Saints of this Day April 27  Quinto Kaléndas Maji
Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Totus tuus (completely yours)  Saint Louis Mary de Montfort personal motto
“Mary is the fruitful Virgin, and in all the souls in which she comes to dwell she causes to flourish purity of heart and body, rightness of intention and abundance of good works. Do not imagine that Mary, the most fruitful of creatures who gave birth to a God, remains barren in a faithful soul. It will be she who makes the soul live incessantly for Jesus Christ, and will make Jesus live in the soul” (True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin).

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

Rejoice, Full of Grace April 27 - Our Lady of La Moreneta (Spain)
Fr. Albert Enard, O.P., a French Dominican priest, suggested a modification of the present form of the Hail Mary. He proposed a new translation of the opening word of the Angel's greeting to the Virgin Mary at the Annunciation (Lk 1: 28) to indicate that the angel's message is one of joy. The angel at the Annunciation said chaire: "rejoice" in St Luke's Gospel--translated into Latin as ave. In Latin, ave was a simple word of greeting. Consequently, all the Western European languages (dependent upon the Latin) translated ave as a simple word of greeting:
Hail, Mary; Je vous salue Marie; Dios te salve Maria, etc.

In 1969, a change in the wording of this popular prayer first occurred in Lourdes. "Rejoice" (réjouis-toi) began to be used as the opening words of Ave Maria. Four years later, as the French bishops submitted the texts of the Lectionary to the Congregation for Divine Worship; they requested that the word "Rejoice" (rejouis-toi) be retained in the official liturgical texts. However, their request was denied. "The reasons for the change," the congregation averred, "appear to be less weighty than the reasons for not changing the words of the Hail Mary which are so dear to the Christian people." Accordingly, all the English Lectionaries have retained the phrase Hail Mary.

Meanwhile, Fr. Enard continued his work of showing that the angel's words were not simply words of greeting but a call to great joy. In 1983, his book Réjouis-toi Marie appeared with translations of the commentaries of Greek writers. The Akathist Hymn of the Byzantine Church is an extended meditation on the Annunciation scene, with the refrain "Rejoice, rejoice, o wedded virgin" repeated throughout. St Sophronias, patriarch of Jerusalem, commented, "What will the angel say to the blessed and pure Virgin? How will he communicate the great message? 'Rejoice, you have been filled with grace, the Lord is with you.' When he addressed her, he begins with joy, he who is the announcer of great joy."
Adapted from an article written by Rev. Thomas A. Thompson, SM, The Marian Library Newsletter, Summer 2000 ed.


Ecology and JusticeThat governments may foster the protection of creation
                   and the just distribution of natural resources.

Hope for the SickThat the Risen Lord may fill with hope
the hearts of those who are being tested by pain and sickness.

Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Sunday, April 27, 2014
Second Sunday of Easter or Divine Mercy Sunday
Acts 2:42-47 Psalm 118:2-4, 13-15, 22-24 1 Peter 1:3-9 John 20:19-31
In all He did from the Incarnation to the Cross, the end Jesus Christ had in mind was the gift of the Eucharist, his personal and corporal union with each Christian through Communion. He saw in It the means of communicating to us all the treasures of His Passion, all the virtues of His Sacred Humanity, and all the merits of His Life.
-- St. Peter Julian Eymard

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

 100 Simeon der Bruder des Herrn
 303 Anthimus of Nicomedia for his confession of the Christian faith BM (RM)
       Tarsi, in Cilícia, sanctórum Cástoris et Stéphani Mártyrum.
4th v. Saint Eulogius the Hospitable
 368 Theodore the Sanctified miracles holy water as a sacramental Abbot (RM)
 400 St Liberalis Priest worked to convert Arian heretics
 427 St. Theophilus Bishop of Brescia Italy succeeded St. Gaudentius

  470 ST ASICUS, OR TASSACH, BISHOP OF ELPHIN The Félire of Oengus commemorates St Asicus (on April 14)
 in these terms: “The royal bishop, Tassach, gave when he came unto him the body of Christ, the truly strong King, at the communion unto Patrick”. His feast is observed in all Ireland.

 488 Saint Maughold of Man Irish prince reputedly captain of robbers converted by Patrick B (AC)
 490 St Asicus Abbot-Bishop of Ireland Humble not believing worthy of the office disciple of St. Patrick
 490 St Tertullian 8th Bishop of Bologna, Italy
       St Castor & Stephen 2 martyrs at Tarsus in Cilicia unknown
6th v. St Enoder abbot Grandson of Welsh chieftain Brychan of Brecknock
 731 St Winewald Second abbot of Beverley monastery in England
 746 St Floribert Bishop a man avid in correcting others of Liege Belgium
 813 St John of Constantinople Abbot inveterate opposition to the destruction of icons
1094 Stephen Pechersky abbot of the monastery of the Caves in Kiev
1152 St Adelelmus Hermit founder disciple of St. Bernard of Thiron
1278 St Zita miraculus life daily Mass recite many prayers generous gifts of food to the poor visits to sick & prisoners
        heavenly visions variety of miracles
1304 Bl Peter Armengol twice went from Spain to Africa to redeem captives continued for 10 more years after being
1311 Blessed Antony de'Patrizi superior of hermit friars of Saint Augustine at Monticiano OSA (AC)
1485 Blessed James of Bitetto heroic humility; levitate during prayer; accurately predict the future; incorrupted body
        remains; many miracles
1565 Blessed Hosanna of Cattaro miracle child;
several apparitions OP Tert. V (AC)
1597  Sancti Petri Canísii, Sacerdótis e Societáte Jesu et Confessóris atque Ecclésiæ Doctóris
1606 ST TURIBIUS, Archbishop of LIMA
1624 Blessed Mariana of Jesus life of penance O. Merc. V (AC)
1678 Blessed Nicolas Roland (AC)
1716 St. Louis Mary de Montfort promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church.
       Totus tuus(completely yours) was Louis's personal motto
1919 Blessed Maria Antonia Bandres y Elosegui (AC)

"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him" (Psalm 21:28)
On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"

   Saints of this Day April 27  Quinto Kaléndas Maji  
The saints “a cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
 (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, 61).
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
  Saints of this Day April 27  Quinto Kaléndas Maji
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is general and binds all the followers of Christ. 26  St Patricks 0426 Mar syriac Serbian  Melkite
Monthly Saints with pics here icons
Lutheran Saints  One Saint per day  God's Humourous Saints

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Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
How to Stay Out of PURGATORY -- How to Get others Out     POPES html    Parents of Saints html   
Patron_Saints.html    Angels and Archangels html
Marian Apparitions. html  Doctors_of_the_Church
   We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:


The Five Reasons
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.
Miracles 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000  
1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900 Lay Saints
Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005 Benedict XVI

"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious."  1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR benefit of others.
Non est inventus similis illis
God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (
Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
The Pope said this today before reciting the midday Angelus with several thousand people gathered in the courtyard of the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
Referring to the Gospel reading for today's Mass, the Holy Father reflected on the faith of Peter, which is shown to be "still immature and too much influenced by the 'mentality of this world.'”  He explained that when Christ spoke openly about how he was to "suffer much, be killed and rise again, Peter protests, saying: 'God forbid, Lord! No such thing shall ever happen to you.'"
"It is evident that the Master and the disciple follow two opposed ways of thinking," continued the Pontiff. "Peter, according to a human logic, is convinced that God would never allow his Son to end his mission dying on the cross.  "Jesus, on the contrary, knows that the Father, in his great love for men, sent him to give his life for them, and if this means the passion and the cross, it is right that such should happen."
Christ also knew that "the resurrection would be the last word," Benedict XVI added.
Serious illness
The Pope continued, "If to save us the Son of God had to suffer and die crucified, it certainly was not because of a cruel design of the heavenly Father.  "The cause of it is the gravity of the sickness of which he must cure us: an evil so serious and deadly that it will require all of his blood. 
"In fact, it is with his death and resurrection that Jesus defeated sin and death, reestablishing the lordship of God."

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven.

"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious."  1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR benefit of others.
Non est inventus similis illis

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

"Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person" -- Benedict XVI

"To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).
Paul VI_Athenagoras_05_01_1964
  Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person
 -- Benedict XVI


Benedict XVI_Archbishop_Hilarion
Benedict XVI receives Orthodox Archbishop Hilarion n September 18th, Pope Benedict XVI;  Archbishop Hilarion, president of the Department for External Church Affairs of the Patriarchate of Moscow.
The Orthodox Archbishop is currently visiting the Vatican at the invitation of Cardinal Kasper, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.
This Pontifical Council underlined that the visit will confirm the ties of friendship between the Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church, with a view to closer collaboration and to favor the presence of the Church in the lives of the peoples of Europe and the world.
In addition, a further step in ecumenical relations is scheduled for the month of October in Cyprus: the meeting of the Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, which will address the theme of Petrine Primacy.
Benedict XVI met with Aram I Catholicos of Cilicia, the highest authority of the Orthodox Church.  The Pope remembered the martyrs of the Armenian Church and the Armenian genocide, without explicitly mentioning it, and denounced the persecution of Christians in modern times.  Benedict XVI
That testimony culminated in the twentieth century, which proved a time of Unspeakable suffering for your people. Most recently we have all been saddened by the escalation of persecution and violence against Christians in parts of the Middle East and elsewhere.
The Catholicos is based in Lebanon. That is why, the Pope said, he prays every day for peace in this country and throughout the Middle East. Benedict XVI said there will only be peace in the region when each country is free to decide its own destiny and when every ethnic and religious group accepts and respects the others. Aram I emphasized that the churches must be means for peace and to achieve that they must recognize all genocides, even the Armenian.. The Catholicos recalled his meeting with John Paul II, adding that this visit represents a new step for ecumenical dialogue.
Aram I Catholicos
Our meeting is an opportunity to pray and reflect together, and to renew our commitment and efforts for Christian unity.
Armenian church members from all over the world join with Catholicos in making pilgrimages to Rome.

The great psalm of the Passion, Chapter 22, whose first verse “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”
Jesus pronounced on the cross, ended with the vision: “All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him
For kingship belongs to the LORD, the ruler over the nations. All who sleep in the earth will bow low before God; All who have gone down into the dust will kneel in homage. And I will live for the LORD; my descendants will serve you. The generation to come will be told of the Lord, that they may proclaim to a people yet unborn the deliverance you have brought.
Pope Benedict XVI to The Catholic Church In China {whole article here} 2000 years of the Catholic Church in China
The saints “a cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.


Have mercy on me, O Lady: for thou art called the Mother of Mercy.
And according to thy mercy: cleanse me from all my iniquities.
Pour forth thy grace upon me: and withdraw not from me thine accustomed clemency.
For I will confess my sins to thee: and I will accuse myself of all my crimes before thee.
Reconcile me to the Fruit of thy womb: and make peace for me with Him who has created me.
Join us on Be part of a new movement committed to using powerful media projects to create a Culture of Life. We can help shape the movement and have a voice in its future. Check it out at

Saint Frances Xavier Seelos  Practical Guide to Holiness
1. Go to Mass with deepest devotion. 2. Spend a half hour to reflect upon your main failing & make resolutions to avoid it.
3. Do daily spiritual reading for at least 15 minutes, if a half hour is not possible.  4. Say the rosary every day.
5. Also daily, if at all possible, visit the Blessed Sacrament; toward evening, meditate on the Passion of Christ for a half hour, 6.  Conclude the day with evening prayer & an examination of conscience over all the faults & sins of the day.
7.  Every month make a review of the month in confession.
8. Choose a special patron every month & imitate that patron in some special virtue.
9. Precede every great feast with a novena that is nine days of devotion. 10. Try to begin & end every activity with a Hail Mary

My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not
O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.  I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world, in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended, and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.  I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is general and binds all the followers of Christ.
God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique each the result of a new idea.
As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike.
It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints.

Dear Lord, grant us a spirit not bound by our own ideas and preferences.
Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves.

O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory.
Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.
Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.
The 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary ) Revealed to St. Dominic and Blessed Alan)
1.    Whoever shall faithfully serve me by the recitation of the Rosary, shall receive signal graces. 2.    I promise my special protection and the greatest graces to all those who shall recite the Rosary. 3.    The Rosary shall be a powerful armor against hell, it will destroy vice, decrease sin, and defeat heresies. 4.    It will cause virtue and good works to flourish; it will obtain for souls the abundant mercy of God; it will withdraw the hearts of people from the love of the world and its vanities, and will lift them to the desire of eternal things.  Oh, that soul would sanctify them by this means.  5.    The soul that recommends itself to me by the recitation of the Rosary shall not perish. 6.    Whoever shall recite the Rosary devoutly, applying themselves to the consideration of its Sacred Mysteries shall never be conquered by misfortune.  God will not chastise them in His justice, they shall not perish by an unprovided death; if they be just, they shall remain in the grace of God, and become worthy of eternal life. 7.    Whoever shall have a true devotion for the Rosary shall not die without the Sacraments of the Church. 8.    Those who are faithful to recite the Rosary shall have during their life and at their death the light of God and the plentitude of His graces; at the moment of death they shall participate in the merits of the Saints in Paradise. 9.    I shall deliver from purgatory those who have been devoted to the Rosary. 10.    The faithful children of the Rosary shall merit a high degree of glory in Heaven.  11.    You shall obtain all you ask of me by the recitation of the Rosary. 12.    I shall aid all those who propagate the Holy Rosary in their necessities. 13.    I have obtained from my Divine Son that all the advocates of the Rosary shall have for intercessors the entire celestial court during their life and at the hour of death. 14.    All who recite the Rosary are my children, and brothers and sisters of my only Son, Jesus Christ. 15.    Devotion to my Rosary is a great sign of predestination.
His Holiness Aram I, current (2008) Catholicos of Cilicia of Armenians, whose See is located in Lebanese town of Antelias. The Catholicosate was founded in Sis, capital of Cilicia, in the year 1441 following the move of the Catholicosate of All Armenians back to its original See of Etchmiadzin in Armenia. The Catholicosate of Cilicia enjoyed local jurisdiction, though spiritually subject to the authority of Etchmiadzin. In 1921 the See was transferred to Aleppo in Syria, and in 1930 to Antelias.
Its jurisdiction currently extends to Syria, Cyprus, Iran and Greece.
Aramaic dialect of Edessa, now known as Syriac
The exact date of the introduction of Christianity into Edessa {Armenian Ourhaï in Arabic Er Roha, commonly Orfa or Urfa, its present name} is not known. It is certain, however, that the Christian community was at first made up from the Jewish population of the city. According to an ancient legend, King Abgar V, Ushana, was converted by Addai, who was one of the seventy-two disciples. In fact, however, the first King of Edessa to embrace the Christian Faith was Abgar IX (c. 206) becoming official kingdom religion.
  Christian council held at Edessa early as 197 (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V,xxiii).
In 201 the city was devastated by a great flood, and the Christian church was destroyed (“Chronicon Edessenum”, ad. an. 201).
In 232 the relics of the Apostle St. Thomas were brought from India, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written.
Under Roman domination martyrs suffered at Edessa: Sts. Scharbîl and Barsamya, under Decius; Sts. Gûrja, Schâmôna, Habib, and others under Diocletian. 
In the meanwhile Christian priests from Edessa evangelized Eastern Mesopotamia and Persia, established the first Churches in the kingdom of the Sassanides.  Atillâtiâ, Bishop of Edessa, assisted at the Council of Nicæa (325). The “Peregrinatio Silviæ” (or Etheriæ) (ed. Gamurrini, Rome, 1887, 62 sqq.) gives an account of the many sanctuaries at Edessa about 388.
Although Hebrew had been the language of the ancient Israelite kingdom, after their return from Exile the Jews turned more and more to Aramaic, using it for parts of the books of Ezra and Daniel in the Bible. By the time of Jesus, Aramaic was the main language of Palestine, and quite a number of texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls are also written in Aramaic.
Aramaic continued to be an important language for Jews, alongside Hebrew, and parts of the Talmud are written in it.
After Arab conquests of the seventh century, Arabic quickly replaced Aramaic as the main language of those who converted to Islam, although in out of the way places, Aramaic continued as a vernacular language of Muslims.
Aramaic, however, enjoyed its greatest success in Christianity. Although the New Testament wins written in Greek, Christianity had come into existence in an Aramaic-speaking milieu, and it was the Aramaic dialect of Edessa, now known as Syriac, that became the literary language of a large number of Christians living in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire and in the Persian Empire, further east. Over the course of the centuries the influence of the Syriac Churches spread eastwards to China (in Xian, in western China, a Chinese-Syriac inscription dated 781 is still to be seen); to southern India where the state of Kerala can boast more Christians of Syriac liturgical tradition than anywhere else in the world.

680 Shiite saint Imam Hussein, grandson of Islam's Prophet Muhammad Known as Ashoura and observed by Shiites across the world, the 10th day of the lunar Muslim month of Muharram: the anniversary of the 7th century death in battle of one of Shiite Islam's most beloved saints.  Imam Hussein died in the 680 A.D. battle fought on the plains outside Karbala, a city in modern Iraq that's home to the saint's shrine.  The battle over a dispute about the leadership of the Muslim faith following Muhammad's death in 632 A.D. It is the defining event in Islam's split into Sunni and Shiite branches.  The occasion is the source of an enduring moral lesson. "He sacrificed his blood to teach us not to give in to corruption, coercion, or use of force and to seek honor and justice."  According to Shiite beliefs, Hussein and companions were denied water by enemies who controlled the nearby Euphrates.  Streets get partially covered with blood from slaughter of hundreds of cows and sheep. Volunteers cook the meat and feed it to the poor.  Hussein's martyrdom recounted through a rich body of prose, poetry and song remains an inspirational example of sacrifice to many Shiites, 10 percent of the world's estimated 1.3 billion Muslims.
Meeting of the Saints  walis (saints of Allah)
Great men covet to embrace martyrdom for a cause and principle.
So was the case with Hazrat Ali. He could have made a compromise with the evil forces of his time and, as a result, could have led a very comfortable, easy and luxurious life.  But he was not a person who would succumb to such temptations. His upbringing, his education and his training in the lap of the holy Prophet made him refuse such an offer.
Rabia Al-Basri (717–801 C.E.) She was first to set forth the doctrine of mystical love and who is widely considered to be the most important of the early Sufi poets. An elderly Shia pointed out that during his pre-Partition childhood it was quite common to find pictures and portraits of Shia icons in Imambaras across the country.
Shah Abdul Latif: The Exalted Sufi Master born 1690 in a Syed family; died 1754. In ancient times, Sindh housed the exemplary Indus Valley Civilisation with Moenjo Daro as its capital, and now, it is the land of a culture which evolved from the teachings of eminent Sufi saints. Pakistan is home to the mortal remains of many Sufi saints, the exalted among them being Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, a practitioner of the real Islam, philosopher, poet, musicologist and preacher. He presented his teaching through poetry and music - both instruments sublime - and commands a very large following, not only among Muslims but also among Hindus and Christians. Sindh culture: The Shah is synonymous with Sindh. He is the very fountainhead of Sindh's culture. His message remains as fresh as that of any present day poet, and the people of Sindh find solace from his writings. He did indeed think for Sindh. One of his prayers, in exquisite Sindhi, translates thus: “Oh God, may ever You on Sindh bestow abundance rare! Beloved! All the world let share Thy grace, and fruitful be.”
Shia Ali al-Hadi, died 868 and son Hassan al-Askari 874. These saints are the 10th and 11th of Shia's 12 most revered Imams. Baba Farid Sufi 1398 miracle, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki renowned Muslim Sufi saint scholar miracles 569 A.H. [1173 C.E.] hermit gave to poor, Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti greatest mystic of his time born 533 Hijri (1138-39 A.D.), Hazrat Ghuas-e Azam, Hazrat Bu Ali Sharif, and Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia Sufi Saint Hazrath Khwaja Syed Mohammed Badshah Quadri Chisty Yamani Quadeer (RA)
1236-1325 welcomed people of all faiths & all walks of life
To Save A Life is Earthly; Saving A Soul is Eternal Donation by mail, please send check or money order to:
Eternal Word Television Network 5817 Old Leeds Rd. Irondale, AL 35210  USA
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Mother Angelica saving souls is this beautiful womans journey Shrine_of_The_Most_Blessed_Sacrament
Colombia was among the countries Mother Angelica visited. 
In Bogotá, a Salesian priest - Father Juan Pablo Rodriguez - brought Mother and the nuns to the Sanctuary of the Divine Infant Jesus to attend Mass.  After Mass, Father Juan Pablo took them into a small Shrine which housed the miraculous statue of the Child Jesus. Mother Angelica stood praying at the side of the statue when suddenly the miraculous image came alive and turned towards her.  Then the Child Jesus spoke with the voice of a young boy:  “Build Me a Temple and I will help those who help you.” 

Thus began a great adventure that would eventually result in the Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament, a Temple dedicated to the Divine Child Jesus, a place of refuge for all. Use this link to read a remarkable story about
The Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament
Father Reardon, Editor of The Catholic Bulletin for 14 years Lover of the poor; A very Holy Man of God.
Monsignor Reardon Protonotarius Apostolicus
Pastor 42 years BASILICA OF SAINT MARY Minneapolis MN
America's First Basilica Largest Nave in the World
August 7, 1907-ground broke for the foundation
by Archbishop Ireland-laying cornerstone May 31, 1908
James M. Reardon Publication History of Basilica of Saint Mary 1600-1932
James M. Reardon Publication  History of the Basilica of Saint Mary 1955 {update}

Brief History of our Beloved Holy Priest Here and his published books of Catholic History in North America
Reardon, J.M. Archbishop Ireland; Prelate, Patriot, Publicist, 1838-1918.
A Memoir (St. Paul; 1919); George Anthony Belcourt Pioneer Catholic Missionary of the Northwest 1803-1874 (1955);
The Catholic Church IN THE DIOCESE OF ST. PAUL from earliest origin to centennial achievement
1362-1950 (1952);

The Church of Saint Mary of Saint Paul 1875-1922;
The Vikings in the American Heartland;
The Catholic Total Abstinence Society in Minnesota;
James Michael Reardon Born in Nova Scotia, 1872;  Priest, ordained by Bishop Ireland;
Member -- St. Paul Seminary faculty.
Affiliations and Indulgence Litany of Loretto in Stained glass windows here.  Nave Sacristy and Residence Here
spaces between them filled with grilles of hand-forged wrought iron the
life of our Blessed Lady After the crucifixon
Apostle statues Replicas of those in St John Lateran--Christendom's earliest Basilica.
Ordered by Rome's first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great, Popes' cathedral and official residence first millennium of Christian history.

The only replicas ever made:  in order from west to east {1932}.
Every Christian must be a living book wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel
It Makes No Sense
Not To Believe In GOD
  June 19, Trinity Sunday, 1991: Ordained Catholic Priest under Pope John Paul II;
then 2,000,000 miles delivering the Gospel to millions, and continues to do so.
By Father John Corapi, SOLT
Among the most important titles we have in the Catholic Church for the Blessed Virgin Mary are Our Lady of Victory and Our Lady of the Rosary. These titles can be traced back to one of the most decisive times in the history of the world and Christendom. The Battle of Lepanto took place on October 7 (date of feast of Our Lady of Rosary), 1571. This proved to be the most crucial battle for the Christian forces against the radical Muslim navy of Turkey. Pope Pius V led a procession around St. Peter’s Square in Vatican City praying the Rosary. He showed true pastoral leadership in recognizing the danger posed to Christendom by the radical Muslim forces, and in using the means necessary to defeat it. Spiritual battles require spiritual weapons, and this more than anything was a battle that had its origins in the spiritual order—a true battle between good and evil.

Today we have a similar spiritual battle in progress—a battle between the forces of good and evil, light and darkness, truth and lies, life and death. If we do not soon stop the genocide of abortion in the United States, we shall run the course of all those that prove by their actions that they are enemies of God—total collapse, economic, social, and national. The moral demise of a nation results in the ultimate demise of a nation. God is not a disinterested spectator to the affairs of man. Life begins at conception. This is an unalterable formal teaching of the Catholic Church. If you do not accept this you are a heretic in plain English. A single abortion is homicide. The more than 48,000,000 abortions since Roe v. Wade in the United States constitute genocide by definition. The group singled out for death—unwanted, unborn children.

No other issue, not all other issues taken together, can constitute a proportionate reason for voting for candidates that intend to preserve and defend this holocaust of innocent human life that is abortion.

As we watch the spectacle of the world seeming to self-destruct before our eyes, we can’t help but be saddened and even frightened by so much evil run rampant. Iraq, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Somalia, North Korea—It is all a disaster of epic proportions displayed in living color on our television screens.  These are not ordinary times and this is not business as usual. We are at a crossroads in human history and the time for Catholics and all Christians to act is now. All evil can ultimately be traced to its origin, which is moral evil. All of the political action, peace talks, international peacekeeping forces, etc. will avail nothing if the underlying sickness is not addressed. This is sin. One person at a time hearts and minds must be moved from evil to good, from lies to truth, from violence to peace.

Islam, an Arabic word that has often been defined as “to make peace,” seems like a living contradiction today. Islam is a religion of peace.  As we celebrate the birthday of Our Lady, I am proposing that each one of us pray the Rosary for peace. Prayer is what must precede all other activity if that activity is to have any chance of success. Pray for peace, pray the Rosary every day without fail.  There is a great love for Mary among Muslim people. It is not a coincidence that a little village named Fatima is where God chose to have His Mother appear in the twentieth century. Our Lady’s name appears no less than thirty times in the Koran. No other woman’s name is mentioned, not even that of Mohammed’s daughter, Fatima. In the Koran Our Lady is described as “Virgin, ever Virgin.”

Archbishop Fulton Sheen prophetically spoke of the resurgence of Islam in our day. He said it would be through the Blessed Virgin Mary that Islam would be converted. We must pray for this to happen quickly if we are to avert a horrible time of suffering for this poor, sinful world. Turn to our Mother in this time of great peril. Pray the Rosary every day. Then, and only then will there be peace, when the hearts and minds of men are changed from the inside.
Talk is weak. Prayer is strong. Pray!  God bless you, Father John Corapi

Father Corapi's Biography

Father John Corapi is what has commonly been called a late vocation. In other words, he came to the priesthood other than a young man. He was 44 years old when he was ordained. From small town boy to the Vietnam era US Army, from successful businessman in Las Vegas and Hollywood to drug addicted and homeless, to religious life and ordination to the priesthood by Pope John Paul II, to a life as a preacher of the Gospel who has reached millions with the simple message that God's Name is Mercy!

Father Corapi's academic credentials are quite extensive. He received a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from Pace University in the seventies. Then as an older man returned to the university classrooms in preparation for his life as a priest and preacher. He received all of his academic credentials for the Church with honors: a Masters degree in Sacred Scripture from Holy Apostles Seminary and Bachelor, Licentiate, and Doctorate degrees in dogmatic theology from the University of Navarre in Spain.

Since his ordination to the priesthood in 1991 Fr. Corapi has traveled over 2,000,000 miles preaching the Gospel. He has preached in 49 of the 50 states, all of the Canadian provinces except NewFoundland, and several other foreign countries. He is currently engaged in preaching and teaching the Catholic faith by way of the means of social communication: television, radio, the internet, and various other multi-media formats.

  Father John Corapi goes to the heart of the contemporary world's many woes and wars, whether the wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, Somalia, or the Congo, or the natural disasters that seem to be increasing every year, the moral and spiritual war is at the basis of everything. “Our battle is not against human forces,” St. Paul asserts, “but against principalities and powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness...” (Ephesians 6:12). 
The “War to end all wars” is the moral and spiritual combat that rages in the hearts and minds of human beings. The outcome of that  unseen fight largely determines how the battle in the realm of the seen unfolds.  The title talk, “With the Moon Under Her Feet,” is taken from the twelfth chapter of the Book of Revelation, and deals with the current threat to the world from radical Islam, and the Blessed Virgin Mary's role in the ultimate victory that will result in the conversion of Islam. Few Catholics are aware of the connection between Islam, Fatima, and Guadalupe. Presented in Father Corapi's straight-forward style, you will be both inspired and educated by him.

About Father John Corapi.
Father Corapi is a Catholic priest .
The pillars of father's preaching are basically:
Love for and a relationship with the Blessed Virgin Mary 
Leading a vibrant and loving relationship with Jesus Christ
Great love and reverence for the Most Holy Eucharist from Holy Mass to adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
An uncompromising love for and obedience to the Holy Father and the teaching of the Magisterium of the Church

Marian Apparitions (over 2000)  India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes Feb 11- July 16, Loreto, Italy 1858 
Marian shrines
May 23, 1995 Zarvintisya Ukraine Lourdes Kenya national Marian shrine    Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798  
Links to Related
Marian Websites  Angels and Archangels
Doctors_of_the_Church   Acts_Of_The_Apostles  Roman Catholic Popes  Purgatory  Uniates
Quebec's 1st Bishop Declared a Saint Along With Ursuline Nun Who Educated Girls in New France
Bishop François de Laval de Montmorency Led Newly Established Diocese Covering All French Territory in North America
VATICAN CITY, April 03, 2014 ( - Bishop François de Laval de Montmorency, the first bishop of Quebec, who governed from 1674 to 1688 when the new Diocese of Quebec covered all France's territory in North America, has been declared a saint. The French-born prelate (1623-1708) was one of three recognized as saints today by Pope Francis, in a meeting with Cardinal Angelo Amato, prefect of the Vatican Congregation for Saints' Causes.

Another of those declared a saint was also born in France but carried out her ministry in Canada: Marie of the Incarnacion (born Marie Guyart), French (1599-1672).  The Ursuline nun founded a convent and school to educate girls in New France and her canonization coincides with the 375th anniversary of her arrival in what is today Quebec City.
José de Anchieta, Spanish priest of the Society of Jesus (1534-1597), was also declared a saint today.

A priest and a nun from India were among those the Holy Father recognized as having obtained miracles with their intercession:
- Blessed Kuriacose Elias Chavara, Indian professed priest and founder of the Congregation of the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (1805-1871).
- Blessed Euphrasia of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (born Rose Eluvathingal), Indian professed religious of the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel (1877-1952).
The Pope also recognized miracles attributed to the intercession of:
- Servant of God Giovanni Antonio Farina, Italian bishop and founder of the Institute of the Sisters of Saint Dorothy, Daughters of the Sacred Hearts (1803-1871).
- Blessed Nicola da Longobardi, (born Giovanni Battista Clemente Saggio), Italian oblate friar of the Order of the Minims (1650-1709).

- Servant of God Luigi della Consolata (born Andrea Bordino), Italian professed religious, Brothers of Saint Joseph Benedict Cottolengo (1922-1977).

Heroic virtue
Finally, Pope Francis recognized the heroic virtue of the following:
- Francisco Simon Rodenas, Spanish professed priest of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, bishop of Santa Marta (1849-1914).
- Adolfo Barberis, Italian priest and founder of the Institute of Sisters of Christian Servanthood (1884-1967).
- Marie-Clement (ne Joseph Staub), French professed priest of the Assumptionists and founder of the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joan of Arc (1876-1936).
- Sebastian Elorza Arizmendi, Spanish professed religious of the Order of St. Augustine (1882-1942).
- Maria Teresa of the Eucharistic Jesus (nee Dulce Rodrigues dos Santos), Brazilian foundress of the Congregation of the Little Missionary Sisters of Mary Immaculate (1901-1972).
- Clara de la Concepcion (nee Juana de la Concepcion Sanchez Garcia), Spanish professed religious of the Order of St. Clare (1902-1973).
- Maria Magdalena (nee Maria Giuseppina Teresa Marcucci), Italian professed religious of the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ (1888-1960).
- Luigi Rocchi, Italian layperson (1932-1979).
The Holy Father today received in audience Cardinal Angelo Amato S.D.B., prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, and authorised the promulgation of decrees concerning the following causes:

 - Blessed Giovanni Battista Piamarta, Italian priest and founder of the Congregation of the Holy Family of Nazareth and of the Congregation of the Humble Sister Servants of the Lord (1841-1913).
 - Blessed Jacques Berthieu, French martyr and priest of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) (1838-1896).
 - Blessed Maria del Carmen (born Maria Salles y Barangueras), Spanish foundress of the Conceptionist Missionary Sisters of Teaching (1848-1911).
 - Blessed Maria Anna Cope, nee Barbara, German religious of the Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis in Syracuse U.S.A. (1838-1918).
 - Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha, American laywoman (1656-1680).
 - Blessed Pedro Calungsod, Filipino lay catechist and martyr (1654-1672).
 - Blessed Anna Schaffer, German laywoman (1882-1925).
 - Servant of God Louis Brisson, French priest and founder of the Oblates of St. Francis of Sales (1817-1908).
 - Servant of God Luigi Novarese, Italian diocesan priest and founder of the Silent Workers of the Cross (1914-1984).
 - Servant of God Maria Luisa (nee Gertrude Prosperi), Italian abbess of the convent of the Order of St. Benedict of Trevi (1799-1847).
 - Servant of God Mother St. Louis (nee Maria Luisa Elisabeth de Lamoignon, widow of Mole de Champlatreux), French foundress of the Sisters of St. Louis (1763-1825).
 - Servant of God Maria Crescencia (nee Maria Angelica Perez), Argentinean professed religious of the Congregation of the Daughters of Our Lady of the Orchard (1897-1932).

- Servant of God Nicola Rusca, Swiss diocesan priest, killed in hatred of the faith (1563-1618).
- Servants of God Luis Orencio (ne Antonio Sola Garriga) and eighteen companions of the Institute of Brothers of Christian Schools; Antonio Mateo Salamero, diocesan priest, and Jose Gorostazu Labayen, layman, all killed in hatred of the faith in Spain in 1936.
- Servants of God Alberto Maria Marco y Aleman and eight companions of the Order of Carmelites of the Ancient Observance, and Agustin Maria Garcia Tribaldos and fifteen companions of the Institute of Brothers of Christian Schools; all killed in hatred of the faith in Spain between 1936 and 1937.
- Servants of God Mariano Alcala Perez and eighteen companions of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy, killed in hatred of the faith in Spain between 1936 and 1937.

 - Servant of God Donato Giannotti, Italian diocesan priest and founder of the Congregation of Sisters Handmaidens of the Immaculate Conception (1828-1914).
 - Servant of God Marie-Eugene of the Child Jesus (ne Henri Grialou), French professed priest of the Order of Discalced Carmelites and founder of the Institute of Notre-Dame de Vie (1894-1967).
 - Servant of God Alphonse-Marie (nee Elisabeth Eppinger), French foundress of the Congregation of Sisters of the Blessed Saviour (1814-1867).
 - Servant of God Marguerite Lucia Szewczyk, Polish foundress of the Congregation of the Daughters of the Sorrowful Mother of God - Seraphic Sisters (1828-1905).
 - Servant of God Assunta Marchetti, Italian co-foundress of the Missionary Sisters of St. Charles (1871-1948).
 - Servant of God Maria Julitta (nee Teresa Eleonora Ritz), German professed sister of the Congregation of Sisters of the Redeemer (1882-1966).
 - Servant of God Maria Anna Amico Roxas, Italian laywoman and foundress of the Society of St. Ursula (1883-1947).  VIS 20111219 (580)
100 Simeon der Bruder des Herrn
Orthodoxe Kirche: 27. April Katholische Kirche: 18. Februar

Nach Matth. 13, 55 und Mark. 6, 3 sind Jakobus, Josef bzw. Joses, Simon und Judas Brüder Jesu. Da die immerwährende Jungfräulichkeit Marias Geschwister Jesu von der gleichen Mutter ausschließt, gibt es zwei Erklärungen: Nach einer Überlieferung (insbesondere im katholischen Raum) sind die vier Geschwister Söhne des Kleopas, des Bruders Josephs; nach einer anderen Überlieferung sind sie Söhne Josephs aus einer ersten Ehe mit Solomonia (vgl. auch Anna).

Simon (Simeon oder Symeon) begleitete Jesus und durfte ihn Bruder nennen. Origines und andere berichten, Simon sei der zweite Emmausjünger gewesen. Nach dem Tode seines Bruders Jakobus wurde Simon der zweite Patriarch von Jerusalem. Er starb in hohem Alter von 100 oder 120 Jahren unter Kaiser Trajan den Tod am Kreuz (als Todesjahr werden 98 und 107 angegeben).

303 Anthimus of Nicomedia for his confession of the Christian faith BM (RM)
Nicomedíæ natális sancti Anthimi, Epíscopi et Mártyris; qui in persecutióne Diocletiáni, ob confessiónem Christi, martyrii glóriam obtruncatióne cápitis accépit.  Secúta est quoque illum univérsa ferme gregis sui multitúdo; quorum álios Judex gládio obtruncári, álios conflagrári ígnibus, álios, navículis impósitos, pélago immérgi fecit.
 At Nicomedia, during the persecution of Diocletian, the birthday of St. Anthimus, bishop and martyr, who obtained the glory of martyrdom by being beheaded for the faith.  Nearly all his numerous flock followed him.  The judge ordered some to be beheaded, others to be burned alive, others to be put in boats and sunk in the sea.

303 ST ANTHIMUS Bishop OF Nicomedia

THE persecution under Diocletian and Maximian was waged, with particular ferocity at Nicomedia in Bithynia, where the emperors had a favourite residence. When the edict was first posted up, it was torn down by a Christian, moved by a zeal which Lactantius condemns but Eusebius commends. From that time the faithful could neither buy nor sell, draw water or grind corn without being called upon to offer incense to the gods. Eusebius, after relating that Anthimus the bishop was beheaded for confessing the Christian faith, states that an immense number of other martyrs perished also. He adds: “In those days, I do not know how, a fire broke out in the palace, and a false report was spread that we originated it. By the emperor’s’ orders all who were servants of God perished in masses, some by the sword, others by fire. A certain number of men and women, spurred on by an inexplicable divine inspiration, are said to have rushed into the blazing pyre. Innumerable others, bound and placed on rafts or planks, were drowned in the sea.” Nearly the whole of the Christian population proved faithful and won the crown of martyrdom. With St Anthimus are also sometimes associated eleven of his fellow-martyrs.
See the Acts Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, where besides the allusions of Eusebius and the martyrologies, there is printed a late Greek text of the supposed Acts of St Anthimus. The unreliable legend of SS. Indes and Domna speaks of letters addressed to these martyrs by St Anthimus, but there is no reason to believe him to have been an author. Consequently a curious fragment which Cardinal G. Mercati edited in Studi e Testi, n. 5 (1901), and which purports to be part of a dissertation “on the Holy Church” by St Anthimus, is not likely to be authentic. See Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur, vol. ii, pp. 333~334.

Born in Nicomedia, Bithynia; Bishop Anthimus of Nicomedia was beheaded under Diocletian for his confession of the Christian faith. His death was followed by a wholesale slaughter of the Christian communities in the area. In addition, life in the area was made unbearable for altars to the pagan gods were set up in every public place, including the courts and markets. Individuals were required to sacrifice in order to transact any type of business (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
Tarsi, in Cilícia, sanctórum Cástoris et Stéphani Mártyrum.
 At Tarsus in Cilicia, the Saints Castor and Stephen, martyrs.
 St. Castor & Stephen 2 martyrs at Tarsus in Cilicia unknown
They were possibly the martyrs listed in the preceding entry.
Castor and Stephen MM (RM) Date unknown. Castor and Stephen suffered martyrdom at Tarsus in Cilicia in one of the early persecutions. They may be identical to Saints Castor and Dorotheus (Benedictines).
4th v. Saint Eulogius the Hospitable
lived during the fourth century in the Thebaid. He served the Lord by offering hospitality to wanderers (Mark 9:41).

368 Theodore the Sanctified; miracles holy water as a sacramental Abbot (RM)
In Ægypto sancti Theodóri Abbátis, qui fuit discípulus sancti Pachómii. In Egypt, St. Theodore, abbot, who was a disciple of St. Pachomius.
(also known as Theodore of Tabenna) Died April 27, c. 368; feast day in the East is May 16. Saint Theodore was a disciple of Saint Pachomius, whom he succeeded as abbot of Tabennisi and superior general of the whole "congregation." One of his miracles provides an early example of the efficacy of holy water as a sacramental (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia)
SUCH was the glory which the Church received in the fourth and fifth centuries from the light of the monastic order which then shone in the deserts of Egypt that Theodoret and Procopius apply to the state of these holy recluses those passages of the prophets in which it is said of the age of the new law of grace that, "The wilderness shall rejoice and shall flourish like the lily; it shall bud forth and blossom, and shall rejoice with joy and praise" (Isaias xxxv 1, 2, etc.).
   One of the most eminent among these saints was the abbot Theodore, disciple of St Pachomius. He was born in the Upper Thebaid about the year 314, of wealthy parents, and when he was between eleven and twelve years of age, on the feast of the Epiphany, he gave himself to God with precocious fervour, determining that he would never prefer anything to the divine love and service. Eventually the reputation of St Pachomius drew him to Tabenna, where he appeared among the foremost in promise of his followers, and Pachomius made him his companion when he made the visitation of his monasteries. Pachomius had him promoted to the priesthood and committed to him the government of Tabenna, shutting himself up in the little monastery of Pabau.

   St Pachomius died in 346, and Petronius, whom he had declared his successor, died thirteen days after him. St Orsisius was then chosen abbot, but finding the burden too heavy for his shoulders and the group of monasteries threatened with rising factions, he placed St Theodore in charge. He assembled the monks, exhorted them to unanimity, inquired into the cause of the divisions and applied effectual remedies. By his prayers and endeavours union and charity was restored.
St Theodore visited the monasteries one after the other, and instructed, comforted and encouraged every monk in particular, correcting faults with a sweetness which gained the heart. He wrought several miracles, and foretold things to come. Being one day in a boat on the Nile with St Athanasius, he assured him that his persecutor,
Julian the Apostate, was that moment dead in Persia and that his successor would restore peace to him and the Church: both of which were soon confirmed. One of St Theodore's miracles provides an early example of the use of blessed water as a sacramental for the healing of body and soul. The story is told by a contemporary-St Ammon. A man came to the monastery at Tabenna, asking St Theodore to come and pray over his daughter, who was sick. Theodore was not able to go, but reminded the man that God could hear his prayer wherever they were offered. To which the man replied that he had not a great faith, and brought a silver vessel of water, asking the monk that he would at least invoke the name of God upon that so it might be as a medicine for her. Then Theodore prayed and made the sign of the cross over the water, and the man took it home. He found his daughter unconscious, so he forced open her mouth and poured some of it down her throat. And by virtue of the prayer of St Theodore the girl was saved and recovered her health.

It is related that once while St Theodore was giving a conference to his monks, who were working at the same time making mats, two vipers crawled about his feet from under a stone. So as not to interrupt himself or disturb his audience he set his foot upon them till he had finished his discourse. Then taking away his foot he let them be killed, having received no harm. One of his monks happening to die on Holy Saturday in 368, Theodore went to assist him in his last moments, and said to those that were present, "This death will shortly be followed by another which is little expected". At the close of the week St Theodore made a customary discourse to his monks, for it was their custom to meet all together in the monastery of Pabau for the celebration of Easter, and had no sooner dismissed them to their own monasteries than he was taken ill, and died peacefully on April 27. His body was carried to the top of the mountain, and buried in the cemetery of the monks there, but it was soon removed and laid with that of St Pachomius. St Athanasius wrote to the monks of Tabenna to comfort them for the loss of their abbot, and bids them have before their eyes the glory of which he was then possessed.
Such information as was available in the seventeenth century concerning the history of St Theodore will be found collected in the account of St Pachomius which was published in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii. A number of new texts have come to light, mostly in Coptic, or in translations from Coptic sources: see the bibliography given herein under St Pachomius (May 9). But for the life of St Theodore the Epistola Ammonis is especially important: it is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, pp. 63-71. For English readers much may be learnt from H. G. Evelyn White, The Monasteries of the Wadi n'Natrun, pt ii, but heed must be paid also to the criticisms published thereon by P. Peeters in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. li (1933), pp. 152-157. The Greeks commemorate this saint in May, and the Roman Martyrology formerly on December 28, but in the latest editions he is named on the date of his death, April 27.
400 St. Liberalis Priest worked to convert Arian heretics
who worked to convert the Arians and was persecuted in turn in Ancona, Italy. His relics are in Treviso.
Liberalis of Ancona (AC) Father Liberalis worked zealously in the district around Ancona to convert the Arians and, of course, he suffered much at their hands. His relics are enshrined at Treviso (Benedictines).
427 St. Theophilus Bishop of Brescia Italy succeeded St. Gaudentius
Bríxiæ sancti Theóphili Epíscopi. At Brescia, St. Theophilus, bishop. 

He succeeded St. Gaudentius in this holy office.
Theophilus of Brescia B (RM) Died after 427. Bishop of Brescia and successor to Saint Gaudentius (Benedictines).

470 ST ASICUS, OR TASSACH, BISHOP OF ELPHIN The Félire of Oengus commemorates St Asicus (on April 14) in these terms: “The royal bishop, Tassach, gave when he came unto him the body of Christ, the truly strong King, at the communion unto Patrick”. His feast is observed in all Ireland.

ST Asicus (Tassach) is the principal patron of Elphin in County Roscommon, and is traditionally regarded as having been the first bishop of that diocese. From some of the early lives of St Patrick it appears that he was one of the great apostle’s earliest disciples in Ireland, that he was married, and that he was a clever brass— worker or copper-smith. He was placed over the church of Elphin but it is uncertain whether he became a bishop before or after the death of St Patrick. According to one account he resigned his see because he had told an untruth, according to another he presided over an episcopal seminary or monastery; in any case he seems to have failed as a ruler, and he fled to the island of Rathlin O’Birne in Donegal Bay, where he lived in solitude for seven years. When his monks found him and took him back, he died on the way at Raith Cungi, or Racoon. The Félire of Oengus commemorates St Asicus (on April 14) in these terms: “The royal bishop, Tassach, gave when he came unto him the body of Christ, the truly strong King, at the communion unto Patrick”. His feast is observed in all Ireland.
There seems to be no proper biography of Asicus, but he is mentioned more than once in Tirechan’s collections in the Book of Armagh and in the Tripartite Life of St Patrick. See also references in J. Ryan’s Irish Monasticism (1931) and O’Hanlon, LIS., vol. iv, pp. 406 seq.
488 Saint Maughold of Man; Irish prince, reputedly captain of robbers, converted by Patrick B (AC)
(also known as Macaille, Maccaldus, Machalus, Machella, Maghor, Maccul) feast day formerly December 28.
IT is from some of the early lives of St Patrick that we derive the little we know of St Maccul, or Maughold. A bloodthirsty and wicked freebooter, he was converted by the apostle of Ireland. As a penance, and to cut him off from his evil associates, St Patrick bade him leave his native land, and he embarked alone, without rudder or oars, in a leather-covered coracle which bore him to the shores of the Isle of Man. Two missionaries had already been sent there by St Patrick, and they gave a kindly reception to the new-comer, who, until their death, led an austere penitential life in that part of the island which afterwards adopted his name. He is said to have been chosen bishop by the general consent of the Manx people and to have done much by his example and labours to extend the Church of Christ in this land. To him is attributed the division of the diocese into seventeen parishes. His feast is kept in the archdiocese of Liverpool, which includes Man.

The name of this saint is very variously written. He is mentioned (under April 25) in the Félire of Oengus as “a rod of gold, a vast ingot, the great Bishop MacCaille”. Forbes in KSS, p. 380, gives a notice of him under “Machalus”. See also O’Hanlon, LIS., vol. iv, p. 478.

Saint Maughold was an Irish prince and reputedly a captain of robbers who was converted by Patrick. Upon his conversion, he became a new man by putting on the spirit of Christ. One version of the legend says that Patrick told him to put to sea in a coracle without oars as a penance for his evil deeds. Another says that he set sail in order to avoid the temptations of the world. In both stories, he retired to the Isle of Man (Eubonia) off the coast of Lancashire, England.

Earlier Patrick had sent his nephew, Saint Germanus, as bishop to plant the Church on the island. Germanus was succeeded by Saints Romulus and Conindrus during whose time Maughold arrived on the island and began to live an austere, penitential life in the mountainous area now named after him Saint Maughold. After their deaths, Maughold was unanimously chosen as bishop by the Manks.

In one of the 18 parish churchyards on the island can be found Saint Maughold's well. The very clear water of the well is received in a large stone coffin. Those seeking cures of various ailments, particularly poisoning, are seated in the saint's chair just above the well and given a glass of well-water to drink. Maughold's shrine was here until the relics were scattered during the Reformation.

Maughold, commemorated in both the British and Irish calendars, is described in the Martyrology of Oengus as "a rod of gold, a vast ingot, the great bishop MacCaille." Many topological features on the Isle of Man, which he divided into 25 parishes, bear Maughold's name. A church at Castletown, Scotland, is dedicated to him. William Worcestre said that he was a native of the Orkneys, and that his shrine was on the Isle of Man (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Husenbeth, Montague).
490 St. Asicus Abbot-Bishop of Ireland Humble accomplished coppersmith not believing worthy of the office disciple of St. Patrick

also called Ascicus and Tassach. Asicus was a coppersmith and was married when he first met St. Patrick. In time he was made the first abbot-bishop of Elphim Monastery in Roscommon, Ireland. Humble and not believing he was worthy of the office, Asicus went to an island in Donegal Bay, where he resigned his rank and became a hermit. After seven years the monks of Elphin found him and persuaded him to return to the monastery. He died at Raith Cungilor on the return journey.

Asicus of Elphin B (AC) (also known as Assicus, Assic, Tassach)
Died c. 470-490. Saint Asicus, an accomplished coppersmith, was one of the earliest disciples of Saint Patrick. When Patrick established the diocese of Elphin, County Mayo, in 450, he appointed Asicus as its first bishop. He is now venerated as the patron of the diocese, and his feast is kept throughout Ireland. Some remarkable specimens of his handicraft are extant. There is confusion between this saint and Tassach, which suggests that they may be the same person. They were both skilled metal workers, their names are similar, and they died the same year (Attwater2, Benedictines, Montague).
490 St. Tertullian 8th Bishop of Bologna, Italy
Bonóniæ sancti Tertulliáni, Epíscopi et Confessóris. At Bologna, St. Tertullian, bishop and confessor.
No details concerning the programs of his ministry are available.
Tertullian of Bologna B (RM) Died c. 490. Eighth bishop of Bologna (Benedictines).
6th v. St. Enoder abbot Grandson of Welsh chieftain Brychan of Brecknock 6th century
also called Cnydr, Keneder, and Quidic.
There is considerable dispute as to his identity, as he could be St. Enoder or Enodoc of Cornwall, England. Llangynidir of Powys wrote of him. Enoder was an abbot.
Enoder, Abbot (AC) (also known as Cynidr, Keneder, Quidic) 6th century. Saint Enoder is said to be one of the grandsons of the prolific Welsh chieftain, Brychan. He may be identical to Saint Enodoch. Enoder's memory is perpetuated by Llangynidr in Brecknockshire, and possibly Saint Enoder or Enodoc in Cornwall (Benedictines).
731 St. Winewald Second abbot of Beverley monastery in England
Winewald + Second abbot of Beverley monastery in England succeeding St. Berchtun. He was successful in his efforts to make Beverley a center for English cultural and spiritual growth.
Winebald of Beverley, OSB Abbot (AC) (also known as Winewald)Saint Winebald succeeded Saint Bercthun as abbot of Beverley (Benedictines).
746 St. Floribert Bishop a man avid in correcting others of Liege , Belgium
THE parents of St Floribert were St Hubert and his wife Floribane who died at the birth of her son. Nothing is known of his earlier years, a tradition that he was abbot of Stavelot and of St Peter’s, Ghent, being almost certainly based on confusion between him and some of his namesakes. He succeeded Hubert as bishop of Liege, which he ruled for eighteen years. He enshrined the bodies of his father, of his great-aunt St Oda and of St Landoaldus and his companions. The saint is described as a man of great humility, a lover of the poor, and “vehement in correcting”.
A short account of St Floribert, compiled from various sources, is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, under April 25. There seems to be no formal biography of early date. cf. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. iii, p. 192.

The son of St. Hubert and Floribane, who died giving him birth. He succeeded his father in 727 and was described as a man avid in correcting others.

Floribert of Liége B (AC) Floribert is often confused with the abbot of Ghent who bears the same name. This bishop is described as "vehement in correcting" (Attwater2, Benedictines).
813 St. John of Constantinople Abbot; inveterate opposition to the destruction of icons
Constantinópoli sancti Joánnis Abbátis, qui pro cultu sacrárum Imáginum, sub Leóne Isáurico, plúrimum decertávit.
 At Constantinople, the abbot St. John, who valiantly defended the veneration of sacred images, under Leo the Isaurian.
of Constantinople. He was exiled by the Iconoclast Emperor Leo III the Armenian because of his inveterate opposition to the destruction of icons.
John of Constantinople, Abbot (RM) Died 813. Abbot Saint John governed Cathares Abbey in Constantinople. For his staunch defense of the veneration of images, he was imprisoned and exiled by the iconoclastic Emperor Leo the Armenian (Benedictines).
1094 Stephen Pechersky abbot of the monastery of the Caves in Kiev B
THIS Stephen was a disciple of St Theodosius at the monastery of the Caves at Kiev. He absorbed so much of the spirit of his master and walked so closely in his footsteps that when Theodosius died in the year 1074, Stephen was unanimously chosen to take his place at the head of the community. Hitherto he had been engaged in such offices as those of sacristan and precentor, for he was skilled in singing and knowledge of the rites of worship, and one of his first undertakings was to finish building the church which St Theodosius had begun. But after only four years St Stephen was displaced, for what reason is not known. Thereupon he established a new community at Klov, conducting it on the principles he had learned from St Theodosius. This monastery was known as the Blakhernae, from the dedication of its church in honour of our Lady of Blakhernae (a famous shrine church in Constantinople).
St Stephen became bishop of Vladimir in Volhynia in 1091, and died only three years later, leaving a great reputation for the holiness of his life.

From Martynov’s Annus ecclesiasticus Graeco-Slavicus in Acta Sanctorum, October, xi.

St Stephen, Igumen of the Caves, Bishop of Vladimir in Volhynia, pursued asceticism at the Kiev Caves monastery under the guidance of St Theodosius (May 3). St Theodosius sometimes entrusted him to exhort the brethren with edifying words.

Before the death of St Theodosius the monks asked him to appoint St Stephen as Igumen, who was the domesticus (chief arranger for the choir). "He grew up under your instruction," they said, "and he served you. Give him to us." So St Theodosius transferred the guidance of the monastery to St Stephen.

During his tenure as Superior, he laid the foundations of a spacious church in honor of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos, begun under St Theodosius. The cells of the brethren were moved near the new church. At the front of the place there were several cells for monks who were entrusted with burying the dead. They served the Divine Liturgy each day, and also commemorated the dead.

In 1078 St Stephen was removed from office and driven from the monastery through the malice of an evil monk. He endured his meekly and without bitterness, and continued to pray for those who had turned against him.

St Stephen learned that master builders had come from Greece with an icon of the Theotokos, and they told him of the appearance of the Heavenly Queen at Blachernae. Because of this, St Stephen also built a church at Klovo in honor of the Theotokos (in memory of the Placing of Her Robe at Blachernae). The monastery was founded in thanksgiving for solicitude of the Most Holy Theotokos for the Caves monastery.

In 1091 St Stephen was made Bishop of Vladimir in Volhynia, and he participated in the transfer of the relics of St Theodosius from the cave to the monastery (August 14). He also labored to convert the inhabitants of Volhynia to Christianity.
St Stephen died on April 27, 1094 during the sixth hour of the night.

Saint Stephen, a disciple of Saint Theodosius, became abbot of the monastery of the Caves in Kiev upon the death of its founder. Later he built Blakhernae Monastery at Klov. In 1091, Stephen was consecrated bishop of Vladimir (Attwater2).
1152 St. Adelelmus Hermit founder disciple of St. Bernard of Thiron
Adelelmus was born in Flanders, Belgium. He founded the monastery of Etival-en-Charnie.
Adelelmus of Flanders, Hermit (PC) Born in Flanders; died 1152. Saint Adelelmus was a disciple of Saint Bernard of Thiron. He founded the monastery of Etival-en-Charnie (Benedictines).
1278 St. Zita; miraculus lif,e daily Mass recite many prayers, generous gifts of food to the poor visits to sick & prisoners heavenly, visions credited with a variety of miracles patroness of domestic workers
Lucæ, in Túscia, beátæ Zitæ Vírginis, virtútum et miraculórum fama conspícuæ.    At Lucca in Tuscany, blessed Zita, a virgin renowned for virtues and miracles.
IT was in a humble household, as pious as it was poor, that St Zita, the patroness of domestic workers, first saw the light. Her parents were devout Christians, her elder sister afterwards became a Cistercian nun, and her uncle Graziano was a hermit who was locally regarded as a saint. As for Zita herself, it was enough for her mother to say to the child, “This is pleasing to God” or “That would displease God”, to ensure her immediate obedience. At the age of twelve, she went to be a servant at Lucca, eight miles from her native village of Monte Sagrati, in the house of Pagano di Fatinelli, who carried on a wool and silk-weaving business.

From the outset she formed the habit of rising during the night for prayer and of attending daily the first Mass at the church of San Frediano. The good food with which she was provided she would distribute to the poor, and more often than not she slept, on the bare ground, her bed having been given up to a beggar. For some years she had much to bear from her fellow servants, who despised her way of living, regarded her industry as a silent reproach to themselves, and resented her open abhorrence of evil suggestions and foul language. They even succeeded for a time in prejudicing her employers against her. But she bore all her trials uncomplainingly. After a man-servant had made dishonorable advances from which she had defended herself by scratching his face, she made no attempt to explain or justify her action when her master inquired the cause of the man’s disfigurement. Gradually her patience overcame the hostility of the household, and her master and mistress came to realize what a treasure they possessed in Zita.
Her work indeed was part of her religion. In after life she was wont to say, “A servant is not good if she is not industrious: work-shy piety in people of our position is sham piety.” The children of the family were committed to her care, and she was made housekeeper. One day the master suddenly expressed his intention of inspecting the stock of beans, for which he thought he could obtain a good sale. Every Christian family in that land and at that period gave food to the hungry, but Zita, as she acknowledged to her mistress, had been led by pity to make considerable inroads on the beans, and Pagano had a violent temper. She could but tremble in her shoes and send up an earnest prayer to Heaven. But no diminution could be detected in the store: that it had been miraculously replenished seemed the only possible explanation. On another occasion when she had unduly protracted her devotions, forgetting that it was baking day, she hurried home to find that she had been forestalled: a row of loaves had been prepared and lay ready to be placed in the oven.
One bitterly cold Christmas eve when Zita insisted upon going to church, her master threw his fur coat over her, bidding her not to lose it. In the entrance to San Frediano she came upon a scantily clad man, whose teeth were chattering with the cold. As he laid an appealing hand upon the coat, Zita immediately placed it upon his shoulders, telling him that he might retain it until she came out of church. When the service was over, neither the man nor the coat were anywhere to be seen. Crestfallen, Zita returned home to encounter the reproaches of Pagano, who was naturally extremely annoyed at so serious a loss. He was about to sit down to his Christmas dinner a few hours later, when a stranger appeared at the door of the room, bearing on his arm the fur coat which he handed to Zita. Master and maid eagerly addressed him, but he disappeared from their sight as suddenly as he had come, leaving in the hearts of all who had seen him a wonderful celestial joy. Since that day the people of Lucca have given the name of “The Angel Door” to the portal of San Frediano in which St Zita met the stranger.
In time Zita became the friend and adviser of the whole house, and the only person who could cope with the master in his rages; but the general veneration with which she was regarded embarrassed her far more than the slights she had had to bear in her earlier years. On the other hand, she found herself relieved of much of her domestic work and free to visit to her heart’s content the sick, the poor and the prisoners. She had a special devotion to criminals under sentence of death, on whose behalf she would spend hours of prayer. In such works of mercy and in divine contemplation she spent the evening of her life. She died very peacefully, on April 27, 1278. She was sixty years of age and had served the same family for forty-eight years. The body of St Zita lies in the church of San Frediano at Lucca, which she had attended so regularly for the greater part of her life.
The principal source is the biography by Fatinellus de Fatinellis printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii; but there are many lives of more recent date, notably that of Bartolommeo Fiorito in 1752, and in quite modem times those of Toussaint (1902) and Ledochowski (1911). See also the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlviii (1930), pp. 229—230.

St. Zita was born into a poor but holy Christian family. Her older sister became a Cistercian nun and her uncle Graziano was a hermit whom the local people regarded as a saint. Zita herself always tried to do God's will obediently whenever it was pointed out to her by her mother. At the age of twelve Zita became a housekeeper in the house of a rich weaver in Lucca, Italy, eight miles from her home at Monte Sagrati. As things turned out, she stayed with that family for the last forty-eight years of her life.
She found time every day to attend Mass and to recite many prayers, as well as to carry out her household duties so perfectly that the other servants were jealous of her. Indeed, her work was part of her religion! She use to say: "a servant is not holy if she is not busy; lazy people of our position is fake holiness."
At first, her employers were upset by her generous gifts of food to the poor, but in time, they were completely won over by her patience and goodness and she became a very close friend. St. Zita was given a free reign over her working schedule and busied herself with visits to the sick and those in prison. Word spread rapidly in Lucca of her good deeds and the heavenly visions that appeared to her. She was sought out by the important people, and at her death in 1278 the people acclaimed her as a saint. She is the patroness of domestic workers.
St. Zita  Zita (1218-1272) + Servant and miracle worker. Born at Monte Sagrati, Italy, she entered into the service of the Fratinelli family, wool dealers in Lucca, at the age of twelve. Immediately disliked by the other servants for her hard work and obvious goodness, she earned their special enmity because of her habit of giving away food and clothing to the poor including those of her employers. In time, she won over the members of the household. According to one tradition, the other servants were convinced when one day they found an angel taking Zita's place in baking and cleaning. Throughout her life she labored on behalf of the poor and suffering as well as criminals languishing in prisons. She was also credited with a variety of miracles. Canonized in 1696, she is the patroness of servants and is depicted in art with a bag and keys, or loaves of bread and a rosary.

Zita of Lucca V (RM) (also known as Sitha, Citha) Born at Monte Sagrati, near Lucca, Tuscany, Italy; died in Lucca on April 27, 1278; liturgical cultus permitted locally by Leo X (early 16th century); canonized in 1696; name added to the Roman Martyrology in 1748 by Benedict XIV.
For two hundred years before and after the crowning of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day in 800 AD, female saints were obscured by time and circumstance. Thereafter, in the Age of Mysticism from about 1000 to 1500, we witness the re-emergence of saintly female mystics, such as Hildegard and Catherine of Siena.

Christian mysticism is an endeavor to reach a knowledge of and union with God directly and experientially.
The mystic renounces his senses and the images they offer of God, seeking instead to wander down a negative road. Often, this type of contemplative prayer leads to abnormal psychic states that culminate in ecstasy, which is sanctified when perfectly united with God. The individuals who reach this state normally exhibit extraordinary self-knowledge and become fully free, unique human beings. The heightened mystical sense also leads to an ever more passionate love of God.

As will be shown frequently in these biographies of the saints, the mystical life in no way conflicts with the duties of any Christian state of life: married (e.g., Francis of Rome), avowed celibate (Saint Teresa of Avila), or domestic servant.

Saint Zita was born in a mountain village near Lucca into a very devout family. Her elder sister became a Cistercian nun and her uncle, Graziano, was a hermit who was locally regarded as a saint. From the age of 12, Zita was a domestic servant in the family of Pagano di Fatinelli of Lucca, a wool and silk merchant. This devoted woman, who was deeply religious, remained with this family all her life. She served it for 48 years--as maid servant, then housekeeper, and governess--and every member of the family had the deepest respect and affection for her.

There are numerous stories of her attention to household duties, of her care for beggars, of her devotion to religious practices, and of the fidelity with which she attended Mass each day of her adult life at the Church of San Frediano. The good food she was provided by her employer, she would distribute to the poor. More often than not, she could be found sleeping on the bare ground or lost in prayer, after having given up her bed to a beggar. Her work was part of her religion, as it should be for us, a way of serving God in our neighbor.
At first her fellow servants mocked her piety and kindness. Zita paid no attention, and in the end they grew to admire her. But her master was often irritated that she gave away so much. During a local famine she secretly gave away much of the family supply of beans. When her master inspected the kitchen cupboards, to Zita's relief the beans had been miraculously restocked (recall the similar story about Saint Frances 1384-1440 of Rome). Another story tells that angels baked her bread while she was rapt in ecstasy
A characteristic story of her generous nature is of how one Christmas Eve, when she was setting out for the early morning service, the cold was so intense that her employer, seeing her in her thin gown, wrapped his own fur cloak round her shoulders, and insisted on her taking it. "But take care of it," he said, "and be sure to bring it back."
At the church door, however, Zita saw a poor man in rags, numb with cold and begging for alms. She could never resist a beggar and on the impulse of the moment she took off her master's cloak and put it round him. "It will keep you warm," she said, "and you can return it to me when the service is over." But when she came out of the church, the man had gone, and in great distress she returned home without the cloak. Her employer, naturally, was angry, but what troubled Zita most was that, out of pity for another, she had abused his kindness.

The story had a happy sequel, for the next day a stranger came to the door and restored the missing cloak. People later decided that the poor old man must have been an angel in disguise, and so the door of the Church of San Frediano, Lucca, where he first appeared, is called the Angel Portal.

Zita was always moved by generous impulse, and endeared herself to all by her compassionate nature, and all her life long she was sustained by a simple and strong faith in God. Zita was embarrassed by the veneration in which her employers and neighbors held her later in life. Nevertheless, she was happy that some of her domestic duties were relieved because it gave her the time to tend to the sick, the poor, and prisoners. She had a special devotion to criminals awaiting execution, on whose behalf she would spend hours in prayer.

Zita died peacefully at the age of 60, having sanctified herself in a life of humble domestic tasks, and as the little Maid of Lucca is numbered among the saints. Immediately, a popular cultus developed around her tomb at San Frediano. Her cultus spread to other countries in the later Middle Ages, as testified by chapels in her honor as scattered as at Palermo, Sicily, and Ely, England (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer, Gill, Encyclopedia, Martindale, Walsh, White).

In art, Saint Zita is depicted in the working clothes of a maid servant with her emblem: keys. She may be shown (1) with a rosary, bag, and keys; (2) with a rosary; (3) with two keys and three loaves; (4) with keys and a book; (5) with a basket of fruit; (6) with a bag and book; (7) with a book and rosary; or (8) praying at a well (Roeder, White). She appears in mural paintings (Shorthampton, Oxon.), in stained glass (Mells and Langport, Somerset), and on rood screens in Norfolk (Barton Turf), Suffolk (Somerleyton), and Devon (Ashton) (Farmer).

Saint Zita is the patroness of housewives and servants. In England, she was known as Sitha and invoked by housewives and servants searching for lost keys or crossing raging rivers (White). She is still venerated at Lucca, where her body is housed in the Cappella di Santa Zita in the church of San Frediano (Jepson, Roeder).
1304 Bl. Peter Armengol twice went from Spain to Africa to redeem captives continued for 10 more years after being hung
Tarracóne, in Hispánia, beáti Petri Armengáudii, ex Ordine beátæ Maríæ de Mercéde redemptiónis captivórum; qui, multa pro fidélibus rediméndis in Africa passus, tandem, in convéntu sanctæ Maríæ Pratórum, beáto fine quiévit.
 At Tarragona in Spain, the blessed Peter Armengaudius, of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mercy for the Redemption of Captives.  He endured many tribulations in Africa in ransoming the faithful, and finally closed his career peacefully in the convent of St. Mary of the Meadows.
IT is very difficult to credit the story of Bd Peter Armengol as it is recounted in Mercedarian sources. He is alleged to have been born about the year 1238 of the family of the counts of Urgel at Guardia in Catalonia, and while yet in his teens to have joined a band of brigands. When King James of Aragon in 1258 sought to pass through that district, an armed guard was sent on ahead under the command of Peter’s father. They encountered the brigands, and father and son were on the point of engaging in combat when Peter recognized his opponent. Stricken with remorse, he implored pardon, was converted and spent the rest of his life in doing penance, joining, for that purpose, the Order of Mercedarians (for the redemption of captives).
    Twice he was sent to Africa to ransom prisoners in captivity among the Moors. On the second occasion, the money he had taken with him was insufficient to secure the release of eighteen young boys; whereupon he volunteered to remain as a hostage himself until his companion returned with the ransom demanded. But the religious who brought it only arrived in time to learn that Peter had been hanged as a defaulter some days before. He went to secure the remains of the martyr, but discovered on cutting the body down that Peter was still living. He was allowed to return to his fellow religious at Guardia, and there living on for ten years, with twisted neck and contorted limbs, he gave a wonderful example of virtue. His cultus was formally approved in 1686, and his name has since been inserted in the Roman Martyrology.

A sufficient account of Peter Armengol is given in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. i; but doubts may very well be felt regarding the authenticity of most of the scanty documents there reprinted from the process of beatification. Cf. under St Peter Nolasco, on January 28, concerning the early records of the Mercedarian Order. A short account of Bd Peter in French, by J. Cattier, appeared in 1898.

b. 1238 Member of a noble Catalonian family, he is said in an extravagant story to have become an outlaw, almost killing his father in an ambush, whereupon he joined the Mercedarians. He twice went from Spain to Africa to redeem captives/ held as a hostage, he was hanged , but found to be alive by another missioner who had been delayed. He continued his work of rescuing Christians from the Mooors for ten more years. He died near Tarragona, Spain

Peter Armengol, O. Merc. M (RM) Born in Tarragona, Spain, in 1238; died there in 1304; cultus confirmed 1686. Peter, born into the family of the counts of Urgell, exercised his boldness with a band of brigands before joining a Mercedarian community of monks in 1258. He devoted all his energy to the ransoming of captives, going so far as to offer himself as a hostage for 18 Christian children. His offer was accepted. Peter underwent horrible tortures during his African captivity, for which his is considered a martyr, although he actually died back in his hometown. His story, as we have received it, is unreliable (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1311 Blessed Antony de'Patrizi; superior of hermit friars of Saint Augustine at Monticiano OSA (AC)
A MEMBER of one of the principal Sienese families, Bd Antony de’ Patrizi entered the Order of the Hermits of St Augustine and afterwards became superior of their house at Monteciano. The only notable fact which seems to be recorded of him is that he was possessed by a very great desire of conversing with another holy hermit, Peter of Camerata. He set out to find him, fell grievously ill upon the way, but after fervent prayer was miraculously restored and was able to accomplish the object of his journey. The meeting of the two men is compared by his biographer to the meeting of St Paul the Hermit and St Antony at the very beginning of Christian ascetic history. This Antony lived a very holy life and died in the year 1311.

There is a short biography printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii (under April 30) but it is mainly taken up with the miracles wrought after the hermit’s death. See also G. Ballati, Vita, miracoli a grazie del B. Antonio Patrizi (1728).

Born in Siena, Italy; cultus confirmed in 1804. Antony joined the hermit friars of Saint Augustine at Monticiano, where he later became the superior (Benedictines).
1485 Blessed James of Bitetto heroic humility; levitate during prayer, accurately predict the future, incorrupted body remains, many miracles  OFM (AC)
(also known as James of Sclavonia, of Illyricum, of Zara, of Dalmatia) Born in Sebenico, Dalmatia; died April 27, c. 1485; feast day within the Franciscan order is celebrated on April 20; cultus approved by Innocent XII.

1485 BD JAMES OF BITETTO Many miracles were ascribed to his intercession
ALTHOUGH a native of Dalmatia, whence he is sometimes called “the Slav” or “the Illyrian”, Bd James spent the greater part of his life on the opposite coast of the Adriatic, where he became a lay-brother of the Friars Minor of the Observance at Bitetto, a small town nine miles from Ban. Through humility, self-denial and contemplation he attained to great holiness. He was favoured by God with a prophetic spirit and, according to the deposition of a fellow friar in the process for his beatification, he was seen on occasions upraised from the ground when engaged in prayer. In another house of the order, at Conversano, he was employed for some years as cook. The sight of the kitchen fire led him at times to contemplate the flames of Hell and on other occasions to soar in spirit to the highest Heaven to dwell on the consuming fire of eternal love. Thus he often fell into ecstasies over his work, standing motionless and entirely absorbed in God. Afterwards Bd James was transferred back to Bitetto, where he closed a holy life by a happy death; Many miracles were ascribed to his intercession, and in the garden at Bitetto there used to be a juniper tree which he had planted, the berries of which were said to possess healing properties. He was beatified by Pope Innocent XII.
The notice of James de Bitetto in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, is interesting because this is one of the cases in which the Bollandists have had access to the documents submitted for the beatification process, and have been able to print the evidence of the various witnesses. See also Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 104—105.

James received the habit of Saint Francis at Zara, but served as a lay brother at Bitetto, near Bari in southern Italy. James possessed heroic humility and reached heights of heaven in his contemplation. During the process of beatification, a fellow friar testified that he had seen James levitate during prayer and heard him accurately predict the future.

While James was the cook of the abbey at Conversano (18 miles from Bari), he would contemplate the cooking fire and see the fires of hell or the spark of God's love that ignites hearts. Often he would be found in the kitchen, motionless, rapt in ecstatic contemplation. This happened one morning as he was fixing beans for that night's dinner. He stood with his hand in the beans, tears streaming down his face into the vessel before him. Thus he was found by the duke on whose estate the monastery was founded. King Ferdinand I's courtier watched in amazement before declaring, "Blessed are the religious brethren whose meals are seasoned with such tears." Later that day James, learning of the duke's presence, went to him and asked what he would like for his dinner. The nobleman replied that he wanted nothing but some of the beans seasoned with James' tears.

Eventually James was sent back to Bitetto where he died and where his incorrupted body remains. Many miracles attributed to James' intercession have been recorded (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
1565 Blessed Hosanna of Cattaro; miracle child, several apparitions OP Tert. V (AC)
(also known as Ossana) Born in Kumano, Montenegro, in 1493; cultus confirmed in 1928; beatified in 1934.

1565 BD OSANNA OF GATTARO, VIRGIN graced with many supernatural gifts, such as that of prophecy.
CATHERINE Cosie was a Montenegrin girl born in 1493, the daughter of dissident Orthodox parents. Her early years seem to have been spent mostly with the flocks and herds, but later she was allowed by her parents to enter the service of a Catholic lady at Cattaro, where she made herself beloved. After seven years she undertook the seclusion of an anchoress, first in a cell adjoining the church of St Bartholomew, and afterwards in one attached to the church of St Paul. On becoming a Dominican tertiary she had taken the name of Osanna in veneration for Bd Osanna Andreasi, who had died not long before, in 1505. Young women and matrons crowded to her anchorage and were guided by her counsels.
   Her prayers, it was believed, protected the city from the inroads of Turks and other raiders. She had much to suffer, both from the assaults of Satan within and from calumny without, but she was graced with many supernatural gifts, such as that of prophecy. Finally after a grievous illness of two months borne with exemplary patience, she went to her reward on April 27, 1565.
The cultus was confirmed in 1928.

The decree in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xx (1928), pp. 39—42, sets out the above facts and appeals to the testimony of earlier authors, in particular to Father Bazzi in 1589 and to Father Cerva in 1738, who have borne witness to the holiness of her life and to the veneration uninterruptedly shown since her death.
Catherine Kosic (Cosie) was baptized in the Greek Orthodox Church. As a young girl, whe tended her family's sheep; thus, left alone for long periods of time, she developed a habit of contemplative prayer. One day while watching the flocks, she saw a pretty child lying asleep on the grass. Attracted by its beauty, she went to pick up the baby, but it disappeared, leaving Catherine with a feeling of great loneliness.
She told her mother about the incident but received little understanding; her mother told her that God didn't appear to such poor people, and that the Christ Child was simply a figment of her imagination. After several more apparitions of which she wisely said nothing, Catherine developed a desire to visit Cattaro because there were several churches there in which she felt that she could pray better. Her mother thought this urge was unreasonable, but she finally arranged for Catherine to go to Cattaro as a servant of a wealthy woman. Her mother gave little thought to the fact that the woman was a pious Catholic, but the girl rejoiced in her good luck. At the age of 12, Catherine settled down as a servant to the kindly woman who made no objection to the fact that Catherine's errands invariably led her past the church, where she would stop for a visit.

After a few years of the pleasant life, Catherine consulted her spiritual director about becoming a recluse. He thought her too young, but she continued to insist. After much prayer and discussion, they decided that she should follow the life of a hermit.

In the Middle Ages, it was common for every church or place of pilgrimage to have one or more cells in which solitaries dwelt in prayer and penance. Such a cell was built near the Saint Bartholomew's in Cattaro. It had a window through which the anchorite could hear Mass and another tiny window to which people would come occasionally to ask for prayers or to give food. Catherine was conducted to her cell in solemn ceremony, and, after making promises of stability, the door was sealed.

In response to a vision, she was later transferred to a cell at the Church of St. Paul, where she followed the rule of the tertiaries of Saint Dominic for 52 years. Upon becoming a Dominican, she chose the name Osanna, in honor of Blessed Osanna of Mantua, a Dominican tertiary who had died in 1505.

The life of an anchorite is barren of comforts and replete with penances. Even without the spiritual punishments that she endured, it was a rugged life. Osanna wore the coarsest of clothes, ate almost nothing, and endured the heat and cold and misery of enclosure in a small space for half a century. Her tiny cell, however, was often bright with heavenly visitors. Our Lord appeared to her many times, usually in the form of the beautiful baby she had seen while tending her flocks. Our Lady visited, too, with several of the saints, as well as demons who attempted to distract her from prayer. Once the devil appeared to her in the form of the Blessed Virgin and told her to modify her penances. By obedience to her confessor, she managed to penetrate this clever disguise and vanquish her enemy.

Although she lived alone, there was nothing selfish about Osanna's spirituality. A group of her Dominican sisters, who considered her their leader, consulted her frequently and sought her prayers. A convent of sisters founded at Cattaro regarded her as their foundress, because of her prayers, although she never saw the place. When the city was attacked by the Turks, the people ran to her for help, and they credited their deliverance to her prayers. Another time, her prayers saved them from the plague (Benedictines, Dorcy).
1597 Sancti Petri Canísii, Sacerdótis e Societáte Jesu et Confessóris atque Ecclésiæ Doctóris; qui duodécimo Kaléndas Januárii migrávit ad Dóminum.
 St. Peter Canisius, priest of the Society of Jesus, confessor and doctor of the Church, who departed to the Lord on the 21st of December.
ST PETER CANISIUS has been called the Second Apostle of Germany— our English St Boniface being the first—but he is also honoured as one of the creators of a Catholic press: he was, moreover, the first “literary” Jesuit—the forerunner of a great band of writers. Born in the year 1521 at Nij­megen in Holland, then a German Reichstadt in the archdiocese of Cologne, he was the eldest son of Jacob Kanis, who had been ennobled after acting as tutor to the sons of the Duke of Lorraine and who was nine times burgomaster of Nijmegen.

Although Peter had the misfortune to lose his mother at an early age, his father’s second wife proved an excellent stepmother, and he grew up having before his eyes the fear of God. He accuses himself of having wasted time as a boy in unprofitable amusement, but in view of the fact that he took his master of arts degree at Cologne University when he was only nineteen, it is difficult to believe that he was ever really idle. To please his father, who wished him to be a lawyer, he proceeded to Louvain, where for a few months he studied canon law. Realizing, however, that he was not called to this career he refused marriage, took a vow of celibacy, and returned to Cologne to read theology.

Great interest had been aroused in the Rhineland towns by the preaching of Bd Peter Faber (Favre), the first disciple of St Ignatius; Canisius attended an Ignatian retreat which Faber gave at Mainz; and during the second week made a vow to join the new order. Admitted as a novice, he lived for some years a community life in Cologne, spending his time in prayer, in study, in visiting the sick and instructing the ignorant. The money which he inherited upon his father’s death was devoted to the relief of the poor and the necessities of the house. He had already begun to write, his first publications having been editions of the works of St Cyril of Alexandria and St Leo the Great.* [* That he was the editor of the Cologne, 1543, edition of John Tauler’s sermons has not been proved.]

After his ordination to the priesthood, he came into prominence for his preaching; and as a delegate to the Council of Trent he had attended two of its sessions, the one at Trent and the other at Bologna, when he was summoned to Rome by St Ignatius, who retained him by his side for five months and proved him to be a model religious, prepared to go anywhere and to do anything. He was sent to Messina to teach in the first Jesuit school known to history, but very shortly was recalled to Rome for his solemn profession and to be given a more important charge.

The order was to return to Germany, he having been selected to go to Ingolstadt with two brother Jesuits, in response to an urgent appeal from Duke William IV of Bavaria for Catholic professors capable of counteracting the heretical teaching which was permeating the schools. Not only was Peter Canisius successful in reforming the university, of which he was made rector and afterwards vice-chancellor, but he also effected a real religious revival amongst the people by his sermons, his cate­chizing, and his campaign against the sale of immoral or heretical books. Great was the general regret when in 1552 the saint was withdrawn to undertake, at the request of King Ferdinand, a somewhat similar mission in Vienna. He found that great city in a worse condition than Ingolstadt. Many parishes were without clergy, and the Jesuits had to supply the lack as well as to teach in their newly-founded college. Not a single priest had been ordained for twenty years; monas­teries lay desolate; members of the religious orders were jeered at in the streets; nine-tenths of the inhabitants had abandoned the faith, whilst the few who still regarded themselves as Catholics had, for the most part, ceased to practise their religion.

At first Peter Canisius preached to almost empty churches, partly because of the general disaffection and partly because his Rhineland German grated on the ears of the Viennese; but he found his way to the heart of the people by his indefatigable ministrations to the sick and dying during an outbreak of the plague. The energy and enterprise of the man was astounding; he was concerned about everything and everybody, from lecturing in the university to visiting the neglected criminals in the jails. The king, the nuncio, the pope himself would fain have seen him appointed to the vacant see of Vienna, but St Ignatius could be induced only to allow him to administer the diocese for one year, and that without episcopal orders, title or emoluments. It was about this period that St Peter began work on his famous catechism, or Summary of Christian Doctrine, published in 1555; this was followed by a Shorter and a Shortest Catechism—both of which attained enormous popularity. These catechisms were to be to the Catholic Reformation what Luther’s catechisms were to the Protestant Reformation; they were reprinted over two hundred times and translated into fifteen languages (including English, Braid Scots, Hindustani and Japanese) even during the author’s lifetime. And he never by violently or rudely attacking his opponents, either in these catechisms or in any of his instructions, roused hostility towards the truths he wished to commend to his hearers.

In Prague, whither he had gone to assist in founding a college, he learnt with dismay that he had been appointed provincial of a new province which was to include South Germany, Austria and Bohemia. He wrote to St Ignatius: “I am entirely lacking in the tact, prudence and decision essential for ruling others. My temper is hasty and fiery, and my inexperience renders me quite unsuitable for the post.” St Ignatius, however, knew better. In the course of his two years’ residence in Prague, Peter Canisius in great measure won back the city to the faith, and he established the college on such excellent lines that even Protestants were glad to send their sons to it. In 1557 he went by special invitation to Worms to take part in a discussion between Catholic and Protestant divines, although he was firmly convinced from past experience that all such conferences on doctrine were worse than useless, the heated discussions which always took place only widening the chasm between the disputants. It is quite impossible in limited space to follow the saint on his numerous journeys as provincial, or to provide any adequate survey of his extraordinary activities. Father James Brodrick calculates that he covered 6000 miles during 1555—1558, and 20,000 in thirty years—on foot and on horseback. Canisius was wont to say—no doubt in answer to those who thought he was over­worked—“If you have too much to do, with God’s help you will find time to do it al.

    Apart from the colleges he actually founded or inaugurated, he prepared the way for many others. In 1559, at the wish of King Ferdinand, he took up his residence in Augsburg, and this town continued to be his headquarters for six years. Here again the lamp of faith was rekindled by his efforts as he encouraged the faithful, reclaimed the lapsed, and converted many heretics. Moreover he succeeded in persuading the Reichstag to decree the restoration of the public schools, which had been destroyed by the Protestants. Whilst he strove most strenuously to prevent the dissemination of immoral and unorthodox literature he encouraged good books to the utmost of his ability, for he clearly foresaw the future importance of the press.  Amongst the works he himself produced at the time may be mentioned a selection of St Jerome’s letters, a “Manual for Catholics”, a martyrology and a revision of the Augsburg Breviary. The General Prayer which he composed is still recited in Germany on Sundays.

At the close of his term of office as provincial, St Peter took up his abode at Dillingen in Bavaria, where the Jesuits not only had a college of their own but also directed the university. The town had for him the additional attraction of being the favourite place of residence of Cardinal Otto Truchsess who had long been his close friend. He occupied himself mainly in teaching, in hearing confessions, and in the composition of the first of a series of books he had undertaken by order of his superiors. They were intended as a reply to a strongly anti-Catholic history of Christianity which was being published by certain Protestant writers commonly known as the Centuriators of Magdeburg—“the first and worst of all Protestant church histories”. This work he continued afterwards whilst acting as court chaplain for some years at Innsbruck, and until 1577, when he was dispensed from proceeding with it on the score of his health. There seems to have been no curtailment of his activities in other directions, for we find him still preaching, giving missions, accompanying the provincial on his visitations, and even filling the post of vice-provincial.

Canisius was at Dillingen when, in the year 1580, he was instructed to go to Fribourg in Switzerland. That city, which was the capital of a Catholic canton wedged in between two powerful Protestant neighbours, had long desired a college for its sons, but had been handicapped by lack of funds and other difficulties. These obstacles were surmounted within a few years by St Peter, who obtained the money, selected the site, and superintended the erection of the splendid college which developed into the present University of Fribourg. He was, however, neither its rector nor one of its professors, although always keenly interested in its progress. For over eight years his principal work was preaching: on Sundays and festivals he delivered sermons in the cathedral, on weekdays he visited other parts of the canton. It may confidently be asserted that to St Peter Canisius is due the credit of having retained Fribourg in the Catholic fold at a critical period of its history. Increasing bodily infirmities obliged him to give up preaching, and in 1591 a paralytic seizure brought him to the brink of the grave, but he recovered sufficiently to continue writing, with the help of a secretary, until shortly before his death, which took place on December 21, 1597.

St Peter Canisius was canonized and declared a doctor of the Church in 1925. Among the general considerations which arise from his life and personality one of the most important is still his insistence on the spirit and manner in which Christian apologetics and controversy should be conducted.
    St Ignatius himself had stressed the necessity for “an example of charity and Christian moderation to be given in Germany” and among the practical points laid down by Canisius was that it is a mistake “to bring up in conversation subjects to which the Protestants have an antipathy...such as confession, satisfaction, purgatory, indulgences, monastic vows and pilgrimages; the reason being that, like fever patients, they have infected palates and so are incapable of judging aright about such foods. Their need, as that of children, is for milk, and they should be led gently and gradually to those dogmas about which there is dispute”.

 Canisius was stern towards the leaders and propagators of heresy, and like most other people in those days he was prepared to use force to repress their activities. But the rank and file who had been born in Lutheranism, or had drifted into it, were another matter. He spent a lifetime opposing heresy and restoring Catholic faith and life: and he declared of the Germans that “Certainly an infinite number of them adhere to the new sectaries and err in religious belief, but they do so in such a way as proves that their errors proceed from ignorance rather than malice. They err, I repeat, but without contention, without wilfulness, without obstinacy.” And even those who were more consciously and defiantly unorthodox should not be met, he wrote, “in a temper of asperity or...with discourtesy, for this is nothing else than the reverse of Christ’s example inasmuch as it is to break the bruised reed and quench the smoking flax,”

The activities of St Peter Canisius were so intimately bound up with the whole religious history of Central Europe in his day that no bibliography can be anything but superficial. It is, however, necessary to call attention to the collection of his letters edited in eight stout volumes by Fr 0. Braunsberger, with abundant footnotes and rnarvellously detailed indexes. There is also useful material in the book of J. Metzler, Die Bekenntnisse des heiligen P. Canisius und rein Testament, and in many of the volumes of the Monumenta Histories S.J. Among biographies, which in the German tongue especially are very numerous, may be mentioned those of 0. Braunsberger, J. Metzler and A. 0. Pfulf. In French there are lives by L. Michel, J. Genoud and E. Morand. The neglect of Canisius by English writers has now been amply compensated for by Fr James Brodrick’s magnificent, definitive and most readable work, St Peter Canisius (1935). There is a smaller popular book by W. Reany, A Champion of the Church (1931).
Petrus Kanisius  Katholische Kirche: 27. April
Petrus Kanijs (Canisius) wurde am 8.5.1521 in Nijmwegen geboren. 1536 begann er in Köln zu studieren. Hier lernte er die devotio moderna kennen und beschloß Theologie zu studieren. 1543 nahm er an ignatianischen Exertitien teil, die von Petrus Faber, einem der ersten Gefährten des Ignatius, angeboten wurden. Wenige Wochen später trat Petrus als erster Deutscher in die Societas Jesu ein. Er hielt nun Vorlesungen in Köln und gab die Werke mehrerer großer Theologen in deutscher Sprache heraus. 1546 wurde er zum Priester geweiht. Er war in diesem Jahr auch maßgeblich an der Absetzung Hermann von Wieds beteiligt. 1547 nahm er als Berater am Konzil von Trient teil, 1548 lehrte er für ein Jahr nach Messina, dann legte er 1549 seine Profeß ab, erwarb den Doktor der Theologie an der Universität Bologna und lehrte nun an verschiedenen Universitäten im deutschsprachigen Raum. Daneben predigte er besonders in verschiedenen Bischofskirchen, schrieb zahlreiche Bücher und war auch im politischen Raum erfolgreich tätig. Leo XIII. nannte ihn den zweiten Apostel Deutschlands und Canisius war sicher die treibende Kraft der deutschen Gegenreformation. Dabei begegnete er seinen Gegnern mit Achtung und Toleranz. Canisius starb am 21.12.1597 in Fribourg, wo er in der Michaelskirche begraben liegt. Er wurde besonders in Süddeutschland sehr verehrt und schon kurz nach seinem Tode wurde ein Seligspechungsprozeß eingeleitet. Durch das Verbot des Jesuitenordens wurde das Verfahren längere Zeit unterbrochen. Am 21.5.1925 wurde Canisius heiliggesprochen und zum Kirchenlehrer ernannt. Canisius ist auch Patron der Diözesen Brixen und Innsbruck.

1606 ST TURIBIUS, Archbishop of LIMA
ST TURIBIUS is, equally with St Rose of Lima, the first known saint of the New World. It is true that he was not born on the American continent, and not canonized until fifty-five years after her; but they lived in the same place at the same time, Turibius died first, and it was he who conferred the sacrament of confirmation on Rose. His memory is held in great veneration throughout Peru, for although he did not plant Christianity in that land he greatly promoted it, and cleansed the Church there from grave abuses which were sapping its vitality and bringing discredit upon its name; his feast is, moreover, observed throughout South America.
Turibius, Toribio Alfonso de Morgobejo, was born in 1538 at Majorca in Spain. His childhood and youth were notably religious, but he had no intention of becoming a priest and was, in fact, educated for the law. He was so brilliant a scholar that he became professor of law in the University of Salamanca, and while there he attracted the notice of King Philip II (widower of Mary I of England), who eventually made him chief judge of the ecclesiastical court of the Inquisition at Granada. This was a surprising position for a layman to hold, and it was not a pleasant or easy post for anyone, lay or cleric. But it led to an even more surprising development. After some years the archbishopric of Lima in the Spanish colony of Peru became vacant. Turibius had carried out his judge’s duties so well, and displayed such a fine missionary spirit, that it was decided to send him to Peru as archbishop:  he seemed to be the one person who had force of character sufficient to remedy the serious scandals which stood in the way of the conversion of the Peruvians.
Turibius himself was shocked by the decision, and he wrote forthwith to the royal council, pleading his incapacity and appealing to the canons which forbade the promotion of lay men to ecclesiastical dignities. His objections were overruled he received all the orders and episcopal consecration, and immediately afterwards sailed for Peru. Arriving in Lima in 1581, it did not take him long to realize the arduous nature of the charge which had been laid upon him. His diocese stretched for some 400 miles along the coast, and inland amongst the spurs of the Andes, a most difficult country to traverse. Far more serious, however, than the physical difficulties were those created by the attitude of the Spanish conquerors towards the native population. With few exceptions the officials and colonists had come there to make their fortunes, and they made the Indians serve that purpose by every sort of extortion and tyranny. Communications with the central authority at home were incredibly slow. The most flagrant abuses might continue for years without the possibility of redress and, the Spaniards quarrelling continually among themselves and sending home contradictory reports, it was often impossible for the supreme Council of the Indies to know whom to believe. Worse than all the sense of religion seemed to be completely lost, and the example given to the natives was one of almost universal rapacity and self-indulgence.
The clergy themselves were often among the most notorious offenders, and it was the first care of Turibius to restore ecclesiastical discipline. He at once undertook a visitation of his diocese, and was inflexible in regard to scandals amongst the clergy. Without respect of persons, he reproved injustice and vice, using his authority always to protect the poor from oppression. He naturally suffered persecution from those in power, who often thwarted him in the discharge of his duties, but by resolution and patience he overcame their opposition in the end. To those who tried to twist God’s law to make it accord with their evil practice he would oppose the words of Tertullian: “Christ said, ‘I am the truth’. He did not say, I am the custom’.” The archbishop succeeded in eradicating some of the worst abuses, and he founded numerous churches, religious houses and hospitals; in 1591 he established at Lima the first ecclesiastical seminary in the New World.

Right on into old age St Turibius continued to study the Indian dialects so that he could address the people in their own speech and not through an interpreter. Thus he succeeded in making many conversions. In order to teach his flock he would sometimes stay two or three days in a place where he had neither bed nor sufficient food. Every part of his vast diocese was visited, and when danger threatened from marauders or physical obstacles he would say that Christ came from Heaven to save man and that we ought not to fear danger for His glory. The archbishop offered Mass daily, even when on a journey, and always with intense fervour, and every morning he made his confession to his chaplain. Among those St Turibius confirmed, as well as St Rose, are said to have been Bd Martin Porres and Bd John Massias. From 1590 he had the help of another great missionary, the Franciscan St Francis Solano, whose denunciations of the wickedness of Lima so alarmed the people that the viceroy had to call on the archbishop to calm them. The charities of St Turibius were large, and he had feeling for the sensitive pride of the Spaniards in his flock. He knew that many were shy of making their poverty or other needs known, that they did not like to accept public charity or help from those they knew: so he did all he could to assist them privately, without their knowing from whom their benefactions came.
St Turibius was in his sixty-eighth year when he fell ill at Pacasmayo, far to the north of Lima. Working to the last, he struggled as far as Santa, where he realized
the end was at hand. He made his will, giving his personal belongings to his servants and all the rest of his property for the benefit of the poor. He asked to be carried into the church to receive viaticum, and was then brought back to bed and anointed. While those about him sang the psalm, “I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord”, St Turibius died on March 23, 1606. In 1726 he was canonized.

The four volumes compiled by Mgr C. G. lrigoyen, Santo Toribio Obra escrita con motivo del tercer centenario de la muerte del Santo Arzobispo de Lima (1906) are of the first importance, most of the documents being previously unpublished. But see also the less exhaustive biographies by Fr Cyprian de Herrera and A. Nicoselli, and in French that by T. Bérengier (1872).
1624 Blessed Mariana of Jesus life of penance O. Merc. V (AC)
Born in Madrid, Spain, in 1565; died there in 1624; beatified by Pius VI. Known as the "Lily of Madrid," Mariana was a Discalced Mercedarian in Madrid, where she distinguished herself by her life of penance (Benedictines).
1678 Blessed Nicolas Roland (AC)
Born at Rheims, France, 1642; died April 27, 1678; beatified October 16, 1994. More will be added in 2000.
1716 St. Louis Mary de Montfort promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church. Totus tuus (completely yours) was Louis's personal motto

b. 1673 Louis's life is inseparable from his efforts to promote genuine devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus and mother of the Church. Totus tuus(completely yours) was Louis's personal motto; Karol Wojtyla chose it as his episcopal motto.
Born in the Breton village of Montfort, close to Rennes (France), as an adult Louis identified himself by the place of his Baptism instead of his family name, Grignion. After being educated by the Jesuits and the Sulpicians, he was ordained as a diocesan priest in 1700.

Soon he began preaching parish missions throughout western France. His years of ministering to the poor prompted him to travel and live very simply, sometimes getting him into trouble with Church authorities. In his preaching, which attracted thousands of people back to the faith, Father Louis recommended frequent, even daily, Holy Communion (not the custom then!) and imitation of the Virgin Mary's ongoing acceptance of God's will for her life.

Louis founded the Missionaries of the Company of Mary (for priests and brothers) and the Daughters of Wisdom, who cared especially for the sick. His book, True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin, has become a classic explanation of Marian devotion.

Louis died in Saint-Laurent-sur-Sèvre, where a basilica has been erected in his honor. He was canonized in 1947.

Comment: Like Mary, Louis experienced challenges in his efforts to follow Jesus. Opposed at times in his preaching and in his other ministries, Louis knew with St. Paul, “Neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God, who causes the growth” (1 Corinthians 3:7). Any attempt to succeed by worldly standards runs the risk of betraying the Good News of Jesus. Mary is “the first and most perfect disciple,” as the late Raymond Brown, S.S., described her.

Quote:  “Mary is the fruitful Virgin, and in all the souls in which she comes to dwell she causes to flourish purity of heart and body, rightness of intention and abundance of good works. Do not imagine that Mary, the most fruitful of creatures who gave birth to a God, remains barren in a faithful soul. It will be she who makes the soul live incessantly for Jesus Christ, and will make Jesus live in the soul” (True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin).
1856 St. Lawrence Huong native priest Martyr of Vietnam

He was a, beheaded during the anti-Christian persecution. Lawrence was canonized in 1988 by Pope John Paul II.

Laurence Hung M (AC) Born in Tonkin (Vietnam), c. 1802; died 1856; beatified in 1909; canonized in 1988 as one of the Martyrs of Vietnam. There were several major persecutions of Christians in was is today known as Vietnam.

In 1847, they were revived when Christians were suspected of complicity in rebellion, while Spanish and French efforts to protect their nationals created a xenophobic and anti-Christian fervor. Christians were marked on their faces with the words ta dao (false religion). Families were separated. Christian villages were destroyed and their possessions distributed. Laurence was a native priest, who was beheaded near Ninh-biuh in western Tonkin, during this period (Benedictines, Farmer).
1919 Blessed Maria Antonia Bandres y Elosegui (AC)
Born at Tolosa (Guipuzcoa), Spain, March 6, 1898; died at Salamanca, Spain, April 27, ; beatified May 12, 1996. More will be added in 2000.