Mary Mother of GOD    St Peter advincularome.jpg
Monday   Saints of this Day August 01 Kaléndis Augústi  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.

Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

  CAUSES OF SAINTS

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Romæ, in Exquíliis, Dedicátio sancti Petri Apóstoli ad Víncula.
At Rome, on the Esquiline, Dedication of the Church of St. Peter
in Chains.



1787 St. Alphonsus Marie Liguori Bishop, Doctor of the Church,
and the founder of the Redemptorist Congregation;
St. Alphonsus Theologians Patron he experienced visions,
performed miracles, and gave prophecies

-166 b.c. The seven holy Maccabee martyrs Abim, Antonius, Gurias, Eleazar, Eusebonus, Alimus and Marcellus, their mother Solomonia and their teacher Eleaza  Saint Solomonia mother of the 7 Maccabee brothers; encouraged her sons to remain faithful to the Law of God even when threatened with death.

-2 B.C.Saint Eleazar a scribe; at  ninety he voluntarily endured torture and death
rather than violate the Law of God by eating swine's flesh. By suffering  death for the Law of Moses,
he left young men, and the whole nation, an example of virtue and courage.

                                                     
       
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
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Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish
 -- Mother Teresa

 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'


Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  August 2016
Universal:   That sports may be an opportunity for friendly encounters between peoples
and may contribute to peace in the world.

Evangelization:  That Christians may live the Gospel, giving witness to faith, honesty, and love of neighbor.

15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood

The most holy name of Mary has particular power against demons
 
Of all devotions, none is so pleasing to our mother, as recurring often to her intercession, by asking help of her in all special necessities, as in taking or giving counsel, in dangers, afflictions, and temptations,
particularly in temptations against purity.   
The divine mother will certainly deliver us if we have recourse to her with the Antiphon: We fly to thy patronage:
"Sub tuum presidium," etc, or with a "Hail Mary," or only invoking the most holy name of Mary,
which has particular power against demons.   
The blessed Saint Francis, in a temptation against purity, had recourse to Mary, and she immediately appeared to him, and placing her hand upon his breast, delivered him. It is useful to kiss or press the Rosary, or the scapular, or even to look on some image of the Virgin. And be it known that Benedict XIII granted fifty days indulgence
 to those who pronounce the name of Jesus and Mary.

 
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Prayer to My Mother Mary: by
Saint Alphonsus de Liguori
Most Holy Virgin Immaculate, my Mother Mary, to you who are the Mother of my Lord, the Queen of the universe, the advocate, the hope, the refuge of sinners, I who am the most miserable of all sinners, have recourse this day.
I venerate you, great Queen, and I thank you for the many graces you have bestowed upon me even unto this day; in particular for having delivered me from the hell which I have so often deserved by my sins.
I love you, most dear Lady; and for the love I bear you, I promise to serve you willingly forever and to do what I can to make you loved by others also. I place in you all my hopes for salvation; accept me as your servant and shelter me under your mantle, you who are the Mother of mercy.
And since you are so powerful with God, deliver me from all temptations, or at least obtain for me the strength to overcome them until death. From you I implore a true love for Jesus Christ. Through you I hope to die a holy death. My dear Mother, by the love you bear to Almighty God, I pray you to assist me always, but most of all at the last moment of my life. Forsake me not then, until you shall see me safe in heaven, there to bless you and sing of your mercies through all eternity. Such is my hope. Amen. Saint Alphonsus de Liguori >From The Glories of Mary

O Mother of Mercies August 1 - Month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary - Saint Alphonsus of Liguori
Most holy and immaculate Virgin Mary, my Mother, I, the most miserable of all sinners,
have recourse to you today, the Mother of my Lord.
I venerate you, O great Queen, and thank you for all the graces you have obtained for me,
especially for having delivered me from hell, which I have so often deserved.
I love you, O my very kind sovereign, and for your love, I commit myself to serve you forever,
and tend all my efforts to make you loved by others too. I place all my hopes and all my salvation in you.
Accept me as your servant, and receive me under your protection, O Mother of mercies. And since you are so powerful over God, deliver me from all temptations or obtain for me the strength to conquer them until death.

O my Mother, by the love that you have for God, I pray that you will always assist me, but most of all at the last moment of my life. Do not abandon me until you see me safe in heaven, occupied to bless you and to sing your mercies for all eternity. This is my hope.  Saint Alphonsus of Liguori
 -166 b.c. The seven holy Maccabee martyrs Abim, Antonius, Gurias, Eleazar, Eusebonus, Alimus and Marcellus, their mother Solomonia and their teacher EleazarSaint Solomonia mother of the 7 Maccabee brothers; encouraged her sons to remain faithful to the Law of God even when threatened with death.
-2 B.C.Saint Eleazar a scribe; at  ninety he voluntarily endured torture and death rather than violate the Law of God by eating swine's flesh. By suffering  death for the Law of Moses, he left young men, and the whole nation, an example of virtue and courage.
Procession of the Venerable Wood of the Life-Creating Cross of the Lord:  In the Russian Church this Feast is combined also with the remembrance of the Baptism of Rus, on August 1, 988. In the "Account of the Order of Services in the Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Great Church of the Dormition,"

         Joseph von Arimathäa
  40 St. Peter in Chains
SS. Hope Sofia Charity According to an Eastern allegory explaining the cult of Divine Wisdom, Faith, Hope, and Charity were the daughters of Wisdom, a widow in Rome; The daughters suffered martyrdom
284-305 Martyrs Leontius, Attius, Alexander, Cindeus, Mnesithius, Cyriacus, Menaeus, Catunus and Eukleus
 
314 St. Verus Bishop of Vienne, Gaul. He attended the Synod of Aries in 314
  432  Petri Kettenfeier Die Kirche wurde am 1.8.432 von Papst Sixtus III. geweiht.
549 St. Arcadius Bishop of Bourges, in France. Arcadius took part in the Council of Orléans, France, in 538. His relics are at Saint Ursin.
6th v St. Almedha Welsh virgin and martyr
6th v St. Secundel A hermit who lived with St. Friard on the island of Vindomitte, near Nantes. They share the same feast day.
 643 St. Peregrinus of Modena  a Celtic monk, made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land Hermit (AC)
 984 St  Ethelwold, Bishop Of Winchester priest a native of Winchester restore monasticism and studies was fittingly called "the father of monks"
1605 Bl. Thomas Welbourne English martyr. Born in Hutton Bushel, Yorkshire, worked as schoolmaster until arrest for preaching Catholic faith; arrested condemned with Blesseds John Fuithering and William Brown was hanged
1787 St. Alphonsus Marie Liguori Bishop, Doctor of the Church, and the founder of the Redemptorist Congregation; St. Alphonsus Theologians Patron he experienced visions, performed miracles, and gave prophecies
1838 St. Bernard Due Martyr of Vietnam; born 1755 ordained priest in his homeland; spent many years in missionary work  before retiring' age 83, declared his faith and priesthood to group of soldiers, where upon he was beheaded
1838 St. Dominic Van Honh Dieu A Dominican priest and native of Vietnam. He was martyred at 67 canonized 1988.
1887 Gustav Werner Ein Teil des erzielten Überschusses in den Wirtschaftsbetrieben floß aber weiter in die Rettungshäuser, so daß das Werk Werners auch nach seinem Tod 1887 fortgeführt werden konnte und auch heute noch besteht.

For Jesus himself, fulfilling the Isaiah prophecy, was, for our salvation, seized, imprisoned, "pierced for our offenses, crushed for our sins."Yet, "though He was harshly treated, He submitted and opened not His mouth." (Isiah 53:5,7).  
 --Father Robert F. McNamara
1787 St. Alphonsus Theologians Patron; law graduate; God called him to found the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer; object of laboring for the salvation of the most abandoned souls  Few saints have labored as much, either by word or by writing he experienced visions, performed miracles, and gave prophecies
 August 1, 2009 St. Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787)
    Moral theology, Vatican II said, should be more thoroughly nourished by Scripture, and show the nobility of the Christian vocation of the faithful and their obligation to bring forth fruit in charity for the life of the world. Alphonsus, declared patron of moral theologians by Pius XII in 1950, would rejoice in that statement. In his day, he fought for the liberation of moral theology from the rigidity of Jansenism. His moral theology, which went through 60 editions in the century following him, concentrated on the practical and concrete problems of pastors and confessors. If a certain legalism and minimalism crept into moral theology, it should not be attributed to this model of moderation and gentleness.
At the University of Naples he received, at the age of 16, a doctorate in both canon and civil law by acclamation, but soon gave up the practice of law for apostolic activity. He was ordained a priest and concentrated his pastoral efforts on popular (parish) missions, hearing confessions, forming Christian groups.
He founded the Redemptorist congregation in 1732. It was an association of priests and brothers living a common life, dedicated to the imitation of Christ, and working mainly in popular missions for peasants in rural areas. Almost as an omen of what was to come later, he found himself deserted, after a while, by all his original companions except one lay brother. But the congregation managed to survive and was formally approved 17 years later, though its troubles were not over.
Alphonsus’ great pastoral reforms were in the pulpit and confessional—replacing the pompous oratory of the time with simplicity, and the rigorism of Jansenism with kindness. His great fame as a writer has somewhat eclipsed the fact that for 26 years he traveled up and down the Kingdom of Naples, preaching popular missions.
He was made bishop (after trying to reject the honor) at 66 and at once instituted a thorough reform of his diocese.
His greatest sorrow came toward the end of his life. The Redemptorists, precariously continuing after the suppression of the Jesuits, had difficulty in getting their Rule approved by the Kingdom of Naples. Alphonsus acceded to the condition that they possess no property in common, but a royal official, with the connivance of a high Redemptorist official, changed the Rule substantially. Alphonsus, old, crippled and with very bad sight, signed the document, unaware that he had been betrayed. The Redemptorists in the Papal States then put themselves under the pope, who withdrew those in Naples from the jurisdiction of Alphonsus. It was only after his death that the branches were united.
At 71 he was afflicted with rheumatic pains which left incurable bending of his neck; until it was straightened a little, the pressure of his chin caused a raw wound on his chest. He suffered a final 18 months of “dark night” scruples, fears, temptations against every article of faith and every virtue, interspersed with intervals of light and relief, when ecstasies were frequent.
Alphonsus is best known for his moral theology, but he also wrote well in the field of spiritual and dogmatic theology. His Glories of Mary is one of the great works on that subject, and his book Visits to the Blessed Sacrament went through 40 editions in his lifetime, greatly influencing the practice of this devotion in the Church.
Comment: St. Alphonsus was known above all as a practical man who dealt in the concrete rather than the abstract. His life is indeed a “practical” model for the everyday Christian who has difficulty recognizing the dignity of Christian life amid the swirl of problems, pain, misunderstanding and failure. Alphonsus suffered all these things. He is a saint because he was able to maintain an intimate sense of the presence of the suffering Christ through it all.  Quote: Someone once remarked, after a sermon by Alphonsus, "It is a pleasure to listen to your sermons; you forget yourself and preach Jesus Christ."
God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.
As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike.
It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints.Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences. Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory.
Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.
Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.
God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven:  saints are allowed into heaven.
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.


-166 b.c. The seven holy Maccabee martyrs Abim, Antonius, Gurias, Eleazar, Eusebonus, Alimus and Marcellus, their mother Solomonia and their teacher Eleazar
Antiochíæ pássio sanctórum septem fratrum Machabæórum Mártyrum, qui, cum matre sua, passi sunt sub Antíocho Epíphane Rege.  Eórum relíquiæ, Romam translátæ, in eádem Ecclésia sancti Petri ad Víncula cónditæ fuérunt.
    At Antioch, the martyrdom of the seven brothers, the holy Machabees, martyrs, and their mother, who suffered under King Antiochus Epiphanes.  Their relics were transferred to Rome, and placed in the church or St. Peter in Chains.

Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 1. August

suffered in the year 166 before Christ under the impious Syrian king Antiochus IV Epiphanes. This foolish ruler loved pagan and Hellenistic customs, and held Jewish customs in contempt. He did everything possible to turn people from the Law of Moses and from their covenant with God. He desecrated the Temple of the Lord, placed a statue of the pagan god Zeus there, and forced the Jews to worship it. Many people abandoned the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but there were also those who continued to believe that the Savior would come. A ninety-year-old elder, the scribe and teacher Eleazar, was brought to trial for his faithfulness to the Mosaic Law. He suffered tortures and died at Jerusalem. The story of Eleazar is found in II Maccabees, chapter 6.
The disciples of St Eleazar, the seven Maccabee brothers and their mother Solomonia, also displayed great courage. They were brought to trial in Antioch by King Antiochus Epiphanes. They fearlessly acknowledged themselves as followers of the True God, and refused to eat pig's flesh, which was forbidden by the Law. The eldest brother acted as spokesmen for the rest, saying that they preferred to die rather than break the Law. He was subjected to fierce tortures in sight of his brothers and their mother. His tongue was cut out, he was scalped, and his hands and feet were cut off. Then a cauldron and a large frying pan were heated, and the first brother was thrown into the frying pan, and he died. The next five brothers were tortured one after the other. The seventh and youngest brother was the last one left alive. Antiochus suggested to St Solomonia to persuade the boy to obey him, so that her last son at least would be spared. Instead, the brave mother told him to imitate the courage of his brothers.
The martyric death of the Maccabee brothers inspired Judas Maccabeus, and he led a revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes.
 With God's help, he gained the victory, and then purified the Temple at Jerusalem. He also threw down the altars which the pagans had set up in the streets. All these events are related in the Second Book of Maccabees (Ch. 8-10).Various Fathers of the Church preached sermons on the seven Maccabees, including St Cyprian of Carthage, St Ambrose of Milan, St Gregory Nazianzus and St John Chrysostom.

THE HOLY MACHABEES,
MACHABEE was the surname of Judas, the third son of that Mathathias who was the first leader of the Jews in their revolt against King Antiochus IV Epiphanes; the name was afterwards extended to the whole family and descendants of Mathathias, and was applied to those who followed them in their rising against the king of Syria, among them the martyrs who are celebrated on the first day of August.  These Machabean martyrs are the only saints of the Old Law who are commemorated liturgically throughout the Universal Church, and the only ones to figure in the general calendar of the Western church;  feasts of Old Testament saints are common in the East, but, apart from the Machabees, are unknown in the West, except for a few proper to religious orders or places, e.g. SS. Elias and Eliseus among the Carmelites, and others in the Latin diocese of Jerusalem.
   The cause of the rebellion of the Jews was the efforts of Antiochus to impose Greek paganism upon them; but the occasion of the first actual outbreak was a persecution of the Jews undertaken by Antiochus in rage and mortification when his second campaign against Egypt was stopped by the Roman senate in 168 b.c. He sent a general, Apollonius, with twenty-two thousand men to Jerusalem, whose orders were to hellenize the city by killing the Jews who would not apostatize and importing foreigners in their place.
    Among the martyrs who preferred torments and death to violation of the divine law one of the most eminent was St Eleazar.  He was one of the chief among the Scribes or doctors of the law, an aged man of a comely aspect. The persecutors thought that they could gain the rest if they succeeded in perverting this holy man, and they therefore tried by bribery, threats, and violence to make him commit an act of apostasy, but he remained firm.  Certain bystanders, moved with pity for the old man, desired that flesh might be brought which it was lawful for him to eat, that the people might believe that he had eaten swine's flesh, and the king be satisfied by such a pretended
obedience. He rejected the subterfuge, saying that by such dissimulation the young would be tempted to transgress the law, thinking that Eleazar, at the age of fourscore and ten years, had gone over to the rites of the heathen, and that if he should be guilty of such a crime he could not escape the hand of the Almighty, either alive or dead. He was forthwith carried to execution, and as he was dying under the stripes he exclaimed, "0 Lord, whose holy light pierces the most secret recesses of our hearts, thou seest the pains I endure; but my soul feels joy in suffering these things for the sake of thy law, because I fear thee."
   The confession of St Eleazar was followed by the martyrdom of seven brothers, who suffered tortures one after another with invincible courage, whilst their heroic mother stood by, encouraging and strengthening them.  The youngest brother was put to death with yet more cruelty than the others, and last of all their mother, having given the lives of all her children, yielded up her own rather than desert the law of the Most High. Neither the names of these martyrs nor the place of their suffering are known.

See the second Book of Machabees, vi 18-31 and vii; CMII., pp. 408-409; DAC. vol. xi, cc. 12-13. Presumably because they typified and in some sense were taken to represent the vast army of Christian martyrs who amid similar torments were to follow their example, the Machabees seem to have been honoured in every part of the Church at a very early date. We find them mentioned and connected with Antioch in the "Syriac breviarium" of the first years of the fifth century. They are also in the Fasti of Polemius Sylvius, in the Carthaginian calendar and in the Hieronymianum.
It is curious that in the church of St Peter ad vincula, just mentioned, there should be preserved a great stone sarcophagus divided into seven compartments and bearing an inscription which says that the bones and ashes of the seven brothers with their parents had been buried therein.  It should be noted also that St Leo the Great preaching on August 1, probably in that church, mentions the double celebration of the dedication of the building and the passion of the seven brothers. One difficulty which defies solution is that raised by St Jerome. He had seen the relics of the Machabees at Modin, and he asks how they could be exposed for veneration at Antioch. Cf. Delehaye, La origines des culte des martyrs, pp. 201-203
-2 B.C.Saint Eleazar a scribe; at  ninety he voluntarily endured torture and death rather than violate the Law of God by eating swine's flesh.  By suffering death for the Law of Moses, he left young men, and the whole nation, an example of virtue and courage.
The story of Eleazar is found in II Maccabees, chapter 6.

Joseph von Arimathäa
Orthodoxe Kirche: 31. Juli Katholische Kirche: 17. März
Der Ratsherr Joseph von Arimathäa (vermutlich Ramatajim, der Geburtsort Samuels) wird in allen vier Evangelien genannt. Über sein weiteres Leben nach der Bestattung Jesu gibt es mehrere Berichte in apokryphen Schriften. So soll Joseph gefangengesetzt worden sein. er wurde aber von Jesus befreit, berichtet das Nikodemusevangelium. Nach dem Gamalielevangelium aus dem 5. Jahrhundert befreitet ihn der Engel Gabriel aus dem Gefängnis. Nach späteren Legenden gründete Joseph die Kirche von Lydda und missionierte dann in Gallien und Britannien. In England soll er dann gestorben sein. Ein Benediktiner aus dem 13. Jahrhundert berichtete, Joseph habe in der Schale, die Jesus beim letzten Abendmahl benutzte, Jesu Blut am Kreuz aufgefangen. Diese Schale (der heilige Gral) soll um 1247 nach England gekommen sein. Der Leichnam von Joseph soll in Moyenmoutier (Nordfrankreich) beerdigt sein, ein Arm wurde als Reliquie im Petersdom aufbewahrt.
Procession of the Venerable Wood of the Life-Creating Cross of the Lord:  In the Russian Church this Feast is combined also with the remembrance of the Baptism of Rus, on August 1, 988. In the "Account of the Order of Services in the Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Great Church of the Dormition,"
In the Greek Horologion of 1897 the derivation of this Feast is explained: "Because of the illnesses that occur in August, it was customary, in former times, to carry the Venerable Wood of the Cross through the streets and squares of Constantinople for the sanctification of the city, and for relief from sickness. On the eve (July 31), it was taken out of the imperial treasury, and laid upon the altar of the Great Church of Hagia Sophia (the Wisdom of God). From this Feast until the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos, they carried the Cross throughout the city in procession, offering it to the people to venerate. This also is the Procession of the Venerable Cross."
In the Russian Church this Feast is combined also with the remembrance of the Baptism of Rus, on August 1, 988. In the "Account of the Order of Services in the Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Great Church of the Dormition," compiled in 1627 by order of Patriarch Philaret of Moscow and All Rus, there is the following explanation of the Feast: "On the day of the Procession of the Venerable Cross there is a church procession for the sanctification of water and for the enlightenment of the people, throughout all the towns and places."
Knowledge of the day of the actual Baptism of Rus was preserved in the Chronicles of the sixteenth century: "The Baptism of the Great Prince Vladimir of Kiev and all Rus was on August 1."
In the present practice of the Russian Church, the Lesser Sanctification of Water on August 1 is done either before or after Liturgy. Because of the Blessing of Water, this first Feast of the Savior in August is sometimes called 'Savior of the Water." There may also be a Blessing of New Honey today, which is why the Feast is also called "Savior of the Honey." From this day the newly gathered honey is blessed and tasted
.
SS. Hope Sofia Charity According to an Eastern allegory explaining the cult of Divine Wisdom, Faith, Hope, and Charity were the daughters of Wisdom, a widow in Rome;  mentioned in the Acts of Pope St. Stephen.
Romæ, via Latína, sanctórum Mártyrum Boni Presbyteri, Fausti et Mauri, cum áliis novem; qui in Actis sancti Stéphani Papæ describúntur.
    At Rome, on the Latin Way, the holy martyrs Bonus, a priest, Faustus and Maur, with nine others, mentioned in the Acts of Pope St. Stephen.
 
The daughters suffered martyrdom during Hadrian's persecution of Christians: Faith, twelve, was scourged and went unharmed when boiling pitch was poured on her, was beheaded; Hope, ten, and Charity, nine, were also beheaded after emerging unscathed, from a furnace; and Wisdom died three days later while praying at their graves.
According to an Eastern allegory explaining the cult of Divine Wisdom, Faith, Hope, and Charity were the daughters of Wisdom (known as Sofia in the Roman Martyrology on September 30th), a widow in Rome. The daughters suffered martyrdom during Hadrian's
{A.D. 117-138} persecution of Christians: Faith, twelve, was scourged and went unharmed when boiling pitch was poured on her, was beheaded; Hope, ten, and Charity, nine, were also beheaded after emerging unscathed, from a furnace; and Wisdom died three days later while praying at their graves.
The Roman widow, St. Wisdom, and her three daughters are said to have suffered for the Faith under the Emperor Hadrian. According to spurious legend, St. Faith, age 12, was scourged, thrown into boiling pitch, taken out alive, and beheaded; St. Hope, age 10, and St. Charity, age 9, being unhurt in a furnace, were also beheaded; and their mother, St. Wisdom, suffered while praying over the bodies of her children.

SS. FAITH, HOPE AND CHARITY, AND THEIR MOTHER WISDOM,  MARTYRS  
THE Roman widow St Wisdom and her three daughters are said to have suffered for the faith under the Emperor Hadrian.     According to a spurious legend St Faith, aged twelve, was scourged, thrown into boiling pitch, taken out alive, and beheaded; St Hope, aged ten, and St Charity, aged nine, being unhurt in a furnace, were also beheaded; and their mother suffered while praying over the bodies of her children.  That the whole story is a myth is very likely, the legend spreading to the East from Rome, where there is reference to two groups  a family martyred under Hadrian and buried on the Aurelian Way, where their tomb under the church of St Pancras was afterwards resorted to  their names were Greek, Sophia, Pistis, Elpis and Agape; and another group of martyrs of an unknown date, Sapientia, Fides, Spes and Caritas, buried in the cemetery of St Callistus on the Appian Way. The Roman Martryology names Faith, Hope and Charity on August 1, and their mother (of whose martyrdom it says nothing) on September 30. The great church of St Sophia at Constantinople has nothing to do with this saint or with any other of her name; it is dedicated in honour of the Holy Wisdom , that is, to Christ as the Word of God.
Father Delehaye, commenting upon these supposed martyrs, remarks: "Every one will agree that it would need very strong evidence to lend verisimilitude to even a single group of this kind, but no such evidence is here forthcoming" (La origines des culte des martyrs, pp. 286-287); J. P. J. Cirsch also, in the Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, vol. iii, CC. 1035-1036, seems to concur in this verdict.  The cult cannot be called ancient. No earlier evidence has been adduced than the Index oleorum, which dates only from the end of the sixth century .
40 St. Peter in Chains
Romæ, in Exquíliis, Dedicátio sancti Petri Apóstoli ad Víncula.
    At Rome, on the Esquiline, the Dedication of the Church of St. Peter in Chains.
To please the enemies of the Christians, Herod Agrippa {37-44} had put St. James to death, and now he planned to do the same to St. Peter, the Head of the Church. Once he had him in prison, he set a heavy guard about him to make sure he would not escape. But all the Christians of Jerusalem were begging the Lord to save St. Peter, and their prayers were answered. The night before he was to be condemned, St. Peter was peacefully sleeping in his prison cell between his two guards bound tightly by two chains. He was unafraid of death and ready to do God's will. Suddenly an angel appeared and tapped him on the side to awaken him. He told him to get up at once, put on his cloak and sandles and follow him. At the same moment, both the chains fell from his hands! Out the two went, past two sets of guards, to the gate. This iron gate opened to them by itself and the angel led St. Peter out to the street. Then he disappeared. Up to then, Peter had thought he might be dreaming, but now he new that God had really sent an angel to free him! What joy and gratitude filled his heart! At once, the Apostle went to the home of Mary, St. Mark's mother, where many Christians were praying for his safety. He knocked at the door and a young woman named Rhoda came to ask who it was, without opening the door. When she heard St. Peter's voice, she ran joyfully to tell the others. They, however, could not believe the news. "It must be his angel," they said when she kept insisting. Meanwhile St. Peter knocked again. At last they let him in, and their happiness was immense when they saw it was truly St. Peter himself! He told them how the angel had freed him, and altogether they blessed and thanked the Lord.

The great domed basilica of St. Peter on Vatican Hill is not the only Roman church dedicated to the first bishop of Rome. There is another on the Esquiline Hill across the Tiber called S. Pietro in Vincoli, or St. Peter in Chains. It, too, is an ancient church. A Christian chapel is said to have stood on the site as early as the year 117, which probably means that it was a house-church; that is, a home turned into a church in the days of the Roman persecutions. Hence St. Peter in Chains was one of the earliest parish churches or "titles" in the Eternal City. Even today, it is assigned to one of the Cardinals who rank as "Cardinal priests" as his official Roman parish church.
     The present building, we are told, was constructed in 442 by Roman Empress Eudoxia, although the Empress's church building has been reconstructed more than once.  The feast of this church used to be commemorated on August 1. That was probably the date of its formal consecration.
     Those who visit St. Pietro in Vincoli today are especially interested to see one of its treasures--the great statue of Moses by Michelangelo.  But what of the chains in the church's name?
     Under the high altar, in a chasse of plate glass and silver-gilt, there are two ancient iron chains fastened together. Tradition has it that Pope Alexander I enshrined here as a precious relic the chain that bound St. Peter in the year 67, when he was imprisoned, prior to his Roman martyrdom in the Mamertine Prison, a dungeon still visitable in the Roman Forum.  The second chain is said to be that which bound him in Jerusalem until he was rescued from jail by the angel. Reread the exciting and graphic account of that liberation in the Acts of the Apostles, Chapter 12. There it is stated that when the angel appeared to the imprisoned Peter and told him to follow him into freedom, "the chains dropped from Peter's wrists."
     The second chain, perhaps brought from the Holy Land by Empress Eudoxia, was joined to the first chain, whether by a metalsmith or, as some think, by a miracle.
These double bonds were much venerated in past centuries. But even if their history has legendary elements, the very name, St. Peter in Chains, symbolizes something that has always been true of the first bishop of Rome and the popes who have succeeded him.  Persecution has always been an occupational hazard for those who have been elected to the Chair of Peter.  All have been more or less "in chains."
The popes have often been oppressed, hampered, harassed, and even imprisoned, exiled or executed just because they were vicars of Christ. As St. Peter was jailed at least three times and then executed, so the seventh-century pope, St. Martin I, was arrested in Rome, carried off to a prison in Constantinople, and then sent into an exile where he died of mistreatment. 
In the eleventh century, Pope Gregory VII had to flee Rome because of the persecution of German Emperor Henry IV, and also died in exile. 
In the fourteenth century Pope Boniface VIII was taken captive by the henchmen of the king of France. 
Even in the 19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte arrested Pope Pius VII in Rome and carried him off to France.
One could list many other popes who have suffered chains or death.  Perhaps all of St. Peter's successors were included somehow in Jesus' prophecy to Peter, just before his ascension:
"When you are older you will stretch out your hands, and another will tie you fast and carry you off against your will." (John 21:18).
It is a harsh prophecy, but an honorable one.  So whether it is St. Peter who is manacled and crucified, or John Paul II who is shot by an assassin, the bishops of Rome can even rejoice when they are called on to share the persecution of their Leader. For Jesus himself, fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah, was, for our salvation, seized, imprisoned, "pierced for our offenses, crushed for our sins." Yet, "though He was harshly treated, He submitted and opened not His mouth." (Is. 53:5,7).--Father Robert F. McNamara

ST PETER AD VINCULA
It has been related in the life of St James the Greater that Herod Agrippa, having put to death that apostle in order to please his people, by an action still more agreeable to them caused St Peter to be cast into prison. It was his intention to put him to death after the Passover. The whole church at Jerusalem sent up its prayers to God without ceasing for the deliverance of the chief pastor of His flock. The king took all precautions possible to prevent the escape of his prisoner, as he and the other apostles had once before been delivered out of prison by an angel. St Peter, in complete tranquillity of mind and entire resignation of himself, lay fast asleep on the very night before the day on which he was to be brought before the people, when it pleased God to deliver him out of the hands of his enemies.  He was fastened by two chains, and slept between two soldiers. In the middle of the night a bright light shone in the prison and an angel appeared and, striking him on the side, awaked him out of his sleep, and bade him instantly arise, gird his coat about him, put on his sandals, and follow him. The chains dropped off from his hands, and Peter rose up and went after the angel, thinking that he was in a vision. He passed after him through the first and second ward, and through the iron gate which led into the city, which opened to them of its own accord. The angel conducted him through one street; then suddenly disappeared. Till then the apostle doubted whether the whole thing was not a dream, but now he knew in very deed that the Lord had sent His angel and delivered him from Herod and from the expectation of the Jews.  He went directly to the house of Mary the mother of John Mark, where several disciples were together, praying for his deliverance. As he stood knocking, a young woman came to the door, and, perceiving it was his voice, ran in and told the others that Peter was outside; and when she persisted, they thought it must be his angel sent by God, until, being let in, he told them the whole manner of his escape. And having enjoined them to tell what had happened to St James and the rest of the brethren, he withdrew to a place of more security. The next day, when he was not to be found, Agrippa commanded the keepers to be put to death, supposing them to be, either by connivance or carelessness, accessory to St Peter's escape.

It would be gathered from the proper of the Mass and Office of today's feast that it commemorates the event of St Peter's life that has just been narrated.  It is, however, in origin the commemoration of the dedication in Rome of a church on the Esquiline Hill in honour of SS. Peter and Paul. The notice of it in the "Martyrology of Jerome" runs: "At Rome the dedication of the first church which was built and consecrated by blessed Peter." This is, of course, a misconception. The titulus Apostolorum, the earliest name by which the parish was known, possibly came into existence at the end of the fourth century, it had reference to the two apostles Peter and Paul, as inscriptions prove.  The church having been rebuilt, it was consecrated between 432 and 440 by Pope St Sixtus III, and was then known as the titulus Eudoxiae, in honour of the Byzantine princess who was the principal benefactress.
It is not till nearly a century later that we first find it referred to as "St Peter ad Vincula," St Peter's where the Fetters are with reference to the chains wherewith the apostle had been bound when a prisoner in Rome. Later these came to be regarded as the chains which had fallen from his hands in Jerusalem, and the legend grew up that the Empress Eudoxia had sent one of these chains from Jerusalem to Rome, where it had miraculously united with its fellow already there. This story still figures in the second nocturn of Matins on August 1, in lessons which Pope Benedict XIV intended to have removed from the office.

August 1 was formerly called in England Lammas-day, i.e. Loaf-Mass, from Old English hlàfmaesse, it being a sort of early harvest-thanksgiving, at which a Mass of thanksgiving for the first-fruits of the earth, or of the corn, was celebrated and loaves made from the new flour blessed. The blessing of new grapes was common both among the Greeks and Latins, in some places on the ist, in others on the 6th day of August, and is mentioned in ancient liturgical books.
  In a Motu Proprio of John XXIII dated July 25, 1960, this feast was dropped from the Roman Calendar.
See H. Grisar, History of Rome and the Popes, vol. i, p. 590; also H. Grisar in the Civiltâ Cattolica, vol. iii of 1898, pp. 204-221 ; DAC., vol. iii, cc. 3-59; J. P. Kirsch, Die römischen Titelkirchen, pp. 45-52; and CMII., pp. 409 Seq.
284-305 Martyrs Leontius, Attius, Alexander, Cindeus, Mnesithius, Cyriacus, Menaeus, Catunus and Eukleus
Perge, in Pamphylia, sanctórum Mártyrum Leóntii, Attii, Alexándri, et aliórum sex agricolárum; qui, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, sub Flaviáno Præside, decolláti sunt.
    At Perge in Pamphylia, the holy martyrs Leontius, Attius, Alexander, and six peasants, who were beheaded in the persecution of Diocletian, under the governor Flavian.
Lived in the Pamphylian city of Perge during the reign of the emperor Diocletian (284-305). All of them were baptized in childhood. St Menaeus was a carpenter, and the rest were farmers.
314 St. Verus Bishop of Vienne, Gaul. He attended the Synod of Aries in 314.
Viénnæ, in Gállia, sancti Veri Epíscopi.      At Vienne in France, St. Verus, bishop.
432  Petri Kettenfeier Die Kirche wurde am 1.8.432 von Papst Sixtus III. geweiht.
Orthodoxe Kirche: 16. Januar Katholische Kirche: 1. August
Petri KettenDieses Fest zur Erinnerung der Befreiung des Apostels Petrus aus dem Gefängnis (Apg. 12, 1-11) wird in der katholischen Kirche seit dem 8. Jahrhundert gefeiert. Die Ketten, mit denen Petrus gefesselt war, wurden von Christen bewahrt. Sie halfen bei Krankheit. Sie wurden in Jerusalem aufbewahrt, bis Eudokia sie 437 oder 439 nach Konstantinopel brachte. Hier wurden die Ketten am 16. Januar zur Verehrung ausgestellt.

Eudokia gab eine Kette ihrer Tochter Eudoxia, die diese Papst Leo dem Großen schenkte. In der Kirche S. Pietro in Vincoli in Rom befinden sich diese Kette sowie die Ketten, mit denen Petrus vor seinem Märtyrertod gefesselt war. Die Kirche wurde am 1.8.432 von Papst Sixtus III. geweiht. In der Kirche befinden sich seit dem 6. Jahrhundert auch Reliquien der 7 Makkabäer, deren Fest ebenfalls am 1. August begangen wird. Offiziell wurde das Fest in der katholischen Kirche 1960 gestrichen
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549 St. Arcadius Bishop of Bourges, in France. Arcadius took part in the Council of Orléans, France, in 538. His relics are at Saint Ursin.
6th v St. Secundel A hermit who lived with St. Friard on the island of Vindomitte, near Nantes. They share the same feast day.
6th v St. Almedha Welsh virgin and martyr also called Ellyw
  
She is honored in Lianelly and Llanelieu.  Virgin and martyr, also called Aled or Filuned. The Welsh tradition reports that Almedha was the daughter of King Brychan. Having taken a vow of virginity and dedicated to Christ, Almedha fled from her father's royal residence to escape marriage to the prince of a neighboring kingdom. She went to three Welsh villages - Llandrew, Llanfillo, and Llechfaen - but the people turned her away, despite her promise warning that dreadful thing calamaties would befall anyone who denied her sanctuary. Almedha reached Brecon, where she took up residence in a small hut, but the king arrived and demanded her return. When she refused him, he beheaded her. Tradition states that a spring of water appeared on the site of her murder. The three villages that refused her were visited by disasters.

ST ALED, ELLUNED OR ALMEDHA, VIRGIN AND MARTYR
"NOT far from Brecon is the church called St Almedha's, after the holy maiden who, refusing an earthly husband, was wedded to the Eternal King, and there triumphed in a happy martyrdom.  A solemn feast is held in her honour every year at the beginning of August, and it is attended by many people from distant parts; those who suffer from various diseases receive wished-for health through the merits of the blessed maiden.   Certain things which happen at this anniversary seem remarkable to me.  In the church or in the churchyard, during the dance which is led round the churchyard with a song, you may see men and girls suddenly fall to the ground as in a trance; then, as if frenzied, they jump up and represent to the people with their hands and feet whatever work they have unlawfully done on great feasts.  You may see one man put his hand to the plow, and another as it were goad on the oxen, lightening their labour with the usual uncouth song; one imitates the trade of a cobbler, another that of a tanner.  You may see a girl with a distaff, drawing out the thread and winding it again on the spindle; another as she walks arranges the threads for the web; another throws the shuttle and seems to weave. Then, on coming into the church and being led to the altar with their offerings, you will be astonished to see them suddenly come to their senses again. Thus, by the divine mercy which rejoices not at the death of sinners but at their conversion, many, convicted by their own actions, are corrected and amended on these feast days."
  This interesting passage comes from the Itinerary through Wales of Giraldus Cambrensis, who was archdeacon of Brecon from 1175 for over twenty years and lived at Llanddew only a couple of miles away; he was therefore well placed for verifying the details of the phenomena which he describes.   The passage is well known, and has often raised questions about the identity and story of St Almedha, or Aled as she was more usually called locally-the name is found in a score of forms.   Gerald himself states that she was one of the children of Brychan, that prolific father of saints, but the name figures in only some lists of these children; and it is odd that, while she appears in at least one Latin calendar, she is unknown to the Welsh ones.
  The legend of St Med as it was current in the seventeenth century has a suspicious resemblance to the story of St Winifred (November 3).  While still young she dedicated herself completely to God, and when a young prince, supported by her family, urged her to marry him, she fled away in disguise to Llanddew.  Here she was so badly treated that she withdrew to Llanfillo, and then again to Llechfaen, where she had to sleep in the street as nobody would give her a bed.  So she took refuge in the wood on Slwch Tump, by Brecon itself, where the lord of the place helped her to build a cell, and she settled down there, prophesying that a chastisement would rest on the village of Llanddew for the injuries done to her; that the village of LlanfIllo should be plagued with thieves (as they are to this day above all others) ; and the village of Llechfaen with envy, as indeed they are almost continually in contention and law with one another" (Hugh Thomas, c. 1698).
   It is not recorded that Med also foretold her own misfortunes, but soon after her princely suitor sought her out in her retreat. Directly she saw him she ran away down the hill; he followed, caught her up, and in baffled rage smote off her head with his sword. Where Aled's head fell, a spring of water miraculously welled up from the rock; and thereafter the maiden was venerated as a saint and martyr.
The legend of St Aled is set out in a late seventeenth-century manuscript of Hugh Thomas, the Breconshire herald (Harleian MS. 4181) see Archacologia Cambrensis for 1883, pp. 46-47, 168, and for 1903, pp. 214-223. Gerald the Welshrnan's Itinerary through Wales, bk i, cap. a  Jones's History of Brecknock, vol.1, pp. 4344 (edition of 1909); Cressy's Church History of Brittany (i.e. Britain), published at Rouen in 1668. William of Worcester says that "St Elevetha" was buried at Usk, but other writers agree that it was in her cell, which became the first St Med's chapel on Slwch hill.  This in turn became a small church of some importance in the middle ages by 1698 it was roofless and disused, and today its site can with difficulty be identified.
643 St. Peregrinus of Modena , a Celtic monk, made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land Hermit (AC)
Peregrinus, a Celtic monk, made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena where he spent the rest of his life (Benedictines, Encyclopedia)
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984 St  Ethelwold, Bishop Of Winchester priest a native of Winchester restore monasticism and studies was fittingly called "the father of monks"
Viénnæ, in Gállia, sancti Veri Epíscopi.      At Vienne in France, St. Verus, bishop.   
  Being moved in his youth to devote himself to the divine service, he submitted himself to St Alphege the Bald, bishop of his native city, who gave him the priesthood, at the same time as St Dunstan, about his equal in age. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 944 and introduced strict Benedictine observance there, Ethelwold took the habit and was made one of the deans of the house.
   He was a practitioner of the useful arts, especially bell-founding, and at the same time his zeal for knowledge made him study also the sacred sciences.   About 954 Ethelwold was appointed abbot of Abingdon in Berkshire, which with the help of monks from Glastonbury he rendered a model of regular discipline and a nursery of good monks.   He procured from Corbie a master of church music, and sent Osgar to Fleury, a monastery which at that time surpassed all others in the reputation of strict observance, to learn its discipline for the benefit of Abingdon.
    Danes had made such havoc of religious houses that practically no monks were then left in all England, and the education of youth and every other support of learning and virtue was almost banished by the ravages of the barbarians.  These deplorable circumstances awakened the zeal especially of St Dunstan, St Ethelwold and St Oswald of York, and these three set themselves with great industry to restore monasticism and studies.

  St Ethelwold was consecrated bishop of Winchester by St Dunstan in 963.  The disorders and ignorance which reigned among many of the clergy of England had produced some very scandalous states of affairs, and Ethelwold found these evils obstinate and past recovery among the canons of the cathedral of Winchester.  He therefore expelled them, with the approval of King Edgar, placing monks from Abingdon in their room, with whom he kept choir as their bishop and abbot. Three of the former canons took the monastic habit and continued to serve God in that church.  The year following, St Ethelwold expelled the seculars out of the  Newminster monastery at Winchester, and placed there Benedictine monks under an abbot, and was the means of peopling Chertsey with monks also. He repaired the nunnery dedicated in honour of our Lady in his cathedral city, and bought of the king the lands and ruins of the great nunnery of St Etheldreda in the isle of Ely, which had been burnt by the Danes a hundred years before, and he established on the same spot an abbey of monks.  He likewise purchased the ruins of Thorney in Cambridgeshire, which he restored in like manner about the year 972. He directed and assisted Alduif to buy the ruins of Peterborough Abbey, and rebuilt and peopled it as well; this monastery, after having flourished two hundred years, was destroyed by the Danes in 870.   Aldulf, chancellor to King Edgar, having buried his only son, gave his whole estate to this house, took the monastic habit in it, and was chosen the first abbot.  Ethelwold's reforming activities, in particular the displacing of slack canons by strict monks, met with a deal of opposition, but to malcontents he was "terrible as a lion", while the good-willed and persevering found in him a benevolent shepherd, "more gentle than a dove".  He who was fittingly called "the father of monks" and who laboured so strenuously for the divine honour and the sanctification of others, was always solicitous first to adorn his own soul with all virtues, and to make himself a sacrifice agreeable to God; for it is only the humility and charity of the heart that give a value to exterior actions: without these, to give our goods to the poor and our bodies to the flames would not avail us. The fervour of devotion and compunction must be always nourished and increased, or it grows lukewarm; in this great bishop interior devotion and exterior actions of virtue supported and gave strength to each other.
  He rested front his labours on August 1, 984, and buried in the cathedral of Winchester. Authentic proofs of miracles wrought through his intercession having been made, his body was taken up and solemnly deposited under the altar by St Alphege, his immediate successor, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury and martyr.  Several written works are credited to St Ethelwold, of which one was a translation into English of the Rule of St Benedict.

There is a fair amount of historical material for the life of St Ethelwold. The biography by Aelfric has been printed by Stevenson in the Chronicon de Abingdon (Rolls Series); another, attributed to Wolstan, has been more often printed, but Dean Armitage Robinson was inclined to question the authorship and early date. There are also references in the Historia Eliensis, William of Malmesbury, etc. Ethelwold is now generally recognized as the author of the Regularis Concordia which was formerly assigned to St Dunstan. See U. W. Keini, "Ethelwold mad die Monchsreform in England" in Anglia, vol. xxxix (1917), pp. 405-443; Armitage Robinson, The Times of St Dunstan (1923); D. Knowles, The Monastic Order in England (1949), pp. 38-59 and passim; and T. Symons, Regularis Concordia (1954).
1605 Bl. Thomas Welbourne English martyr. Born in Hutton Bushel, Yorkshire, he worked as a schoolmaster until his arrest for preaching the Catholic faith. He was arrested and condemned with Blesseds John Fuithering and William Brown. He was hanged, drawn, and quartered at York.
 
THE little that is known of these martyrs is narrated by Challoner thus: "Thomas Welbourn was a schoolmaster, a native of Kitenbushel ftlutton Bushel], in Yorkshire, and John Fuithering was a layman of the same county, who being zealous Catholics, and industrious in exhorting some of their neighbours to embrace the Catholic faith, were upon that account arraigned and condemned to suffer as in cases of high treason; as was also William Brown, a native of Northamptonshir; convicted of the same offence.  They were all executed according to sentence [by hanging, drawing and quartering];   Mr Welbourn and Mr Fulthering at York, the 1st of August, r6o5 ;  Mr Brown at Ripon, the 5th of September, the same year."
The Venerable John Fulthering's cause is among those postponed in 1929. Challoner's Memoirs of Missionary Priests (at p. 280 in the edition of 1924).
1787 St. Alphonsus Ligouri Theologians Patron  law graduate; God called him to found the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer; object of laboring for the salvation of the most abandoned souls  Few saints have labored as much, either by word or by writing he experienced visions, performed miracles, and gave prophecies.  Pope Gregory XVI added him to the canon of saints, and Pius IX declared him to be a doctor of the Universal Church.  Pius XII established him as heavenly patron of all moral theologians and of those who hear Confession. 
Nucériæ Paganórum, in Campánia, item natális sancti Alfónsi-Maríæ de Ligório, Fundatóris Congregatiónis a sanctíssimo Redemptóre nuncupátæ, Epíscopi sanctæ Agathæ Gothórum et Confessóris, zelo animárum, scriptis, verbo et exémplo insígnis; quem Summus Póntifex Gregórius Décimus sextus albo Sanctórum adscrípsit, et Pius Nonus Doctórem universális Ecclésiæ declarávit, et Pius Duodécimus ómnium Confessariórum ac Moralistárum cæléstem apud Deum Patrónum constítuit.  Ipsíus vero festívitas sequénti die celebrátur.
    At Nocera dei Pagani in Campani, the birthday also of St. Alphonsus Maria Liguori, founder of the Congregation of our most Holy Redeemer, bishop of Santa Agata dei Goti, and confessor.  Noted for his zeal for souls, his writings, and his example, Pope Gregory XVI added him to the canon of saints, and Pius IX declared him to be a doctor of the Universal Church.  Pius XII established him as heavenly patron of all moral theologians and of those who hear Confession.  His feast, however, is observed on the day following.

St. Alphonsus was born in the village of Marianella near Naples, Italy, September 27, 1696. At a tender age his pious mother inspired him with the deepest sentiments of piety. The education he received under the auspices of his father, aided by his own intellect, produced in him such results that at the early age of sixteen, he graduated in law. Shortly after, he was admitted to the Neopolitan bar. In 1723, he lost a case, and God made use of his disappointment to wean his heart from the world.
In spite of all opposition he now entered the ecclesiastical state. In 1726, he was ordained a priest. He exercised the ministry at various places with great fruit, zealously laboring for his own sanctification. In 1732, God called him to found the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, with the object of laboring for the salvation of the most abandoned souls. Amid untold difficulties and innumerable trials, St. Alphonsus succeeded in establishing his Congregation, which became his glory and crown, but also his cross. The holy founder labored incessantly at the work of the missions until, about 1756, he was appointed Bishop of St. Agatha, a diocese he governed until 1775, when broken by age and infirmity, he resigned this office to retire to his convent where he died. Few saints have labored as much, either by word or by writing, as St. Alphonsus. He was a prolific and popular author, the utility of whose works will never cease. His last years were characterized by intense suffering, which he bore with resignation, adding voluntary mortifications to his other pains. His happy death occurred at Nocera de Pagani, August 1, 1787.

1787 St. Alphonsus Marie Liguori Bishop, Doctor of the Church, and the founder of the Redemptorist Congregation.
He was born Alphonsus Marie Antony John Cosmos Damien Michael Gaspard de Liguori on September 27, 1696, at Marianella, near Naples, Italy. Raised in a pious home, Alphonsus went on retreats with his father, Don Joseph, who was a naval officer and a captain of the Royal Galleys. Alphonsus was the oldest of seven children, raised by a devout mother of Spanish descent. Educated at the University of Naples, Alphonsus received his doctorate at the age of sixteen. By age nineteen he was practicing law, but he saw the transitory nature of the secular world, and after a brief time, retreated from the law courts and his fame. Visiting the local Hospital for Incurables on August 28, 1723, he had a vision and was told to consecrate his life solely to God. In response, Alphonsus dedicated himself to the religious life, even while suffering persecution from his family. He finally agreed to become a priest but to live at home as a member of a group of secular missionaries. He was ordained on December 21, 1726, and he spent six years giving missions throughout Naples. In April 1729, Alphonsus went to live at the "Chiflese College," founded in Naples by Father Matthew Ripa, the Apostle of China. There he met Bishop Thomas Falcoia, founder of the Congregation of Pious Workers. This lifelong friendship aided Alphonsus, as did his association with a mystic, Sister Mary Celeste. With their aid, Aiphonsus founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer on November 9, 1732. The foundation faced immediate problems, and after just one year, Alphonsus found himself with only one lay brother, his other companions having left to form their own religious group. He started again, recruited new members, and in 1743 became the prior of two new congregations, one for men and one for women. Pope Benedict XIV gave his approval for the men's congregation in 1749 and for the women's in 1750. Alphonsus was preaching missions in the rural areas and writing.

He refused to become the bishop of Palermo but in 1762 had to accept the papal command to accept the see of St. Agatha of the Goths near Naples. Here he discovered more than thirty thousand uninstructed men and women and four hundred indifferent priests. For thirteen years Alphonsus fed the poor, instructed families, reorganized the seminary and religious houses, taught theology, and wrote.
His austerities were rigorous, and he suffered daily the pain from rheumatism that was beginning to deform his body. He spent several years having to drink from tubes because his head was so bent forward. An attack of rheumatic fever, from May 1768 to June 1769, left him paralyzed. He was not allowed to resign his see, however, until 1775. In 1780, Alphonsus was tricked into signing a submission for royal approval of his congregation. This submission altered the original rule, and as a result Alphonsus was denied any authority among the Redemptorists. Deposed and excluded from his own congregation, Alphonsus suffered great anguish. But he overcame his depression, and he experienced visions, performed miracles, and gave prophecies. He died peacefully on August 1,1787, at Nocera di Pagani, near Naples as the Angelus was ringing. He was beatified in 1816 and canonized in 1839. In 1871, Alphonsus was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Pius IX. His writings on moral, theological, and ascetic matters had great impact and have survived through the years, especially his Moral Theology and his Glories of Mary. He was buried at the monastery of the Pagani near Naples. Shrines were built there and at St. Agatha of the Goths. He is the patron of confessors, moral theologians, and the lay apostolate. In liturgical art he is depicted as bent over with rheumatism or as a young priest.

Rochesterians owe much to St. Alphonsus de'Liguori.  He was the founder of the Redemptorist Fathers, who have contributed so much to the Diocese of Rochester over the past 150 years.
     Alphonsus was born near Naples of a distinguished family. A brilliant youth, he won his doctorate of civil and church law when only 16, and then for several years engaged in a successful legal law practice. One day, however, when he was triumphantly defending a client in a lawsuit, it was shown to him that he had made an error in reading the law and had defended an unjust cause. He, therefore, not only gave up the case, he gave up his legal practice. Actually Alphonsus, though up to then a layman, had been lately attracted towards becoming a priest. He now took priestly studies and in 1726 was ordained. Then he began to work as a missionary throughout rural southern Italy. An able missionary he was, too. In an age in which it was stylish to preach bombastically, he could say, "I have never preached a sermon which the poorest old woman in the congregation could not understand." In an age in which the errors of "Jansenism" demanded unreasonable strictness in moral behavior, Alphonsus preached common sense Christian morality. This was also the kind of moral doctrine that he wrote volumes about, for he was the greatest moral theologian of his age - a fact that would win him after canonization the title of a doctor of the church.
     While engaged in home missionary work as a diocesan priest, Alphonsus assisted in the foundation of the Redemptoristine nuns. A year or so later he established the Redemptorist Fathers as a missionary organization. When de'Liguori was sixty-six, Pope Clement XIII named him bishop of the diocese of Sant' Agata dei Goti. He tried to get out of it, but the pope insisted. It was a small diocese, but needed reform very badly. Bishop de'Liguori gave it that reform. Meanwhile he was stricken with a rheumatic arthritis so severe that his chin was almost buried in his chest. He asked the pope permission to resign as bishop in 1775. By that time he had such a reputation for goodness and zeal that, as one churchman said of the man still alive, "If I were pope, I would canonize him without any process."
     If Alphonsus, on retiring, thought he could live out his life in peace, he was mistaken. Now began for this 80-year-old priest, his years of greatest trial - largely because of red tape.
     Naples was a separate kingdom in those days. King Charles III, a Bourbon, shared the idea of the Enlightenment that a King should keep close control over church affairs. Now he required that the Redemptorists, already approved by the Pope, be given state approval, too. But his policy would not allow him to approve any religious orders (these he considered old-fashioned and unprogressive), - only societies of secular priests. Unfortunately, St. Alphonsus's advisors just showed the saint the state regulations when they asked for his signature. Poor Bishop Alphonsus at that point could not read more than the initial words, because of poor eyesight. Thus he unwittingly approved of a law that the pope had to denounce. Pope Pius VI, therefore, declared that the Naples Redemptorists were no longer Redemptorists because they had changed the rule and that only those in the Roman province of the order were such. He named another priest, located in Rome, as Redemptorist general superior. Thus Alphonsus, the founder of the order, found himself demoted from office and his order abolished in the Kingdom of Naples.
     In addition to this martyrdom to red tape, Alphonsus was at the same time suffering severe temptations against faith; yet these dark hours were intermittently lighted by hours of great prayerfulness and grace. More importantly, he accepted his double burden with supreme patience. In peace of soul, he foretold that the divided order would be reunited after his death. He died at 90. Three years later the Neapolitan Redemptorists were readmitted to membership; and in 1796 Pius VI, who had felt obliged to exclude Alphonsus from his order, introduced the cause for his canonization.     Being a saint is not easy, you see!    -Father Robert F. McNamara

Alfons Maria von Liguori Katholische Kirche: 01. August
Alfonso, Sohn eines intalienischen Edelmannes, wurde am 27.9.1696 nahe Neapel geboren. Er studierte die Rechte und wurde 1713 Rechtsanwalt. Als er 1723 einen wichtigen Prozeß verlor, wandte er sich von der Juristerei ab und wurde Priester. 1726 wurde er ordiniert. Er war in der Volksmission tätig, wirkte besonders unter den armen Menschen und schulte Laienapostel. 1731 gründete er den kontemplativen Redemptoristinnenorden und ein jahr später dn Orden der Redemptoristen, einen Missionsorden. 1762 wurde er Bischof von Sant' Agata de' Goti. An seinem Lebensende zog er sich in seine Klostergründung Pagani (bei neapel) zurück. Hier starb er am 1.8.1787 und hier ist er begraben. Liguori veröffentlichte insgesamt 111 Schriften, wobei ihm besonders die Ausbildung von Beichtvätern am Herzen lag. 1871 wurde er als der "hervorragendsten und mildesten unter den Moraltheologen" zum Kirchenlehrer ernannt.
1838 St. Bernard Due Martyr of Vietnam. Bernard was born in 1755 and was ordained a priest in his homeland. He spent many years in missionary work before retiring. At age eighty-three, he declared his faith and his priesthood to a group of soldiers, where upon he was beheaded. He was canonized in l988.
1838 St. Dominic Van Honh Dieu A Dominican priest and native of Vietnam. He was martyred at the age of sixty-seven. Dominic was canonized in 1988.
1887 Gustav Werner Ein Teil des erzielten Überschusses in den Wirtschaftsbetrieben floß aber weiter in die Rettungshäuser, so daß das Werk Werners auch nach seinem Tod 1887 fortgeführt werden konnte und auch heute noch besteht.
Evangelische Kirche: 01. August
Gustav Werner wurde am 12.3.1809 in Zwiefalten geboren. Während des Theologiestusdiums in Tübingen lernt er Swedenborgs Schriften kennen und beschloß, seinen Glauben in der Liebe zu erweisen. Er ging zum weiteren Studium nach Straßburg. Hier kam er mit dem Freundeskreis, der unter Oberlin entstanden war, zusammen. Von einem Freund Oberlins erhielt er dessen Ring mit dem Auftrag, das Werk der Liebe fortzuführen. Von 1832 bis 1840 war er Vikar in Waldorf bei Tübingen. Hier setzte er sich gegen den Widerstand seiner Gemeinde für die Kinder einer armen Witwe ein. Nur eine Frau unterstützte ihn und richtete auf seinen Rat eine Kinderschule ein. Freunde aus Reutlingen gaben finanzielle Unterstützung. Als publik wurde, daß Werner auch Erbauungsstunden hielt, wurde ihm dies untersagt. Er legte daraufhin sein Vikariat nieder und ging nach Reutlingen. Hier gründete er ein Waisenhaus und konnte zahlreiche ehrenamtliche Helfer für dieses Werk gewinnen. Er sah die Industrie als Ort, an dem der Sieg Christi erkämpft werden müsse und meinte, nur die Liebe könne eine gerechte Ordnung auch im Arbeitsleben erreichen. Um seine Ideen in die Tat umzusetzen, kaufte er 1849 die Reutlinger Papierfabrik. Die Hausgenossen lebten in freiwilliger Gütergemeinschaft, andere gaben den Zehnten zur Unterstützung des Werkes. Zu dem Stammhaus kamen im Laufe der Jahre 30 Betriebe hinzu, wirtschaftliche Betriebe, die auch für schwer vermittelbare Menschen Arbeitsplätze anboten und Waisen- und Rettungshäuser. Auf die Dauer konnten die Wirtschaftsbetriebe die soziale Arbeit nicht tragen, da viele Helfer wieder absprangen oder unbrauchbar waren. 1861 kam es zur Krise, der Staat griff helfend ein, forderte aber die Trennung der Wirtschaftsbetriebe von den Rettungshäusern. Ein Teil des erzielten Überschusses in den Wirtschaftsbetrieben floß aber weiter in die Rettungshäuser, so daß das Werk Werners auch nach seinem Tod 1887 fortgeführt werden konnte und auch heute noch besteht
.

Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  July 2016
Universal:  
Indigenous Peoples; That indigenous peoples, whose identity
and very existence are threatened, will be shown due respect.
”.
Evangelization:  Latin America and the Caribbean; That the Church in Latin America and the Caribbean,
by means of her mission to the continent, may announce the Gospel with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. 

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

                                           
 
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish
 -- Mother Teresa

 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'  Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
 'The Gospel of Life'


"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798
 
Links to Related MarianWebsites  Angels and Archangels  Saints Visions of Heaven and Hell

Widowed Saints  html
Doctors_of_the_Church   Acts_Of_The_Apostles  Roman Catholic Popes  Purgatory  UniateChalcedon

Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles_BLay Saints  Miraculous_IconMiraculous_Medal_Novena Patron Saints