gregory VII about temptations to blasphemy which sometimes beset him, causing him great distress and, as he considered, rendering him unfit for the high office to which he was called. The pontiff reassured him, explaining that God permitted these trials to purify him and render him a more fitting instrument for the divine purposes. These particular temptations continued to assault him until his last illness, but he never yielded to them in any way.
The Countess Matilda gave the twenty-eight-year-old bishop his crozier and some books, including the De officiis ministrorum of St Ambrose and a psalter to which were appended the commentaries of St Augustine. Immediately after his consecration. St Hugh hurried off to his diocese, but he was appalled by the state of his flock. The gravest sins were committed without shame; simony and usury were rampant; the clergy openly flouted the obligation to celibacy; the people were uninstructed; laymen had seized church property and the see was almost penniless. It was indeed a herculean task that lay before the saint.
  For two years he laboured unremittingly to redress abuses by preaching, by denunciations, by rigorous fasts and by constant prayer. The excellent results he was obtaining were patent to all but to himself: he only saw his failures and blamed his own incompetence. Discouraged, he quietly withdrew to the Cluniac abbey of Chaise-Dieu, where he received the Benedictine habit. He did not remain there long, for Pope Gregory commanded him to resume his pastoral charge and return to Grenoble.
A short time before his death he lost his memory for everything but prayer, and would recite the psalter or the Lord’s Prayer without intermission.
During his 52-year episcopacy, Hugh vainly tendered his resignation to each pope--Gregory VII, Gelasius II, Calixtus II, Honorius II, Innocent II, and others--and they refused him because of his outstanding ability. He never ceased imploring them to release him from the duties of his episcopal office up to the day of his death. During his last, painful illness he was tormented by headaches and stomach disorders that resulted from his long fasts and vigils, yet never complained.
St Hugh died on April 1, 1132, two months before attaining the age of eighty, having been a bishop for fifty-two years.  Pope Innocent II canonized him two years later.
1194 Hugh of Bonnevaux possessed singular powers of discernment and exorcism OSB Cistercian, Abbot (AC).
The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.”
IN one of his letters St Bernard of Clairvaux mentions with great praise a novice called Hugh, who had renounced considerable riches and entered the abbey of Mézières at a very early age against the wishes of his relations. He was nephew to St Hugh of Grenoble. Once, when greatly troubled by temptations and longings to return to the world, he entered a church to pray for light and help. As he raised his eyes to the altar, he beheld above it a figure which he recognized to be that of our Lady, and then, beside her, appeared the form of her divine Son. The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.” Hugh afterwards gave himself up to such severe penances that his health broke down and he seemed to be losing his memory. He owed his recovery to the wise common-sense of St Bernard, who ordered him off to the infirmary with instructions that he should be properly tended and allowed to speak to anyone he liked.

Not long afterwards he was made abbot of Bonnevaux, and in Hugh’s care the abbey became very flourishing. It was noted that the abbot could read men’s thoughts and was quick to detect any evil spirit which had access to the minds of his brethren. The stories that have come down to us testify to his powers of divination and exorcism. Like so many of the great monastic luminaries, both men and women, Hugh did not confine his interests to his own house or even to his order. Moved by what he felt to be divine inspiration he went to Venice in 1177, there to act as mediator between Pope Alexander III and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. To him is due the credit of negotiating between them a peace which has become historic. St Hugh died in 1194, and his ancient cultus was approved in 1907.
1220 Jacqueline V Hermit recluse in Sicily reprimanded Pope Innocent III
1245 ST GILBERT, BISHOP OF CAITHNESS “Three maxims which I have always tried to observe I now commend to you: first, never to hurt anyone and, if injured, never to seek revenge secondly, to bear patiently whatever suffering God may inflict, remembering that He chastises every son whom He receives; and finally to obey those in authority so as not to be a stumbling-block to others.”
1849 BD LUDOVIC PAVONI, FOUNDER OF THE SONS OF MARY IMMACULATE OF BRESCIA.  THIS forerunner of St John Bosco in the education and care of boys, especially the orphaned and neglected, was born at Brescia in Lombardy in 1784. His parents were Alexander Pavoni and Lelia Pontecarali, and the family was of noble descent, with a sufficiency of property to maintain its position. Ludovic while still young showed a serious disposition; his sister Paolina said of him that “Ludovic was always a good religious youngster, while I was always a scamp”; and as a youth he already outlined his vocation when, during summer holidays at Alfianello, he played with the peasants’ children and taught them the catechism. On another occasion he threw his shirt out of the window to a beggar shivering in the street below. He had a taste and some capacity for the fine arts and might have become a painter or an architect, but probably nobody was surprised when he decided to study for the priesthood. This he did under the Dominicans (all the Lombard seminaries were closed in consequence of the revolution), and he was ordained priest in 1807.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 02
 469 St. Abundius Greek priest bishop noted theologian obvious intellect and holiness attended Councils of Chalcedon and Milan.   He became the bishop of Como, Italy, and attended the Council of Constantinople in 450. As a result of his obvious intellect and holiness, he was sent by Pope St. Leo I the Great to the Emperor Theodosius II as an envoy of the Holy See. His mission led to the and to the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Council of Milan in 452. Abundius served as the pope's representative in such councils, clearly stating the Church's role and concerns.
6th v. St. Musa Virgin child of Rome; a great mystic, visions and ecstasies, reported by St. Gregory I the Great

 952 Anba Macarius, the Fifty-Ninth Pope of Alexandria; The Departure of.  On this day also of the year 668 A.M. (May 20th. 952 A.D.) St. Macarius the fifty ninth Pope of Alexandria, departed. He was born in the city of Shoubra. He rejected the world since his youth and he desired the monastic life. He went to the monastery of St. Macarius at the wilderness of Sheahat (Scetis). He lived in virtues and good conduct made him worthy to be chosen a Patriarch, and a successor for Pope Cosma. He was enthroned on the first of Baramouda 648 A.M. (March 27th. 932 A.D.).

When he went forth from Alexandria going to visit the monasteries in the desert of Scetis according to the custom of his predecessors, he passed by his home town to visit his mother who was a righteous woman. When his mother heard that he had arrived she did not go out to meet him. When he had come to the house, he found her sitting down weaving and she did not greet him or paid attention to him. He thought that she did not know him. He told her: "Don't you know that I am your son Macarius who was elevated to a great position and became a head for a great nation?" She answered him with tears in her eyes: "I did not ignore you and I know what became of you, but I would have rather seen you dead than seen you as a Patriarch. Before, you were responsible only for your own soul but now your are responsible about the souls of all your flock: Now remember you are in danger and it is difficult to escape it." She said that and went on weaving as she did before.

The father the Patriarch left her sad, and attended to his office with delegant and care. He instructed his people with preaching and sermons. He did not touch any of the church revenue, and did not lay his hand on any one without people consent. He commanded the bishops and the priests to watch their flock and to protect them with homilies and admonitions. He sat on the throne of St. Mark twenty years in peace and tranquility, then departed in peace.
May his prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen

At Tours in France, St. Francis of Paula, founder of the Order of Minims.  Because he was renowned for virtues and miracles, he was inscribed among the saints by Pope Leo X.   ST FRANCIS was born about the year 1416 at Paola, a small town in Calabria. His parents were humble, industrious people who made it their chief aim to love and to serve God. As they were still childless after several years of married life, they prayed earnestly for a son, and when at last a boy was born to them, they named him after St Francis of Assisi, whose intercession they had specially sought.

In his thirteenth year he was placed in the Franciscan friary at San Marco, where he learnt to read and where he laid the foundation of the austere life which he ever afterwards led; although he had not professed the rule of the order, he seemed even at that tender age to outstrip the religious themselves in a scrupulous observance of its requirements. After spending a year there he accompanied his parents on a pilgrimage which included Assisi and Rome. Upon his return to Paola, with their consent, he retired first to a place about half a mile from the town, and afterwards to a more remote seclusion by the sea, where he occupied a cave. He was scarcely fifteen years old. Before he was twenty, he was joined by two other men. The neighbours built them three cells and a chapel in which they sang the divine praises and in which Mass was offered for them by a priest from the nearest church.

Besides the gift of miracles St Francis was endowed with that of prophecy, and long afterwards, writing to Pope Leo X for the canonization of St Francis, the Bishop of Grenoble (uncle to Bayard, the “Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche”) wrote, “Most holy Father, he revealed to me many things which were known only to God and to myself”. Pope Paul II sent one of his chamberlains into Calabria to inquire about the truth of the wonderful things that were reported of the saint. Upon seeing a visitor approach, St Francis, who was busy with the masons over the construction of his church, left his work to greet him. The envoy attempted to kiss his hand, but this Francis would not allow; he protested that it was for him to kiss the hands which for some thirty years had been sanctified by offering the holy Sacrifice. The chamberlain, surprised that Francis should know how long he, a stranger, had been a priest, did not disclose his mission, but asked to speak with him and was led within the enclosure. Here he expatiated eloquently on the dangers of singularity, and censured Francis’s way of life as too austere for human nature. The saint attempted humbly to vindicate his rule and then, to prove what the grace of God would enable single-minded men to bear, he lifted out of the fire some burning coals and held them for some time in his hands unscathed. It may be noted that there is record of several similar examples of his immunity from the effects of fire. The chamberlain returned full of veneration for the holy man, and the new order received the sanction of the Holy See in 1474. At that time the community was composed of uneducated men, with only one priest. They were then called Hermits of St Francis of Assisi, and it was not until 1492 that their name was changed to that of “Minims”, at the desire of the founder, who wished his followers to be reckoned as the least (minimi) in the household of God.
St Francis passed twenty-five years in France, and died there. On Palm Sunday 1507 he fell ill, and on Maundy Thursday assembled his brethren and exhorted them to the love of God, to charity and to a strict observance of all the duties of their rule. Then he received viaticum barefoot with a rope round his neck, according to the custom of his order. He died on the following day, Good Friday, being then ninety-one years of age. His canonization took place in 1519.  Besides the rule which St Francis drew up for his friars, with a correctorium or method of enjoining penances and a ceremonial, he also composed a rule for nuns, and regulations for a third order of persons living in the world. Today the number of members of the Order of Minims is considerably reduced they are mostly found in Italy.
1815 BD LEOPOLD OF GAICHE founded house for missioners and preachers could retire for their annual retreat other brethren and friends of the order could come for spiritual refreshment; numerous miracles reported at his grave.   When in 1808 Napoleon invaded Rome and imprisoned Pope Pius VII, religious houses were suppressed and their occupants turned out. Bd Leopold, a venerable old man of seventy-seven, was obliged to abandon his beloved convent, and with three of his brethren to live in a miserable hut in Spoleto. While there he acted as assistant to a parish priest, but afterwards he had charge of an entire parish whose pastor had been driven out by the French. Then he was himself imprisoned for refusing to take an oath which he considered unlawful. His imprisonment, however, was of short duration, for we soon find him giving missions once more. His fame was enhanced by his prophetical powers and by strange phenomena which attended him: for example, when he was preaching his head often appeared to his congregation as though it were crowned with thorns.
With the fall of Napoleon, Bd Leopold hurried back to Monte Luco, where he set about trying to establish things as they had been before but he only survived for a few months, dying on April 15, 1815, in his eighty-third year. The numerous miracles reported to have taken place at his grave caused the speedy introduction of the process of his beatification, which reached a favourable conclusion in 1893.

1839 St. Dominic Tuoc 3rd order Dominican martyr native of Vietnam.  Arrested and tortured, he died in prison. Dominic was a native of Vietnam. He was canonized in 1988.  Blessed Dominic Tuoc M, OP Tert. (AC) Born in Tonkin; died 1839; beatified in 1900. Saint Dominic was a priest of the third order of Dominicans, who died of his wounds in prison (Benedictines).
1968 The Apparition of the Pure Lady the Virgin in the church of Zeiton.  On the eve of this day of the year 1684 A.M. which coincide with tuesday the 2nd. of April 1968 A.D., during the papacy of Pope Kyrellos VI, the hundred sixteenth Pope of Alexandria, our Lady and the pride of our faith started to transfigure in luminous spiritual forms in and around the domes of the church dedicated to her immaculate name in Zeiton, a suburb of Cairo.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 03
127 Sixtus I, Pope survived as pope for about 10 years before being killed by the Roman authorities
Tauroménii, in Sicília, sancti Pancrátii Epíscopi
.  At Rome, the birthday of blessed Pope Sixtus the First, martyr, who ruled the Church with distinction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, and finally in the reign of Antoninus Pius he gladly accepted temporal death in order to gain Christ for himself.  (also known as Xystus)  ST XYSTUS I succeeded Pope St Alexander I about the end of the reign of Trajan, and governed the Church for some ten years at a period when the papal dignity was the common prelude to martyrdom. In all the old martyrologies he is honoured as a martyr, but we have no particulars about his life or death. He was by birth a Roman, his father’s house in the ancient Via Lata having occupied, it is supposed, the site now covered by the church of St Mary-in-Broad-Street. The Liber Pontificalis credits him with having laid down as ordinances that none but the clergy should touch the sacred vessels, and that the people should join in when the priest had intoned the Sanctus at Mass. The Sixtus mentioned in the canon of the Mass was probably not this pope but St Sixtus II, whose martyrdom was more widely famous.
1253 St. Richard of Wyche Ph.D. Priest missionary bishop denounced nepotism, insisted on strict clerical discipline, ever generous to poor and needy Many miracles healing recorded during  lifetime more after death. Richard was deep in the hearts of his people, the sort of saint that anyone can recognize by his simplicity, holiness, and endless charity to the poorRichard Backedine B (RM) (also known as Richard of Wyche, of Droitwich, of Chichester, of Burford)
Born at Droitwich (formerly called Wyche), Worchestershire, England, in 1197; died at Dover, England, 1253; canonized 1262 (Urban IV 1261-64 ).
 
  In 1244 Ralph Neville, bishop of Chichester, died, and Henry III, by putting pressure on the canons, obtained the election of Robert Passelewe, a worthless man who, according to Matthew Paris, “had obtained the king’s favour in a wonderful degree by an unjust inquisition by which he added some thousands of marks to the royal treasury.”
The archbishop refused to confirm the election and called a chapter of his suffragans who declared the previous election invalid, and chose Richard, the primate’s nominee, to fill the vacant see. Upon hearing the news, King Henry was violently enraged: he kept in his own hands all the temporalities and forbade the admission of St Richard to any barony or secular possession attached to his see. In vain did the bishop elect himself approach the monarch on two separate occasions: he could obtain neither the confirmation of his election nor the restoration of the revenues to which he was entitled. At last both he and the king carried the case to Pope Innocent IV, who was presiding over the Council of Lyons, and he decided in favour of St Richard, whom he consecrated himself on March 5, 1245.
Landing once more in England the new bishop was met by the news that the king, far from giving up the temporalities, had forbidden anyone to lend St Richard money or even to give him houseroom. At Chichester he found the palace gates closed against him: those who would gladly have helped him feared the sovereign’s anger, and it seemed as though he would have to wander about his diocese a homeless outcast. However, a good priest, Simon of Tarring, opened his house to him, and Richard, as Bocking informs us, “took shelter under this hospitable roof, sharing the meals of a stranger, warming his feet at another man’s hearth”.

"Thanks be to Thee, my Lord Jesus Christ For all the benefits Thou hast given me, For all the pains and insults Which Thou has borne for me.  O most merciful Redeemer, Friend, and Brother, May I know Thee more clearly, Love Thee more dearly, Follow Thee more nearly, Day by day. Amen." --Saint Richard of Chichester.
1271 Blessed John of Penna priest founding several Franciscan houses  visions gift of prophecywon all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light OFM (AC) .   Born at Penna San Giovanni (near Fermo), Ancona, Italy, c. 1193; died at Recanati, Italy, April 3, 1271; cultus approved 1806 by Pope Pius VII. Blessed John joined the Franciscans at Recanati about 1213, was ordained a priest, and was sent to France, where he worked for about 25 years in Provence, founding several Franciscan houses. About 1242, he returned to Italy, where he spent his last 30 years mainly in retirement, although he did serve as guardian several times. He experienced visions and had the gift of prophecy, but was also afflicted with extended periods of spiritual aridity. His life is described in chapter 45 of The Little Flowers of Saint Francis (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney).  

1271 BD JOHN OF PENNA won all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States incorrupt.   St. Benedict of San Philadelphio (Or BENEDICT THE MOOR) Born at San Philadelphio or San Fradello, a village of the Diocese of Messina in Sicily, in 1526; d. 4 April, 1589. The parents of St. Benedict were slaves from Ethiopia who were, nevertheless, pious Christians. On account of their faithfulness their master freed Benedict, the first-born child. From his earliest years Benedict was very religious and while still very young he joined a newly formed association of hermits. When Pope Pius IV dissolved the association, Benedict, called from his origin Æthiops or Niger, entered the Reformed Recollects of the Franciscan Order. Owing to his virtues he was made superior of the monastery of Santa Maria de Jesus at Palermo three years after his entrance, although he was only a lay brother. He reformed the monastery and ruled it with great success until his death. He was pronounced Blessed in 1743 and was canonized in 1807. His feast is celebrated 3 April.






Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 04
Thus there began to develop a special bond between this Mother and the Church.
For the infant Church was the fruit of the Cross and Resurrection of her Son.
Mary, who from the beginning had given herself without reserve to the person and work of her Son, could not but pour out upon the Church, from the very beginning, her maternal self-giving. After her Son's departure, her motherhood remains in the Church as maternal mediation: interceding for all her children, the Mother cooperates in the saving work of her Son, the Redeemer of the world.   Holy Father John Paul II    Redemptoris Mater #40

The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin  April 4 - Our Lady of Seven Sorrows (1897) - Francisco of Fatima (d. 1919)
1. The prophecy of Simeon. (Lk 2: 34, 35) 2. The flight into Egypt. (Mt 2:13-14) 3. The loss of the Child Jesus in the temple. (Lk 3: 43-45)  4. The meeting of Jesus and Mary on the Way of the Cross.  5. The Crucifixion.  6. The taking down of the Body of Jesus from the Cross.  7. The burial of Jesus.
"And Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary his mother: 'Behold this child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be contradicted; and thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed" (Lk 2: 34-35).

 636 St. Isidore of Seville Doctor of the Church In a unique move, he made sure that all branches of knowledge including the arts and medicine were taught in the seminaries. At Seville in Spain, St. Isidore, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church.  He was conspicuous for sanctity and learning, and had brightened all Spain by his zeal for the Catholic faith and his observance of Church discipline.  Isidore of Seville B, Doctor (RM) Born at Cartagena, Spain, c. 560; died in Seville, Spain, in April 4, 636; canonized by Pope Clement VIII in 1598; and declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Innocent XIII in 1722. Saint Isidore was born into a noble Hispano-Roman family, which also produced SS. Leander, Fulgentius, and Florentina. Their father was Severian, a Roman from Cartagena, who was closely connected to the Visigothic kings. Though Isidore became one of the most erudite men of his age, as a boy he hated his studies, perhaps because his elder brother, Saint Leander, who taught him, was a strict task master.
The more we are afflicted in this world, the greater is our assurance in the next;
the more we sorrow in the present, the greater will be our joy in the future.
- St. Isidore of Seville
 863 Saint Joseph the Hymnographer, "the sweet-voiced nightingale of the Church,".  At that time the Roman bishops were in communion with the Eastern Church, and Pope Leo III, who was not under the dominion of the Byzantine Emperor, was able to render great help to the Orthodox. The Orthodox monks chose St Joseph as a steadfast and eloquent messenger to the Pope. St Gregory blessed him to journey to Rome and to report on the plight of the Church of Constantinople, the atrocities of the iconoclasts, and the dangers threatening Orthodoxy. 

Born in Sicily in 816 into a pious Christian family. His parents, Plotinos and Agatha, moved to the Peloponnesos to save themselves from barbarian invasions. When he was fifteen, St Joseph went to Thessalonica and entered the monastery of Latomos. He was distinguished by his piety, his love for work, his meekness, and he gained the good will of all the brethren of the monastery. He was later ordained as a priest.

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States.   1589 ST BENEDICT THE BLACK His face when he was in chapel often shone with an unearthly light, and food seemed to multiply miraculously under his hands; reputation for sanctity and miracles;   Beatified 15 May 1743 by Pope Benedict XIV
Canonized 24 May 1807 by Pope Pius VIII

  BENEDICT was born in a village near Messina in Sicily. His parents were good Christians, but African slaves of a rich landowner whose name (Manasseri) they bore, according to the prevalent custom. Christopher’s master had made him foreman over his other servants and had promised that his eldest son, Benedict, should be free. The baby grew up such a sweet-tempered, devout child that when he was only ten years old he was called “The Holy Black” (Ii moro santo), a nickname which clung to him all his life. One day, when he was about twenty-one, he was grossly insulted by some neighbours, who taunted him with his colour and the status of his parents. There happened to be passing at the time a young man called Lanzi, who had retired from the world with a few companions to live the life of a hermit in imitation of St Francis of Assisi. He was greatly impressed by the gentleness of Benedict’s replies and, addressing the mockers, he said, “You make fun of this poor black man now; but I can tell you that ere long you will hear great things of him”. Soon afterwards, at Lanzi’s invitation, Benedict sold his few possessions and went to join the solitaries.
1726 The Departure of Pope Peter VI, the One Hundred and Fourth Pope of Alexandria.  On this day also the church commemorates the departure of Pope Peter VI (Petros), the one hundred and fourth Patriarch in the year 1442 A.M. (April 2nd., 1726 A.D.). This blessed father and spiritual angel was the son of pure and Christian parents from the city of Assiut. They raised him well, educated him with ecclesiastic subjects and manners and he excelled in them. His name was Mourgan, but later on he became known by the name Peter El-Assuity. The grace of God was on him since his young age, and when he came to the age of maturity, he forsook the world and what in it, and longed to the monastic life. He went to the monastery of the great St. Antonios in the mount of El-Arabah, he dwelt there, became a monk and put on the monastic garb. He exerted himself in worship, and when he achieved the ascetic life, purity, righteousness, and humility, the fathers the monks chose him to be a priest. They took him against his will to Cairo, and he was ordained a priest, for the monastery of the great Saint Anba Paula the first hermit, among others, by the hand of Pope Yoannis El-Toukhy (103), in the church of the Lady the Virgin in Haret El-Roum. He increased in virtues and he became well known among the people.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 05
 647 Ethelburga of Lyminge founded an abbey at Lyminge abbess.  ST ETHELBURGA was the daughter of St Augustine’s convert, King Ethelbert of Kent and of his wife Bertha. Ethelburga, also called Tata, was given in marriage to Edwin, the pagan king of Northumbria, and St Paulinus, one of St Augustine’s companions, accompanied her as chaplain. Although Edwin was well affected towards Christianity, he hesitated so long before accepting the faith that Pope Boniface V wrote expressly to Ethelburga, urging her to do her utmost to bring about his conversion. But it was not until 627 that Edwin himself received baptism. During the rest of his reign, Christianity made progress throughout Northumbria, encouraged as it was by the royal couple, but when Edwin had been killed at Hatfield Chase, his pagan adversaries overran the land. The queen and St Paulinus found themselves obliged to return to Kent where Ethelburga founded the abbey of Lyminge, which she ruled until her death.
1095 Saint Gerald of Sauve-Majeure monk cellarer of abbey Corbie; founded, directed, Benedictine Abbey of Grande -Sauveabbot  author of a hagiology.  Feeling that all he could do for God was to minister to others, he undertook, in honour of the Holy Trinity, the care of three poor men whom he looked after. His abbot chose him as companion to go with him to Rome, where he hoped the sufferer might be cured. Together they visited the tombs of the Apostles, and at the hands of St Leo IX Gerald was ordained priest. But from time to time the terrible headaches recurred, until one day when—at the intercession, he was convinced, of St Adelard, whose life he had written— the pains left him as suddenly as they had come, never to trouble him again. After this, in thanksgiving he redoubled his prayers and mortifications. In a vision he beheld our Lord come down from the crucifix towards him, he felt Him place His hand on his head, and heard Him say, “Son, be comforted in the Lord and in the power of His might”. A pilgrimage to Jerusalem was another source of inspiration and consolation.
1258 Blessed Juliana of Mount Cornillon visions in which Jesus pointed out that there was no feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament OSA V (AC).  The years passed and Juliana became a nun at Mount Cornillon; but she was unknown, without influence and in no position to do anything in the matter of the desired feast. Then in 1225 she was elected prioress and began to speak about what she felt to be her mission to some of her friends, notably to Bd Eva, a recluse who lived beside St Martin’s church on the opposite bank of the river, and to a saintly woman, Isabel of Huy, whom she had received into her community. Encouraged no doubt by the support of these two, she opened her heart to a learned canon of St Martin’s, John of Lausanne, asking him to consult theologians as to the propriety of such a feast. James Pantaleon (afterwards Pope Urban IV), Hugh of St Cher, the Dominican prior provincial, Bishop Guy of Cambrai, chancellor of the University of Paris, with other learned men, were approached, and decided that there was no theological or canonical objection to the institution of a festival in honour of the Blessed Sacrament.
Juliana’s great mission was carried on and completed by her old friend Eva, the recluse of St Martin’s. After the elevation to the papacy of Urban IV, who as James Pantaleon had been one of Juliana’s earliest supporters, Eva, through the bishop of Liege, begged him to sanction the new feast of the Blessed Sacrament. He did so; and afterwards, in recognition of the part she had taken, he sent her his bull of authorization together with the beautiful office for Corpus Christi which St Thomas Aquinas had composed at his desire. The bull was confirmed in 1312 by the Council of Vienne under Pope Clement V, and the celebration of the feast of Corpus Christi has from that time become of universal obligation throughout the Western church, and most Catholics of the Eastern rite have adopted it too. The observance of a feast in honour of Bd Juliana was allowed by the Holy See in 1869.

1574 St. Catherine Thomas Orphan strange phenomena mystical experiences visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine gifts of visions and prophecy In the monastery at Palma, in the diocese of Majorca, the birthday of St. Catherine Thomas, Canoness Regular of the Order of St. Augustine, whom Pope Pius XI, in the fiftieth year of his priesthood, placed among the number of virgin saints.  Felt a call to the religious life at age 15, but her confessor convinced her to wait a little. Domestic servant in Palma where she learned to read and write. Joined the Canonesses of Saint Augustine at Saint Mary Magdalen convent at Palma. Subjected to many strange phenomena and mystical experiences including visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine. Had the gifts of visions and prophecy. Assaulted spiritually and physically by dark powers, she sometimes went into ecstatic trances for days at a time; her wounds from this abuse were treated by Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian. During her last years she was almost continually in ecstasy. Foretold the date of her death. Born 1 May 1533 at Valldemossa, Mallorca, Spain Died    5 April 1574 at Saint Mary Magdalen convent, Palma, Spain of natural causes
1419 St. Vincent Ferrer Patron of Builders Dominican at 19 simply "going through the world preaching Christ,"
 eloquent and fiery preacher St Vincent declared himself to be the angel of the Judgement foretold by St John (Apoc. xiv 6). As some of his hearers began to protest, he summoned the bearers who were carrying a dead woman to her burial and adjured the corpse to testify to the truth of his words. The body was seen to revive for a moment to give the confirmation required, and then to close its eyes once more in death. It is almost unnecessary to add that the saint laid no claim to the nature of a celestial being, but only to the angelic office of a messenger or herald—believing, as he did, that he was the instrument chosen by God to announce the impending end of the world.
In 1405 St Vincent was in Genoa, from whence he reached a port from which he could sail for Flanders. Amongst other reforms he induced the Ligurian ladies to modify their fantastic head-dress—“the greatest of all his marvellous deeds”, as one of his biographers avers. In the Netherlands he wrought so many miracles that an hour was set apart every day for the healing of the sick. It has also been supposed that he visited England, Scotland and Ireland, but of this there is no shadow of proof. Although we know from the saint himself that beyond his native language he had learnt only some Latin and a little Hebrew, yet he would seem to have possessed the gift of tongues, for we have it on the authority of reliable writers that all his hearers, French, Germans, Italians and the rest, understood every word he spoke, and that his voice carried so well that it could be clearly heard at enormous distances. It is impossible here to follow him in all his wanderings. In fact he pursued no definite order, but visited and revisited places as the spirit moved him or as he was requested. In 1407 he returned to Spain. That terrible scandal had begun in 1378 when, upon the death of Gregory XI, sixteen of the twenty-three cardinals had hastily elected Urban VI in deference to the popular cry for an Italian pope. Under the plea that they had been terrorized, they then, with the other cardinals, held a conclave at which they elected Cardinal Robert of Geneva, a Frenchman. He took the name of Clement VII and ruled at Avignon, whilst Urban reigned in Rome. St Vincent Ferrer, who had been amongst those who recognized Clement, naturally upon his death accepted as pope his successor, Peter de Luna or Benedict XIII as he was called, who summoned the Dominican to his side. [* Because of their anomalous position this Clement VII and Benedict XIII are not referred to as antipopes but as “called popes in their obedience”.]
1744 Blessed Crescentia Höss, OFM Tert. blessed by celestial visions V (AC).   Her life for the next few years was to be one of humiliations and persecution, for the superioress and the older nuns could not forget that she had come to them penniless. They taunted her with being a beggar, gave her the most disagreeable work, and then called her a hypocrite. At first she had a little cell, but that was taken away to be given to a novice who had brought money. For three years she had to beg first one sister and then another to allow her to sleep on the floor of her cell: then she was allowed a damp dark little corner of her own. Taking all humiliations as her due, Crescentia refused the sympathy of some of the younger nuns when they exclaimed at the treatment meted out to her. In time, however, another superioress was appointed, who had more charity and discrimination. In time the nuns recognized that they had a saint amongst them and eventually chose her as novice mistress and finally as superioress. She had many visions and ecstasies, besides a mystical experience of the sufferings of our Lord which lasted every Friday from nine until three, culminating often in complete unconsciousness. On the other hand she suffered greatly from the assaults of the powers of evil.
Unkindly criticism of others Crescentia always repressed, invariably defending the absent. Stern to herself, she yet said to her daughters, “The practices most pleasing to God are those which He himself imposes—to bear meekly and patiently the adversities which He sends or which our neighbours inflict on us”. Gradually her influence spread beyond the walls of her convent, and people who came to consult her went away impressed by her wisdom and spoke of her to others: leaders in church and state visited the weaver’s daughter or corresponded with her, and to this day her tomb is visited by pilgrims. Pope Leo XIII beatified her in 1900.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 06
432 Celestine I Pope treatise against semi-Pelagianism
Born in Campania, Italy; died at Rome, July 27, 432; feast day formerly on July 27 and/or August 1. Saint Celestine was a deacon in Rome when he was elected pope on September 20, 422, to succeed Saint Boniface. He was a staunch supporter of Saint Germanus of Auxerre in the fight against Pelagianism, and a friend of Saint Augustine with whom he corresponded, and which demonstrates that the bishop of Rome was the central authority even at that early date.
Benedict_XVI_Patriarch_Bartholomew
582 Eutychius of Constantinople worked many miracles; healings; opposed Justinian's interference; vigorously denounced Aphthartodocetism [asartodoketai] or "imperishability" which taught that the flesh of Christ, before His death on the Cross and Resurrection, was imperishable and not capable of suffering.  ALTHOUGH the name of this Eutychius is not commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, and although his career belongs more to church history than to hagiography, still he has always been honoured as a saint among the Greeks (and at Venice, which claims his relics), and he set a noble example of resistance to the Emperor Justinian’s pretensions to figure as arbiter in theological matters. Thus, through his prayer the wife of a devout man, Androgenes, who had given birth only to dead infants, now gave birth to two sons who lived to maturity. Two deaf-mutes received the gift of speech; and two grievously ill children were restored to health. The saint healed a cancerous ulcer on the hand of an artist. The saint also healed another artist, anointing his diseased hand with oil and making over it the Sign of the Cross.
The saint healed not only bodily, but also spiritual afflictions: he banished the devil out of a girl that had kept her from Holy Communion; he expelled a demon from a youth who had fled from a monastery (after which the youth returned to his monastery); he healed a drunken leper, who stopped drinking after being cleansed of his leprosy.
During the Persian invasion of Amasea and its widespread devastation, they distributed grain to the hungry from the monastery granaries on the saint's orders, and by his prayers, the stores of grain at the monastery were not depleted.
St Eutychius received from God the gift of prophecy. He revealed the names of two of Emperor Justinian's successors: Justin (565-578) and Tiberias (578-582).
885 Saint Methodius, Archbishop of Moravia Life found May 11, when commemorated with Cyril, Teacher of Slavs. In Moravia, the birthday of St. Methodius, bishop and confessor.  Together with his brother, the bishop St. Cyril, whose birthday was the 14th of February, he converted many of the Slav races and their rulers to the faith of Christ.  Their feast is celebrated on the 7th day of July. 
These brothers, natives of Thessalonika, are venerated as the apostles of the Southern Slavs and the fathers of Slavonic literary culture.      The characters now called "cyrillic ", from which are derived the present Russian, Serbian and Bulgarian letters, were invented from the Greek capitals, perhaps by the followers of St Cyril ; the" glagolitic " alphabet, formerly wrongly attributed to St Jerome, in which the Slav-Roman liturgical books of certain Yugoslav Catholics are printed, may be that prepared for this occasion by Cyril himself, or, according to the legend, directly revealed by God.* {* Like so much to do with these brothers, the history of these alphabets is a matter of debate.  The southern Slavonic of SS. Cyril and Methodius is to this day the liturgical language of the Russians, Ukrainians, Serbs and Bulgars, whether Orthodox or Catholic.}

  In 863 the two brothers set out with a number of assistants and came to the court of Rostislav; they were well received and at once got to work.  The position was very difficult. The new missionaries made free use of the vernacular in their preaching and ministrations, and this made immediate appeal to the local people. To the German clergy this was objectionable, and their opposition was strengthened when the Emperor Louis the German forced Rostislav to take an oath of fealty to him.  The Byzantine missionaries, armed with their pericopes from the Scriptures and liturgical hymns in Slavonic, pursued their way with much success, but were soon handicapped by their lack of a bishop to ordain more priests.
The German prelate, the bishop of Passau, would not do it, and Cyril therefore determined to seek help elsewhere, presumably from Constantinople whence he came.

On their way the brothers arrived in Venice. It was at a bad moment. Photius at Constantinople had incurred excommunication; the East was under suspicion the proteges of the Eastern emperor and their liturgical use of a new tongue were vehemently criticized.  One source says that the pope, St Nicholas I, sent for the strangers.  In any case, to Rome they came, bringing with them the alleged relics of Pope St Clement, which St Cyril had recovered when in the Crimea on his way back from the Khazars.
Pope Nicholas in the meantime had died, but his successor, Adrian II, warmly welcomed the bearers of so great a gift.  He examined their cause, and he gave judgement: Cyril and Methodius were to receive episcopal consecration, their neophytes were to be ordained, the use of the liturgy in Slavonic was approved.  Although in the office of the Western church both brothers are referred to as bishops, it is far from certain that Cyril was in fact consecrated.  For while still in Rome he died, on February 14, 869.
1203 St. William of Eskilsoe reforming the canons life of prayer and austere mortification never approached the altar without watering it with his tears, offering himself to God in the spirit of adoration and sacrifice.   ON this day the Roman Martyrology mentions the death in Denmark of St William, “famous for his life and miracles”. He was born about 1125 at Saint-Germain, Crépy-en-Valois, and became a canon of the collegiate church of St Genevieve in Paris. In 1148 Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, carrying out the wishes of the pope, Bd Eugenius III, established canons regular in this church, and William was one of those who accepted a more austere and regular life with enthusiasm.
Peter was born at Verona, Italy, in 1205. Both of his parents were Catharists, a heresy that denied God created the material world. Even so, Peter was educated at a Catholic school and later at the University of Bologna. While in Bologna, Peter was accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic. He developed into a great preacher, and was well known for his inspiring sermons in the Lombardy region. In addition, around the year 1234, he was appointed by Pope Gregory IX as inquisitor of Northern Italy, where many Catharists lived. Peter's preaching attracted large crowds, but as inquisitor he made many enemies.

1252 St. Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic
Medioláni pássio sancti Petri, ex Ordine Prædicatórum, Mártyris, qui ab hæréticis, ob fidem cathólicam, interémptus est.  Ipsíus tamen festívitas recólitur tértio Kaléndas Maji.
       At Milan, the passion of St. Peter, a martyr belonging to the Order of Preachers, who was slain by the heretics for his Catholic faith.  His feast, however, is kept on the 29th of April.
 1252  St Peter Of Verona, Martyr; Having received the habit from St Dominic himself;  Once, as he knelt before the crucifix, he exclaimed, “Lord, thou knowest that I am not guilty. Why dost thou permit me to be falsely accused?” The reply came, “And I, Peter, what did I do to deserve my passion and death?” Rebuked yet consoled, the friar regained courage.

St Peter Martyr was born at Verona in 1205 of parents who belonged to the sect of the Cathari, a heresy which closely resembled that of the Albigenses and included amongst its tenets a denial that the material world had been created by God. The child was sent to a Catholic school, in spite of the remon­strances of an uncle who discovered by questioning the little boy that he had not only learnt the Apostles’ Creed, but was prepared stoutly to maintain in the orthodox sense the article “Creator of Heaven and earth”.

1744 St. Crescentia Hoess, humble, crippled; wise enough to balance worldly skills with acumen in spiritual matters; heads of State and Church both sought her advice.  Conditions improved four years later when a new superior was elected who realized her virtue. Crescentia herself was appointed mistress of novices. She so won the love and respect of the sisters that, upon the death of the superior, Crescentia herself was unanimously elected to that position. Under her the financial state of the convent improved and her reputation in spiritual matters spread. She was soon being consulted by princes and princesses as well as by bishops and cardinals seeking her advice. And yet, a true daughter of Francis, she remained ever humble.

Bodily afflictions and pain were always with her. First it was headaches and toothaches. Then she lost the ability to walk, her hands and feet gradually becoming so crippled that her body curled up into a fetal position. In the spirit of Francis she cried out, "Oh, you bodily members, praise God that he has given you the capacity to suffer." Despite her sufferings she was filled with peace and joy as she died on Easter Sunday in 1744.
She was beatified in 1900 and canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2001.  Comment:    Although she grew up in poverty and willingly embraced it in her vocation, Crescentia had a good head for business. Under her able administration, her convent regained financial stability. Too often we think of good money management as, at best, a less-than-holy gift. But Crescentia was wise enough to balance her worldly skills with such acumen in spiritual matters that heads of State and Church both sought her advice.
1857 St. Paul Tinh native Vietnamese priest martyr.   Born in Vietnam, he was converted to the Catholic faith and was ordained a priest. Seized by anti-Catholic forces, Paul was beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.
Blessed Paul Tinh M (AC) Born in Trinh-ha, Tonkin (Vietnam); died 1857; beatified in 1909. Paul became a priest and was beheaded at Son-tay in West Tonkin (Benedictines).

1896 Blessed Zefirino Agostini first priority to develop relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of joy and power to do good.   Born in Verona, Italy, September 24, 1813; died there on April 6, 1896; beatified October 24, 1998.
Blessed Zefirino was the elder son of the physician Antonio Agostini and his wife Angela Frattini. Upon the death of the pious Antonio, the two boys were raised by their mother with a gentleness and wisdom that left its mark on the souls of her children and led Zefirino to his priestly vocation. Following his ordination on March 11, 1837, at the hands of Bishop Grasser of Verona, Zefirino was assigned to the poor parish of Saint Nazarius, where he had been baptized on September 28, 1813. The first eight years he had responsibility for teaching the catechism and running the recreational program for boys. In 1845, he was named pastor. Although the parish was large and poor, Father Agostini never allowed his fatherly heart to be overcome by its problems. He knew that his first priority was to develop his relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of his joy and power to do good. God filled Father Agostini with apostolic zeal. He established an after-school program for girls and catechetical instruction for their mothers. To inspire women, he held up the ideal of Saint Angela Merici and celebrated her feast. Three young women followed that inspiration and devoted themselves to the neediest in the community.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 07
180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}.   IT is as the reputed Father of Church History that St Hegesippus is chiefly remembered to-day. By birth a Jew, and a member of the church of Jerusalem, he travelled to Rome, and there spent nearly twenty years, from the pontificate of St Anicetus to that of St Eleutherius.  At Rome, St. Hegesippus, who lived close to the time of the apostles.  He came to Rome while Anicetus was pope, and remained until the time of Eleutherius.  He wrote a history of the Church, from the Passion of our Lord to his own time, in a simple style, to make clear the character of those whose life he imitated.
In 277 he returned to the East, where he died in extreme old age, probably at Jerusalem. In the course of his travels, he seems to have visited the principal Christian centres in the West as well as in the East, and he noted with satisfaction that, although disturbances had been caused by individual heretics, hitherto no episcopal see or particular church had fallen into error:
everywhere he had found the unity of the faith as it had been delivered by our Lord to the saints. Unfortunately only a few chapters remain of the five books which he wrote on the history of the Church from the passion of our Lord down to his own time, but the work was highly esteemed by Eusebius and others, who drew largely upon it. He was a man filled with the spirit of the apostles and with a love of humility “which”, says St Jerome, “he expressed by the simplicity of his style”. St Hegesippus is named in the Roman Martyrology to-day.

345 Saint Aphraates Persian hermit  convert struggle against Arian heresy oldest extant Church document in Syria; miracles.  In Syria, in the time of Valens, St. Aphraates, an anchoret, who defended the Catholic faith against the Arians by the power of miracles.  Aphraates is sometimes identified as the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai, near Mosul Mesopotamia. Possibly a martyr, he is believed to have written a many-volumed defense of the faith called the Demonstrations, which is the oldest extant document of the Church in Syria. Aphraates is often referred to as "the Persian Sage."
According to the Bollandists, followed by Alban Butler, we owe our knowledge of the history of St Aphraates to Theodoret, who recalled how, as a boy, he had been taken by his mother to visit the saint and how Aphraates had opened his door to bless them, promising to intercede with God on their behalf. In his later years Theodoret continued to invoke that intercession, believing that it had become even more potent since the holy man had gone to God.
As the Arians had taken possession of their churches, the faithful were reduced to worshipping beside the river Orontes or in the large open space outside the city which was used for military exercises. One day, as St Aphraates was hurrying along the road which led from the city to this parade-ground, he was stopped by order of the emperor, who happened to be standing in the portico of his palace which overlooked the road. Valens inquired whither he was going: “To pray for the world and the emperor”, replied the recluse. The monarch then asked him how it happened that one dressed as a monk was gadding about far away from his cell. To this Aphraates answered with a parable: “If I were a maiden secluded in my father’s house, and saw it take fire, would you recommend me to sit still and let it burn? It is not I who am to blame, but rather you who have kindled the flames which I am striving to extinguish. We are doing nothing contrary to our profession when we gather together and nourish the adherents of the true faith.”
The emperor made no reply, but one of his servants reviled the venerable man, whom he threatened to kill. Shortly afterwards the same attendant was accidentally scalded to death, which so terrified the superstitious Valens that he refused to listen to the Arians when they tried to persuade him to banish St Aphraates. He was also greatly impressed by the miracles wrought by the hermit, who not only healed men and women but also—or at least so it was reported—cured the emperor’s favourite horse.

1078 Blessed Eberhard of Schaeffhausen protected and built convents OSB Monk (PC).   Born 1018; Pious prince Eberhard III, count of Nellenburg, was the husband of the pious Itta and a relative of both Pope Saint Leo IX and the emperor Saint Henry II.
Eberhard and Itta protected and built convents into which each was to retire later, including the Benedictine abbey of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, in 1050, where Eberhard retired (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1140 St. Aibert Benedictine ascetic monk 23 years then recluse; two Masses each day, one for living, second for dead.   St Aybert’s holiness began to attract visitors, who found themselves greatly helped by his spiritual advice and made him known to others. Bishops and laymen, grand ladies and canonesses, scholars and humble peasants flocked to him in such numbers that Bishop Burchard of Cambrai promoted him to the priesthood, providing him with a chapel beside his cell. Moreover Pope Innocent II granted him leave to absolve reserved cases—a right which he only exercised in exceptional circumstances. God crowned Aybert’s long penance with a happy death in the eightieth year of his age.
One phase of Aybert’s devotional practice is of great interest in its bearing on the controversy concerning the origin of the rosary. It is recorded that the saint used to repeat the Ave Maria fifty times in succession, accompanying each Ave with a prostration. A mention in the same context of his habit of dividing his recitation of the whole psalter into fifties makes the allusion still more significant.

1241 St. Herman Joseph Praemonstratensian and mystic visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph  b. 1150 German. Born in Cologne, he demonstrated at an early age a tendency toward mystical experiences, episodes which made him well known and deeply respected through much of Germany. He subsequently entered the Praemonstratensians at Steinfeld, Germany, where he was ordained. Herman experienced visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, and authored a number of mystical writings. Long considered a saint, he was given an equivalent canonization by Pope Pius XII in 1958. AMONGST the German mystics of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, special interest attaches to Bd Herman Joseph, not so much for his writings as for his visions, which were later a source of inspiration even to poets and painters. Herman, to give him his baptismal name, was born in Cologne, and lived from his seventh year until his death in extreme old age apparently in continual intercourse with the denizens of Heaven. As a little boy he would enter a church and converse familiarly with our Lady and the Holy Child, as he knelt before their statue. Once, indeed, when he offered them an apple he had the joy of seeing the hand of the Madonna extended to accept it. Sometimes he was uplifted to another plane and permitted to play with the Infant Saviour and the angels; and on one bitter winter’s day when he came to church barefoot, his parents being very poor, a kindly voice, which he took to be that of the Mother of Mercy, bade him look under a stone near by and he would find money wherewith to buy shoes. He looked, and the coins were there.
At no time robust, Bd Herman Joseph’s health became seriously affected by his fasts and austerities. Severe headaches attacked him, and his digestion became so impaired that he ate nothing and seemed a living skeleton. However, God granted him a reprieve from suffering towards the end, prolonging his life for nine years, and this was the period of his chief literary output. He had been sent in 1241 to the Cistercian nuns at Hoven for Passiontide and Easter when he was taken ill with fever from which he never recovered. The process of Herman’s canonization was introduced but never completed; his cultus, however, has been authoritatively sanctioned.
1410 Bl. Ursulina mystic accustomed to visions and ecstasies tried to end the scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity".  A vision which was vouchsafed to her on Easter day decided her purpose. With two companions, besides her mother who accompanied her on all her subsequent travels, the girl made the toilsome journey over the Alps and succeeded in obtaining an audience with Clement more than once. Her efforts to persuade him proving fruitless, she went back to Parma, but almost immediately proceeded to Rome where she delivered a similar message to the true pope, Boniface IX. He received her graciously and appears to have encouraged her to make another attempt to win over his rival. Thereupon she undertook a second expedition to Avignon, with no better success than before. Indeed this time she was separated from her mother, was accused of sorcery, and narrowly escaped a trial. Another journey to Rome was followed by a somewhat perilous pilgrimage to the Holy Land. If she and her mother had hoped to settle down in Parma on their return they were doomed to disappointment, for civil war broke out in the city and they were expelled. They made their way to Bologna and then to Verona, which Bd Ursulina seems to have made her home until her death at the age of thirty-five.
1595 St. Henry Walpole Jesuit missionary 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales
1595 Bl. Alexander Rawlins Martyr missionary fervent Catholicism

1595 BDs. ALEXANDER RAWLINS and HENRY WALPOLE, MARTYRS
beatified in 1929
ALEXANDER RAWLINS, secular priest, and Henry Walpole, Jesuit, who suffered martyrdom together in 1595, were men of good family, born, the one on the borders of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, and the other in Norfolk. Whereas Rawlins seems to have gone directly to the English College at Rheims to prepare to receive holy orders, Walpole, who was intended for the law, continued his education at Cambridge and then took chambers at Gray’s Inn. Realizing that he was becoming an object of suspicion to the authorities and feeling himself called to the priesthood, he proceeded to Rheims and then to Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus. After taking his final vows, he was sent on missions, first to Lorraine and then to the Netherlands, where he was captured by Calvinists and imprisoned for a year. Upon being liberated, he asked to be allowed to go to England, but he was sent to teach in English seminaries at Seville and Valladolid. After another mission to Flanders, the long-desired permission was accorded, and he set out for England, landing at Flamborough Head on December 4, 1593. Within twenty-four hours he was arrested and was taken prisoner to York.
1606 Bl. Edward Oldcorne Jesuit & Ralph Ashley Jesuit lay- brother English martyrs alleged involve Gunpowder Plot.  He was born in York, England, and ordained in Rome. In 1587, he became a Jesuit. Returning to England, Edward worked in the Midlands from 1588 to 1606. He was then condemned to death at Worcester for alleged coinplicity in the Gunpowder Plot He was beatified in 1929.
1719 ST JOHN BAPTIST DE LA SALLE, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS.  At Rouen, the birthday of St. John Baptist de la Salle, priest and confessor.  He was prominent in the education of youth, especially those who were poor, for which he was acclaimed both by religious and civil society.  He was the founder of the Society of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.  Pius XII, Supreme Pontiff, declared him patron of all those who teach children and young people.  His feast is celebrated on the 15th of May.
But in 1679 he met a layman, Adrian Nyel, who had come to Rheims with the idea of opening a school for poor boys. Canon de La Salle gave him every encouragement, and, somewhat prematurely, two schools were started. Gradually the young canon became more and more drawn into the work and grew interested in the seven masters who taught in these schools. He rented a house for them, fed them from his own table, and tried to instil into them the high educational ideals which were gradually taking shape in his own mind. In 1681, though their uncouth manners repelled him, he decided to invite them to live in his own home that he might have them under his constant supervision. The result must have been a great disappointment. Not only did two of his brothers indignantly leave his house—a step he may have anticipated, for “ushers” were then ranked with pot-boys and hucksters—but five of the schoolmasters soon took their departure, unable or unwilling to submit to a discipline for which they had never bargained. The reformer waited, and his patience was rewarded. Other men of a better type presented themselves, and these formed the nucleus of what was to prove a new congregation. To house them the saint gave up his paternal home, and moved with them to more suitable premises in the Rue Neuve. As the movement became known, requests began to come in from outside for schoolmasters trained on the new method, and de La Salle found his time fully engrossed. Partly for that reason, and partly because he realized the contrast his disciples drew between his assured official income and their own uncertain position, he decided to give up his canonry. This he did.
Elsewhere the institute had been steadily developing. As early as 1700 Brother Drolin had been sent to found a school in Rome, and in France schools were started at Avignon, at Calais, in Languedoc, in Provence, at Rouen, and at Dijon. In 1705 the novitiate was transferred to St Yon in Rouen. There a boarding-school was opened, and an establishment for troublesome boys, which afterwards developed into a reformatory-school. From these beginnings grew the present world-wide organization, the largest teaching-order of the Church, working from primary schools to university-colleges. In 1717 the founder decided finally to resign; from that moment he would give no orders, and lived like the humblest of the brothers. He taught novices and boarders, for whom he wrote several books, including a method of mental prayer. St John Baptist lived at an important period in the history of spirituality in France, and he came under the influence of Bérulle, Olier and the so-called French “school” of de Rancé and of the Jesuits, his friends Canon Nicholas Roland and the Minim friar Nicholas Barré being specially influential. On the negative side he was distinguished by his strong opposition to Jansenism, illustrated positively by his advocacy of frequent and even daily communion. In Lent, 1719 St John Baptist suffered a good deal from asthma and rheumatism, but would give up none of his habitual austerities. Then he met with an accident, and gradually grew weaker. He passed away on Good Friday, April 7, 1719 in the sixty-eighth year of his age.
The example of St John Baptist de la Salle may well lead everyone of us to ask himself: “What have I done to help and to encourage this most necessary and divine work? What sacrifices am I prepared to make that the Christian education of our children may be carried on in spite of all the hindrances and hostilities which beset it?” The Church has shown her appreciation of the character of this man, a thinker and initiator of the first importance in the history of education, by canonizing him in 1900, and giving his feast to the whole Western church; and in 1950 Pope Pius XII declared him the heavenly patron of all school-teachers.
1919 Blessed Josaphata Micheline Hordashevska .  A native of Lviv in Ukraine, Josaphata Michaelina Hordashevska became a nun at age 18. Co-founder with Father Kyrylo Seletsky of the first female congregation of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, she devoted herself to caring for the sick, teaching the Catechism, and maintaining impoverished churches. Diagnosed with bone cancer, from which she endured terrible pain, she died at age 49. She was beatified in June 2001 in Lviv by Saint John Paul II.

The Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate lives out its special calling to serve others by following the example of the Virgin Mary—Handmaid of the Lord—Mary is also Servant of all humanity. Our Lady went speedily to assist Elizabeth; she intervened with simplicity at Cana; she courageously stood at the foot of the Cross where she received us as her children from the arms of her Son; with confidence, in union with the Apostles in the Upper Room, she prayed for the Church. As servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate try to answer God’s call, as He invites us to collaborate with him in the work of Salvation by serving other.  nominis.cef.fr

1925 St Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow Apostle to America led austere and chaste life; kindest of the Russian hierarchs "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake." t was extremely painful and hard for the Patriarch's loving, responsive heart to endure all the Church's misfortunes. Upheavals in and outside the church, the Renovationist schism, his primatial labors, his concern for the organization and tranquility of Church life, sleepless nights and heavy thoughts, his confinement that lasted more than a year, the spiteful and wicked baiting of his enemies, and the unrelenting criticism sometimes even from the Orthodox, combined to undermine his strength and health.
In 1924, Patriarch Tikhon began to feel unwell. He checked into a hospital, but would leave it on Sundays and Feast Days in order to conduct services. On Sunday, April 5, 1925, he served his last Liturgy, and died two days later. On March 25/April 7, 1925 the Patriarch received Metropolitan Peter and had a long talk with him. In the evening, the Patriarch slept a little, then he woke up and asked what time it was. When he was told it was 11:45 P.M., he made the Sign of the Cross twice and said, "Glory to Thee, O Lord, glory to Thee." He did not have time to cross himself a third time.
Almost a million people came to say farewell to the Patriarch. The large cathedral of the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow could not contain the crowd, which overflowed the monastery property into the square and adjacent streets. St Tikhon, the eleventh Patriarch of Moscow, was primate of the Russian Church for seven and a half years.
On September 26/October 9, 1989, the Council of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church glorified Patriarch Tikhon and numbered him among the saints. For nearly seventy years, St Tikhon's relics were believed lost, but in February 1992, they were discovered in a concealed place in the Donskoy Monastery.

It would be difficult to imagine the Russian Orthodox Church without Patriarch Tikhon during those years. He did so much for the Church and for the strengthening of the Faith itself during those difficult years of trial. Perhaps the saint's own words can best sum up his life: "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 08
St_Rufus_Apostle_St_Celestine_Pope_of_Rome_St_Agabos
This icon portrays three scenes:
1) The central and main scene is from Matthew 28:2-4: "And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. His appearance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow. And for fear of him the guards trembled and became like dead men."
2) The scene in the left bottom corner is from Matthew 28:5-7: "But the angel said to the women, "Do not be afraid; for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. he is not here; for he has risen, as he said. Come, see the place where He lay. Then go quickly and tell his disciples that he has risen from the dead, and behold, he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him. Lo, I have told you."
3) The scene in the bottom right corner is from John 20:16-17: "Jesus said to her, "Do not hold me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brethren and say to them, I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God."
DATE COMPLETED: 1991 DONATED BY: Emile Kouri, brothers & sisters (in memory of their father Abdallah Chahine Kouri)  MELKITES -- Saints Peter & Paul Parish 1161 North River Road Ottawa, Ontario K1K 3W5


The spiritually avaricious are those who can never have enough of embracing and seeking after countless exercises of piety, hoping thereby to attain perfection all that much sooner, they say. They do this as though perfection consisted in the multitude of things we do and not in the perfection with which we do them! I have already said this very often, but it is necessary to repeat it: God has not placed perfection in the multiplicity of acts we perform to please Him, but only in the way we perform them, which is simply to do the little we do according to our vocation, in love, by love, and for love. -- St. Francis de Sales

1st v. TORQUATUS AND HIS COMPANIONS, MARTYRS.   THE first Christian missionaries to attempt the evangelization of Spain are said to have been seven holy men who had been specially commissioned by St Peter and St Paul, and sent forth for that purpose.
According to the legend the party kept together until they reached Guadix in Granada, where they encamped in a field whilst their servants went into the town to buy food. The inhabitants, however, came out to attack them, and followed them to the river. A miraculously erected stone bridge enabled the Christians to escape, but it collapsed when their pursuers attempted to cross it. Afterwards the missionaries separated, each one selecting a different district in which he laboured and was made bishop. Torquatus chose Guadix as the field of his labours, and is honoured on this day in association with his companions, all six of whom, however, have also special feasts of their own.
St Torquatus and the other bishops appear to have suffered martyrdom.
  Saints Herodion (Rodion), Agabus, Asyncritus, Rufus, Phlegon and Hermes are among the Seventy Apostles, chosen by Christ and sent out by Him to preach All these disciples for their intrepid service to Christ underwent fierce sufferings and were found worthy of a martyr's crown.   The commemoration of Saints Herodian, Asyncritus, and Phlegon who are mentioned by blessed Paul the Apostle in his Letter to the Romans.
The holy Apostle Herodion was a relative of St Paul, and his companion on many journeys. When Christianity had spread to the Balkan Peninsula, the Apostles Peter and Paul established St Herodion as Bishop of Patara. St Herodion zealously preached the Word of God and converted many of the Greek pagans and Jews to Christianity.
Enraged by the preaching of the disciple, the idol-worshippers and Jews with one accord fell upon St Herodion, and they began to beat him with sticks and pelt him with stones.
One of the mob struck him with a knife, and the saint fell down. But when the murderers were gone, the Lord restored him to health unharmed.
After this, St Herodion continued to accompany the Apostle Paul for years afterward.
When the holy Apostle Peter was crucified (+ c. 67),
St Herodion and St Olympos were beheaded by the sword at the same time.
 170 St. Dionysius of Corinth Bishop of Corinth, Greece, famed for his letters commemorated the martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul.    At Corinth, Bishop St. Denis, who instructed not only the people of his own city and province by the learning and charm with which he preached the word of God, but also the bishops of other cities and provinces by the letters  he wrote to them.  His devotion to the Roman Pontiffs was such that he was accustomed to read their letters publicly in the church on Sundays. 
He lived in the time of Marcus Antoninus Verus{161-166} [161-180--Marcus Aurelius] and Lucius Aurelius Commodus{180-192}.
432 Saint Celestine Pope of Rome (422-432) zealous champion of Orthodoxy virtuous life theologian authority denounced the Nestorian heresy.   He lived during the reign of the holy Emperor Theodosius the Younger (408-450). He received an excellent education, and he knew philosophy well, but most of all he studied the Holy Scripture and pondered over theological questions.
The virtuous life of the saint and his authority as a theologian won him the general esteem and love of the clergy and people.

After the death of St Boniface (418-422), St Celestine was chosen to be the Bishop of Rome.
During this time, the heresy of Nestorius emerged. At a local Council in Rome in 430, St Celestine denounced this heresy and condemned Nestorius as a heretic. After the Council, St Celestine wrote a letter to St Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria (January 18), stating that if Nestorius did not renounce his false teachings after ten days, then he should be deposed and excommunicated.
St Celestine also sent a series of letters to other churches, Constantinople and Antioch, in which he unmasked and denounced the Nestorian heresy.
For two years after the Council, St Celestine proclaimed the true teaching about Christ the God-Man, and he died in peace on April 6, 432.
1095 St. Walter of Pontoise continued to live a life of mortification, spending entire nights in prayer establishing the foundation of a convent in honor of Mary at Bertaucourt.  IN studying the lives of the saints, we not infrequently meet with men and women whose lifelong aspiration it is to serve God in solitude, but who are recalled again and again by the voice of an authority which they dare not gainsay, and are forced to shoulder responsibilities from which they shrink, in a world from which they fain would flee. Such a saint was Walter (Gautier) of Pontoise. A Picard by birth, he received a liberal education at various centres of learning and became a popular professor of philosophy and rhetoric. Then he entered the abbey of Rebais-en-Brie, and was afterwards compelled by King Philip I to become the first abbot of a new monastery near Pontoise. Although, in accordance with the custom of the time, he received his investiture from the sovereign, the new abbot placed his hand not under but over that of the king, and said it is from God, not from your Majesty, that I accept the charge of this church .

His courageous words, far from offending Philip, won his approval; but the very honour in which he was held by persons in high office was a source of anxiety to Walter, and some time later he fled secretly from Pontoise and took refuge at Cluny, then under the rule of St Hugh, hoping there to lead a hidden life. His refuge was, however, discovered by his monks, who fetched him back to Pontoise. From the cares of office he would retire occasionally to a grotto in the abbey grounds, hoping for a little solitude; but his visitors followed him there, and he took to flight once more. This time he buried himself in a hermitage on an island in the Loire, but again he was forced to return.

            Some time later, St Walter went to Rome, where he requested St Gregory VII to relieve him of his burden. Instead of doing so, the pope told him to use the talents God had bestowed upon him, and bade him resume his charge. From that time Walter resigned himself to his fate. The mortifications he would have wished to practise in solitude were more than compensated for by the persecutions he had to undergo in consequence of his fearless opposition to simony and to evil-living
among the secular clergy ; there was even one occasion when he was mobbed, beaten and thrown into prison, but his friends procured his release. In spite of advancing age he never relaxed but rather increased the austerity of his habits ; he rarely sat down in church, but when his aged limbs would no longer support him, he leant upon his pastoral staff. After the other monks had retired at the close of the night offices, he would remain behind, lost in contemplation, until he sank to the ground, where in the morning he would sometimes be found lying helpless.
         His last public effort was to found, in honour of our Lady, a convent for women at Bertaucourt. He succeeded in building a church with a small house, but the community was not actually established there until after his death, which occurred on Good Friday 1095.

1816 St. Julie Billiart vision of crucified Lord with group wearing habits of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur which she founded great love for Jesus in the Eucharist carried on this mission of teaching throughout her life although occasionally paralyzed and sick most of the time.  THE origin of the Institute of Notre Dame was once described by Cardinal Sterckx as a breath of the apostolic spirit upon the heart of a woman who knew how to believe and how to love” . That woman was Bd Mary Rose Julia Billiart. She came of a family of fairly well-to-do peasant farmers, who also owned a little shop at Cuvilly in Picardy, where she was born in 1751. Reading and writing she learnt from her uncle, the village schoolmaster, but her special delight was in religious instruction and the things of God. By the time she was seven, she was in the habit of explaining the catechism to other children less intelligent than herself. The parish priest encouraged these good instincts, and allowed her to make her first communion at the age of nine-—a rare privilege in those days. He also permitted her to take a vow of chastity when shc was fourteen. Although Julia had to work very hard, especially after heavy losses had impoverished her family, yet she always found time to visit the sick, to teach the ignorant and to pray. Indeed, she had already begun to earn the title by which she was afterwards known, “The Saint of Cuvilly.
      Suddenly a complete change came over her hitherto active existence. As the result of shock caused by the firing of a gun through a window at her father, beside whom she was sitting, there came upon her a mysterious illness, attended with great pain, which gradually deprived her of the use of her limbs. Thus reduced to the condition of an invalid, she lived a life of even closer union with God, continuing on her sick-bed to catechize the children, to give wonderfully wise spiritual advice to visitors, and to urge all to practise frequent communion. “ Qu’il est bon le hon Dieu ! was a saying of hers long remembered and often quoted. In 1790, when the curé of Cuvilly was superseded by a so-called constitutional priest who had taken the oath prescribed by the revolutionary authorities, it was mainly Julia’s influence which induced the people to boycott the schismatic intruder. For that reason and because she was known to have helped to find hiding-places for fugitive priests, she became specially obnoxious to the Jacobins, who went so far as to threaten to burn her alive. She was with difficulty smuggled out of the house, hidden in a haycart, and taken to Compiègne, where she was hunted from one lodging to another until at last one day they heard her exclaim, “Dear Lord, will you not find me a corner in Paradise, since there is no room for me on earth?
In 1815, Mother taxed her ever poor health by nursing the wounded and feeding the starving left from the battle of Waterloo. For the last three months of her life, she again suffered much. She died peacefully on April 8, 1816 at 64 years of age. Julie was beatified on May 13, 1906, and was canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1969.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 09
1st v. St. Mary Cleophas Mother of St. James the Less and Joseph, wife of Cleophas. She was one of the “Three Marys” who served Jesus and was present at the Crucifixion, accompanied Mary Magdalen to the tomb of Christ.  TO Mary of Cleophas whose name stands first in the Roman Martyrology on this day no general liturgical recognition is accorded, though her feast is kept by the Passionists, and by the Latins in Palestine. She seems to have been the wife of one Cleophas, who may or may not be identical with the Cleophas who is named as one of the two disciples who went to Emmaus on the day of our Lord’s resurrection.
Her identity among the various Marys mentioned by the evangelists is a matter of discussion among biblical commentators. The martyrology contents itself with saying that “Blessed John the Evangelist calls [her] sister of the most holy Mary, Mother of God, and relates that she stood with her by the cross of Jesus”. But it is possible that the sister of the mother of Jesus mentioned (John xix 25) was in fact a fourth, unnamed, woman.
Round the name of Mary of Cleophas all sorts of legendary excrescences gathered in later days. She was said to have travelled to Spain with St James the Greater, to have died at Ciudad Rodrigo, and to have been venerated with great honour at Compostela. On the other hand another extravagant legend connects her with the coming of SS. Lazarus, Mary Magdalen and Martha to Provence, and her body was believed to repose at Saintes-Maries near the mouth of the Rhone.

1st century. Mary of Cleophas, the 'other Mary,' followed our Lord to Calvary (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25) and saw Him after His Resurrection (Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10). She was the mother of James the Younger, Joseph (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40), Simon, and Jude; wife of Cleophas (John 19:25); and sister of the Blessed Virgin (John 19:25).
1140 St. Gaucherius hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women.  St Gaucherius was only eighteen when he abandoned the world to live the solitary life. He was born at Meulan-sur-Seine, where he received a good and religious education. His director sent him to his own master, Humbert, one of the canons of Limoges, who happened to be staying in the neighbourhood. That wise man not only encouraged the youth, but offered to assist him in carrying out his heart’s desire by taking him back to the Limousin district which was suitable for the life of retirement which he was contemplating. After spending a night in prayer at the tomb of St Leonard of Limoges, Gaucherius and a friend called Germond struck out into the wild forest region which stretched away for miles without any human habitation. In a particularly remote and inaccessible spot, they constructed a hermitage, and there they lived for several years unknown and forgotten. But gradually, as knowledge of the hermits’ holy life spread, cells sprang up round about to accommodate disciples and visitors. Many holy men were trained in this community, which became known as Aureil.   Born 1060.  Also known as Walter, abbot founder and friend of St. Stephen of Grandmont. He was born in Meulan sur Seine, France, and became a hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion, Germond. Attracting disciples even though he was only eighteen, Gaucherius founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women.  Died April 9, 1140; canonized by Pope Celestine III. His spiritual vocation led him to found and govern two monasteries in the Limousin region: Saint John at Aureil for Augustinian canons regular and Saint Stephen of Grandmont at Muret. He fell from a horse and died at the age of 80 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
1322 Bl. Thomas of Tolentino preach in the difficult regions of Armenia and Persia (modern Iran) set out for China beheaded at Thame in Hindustan.   From the time he had entered, the Order of Friars Minor in early youth, Thomas had been known as a truly apostolic man, and when the ruler of Armenia sent to ask the Minorite minister-general for some priests to fortify true religion in his realm, Thomas was chosen for the mission with four of his brethren. Their labours were blessed with success, many schismatics being reconciled and infidels converted. Armenia, however, was being seriously threatened by the Saracens, and Thomas came back to Europe to solicit help from Pope Nicholas IV and the kings of England and France.
Although he duly returned to the Armenian mission with twelve other Franciscans, Thomas subsequently travelled farther afield to Persia. Again he was recalled or sent back to Italy, but this time it was to report to Pope Clement V with a view to a further advance into Tartary and China. His embassy resulted in the nomination of an ecclesiastical hierarchy consisting of John of Monte Corvino as archbishop and papal legate for the East, with seven Franciscans as suffragans. In the meantime Bd Thomas had returned to the field of his labours, full of zeal for the conversion of India and China. He appears to have been making for Ceylon and Cathay, but the ship was driven by contrary winds to Salsette Island, near Bombay. Thomas was seized by the Saracens with several of his brethren and imprisoned. After being scourged and exposed to the burning rays of the sun, the holy man was beheaded. Bd Odoric of Pordenone afterwards recovered his body and translated it to Xaitou. The cultus was approved in 1894.

1331 Blessed John of Vespignano  devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence.  Born at Vespignano (diocese of Florence), Italy; cultus approved by Pius VII. During the civil wars, John devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence (Benedictines).
1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards OP.   Born in Savigliano, Italy, in 1326; died in Turino, Italy, in 1374; beatified in 1868. Antony was obviously martyred for the faith, yet it took more than 500 years before he was even beatified. He is still not canonized. Antony grew up to be a pious, intelligent youth. At 15, he was received into the monastery of Savigliano, was ordained in 1351, and almost immediately was engaged in combatting the heresies of the Lombards.
Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed him inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years. During this time, he accomplished a great deal by his preaching, and even more by his example of Christian virtue. He was elected prior of Savigliano, in 1368, and given the task of building a new abbey. This he accomplished without any criticism of its luxury--a charge that heretics were always anxious to make against any Catholic builders.
At Rome, the transferring of the body of St. Monica, mother of the bishop St. Augustine.  It was brought from Ostia to Rome, under the Sovereign Pontiff, Martin V, and buried with due honours in the church of St. Augustine.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 10
6th v. BC.  Apud Babylónem sancti Ezechiélis Prophétæ, qui, a Júdice pópuli Israël, quod eum de cultu idolórum argúeret, interféctus, in sepúlcro Sem et Arpháxad, Abrahæ progenitórum.    At Babylon, the prophet Ezechiel, who was put to death by a{n apostatized judge} of the people of Israel because he reproved him for worshipping idols.  He was buried in the sepulchre of Sem and Arphaxad, ancestors of Abraham.  Many people{ early Christians } were in the habit of going to his tomb to pray.
Ezekiel, Prophet (RM) (also known as Ezechiel).  Ezekiel is one of the four major prophets of the Old Testament. Tradition says that he was put to death, while in captivity in Babylon, by one of the Jewish judges who had apostatized, and that he was buried there in the tomb of Shem. He grave was a site of pilgrimage for the early Christians (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). Raphael painted this Vision of Ezekiel.
VII B.C. The Holy Prophetess Oldama (Huldah) lived in the first half profesied  to Josiah he would not see the Woe
She foretold to the 16 year old king of Judah reigning at Jerusalem, Josiah, that for his humility the Lord would put him with his forefathers and he would be at peace in the grave, and his eyes would not see all the woe, which the Lord would bring upon the land (4 (2) Kings 22: 14-20; 2 Chron. 34: 28).
Martyrdom of St. James the Apostle Brother of St. John the Apostle.   copticchurch.net  On this day, St. James the Apostle, the son of Zebedee, and the brother of St. John, the Apostle, was martyred. After he had preached the Gospel in Judea and Samaria, he went to Spain. He preached the Gospel there, and its people believed in the Lord Christ. He returned to Jerusalem and pursued his ministry.
He always advised his flock to give alms to the poor, the needy, and the weak. They accused him before Herod who called him and asked him: "Are you the one that instigating the people not to give the taxes to Caesar but to give it to the poor and the churches?" Then he smote him with the sword, cutting off his head, and St. James received the crown of martyrdom.
Clement of Alexandria, from the fathers of the second century, said: "The soldier that seized the Saint, when he saw his courage, he realized that there must be a better life and asked the Saint for his forgiveness. Then the soldier confessed Christianity and received the crown of martyrdom (Acts 12:1,2) along with the Apostle in the year 44 A.D."
Because Herod saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to seize Peter also. So when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four squads of soldiers to keep him, intending to bring him before the people after Passover. (Acts 12:3-4)
So on a set day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat on his throne and gave an oration to them. And the people kept shouting, "The voice of a god and not of a man!" Then immediately an angel of the Lord struck him because he did not give glory to God. And he was eaten by worms and died. (Acts 12:21-23)
As of the body of St. James, the believers took it, shrouded it, and buried it by the Temple. It was said that the body of St. James was translated to Spain, where James the elder considered to be its Apostle.
His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.
115 Martyrs of Rome Saint Alexander while imprisoned he preached to criminals they converted and baptized     At Rome, the birthday of many holy martyrs, whom Pope St. Alexander baptized while he was in prison.  The prefect Aurelian had them all put in an old ship, taken to the deep sea, and drowned with stones tied to their necks
While Pope Saint Alexander was imprisoned in a public jail in Rome, he preached to the criminals he found there. They were converted and baptized. Later, the criminals were taken to Ostia and put on board an old boat which was then sent out to sea and scuttled. (Benedictines).
1028 St. Fulbert Bishop of Chartres France poet scholar aided Cluniac Reform defended monasticism orthodoxy.  WE learn from St Fulbert of Chartres himself that he was of humble extraction, but we know little of his early years beyond the fact that he was born in Italy and spent his boyhood there. He was later on a student in Rheims and must have been one of its most distinguished scholars, for when the celebrated Gerbert, who taught him mathematics and philosophy, was raised to the papacy under the title of Pope Silvester II, he summoned Fulbert to his side. When another pope succeeded, Fulbert returned to France, where Bishop Odo of Chartres bestowed upon him a canonry and appointed him chancellor. Moreover, the cathedral schools of Chartres were placed under his care, and he soon made them the greatest educational centre in France, attracting pupils from Germany, Italy and England.
Like most of the more eminent churchmen of his century he was an outspoken opponent of simony and of bestowing ecclesiastical endowments upon laymen. After an episcopate of nearly twenty-two years, he died on April 10, 1029. The writings of St Fulbert include a number of letters, a brief penitential, nine sermons, a collection of passages from the Bible dealing with the Trinity, the Incarnation and the Eucharist, and also some hymns and proses.
1460 Bl. Anthony Neyrot Dominican martyr in Tunis modem Tunisia.  Disaster followed disaster. He lost all faith in Christianity and began to translate the Koran. He was adopted by the king, married a Turkish lady of high rank, and was given the freedom of the city.  Into the false paradise came the news of the death of Saint Antoninus. Love for his old master stirred in Antony a yearning for the Truth he had abandoned. He resolved to return to the Christian faith, although it meant certain death.  In order that his return might be as public as his denial had been, he waited until the king returning in triumph from a victory over the Christians, had a public procession. Having confessed and made his private reconciliation with God, Antony, clothed in a Dominican habit, at that moment mounted the palace steps where all could see him.  In a loud voice he proclaimed his faith, and his sorrow at having denied it. The king at first disbelieved his ears, then he became angry. Failing to change the mind of the young man, he commanded that he be stoned to death.  Antony died under a shower of stones, proclaiming to the last his faith and his sorrow. It was Holy Thursday, 1460. His body was recovered at great expense from the Islamics and returned to Rivoli, where his tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage. Many miracles were performed there, and, until very recently, an annual procession was held at his shrine. In the procession, all the present-day members of his family, dressed in black, walked proudly behind the statue of Blessed Antony (Benedictines, Dorcy, Encyclopedia). ANTONY NEYROT was born at Rivoli in Piedmont, and entered the Dominican priory of San Marco in Florence, then under the direction of St Antoninus. After being professed he was sent to one of the houses of the order in Sicily. Between Naples and Sicily his ship was boarded by pirates, who carried him to Tunis, where he was sold as a slave. He succeeded in obtaining his freedom, but only to fall into a worse captivity, for the study of the Koran led him to abjure his faith and to become a Mohammedan. For several months he had practised the religion of the false prophet when his eyes were suddenly opened, in consequence, it is said, of a vision he had of St Antoninus. Smitten with contrition, he at once sent away his wife, did penance, and resumed the daily recitation of the office. Then he went before the ruler of Tunis in his friar’s habit and, in the presence of a great crowd, openly renounced his heresy and proclaimed the religion of Jesus Christ as the one true faith. Arguments, promises and threats were employed without being able to shake him. Eventually he was condemned to death, and perished by stoning and by sword cuts as he knelt in prayer with hands upraised. His body was given over to the flames, but portions of his relics which remained unconsumed were sold to Genoese merchants, who took them back to Italy. The cultus of Bd Antony was approved in 1767.
1479 Blessed Mark Fantucci preached throughout Italy, Istria, and Dalmatia. He also visited the friars in Austria, Poland, Russia, and the Levant OFM.  AMONGST the Franciscan leaders of the fifteenth century a special place must be assigned to Bd Mark Fantucci of Bologna, to whom was mainly due the preservation of the Observance as a separate body when it seemed on the point of being compulsorily merged into the Conventual branch. After having received an excellent education to fit him for the good position and large fortune to which he was left sole heir, he had given up all his worldly advantages at the age of twenty-six to receive the habit of St Francis. Three years after his profession, he was chosen guardian of Monte Colombo, the spot where St Francis had received the rule of his order. So successful was he in converting sinners that he was given permission to preach outside his province by St John Capistran, then vicar general of the Observants in Italy.
Having served twice as minister provincial, Bd Mark was elected vicar general in succession to Capistran, and showed himself zealous in enforcing strict observance of the rule the various reforms he brought about all tended to revive the spirit of the founder, After the taking of Constantinople so many Franciscans had been enslaved by the Turks, that Mark wrote to all his provincials urging them to appeal for alms to ransom the captives but in answer to a request for instructions how to act in the danger zone, he sent word to, Franciscan missionaries in places threatened by victorious Islam bidding them remain boldly at their posts and to face what might betide.

He was able to execute a long-cherished plan to form a convent of Poor Clares in Bologna.
St Catherine of Bologna came with some of her nuns from Ferrara to establish it, and found in Bd Mark one who could give her all the assistance she needed. He visited as commissary all the friaries in Candia, Rhodes and Palestine, and on his return to Italy he was elected vicar general for the second time. Never sparing himself he undertook long and tiring expeditions to Bosnia, Dalmatia, Austria and Poland, often travelling long distances on foot. Pope Paul II wished to make him a cardinal, but he fled to Sicily to avoid being forced to accept an honour from which he shrank.
The next pope, Sixtus IV, formed a project which was even less acceptable, for he had set his heart upon uniting all Franciscans into one body, without requiring any reform from the Conventuals. At a meeting convened to settle the matter, Bd Mark used all his eloquence to defeat the proposal, but apparently in vain. At last, in tears, throwing down the book of the rule at the pope’s feet, he exclaimed, “Oh my Seraphic Father, defend your own rule, since I, miserable man that I am, cannot defend it”; and thereupon left the hall. The gesture accomplished what argument had failed to do; the assembly broke up without arriving at a decision, and the scheme fell through. In 1479, white delivering a Lenten mission in Piacenza, Bd Mark was taken ill and died at the convent of the Observance outside the city. His cultus was confirmed in 1868.

1625 St. Michael de Sanctis life of exemplary fervor devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament his ecstacies during Mass many miracles After his death at 35.  Michael de los Santos was born in Catalonia, Spain around 1591. At the age of six he informed his parents that he was going to be a monk. Moreover, he imitated St. Francis of Assisi to such a great extent that he had to be restrained. After the death of his parents, Michael served as an apprentice to a merchant. However, he continued to lead a life of exemplary fervor and devotion, and in 1603, he joined the Trinitarian Friars at Barcelona, taking his vows at St. Lambert's monastery in Saragosa in 1607. Shortly thereafter, Michael expressed a desire to join the reformed group of Trinitarians and was given permission to do so. He went to the Novitiate at Madrid and, after studies at Seville and Salamanca, he was ordained a priest and twice served as Superior of the house in Valladolid.
His confreres considered him to be a saint, especially because of his devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament and his ecstacies during Mass. After his death at the age of thirty-five on April 10, 1625 many miracles were attributed to him. He was canonized in 1862 by Pope Pius IX. St. Michael de Sanctis is noted in the Roman Martyrology as being "remarkable for innocence of life, wonderful penitence, and love for God." He seemed from his earliest years to have been selected for a life of great holiness, and he never wavered in his great love of God or his vocation.
As our young people look for direction in a world that seems not to care, St. Michael stands out as worthy of imitation as well as of the prayers of both young and old alike.
Michael of Sanctis, O. Trin. (RM) (also known as Michael of the Saints) Born at Vich, Catalonia, Spain, in 1591; died at Valladolid, Spain, in 1625; canonized in 1862. Saint Michael joined the calced Trinitarians at Barcelona in 1603, and took his vows at Saragossa in 1607. That same year he migrated to the discalced branch of the order and renewed his vows at Alcalá. After his ordination he was twice superior at Valladolid. He was one of the greatest apostles of the order in the 17th century,

1835 Saint Madelaine was an orphan taught catechism and nursed the sick in Verona, Venice, Milan, and China Order of the Daughters of Charity.  Wealth and privilege did nothing to prevent today’s saint from following her calling to serve Christ in the poor. Nor did the protests of her relatives, concerned that such work was beneath her.
Born in northern Italy in 1774, Magdalen knew her mind—and spoke it. At age 15 she announced she wished to become a nun. After trying out her vocation with the cloistered Carmelites, she realized her desire was to serve the needy without restriction. For years she worked among the poor and sick in hospitals and in their homes and among delinquent and abandoned girls.
In her mid-twenties Magdalen began offering lodging to poor girls in her own home. In time she opened a school, which offered practical training and religious instruction. As other women joined her in the work, the new Congregation of the Daughters of Charity emerged. Over time, houses were opened throughout Italy.
Members of the new religious congregation focused on the educational and spiritual needs of women. Magdalen also founded a smaller congregation for priests and brothers. Both groups continue to this day.
She died in 1835. Pope John Paul II canonized her in 1988.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 11
The history of Our Lady of Pochaev begins in 1198, only about two centuries after Christianity:  became institutionalized following the conversion of St. Vladimir.  In this year a monk ascended Mount Pochaev in order to pray.  After beginning his prayers a pillar of fire appeared to him and to some shepherds that happened to be nearby.  The flames withdrew to reveal the Blessed Virgin.  The apparition of the Virgin Mary left behind a footprint, from which a spring of water flowed.  This first event would lead to many other supernatural events through the special dedication of the Blessed Virgin to this region
Many of these miracles are the result of the veneration of the icon of our Lady of Pochaev [see above].  It first arrived in the region as a gift of Metropolitan Neophit to Anna Hoyska, an important patron of the Church, in 1559.  The icon shows our Lady, wearing a crown, and holding the infant Jesus.  In her other hand “she holds the end of her veil.”  This being a 'tenderness' icon, Jesus and Mary’s face touch, while Jesus gives a blessing with his hand.  To Mary’s right are the prophet Elijah and Saint Myrna, while to her left are St. Stephen and the Reverend Abraymey.  Mary’s face is described as being “beautiful but sad.”   The icon itself is 29 x23 cm, and made out of red pitched cypress.  The origin of the icon remains a mystery.
  63. St. Domnio Possibly first bishop of Salona and one of 72 disciples of Christ sent to Dalmatia, a region in Croatia, by St. Peter.  The Hieromartyr Antipas, a disciple of the holy Apostle John the Theologian (September 26), was bishop of the Church of Pergamum during the reign of the emperor Nero (54-68).   During these times, everyone who would not offer sacrifice to the idols lived under threat of either exile or execution by order of the emperor. On the island of Patmos (in the Aegean Sea) the holy Apostle John the Theologian was imprisoned, he to whom the Lord revealed the future judgment of the world and of Holy Church.
"And to the angel of the Church of Pergamum write: the words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. I know where you live, where the throne of Satan is, and you cleave unto My Name, and have not renounced My faith, even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwells" (Rev 2:12-13).
  67 Sts. Processus and Martinian pagans guards at Mamertine prison in Rome  accepted holy Baptism from Peter.  The Holy Martyrs Processus and Martinian were pagans and they served as guards at the Mamertine prison in Rome.  State criminals were held in this prison, among them some Christians. Watching the Christian prisoners and listening to their preaching, Processus and Martinian gradually came to the knowledge of the Savior. When the holy Apostle Peter was locked up at the Mamertine prison, Processus and Martinian came to believe in Christ. They accepted holy Baptism from the apostle and released him from prison.
461 Pope St. Leo I (the Great)     St. Leo the First, pope and confessor, who was surnamed the Great.  His birthday falls on the 10th of November. (Reigned 440-461).
ST LEO THE GREAT, POPE AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH
THE sagacity of Leo I, his successful defence of the Catholic faith against heresy, as well as his political intervention with Attila the Hun and Genseric the Vandal, raised the prestige of the Holy See to unprecedented heights and earned for him the title of “the Great”, a distinction accorded by posterity to only two other popes, St Gregory I and St Nicholas I. The Church has honoured St Leo by including him amongst her doctors on the strength of his masterly expositions of Christian doctrine, many extracts from which are incorporated in the Breviary lessons.
St Leo’s family was probably Tuscan, but he seems to have been born in Rome, as he always speaks of it as his “patria”. Of his early years and of the date of his ordination to the priesthood there are no records. It is clear from his writings that he received a good education, although it did not include Greek. We hear of him first as deacon under St Celestine I and then under Sixtus III, occupying a position so important that St Cyril wrote directly to him, and Cassian dedicated to him his treatise against Nestorius. Moreover, in 440, when the quarrels between the two imperial generals, Aetius and Albinus, threatened to leave Gaul at the mercy of the barbarians, Leo was sent to make peace between them.
At the time of the death of Pope Sixtus III he was still in Gaul, whither a deputation was sent to announce to him his election to the chair of St Peter.
Immediately after his consecration on September 29, 440, he began to display his exceptional powers as a pastor and ruler. Preaching was at that time mainly confined to bishops, and he set about it systematically, instructing the faithful of Rome whom he purposed to make a pattern for other churches. In the ninety-six genuine sermons which have come down to us, we find him laying stress on alms-giving and other social aspects of Christian life, as well as expounding Catholic doctrines—especially that of the Incarnation. Some idea of the extraordinary vigilance of the holy pontiff over the Church and its necessities in every part of the empire can be gathered from the 143 letters written by him, and the 30 letters written to him, which have fortunately been preserved. About the period that he was dealing with the Manichaeans in Rome, he was writing to the Bishop of Aquileia advising him how to deal with Pelagianism, which had made a reappearance in his diocese.

1079 St. Stanislaus ordained  at Szczepanow near Cracow noted for preaching sought after spiritual adviser martyred by cruel King.  Stanislaus was born of noble parents on July 26th at Szczepanow near Cracow, Poland. He was educated at Gnesen and was ordained there. He was given a canonry by Bishop Lampert Zula of Cracow, who made him his preacher, and soon he became noted for his preaching. He became a much sought after spiritual adviser. He was successful in his reforming efforts, and in 1072 was named Bishop of Cracow. He incurred the enmity of King Boleslaus the Bold when he denounced the King's cruelties and injustices and especially his kidnapping of the beautiful wife of a nobleman. When Stanislaus excommunicated the King and stopped services at the Cathedral when Boleslaus entered, Boleslaus himself killed Stanislaus while the Bishop was saying Mass in a chapel outside the city on April 11.
Stanislaus has long been the symbol of Polish nationhood. He was canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1253 and is the principle patron of Cracow.
1146  The Departure of the holy father Anba Michael, the Seventy First Pope of the See of St. Mark. {Coptic church}.  On this day also of the year 862 A.M. (March 29th. 1146 A.D.) the holy father Pope Michael, the seventy first Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, departed. He longed to the pure life since his young age so he became a monk in the monastery of St. Macarius. He lived in the desert until he was an old man, in a good pleasing life to God.
When Pope Gabriel (70) departed, the bishops, the priests and the lay leaders spent three month searching for who was best suited to succeed him. A monk from the monastery of St. Macarius, called Yoannis Ebn Kedran, came forward nominating himself supported in that by Anba Yacoub, bishop of Lekanah, Anba Christodolus, bishop of Fowa, and Anba Michael, bishop of Tanta.
1771 St. Mary Margaret d'Youville Foundress of the Sisters of Charity directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community.  Grey Nuns of Canada.
She was born at Varennes, Quebec, and was baptized Marie Marguerite Dufrost de Ia Jemmerais.
After being educated by the Ursulines, she was married to Francois d’Youville in 1722, becoming a widow eight years later. Mary Margaret worked to support herself and her children, aiding the Confraternity of the Holy Family as well. In 1737, she founded the Sisters of Charity, the Grey Nuns, with three companions. A formal declaration took place in 1745, and two years later she became directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community. The Grey Nuns expanded to the United States, Africa, and South America. Mary Margaret died in Montreal on December 23. She was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1990.
1903 St. Gemma Galgani stigmata many mystical experiences and special graces Gemma was miraculously cured by the Venerable Passionist Gabriel Possenti.   THE short life of this saint, who was born at Camigliano in Tuscany in 1878, and died at Lucca at the age of twenty-five, was in one sense uneventful. It is a story of very fervent piety, charity and continuous suffering. These sufferings were caused partly by ill-health, partly by the poverty into which her family fell, partly by the scoffing of those who took offence at her practices of devotion, ecstasies and other phenomena, partly by what she believed to be the physical assaults of the Devil. But she had the consolation of constant communion with our Lord, who spoke to her as if He were corporeally present, and she also met with much kindness from the Giannini family, who in her last years after her father’s death treated her almost as an adopted daughter.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 12
336 St. Julius elected Pope to succeed Pope St. Mark on February 6, 337 built several basilicas and churches in Rome declared that Athanasius was the rightful bishop of Alexandria and reinstated him.    THE name of Pope St Julius stands in the Roman Martyrology to-day with the notice that he laboured much for the Catholic faith against the Arians. He was the son of a Roman citizen named Rusticus, and succeeded Pope St Mark in 337. In the following year St Athanasius, who had been exiled at the instance of the Arians, returned to his see of Alexandria, but found himself opposed by an Arian or semi-Arian hierarch whose intrusion had been obtained by Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia. In response to the request of the followers of Eusebius, Pope Julius convoked a synod to examine into the matter, but the very people who had asked for the council refrained from attending it. The case of St Athanasius was, however, very carefully examined in their absence and the letter, which the pope subsequently sent to the Eusebian bishops in the East has been characterized by Tillemont as “one of the finest monuments of ecclesiastical’ antiquity”, and by Monsignor Batiffol as “a model of weightiness, wisdom and charity”. Calmly and impartially he meets their accusations one by one and refutes them. Towards the end he states the procedure they ought to have followed. “Are you not aware that it is customary that we should first be written to, that from hence what is just may be defined whereas you expect us to approve condemnations in which we had no part. This is not according to the precepts of Paul or the tradition of the fathers. All this is strange and new. Allow me to speak as I do: I write what I write in the common interest, and what I now signify is what we have received from the blessed apostle Peter.”
The council at Sardica (Sofia) convened in 342 by the emperors of the East and West, vindicated St Athanasius, and endorsed the statement, previously made by St Julius, that any bishop deposed by a synod of his province has a right to appeal to the bishop of Rome. Nevertheless it was not until the year 346 that St Athanasius was able to return to Alexandria. On his way thither he passed through Rome, where he was cordially received by Pope Julius, who wrote a touching letter to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, congratulating them on the return of their holy bishop, picturing the reception they would give him, and praying for God’s blessing on them and on their children.
St Julius built several churches in Rome, notably the Basilica Julia, now the church of the Twelve Apostles, and the basilica of St Valentine in the Flaminian Way. He died on April 12, 352. His body was buried at first in the cemetery of Calepodius, but was afterwards translated to Santa Maria in Trastevere which he had enlarged and beautified.

 371 St. Zeno Bishop of Verona, Italy, opponent of Arianism promoted discipline among clergy in liturgical life built cathedral founded convent wrote extensively on virgin birth of Christ.   From a panegyric he delivered on St Arcadius, a Mauretanian martyr, it has been conjectured that St Zeno was born in Africa; and from the excellent flowing Latin of his writings and from the quotations he makes from Virgil, it is evident that he received a good classical education. He seems to have been made bishop of Verona in 362. We gather a number of interesting particulars about him and about his people from a collection of his tractatus, short familiar discourses delivered to his flock. We learn that he baptized every year a great number of pagans, and that he exerted himself with zeal and success against the Arians, who had been emboldened by the favours they had enjoyed under the Emperor Constantius. When he had in a great measure purged the church of Verona from heresy and heathenism, his flock increased to an extent which necessitated the building of a large basilica. Contributions flowed in freely from the citizens, whose habitual liberality had become so great that their houses were always open to poor strangers, whilst none of their fellow citizens ever had occasion to apply for relief, so promptly were their wants forestalled. Their bishop congratulated them upon thus laying up for themselves treasure in Heaven.
After the battle of Adrianople in 378, when the Goths defeated Valens with terrible slaughter, the barbarians made numerous captives in the neighbouring provinces of Illyricum and Thrace. It appears to have been on this occasion that, through the bountiful charity of the inhabitants of Verona, many of the prisoners were ransomed from slavery, some rescued from a cruel death, and others freed from hard labour. Though this probably occurred after the death of St Zeno, the self-sacrifice of the townsmen may be traced to his inspiring zeal and example.

 372 St. Sabas & 50 others Goth converted to Christianity lector in Targoviste Romania martyr in the area of modern Romania by pagan Goths.   THE Goth’s in the third century swarmed over the Danube and established themselves in the Roman provinces of Dacia and Moesia, making expeditions from time to time into Asia Minor, especially into Galatia and Cappadocia, from which they brought back Christian slaves, priests and lay people. These prisoners soon began to make converts amongst their conquerors, with the result that Christian churches were founded. In 370 the ruler of one section of the Goths raised a persecution against his Christian subjects, out of revenge, it is supposed, for a declaration of war launched against him by the Roman emperor. The Greeks commemorate fifty-one Gothic martyrs, the most famous of whom were St Sabas and St Nicetas. Sabas, who had been converted to Christianity in early youth, acted as cantor or lector to the priest Sansala. When, at the outset of the persecution, the magistrates ordered the Christians to eat meat sacrificed to idols, certain pagans, who had Christian relations whom they wished to save, persuaded the officials to give them meat which had not been offered to idols. Sabas loudly denounced this ambiguous proceeding:  not only did he himself refuse to eat, but he declared that those who consented to do so had betrayed the faith. Some of the Christians applauded him, but others were so much displeased that they obliged him to withdraw from the town. He was, however, soon allowed to return. The following year, when the persecution broke out again, some of the principal inhabitants offered to swear that there were no Christians in the town. As they were about to take the oath, Sabas presented himself and said, “Let no one swear for me : I am a Christian!” The officer asked the bystanders how much he was worth, and, upon learning that he had nothing but the clothes he wore, contemptuously released him, remarking, “Such a fellow can do us neither good nor harm”.
 560 Isaak der Syrer/Isaak vom Monte Luco Er kam (auf der Flucht vor den Monophysiten?) aus Syrien nach Spoleto (Italien). St Isaac the Syrian lived during the mid-sixth century. He came to the Italian city of Spoleto from Syria. The saint asked permission of the church wardens to remain in the temple, and he prayed in it for two and a half days. One of the church wardens began to reproach him with hypocrisy and struck him on the cheek. Then the punishment of God came upon the church warden. The devil threw him down at the feet of the saint and cried out, "Isaac, cast me out!" Just as the saint bent over the man, the unclean spirit fled.
News of this quickly spread throughout the city. People began to flock to the saint, offering him help and the means to build a monastery. The humble monk refused all this. He left the city and settled in a desolate place, where he built a small cell. Disciples gathered around the ascetic, and so a monastery was formed.
When his disciples asked the Elder why he had declined the gifts, he replied, "A monk who acquires possessions is no longer a monk."
St Isaac was endowed with the gift of clairvoyance. St Gregory Dialogus (March 12) speaks of this in his "Dialogues About the Lives and Miracles of the Italian Fathers." Once, St Isaac bade the monks to leave their spades in the garden for the night, and in the morning he asked them to prepare food for the workers. Some robbers, equal to the number of spades, had come to rob the monastery, but the power of God forced them to abandon their evil intent. They took the spades and began to work. When the monks arrived in the garden, all the ground had been dug up. The saint greeted the toilers and invited them to refresh themselves with food. Then he admonished them to stop their thievery, and gave them permission to come openly and pick the fruits of the monastery garden.
Another time, two almost naked men came to the saint and asked him for clothing. He told them to wait a bit, and sent a monk into the forest. In the hollow of a tree he found the fine clothes the travelers had hidden in order to to deceive the holy igumen. The monk brought back the clothes, and St Isaac gave them to the wanderers. Seeing that their fraud was exposed, they fell into great distress and shame.
It happened that a certain man sent his servant to the saint with two beehives. The servant hid one of these hives along the way. The saint said to the servant, "I accept the gift, but be careful when you go back for the beehive that you hid. Poisonous snakes have entered into it. If you stretch forth your hand, they will bite you."
Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to succeed Pope Theodore I; died at Cherson in the present peninsulas of Krym, 16 Sept., 655, after a reign of 6 years, one month and twenty six days, having ordained eleven priests, five deacons and thirty-three bishops. 5 July is the date commonly given for his election, but 21 July (given by Lobkowitz, "Statistik der Papste" Freiburg, 1905) seems to correspond better with the date of his death and reign (Duchesne "Lib. Pont.", I, 336); his feast is on 12 November.The Greeks honor him on 13 April and 15 September, the Muscovites on 14 April. In the hymns of the Office the Greeks style him infallibilis fidei magister because he was the successor of St. Peter in the See of Rome (Nilles, "Calendarium Manuale", Innsbruck, 1896, I, 336).
 655 Martin I, Pope died in the Crimea great intellect and charity the last pope to die a martyr M (RM).   Martin, one of the noblest figures in a long line of Roman pontiffs (Hodgkin, "Italy", VI, 268) was, according to his biographer Theodore (Mai, "Spicil. Rom.", IV 293) of noble birth, a great student, of commanding intelligence, of profound learning, and of great charity to the poor. Piazza, II 45 7 states that he belonged to the order of St. Basil. He governed the Church at a time when the leaders of the Monothelite heresy, supported by the emperor, were making most strenuous efforts to spread their tenets in the East and West. Pope Theodore had sent Martin as apocrysiary to Constantinople to make arrangements for canonical deposition of the heretical patriarch, Pyrrhus. After his election, Martin had himself consecrated without waiting for the imperial confirmation, and soon called a council in the Lateran at which one hundred and five bishops met. Five sessions were held on 5, 8, 17, 119 and 31 Oct., 649 (Hefele, "Conciliengeschichte", III, 190). The "Ecthesis" of Heraclius and the "Typus" of Constans II were rejected; nominal excommunication was passed against Sergius, Pyrrus, and Paul of Constantinople, Cyrus of Alexandria and Theodore of Phran in Arabia; twenty canons were enacted defining the Catholic doctrine on the two wills of Christ. The decrees signed by the pope and the assembled bishops were sent to the other bishops and the faithful of the world together with an encyclical of Martin. The Acts with a Greek translation were also sent to the Emperor Constans II.
11th v. 13th v. SS. ALFERIUS AND OTHERS, ABBOTS OF LA CAVA St Alferius, the founder of the abbey, although his immediate successors, Leo I of Lucca, Peter I of Polycastro and Constabilis of Castelabbate were all saints; whilst eight later abbots, Simeon, Falco, Marinus, Benincasa, Peter II, Balsamus, Leonard and Leo II all received the title of Blessed.  OF the holy abbots of La Cava who are honoured upon April 12, November 16 and other dates a special notice can only be given here of St Alferius, the founder of the abbey, although his immediate successors, Leo I of Lucca, Peter I of Polycastro and Constabilis of Castelabbate were all saints; whilst eight later abbots, Simeon, Falco, Marinus, Benincasa, Peter II, Balsamus, Leonard and Leo II all received the title of Blessed.
Alferius belonged to the Pappacarboni family which was descended from the ancient Lombard princes. Sent by Gisulf, duke of Salerno, as ambassador to the French court, he fell dangerously ill, and vowed that if he should regain his health he would embrace the religious life. Upon his recovery he entered the abbey of Cluny, then under the rule of St Odilo, but was recalled by the duke of Salerno, who wished him to reform the monasteries in the principality. The task appeared beyond his power, and he retired about the year 1011 to a lonely spot, picturesquely situated in the mountainous region about three miles north-west of Salerno, where he was soon joined by disciples. Of these he would only accept twelve—at any rate at first—but they formed the nucleus around which gradually grew the abbey of La Cava which afterwards attained to great celebrity. Alferius is said to have lived to the age of 120 and to have died on Maundy Thursday, alone in his cell, after he had celebrated Mass and washed the feet of his brethren. Only a very few years after his death there were, in south Italy and Sicily, over 30 abbeys and churches dependent upon La Cava and 3000 monks. Amongst his disciples had been Desiderius, who subsequently became Pope Victor III and a beatus.  The cultus of the sainted abbots of La Cava was confirmed in 1893, that of the beati in 1928.

1495 BD ANGELO OF CHIVASSO; He always been humble: even as vicar general he would only wear the cast-off habits of others and delighted in doing the lowliest work. Now he begged to he allowed to go and beg for the poor; Franciscan friary of the Observance at Genoa.   Bd Angelo’s superiors soon realized that they had in him a recruit of exceptional merit as well as of great missionary zeal, and it was not long before he was admitted to the priesthood. At once he embarked upon a strenuous evangelistic campaign. Full of eloquence and zeal, he made his way into remote villages in the Piedmontese mountains and valleys, regardless of weather and of the roughness of the way. The poor he greatly loved: he sought them out, visited them in sickness, and would often beg on their behalf. He helped them in many ways, notably by encouraging the introduction of monti di pietà to save them from the clutches of money-lenders. His penitents, however, were not confined to the poor. St Catherine of Genoa consulted him, and Charles I, Duke of Savoy, chose him to be his confessor. His so-called Summa Angelica, a book of moral theology which he wrote, was much used. Bd Angelo filled a number of offices, and as superior he was extremely zealous in preserving the purity of the rule; his outstanding capabilities caused him to be three times re-elected vicar general.
When, after the taking of Otranto by the fleet of Mohammed II, Pope Sixtus IV appealed for recruits to fight the threatening forces of Islam, the Observants proved themselves specially zealous in rousing the people to meet the crisis, but it was Bd Angelo who always chose the places of greatest danger for his activities. Moreover, when in 1491, at the age of eighty, he had accepted the office of commissary apostolic to evangelize the Waldensians in the Piedmontese valleys, he displayed a fervour and intrepidity which were rewarded by a surprising measure of success. Many heretics as well as lapsed Catholics were brought back to the faith, so that Pope Innocent VIII wished to raise him to the episcopate, but he could not be induced to consent.
At last, in 1493, Bd Angelo was able to lay down office and to prepare his soul for death. He had always been humble: even as vicar general he would only wear the cast-off habits of others and delighted in doing the lowliest work. Now he begged to he allowed to go and beg for the poor. His last two years were spent at the convent of Cuneo in Piedmont where he died at the age of 84. His cultus was approved in 1753.

1920 St. Teresa of Los Andes; Carmelite nun, Chile’s first saint. (1900-1920) 
One needn’t live a long life to leave a deep imprint. Teresa of Los Andes is proof of that.
As a young girl growing up in Santiago, Chile, in the early 1900s, she read an autobiography of a French-born saint—Therese, popularly known as the Little Flower. The experience deepened her desire to serve God and clarified the path she would follow. At age 19 she became a Carmelite nun, taking the name of Teresa.

The convent offered the simple lifestyle Teresa desired and the joy of living in a community of women completely devoted to God. She focused her days on prayer and sacrifice. “I am God’s, ” she wrote in her diary. “He created me and is my beginning and my end. ”
Toward the end of her short life, Teresa began an apostolate of letter-writing, sharing her thoughts on the spiritual life with many people. At age 20 she contracted typhus and quickly took her final vows. She died a short time later, during Holy Week.
Teresa remains popular with the estimated 100,000 pilgrims who visit her shrine in Los Andes each year. She is Chile’s first saint.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 13
The Prophet Ezekiel ("God is strong") was the son of Buzi and a priest by rank.
He was taken captive and brought to Babylon during the reign of Jechonias.
In the fifth year of this captivity, about 594 or 593 B.C., he began to prophesy.

Having prophesied for about twenty-eight years, he was murdered, it is said, by the tribe of Gad, because he reproached them for their idolatry.

His book of prophecy, divided into forty-eight chapters, is ranked third among the greater Prophets. It is richly filled with mystical imagery and marvelous prophetic visions and allegories, of which the dread Chariot of Cherubim described in the first Chapter is the most famous; in the "gate that was shut," through which the Lord alone entered, he darkly foretold of the Word's Incarnation from the Virgin (44:1-3); through the "dry bones" that came to life again (37:1-14), he prophesied both of the restoration of captive Israel, and the general resurrection of our race.
656 Pope Saint Martin I martyred for defending dual nature of Jesus died at Kherson Crimea last pope die a martyr. Martin I, Pope M (RM) Born in Todi in Umbria, Italy; died in the Crimea, September 16, 655; feast day was previously November 12 (November 10 in York); the Eastern Church celebrates his feast on September 20.

Martin became a deacon in Rome. He displayed a great intellect and charity, was sent by Pope Theodore I as nuncio (apocrisiarius) to Constantinople, and was elected pope in 649 to succeed Theodore I. At once, he convened the council at the Lateran that condemned Monothelitism (the denial that Christ had a human will), the Typos--the edict of the reigning Emperor Constans II, which favored it, and Heraclius's Ekethesis. Although he was supported by the bishops of Africa, England, and Spain, the imperial wrath fell upon the pontiff who was arrested by Constans and taken to Constantinople in 653.
     When Martin I became pope in 649, Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine empire and the patriarch of Constantinople was the most influential Church leader in the eastern Christian world. The struggles that existed within the Church at that time were magnified by the close cooperation of emperor and patriarch.

A teaching, strongly supported in the East, held that Christ had no human will. Twice emperors had officially favored this position, Heraclius by publishing a formula of faith and Constans II by silencing the issue of one or two wills in Christ.
Shortly after assuming the office of the papacy (which he did without first being confirmed by the emperor), Martin held a council at the Lateran in which the imperial documents were censured, and in which the patriarch of Constantinople and two of his predecessors were condemned. Constans II, in response, tried first to turn bishops and people against the pope.
Comment:  The real significance of the word martyr comes not from the dying but from the witnessing, which the word means in its derivation. People who are willing to give up everything, their most precious possessions, their very lives, put a supreme value on the cause or belief for which they sacrifice. Martyrdom, dying for the faith, is an incidental extreme to which some have had to go to manifest their belief in Christ. A living faith, a life that exemplifies Christ's teaching throughout, and that in spite of difficulties, is required of all Christians. Martin might have temporized; he might have sought means to ease his lot, to make some accommodations with the civil rulers.
Quote:   The breviary of the Orthodox Church pays tribute to Martin: “Glorious definer of the Orthodox Faith...sacred chief of divine dogmas, unstained by error...true reprover of heresy...foundation of bishops, pillar of the Orthodox faith, teacher of religion.... Thou didst adorn the divine see of Peter, and since from this divine Rock, thou didst immovably defend the Church, so now thou art glorified with him.”

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 14
 190 St. Tiburtius Martyr with Valerian and Maximus     At Rome, on the Appian Way, the birthday of the holy martyrs Tiburtius, Valerian, and Maximus, who suffered in the time of Emperor Alexander and the prefect Almachius.  The first two were converted to Christ by the exhortations of blessed Cecilia, and baptized by Pope St. Urban.  They were beaten with clubs, then beheaded for the sake of the true faith.  Maximus, who had been the prefect's chamberlain, was touched by their constancy, and confirmed by the vision of an angel, believed in Christ, and was scourged with leaded whips until he died.
   564 St. Abundius Confessor sacrist St. Peter's in Rome humble many graces spiritual gifts   At Rome, St. Abundius, sacristan of the church of St. Peter.
Abundius served in St. Peter's in Rome. Pope St. Gregory I the Great wrote of his life, which was filled with many graces and spiritual gifts.

 655 Saint Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome native of the Tuscany convened Lateran Council at Rome condemn Monothelite heresy last martyred Pope.  He received a fine education and entered into the clergy of the Roman Church. After the death of Pope Theodore I (642-649), Martin was chosen to succeed him.
At this time the peace of the Church was disturbed by the Monothelite heresy (the false doctrine that in Christ there is only one will. He has a divine, and a human will).
"Even if they cripple me, I will not have relations with the Church of Constantinople while it remains in its evil doctrines." The torturers were astonished at the confessor's boldness, and they commuted his death sentence to exile at Cherson in the Crimea.
There the saint died, exhausted by sickness, hunger and deprivations on September 16, 655. He was buried outside the city in the Blachernae church of the Most Holy Theotokos, and later the relics of the holy confessor Martin were transferred to Rome.
The Monothelite heresy was condemned at the Sixth Ecumenical Council in 680.
1120 BD LANVINUS Carthusian monk, came to Rome and obtained from Pope Paschal a bull to protect the houses of the Carthusians from molestation. IN 1893 Pope Leo XIII confirmed the cultus of a Carthusian monk, Bd Lanvinus, {20 February, 1878; 20 July, 1903; Pope Leo XIII } who though little known to the world at large has always been held high in honour in his own order. He was a Norman by birth who seems to have made his way south to the Grande Chartreuse about the year 1090, and thence accompanied St Bruno to Calabria. When the holy founder died there in 1101, Lanvinus was elected to succeed him in the government of the two charterhouses which the order at that time possessed in the south of Italy. Some little difference of opinion had preceded this election, and we possess more than one letter addressed to the new superior by Pope Paschal II, {Pope Paschal II Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 Jan., 1118. }congratulating the brethren on this peaceful solution and admonishing them not to presume too much upon the austerity of their rule, but ever to seek perfect concord and union with God.
In 1102 Lanvinus was summoned to Rome to attend a synod. Other letters of the same pontiff were despatched to him in 1104 commending his zeal in carrying out the pope’s injunctions, and entrusting to his care a difficult negotiation which concerned one of the bishops of that province. In 1105 he was further appointed visitor of all monastic houses in Calabria and charged with the duty of restoring strict discipline; while eight years later he again came to Rome and obtained from Pope Paschal a bull to protect the houses of the Carthusians from molestation. He died greatly revered on April 11, 1120, but his feast is kept in the order on this day.

1124 Caradoc of Llandaff Abbot monk musician reputation for holiness miracles quieted wildest beasts healer incorrupt (AC).  As a young man St Caradoc lived at the court of Rhys ap Tewdwr, prince of South Wales, where he occupied the honourable post of harper. One day he fell into disgrace with his master who blamed him for the loss of two favourite greyhounds and threatened to kill him. Thus brought to realize the folly of trusting in the favour of earthly princes, Caradoc resolved from henceforth to give his services only to the King of kings. He accordingly abandoned the court and repaired to Llandaff, where he received the tonsure from the bishop who sent him to serve in the church of St Teilo. Afterwards he spent some years as a hermit near the abandoned church of St Cenydd in Gower and then retired with some companions to the still more remote solitude of an island off the coast of Pembroke. Here they suffered from Norse raiders, and St Caradoc eventually settled in St Ismael’s cell at Haroldston, of which he was given charge. Like so many other solitaries Caradoc had unusual power over the lower animals, illustrated on one occasion by his mastering a pack of hounds “by a gentle movement of his hand”, when they were quite out of the owner’s control.
St Caradoc was buried with great honour in the cathedral church of St David, where the remains of his shrine may be seen.
A still extant letter of Pope Innocent III directs certain abbots to make inquiry into the life and miracles of this Welsh hermit.
1246 St. Peter Gonzalez Dominican evangelized protector of captive Muslims and cared for sailors.   St. Peter Gonzales Peter Gonzales, also known as St. Elmo or St. Telmo, was born to a Castilian family of nobility. He was educated by his uncle, the Bishop of Astorga, named canon of the local cathedral, famous for his penances and mortifications, joined the Dominican Order, preached and made chaplain of the court of King St. Ferdinand III. He converted and influenced the soldiers of his country, evangelized, and died on Easter Sunday. He was canonized by Pope Benedict XIV in 1741. Peter evangelized throughout his country and all along the coast. He had a special fondness for sailors. He used to visit them aboard their ships, preaching the Gospel and praying for their needs.
1433 St. Lydwine heroically accepted plight as will of God offered her sufferings for humanity's sins Jesus Christ confided in her She experienced mystical gifts, including supernatural visions of heaven, hell, purgatory, apparitions of Christ, and the stigmata Patron of sickness & skaters.  About the year 1407 she began to have ecstasies and mystical visions. While her body lay in prolonged cataleptic trances, her spirit communed with our Lord, with the saints, and with her guardian angel, or it would visit the holy places of Rome and Palestine or else churches near at hand. Now she would help our Lord to carry His cross on Calvary, now she would witness the pains of purgatory and would be given a foretaste of the joys of Heaven.
Two points are emphasized by her biographers: never, in all her raptures, did she lose sight of her vocation, and always those spiritual privileges were followed by increase of suffering. Acclaimed as she was even then as a saint, she was not destined to escape detraction, which came in a very painful form.
 The biography of Bd Lydwina compiled by John Brugman has been printed, both in its first and latest form, by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii; and they have also given extracts from the memoir by Thomas a Kempis. John Gerlac’s narrative is in Dutch and was first printed at Delft in 1487. Full bibliographical details are provided in the excellent little volume Sainte Lydwine contributed by Hubert Meuffels to the series “Les Saints” (1925). This is by far the best popular life, and it corrects in many details the extravagances and inaccuracies of Huysmans’ Saints Lydwine de Schiedam which has gone through so many editions. There are several other lives of less value. That by Thomas a Kempis has been translated into English by Dom Vincent Scully (1912), with a useful introduction. In this introduction may be found a translation of the striking official document drawn up in 1421 by the municipality of Schiedam attesting among other things that “within the seven years last passed she (Lydwina) has used no food or drink at all nor does use any at present”. Although she is quite commonly called Saint Lydwina, she has never been officially canonized, but her cultus was formally confirmed by Pope Leo XIII in 1890.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 15
The Departure of the Righteous Joachim, The Lord Christ Grandfather.
On this day the righteous Joachim (Yonakhir - Zadok) departed. He was the father of St. Mary, the Theotokos, the mother of God incarnate. He was of the seed of David, and of the tribe of Judah, for he was the son of Jotham, the son of Lazarus, the son of Eldad who ascended up in genealogy to Solomon the king, the son of David whom God promised that his seed should reign over the children of Israel for ever.
The wife of this righteous man, Hannah was barren, and both of them prayed and entreated God continually to give them a child. Having accepted their petition He gave them a good and sweet fruit, which satisfied all the men of the world, and removed from them the bitterness of servitude, and He made Joachim worthy to be called the father of the Lord Christ in regard of His marvelous and wondrous Incarnation. After God had pleased him with the birth of our Lady, his heart was rejoiced and he offered his offerings, and the shame had been removed from him, he departed in peace when the Virgin was three years old.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.

  100 Holy Martyr Sukhios and 16 Gruzian (Georgian) Companions new names: to the eldest -- Sukhios (replacing his old name Bagadras), and  companions Andrew, Anastasias, Talale, Theodorites, Juhirodion, Jordan, Kondrates, Lukian, Mimnenos, Nerangios, Polyeuktos, James, Phoki, Domentian, Victor and Zosima.
The holy remains of the martyrs remained undecayed and unburied until the time of the IV Century, when they were placed in graves and consigned to earth by local Christians (the names of the holy martyrs were found written on a cliff).
The holy PriestMartyr Gregory, Enlightener of Armenia (+ c. 335, Comm. 30 September), built a church on this spot and established a monastery. And afterwards, a curative spring of water was discovered there.( shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) see map close to Yerevan {Even when Agathangelos describes well-known events, he borrows from the Bible. Diocletian's persecution of the Church is talked about completely in Bible images, with no reference to any actual events. Gregory is nourished in the terrible pit as Elijah was; Drtad's bestial transformation recalls that of Nebuchadnezzar. There are also countless references to liturgical and patristic writings, and it is unfortunate that we modern readers miss so many of these. Agathangelos presumed on the part of his readers an intimate familiarity with the Scriptures, Liturgy, and spiritual writings that most of us today simply do not possess.
Agathangelos had a purpose in mind as he wrote about Gregory. That purpose is reflected in some of the differences in emphasis between Agathangelos' work about the saint and the work of others. For example, Movses Khorenatsi gives us much more detail about Gregory's origins, and tries to tie him to the first enlightener, Thaddeus. In general, he gives more detail about all aspects of Gregory's life than Agathangelos does. But Agathangelos is not interested in establishing an apostolic tie for Gregory, or presenting his life in detail. His purpose is mainly to enhance Gregory's role as the first bishop, first church builder, and first establisher of a hierarchy in the Armenian Church. He wants to show the importance of the hierarchical structure of the Church, and emphasize the authority of the patriarch's position, and this he does by tying both to the great saint so highly venerated in the Church.
Central to this effort is Agathangelos' description of Gregory's vision of the burial place of the martyrs. Gregory is shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) is to be built. Thus Agathangelos establishes divine foundation for cathedral and for church leaders who reside there ­ so again, he makes a case for the "rightness" of the hierarchs and the hierarchical structure of the Church.}
 679 St. Hunna devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg.
Called “the Holy Washerwoman,” a noblewoman who devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg, France. The daughter of a duke and wife of Huno of Hunnaweyer, she even washed the poor's clothes, hence her name. She was canonized in 1520 by Pope Leo X.





Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 16
   460 St. Turibius of Astorga Bishop stern disciplinarian opponent of the heretical Priscillianist  At Paléntia, St. Turibius, bishop of Astorga.  With the aid of Pope St. Leo, he drove out of Spain completely the Priscillian heresy.  He went to rest in the Lord with a great renown for miracles.   St Turibius became bishop of Astorga when the errors of the Priscillianists were gaining many adherents in various parts of Spain. Based on forged apostolic writings, this heresy was a subtle form of Manichaeism which seems to have attracted both laymen and clergy: even Dictinus, the previous bishop of Astorga, is said at one time to have defended its teachings. St Turibius, on the other hand, came forward as an uncompromising champion of the Catholic faith. Not only did he boldly expose and denounce the new doctrines, but he took strong action against the leaders of the movement. He then appealed for support to Pope St Leo the Great, to whom he sent a report of the measures he was adopting. Leo in reply wrote a long epistle in which he categorically condemned the tenets of the Priscillianists. Mainly as a result of the efforts of St Turibius, thus backed by the authority of Rome, the spread of this heresy was checked, and the bishop was able to devote his energies to the enforcement of discipline amongst his clergy and the reform of morals amongst his people. His death occurred about the year 450.
900 St. Lambert of Saragossa servant Martyred by his Saracen master in Spain.   Lambert of Saragossa M (RM); cultus promoted by Pope Hadrian VI. Saint Lambert was a servant who was killed near Saragossa, Spain, by his Saracen master during the Moorish occupation (Benedictines).
1116 Magnus of Orkney Magnus stood against wanton violence and racism against foreigners).  Died on Igilsay Island, Norway, Earl Magnus Erlendsson of Norway, son of Erling, ruled over half the Orkney Islands. He was killed by his cousin Haakon, who ruled over the other half.   Magnus is venerated as the protector of Scotland and a martyr, even though as a young man he participated in the Viking raids on Scotland. .  After King Magnus Barefoot bad been killed in battle against the Irish, his son Sigurd allowed Haakon to return to the Orkneys, of which he wished to be the sole ruler. But Magnus, whose brother Erlend had also been slain, gathered a body of men and proceeded to his native country, where he vindicated his right to share in the government of the islands. Although the two cousins could unite against a common foe, disputes often arose between them. At last Haakon, whose overbearing spirit could no longer brook a rival, invited Magnus to meet him with a few followers on the island of Egilsay, under pretext of cementing a lasting peace. Magnus unsuspectingly complied, but was overpowered by a large band of men brought by Haakon and was treacherously slain, refusing to resist. The cathedral of Kirkwall, where he was buried (and where what seem to have been his bones were found in 1919, and many other churches have been dedicated in honour of St Magnus, who was regarded as a martyr, in spite of the fact that he was murdered on political rather than on religious grounds. He is said to have appeared to Robert Bruce with a promise of victory, on the eve of Bannockburn, and his feast is still observed in the diocese of Aberdeen.
1378 The Nun Theodora of Nizhegorod, in the world Anastasia (Vassa) entered the Nizhegorod Zachat'ev monastery attained the gift of humility and love.   The daughter of the Tver' boyar-noble Ioann and his spouse Anna. She was born in the year 1331. At 12 years of age they gave her in marriage to the Nizhegorod prince Andrei Konstantinovich. after 12 years of childless married life, the prince died, having accepted monasticism (+ 2 June 1365). The holy princess continued to live in the world for another four years, and then she set free her servants, distributed off her substance and entered the Nizhegorod Zachat'ev monastery. She was tonsured by Sainted Dionysii, afterwards the archbishop of Suzdal' (+ 1385, Comm. 15 October and 26 June).
In monastic life the saint often went without food for a day or two, and sometimes even five; her nights she spent in tearful prayers, and on her body she wore an hairshirt. She attained the gift of humility and love and she bore every abuse without malice. The example of the strict life of the Nun Theodora attracted others also: in her common-life monastery were tonsured princesses and boyaresses, and in all there about 100 sisters. The Nun Theodora died in the year 1378.

1783 St. Benedict Joseph Labré "the Beggar of Rome," a pilgrim recluse devoted to the Blessed Sacrament miracles soaring over the ground, as well as bilocation, is frequently attested in Benedict's case.  1783 St. Benedict Joseph Labré "the Beggar of Rome," a pilgrim recluse devoted to the Blessed Sacrament miracles soaring over the ground, as well as bilocation, is frequently attested in Benedict's case
Romæ natális sancti Benedícti-Joséphi Labre Confessóris, qui contémptu sui et extrémæ voluntáriæ paupertátis laude exstitit insígnis.
    At Rome, the birthday of St. Benedict Joseph Labre, confessor, who was famed for his contempt of self and his great voluntary poverty. miraculous multiplication of bread for some poor people and by the healing of a confirmed invalid. “God’s will be done”, he said, as he took a final farewell of the Cistercians of Septfons in 1770.
Benedict now determined to go on pilgrimage to Rome, walking all the way and living on alms. He set out accordingly, staying among other places at Ars, where he met Mr Vianney, father of the future curé. Having crossed the Alps into Italy, he wrote from Piedmont a touching letter to his parents—the last they ever received from him. In it he apologized for the uneasiness he may have caused them and announced his intention of trying to enter an Italian monastery. This he does not appear to have done, for his true vocation began to dawn upon him. Not by shutting himself up in any cloister was he to abandon the world, but by obeying the counsels of perfection without turning his back on the world. Literally and in spirit he must follow the example of our Lord and so many of His saints. With this object in view he embarked upon a life of pilgrimages which led him to the principal shrines in western Europe. Oblivious of wind and weather, he travelled everywhere on foot, carrying neither purse nor scrip nor yet provisions for the way. Often he slept in the open air upon the bare ground; at best he took his rest in a shed or a garret, for he could rarely be induced to accept a bed. He wished to be homeless like his Master. He saluted no man by the way unless specially moved to do so, he seldom opened his lips except to acknowledge or distribute to others the alms which he had received.


1879 St. Bernadette Mary appeared to Bernadette 18 times and spoke with her above a rose  bush in a grotto  called Massabielle dressed in blue and white with a rosary of ivory and gold.    In the city of Nevers in France, St. Mary Bernard Soubirous of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity, also called the Christian Institute.  She was favoured with frequent apparitions and conversations at Lourdes with Mary Immaculate, the Mother of God.  In 1933 her name was added to the roll of holy virgins by Pope Pius XI.   St. Bernadette Soubirous 1879 Famed visionary of Lourdes, baptized Mary Bernard. She was born in Lourdes, France, on January 7, 1844, the daughter of Francis and Louise Soubirous. Bernadette, a severe asthma sufferer, lived in abject poverty. On February 11, 1858, she was granted a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in a cave on the banks of the Gave River near Lourdes. She was placed in consider able jeopardy when she reported the vision, and crowds gathered when she had futher visits from the Virgin, from February 18 of that year through March 4.  The civil authorities tried to frighten Bernadette into recanting her accounts, but she remained faithful to the vision.

  On February 25, a spring emerged from the cave and the waters were discovered to be of a miraculous nature, capable of healing the sick and lame. On March 25, Bernadette announced that the vision stated that she was the Immaculate Conception, and that a church should be erected on the site. Thus, she lived out her self-effacing life, dying at the age of 35 as did Saint Benedict Labre. The events of 1858 resulted in Lourdes becoming one of the most important pilgrim shrines in the history of Christendom, ending with the consecration of the basilica in 1876. But Saint Bernadette took no part in these developments; nor was it for her visions that she was canonized, but for the humble simplicity and religious trust that characterized her whole life (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Sandhurst, Schamoni, Trochu, Walsh, White).
Saint Bernadette is the patron saint of shepherds (White).


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 17
Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I) the Fifty Fifth Patriarch commemoration of Wonder took place on his hand  (Coptic)
Tuesday of St Thomas week we remember those Orthodox Christians from all ages who have died in faith, and in the hope of resurrection. On this day also a great sign was made manifest through our holy father Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I) the fifty fifth Pope of Alexandria. This Pope went to the desert of Scetis in order to fast the Holy Lent with the fathers the monks. On Palm Sunday many Arabs came to the desert of Scetis to plunder the monasteries. They stood on the rock east of the church of St. Macarius. Their swords were drawn in their hands ready to kill and steal. The bishops and the monks gathered together and decided to leave the desert before the Holy Feast of Resurrection (Easter) and they took counsel with Pope Shenouda who told them; "As for me I will not leave the desert until I complete the Pascal week. On Maundy Thursday the situation became worse.
The Pope took his staff that had the sign of the cross on it and he wanted to go out to meet the Arabs saying: "It is better for me to die with the people of God" but they prevented him from going out, but instead, he strengthened and comforted them. Then he went forth to meet the Arabs with his staff in his hand. When they saw him, they retreated and fled away as if they were pursued by an army of soldiers and from this day onwards they never came back to do any harm.
The prayers of this father be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.
There are indications of this commemoration in the sermons of the Fathers of the Church.
St John Chrysostom, for example, mentions it in his homily "On the Cemetery and the Cross."
In pre-Revolutionary Russia bars remained closed and alcoholic beverages were not sold until this Day of Rejoicing so that the joy people felt would be because of the Resurrection, and not an artificial joy brought on by alcohol.
Today the Church remembers its faithful members at Liturgy, and kollyva is offered in remembrance of those who have fallen asleep.
Priests visit cemeteries to bless the graves of Orthodox Christians, and to share the paschal joy with the departed.
It is also customary to give alms to the poor on this day.

   At Rome, St. Anicetus, pope and martyr, who received the palm of martyrdom in the persecution of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Verus.
155-166 St. Anicetus pope a Syrian from Emesa actively opposed Marcionism and Gnosticism.  165 ST ANICETUS, POPE AND MARTYR
ST ANICETUS was raised to the chair of St Peter in the latter part of the reign of the Emperor Antoninus Pius. He is styled a martyr in the Roman and other martyrologies and, if he did not actually shed his blood for the faith, he at least purchased the title of martyr by the sufferings and trials he endured. His efforts appear to have been specially directed to combating the errors of Valentine and Marcion and to protecting his flock from heresy. It was whilst he was pope that St Polycarp, the great bishop of Smyrna, came to Rome in connection with the controversy about the date of Easter. The conference which took place led to no settlement, but, to quote the words of Eusebius, “the bonds of charity were not broken”. St Anicetus is said to have been a Syrian.

350  Innocent of Tortona priest for remaining steadfast to the Christian faith B (RM).   THE parents of St Innocent at Tortona in the north of Italy, although they were Christians living in times of persecution, were by imperial licence exempted from molestation. The exemption granted to the parents did not extend to the children, and after the death of his father and mother Innocent was summoned to appear before the magistrates. As the young man steadfastly refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was tortured and sentenced to perish at the stake. During the night before his execution he had a dream of his father, who bade him go at once to Rome, where he would find safety. He awoke to find his guards fast asleep, and easily succeeded in making his escape. Upon his arrival in Rome he was kindly received by Pope St Miltiades.
Pope St Silvester
raised him to the diaconate, and after the accession of the Emperor Constantine he was sent back to Tortona as bishop. During the twenty-eight years of his episcopate he showed great zeal in spreading the faith, in building churches, and in converting pagan temples into Christian sanctuaries.
We owe these details to a late and quite untrustworthy life of St Innocent which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii. But Father F. Savio has shown in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xv (1896), pp. 377—384, that the saint really existed, and that there are germs of truth in the legend, though the story is a fiction. See on the other hand the brochure of Canon V. Loge (1913) to which Fr Savio subsequently replied.
Departure of St. Zosimus (Zocima). On this day in the middle of the fifth century the ascetic father and the struggling monk Abba Zocima the priest, departed (Coptic).  The custom of those monks during the Holy Lent, was that after they had fasted the first weak they partook the Holy Communion, then they left the monastery singing the twenty six psalm, and at the end of it, they prayed together. Then the abbot blessed them and they bed farewell to each other. Then they dispersed in the desert of Jordan and each of them carried out his spiritual fight by himself. St. Zosimus used to go out with them each year wondering in the desert asking God to show him who was more perfect than him.
As he was wondering about he met Mary the Egyptian (Coptic). He learned from her about her life history and the reason for her wondering in the desert. She asked him to visit her after one year to give her the Holy Mysteries. He came to her in the next year and gave her the Holy Communion. In the year after he revisited her again but he found her had departed and he buried her and told the monks of the monastery concerning her strife. After he had lived ninety nine years he departed in peace.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.

 435 Saint Acacius, Bishop of Melitene support of Orthodoxy wonderworker made rain, checked flood, stopped dome from collapse 3rd Ecumenical Council 431 defended Orthodox teaching of 2 Natures (Divine /Human) of the Savior His seedless Birth from Most Holy Virgin Mother of God.  He wisely governed his diocese. By his firm faith, humility and deeds, the saint acquired the gift of wonderworking. Once, during a dry summer, the saint celebrated Liturgy in an open field, suddenly the wine in the Holy Chalice was mixed by the falling rain, which fell throughout the land.
He prayed during a flood, and the advancing river turned away and did not rise higher than the stone which he had placed at the riverbank. On one of the islands of the River Azar, despite the opposition of the pagans, the saint built a temple in honor of the Most Holy Theotokos. The builders of the church either through carelessness or through malice, were not careful in building the dome. During the Liturgy the dome was ready to collapse. The people rushed out of the church in terror. But the saint halted their flight saying, "The Lord is the defender of my life, of whom shall I be afraid?" (Ps. 26/27:1). The dome remained suspended in the air. Only when the services were ended, and the saint was the last one to emerge from the church, did the dome collapse, causing harm to no one. After this, the church was rebuilt.
St Acacius participated in the Third Ecumenical Council (431) and he defended the Orthodox teaching of the Two Natures (Divine and Human) of the Savior, and of His seedless Birth from the Most Holy Virgin Mother of God.
St Acacius peacefully fell asleep in the Lord around the year 435. He should not be confused with St Acacius the Confessor (March 31), who was also a bishop of Melitene.
During Alberic's reign, the new order received definitive approval from Pope Pascal II and was placed under the protection of the Holy See.
The Benedictines of Cîteaux received a white habit and made their solemn professions on March 21, 1098, Passion Sunday.

1134 Stephen Harding one of the founders of the Cistercians  OSB Cist. Abbot (RM).  At Citeaux in France, St. Stephen, abbot, who was first to live in the Cistercian desert and who joyfully welcomed St. Bernard and his companions when they came to him.
Born probably in Sherborne, Dorsetshire, England; died at Cîteaux, France, March 28; canonized in 1623; his feast is celebrated on July 16 among the Cistercians..  Stephen assisted at the death of Alberic on January 26, 1109. Alberic was the first of the trio to prepare a meeting place for them with God. Stephen missed Alberic, his friend, his "companion in arms," his "general in the battles of the Lord," in the time that they were placed "in the front line of the battle." Stephen's character and temperament are well expressed in this military language.
In the following year, on March 21, 1110, there was a second departure for eternity. Robert died. Stephen was the sole survivor of the three. This vouched-safe, original Cistercian, however, was not to conform in all points with the Benedictine prototype because he was to become the champion of the most absolute poverty with an almost Franciscan insistence. With the death of Alberic, Stephen found himself elected abbot of Cîteaux against his will.
1419 Blessed Clare Gambacorta both devout and penitential Poor Clares OP Widow (AC).   (also known as Thora or Theodora of Pisa) Born in Venice(?), Italy, in 1362; beatified by Pope Pius VIII in 1830. At last Peter Gambacorta relented, and not only allowed his daughter to enter the Dominican priory of Holy Cross, but promised to build another house of the order. She now became associated with Mary Mancini, also a widow, and destined like herself to be raised to the altars of the Church. The teaching of St Catherine of Siena strongly influenced the two women who, when they were transferred to Gambacorta’s new foundation in 1382, succeeded in inaugurating observance of their rule in its primitive austerity. This house, in which Bd Clare was at first sub-prioress and then prioress, became the training centre for many saintly women who afterwards carried the reform movement to other Italian cities. To this day, enclosed Dominican nuns are often spoken of in Italy as “Sisters of Pisa”. They led a contemplative life of prayer, manual work and study: “Never forget”, said Bd Clare’s director, “that in our order very few have become saints who were not likewise scholars.”   Bd Clare was a great sufferer towards the close of her life, and as she lay on her death-bed with outstretched arms, she was heard to murmur, “My Jesus, here I am upon the cross”. Just before she died, however, her face was illuminated with a radiant smile and she blessed her daughters absent as well as present. She had reached the age of fifty-seven years. Her cultus was confirmed in 1830.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 18
 185  St. Apollonius the Apologist Roman senator Martyr whose Apologia or defense of the faith is considered one of the most priceless documents of the early Church.   THE Emperor Marcus Aurelius had persecuted the Christians on principle, but his son Commodus, who succeeded him about the year 180, although a vicious man, showed himself not unfavourably disposed towards them. During the cessation of active persecution under his reign, the number of the faithful greatly increased, many men of rank enlisting themselves under the banner of the cross. Amongst these was a Roman senator called Apollonius, who was well versed in philosophy as well as in the Holy Scriptures. In the midst of the peace which the Church was enjoying, he was denounced as a Christian by one of his own slaves to Perennis, the praetorian prefect. The laws against the Christians had not been repealed and, although the slave was promptly put to death as an informer, Perennis called upon Apollonius to renounce his religion. As the saint refused, the prefect referred him to the judgement of the Roman senate. In their presence the martyr who, possibly on account of his learning and social position, seems to have been treated with a certain exceptional consideration, debated with Perennis and boldly gave an account of his faith. As Apollonius persisted in his refusal to offer sacrifice, he was condemned and decapitated; another, less probable, account tells us that he was put to death by having his legs crushed.
When the senator refused to apostatize, the case was remanded to the Senate, where a remarkable dialogue took place between Perennis and Apollonius. Because of his influence in society, those judging him paid close attention to his defense of Christianity, which is recorded in the Roman Martyrology.

"Are you bent on dying?" asked Perennis.
"No," said Apollinius, "I enjoy life; but love of life does not make me afraid to die. There is waiting for me something better: eternal life, given to the person who has lived well on earth."
Apollinius pointed out that everyone must die and that it was better to die for the sake of true belief and the true God than to die of some ordinary disease because a martyr becomes the seed of new Christians. He argued that Christianity is superior by its concepts of death and life: death is a natural necessity which has nothing frightening about it, while the true life is the life of the soul.  He explained that paganism is futile because idols are human artefacts without life, automony, reason, or virtue. Saint Apollinius then took the opportunity to give the whole court a reasoned apology of his Christian faith, which is a moving, direct summary of the entire Christian creed. Above all, he reasoned, Christianity surpasses paganism through the salvific work of Jesus Christ, the revealing Word of God and teacher of moral life, who became man to destroy sin by his death. Apollonius continued that Christ's death was prophesied both by Scripture and by Plato.
639 St. Laserian monk abbot Bishop papal legate brother of St. Goban ordained priest by Saint Gregory the Great.  
THE early history of St Laisren is very uncertain in view of the discrepancy between the various accounts which have come down to us. He is said to have spent several years at Iona, and then to have proceeded to Rome where he received ordination from Pope St Gregory the Great. We next find him at Leighlin, on the banks of the Barrow, in a monastery presided over by its founder, St Goban. At a synod held at White Fields in the immediate vicinity, St Laisren was foremost in upholding the Roman date for keeping Easter as against the Columban usage still widely prevalent in Ireland. The conference, which was conducted with great courtesy on both sides, could come to no conclusion, and it was decided to send St Laisren with a deputation to refer the matter to the pope. On this second visit to Rome, the saint was consecrated bishop by Honorius and appointed papal legate for Ireland. In this capacity he would seem to have succeeded in practically settling the paschal controversy as far as the south of Ireland was concerned. About two years after the synod, St Goban resigned the government of the monastery to St Laisren, who ruled it until his death. His feast is kept throughout Ireland.
820 Saint John disciple of St Gregory of Decapolis born end of the eighth century opposition to Iconoclast heresy    The post of cantor, which he held, was dear to him, for the Divine Office was his passion: he would become so much absorbed in it as to be oblivious to all things else. He eventually became abbot, and the monastery prospered greatly under his rule, his prestige being so great that outsiders eagerly assisted him in carrying out his schemes; and privileges were granted to the abbey by Pope Alexander III. When St Idesbald died, his brethren, in deference to his great sanctity, departed from the custom of the order and laid him in a coffin which they buried in their church. His body, which was found to be incorrupt 450 years after his death, now lies at Bruges.
1145 The Departure of Pope Gabriel II, the 70th Pope of Alexandria who was known as Ibn Turaik transcribed many Arabic and Coptic books retained its contents and comprehended its interpretations.  {Coptic}.  On this day of the year 861 A.M. (April 5th., 1145 A.D.) the great and holy father Pope Gabriel II, the seventy Pope of the See of St. Mark, who was known as Ibn Turaik, departed. This Pope was from the nobles of Cairo, and he was a writer, scribe, distinguished scholar, with a commendable conduct. He transcribed with his hand many Arabic and Coptic books, he retained its contents and comprehended its interpretations. The elders of the people and the clergy chose him for the Patriarchal Chair, and his enthronement was on the 9th day of Amshir, 847 A.M. (February 3rd., 1131 A.D.).
When he prayed his first Divine Liturgy in St. Macarius monastery as the custom of the previous Patriarchs, at the end of the Liturgy, he added to the profession after the saying: "I believe and confess to the last breath, that this is the life-giving Flesh that Thine Only-Begotten Son, our Lord, God and Savior, Jesus Christ, took from our Lady, the Lady of us all, the holy Mother of God, Saint Mary," this sentence "He made it one with His Divinity." The monks objected, lest it would be understood from that there was mingling between His Divinity and His Humanity, and asked him to refrain from using it. He refused saying: "This statement was added by a decree from the council of bishops." After a great and lengthy discussion, they decided to add this sentence: "Without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration," because of the fear of falling in the heresy of Eutyches, and he agreed with them.
During his papacy, he ordained 53 bishops and many priests, he drew up Canons and laws concerning inheritance, and many other matters. He never took any money from anyone, nor he touched the revenue of the churches, or that of the religious endowments for the poor. When the governor of that time asked him for money, the nobles and people collected three hundred Dinars in gold and gave them to the governor on his behalf. He remained on the Episcopal Chair for fourteen years, two month and two days, then departed in peace.
May his prayers be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.

1176 St. Galdinus Cardinal of Milan fierce opponent of the Lombards.  MILAN honours as one of its principal patrons the holy Galdinus, whose name appears associated with those of St Ambrose and St Charles Borromeo at the close of every litany of the Milanese rite. A member of the famous Della Scala family, he occupied the posts of chancellor and archdeacon under two archbishops of Milan, winning the confidence of clergy and people by the manner in which he shouldered his responsibilities at a very difficult epoch.
When Pope Alexander III was elected in 1159, a few dissentient cardinals promptly elected a rival pope more favourable to the pretensions of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Milan had already offended the emperor by claiming the right to select its own magistrates, but when the citizens acknowledged Alexander III he became further incensed against them. Archbishop Hubert and his archdeacon Galdinus were obliged to withdraw into exile, and the following year Frederick, with a great army, invested the city, which surrendered after a siege. It was by his orders that the reputed bodies of the Three Magi were then removed from the church of St Eustorgius to Cologne, where the greater part of these “relics” still remain.

1256  St. Buonfiglio Monaldo 1240 of Servants of Mary, or Servites  inspired by vision on feast of the Assumption to a life of solitude and prayer february 12.  Apud montem Senárium, in Etrúria, natális sancti Amidǽi Confessóris, e septem Fundatóribus Ordinis Servórum beátæ Maríæ Vírginis, flagrantíssima in Deum caritáte præclári.  Ipsíus tamen ac Sociórum festum prídie Idus Februárii celebrátur.
   

On Mount Senario in Tuscany, St. Amadeo, confessor, one of the seven founders of the Order of Servites of the Blessed Virgin Mary, famous for his ardent love for God. 
His feast, together with that of his companions, is kept on the 12th of February.







13th v. Saint Basil Ratishvili prominent figures 13th-century Church gift of prophecy the Most Holy Theotokos called him to censure King Demetre’s impious rule.He was the uncle of Catholicos Ekvtime III. He labored with the other Georgian fathers at the Iveron Monastery on Mt. Athos. Endowed with the gift of prophecy, St. Basil beheld a vision in which the Most Holy Theotokos called upon him to censure King Demetre’s impious rule. (This is actually St. Demetre the Devoted, who in his youth lived profligately but later laid down his life for his nation.)
Having arrived in Georgia and been brought before the king, the God-fearing father denounced the sovereign’s uncrowned marriage [i.e., a conjugal union without the blessing of the Church]. He promised the king that if he abandoned his present way of life, he would find great happiness and success. St. Basil also condemned the ungodly ways of Georgia’s apostate feudal lords.
But the king and his court disregarded the virtuous elder’s admonitions, and in response St. Basil prophesied: “A vicious enemy will kill you, and your kingdom will remain without refuge. Your children will be scattered, your kingdom conquered, and all your wealth seized. Know that, according to the will of the Most Holy Theotokos, everything I have told you will come to pass unless you repent and turn from this way of life. Now I will depart from you in peace.”
St. Basil returned to Mt. Athos and peacefully reposed at the Iveron Monastery.  His vision was fulfilled.
1602 Blessed Andrew Hibernon converted many Moors by his frank simplicity OFM (AC).   1602 BD ANDREW HIBERNON God was pleased to glorify him by giving him the gifts of prophecy and of miracles,  ANDREW HIBERNON came of noble Spanish stock, but his parents, who lived at Alcantarilla, near Murcia, were so poor that at a very early age the boy hired himself out to an uncle, in order to contribute to the support of his family. He had gradually amassed a sum sufficient to provide a dowry for his sister, and was taking it home in triumph, when he was set upon by thieves who robbed him of all. Bitterly disappointed, he now began to realize the uncertainty of earthly riches compared with the heavenly treasure which is eternal. He entered a house of Conventual Franciscans which he soon left to pass to a convent of the Alcantarine reform, where he was professed as a lay-brother. He sought to live a hidden life of self-effacement, humility and prayer, but God was pleased to glorify him by giving him the gifts of prophecy and of miracles. Many owed their conversion to him. The holy man foretold the date of his own death, which occurred at Gandia when he was in his sixty-eighth year.
St Pascal Baylon and Bd John de Ribera made Andrew’s name widely known; but he had been locally honoured as a saint even in his life-time, and he was beatified in 1791.

19 th v.    Departure of Anba Isaac, Disciple of Anba Apollo "I was not fleeing from men but from Satan. If a man hold a lighted lamp in the wind, it will be extinguished. So, it is with us when our hearts and minds shine because of the prayers and the Liturgy then we talk with each other, our hearts and minds become dark." {Coptic}

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 19
1st v. St. Timon 1/7 Deacons chosen by the Apostles to minister to Nazarene of Jerusalem.
1st v. St. Timon century 1/7 Deacons chosen by the Apostles to minister at Nazarene of Jerusalem
Corínthi natális sancti Timónis, qui fuit unus de septem primis Diáconis.  Hic primo apud Berœam Doctor resédit, ac deínde, verbum Dómini disséminans, venit Corínthum; ibíque, a Judǽis et Græcis (ut tráditur) injéctus flammis, sed nihil læsus, demum, cruci affíxus, martyrium suum implévit.
    At Corinth, the birthday of St. Timon, one of the first seven deacons, who was first a teacher at Berea.  Afterwards, while preaching the word of the Lord at Corinth, he was delivered to the flames by the Jews and the Greeks, but remaining uninjured, he ended his martyrdom by crucifixion.
One of the Seven Deacons chosen by the Apostles to assist in the ministering to the Nazarene community of Jerusalem. He was mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (6:5), although the traditions concerning him are confusing. Timon the Deacon M (RM) 1st century. One of the first seven deacons (Acts 6:5), Saint Timon is said to have been crucified in Corinth, though there are conflicting stories about his life (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

 396  St. Crescentius A disciple of St. Zenobius and St. Ambrose.  At Florence, St. Crescent, confessor, a disciple of the blessed Bishop Zenobius who served as a subdeacon of Florence, Italy. Crescentius of Florence (RM) Subdeacon to Saint Zenobius(c. 390) the bishop of Florence, Crescentius was also a disciple of Saint Ambrose (340-397). In art, Saint Crescentius is a deacon (1) with a censer and chalice, (2) with a censer and book, or (3) tending the sick (Roeder). He is especially venerated in Florence, Italy (Roeder). (Attwater2, Benedictines).
  814  George of Antioch monk bishop of Antioch Pisidia BM (RM)814 George of Antioch monk bishop of Antioch Pisidia second Council of Nicaea (797), which condemned the iconoclasts BM (RM)
Antiochíæ Pisídiæ sancti Geórgii Epíscopi, qui, ob sanctárum Imáginum cultum, exsul occúbuit.
    At Antioch in Pisidia, St. George, a bishop, who died in exile for the veneration of sacred images.  
Saint George was a monk before becoming bishop of Antioch, Pisidia. He participated in the second Council of Nicaea (797), which condemned the iconoclasts.
He stand against the heresy led him to be banished by emperor Leo V the Armenian. George died in exile (Benedictines).

1012   St. Alphege Archbishop "1st Martyr of Canterbury." famed for care of poor and austere life incorrupt in 1105.  St ALPHEGE (Aelfheah; Elphege) when a young man entered the monastery of Deerhurst in Gloucestershire. Afterwards he withdrew to a deserted place near been refounded by St Dunstan. As an abbot Alphege would never tolerate the slightest relaxation of the rule, for he realized how easily a small concession may begin to undermine the regular observance of a religious house; he used to say that it was far better for a man to remain in the world than for him to become an imperfect monk.
Upon the death of St Ethelwold in 984, St Dunstan obliged Alphege to accept the bishopric of Winchester, although he was only thirty years of age and shrank from the responsibility. In this position his high qualities and exceptional abilities found a wider scope. His liberality to the poor was so great that during the period of his episcopate there were no beggars in the diocese of Winchester. Adhering to the austerity of his monastic days, he became so thin through prolonged fasts that men declared they could see through his hands when he uplifted them at Mass. The holy prelate had ruled his see wisely for twenty-two years when he was translated to Canterbury in. succession to Archbishop Aelfric. In order to be invested with the pallium, he paid a visit to Rome, where he was received by Pope John XVIII. 
1054    Leo IX "the pilgrim pope" - reformer deacon a stern bishop holy man & army officer  Pope (RM).   1054 Leo IX "the pilgrim pope" - reformer deacon a stern bishop holy man & army officer attempted stopping the schism  (RM)
Romæ sancti Leónis Papæ Noni, virtútum et miraculórum laude insígnis.
    At Rome, Pope St. Leo IX, illustrious for his virtues and his miracles.
1054 ST LEO IX, POPE St Benedict, who touched him with a cross was completely cured severe blood-poisoning
ALSACE, at that period a part of the Holy Roman Empire, was the birthplace of St Leo IX in the year 1002.  His father Hugh, who was closely related to the emperor, and his mother Heilewide were a pious and cultured pair of whom it is recorded, as though it were somewhat unusual, that they spoke fluent French as well as their own German tongue.

In the summer of 1048 Pope Damasus II died after a pontificate of twenty-three days, and the Emperor Henry III chose his kinsman Bruno of Toul as his successor.  He set out for Rome, stopping at Cluny on the way, where he was joined by the monk Hildebrand, afterwards Pope St Gregory VII. His nomination having been endorsed in due form, Bruno was enthroned, taking the name of Leo IX, early in 1049.
It was Leo who first promulgated the proposal to vest the election of future popes exclusively in the Roman cardinals—a suggestion which became law five years after his death. Amongst the monarchs with whom St Leo maintained friendly relations was St Edward the Confessor, whom he authorized to refound Westminster Abbey in lieu of a pilgrimage he had undertaken to make to Rome. During his pontificate King MacBeth is said to have visited the Holy See—perhaps in expiation of his crimes.
Luchesio and his wife Buonadonna wanted to follow St. Francis as a married couple. Thus they set in motion the Secular Franciscan Order.
1260 Blessed Luchesio and Buonadonna they set in motion the Secular Franciscan Order.   Luchesio and Buonadonna lived in Poggibonzi where he was a greedy merchant. Meeting Francis—probably in 1213—changed his life. He began to perform many works of charity.
At first Buonadonna was not as enthusiastic about giving so much away as Luchesio was. One day after complaining that he was giving everything to strangers, Buonadonna answered the door only to find someone else needing help. Luchesio asked her to give the poor man some bread. She frowned but went to the pantry anyway. There she discovered more bread than had been there the last time she looked. She soon became as zealous for a poor and simple life as Luchesio was. They sold the business, farmed enough land to provide for their needs and distributed the rest to the poor.

In the 13th century some couples, by mutual consent and with the Church’s permission, separated so that the husband could join a monastery (or a group such as Francis began) and his wife could go to a cloister. Conrad of Piacenza and his wife did just that. This choice existed for childless couples or for those whose children had already grown up. Luchesio and Buonadonna wanted another alternative, a way of sharing in religious life, but outside the cloister.

To meet this desire, Francis set up the Secular Franciscan Order. Francis wrote a simple Rule for the Third Order (Secular Franciscans) at first; Pope Honorius III approved a more formally worded Rule in 1221.

1289 Blessed Conrad de'Miliani evangelize Libya advisor to cardinal Masci (later Pope Nicholas IV) OFM (AC)  great a devotion to the Sacred Passion that he was sometimes allowed to behold our Lord crowned with thorns and to take part in His sufferings.  1289 BD CONRAD OF ASCOLI great a devotion to the Sacred Passion that he was sometimes allowed to behold our Lord crowned with thorns and to take part in His sufferings
THE power of foreseeing the future is a gift which is seldom bestowed upon the young, but Conrad Miliani of Ascoli was a mere boy when, as we are told, he knelt before a peasant lad called Jerome Masci and greeted him, whether in jest or earnest, as destined to become pope. The prophecy was fulfilled in time, for Jerome in due course occupied the chair of St Peter as Nicholas IV. Although Conrad was of noble birth, there sprang up between the two youths a close friendship which was to prove lifelong. Together they entered the Franciscan Order, together they were professed, together they studied, and they received their doctor’s degree at Perugia on the same day.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 20
1st v. Apostle Zacchaeus climbed tree to see the Savior pass by accompanied St Peter Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine;   on his travels Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine
The holy Apostle Zacchaeus was a rich publican at Jericho. Since he was short of stature, he climbed a sycamore tree in order to see the Savior passing by. After the Ascension of the Lord, St Zacchaeus accompanied St Peter on his travels. Tradition says he became the Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, where he died in peace.
The Gospel (Luke 19:1-10) describing Zacchaeus' encounter with Christ is read on the Sunday before the TRIODION begins.
      Departure of St. Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem (Coptic).  On this day, the holy father Anba Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem, departed. This holy father was Bishop of Cappadocia, and he came to the city of Jerusalem to receive the blessing of the holy places and then return to his country.
St. Narcissus, who was the Bishop of Jerusalem at that time (Second century - his departure on the first day of Baramhat), was advanced in age and had reached over 110 years. He often asked his people that he wished to retire from his See, but they refused. When St. Alexander finished his visit and decided to return to his Chair in Cappadocia, the people of Jerusalem heard a voice from heaven saying: "Go to the gate of the city, and the first one to enter it, seize him and make him stay with Narcissus to assist him." When they went to the gate they met the Bishop Alexander, and they pleaded with him to stay with Abba Narcissus to assist him. He refused because he could not leave his flock that the Lord Christ had entrusted him with. They told him about the voice which they had heard from heaven and that it was God's Will. He accepted and wrote to the people of his parish what had happened, apologized, and allowed them to appoint another bishop in his place. He remained in Jerusalem, assisting its bishop Anba Narcissus, for about 5 years.
 330 St. Theodore Trichinas one of the most revered in the history of Orthodox monasticism; renowned for many miracles, especially for his power over the demons; from his body issues liquid that imparts health to the sick.  
His life was adorned with miracles, and he had the power to heal the sick. He reposed at the end of the fourth century, or the beginning of the fifth century. A healing myrrh flows from his relics.
The name of St Theodore Trichinas is one of the most revered in the history of Orthodox monasticism. St Joseph the Hymnographer (April 4) has composed a Canon to the saint.
Marcellinus crossed over to Europe with fellow missionaries Vincent and Domninus. They preached the Gospel in what was later called the Dauphiné. Marcellinus was consecrated the first bishop of Embrun by Saint Eusebius of Vercelli. Numerous legends tell of cures and other miracles worked by Marcellinus, some of which are reported by Saint Gregory of Tours. Near the end of his life, he was persecuted by the Arians, whom he bitterly opposed, and was forced to live in isolation in the Auvergne hills.
  374 Marcellinus African priest of Embrun BM Vincent, & Domninus missionaries MM (RM).  At Embrun in France, St. Marcellin, first bishop of that city.  By divine inspiration he came from Africa with his holy companions Vincent and Domninus, and converted the greater portion of the inhabitants of the Maritime Alps by his preaching, and by the wonderful prodigies which he still continues to work.  Marcellinus crossed over to Europe with fellow missionaries Vincent and Domninus. They preached the Gospel in what was later called the Dauphiné. Marcellinus was consecrated the first bishop of Embrun by Saint Eusebius of Vercelli. Numerous legends tell of cures and other miracles worked by Marcellinus, some of which are reported by Saint Gregory of Tours. Near the end of his life, he was persecuted by the Arians, whom he bitterly opposed, and was forced to live in isolation in the Auvergne hills.
  380 Sainted Betranes and Theotimos were bishops of Lesser Skythia, where the mouth of the Dunaj (Danube) flows into Thrace. Their diocesan cathedral was situated in the city of Toma (Kiustendji). They were Skythians.  The impressive miracles, worked by the saint in the Name of Jesus Christ, so astonished the pagans, that they called him a Roman god.Their diocesan cathedral was situated in the city of Toma (Kiustendji). They were Skythians.
The Church historian Sozomenes gives an account about Sainted Betranes. When the emperor Valens (364-378) stayed in Toma, he began in church to urge the saint to enter into communion with Arian heretics. Saint Betranes boldly answered, that he adhered to the teaching of the holy Nicean fathers and, in order to avoid bantering, he went off to another of the city churches. And all the people followed after him. There remained in the deserted church only the emperor with his retinue. For such audacity the emperor condemned the saint to exile, but he feared the grumbling of the crowd and let him go free. The Skyths loved their archpastor and they cared about him as a good and saintly man.

 685 Monk Saint Anastasius of Sinai one of the great ascetics who flourished on Mt. Sinai humility received wisdom and spiritual discernment from God wrote Lives of several holy Fathers & other spiritually instructive books.   ENGLISH-SPEAKING visitors to the crypt of St Peter’s at Rome often have their attention called to the epitaph which eulogizes an English king buried in that hallowed spot.
Caedwalla in 685 began a campaign to obtain and to enlarge the West Saxon kingdom. After several years of savage fighting he made a pilgrimage to Rome, where he received baptism at the hands of Pope St Sergius I on Easter eve in the year 689. The king was taken ill almost immediately afterwards, and died— as Bede tells us he had wished to die—while still wearing his white baptismal garment. He was buried in the archbasilica, and his long metrical epitaph (without the prose addition given by Bede) has been preserved from the original stone in old St Peter’s. Caedwalla was the first of several Anglo-Saxon kings who are recorded to have left their kingdoms to go ad limina Apostolorum, but there is no evidence that there was any ancient cultus of him.

1317 St. Agnes of Montepulciano Nun foundress in Tuscany noted for visions (of Christ Blessed Virgin angels) levitations miracles for the faithful (1435 - incorrupt).  She was born circa 1268 and at the age of nine entered the monastery of Montepulciano, near her home in Gracchiano-Vecchio. Four years later she was commissioned by Pope Nicholas IV to assist in the foundation of a new convent in Procena. At fifteen she became the head of the nuns there. About 1300, the people of Montepulciano built a new convent in order to lure Agnes back to them. She established a convent under the Dominican rule and governed there until her death in 1317.
Agnes was noted for her visions. She held the infant Christ in her arms and received Holy Communion from an angel. She experienced levitations and she performed miracles for the faithful of the region. She is still revered in Tuscany.
Agnes of Montepulciano, OP V (RM) Born in Gracchiano-Vecchio, Tuscany, Italy, in 1268; died at Montepulciano, Tuscany, on April 20, 1317; canonized by Benedict XIII in 1726.

1818-1894 St. Conrad of Parzham porter, a job Conrad held for 41 years;  enthusiastically promoted the Seraphic Work of Charity, which aided neglected children.  He made his profession in 1852 and was assigned to the friary in Altoetting. That city’s shrine to Mary was very popular; at the nearby Capuchin friary there was a lot of work for the porter, a job Conrad held for 41 years.  At first some of the other friars were jealous that such a young friar held this important job. Conrad’s patience and holy life overcame their doubts. As porter he dealt with many people, obtaining many of the friary supplies and generously providing for the poor who came to the door. He treated them all with the courtesy Francis expected of his followers.   Conrad’s helpfulness was sometimes unnerving. Once Father Vincent, seeking quiet to prepare a sermon, went up the belltower of the church. Conrad tracked him down when someone wanting to go to confession specifically requested Father Vincent.  Conrad also developed a special rapport with the children of the area. He enthusiastically promoted the Seraphic Work of Charity, which aided neglected children.  Conrad spent hours in prayer before the Blessed Sacrament. He regularly asked the Blessed Mother to intercede for him and for the many people he included in his prayers. The ever-patient Conrad was canonized in 1934.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 21
341 Simeon Barsabae B and 1000 Companions martyred in Persia under King Shapur MM (RM).  PERHAPS the longest individual notice which occurs in the Roman Martyrology is that devoted to a group of Persian martyrs on this day. It runs as follows: “In Persia the birthday of St Simeon, Bishop of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, who was taken by command of Sapor, King of the Persians, loaded with chains, and brought before iniquitous tribunals. As he refused to worship the sun, and bore testimony to Jesus Christ with clear and constant voice, he was first of all kept for a long time in prison with a hundred others, whereof some were bishops, others priests, others clerics of divers ranks; then when Usthazanes, the king’s tutor, who some time before had lapsed from the faith, but whom the bishop had recalled to repentance, had suffered martyrdom with constancy, on the next day, which was the anniversary of the Lord’s passion, the others were all beheaded before the eyes of Simeon, who meanwhile zealously exhorted each of them; and lastly he himself was beheaded. With him there suffered moreover the men of renown Abdechalas and Ananias, his priests; Pusicius also, the overseer of the king’s workmen, fell by a cruel death, because he had sttengthened Ananias when he was wavering, wherefore his neck was severed and his tongue removed; and after him his daughter also was slain who was a holy virgin.”
A hardly less lengthy eulogy is accorded on the next day to another group of Persian martyrs. St Simeon, called Barsabae, i.e. son of the fuller, is mentioned in the first place among the martyrs in the little supplement annexed to the Syriac “Breviarium” of 412 under the heading “The Names of our Masters the Confessors, Bishops of Persia”. There can be no question as to the reality and the cruelty of the persecution which was renewed by Sapor II in 340 or 341, for we hear much about it in Sozomen and other authorities.
 434 St. Maximian Patriarch of Constantinople priest.
Patriarch of Constantinople. He was a Roman priest and a friend of Pope Celestine I, who esteemed him.
Saint Maximian, Patriarch of Constantinople, was born in Rome from wealthy and pious parents. Upon receiving his inheritance, he provided tombs to bury those who led holy lives. St Maximian was a plain man and he preferred to live far from worldly vanity. Because of his pure and virtuous life, Patriarch Sisinius of Constantinople (426-427) ordained him presbyter.
     When the heretic Nestorius (428-431) was deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople, St Maximian replaced him on the patriarchal throne on October 25, 431, during the reign of the holy emperor Theodosius the Younger (408-450). 
The holy Patriarch Maximian died peacefully on April 12, 434, on Great and Holy Thursday.

599 St. Anastasius XI Antioch Patriarch learning holiness comforting afflicted; observed perpetual silence except for
charity
.   ST ANASTASIUS I was a man of much learning and piety. According to Evagrius he was little given to speech, and when people discussed temporal affairs in his presence he seemed to have neither ears to bear nor tongue to make answer; yet he had a great gift for comforting the afflicted.
Anastasius was banished from his see for twenty-three years for opposing erroneous teaching that had the support of the Emperors Justinian I and Justin II, but was restored by the Emperor Maurice at the instance of his friend and correspondent Pope St Gregory I. Several of the bishop’s letters and sermons have survived.
 One would think that a man who did not speak would not get into trouble. Nevertheless, he was a resolute opponent of the imperial politico-theological rule. He vigorously opposed Emperor Justinian's heretical insistence that Jesus, during his mortal life, suffered no pain, i.e., that Christ simply appeared to be a man. For his opposition, Anastasius was threatened with deposition by Justinian, and actually banished from his see for 23 years by Justin II. Anastasius was finally restored to Antioch by Saint Gregory the Great and Emperor Maurice, but died five years later leaving us a legacy of several letters and pious sermons (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
678 Anastasius the Sinaite hermit on Mount Sinai left ascetical and theological writings of considerable value (RM).  A Palestinian hermit on Mount Sinai, Anastasius participated in all the Christological controversies of his time, in Syria, Egypt, and elsewhere. He has left ascetical and theological writings of considerable value (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
700 St. Anastasius the Sinaite Abbot He wrote "The Guide" faith defender  He was a Greek writer born in Alexandria. The abbot of the monastery of Mount Sinai, he was called "the New Moses" because of his outstanding attacks on the various groups trying to influence the Church. He wrote "The Guide", a book defending the faith. This work remained popular for centuries.
  1109 Anselm of Canterbury Doctor of the Church OSB B Cur Deus Homo, the most famous treatise on the Incarnation ever writtenAt Canterbury, England, St. Anselm, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church, renowned for sanctity and learning.
Born in Aosta, Piedmont, Italy, c. 1033; died at Canterbury, England, on Holy Wednesday, April 21, ; canonized and included among the Doctors of the Church by Pope Clement XI in 1720.
   An original and independent thinker, endowed with profound learning, St Anselm was the greatest theologian of his age and the “father of Scholasticism” as a metaphysician he surpassed all Christian doctors since the days of St Augustine. Whilst still prior of Bec, he wrote his Monologium, in which he gave metaphysical proofs of the existence and nature of God, his Proslogium, or contemplation of God’s attributes, as well as treatises on truth, on freewill, on the origin of evil, and a work on the art of reasoning.
    With regard to the training of the young, he held quite modern views.
To a neighbouring abbot, who was lamenting the poor success which attended his educational efforts, he said:
“ If you planted a tree in your garden, and bound it on all sides, so that it could not spread out its branches, what kind of a tree would it prove when in after years you gave it room to spread ? Would it not be useless, with its boughs all twisted and tangled?  But that is how you treat your boys...cramping them with fears and blows, debarring them also from the enjoyment of any freedom.”
    Finding that King William was determined on every possible occasion to oppress the Church unless the clergy would yield to his will, St Anselm sought permission to leave the country that he might consult the Holy See. Twice he was met with refusal, but eventually he was told by the monarch that he might depart if he liked, but that if he did so his revenues would be confiscated and he would never be allowed to return. Nevertheless he set out from Canterbury in October 1097, accompanied by Eadmer and another monk called Baldwin.
On his way, he stayed first with St Hugh, abbot of Cluny, and then with another Hugh, archbishop of Lyons. Upon his arrival in Rome, he laid his case before the pope, who not only assured him of his protection, but wrote to the English king to demand Anselms re-establishment in his rights and possessions. It was while the archbishop was staying in a Campanian monastery, whither he had betaken himself from Rome for the benefit of his health, that he completed his famous book, Cur Deus Homo, the most famous treatise on the Incarnation ever written.


1163 Blessed Fastred of Cambron abbot-founder of Cambron obligation to poverty OSB Cist. Abbot (AC).  At Wertingen in Bavaria, St. Conrad of Parzham, confessor, of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, outstanding both for prayer and for love of neighbour.  Being renowned for miracles, Pope Pius XI enrolled him among the number of the saints.
(also known as Fastrede de Cavamiez) Born in Hainault; Fastred de Cavamiez was received into the Cistercians by Saint Bernard (1153 Dr of the Church). In 1148, he was dispatched with a colony of monks to be abbot-founder of Cambron in Cambrai diocese. In 1157, he became abbot of Clairvaux and, in 1162, of Cîteaux itself. Nevertheless, he never released himself from the obligations of poverty (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Born at Savigliano, Italy, in 1420; died at Cervere, Piedmont, 1466; beatified by Pope Pius IX in 1853.
1466 Blessed Bartholomew of Cervere PhD. precocious solemnity pious converted many heretics worked steadfastly to eradicate heresy OP M (AC).  In the venerable tradition of death in the cause of truth, Blessed Bartholomew of Cerverio was the fourth Dominican inquisitor to win his crown in the Piedmont--the stronghold of the Catharists, who had taken the lives of Saint Peter of Verona, Blessed Peter de'Ruffi, and Blessed Anthony of Pavonio.
Even in his early years Bartholomew displayed a precocious solemnity and piety. He entered the Order of Preachers in Savigliano and progressed rapidly in his studies. On May 8, 1452, Bartholomew received his licentiate, doctorate, and master's degree from the University of Turin; the only time in the history of the university that anyone had acquired three degrees in one day.
Bartholomew taught for a year at the university, then was made prior of his monastery. In his short apostolate of 12 years, he converted many heretics and worked steadfastly to eradicate heresy. He was appointed inquisitor in Piedmont, which made it clear to him that a martyr's death was marked out for him. Being a Dominican in Lombardy was a dangerous business, at best; to be appointed inquisitor meant that the heretics were given a target for their hatred.
1894 St. Conrad of Parzham Franciscan mystic lay brother Marian devotions gift of prophecy read people’s hearts 1894 St. Conrad of Parzham Franciscan mystic lay brother Marian devotions gift of prophecy read people’s hearts
Œttingæ Véteris, in Bavária, sancti Conrádi a Parzham, Confessóris, Ordinis Minórum Capuccinórum, caritáte et oratióne insígnis; quem, miráculis clarum, Pius Papa Undécimus Sanctórum número adscrípsit.
    At Wertingen in Bavaria, St. Conrad of Parzham, confessor, of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, outstanding both for prayer and for love of neighbour.  Being renowned for miracles, Pope Pius XI enrolled him among the number of the saints.
In its external aspects nothing could offer less of sensation or romantic interest than the life of this humble Capuchin lay-brother. Born in the Bavarian village of Parzham of pious parents, simple folk, but not indigent, Conrad was the ninth and youngest of the family.
In Ins early years he set an example of conscientious industry and of great devotion to the Mother of God. After his parents’ death, he entered the noviceship of the Capuchins, being then thirty-one years of age, took his solemn vows in 1852, and shortly afterwards was sent to Altötting, famous for a much venerated shrine of our Lady. There for forty years he discharged the duties of porter, an office which, owing to the multitude of pilgrims who were continually coming and going, offered endless opportunities for the exercise of charity, patience, tact and apostolic zeal. In all these respects he left an ineffaceable impression of self-abnegation and union with God. He seemed to have the gift of reading hearts, and there were occasions on which he manifested a strange knowledge of the future. Worn out with his labours he fell grievously ill in 1894 and died on April 21 of that year. Perhaps the most conclusive testimony to St Conrad’s exceptional virtue is the fact that, though the process of beatification was held up by the war of 1914-1918, he was canonized in 1934, only forty years after his death.



Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 22
 174 Soter, Pope charity personal kindness care for persecuted condemned Montanists (RM).   Soter was pope for eight years, c. 167 to 175 (Harnack prefers 166-174). We possess a fragment of an interesting letter addressed to him by St. Dionysius of Corinth, who writes: "From the beginning it has been your custom to do good to all the brethren in many ways, and to send alms to many churches in every city, refreshing the poverty of those who sent requests, or giving aid to the brethren in the mines, by the alms which you have had the habit of giving from old, Romans keeping up the traditional custom of the Romans; which your blessed Bishop Soter has not only preserved, but has even increased, by providing the abundance which he has sent to the saints, and by further consoling with blessed words with brethren who came to him, as a loving father his children." "Today, therefore, we have kept the holy Lord's day, on which we have read your letter, which we shall always have to read and be admonished, even as the former letter which was written to us by the ministry of Clement." (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., IV, xxiv.) The letter which Soter had written in the name of his church is lost, though Harnack and others have attempted to identify it with the so-called "Second Epistle of Clement" (see CLEMENT OF ROME). The reverence for the pope's paternal letter is to be noticed. The traditional generosity of the Roman Church is again referred to by St. Dionysius of Alexandria to Pope Dionysius in the middle of the third century, and Eusebius says it still continued in his time. Nothing further is known of this pope.
According to the Roman Martyrology, St. Sotor was martyred on April 22 on the Appian Way in Rome. He is buried in the church of St. Sixtus; in the cemetery of St. Callistus, there is a cella (a memorial chapel) dedicated to his memory.

John II Pope 533-535 Pope Agapitus I archdeacon opposed Monophysites Pope (RM) in the opinion of Pope St Gregory I he was “a trumpet of the gospel and a herald of righteousness”.

536 Pope Agapitus I archdeacon opposed Monophysites Pope (RM)
Constantinópoli sancti Agapíti Papæ Primi, cujus sánctitas a beáto Gregório Magno commendátur.  Ipsíus autem corpus, póstea Romam relátum, in Vaticáno cónditum est.
    At Constantinople, Pope St. Agapitus the First, whose sanctity was praised by St. Gregory the Great.  His body was afterwards taken to Rome and buried in the Vatican.











BD BARTHOLOMEW OF CERVERE ancient cultus was approved by Pope Pius IX. 1846--