Mary the Mother of Jesus
 Thursday  Saints of this Day April 28 Quarto Kaléndas Maii.  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.



 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com ,
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world
It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life

Give as if every pasture in the mountains of Ireland belonged to you. -- Saint Aidan



Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary  .

CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2016

April 28 - Saint Louis de Montfort -
Priestly Ordination of Saint Maximilian Kolbe (1918)
 
By her and through her, each soul goes to Jesus in a much easier way than without her.
Maximilian Kolbe, a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar, volunteered to die in the place of a family man in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz. As a child, he had a vision of the Virgin of Czestochowa, who appeared to him and presented him with two crowns, one white, the other red, as symbols of purity and martyrdom.
As she invited him to choose one, his generous heart prompted him to accept them both.
Later on that day, this beloved child of the Virgin Mary resolved in his heart to “become better day after day.” (…)

The writings of Saint Louis de Montfort taught him that “God wishes to reveal Mary, his masterpiece, and make her more known in these latter times, when Mary must shine forth more than ever in mercy, power and grace”
(Treatise on True Devotion to the Virgin Mary).

Maximilian gave his life to the Virgin Mary, saying:
“As the Immaculate belongs to Jesus and to God, each soul can belong to Jesus and to God by her
and through her, in a much easier way than without her.” (…) He was ordained on April 28, 1918.

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.).
In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Be careful then to take part in one Eucharist. For there is one flesh of our Lord, Jesus Christ,
and one cup of His Blood that makes us one, and one altar.  -- St. Ignatius of Antioch



Mary is the Mediatrix of all Graces April 28 - Our Lady of Quito (Ecuador, 1534) -
Priestly Ordination of Saint Maximilian Kolbe (1918)
I would wish you each day, each moment, to draw ever closer to the Immaculate,
to know her better and better, and to love her more and more. (...)
Mary is the Mediatrix of all graces. It is to her that we go, as children to their mother...
The soul needs a very deep faith, a very strong love, and often needs to have recourse to the Mother of God,
because she is the Mother of supernatural life, the Mother of Divine Grace.
The Lord wishes us to receive graces through her and this can only be if we come close to her.
Writings of Saint Maximilian Kolbe (d.1941)


   The Commemoration of the Lady the Theotokos. (coptic)
Departure of St. Hierotheos of Athens priest  present at the time of the departure of the Lady Virgin Mary learned man in the city Athens met Apostle St. Paul visited St. Dionysius the Areopagite (coptic)
 63 Jason wurde von Paulus zum Bischof von Tarsus Sosipater und Gefährten eingesetzt und Sosipater zum Bischof von Ikonien mit sieben Dieben martyred zusammen:  Saturninus Iakischolus Faustianus Januarius Marsalius Euphrasius Mammius
 92 St. Mark of Galilee Martyred bishop of Marsi St. Theodora
1-2nd v. St. Vitalis & Valeria she suffered when attacked by the pagans they were martyred near Milan
 304 St Didymus & Theodora rescued from infamous brothel by Didymus Martyrs in Alexandria
 304 St. Pollio Martyr
Christian community lector of Cybalae Pannonia serving as a lector {READ HIS LAST SERMON}
 305 Martyrs Dada, Maximus and Quinctilian suffered under the emperor Diocletian (284-305)
St. Patrick of Prusa; Several guards scalded Patrick untouched- "I do not condemn your gods, for no one can condemn what does not exist..."
       
Martyrdom of St. Babnuda (Paphnute). (Coptic)
4th v. Probe and Germaine two were Irish virgins who refused marriage
 409   Medioláni sanctæ Valériæ Mártyris, uxóris sancti Vitális ac matris sanctórum Gervásii et Protásii.
 609 St. Artemius Bishop mentor of St. Bond or Balthus
 626 St. Cronan of Roscrea founded fifty monasteries hermit in Ireland
 639 Gerard the Pilgrim (AC)
 700 St. Pamphilus Bishop of Sulmona and Corfinium Abruzzi venerated for his deep sanctity
 700 + Prudentius of Tarazona hermit priest bishop B (RM)
1172 Blessed Gerard of Bourgogne, OSB Cist. Abbot (PC)
1182 Saint Cyril of Turov hermit monk to become an outstanding bishop preacher; pre-Mongol Russia Greek tradition theological devotion
1260 St. Luchesio first Franciscan tertiary works of mercy nursing sick visiting prisons gave all possessions to the poor
1716 Saint Louis de Monfort founded the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Wisdom
1775 Sancti Pauli a Cruce, Presbyteri et Confessóris; qui Congregatiónis a Cruce et Passióne Dómini nostri Jesu Christi
Cross was endowed with extraordinary gifts. He prophesied future events, healed the sick, and even during his lifetime appeared on various occasions in vision to persons far away
1840 St. John Baptist Thanh native catechist Martyr of Vietnam
1840 St. Peter Hieu catechist native Vietnamese martyr
1841 St. Peter Chanel Priest Martyred in the New Hebrides model pupil vicar parish priest model missionary intelligence and simple piety
1962 Saint Gianna Beretta Molla M.D. gave special attention to mothers babies elderly and the poor gave her life to save that of her child (AC).
"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him"
(Psalm 21:28)

   The Commemoration of the Lady the Theotokos. (coptic)
   Departure of St. Hierotheos of Athens priest  present at the time of the departure of the Lady Virgin Mary learned
   man in the city Athens met Apostle St. Paul visited St. Dionysius the Areopagite (coptic)
 63 Jason wurde von Paulus zum Bischof von Tarsus Sosipater und Gefährten eingesetzt und Sosipater zum Bischof
      von Ikonien mit sieben Dieben martyred zusammen:  Saturninus Iakischolus Faustianus Januarius Marsalius
      Euphrasius Mammius
 92 St. Mark of Galilee Martyred bishop of Marsi St. Theodora
 304 St. Pollio Martyr Christian community lector of Cybalae Pannonia serving as a lector {READ HIS LAST SERMON}
 305 Martyrs Dada, Maximus and Quinctilian suffered under the emperor Diocletian (284-305)
       St. Patrick of Prusa; Several guards scalded Patrick untouched- "I do not condemn your gods, for no one can
       condemn what does not exist..."

 626 St. Cronan of Roscrea founded fifty monasteries hermit in Ireland
1182 Saint Cyril of Turov hermit monk to become an outstanding bishop preacher; pre-Mongol Russia Greek tradition
        theological devotion

1716 Saint Louis de Monfort founded the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Wisdom
1775 Sancti Pauli a Cruce, Presbyteri et Confessóris; qui Congregatiónis a Cruce et Passióne Dómini nostri Jesu Christi
        Cross was endowed with extraordinary gifts. He prophesied future events, healed the sick, and even during his
        lifetime appeared on various occasions in vision to persons far away

1840 St. John Baptist Thanh native catechist Martyr of Vietnam
1840 St. Peter Hieu catechist native Vietnamese martyr
1841 St. Peter Chanel Priest Martyred in the New Hebrides model pupil vicar parish priest model missionary
        intelligence and simple piety
1962 Saint Gianna Beretta Molla M.D. gave special attention to mothers babies elderly and the poor gave her life to
        save that of her child (AC)

April 28 - Saint Louis de Montfort 
 
Mary is as terrible to the devil as an army in battle array 
 
Mary must become as terrible as an army in battle array to the devil and his followers, especially in these latter times. For Satan, knowing that he has little time—even less now than ever—to destroy souls, intensifies his efforts and his onslaughts every day. He will not hesitate to stir up savage persecutions and set treacherous snares for Mary's faithful servants and children whom he finds more difficult to overcome than others.
Saint Louis de Montfort In Treatise on True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin, §50

 

The Commemoration of the Lady the Theotokos. (coptic)
On this day, we celebrate the commemoration of the Lady Virgin Mary, the Mother of God the Word.
Her intercession be with us. Amen.

Departure of St. Hierotheos of Athens priest  present at the time of the departure of the Lady Virgin Mary learned man in the city Athens met Apostle St. Paul visited St. Dionysius the Areopagite
On this day also, St. Hierotheos (Berutawos) of Athens, departed. This father was one of the learned men in the city of Athens. He met the Apostle St. Paul, and many discussions took place between them which led to his belief on the Apostle's hand. He baptized him, taught him the Ordinances and Law of the church, and then ordained him a priest for this city. He frequently visited St. Dionysius the Areopagite, who was also one of the learned men in Athens.
This Saint was present at the time of the departure of the Lady Virgin Mary, and he stood in the midst of the apostles and comforted them with spiritual songs and hymns which he sang accompanied with musical instruments.
He converted many Jews and Gentiles to the knowledge of the Lord Christ. When the people wished to ordain him a bishop, he refused saying: "I just wish to be able to perform the duties of a priest." Having finished his good strife, he went to the Lord Whom he loved.
His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever.
Amen.
63 Jason wurde von Paulus zum Bischof von Tarsus Sosipater und Gefährten eingesetzt und Sosipater zum Bischof von Ikonien Im Gefängnis saßen sie mit sieben Dieben zusammen: Saturninus, Jakischolus (Inischolus), Faustianus, Januarius, Marsalius, Euphrasius und Mammius.
Orthodoxe Kirche: 28. April (Sosipater auch 10. November) Katholische Kirche: Jason - 12. Juli
Saturninus Iakischolus Faustianus Januarius Marsalius Euphrasius Mammius
Jason aus Tarsus und Sosipater aus Achaia waren Schüler und Gefährten des Apostels Paulus. Jason wurde von Paulus zum Bischof von Tarsus eingesetzt und Sosipater zum Bischof von Ikonien. Beide führten die Missionsarbeit Richtung Westen fort und im Jahr 63 kamen sie nach Kerkyra (Korfu). Hier errichteten sie eine Kirche, die Stephanus geweiht wurde und konnten viele Menschen taufen. Der Gouverneur der Insel hörte von ihren Erfolgen und ließ sie einkerkern. Im Gefängnis saßen sie mit sieben Dieben zusammen: Saturninus, Jakischolus (Inischolus), Faustianus, Januarius, Marsalius, Euphrasius und Mammius. Sie konnten diese zu Christus bekehren, worauf die sieben hingerichtet wurden. Der Gefängniswärter bekannte sich angesichts ihres Martyriums ebenfalls zu Christus und wurde enthauptet. Nun kam die Tochter des Gouverneurs namens Kerkyra zum Glauben und blieb gegenüber ihrem Vater standhaft. Dieser ließ sie daraufhin in eine eigene Zelle sperren und den Mörder Murinus zu ihr bringen, damit er sie schände. Murinus aber wurde von einem Bären angegriffen und schwer verwundet. Kerkyra heilte seine Wunden und bekehrte ihn zu Christus und daraufhin wurde auch Murinus hingerichtet. Der Gouverneur ließ nun das Gefängnis abbrennen, aber Kerkyra blieb am Leben. Sie wurde dann an einen Baum gebunden und von Bogenschützen mit Pfeilen erschossen. Der Gouverneur befahl, auch alle anderen Christen auf der Insel hinzurichten. Die Christen Zinon, Eusebios, Neonos and Vitalius wurden verbrannt; alle anderen Einwohner Kerkyras flohen mit Booten zu einer Nachbarinsel. Der Gouverneur wollte sie mit Soldaten verfolgen, wurde aber durch hohen Seegang gehindert. Daraufhin ließ er Jason und Sosipater in einen Kessel mit kochendem Pech werfen, aber die Apostel überstanden diese Folter unverletzt. Angesichts dieses Wunders bekehrte sich der Gouverneur und nahm den Namen Sebastian an. Nunmehr unterstützte der Gouverneur die Arbeit der beiden Apostel, die mehrere Kirchen bauen konnten und bis ins hohe Alter ihre Gemeinde führten.

The Apostle Jason was from Tarsus (Asia Minor). He was the first Christian in the city. The Apostle Sosipater was a native of Patra, Achaia. He is thought to be the same Sosipater mentioned in Acts 20:4. They both became disciples of St Paul, who even called them his kinsmen (Rom 16:21). St John Chrysostom (Homily 32 on Romans) says that this is the same Jason who is mentioned in Acts 17:5-9. St Jason was made bishop in his native city of Tarsus, and St Sosipater in Iconium. They traveled west preaching the Gospel, and in 63 they reached the island of Kerkyra [Korfu] in the Ionian Sea near Greece.

There they built a church in the name of the Protomartyr Stephen and they baptized many. The governor of the island learned on this and locked them up in prison, where they met seven thieves: Saturninus, Iakischolus, Faustianus, Januarius, Marsalius, Euphrasius and Mammius. The Apostles converted them to Christ. For their confession of Christ, the seven prisoners died as martyrs in a cauldron of molten tar, wax and sulfur.

The prison guard, after witnessing their martyrdom, declared himself a Christian. For this they cut off his left hand, then both feet and finally his head. The governor ordered the Apostles Jason and Sosipater to be whipped and again locked up in prison.

When the daughter of the governor of Kerkyra (Korfu), the maiden Kerkyra, learned how Christians were suffering for Christ, she declared herself a Christian and gave away all her finery to the poor. The infuriated governor attempted to persuade his daughter to deny Christ, but St Kerkyra stood firm against both persuasion and threats. Then the enraged father devised a terrible punishment for his daughter: he gave orders that she be placed in a prison cell with the robber and murderer Murinus, so that he might defile the betrothed of Christ

But when the robber approached the door of the prison cell, a bear attacked him. St Kerkyra heard the noise and she drove off the beast in the name of Christ. Then, by her prayers, she healed the wounds of Murinus. Then St Kerkyra enlightened him with the faith of Christ, and St Murinus declared himself a Christian and was executed.
The governor gave orders to burn down the prison, but the holy virgin remained alive.

Then on her enraged father's order, she was suspended upon a tree, choked with bitter smoke and shot with arrows. After her death, the governor decided to execute all the Christians on the island of Kerkyra. The Martyrs Zeno, Eusebius, Neon and Vitalis, after being enlightened by Sts Jason and Sosipater, were burned alive.

The inhabitants of Kerkyra, escaping from the persecution, crossed to an adjoining island. The governor set sail with a detachment of soldiers, but was swallowed up by the waves. The governor succeeding him gave orders to throw the Apostles Jason and Sosipater into a cauldron of boiling tar.
When he beheld them unharmed, he cried out with tears, "O God of Jason and Sosipater, have mercy on me!"

Having been set free, the Apostles baptized the governor and gave him the name Sebastian. With his help, the Apostles Jason and Sosipater built several churches on the island, and increased the flock of Christ by their fervent preaching. They lived there until they reached old age.
92 St. Mark of Galilee Martyred bishop of Marsi in the Abruzzi region of Italy.
Atínæ, in Campánia, sancti Marci, qui, a beáto Petro Apóstolo Epíscopus ordinátus, Æquícolis primus Evangélium prædicávit, et in persecutióne Domitiáni, sub Máximo Præside, martyrii corónam accépit.
 At Atino in Campania, St. Mark, who was made bishop by the blessed apostle Peter.  He was the first to preach the Gospel to the Equicoli, and received the crown of martyrdom in the persecution of Domitian, under the governor Maximus.
 

A Galilean by birth, he was a missionary to Italy.
Mark of Galilee BM (RM) Saint Mark is said to have been a Galilean by descent and the first missionary bishop and martyr in the province of the Marsi (Abruzzi) in Italy (Benedictines).
1st v. St. Aphrodisius martyr with Sts. Caralippus, Agapius, Eusebius, supposedly sheltered the Holy Family when they fled into Egypt 1st century
Eódem die sanctórum Mártyrum Aphrodísii, Caralíppi, Agápii et Eusébii.
 On the same day, the holy martyrs Aphrodisius, Caralippus, Agapius, and Eusebius.
 
also involved in ancient tradition. St. Gregory of Tours related a legend that Aphrodisius was an Egyptian. He supposedly sheltered the Holy Family when they fled into Egypt. Aphrodisius and companions were martyred in Languedoc, France.

Aphrodisius, Caralippus, Agapitus & Eusebius MM (RM) 1st century. A French legend, now universally rejected, makes this Aphrodisius an Egyptian who sheltered the Holy Family during their flight into Egypt. He is alleged to have been martyred with the other three in Languedoc. Their story is related by Saint Gregory of Tours
(Benedictines).
1-2nd v. St. Vitalis & Valeria she suffered when attacked by the pagans they were martyred near Milan
Ravénnæ natális sancti Vitális Mártyris, viri sanctæ Valériæ ac patris sanctórum Gervásii et Protásii; qui, cum beáti Ursicíni corpus sublátum débita honestáte sepelísset, tentus est a Paulíno Consulári, et, post equúlei torménta, jussus depóni in profúndam fóveam, et terra ac lapídibus óbrui; talíque martyrio migrávit ad Christum.
 At Ravenna, the birthday of St. Vitalis, martyr, father of the Saints Gervase and Protase.  When he had taken up and reverently buried the body of blessed Ursicinus, he was arrested by the governor Paulinus, and after being racked and thrown into a deep pit, was covered with earth and stones, and by this kind of martyrdom went to Christ.
2nd v. SS. VITALIS AND VALERIA, MARTYRS
Since this St Vitalis is named in the canon of the Mass according to the Milanese rite, is commemorated in the Roman rite to-day, and is the titular saint of the famous basilica of San Vitale at Ravenna, he should be mentioned here, though nothing certain is known about him beyond the fact that he and St Valeria were early martyrs, probably at or near Milan.
The spurious letter of St Ambrose which purports to narrate the history of the twin martyrs SS. Gervase and Protase states incorrectly that Vitalis and Valeria were their parents. According to the legend, Vitalis was a soldier who, when the physician St Ursicinus of Ravenna wavered when faced with death for Christ, encouraged him to stand firm. The governor accordingly ordered Vitalis to be racked and then buried alive, which was done. His wife, St Valeria, was set upon by pagans near Milan, and died from their brutal treatment. These things are said to have happened during the persecution under Nero, but the second century, under Marcus Aurelius, is a more likely date for their martyrdom.

The story of St Vitalis is discussed in the Act Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, and by Tillemont in his Mémoires, vol. ii. See also the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlvi (1928), pp. 55—59.

According to an account that is doubtlessly spurious, Vitalis was a wealthy citizen of Milan, and perhaps a soldier. He was married Valeria, and they were the parents of SS. Gervase and Protase (which they were not). When he encouraged St. Ursicinus to be steadfast at his execution, the Vitalis was racked and then buried alive.

Valeria died as the result of injuries she suffered when attacked by the pagans. They were martyred near Milan probably under Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180) but all else is suspect.

St. Valerie a derivative of Valeria, an early martyr probably at or near Milan. According to legend, Vitalis was a soldier who, when the physician St. Ursicinus of Ravenna wavered when faced with death for Christ, encouraged him to stand firm. The governor accordingly ordered Vitalis to be racked and then buried alive, which was done. His wife, St. Valeria, was set upon by pagans near Milan and died from their brutal treatment. These things are said to have happened during the persecution under Nero, but the second century, under Marcus Aurelius, is a more likely date for their martyrdom.

St. Valeria Saintly matron Her existence is considered doubtful. supposedly the wife of St. Vitalis and mother of Sts. Gervase and Protase.


Valeria of Milan M (RM) 1st century? Allegedly, Valeria was the mother of SS. Gervase and Protase and wife of Saint Vitalis. She is said to have been martyred in Milan; however, she appears to be a fictitious character. The casket which once contained her supposed relics is in the British Museum (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer). In art, Saint Valeria is depicted with her sons, Gervasius and Protasius, and her husband Saint Vitalis of Milan. She may be shown being beaten with clubs for refusing to sacrifice to pagan gods. She is venerated in Milan (Roeder).

Vitalis of Milan M
1st century? There are two 2nd century saints called Vitalis, but the one who is commemorated today was reputedly a rich man who lived in Milan, Italy. He was happily married to Saint Valeria with at least two fine children, SS. Gervase and Protase, whose remains were discovered and enshrined by Saint Ambrose in the 4th century. The only crime of Vitalis was that he became a Christian. Another martyr was to be executed in Ravenna and Vitalis stood by him, urging him not to lose his faith in the face of this final trial. The authorities were enraged. They stretched Vitalis on a rack and then buried him alive.

His wife, too, was attacked by vicious pagans and died of her wounds just outside Milan when Marcus Aurelius was emperor. Because their acta are spurious, their cults have supposedly been discontinued; however, I still find their names on the revised calendar and in the canon of the Ambrosian Mass. A conundrum (Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Farmer).

In art, Saint Vitalis is portrayed with stones in his lap, seated between his two sons, Gervasius and Protasius, who each hold a stone. He may also be shown (1) buried alive in a pit; (2) stoned; (3) with a whirlbat; or (4) as a young layman with two sons (Roeder).
304 St. Didymus & Theodora rescued from infamous brothel by Didymus; Martyrs in Alexandria
Alexandríæ pássio sanctæ Theodóræ, Vírginis et Mártyris.  Hæc, idólis sacrificáre contémnens, in lupánar est trádita, sed repénte quidam ex frátribus, nómine Dídymus, miro Dei favóre, commutátis véstibus, illam erípuit; qui póstea, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, sub Eustrátio Prǽside, simul cum eádem Vírgine percússus, simul coronátus est.
 At Alexandria, the martyrdom of the virgin St. Theodora.  For refusing to sacrifice to idols, she was sent to a place of debauchery; but one of the brethren, named Didymus, through the admirable providence of God, delivered her by quickly exchanging garments with her.  He was afterwards beheaded and crowned with her in the persecution of Diocletian, under the governor Eustratius.
 
304? SS. THEODORA AND DIDYMUS, MARTYRS
According to the legend Theodora was a beautiful maiden of Alexandria who, because during the persecution of Diocletian she refused to sacrifice to the gods, was sentenced to exposure in a house of ill-fame. She was rescued from the brothel by one Didymus, who changed clothes with her; but on reaching a place of safety Theodora fell dead from shock. Didymus was soon detected, and was put to death by beheading.
Alban Butler retells this story at some length, following Ruinart, who included the “acts” in his Acta martyrum sincera; but later scholars, e.g. Father Delehaye, regard them as purely fictitious.
The so-called acts are in Ruinart and the Act Sanctorum, April, vol. iii. Father Delehaye suggests a comparison with the Acts of SS. Alexander and Antonina in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i.

Egypt. Theodora was a virgin who was sentenced to a brothel as punishment for being a Christian during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian. She was rescued from the infamous house by Didymus, who was still a pagan but who was converted by her beautiful example of fidelity to Christ. They were martyred together.

Theodora and Didymus MM (RM) A pious fiction tells of Theodora, a beautiful young girl in Alexandria, who was arrested and sentenced to live in a house of prostitution for refusing to sacrifice to pagan gods during the persecution of Emperor Diocletian. Didymus, a fellow Christian, helped her escape by exchanging clothes with her. It was a brilliant idea, properly executed, but when the trickery was discovered, Didymus was arrested and sentenced to death. Theodora returned to the city from hiding, hoping to secure the release of Didymus by surrendering her own life. But so great was the fury of the prefect that he ordered both of them to be killed.

Another version says that Theodora fell dead when she was rescued by Didymus; when Didymus's act was discovered, he was beheaded. Sometimes Didymus is portrayed as a pagan converted by her purity in the brothel
(Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
305 Martyrs Dada, Maximus and Quinctilian suffered under the emperor Diocletian (284-305)
 issued a decree requiring everyone to offer sacrifice to the pagan gods during the public festivals, and to put Christians to death.

Tarquinius and Gabinius, the emperor's representatives in Dorostolum, made a sumptuous feast, attended not only by the inhabitants of the city, but also people from the surrounding villages.
After the festivities, someone reported to the emperor that three brothers, Dada, Maximus and Quinctilian, did not obey the imperial decree and withdrew themselves into the Ozovia forest. Soldiers were sent after them, who caught the holy brothers at prayer and led them forth for trial. The governors interrogated the brothers, who confessed themselves Christians. Tarquinius offered to make St Maximus a pagan priest of Zeus, but the saint called Zeus a foul adulterer and again confessed the True God.
Tarquinius attempted to reason with Sts Dada and Quinctilian. They said that their brother was well versed in the Holy Scripture and they would follow him in everything. They threw the martyrs into prison, but they thought only of the salvation of their souls. At midnight when the saints were asleep, the devil appeared to them. When the martyrs woke, they beheld an angel who said, "Fear not, for God your hope brings you to Himself. He is not far from you and will sustain you."
In the morning, Tarquinius told the brothers that the gods had revealed their will to him in a dream: they were to be put to death if they did not offer sacrifice. The martyrs answered that the Lord had commanded them to endure torments for His sake. The tortures and interrogations continue for several days from morning to evening. Finally, they sentenced the martyrs to death, led them out under guard to their forest and beheaded them with a sword.

Martyrdom of St. Babnuda (Paphnute). (Coptic)
On this day, St. Babnuda (Paphnute), who was from Dandara (Dendereh), was martyred. This Saint was a hermit monk. The angel of the Lord appeared to him and told him to put on the priesthood vestments and go appear before Arianus, the governor.

Arianus arrived with his ship and embarked by the city of Dandara, looking for that Saint. The Saint came to Arianus and cried out in his face with a loud voice, saying: "I am Christian, and I believe in the lord Christ." When the Governor knew that he was the anchorite for whom he sought, he ordered him to be tortured severely. He chained him with iron fetters and cast him in a dark prison. A heavenly light shone upon him and an angel of the Lord appeared to him, healed his wounds, and comforted him.

There was in the city a man, whose name was Kyrillos, with his wife, his daughter, and twelve young men. The Saint preached them and confirmed them in faith. They were all martyred by cutting of their heads, and they received the crown of martyrdom. The Governor was raged of him and ordered to hang a rock in his neck and cast him in the sea, and St. Babnuda received the crown of martyrdom.
His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.
304 St. Pollio Martyr lector of the Christian community of Cybalae Pannonia serving as a lector
In Pannónia sancti Polliónis Mártyris, sub Diocletiáno Imperatóre.
In Hungary, St. Pollio, martyr, under the Emperor Diocletian.
304 ST POLLIO, MARTYR
THE scene of the martyrdom of St Pollio was the ancient town of Cybalae or Cibalis in Lower Pannonia (now Mikanovici in Yugoslavia), the birth-place of the Emperors Gratian, Valentinian and Valens. He was a lector in the church, and, after the martyrdom of his bishop Eusebius, he became the leader of those Christians in the diocese who disregarded the edicts of Diocletian. He was accordingly brought before Probus the president, before whom he made a bold confession. Because he refused to offer sacrifice to the gods and to render divine honours to the emperors he was condemned to death, and was burnt at the stake a few years after the martyrdom of Eusebius.
There can be no doubt about the historical existence of St Pollio, although his reputed acts may not deserve to be included, as Ruinart ranks them, among the acta sincera. The text is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, and also by Ruinart. Pollio unquestionably figures in the “Hieronymianum”. As to Eusebia, there may be some confusion with a presby­ter who is commemorated on this day in the Syriac “Breviarium”, who suffered at Nicomedia.
Pollio was a member of the Christian community of Cybalae, Pannonia, a province on the Danube, serving as a lector. He was put to death during the persecution launched by Emperor Diocletian.

Pollio of Pannonia & Companions MM (RM) Died April 27, c. 304. We have the passio of Saint Pollio, a lector of the Church of Cybalae in Pannonia (Hungary), who was burnt alive under Diocletian. Governor Probus had already killed the priest Saint Montanus at Singidon, Bishop Saint Irenaeus at Sirmium, and others.

On the day the governor arrived at the town of Cibales, Pollio was arrested. The lector Pollio, a man of great virtue and a lively faith, was presented to Probus as he alighted from his chariot and accused of irreligious speech and action. Probus asked his name. "I am Pollio, the chief of the readers."
Probus: "Of what readers?"
Pollio: "Why, of those who read the word of God to the people."
Probus: "I suppose you mean by that name a set of men who find ways and means to impose on the credulity of fickle and silly women, and persuade them to observe chastity, and refrain from marriage."

Pollio: "Those are the fickle and foolish who abandon their Creator to follow your superstitions; while our hearers are so steady in the profession of the truths they have imbibed from our lectures, that no torments prevail with them to transgress the precepts of the eternal King."
Probus: "Of what king, and of what precepts do you speak?"
Pollio: "I mean the holy precepts of the eternal King, Jesus Christ."
Probus: "What do those precepts teach?"
Pollio: "They inculcate the belief and adoration of one only God, who causes thunder in the heavens; and they teach that what is made of wood or stone, deserves not to be called God. They correct sinners, animate and strengthen the good in virtue: teach virgins to attain to the perfection of their state, and the married to live up to the rules of conjugal chastity: they teach masters to command with mildness and moderation slaves to submit with love and affection, subjects to obey all in power in ail things that are just; in a word, they teach us to honor parents, requite our friends, forgive our enemies, exercise hospitality to strangers, assist the poor, to be just, kind, and charitable to all men; to believe a happy immortality prepared for those who despise the momentary death which you have power to inflict."
Probus: "Of what felicity is a man capable after death?"
Pollio: "There is no comparison between the happiness of this and the next life. The fleeting comforts of this mortal suite deserve not the name of goods, when compared with the permanent joys of eternity."
Probus: "This is foreign to our purpose; let us come to the point of the edict."
Pollio: "What is the purport of it?"
Probus: "That you must sacrifice to the gods."
Pollio: "Sacrifice I will not, let what will be the consequence; for it is written: He that shall sacrifice to devils, and not to God, shall be exterminated."
Probus: "Then you must resolve to die."
Pollio: "My resolution is fixed: do what you are commanded."
Probus then condemned him to be burnt alive; and the sentence was immediately executed a mile outside town (Attwater2, Benedictines, Husenbeth).
St. Patrick of Prusa; Several guards were scalded by the water which left Patrick untouched--much like the three children in the Babylonian furnace Patrick: "I do not contemn your gods, for no one can condemn what does not exist..."
Prusæ, in Bithynia, sanctórum Mártyrum Patrícii Epíscopi, Acátii, Menándri et Polyǽni.
 At Broussa in Bithynia, the holy martyrs Patrick, a bishop, Acatius, Menander, and Polyaenus.
 
Martyr with Polyaenus and Menander, put to death in Prusa, in the Roman province of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. No date can be attached to the event, but The account of his death, the Acts of Patrick, is considered by scholars to be authentic, although the names of the others were probably added to the calendar over succeeding centuries.

Patrick (Patricius), Acatius, Menander & Polyenus MM (RM) Date unknown (though it is recorded on May 19, this second feast celebrated by the Greeks).

The acta of Prusa's (Broussa in Bithynia) second bishop, Patrick, are considered authentic. The names of the others have been added in the early calendars. His acta say that Proconsul Julius of Bithynia, having come to Prusa to bath in its famous hot springs and sacrifice to the Esculapius and to Health, found himself refreshed and invigorated. He attributed his renewed well-being to these divinities and gratefully wanted to make a return by obliging Patrick to sacrifice to them.

He had the bishop brought before him and said, "You, who being led away by silly tales, are weak enough to invoke Christ, deny if you can the power of our gods, and their providential care over us. In granting us these mineral waters, endued by them with salutary virtues. I therefore insist on your sacrificing to Esculapius, as you hope to avoid being severely tormented for your non-compliance."

Patrick: "How many wicked things are contained in the few words you have bean uttering!"
Julius: "What wickedness can you discover in my discourse, who have advanced nothing in it but what is plain matter of fact? Are not the daily cures, wrought by these waters, clear and manifest? Don't we see and experience them?"
Patricius did not deny the salutary effects of the waters, nor the cures wrought by them, but endeavored to convince the governor and the listeners that these waters, and all other things, had received their being and perfection from the one only true God, and his Son Jesus Christ. And while he was endeavoring to account for their heat and ebullition, from secondary causes, he was interrupted by the proconsul's crying out:
"You pretend, then, that Christ made these waters, and gave them their virtue?"

Patrick: "Yes; without all doubt he did."
Julius: "If I throw you into these waters to punish you for your contempt of the gods, do you imagine your Christ, whom you suppose the maker of them, will preserve your life in the midst of them?"
Patrick: "I do not contemn your gods, for no one can contemn what does not exist: I would have you convinced that Jesus Christ can preserve my life, when I am thrown into these waters, as easily as he can permit them to take it away: and that whatever relates to me, or is to befall me, is perfectly known to him, as he is present everywhere; for not a bird falls to the ground, nor a hair from our heads, but by his good will and pleasure. This I would have all look upon as an oracle of truth itself; and that an eternal punishment in hell awaits all such as, like you, adore idols."

Enraged at these words, the proconsul commanded that Patrick be stripped and cast into the scalding water. As they carried out the order, he prayed: "Lord Jesus Christ, assist Your servant."

Several of the guards were scalded by the dashing of the water, which left Patrick untouched--much like the three children in the Babylonian furnace. Julius grew more angry that God protected the saint. He next ordered that Patrick be decapitated. The martyr, having recommended his soul to God by a short prayer, knelt down, and had his head struck off pursuant to the sentence. The faithful that were present at the execution carried off his body, and gave it a decent interment near the high road. Some name Constantinople as the chief place of his veneration and suggest that he suffered there and that his relics were preserved in a famous church which bore his name. Both the Greek and Roman calendars join him with Saint Acacius, Menander, and Polyaenus, who were also beheaded for the faith (Benedictines).
4th v. Probe and Germaine two were Irish virgins who refused marriage 4th century VV MM (AC)
These two were Irish virgins who refused marriage and were found near Laon, then murdered (Encyclopedia).
409  Medioláni sanctæ Valériæ Mártyris, uxóris sancti Vitális ac matris sanctórum Gervásii et Protásii.
     
At Milan, the martyr St. Valeria, who was the wife of St. Vitalis and the mother of Saints Gervase and Protase.

Vitalis und Valeria von Ravenna Vitalis und Agricola
Katholische Kirche: Vitalis und Valeria - 28. April Katholische Kirche: Vitalis und Agricola - 4. November

Um 380 wurden in Bologna Reliquien aufgefunden und im Beisein von Bischof Ambrosius feierlich erhoben. Die Reliquien wurden Vitalis und Valeria zugeschrieben. Der Vitaliskult breitete sich in Italien schnell aus, im 6, Jahrhundert entstanden auch zwei Legenden. Nach der einen Legende war Vitalis ein reicher Italiener, der mit seiner Ehefrau Valeria und den Kindern Gervasius und Protasius in Mailand lebte. Vitalis stand einem Christen, der in Ravenna hingerichtet wurde, bei und wurde daraufhin ergriffen, gefoltert und lebendig verbrannt oder lebendig begraben oder enthauptet. Seine Ehefrau wurde ebenfalls hingerichtet. Ihr Martyrium soll unter Kaiser Mark Aurel geschehen sein.

Nach der anderen Legende soll Vitalis ein Sklave des Agricola in Bologna gewesen sein und mit diesem um 304 unter Diokletian das Martyrium erlitten haben. Agricola hatte seinen Sklaven zum Christentum bekehrt und als dieser das Martyrium erlitt, bekannte sich auch Agricola zu Christus. Er soll mit zahlreichen Nägeln durchbohrt und gekreuzigt worden sein. Ihre Leichen wurden auf dem jüdischen Friedhof von Bologna verscharrt, wo Ambrosius sie 393 erhob. Die katholische Kirche gedenkt dieser beiden Märtyrer am 4. November. Um 409 überführte Kaiserin Galla Placida Reliquien von Vitalis sowie von Gervasius und Protasius nach Ravenna. Möglicherweise liegt hier der Anlaß für die Zusammenfassung dieser Märtyrer zu einer Familie.
Auch die orthodoxe Kirche gedenkt am 28. April eines Märtyrers Vitalis

609 St. Artemius Bishop, mentor of St. Bond or Balthus.
Artemius a native of Sens, France, where he was appointed bishop. He trained St. Bond in the spiritual life.

Artemius of Sens B (AC) Born in Sens, France; Artemius became bishop of Sens. He admitted to public penance a Spaniard named Baldus (Bond), whom he trained to be a great saint (Benedictines).
626 St. Cronan of Roscrea founded fifty monasteries hermit in Ireland
626 ST CRONAN OF ROSCREA, ABBOT
St CRONAN of Roscrea was one of the greatest Irishmen of his age, but for the history of his life we have nothing more reliable than accounts compiled centuries after his death, apparently from oral traditions rather than from written records. His father’s name was Odran, and the saint was born in the district of Ely O’Carroll, in Offaly. Cronan made his first monastic settlement at Puayd, where he lived for some time, but afterwards he showed his charity in a fashion as practical as it was unusual, for we read that he built as many as fifty houses, which he relinquished one after another to anchorites who required homes. Moreover, he would take nothing away with him when he left these houses, and actually made one of his disciples do penance for the rest of his life because he had removed a sackful of things which he thought might prove useful.
St Cronan seems to have established communities at Lusmag in Offaly and at Monahincha near Roscrea, where a flourishing abbey, to which a school was attached, may perhaps be traced to his foundation. Not far off, beside the present bog of Monela, he built himself a cell at Seanross, and here he was visited by St Molua to whom he gave viaticum. Cronan became blind a few years before his death, which took place when he was an extremely old man. One of the strangest incidents recorded of St Cronan is thus summarized by Father John Ryan in his Irish Monasticism (1931): “He worked a miracle to provide his guests with beer, and the result was so successful that they all became inebriated.”

There is a Latin life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, and re-edited by Hummer in VSH., vol. ii, pp. 22—31. See also O’Hanlon, US., vol. iv, pp. 516 seq., and D. F. Gleeson, Roscrea (1947).

He was the son of Odran, born in Munster, or possibly Ely O’Carroll, Offaly, Ireland. Cronan founded fifty monasteries, the first at Puay and the most famous at Roscrea. He ended his life as a blind hermit.

Cronan of Roscrea, Abbot (AC) also known as Croman Born in Munster, Ireland; Cronan was a monk and maker of monks, but there are no reliable accounts of his life. He is patron of Roscrea, County Tipperary, one of the several monasteries that he founded, and highly venerated in the region
(Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Gill, Husenbeth, Montague).
639 Gerard the Pilgrim (AC)
Gerard was one of four English pilgrims--the other three were Ardwine, Bernard, and Hugh--who died at Galinaro in southern Italy. Many scholars doubt their historicity
(Benedictines).
   700 St. Pamphilus Bishop of Sulmona and Corfinium Abruzzi venerated for his deep sanctity gift of miracles
Corfínii, in Pelígnis, sancti Pámphili, Valvénsis Epíscopi, caritáte in páuperes et virtúte miraculórum illústris; cujus corpus Sulmóne cónditum est.
 At Corfinio in Peligno, St. Pamphilus, bishop of Valva, illustrious for his charity towards the poor and the gift of miracles.  His body was buried at Solmona.
700 ST PAMPHILUS, BISHOP OF SULMONA
DURING the last quarter of the seventh century there was living in the Abruzzi a bishop called Pamphilus, who ruled over the united dioceses of Sulmona and Corfinium. He was a very holy man, a zealous teacher, austere in his life and generous to the poor, but he aroused hostility by introducing certain innovations. On Sunday mornings he would rise shortly after midnight and, after the solemn singing of the night offices, he would proceed at once to celebrate Mass. Then he would distribute alms, and at daybreak would provide for the poor a meal which he shared with his guests.
   Some of his clergy and people strongly objected to this hour for offering the holy Sacrifice. They pointed out that no other bishop in Italy had Mass celebrated before the second or third hour. They actually went so far as to denounce him as an Arian to the pope, before whom he was summoned. So completely did Pamphilus succeed in vindicating his orthodoxy that the pontiff sent him home with a liberal donation for his poor. St Pamphilus was greatly venerated in his own neighbourhood, and his cultus afterwards spread to Germany.

See the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, where a short Latin life is printed, but of no great authority.

Italy. While venerated for his deep sanctity, he was nevertheless accused before Pope Sergius of being an Arian. The basis of the charge was that Pamphilus said Mass before sunrise on Sunday morning.
Completely vindicated, Pamphilus was sent a gift by the pope to be distributed to the poor. 

Pamphilus of Sulmona B (RM) Bishop Pamphilus of Sulmona (a see later joined to that of Valva) and Cofinium, in the Abruzzi, was accused by his flock to Pope Sergius of Arian practices, chiefly, it seems because of his singing Mass before daybreak on Sundays--but he completely vindicated himself (Attwater2, Benedictines).

Pamphilos und Porphyrios  Orthodoxe Kirche: 16. Februar - Pamphilos und Porphyrios  Katholische Kirche: 16. Februar / 28. April - Pamphilos (von Sulmona)
Der Presbyter Pamphilos und sein Diener Porphyrios wurden in der Verfolgung unter Diokletian hingerichtet.
Nach einer anderen Überlieferung war Pamphilos Bischof von Sulmona (Italien). Er lebte im 7. Jahrhundert. Er war den Armen gegenüber freigebig. Nach nächtlichem Gebet und Messen nach altem Ritus vor Sonnenaufgang frühstückte er mit Armen. Da die Gemeinden von ihren Priestern einen ebenso frommen Lebenswandel forderten, verdächtigten diese Pamphilos des Arianismus. Papst Sergius verhörte ihn, sprach ihn frei und gab ihm eine große Summe für seine Armen. Pamphilos starb um
700.
700 + Prudentius of Tarazona hermit priest bishop B (RM)
Turiasóne, in Hispánia Tarraconénsi, sancti Prudéntii, Epíscopi et Confessóris.
    At Tarrazona in Spain, St. Prudentius, bishop and confessor.

Born in Armentia, Alava, Spain; died in Tarazona, Spain, after 700. After having been a hermit for some years, Prudentius was ordained a priest and became bishop of Tarazona (not Tarragona) in Aragon. He is the patron of that diocese
(Benedictines).
909 Blessed Adalbero of Augsburg monk  well-versed in science the arts esp music OSB B (PC)

Adalbero, scion of the family of the counts of Dillingen, was uncle to Saint Ulric. He became a monk in 850 and afterwards was successively abbot of Ellwangen, abbot-restorer of Lorsch, and bishop of Augsburg (after 887).
Adalbero also served as chief adviser of Arnulf of Bavaria, tutor to his son Louis, and regent of the Empire during the latter's childhood.
He was well-versed in science and the arts, especially in music
(Benedictines).
1172 Blessed Gerard of Bourgogne, OSB Cist. Abbot (PC)
Gerard followed Saint Fastred(1163 - who followed Saint Bernard) as abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Cambron (Benedictines).
1182 Saint Cyril of Turov hermit monk to become an outstanding bishop preacher pre-Mongol Russia Greek tradition theological devotion B
1182 ST CYRIL, Bishop op Turov
CYRIL of Turov is one of the three outstanding figures in Russian Christian culture before the Mongol invasions (the other two are Clement Smoliatich and Hilarion, both metropolitans of Kiev). But in spite of this practically nothing is known about his life: if anybody wrote his biography it has not survived, and the chronicles tell us nothing.
   He lived during the middle of the twelfth century, and was first. a monk, then a recluse, and left his cell to be bishop of Turov, a town not far from Kiev. Professor Fedotov says of him that “From his writings one receives the impression of a man who stands very remote from life, even from the moral needs of life, and who is entirely elevated to the sphere of religious worship and thought, with its dogmatic or would-be dogmatic mysteries: he is a unique example of theological devotion in ancient Russia”.
It is remarkable about St Cyril of Turov that “he is nothing but an exponent of the Greek tradition on the Russian soil”, lacking any specifically Russian feature. Whether in fact he knew Greek and read the Greek fathers of the Church in the original tongue is debated: but on the whole it seems that he probably did not, and the extent of his patristic learning is undetermined. But he was the best biblical scholar among the early Russian writers, though Fedotov points out some remarkable inaccuracies. His interpretation was allegorical, and he carried it to extravagant lengths. His ascetical ideals, at any rate for monks, emphasized spiritual mortification, especially by way of obedience as the outward fruit of humility: “You are a piece of cloth, and you may be conscious of yourself only until someone picks you up: do not worry if you are then torn up for footwear”.
But it was as a preacher that St Cyril of Turov was most famous, and he faithfully followed his Greek models in their rhetoric and flowing oratory; but he never “unbends” as, for example, St John Chrysostom so often does, and he so ignores the practical application of his theology to human life that some have dismissed his sermons as pure oratory—overlooking that St Cyril was really carried away by the contemplation of divine mysteries.
The balance, both in manner and matter, is somewhat restored by certain prayers which he wrote; their language is more straightforward and they are predominantly concerned with the writer’s sinfulness and need of forgiveness. It was to bring forgiveness and salvation that God became man and died on the cross, and it was this divine salvation that provides the theme for some of the finest passages in Cyril’s sermons.
What part St Cyril of Turov took in the ecclesiastical affairs of his time is not known; it is recorded that he wrote certain letters about them, but they have been lost. He died in the year 1182.

There is a good deal about St Cyril and his sermons and writings in Professor Fedotov’s The Russian Religious Mind (1946), especially at pages 69-84 and 136—141. Cf. also general bibliographical notes under St Sergius of Radonezh on September 25.

Few details of the life of Saint Cyril survive. He was a hermit monk, who left his cell to become an outstanding bishop and preacher in pre-Mongol Russia.

Cyril is said to have been "an exponent of the Greek tradition on the Russian soil," "an unique example of theological devotion in ancient Russia," and a biblical scholar (Attwater2, Coulson).
Saint Cyril, Bishop of Turov, was born of rich parents in the thirties of the twelfth century in the city of Turov at the River Pripyat.

From his early years St Cyril eagerly read the sacred books and attained a profound understanding of them. He studied not only in Russian, but also in Greek. When he reached maturity St Cyril refused his inheritance and was tonsured in Turov's St Boris and Gleb monastery. He struggled much in fasting and prayer and taught the monks to obey the igumen. A monk who is not obedient to the igumen does not fulfill his vow, and therefore is not able to be saved.

Three writings of St Cyril on monastic life have survived, one of which, "A Narrative on the Black Clergy from the Old Law and from the New," may be ascribed to a period of his being in the monastery.
After a certain while St Cyril lived on a pillar, where he increased his asceticism, and meditated on the Holy Scripture. Many turned to him for counsel in the spiritual life.

St Cyril's holiness of life and profound enlightenment became known to many, and so he was chosen as Bishop of Turov.
   In 1169 St Cyril took part in a council censuring Bishop Theodore, who occupied the Vladimir-Suzdal cathedra and who sought to separate from the metropolitanate of Kiev. St Cyril denounced the heresy of Theodore and wrote many letters to the holy prince Andrew Bogoliubsky (July 4), in which he provided him instruction and guidance in discovering the cause of church disorders in the Rostov region.


Because of his love for solitude, St Cyril left his See (by the year 1182, Bishop Laurence is mentioned as the Bishop of Turov) and he devoted himself fully to spiritual writing. He composed a discourse on the yearly cycle of the Lord's Feasts, but not all of them have been preserved. The works of St Cyril deserve a place beside the works of the holy Fathers in book collections.
The most complete collection of works by St Cyril of Turov, published by Bishop Eugenius of Turov in 1880, includes:
Sermon on Palm Sunday, from Gospel accounts
Sermon on Holy Pascha on the Radiant Day of the Resurrection of Christ, from the prophetic accounts
Sermon on the Sunday after Pascha, on the Renewal of the Resurrection, on the Artos [loaf blessed on Pascha], and on Thomas Touching the Side of the Lord
Sermon on Taking down the Body of Christ and on the Myrrh-bearing Women, from the Gospel account, and in praise of Joseph on the Third Sunday After Pascha
Sermon on the Paralytic from Genesis and from the Gospel account, on the Fourth Sunday After Pascha
Sermon on the Blind man and the enmity of the Jews from the Gospel account, on the Fourth Sunday After Pascha
Sermon on the Ascension of the Lord, on Thursday of the Sixth Week After Pascha, from prophetic decrees, and on Raising the Race of Adam from Hades
Sermon on the Holy 318 Fathers, from the Holy Books, on Christ the Son of God, and in praise of the Fathers of the Holy Council of Nicea, on the Sunday Before Pentecost
Parable on the Blind and the Lame
Parable on the Human Soul, and on the Body, and on Breaking God's Commandments, and on the Resurrection of the Human Body, and on the Future Judgment, and on the Torment
Narrative on the Black Clergy, from the Old Testament and from the New, bearing a common form, and the accomplishing of this matter
To Igumen Basil: a Parable on the White Clergy, and on Monasticism, and on the Soul, and on Repentance
Letter of a certain Elder to the Blessed Archimandrite Basil on the Schema
Four Prayers on Sunday (after Matins, Hours, and two after Vespers)
Four Prayers on Monday
Four Prayers on Tuesday
Five Prayers on Wednesday (after Matins, Hours, and three after Vespers)
Three Prayers on Thursday (after Matins, Hours, Vespers)
Four Prayers on Friday (after Matins, Hours, and two after Vespers)
Six Prayers on Saturday (two after Matins, one after Hours, and three after Vespers)
Molieben Canon
Confession and Remembrance.

Later, the "Sermon on the Enlightenment of our Lord Jesus Christ" was discovered. The saint also composed a "Great Canon of Repentance to the Lord in Alphabetic Chapters."
As a theologian St Cyril believed his task was to discern the true and hidden meaning of various texts of Holy Scripture.

St Cyril died on April 28, 1183. His contemporaries regarded him as a Russian Chrysostom. The saint humbly wrote of himself: "I am not a harvester, but I gather sheaves of grain; I am not an artist in literary matters." He was always conscious of the sublime hierarchical service to which the Lord had called him: "If I were to speak of my own opinions, you would do well not to come to church, but I proclaim to you the Word of God. I read to you the accounts of Christ. I present to you the words of God, finer than gold or other stones, sweeter than mead or honeycomb, and you would be deprived of them by not coming to church, ... but I praise and bless those of you who do come."
1260 St. Luchesio the first Franciscan tertiary works of mercy nursing sick visiting prisons gave away all his possessions to the poor
1260 BD LUCHESIO the birth-place of Luchesio, or Lucius, the first Franciscan tertiary
THE Val d’Elsa, then Florentine territory, was the birth-place of Luchesio, or Lucius, the first Franciscan tertiary. As a young man he was wholly engrossed in worldly interests, especially politics and money-making. So unpopular did he make himself by his violent partisanship of the Guelf cause that he found it advisable to leave Gaggiano, his native place, and to settle in Poggibonsi, where he carried on business as a provision merchant and money-lender.
   Then, when he was between thirty and forty a change came over him, partly perhaps as the result of the death of his children. His heart was touched by divine grace and he began to take interest in works of mercy, such as nursing the sick and visiting the prisons. He even gave away to the poor all his possessions, except a piece of land, which he determined to cultivate himself. Soon afterwards St Francis of Assisi came to Poggibonsi. He had for some time contemplated the necessity of forming an association for persons desiring to live the religious life in the world, but Luchesio and his wife Bonadonna were actually, it is said, the first man and woman to receive from the Seraphic Father the habit and cord of the third order. From that moment they gave themselves up to a penitential and charitable life. Sometimes Luchesio would give away every scrap of food that was in the house, and at first Bonadonna would demur, for she did not at once rise to such perfect trust in divine Providence: but experience taught her that God supplies His faithful children with their daily bread. Her husband attained to great sanctity, and was rewarded by ecstasies and the gift of healing. When it became evident that he had not long to live, his wife begged him to wait a little for her, so that she who had shared his sufferings here might participate in his happiness above. Her wish was granted, and she died shortly before her husband passed to his reward. Bd Luchesio’s cultus was confirmed in 1694.

Though a life of Bd Luchesio seems to have been written by a contemporary it has unfortunately not been preserved, and we are dependent upon that compiled a century later by Father Bartholomew Tolomei which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii. It is to be noted that this text by no means clearly asserts that Luchesio and his wife were the first to receive the habit as tertiaries; it rather implies the contrary. See also F. Van den Borne, Die Anfange des Franziskanischen Dritten Ordens (1925), and Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 132137.

The Val d'Elsa, then Florentine territory, was the birthplace of Luchesio, or Lucius, the first Franciscan tertiary. As a young man he was wholly engrossed in worldly interests, especially politics and money making. So unpopular did he make himself by his violent partisanship of the Guelf cause, that he found it advisable to leave Gaggiano, his native place, and to settle in Poggibonsi, where he carried on business as a provision merchant and money lender.
Then, when he was between thirty and forty, a change came over him, partly perhaps as the result of the death of his children. His heart was touched by divine grace and he began to take interest in works of mercy, such as nursing the sick and visiting the prisons. He even gave away to the poor, all his possessions, except a piece of land which he determined to cultivate himself. Soon afterwards St. Francis of Assisi came to Poggibonsi. He had for some time contemplated the necessity of forming an association for persons desiring to live the religious life in the world, but Luchesio and his wife Bonadonna were actually, it is said, the first man and woman to receive from the seraphic father, the habit and cord of the Third Order. From that moment they gave themselves up to a penitential and charitable life. Sometimes Luchesio would give away every scrap of food that was in the house, and at first, Bonadonna would demur, for she did not at once rise to such perfect trust in divine Providence: but experience taught her that God supplies His faithful children with their daily bread. Her husband attained to great sanctity, and was rewarded by ecstacies and the gift of healing. When it became evident that he had not long to live, his wife begged him to wait a little for her, so that she who had shared his sufferings here, might participate in his happiness above. Her wish was granted, and she died shortly before her husband passed to his reward. Blessed Luchesio's cultus was confirmed in 1694.
(also known as Luchesio, Lucius) Born near Poggibonsi, Umbria, Italy; Luchesius, a miserly grocer, money changer, and corn merchant, is venerated as the first Franciscan tertiary. About 1221, Saint Francis of Assisi relieved of him wicked practices by enlisting him in the Third Order along with his wife Blessed Bonadonna. Thereafter the couple spent their lives in almsdeeds and penance
(Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1716 Saint Louis de Monfort  founded the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Wisdom
In pago sancti Lauréntii ad Séparim, diœcésis Lucionénsis, sancti Ludovíci Maríæ Grignion a Montfort, Confessóris, Fundatóris Missionariórum Societátis Maríæ et Filiárum a Sapiéntia, apostólicæ vitæ forma, prædicatióne et devotióne mariáli insígnis, quem Pius Papa Duodécimus Sanctórum catálogo adscrípsit.
    At St. Laurent sur Sèvres, in the diocese of Luçon, St. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, confessor and founder of the Missionaries of the Company of Mary and the Sisters of Wisdom, a form of apostolic life.  He was renowned for his preaching and devotion to the Blessed Mother, and was added to the number of the saints by Pope Pius XII.

Born: Jan 31. 1673 Canonized: 1947 by Pope Pius XII He was born poor. Studied in Paris, and ordained in 1700. While a seminarian he delighted in researching the writings of Church Fathers, Doctors, and Saints as they related to the Blessed Virgin Mary, to whom he was singularly devoted.
  1716 St Louis Mary Of Montfort, Founder Of The Company Of Mary And Of The Daughters Of Wisdom
ST Louis Mary was the eldest of the eight children of John Baptist Grignion, and was born in modest circumstances at Montfort, then in the diocese of Saint-Malo, in 1673. After being educated at the Jesuit college in Rennes, he went at the age of twenty to Paris to prepare for the priesthood; but being unable through poverty to gain admittance to the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, he entered a small institution conducted by the Abbé de la Barmondière. At the abbé’s death he moved to a still more Spartan establishment: real penury reigned, and the wretched food was cooked by the students, who all in turn “had the pleasure of poisoning themselves”, as one of them afterwards ironically observed. Louis himself fell so dangerously ill that he had to be removed to the hospital. When at last he recovered, it was made possible for him to enter Saint-Sulpice to complete his religious course. We find him selected as one of the two exemplary students who were annually sent on pilgrimage to one of our Lady’s shrines, on this occasion Chartres.
His success while still a seminarist in giving catechetical instruction to the roughest and most undisciplined children in Paris, confirmed Louis Grignion in the desire to undertake apostolic work. Therefore, after his ordination in 1700, he spent a short time at Nantes with a priest, who trained men for home missions, before proceeding to Poitiers, where he was appointed chaplain to the hospital. In this institution for nursing the sick poor he soon produced a much-needed reformation, and organized from amongst the female staff and residents the nucleus of the congregation of Daughters of the Divine Wisdom, for whom he compiled a rule. Nevertheless the very improvements he introduced aroused resentment, and he was obliged to resign his post. At once he began to give missions to the poor, who flocked to hear him, but the bishop of Poitiers, at the instigation of the critics of Father Grignion, forbade him to preach in his diocese. Undismayed, he set off on foot for Rome to seek authority from Pope Clement XI, who received him encouragingly and sent him back to France with the title of missionary apostolic. As Poitiers remained closed to him, he returned to his native Brittany, where he embarked on a course of missions which he continued almost uninterruptedly until his death.
Although the majority of parishes received St Louis Mary with open arms, adverse criticism continued to dog his steps, and he found himself excluded from certain churches and even dioceses by ecclesiastics of Jansenist proclivities. Moreover, his methods sometimes startled the conventional. He would invite his audience to bring their irreligious books to be burnt on a great pyre surmounted by an effigy of the Devil represented as a society-woman; or he would himself realistically act the part of a dying sinner whose soul was being contended for by the Devil and his guardian angel, personated by two other priests standing beside his prostrate form. But, if he seemed to appeal to the emotions, the response he elicited was frequently practical and lasting. It often expressed itself in the restoration of some dilapidated church, in the setting up of huge memorial crosses, in liberal alms to the poor and in a real spiritual revival. Nearly sixty years after the holy man’s death, the curé of Saint-La declared that many of his parishioners still practised the devotions Louis had inculcated in one of his missions. The first and foremost of these was the rosary, for the recitation of which he established numerous confraternities. Then there were hymns or metrical prayers of his own composition, many of which are sung to this day in parts of France. It seems to have been his great love for the rosary which led him to become a tertiary of the order of St Dominic.
But St Louis did not confine his evangelistic efforts to his missions—he believed in preaching the word of God in season and out of season. On one occasion, when travelling on a market-boat between Rouen and Dinant, he asked his fellow passengers, who were singing obscene songs, to join him in the rosary. Twice they answered his invitation with jeers, but eventually they not only recited it reverently on their knees, but also listened attentively to the homily with which he followed it. Another day-it was a rough alfresco dance which he brought to an end in the same way. Perhaps his greatest triumphs were won in the Calvinistic stronghold of La Rochelle, where he held several crowded missions in rapid succession, and reconciled a number of Protestants to the Church. St Louis had long desired to form an association of missionary priests, but it was only a few years before his death that he succeeded in attaching to himself a few ordained men who became the first Missionaries of the Company of Mary. He was in the midst of a mission at Saint-Laurent-sur-Sèvre when he was attacked by a sudden illness which proved fatal. He was only forty-three years of age when he died in 1716.
Apart from his verses and hymns, St Louis Mary Grignion’s chief literary work was the well-known treatise on “True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin”, in which a renewal of interest was caused by his canonization in 1947.

Leaving out of account earlier biographies, such as those of the contemporary J. Grandet and of P. de Clorivière (1775), special mention must be made of A. Laveille’s Le b,. L.-M. Grignion de Montfort d’après des documents inédits (1907); but there are many other Lives in French, among the more recent being those by G. Bernoville (1946) and Fr Morineau (1947). L. Jac’s volume in the series “Les Saints” can also be recommended. There is a long life in Italian by Cardinal E. Tisserant (1943). The fullest work in English is Dr Cruikshank’s Ad Louis Marie Grignon de Montfort and His Devotion (2 vols., 1892); see also a shorter life by Fr E. C. Bolger (1952). For the testament dictated by the saint just before he died, see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxviii (1950), pp. 464—474.

Under Mary's inspiration, he founded the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Wisdom, a religious institute of women devoted to the care of the destitute. During this work, he began his apostolate of preaching the Rosary and authentic Marian devotion. He preached so forcefully and effectively against the errors of Jansenism that expelled from several dioceses in France. In Rome, Pope Clement XI conferred on him the title and authority of "Missionary Apostolic", which enabled him to continue his apostolate after returning to France. He preached about the Blessed Mother Mary everywhere and to everyone. A member of the Third Order of Saint Dominic, Saint Louis was one of the greatest apostles of the Rosary in his day, and by means his miraculously inspiring book, "The Secret of the Rosary", he is still so today; the most common manner of reciting the Rosary is the method that originated with Saint Louis's preaching. In 1715, he founded a missionary band known as the Company of Mary. His greatest contribution to the Church and world is Total Consecration

St. Louis de Montfort
Confessor, Marian devotee, and founder of the Sisters of Divine Wisdom He was born Louis Maie Grignon in Montfort, France, in 1673. Educated at Rennes, he was ordained there in 1700, becoming a chaplain in a hospital in Poitiers. His congregation, also called the Daughters of Divine Wisdom, started there. As his missions and sermons raised complaints, Louis went to Rome, where Pope Clement XI appointed him as a missionary apostolic. Louis is famous for fostering devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Rosary. In 1715, he also founded the Missionaries of the Company of Mary. His True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin remains popular. Louis died at Saint-Laurent-sur-Sevre.
He was canonized in 1947.
1775 Sancti Pauli a Cruce, Presbyteri et Confessóris; qui Congregatiónis a Cruce et Passióne Dómini nostri Jesu Christi nuncupátæ Institútor fuit, atque in Dómino obdormívit quintodécimo Kaléndas Novémbris.
 St. Paul of the Cross, priest and confessor, founder of the Congregation of the Cross and Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ.  He went to his repose in the Lord on the 18th of October.
St. Paul of the Cross Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775.
1775 St Paul Of The Cross, Founder Of The Barefooted Clerks Of The Holy Cross And Passion
THE founder of the Passionists, St Paul-of-the-Cross, was born at Ovada in the republic of Genoa in 1694—the year which saw also the birth of Voltaire.

Paul Francis, as he was called, was the eldest son of Luke Danei, a business man of good family, and his wife, both exemplary Christians. Whenever little Paul shed tears of pain or annoyance his mother used to show him the crucifix with a few simple words about the sufferings of our Lord, and thus she instilled into his infant mind the germs of that devotion to the Sacred Passion which was to rule his life. The father would read aloud the lives of the saints to his large family of children, whom he often cautioned against gambling and fighting. Although Paul seems to have been one of those chosen souls who have given themselves to God almost from babyhood, yet at the age of fifteen he was led by a sermon to conclude that he was not corresponding to grace. Accordingly, after making a general confession, he embarked on a life of austerity, sleeping on the bare ground, rising at midnight, spending hours in prayer, and scourging himself. In all these practices he was imitated by his brother John Baptist, his junior by two years. He also formed a society for mutual sanctification among the youths of the neighbourhood, several of whom afterwards joined religious communities.

     In 1714 Paul went to Venice in response to the appeal of Pope Clement XI for volunteers to fight in the Venetian army against the Turks, but a year later he obtained his discharge, having discovered that the army was not his vocation. Convinced that he was not meant to lead the ordinary life in the world he refused a good inheritance and a promising marriage; but before he or his directors could perceive his true vocation he was to spend (at Castellazzo in Lombardy, then his home) several years in almost unbroken prayer which sometimes attained to the highest degree of contemplation.
During the summer of 1720, in three extraordinarily vivid visions, Paul beheld a black habit with the name of Jesus in white characters, surmounted by a white cross, emblazoned upon the breast. On the third occasion our Lady, attired in the tunic, told him that he was to found a congregation, the members of which would wear that habit and would mourn continually for the passion and death of her Son. A written description of these visions was submitted to the bishop of Alessandria, who consulted several spiritual guides, including Paul’s former director, the Capuchin Father Columban of Genoa. In view of the heroic life of virtue and prayer led by the young man since his childhood, all agreed that the call must have come from God. The bishop therefore authorized him to follow his vocation and invested him with the black habit, stipulating, however, that the badge was not to be worn until papal approval had been obtained. Paul’s next step was to compose a rule for the future congregation. He retired for a forty days’ retreat into a dark, damp, triangular cell adjoining the sacristy of St Charles’s church at Castellazzo, where he lived on bread and water and slept on straw. The rules which he drew up at that time, without book or earthly guide, are substantially the regulations followed by the Passionists to-day. It was during this retreat that the saint first felt impelled to pray for the conversion of England: “That country is always before my eyes””, he said in later years. “If England again becomes Catholic, immeasurable will be the benefits to Holy Church.”

For a short time after the retreat he remained with John Baptist and another disciple in the neighbourhood of Castellazzo, rendering assistance to the local clergy by catechizing the children and giving missions, which were very successful. Nevertheless he soon realized that if he wished to carry out his vocation he must seek the highest sanction. Bareheaded, barefoot and penniless, he set out for Rome, refusing the escort of John Baptist beyond Genoa. Upon his arrival he presented himself at the Vatican, but as he had not thought of providing himself with an introduction or credentials he was turned away. He accepted the rebuff as a sign that his hour was not yet come, and started on his homeward journey, visiting on the way the solitary slopes of Monte Argentaro, which the sea almost severs from the mainland. So great was the attraction he felt to this spot that he soon returned to it, accompanied by John Baptist, to lead in one of its derelict hermitages a life almost as austere as that of the fathers in the desert. They left for a time to stay in Rome, where they were ordained to the sacred ministry, but in 1727 they made their way back to Monte Argentaro, prepared to start their first house of retreat on the strength of the papal permission Paul had received to accept novices.
Numerous were the difficulties with which they had to contend. Their first recruits found the life too hard and all withdrew; war was threatening; benefactors who had offered assistance declared themselves unable to fulfil their undertakings; a serious epidemic broke out in the nearest villages. Paul and John Baptist, who had received faculties for missionary work soon after they had left Rome: went about fearlessly ministering to the dying, nursing the sick, and reconciling sinners to God. The missions they thus inaugurated proved so fruitful that more distant towns applied for the services of the missioners. Fresh novices came—not all of whom remained—and in 1737 the first Passionist Retreat (as their monasteries are called) was completed. The little band could now move from its inadequate quartets in the old hermitage. From this time onwards there was a steady progress, although many trials and disappointments had still to be faced. In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV granted a general approbation to the rules after their severity had been somewhat mitigated, and immediately a number of promising candidates offered themselves. Six years later, when the congregation had three houses, the first general chapter was held. By this time the fame of the Passionists, of their missions and of their austerity, was spreading throughout Italy. St Paul himself evangelized in person nearly every town in the Papal States as well as a great part of Tuscany, taking always as his theme the Sacred Passion. When, cross in hand, with arms outstretched, he preached about the sufferings of Christ, his words seemed to pierce the stoniest hearts and when he scourged himself pitilessly in public for the offences of the people, hardened soldiers and even bandits wept, confessing their sins. “Father, I have been in great battles without ever flinching at the cannon’s roar”, exclaimed an officer who was attending one of the missions. “But when I listen to you I tremble from head to foot.” Afterwards in the confessional the apostle would deal tenderly with his penitents, confirming them in their good resolutions, leading them on to amendment of life and suggesting practical aids to perseverance.
St Paul-of-the-Cross was endowed with extraordinary gifts. He prophesied future events, healed the sick, and even during his lifetime appeared on various occasions in vision to persons far away. In the cities which he visited crowds followed him, desiring to touch him or to carry off some fragment of his habit as a relic, but he deprecated all tokens of esteem. In 1765 he had the grief of losing John Baptist, from whom he had scarcely ever been separated and to whom he was united by a bond of love as rare as it was beautiful. Unlike in disposition, the one brother seemed the complement of the other as they strove side by side to attain to perfection. Since their ordination they had been each other’s confessors, inflicting penances and reproofs in turn. Once only had a shadow of disagreement ever arisen between them, and that was upon the only occasion John Baptist ever ventured to praise his brother to his face. St Paul’s humility was so deeply wounded that he put them both to penance, forbidding his brother to approach him. Not until the third day, when John Baptist crept on his knees to implore pardon, did the cloud lift—never to descend again. It was in memory of the close association between the two men that Pope Clement XIV long afterwards bestowed upon St Paul-of-the-Cross the Roman basilica dedicated in the names of Saints John and Paul.
The new institute in 1769 received from Clement XIV the final authorization which placed it on the same footing as other approved religious institutes. Now St Paul would fain have retired into solitude, for his health was failing and he thought that his work was done. His sons, however, would have no other superior, whilst the pope, who was greatly attached to him, insisted upon his spending part of the year in Rome. During the latter part of his life, he was much preoccupied by arrangements for the establishment of Passionist nuns. After many disappointments the first house was opened at Corneto in 1771, but the founder was not well enough to be present, nor did he ever see his spiritual daughters in their habit. So ill was he indeed during this year, that he sent to ask for the papal blessing, only to be told by Pope Clement that he must live a little longer because he could not yet be spared. The saint actually rallied and survived for three years, dying in Rome on October 18, 1775, at the age of eighty. His canonization took place in 1867.

Apart from the depositions of witnesses in the process of beatification, the most important contribution which has been made to the history of the founder of the Passionists is the publication in 1924 of his letters, in four volumes Lettere di S. Paolo della Croce, disposte ed annotate dal P. Amadeo della Madre del Buon Pastore. In particular the spiritual journal of the forty days’ retreat made at Castellazzo in 1720 is worthy of attention as enabling the reader better than any other document to enter into the workings of St Paul’s soul. Other biographies are numerous in most European languages. The earliest was that written by St Vincent Strambi of which an English version in three volumes was published in 1853 in the Oratorian series. A revised edition of the English life by Father Pius a Spiritu Sancto was issued in 1924, and there is a study by Father Edmund, c.p., Hunter of Souls (1946). Several others might be cited, but the religious names of their authors, such as “Father Pius of the Name of Mary”, “Father Louis of Jesus Agonizing”, not to speak of “Father Amadeus of the Mother of the Good Shepherd”, mentioned above, do not encourage the bibliographer to make a long catalogue.


His parents, Luke Danei and Anna Maria Massari, were exemplary Catholics. From his earliest years the crucifix was his book, and the Crucified his model. Paul received his early education from a priest who kept a school for boys, in Cremolino, Lombardy. He made great progress in study and virtue; spent much time in prayer, heard daily Mass, frequently received the Sacraments, faithfully attended to his school duties, and gave his spare time to reading good books and visiting the churches, where he spent much time before the Blessed Sacrament, to which he had an ardent devotion. At the age of fifteen he left school and returned to his home at Castellazzo, and from this time his life was full of trials. In early manhood he renounced the offer of an honourable marriage; also a good inheritance left him by an uncle who was a priest. He kept for himself only the priest's Breviary.

Inflamed with a desire for God's glory he formed the idea of instituting a religious order in honour of the Passion. Vested in a black tunic by the Bishop of Alessandria, his director, bearing the emblem of our Lord's Passion, barefooted, and bareheaded, he retired to a narrow cell where he drew up the Rules of the new congregation according to the plan made known to him in a vision, which he relates in the introduction to the original copy of the Rules. For the account of his ordination to the priesthood, of the foundation of the Congregation of the Passion, and the approbation of the Rules, see PASSIONISTS. After the approbation of the Rules and the institute the first general chapter was held at the Retreat of the Presentation on Mount Argentaro on 10 April, 1747. At this chapter, St. Paul, against his wishes, was unanimously elected first superior general, which office he held until the day of his death. In all virtues and in the observance of regular discipline, he became a model to his companions. "Although continually occupied with the cares of governing his religious society, and of founding everywhere new houses for it, yet he never left off preaching the word of God, burning as he did with a wondrous desire for the salvation of souls" (Brief of Pius IX for St. Paul's Beatification, 1 Oct., 1852). Sacred missions were instituted and numerous conversions were made. He was untiring in his Apostolic labours and never, even to his last hour, remitted anything of his austere manner of life, finally succumbing to a severe illness, worn out as much by his austerities as by old age.

Among the distinguished associates of St. Paul in the formation and extension of the congregation were: John Baptist, his younger brother and constant companion from childhood, who shared all his labours and sufferings and equaled him in the practice of virtue; Father Mark Aurelius (Pastorelli), Father Thomas Struzzieri (subsequently Bishop of Amelia and afterwards of Todi), and Father Fulgentius of Jesus, all remarkable for learning, piety, and missionary zeal; Venerable Strambi, Bishop of Macerata and Tolentino, his biographer. Constant personal union with the Cross and Passion of our Lord was the prominent feature of St. Paul's sanctity. But devotion to the Passion did not stand alone, for he carried to a heroic degree all the other virtues of a Christian life. Numerous miracles, besides those special ones brought forward at his beatification and canonization, attested the favour he enjoyed with God. Miracles of grace abounded, as witnessed in the conversion of sinners seemingly hardened and hopeless. For fifty years he prayed for the conversion of England, and left the devotion as a legacy to his sons. The body of St. Paul lies in the Basilica of SS. John and Paul, Rome. He was beatified on 1 October, 1852, and canonized on 29 June, 1867. His feast occurs on 28 April. [Editor's note: It was later transferred to 19 October.] The fame of his sanctity, which had spread far and wide in Italy during his life, increased after his death and spread into all countries. Great devotion to him is practiced by the faithful wherever Passionists are established.
1840 St. John Baptist Thanh native catechist Martyr of Vietnam
John was associated with priests of the Society of Foreign Missions. He was executed in the anti-Christian persecutions. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.
1840 St. Peter Hieu catechist native Vietnamese martyr
He joined the Foreign Missions of Paris and served as a catechist to his own people. Arrested by government authorities, he and two companions were beheaded. He was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1988.

Blessed Paul Khoan, Peter Hieu, & John Baptist Thauh MM (AC) beatified in 1900 (they may be included in the Martyrs of Vietnam who were canonized in 1988). During the first 20 years of the 19th century, Christianity made steady progress in Vietnam until it was dramatically interrupted by the persecution of the Annamite king Minh-Mang (1820-1841).

From 1832, Minh excluded all foreign missionaries and ordered Vietnamese Christians to renounce their faith by trampling on the crucifix. Churches were destroyed and evangelization forbidden. Death and hardship was the lot of those who continued to hold on to the faith. Some of those captured were drugged to induce temporary retractions: others endured fearsome tortures, including cutting of the limbs joint by joint.

Paul Khoan was a native of Tonkin, and a priest attached to the Paris Foreign Missions Society for 40 years. He was in prison for two years before he was beheaded. Peter Hieu and John Baptist Thauh were also natives of Tonkin and catechists attached to the society. They were beheaded with Khoan
(Benedictines, Farmer).
1841 St. Peter Chanel Priest Martyred in the New Hebrides; model pupil, vicar, parish priest, model of missionary intelligence and simple piety
1841     ST PETER MARY CHANEL, MARTYR
THE first martyr of Oceania and of the Society of Mary, Peter Louis Mary Chanel, was born in 1803 in the diocese of Belley. Set to mind his father’s sheep from the age of seven, he was one day noticed by the Abbé Trompier, parish priest of Cras, who was struck by his intelligence and piety, and obtained leave from the boy’s parents to educate him in the little Latin school which he had started. “He was the flower of my flock”, the curé was wont afterwards to declare, and indeed both as a student at Cras and in the seminary Peter won the affectionate esteem of masters and pupils alike. A bishop who was very welt acquainted with him said, “He had a heart of gold with the simple faith of a child, and he led the life of an angel”.
A year after his ordination he was appointed to the parish of Crozet—a district which bore a bad reputation. In the three years he remained there he brought about a great revival of religion, his devotion to the sick opening to him many doors which would otherwise have remained closed. But his heart had long been set on missionary work, and in 1831 he joined the Marists, who had recently formed themselves into a society for evangelistic work at home and abroad.

    His aspirations were not at once realized, for he was given professorial work for five years in the seminary of Belley.

   However, in 1836, Pope Gregory XVI gave canonical approval to the new congregation, and St Peter was one of a small band of missionaries commissioned to carry the faith to the islands of the Pacific. Peter with one companion went to the island of Futuna in the New Hebrides. They were well received by the people, whose confidence they gained by healing the sick. But after the missionaries had acquired the language and had begun to teach, the chieftain’s jealousy was aroused. Suspicion turned to hatred when his own son expressed a desire for baptism, and on April 28, 1841, he sent a band of warriors, one of whom felled St Peter with his club and the rest cut up the martyr’s body with their hatchets. The missionary’s death swiftly completed the work he had begun, and within a few months the whole island was Christian.
     Peter was canonized in 1954, and his feast is kept in Australia and New Zealand as well as by the Marists.
There is a French biography by C. Nicolet (1920). See also J. Hervier, Les missions marines en Océanie (1902); and F. Gilmore, The Martyr of Futuna (1917).

The protomartyr of the South Seas, St. Peter Chanel was born in 1803 at Clet in the diocese of Belley, France. His intelligence and simple piety brought him to the attention of the local priest, Father Trompier, who saw to his elementary education.

Entering the diocesan Seminary, Peter won the affection and the esteem of both students and professors. After his ordination he found himself in a rundown country parish and completely revitalized it in the three year span that he remained there. However, his mind was set on missionary work; so, in 1831, he joined the newly formed Society of Mary (Marists) which concentrated on missionary work at home and abroad. To his dismay, he was appointed to teach at the seminary at Belley and remained there for the next five years, diligently performing his duties.

In 1836, the Society was given the New Hebrides in the Pacific as a field for evangelization, and the jubilant St. Peter was appointed Superior of a little band of missionaries sent to proclaim the Faith to its inhabitants. On reaching their destination after an arduous ten month journey, the band split up and St. Peter went to the Island of Futuna accompanied by a laybrother and an English layman, Thomas Boog. They were at first well received by the pagans and their king Niuliki who had only recently forbidden canabalism. However, the kings jealousy and fear were aroused when the missionaries learned the language and gained the people's confidence; he realized the adoption of the Christian Faith would lead to the abolition of some of the prerogatives he enjoyed as both highpriest and sovereign. Finally, when his own son expressed a desire to be baptized, the king's hatred erupted and he dispatched a group of his warriors to set upon the saintly head of the missionaries.

Thus, on April 28, 1841, three after his arrival, St. Peter was seized and clubbed to death by those he had come to save. And his death brought his work to completion - within five months the entire island was converted to Christianity.

Peter Louis Mary Chanel, Priest M (AC) Born at Cluet, near Belley, France, in 1803; died on Futuna, Oceania, in April 28, 1841; canonized in 1954.
Peter Chanel was a model pupil, model vicar, model parish priest, and model missionary. He began life as a shepherd to his father's sheep. The Abbé Trompier of the parish of Cras, however, recognized the intelligence and devoutness of the young boy and obtained permission to have Peter attend the small school he had started. Peter performed well and went on to the seminary.

After his ordination in 1827, he was given the parish of Crozet, which had earned a bad reputation. Over three years, his attendance to the sick gained the confidence of the parishioners and brought about a spiritual revival.

In 1831, wishing to become a missionary, the peasant's son was one of the first to join the missionary Society of Mary which was formed at Lyons, France, in 1822, but taught another five years in the seminary of Belley. In 1836, the Marists received papal approval, and Peter was sent with a small band of missionaries to New Hebrides in the Pacific. With a lay-brother and an English layman, Thomas Boog, Peter went to the Islands of Futuna, under French sovereignty near Fiji, where cannibalism had only recently been forbidden by the local ruler, Niuliki.

The missionaries gained the confidence of the people by attending the sick, learning the language, and beginning to teach. The chieftain Niuliki became jealous of their influence, however, and was further angered when his own son said he wished to be baptized. Three years after his arrival, when his companions were away, Peter was attacked by a band of warriors who killed him with a club and cut up his body with their hatchets.

His martyrdom served his cause, however, for within a few months the island was Christianized. When called upon to justify his conversion, one of Chanel's catechumens had said of him, "He loves us. He does what he teaches. He forgives his enemies. His teaching is good."

Because he was the first martyr of the South Seas, Peter Chanel is the patron of Oceania (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, White).
1962 Saint Gianna Beretta Molla M.D. gave special attention to mothers babies elderly and the poor gave her life to save that of her child (AC)

Born in Magenta (near Milan), Italy, on October 4, 1922; died April 28, 1962. Gianna Beretta, the tenth of 13 children, was raised and educated by pious parents, who taught her the life is a great gift from God to be embraced with gratitude. Consequently, she had a strong hope in God's providence and was convinced of the effectiveness of prayer.

As a teenager and young adult, she was a member of the Saint Vincent de Paul Society and volunteered her time to work among the elderly and poor. At the same time she diligently applied herself to her studies, earning degrees in medicine and surgery from the University of Pavia in 1949. The following year, she opened a medical clinic in Mesero near her hometown. She specialized in pediatrics at the University of Milan in 1952 and thereafter gave special attention to mothers, babies, the elderly, and the poor.

Gianna saw medicine as her means of serving the Creator; thus, she increased her generous service to Catholic Action. Yet, unlike many of the earlier saints, Gianna exhibited a real joy for living. She loved skiing and trekking through the mountains. Some thought that such a good Christian woman should enter the convent; but after prayerful reflection, she knew that her vocation was marriage and cooperation with God "to forming a truly Christian family."

On September 24, 1955, she married Pietro Molla in Saint Martin's Basilica in Magenta, and she became a happy wife. Gianna was no cardboard saint. She knew and joyfully embraced the demands of balancing her obligations as a career woman, wife, and mother. In November 1956, to her great joy, she became the mother of Pierluigi; in December 1957 of Mariolina; in July 1959 of Laura.

In September 1961, towards the end of the second month of pregnancy, she discovered that she had developed a fibroma in her uterus. Before the required surgical operation, and conscious of the risk that her continued pregnancy brought, she pleaded with the surgeon to save the life of the child she was carrying, and entrusted herself to God's care. The life was saved, for which she thanked the Lord. She spent the next seven months joyfully dedicating herself to her tasks as mother and doctor; however, she was worried that the baby in her womb might be born in pain, and she asked God to prevent that.

A few days before the child was due, although trusting as always in Providence, she was ready to give her life in order to save that of her child: "If you must decide between me and the child, do not hesitate: choose the child--I insist on it. Save the baby." Thus, Gianna Emanuela was born on the morning of April 21, 1962. Despite all efforts to save both mother and child, today's saint died less than a week later in horrible pain. After repeatedly exclaiming, "Jesus, I love you. Jesus, I love you," the mother died. She was 39 years old. Her funeral was an occasion of profound grief, faith and prayer. The body of the new blessed lies in the cemetery of Mesero near Magenta (L'Osservatore Romano, 4/27/94).


 Thursday  Saints of this Day April 28 Quarto Kaléndas Maii.  
   Fifth Week in Easter  Passover, April 22 -30

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
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 Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) Francis (2013

Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.
During his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis made this strong statement while continuing his catechesis on the family, with this and next week focusing on the elderly.  Confining this week’s address to their problematic current condition, the Holy Father said the elderly are ignored and that a society that does this is perverse.
While noting that life has been lengthened thanks to advances in medicine, he lamented that while the number of older people has multiplied, "our societies are not organized enough to make room for them, with proper respect and concrete consideration for their fragility and their dignity.”

“As long as we are young, we are led to ignore old age, as if it were a disease to be taken away. Then when we become older, especially if we are poor, sick and alone, we experience the shortcomings of a society planned on efficiency, which consequently ignores the elderly.”


He went on to quote his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI, who, when visiting a nursing home in November 2012, “used clear and prophetic words: ‘The quality of a society, I would say of a civilization, is judged also on how the elderly are treated and the place reserved for them in the common life.’"  Without a space for them, Francis highlighted, society dies.

Cultures, he decried, see the elderly as a burden who do not produce and should be discarded.
“You do not say it openly, but you do it!” he exclaimed. "Out of our fear of weakness and vulnerability, we do not tolerate and abandon the elderly," he said. “It’s sickening to see the elderly discarded. It is ugly. It’s a sin. Abandoning the elderly is a mortal sin.”
“Children who do not visit their elderly and ill parents have mortally sinned. Understand?”

The Pope expressed his dismay at children who go months without seeing a parent, or how elderly are confined to little tables in their kitchens alone, without anyone caring for them.  He noted that he observed this reality during his ministry in Buenos Aires.  Unwilling to accept limits, society, he noted, doesn’t allow elderly to participate and gives into the mentality that only the young can be useful and enjoy life.
The whole society must realize, the Pope said, the elderly contain the wisdom of the people.