Mary Mother of GOD Aug. 9 - Our Lady of the Burning Cloud (Japan, 1945)
Learn to live at God’s hands.”
1942 Saint Teresa Benedicta  (Edith Stein) of the Cross

 Tuesday   Saints of this Day August  09 Quinto Idus Augústi   
  Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum,
atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Because the Redeemer was born of a woman
 
Authentic feminism finds in Edith's life and writings valuable guidance to live and promote the dignity and role of women through her identity and mission, springing from the very depths of her being. We can say the same for the meaning of consecrated life which, considered as a gift of self to God and others, is a full realization of women's aspirations: commitment, maternity, service.

For Edith Stein, the ideal model of these feminine values was the Virgin Mary. In her, the feminine sex is ennobled by virtue of the Savior's being born of a human mother; a woman was the gateway through which God found entrance to humankind. With the gift of herself she committed herself to this mission, which she accepted with silent trust, putting her whole being at the service of the Lord for the foundation of the Kingdom of God.

This commitment of Mary makes her a model for women in all areas of human life:
family, social and ecclesiastical, since she shows interest in the social and political problems
 in the middle verse of the Magnificat, dethroning the mighty.


CAUSES OF SAINTS

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

August 8 – Our Lady of Scheidam (Netherlands) – Our Lady of Lavang (Vietnam) – Our Lady of Laeken (Belgium) – Saint Dominic of Guzman, Founder of the Order of Preachers (d. 1221) 
Indians travel 3000 miles in search of Book to Heaven

American Minute with Bill Federer Saturday, August 09, 2014

In 1831, three Nez Perce Indians and one Flathead Indian, traveled from the Oregon Territory to St. Louis, Missouri, looking for the "book to heaven."
The Bishop of St. Louis was Rev. Joseph Rosati (1789-1843), who later sent Pierre De Smet as one of the "Black robe" missionaries to the Indians.

Bishop Rosati wrote in annals of the Association of the Propagation of the Faith, December 31, 1831:
 
 "Some three months ago four Indians who live across the Rocky Mountains near the Columbia River (Clark's Fork of the Columbia) arrived at St. Louis.
After visiting General Clark who, in his celebrated travels, has visited their country...they came to see our church and appeared to be exceedingly well pleased with it...

Two of our priests visited them...
They made the sign of the Cross and other signs which appeared to have some relation to baptism. The sacrament was administered to them."
 
Wyandot Indian chief, William Walker (1800-1874), met the same Indians at the home of Territorial Governor William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1805-1806).
His account was printed, March 1, 1833, in the Christian Advocate & Journal and Zion's Herald of New York, a Methodist Episcopal publication which at the time had the largest circulation of any periodical in the world:

"Immediately after we landed in St. Louis, on our way to the west, I proceeded to Gen. Clark's, superintendent of Indian affairs...
While in his office...he informed me that three chiefs from the Flat-Head nation were in his house, and were quite sick, and that one (the fourth) had died a few days ago. 

 
They were from the west of the Rocky Mountains.
Curiosity prompted me to step into the adjoining room to see them, having never seen any, but often heard of them. I was struck by their appearance...
The distance they had traveled on foot was nearly three thousand miles to see Gen. Clarke, their great father, as they called him, he being the first American officer they ever became acquainted with..."

William Walker continued:
"Gen. C. related to me the object of their mission, and, my dear friend, it is impossible for me to describe to you my feelings while listening to his narrative...

(They had heard) the white people away toward the rising of the sun had been put in possession of the true mode of worshiping the great Spirit. They had a book containing directions how to conduct themselves in order to enjoy his favor and hold converse with him;
 and with this guide, no one need go astray, but every one that would follow the directions laid down there, could enjoy, in this life, his favor; and after death would be received into the country where the great Spirit resides, and live forever with him.

 Upon receiving this information, they called a national council to take this subject into consideration...
They accordingly deputed four of their chiefs to proceed to St. Louis to see their great father, Gen. Clarke, to inquire of him..."

William Walker wrote further:
"They arrived at St. Louis, and presented themselves to Gen. C. the latter was somewhat puzzled being sensible of the responsibility that rested on him; he however proceeded by informing them that what they had been told by the white man in their own country, was true.
 
Then went into a succinct history of man, from his creation down to the advent of the Saviour; explained to them all the moral precepts contained in the Bible, expounded to them the decalogue.


Informed them of the advent of the Saviour, his life, precepts, his death, resurrection, ascension, and the relation he now stands to man as a mediator-that he will judge the world, & c."

The publishing of these accounts inspired Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa to leave Massachusetts and became a missionary to the Indians of Oregon and Washington.
 
President Warren G. Harding, dedicating the Oregon Trail Monument, July 3, 1923, recounted how Dr. Marcus Whitman traveled, clad in buckskin breeches, fur leggings and moccasins,

"...in the dead of winter 1842, struggled through...blinding storms, 4,000 miles...from Walla Walla...past the Great Salt Lake, to Santa Fe...to St. Louis and finally...to Washington, D.C...It was a race against time.

Public opinion was...that Oregon was not worth claiming...Turning to President Tyler, Whitman added...
'All I ask is that you will not barter away Oregon or allow English interference until I can lead...settlers across the plains.'"

President Warren Harding continued:

"Such was Marcus Whitman, the missionary hero...to plead that the state should acquire...the empire that the churches were gaining for Christianity...
 
Never in the history of the world has there been a finer example of civilization following Christianity. The missionaries led under the banner of the cross and the settlers moved close behind under the star-spangled symbol of the nation."

 The State of Washington placed the statue of Dr. Marcus Whitman in the U.S. Capitol's Statuary Hall. 


Order AMERICA'S GOD AND COUNTRY Encyclopedia of Quotations

 August 9 – Our Lady of the Parish (Italy, 1829)
Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein), Martyr at Oswiecin (Auschwitz, Poland, d. 1942) 
 
If you are attentive, you will discover how Mary gives birth to us
“Behold your mother…” Let us not be afraid to accept Mary as our Mother. Let us not be afraid to ask her to form us and teach so we may become children of God, brothers of Jesus open to Salvation, men and women who are docile to the Holy Spirit like Mary and the saints were.
Let us stand under the protection of this Mother whom Jesus gave us, and let us learn to obey her. Do not ask me how it happens I do not know how to explain it in words. Simply pray Mary that that she will introduce Jesus to you, and, if you are attentive, you will discover how Mary births us into the life in the Spirit.
The Cross is the brightest expression of God's love. Let Him attract us, under Mary's guidance and lessons of saints.

(In the same homily, Archbishop Legrez also evoked the example of Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross - Edith Stein - "identified" with the suffering Servant, who is Christ nailed to the Cross and who gave his life for his people.)
 
Archbishop Jean Legrez
Homily given during the mass at the Grotto of Lourdes, France, on August 9, 2012  catholique-tarn.cef.fr 

 
Why I am not afraid of dying anymore
You asked me to write a short account about the divine protection that I received in August 1958, during the Algerian War. At the time, I was serving in the military medical unit. One evening, an Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) commando attacked our village. It didn't take long until I was overpowered. They put me in front of a door with five other soldiers who took shots at us.
Immediately, I had an out-of-body experience. I saw my body lying on the ground, covered with blood, amidst the bodies of my comrades who had been killed, too. Then I saw Mary, incredibly beautiful in her mantle of light. She was welcoming me with an indescribable smile. Behind her stood Jesus, so handsome, and further away, a zone of light that I knew was the Father… I immersed myself in this light.
I experienced perfect bliss... and suddenly, I found myself on earth again, with my face in the dust,
next to the bloody corpses of my comrades...
It's easy to understand why I'm not afraid of dying anymore—now I know what is on the other side.
 
Father Jean Derobert
Testimonial (belonging to) given at the ‘Minutes of the Process of the Cause of Canonization for Padre Pio’
www.parvis.ch 

 
The Message of the Immaculate Virgin Mary at Lourdes
August 9 - Our Lady of the Parish (Italy, 1829)

Faith is like sight, it can be sharp and clear but it can also be short-sided and deficient. One of the graces to ask from Christ during a pilgrimage to Lourdes is to sharpen our sight in our need to be cured and above all to widen our field of vision. (...)
When we have received the gift of faith, not only do we see things differently than before, but most of all, we cannot go on living as we did previously. We start to understand better the advice of Saint Paul to the Christians of Ephesus, "You were in darkness once, but now you are in the light of the Lord; behave like children of the light, for the effects of the light are seen in complete goodness and uprightness and truth.
Try to discover what the Lord wants of you; take no part in futile works of darkness" (Eph 5: 8-10).
The message of the Apostle is clear: it means that we must live according to the grace of our baptism. It is also the message of the Immaculate Virgin Mary at Lourdes. Mary had but one wish: to allow all pilgrims to experience the same grace as the man who was born blind so that we could say with him: "I went there, and when I washed myself I regained my sight" (Jn 9:11).
Adapted from a text by Father Raymond Zambelli, Rector of Lourdes  150th Anniversary of the Apparitions (1858 - 2008)


Why I am not afraid of dying anymore.
You asked me to write a short account about the divine protection that I received in August 1958, during the Algerian War. At the time, I was serving in the military medical unit. One evening, an Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) commando attacked our village. It didn't take long until I was overpowered. They put me in front of a door with five other soldiers who took shots at us.
Immediately, I had an out-of-body experience. I saw my body lying on the ground, covered with blood, amidst the bodies of my comrades who had been killed, too. Then I saw Mary, incredibly beautiful in her mantle of light. She was welcoming me with an indescribable smile. Behind her stood Jesus, so handsome, and further away, a zone of light that I knew was the Father… I immersed myself in this light.
I experienced perfect bliss... and suddenly, I found myself on earth again, with my face in the dust, next to the bloody corpses of my comrades...It's easy to understand why I'm not afraid of dying anymore—now I know what is on the other side. -- Father Jean Derobert

Testimonial (belonging to) given at the ‘Minutes of the Process of the Cause of Canonization for Padre Pio’  www.parvis.ch 


Aug. 9 - Our Lady of the Burning Cloud (Japan, 1945)
Our Lady's Pain and Pity
On Thursday, August 9, 1945, at two minutes past eleven in the morning, the Urakami district of Nagasaki was wiped out by a plutonium bomb. Among the wounded on that fateful day was Dr. Takashi Hagai.
His wife was buried in the ruins of their home and he would also die five years after the explosion.
Surely his body that gradually wasted away was a ray of love inspired by Our Lady.

Our Lady looked upon that scene with pain and pity. She is unable to stop sufferings as the atom bomb, but that does not mean that she wasn't instantly giving her mother's care to the stricken city, to Nagasaki, which was the ancestral seat of Japanese Catholicism.  Our Lady's hand stretched out of the burning cloud: reached down out of the same symbol of destruction.
From such a devastation of many, may come, through Mary, the resurrection of many to Eternal Life.
Read: The Bells of Nagasaki by Takashi Nagai (1949)

Father Hubert Schiffer (1915 - March 27, 1982). One of eight German Jesuits who survived the nuclear bomb "Little Boy" dropped on Hiroshima. He was only eight blocks away from ground zero when the explosion occurred.   Catholics believe the survival of the priests a miracle. The group of Jesuits survived not only the explosion, but also the effects of the radiation (the doctors were amazed they did not present any radiation illness.
http://holysouls.com/sar/rosarymiracle.htm


August 9 – OUR LADY OF THE BURNING CLOUD (Nagasaki, Japan, 1945) -
 Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, (Edith Stein, Martyr in Auschwitz, Poland, d. 1942) 
Inside the Heart’s Quiet Dialogue with God
From the overflowing heart of the Virgin Mary blessed by God streamed the exultant hymn of the “Magnificat.” When the angel’s mysterious word became visible reality, the prophetic “Benedictus” hymn unsealed the lips of the old priest Zechariah, who had been struck dumb.  Whatever arose from spirit-filled hearts found expression in words and melodies and continues to be communicated from mouth to mouth. The “Divine Office” is to see that it continues to resound from generation to generation.
So the mystical stream forms the many-voiced, continually swelling hymn of praise to the triune God,
the Creator, the Redeemer, and the Perfecter.
Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein)

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

        Afterfeast of the Transfiguration of our Lord
   63 Saint Matthias The Holy Apostle was born at Bethlehem Tribe of Judah. From early childhood studied the Law of God under guidance of St Simeon the God-Receiver (February 3).  When the Lord Jesus Christ revealed Himself to the world, St Matthias believed Him as the Messiah,  followed constantly after Him. numbered among the Seventy Apostles, whom the Lord "sent them two by two before His face" (Luke 10:1).
 116 Departure of Pope Abriamus (Primus), Fifth Patriarch of Alexandria.  {Coptic}
 250 St. Secundian Senator With Marcellian and Verian, martyrs under Emperor Trajanus Decius. Little  known about them; they came from Tuscany.
Secundian a Senator or government official, other 3 scholars or students
Anthony The Martyr, native of Alexandria, a Christian. For his confession of faith they tied him to a tree and tore
at his body with iron hooks, then sentenced him to burning. Standing in the fire, he calmly exhorted those standing about to toil not for body for soul in aspiring towards God. After fire flared, the body remained unharmed
        Vigília sancti Lauréntii Mártyris.      The vigil of St. Lawrence, martyr.
251 In Africa Numidicus & many holy martyrs commemoration of many holy martyrs; Numidicus restored and deserved afterwards by his virtue to be made priest of the Church of Carthage by blessed Cyprian.
 258 St Romanus, Martyr doorkeeper of the Roman church; baptized in prison by St Laurence
 290 St. Firmus & Rusticus Martyrs of Bergamo, in Lombardy, Italy, supposedly related to each other and prominent citizens of  that city. They died in Verona.
304 St Emygdius (Emidius) , Martyr beheaded together with three companions, SS. Eupolus, Germanus and Valentinus.
4th v. St. Rusticus A martyr who was put to death in the area of Sirmium, in Pannonia.
4th v.
St. Domitian of Chalons Successor to St. Donation as the bishop of Chalons-sur-Mame, France.
4th v.  Saint Psoes was a disciple of St Pachomius the Great (May 15) lived during 4th century in the Egyptian desert.
491-582 The Restoration of the Temple of the 40 Martyrs (March 9); 2 churches dedicated to them at Constantinople: one, built by emperor Anastasius I (491-518), and the other, by the emperor Tiberius (578-582).  There is a service for this Feastday in a Greek Menaion of the thirteenth century.
5th century
St. Autor Bishop also called Adinctor or Auteur. He was a bishop of Metz, France. In 830, his remains were enshrined in Marmoutier Abbey.
496 St. Samuel of Edessa Ecclesiastical writer, mentioned by the fifth-century priest and historian Gennadius of Marseilles. Samuel authored works against the Nestorians and other heretics
6th v. Century SS Nathy and  Felim, Bishops
6th v. 
St. Phelim Irish monk and disciple of St. Columba. He is honored as a patron saint of Kilmore and is also listed as Fidleminus and Felix.
  556 St. Bandaridus Bishop of Soissons founded Crépin Abbey and served the area until King Clotaire I banished him over a disagreement. He went to England and became a gardener in an abbey, living there anonymously
  606 St. Serenus Bishop Bishop of Marseilles, France. He is best known for having been a correspondent with Pope St. Gregory I the Great (r. 590-604) who sent him several letters. One endorsed the Roman missionanes who were then on their way to Britain
  642 St Oswald Of Northumbria, Martyr
7th v. Constantinópoli sanctórum Mártyrum Juliáni, Marciáni et aliórum octo; qui, ob Salvatóris imáginem, quam in porta  ǽnea constitúerant, omnes, ímpii Leónis Imperatóris jussu, post multa torménta, gládio necáti sunt.
     At Constantinople, the holy martyrs Julian, Marcian, and eight others.  For having set up the image of our Saviour on the brass gate, they were exposed to many torments, and then beheaded by order of the impious emperor Leo.

730 St. Julian anti-Iconoclast Martyr with Marcian and John, James, Alexius, Demetrius, Photius, Peter, Leontius, Maria the Patrician, the Protospatharios ("Sword-Captain") of Constantinople; martyred by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian for opposing Iconoclasts; Gregory and Others suffered for holy icons in the year 730 under the Iconoclast emperor Leo the Isaurian 717-741 The emperor deposed the holy Patriarch Germanus (715-730) from the patriarchal throne and sent him off to prison, raising up onto the patriarchal throne the iconoclast Athanasius (730-753); Martyrs discovered incorrupt 139 years later.
St. Amor a martyr venerated in the Franche-Comté province of France with St.  Viator. The relics of these two martyrs are enshrined in Saint-Amour, in Burgundy.
1067 St. Maurilius Benedictine archbishop A leading churchman of his era. native of Reims served the Benedictines in many administrative capacities in Normandy, and Florence, Italy. In 1055, he became archbishop of Rouen and was considered an outstanding churchman of his era.
1242 Bd John of Salerno
; gift of reading minds and consciences.
1350 Bd John Of Rieti; joined Hermits of St Augustine (Austin friars) at Rieti ever at the service of his neighbour, especially sick, strangers, delighted to wait on guests who came to the monastery; spent long hours in contemplation; especially valued opportunities provided serving Mass in friary church; for loving converse with God; had gift of tears, not only for his own faults but for those of others; when walking in the garden he would say, "How can one not weep? For we see all around us trees and grass and flowers and plants germinating, growing, producing their fruit, and dying back again into the earth in accordance with the laws of their Creator: while men, to whom God has given a reasoning intelligence and the promise of a transcendent reward, continually oppose His will." his holy life and the miracles taking place at his tomb were the cause of a cultus which persisted
1482 St. Amedeus  Franciscan founder Portugal; born to a noble family 1420 entered the Franciscans as a lay brother at Assisi, Italy. After some time as a hermit, Amedeus was ordained and founded Franciscan monasteries; revered by Pope Sixtus IV.
1532 Saint Macarius of Oredezhsk disciple of St Alexander of Svir (August 30). He pursued asceticism at the River Oredezha at Lake Ladoga, where he founded a monastery.
1837 Venerable Herman of Alaska, Wonderworker of All America
1942 Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein). Beatified in the Cologne cathedral by Pope John Paul II; canonized on October 11, 1998.

        St. Simon (Simeon) the Stylite to the city of Antioch Relocation of the Body of  {Coptic}


Afterfeast of the Transfiguration of our Lord.
The Church's hymns today invite us to "ascend the holy mountain" and "with the eyes of faith," to "behold the radiant Transfiguration of the Lord." Christ has transformed our fallen human nature and restored its original beauty "by the burning radiance of His divinity.
"
63 Saint Matthias The Holy Apostle was born at Bethlehem of the Tribe of Judah. From his early childhood he studied the Law of God under the guidance of St Simeon the God-Receiver (February 3).  When the Lord Jesus Christ revealed Himself to the world, St Matthias believed in Him as the Messiah, followed constantly after Him and was numbered among the Seventy Apostles, whom the Lord "sent them two by two before His face" (Luke 10:1).  

After the Ascension of the Savior, St Matthias was chosen by lot to replace Judas Iscariot as one of the Twelve Apostles (Acts 1:15-26). After the Descent of the Holy Spirit, the Apostle Matthias preached the Gospel at Jerusalem and in Judea together with the other Apostles (Acts 6:2, 8:14). From Jerusalem he went with the Apostles Peter and Andrew to Syrian Antioch, and was in the Cappadocian city of Tianum and Sinope.
Here the Apostle Matthias was locked into prison, from which he was miraculously freed by St Andrew the First-Called.

The Apostle Matthias journeyed after this to Amasea, a city on the shore of the sea.

During a three year journey of the Apostle Andrew, St Matthias was with him at Edessa and Sebaste. According to Church Tradition, he was preaching at Pontine Ethiopia (presently Western Georgia) and Macedonia. He was frequently subjected to deadly peril, but the Lord preserved him to preach the Gospel.

Once, pagans forced the saint to drink a poison potion. He drank it, and not only did he himself remain unharmed, but he also healed other prisoners who had been blinded by the potion. When St Matthias left the prison, the pagans searched for him in vain, for he had become invisible to them.
Another time, when the pagans had become enraged intending to kill the Apostle, the earth opened up and engulfed them.

The Apostle Matthias returned to Judea and did not cease to enlighten his countrymen with the light of Christ's teachings. He worked great miracles in the Name of the Lord Jesus and he converted a great many to faith in Christ.

The Jewish High Priest Ananias hated Christ and earlier had commanded the Apostle James, brother of John, to be flung down from the heights of the Temple, and now he ordered that the Apostle Matthias be arrested and brought for judgment before the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem.

The impious Ananias uttered a speech in which he blasphemously slandered the Lord. Using the prophecies of the Old Testament, the Apostle Matthias demonstrated that Jesus Christ is the True God, the promised Messiah, the Son of God, Consubstantial and Coeternal with God the Father.
After these words the Apostle Matthias was sentenced to death by the Sanhedrin and stoned.
When St Matthias was already dead, the Jews, to hide their malefaction, cut off his head as an enemy of Caesar. (According to several historians, the Apostle Matthias was crucified, and indicate that he instead died at Colchis.)
 The Apostle Matthias received the martyr's crown of glory in the year 63.

116 Departure of Pope Abriamus (Primus), Fifth Patriarch of Alexandria.
On this day also, in the year 116 A.D., Pope Aprimos (Primus), Fifth Patriarch of Alexandria, departed. He was baptized by St. Mark the Apostle. He was one of the three who were ordained priests by St. Mark the Apostle, along with Bishop Anianus, the Second Patriarch. Pope Aprimos was ascetic, pious, and filled with good deeds. He was ordained to the apostolic chair on the 22nd day of Baounah (June 16th, 16 A.D.). During his papacy, the church was in peace and tranquility. May his prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen
.
251 In Africa Numidicus & many holy martyrs commemoration of many holy martyrs Numidicus restored and deserved afterwards by his virtue to be made priest of the Church of Carthage by blessed Cyprian.
In Africa commemorátio plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum, qui, in persecutióne Valeriáni, hortánte eos ad constántiam sancto Numídico, in ignem conjécti, martyrii palmam adépti sunt.  Ipse autem Numídicus, licet cum áliis in rogum injéctus et lapídibus óbrutus fuísset, a fília tamen, effóssus et semivívus repértus, curátus est; ac póstea, ob ejus virtútem, in Ecclésiæ Carthaginénsis Presbyterum a beáto Cypriáno méruit cooptári.
    In Africa, the commemoration of many holy martyrs during the persecution of Valerian.  Being exhorted by St. Numidicus, they obtained the palm of martyrdom by being cast into the fire, but Numidicus, although thrown into the flames with the others and overwhelmed with stones, was nevertheless taken out by his daughter.  Found half dead, he was restored and deserved afterwards by his virtue to be made priest of the Church of Carthage by blessed Cyprian.
    In Africa, the commemoration of many holy martyrs during the persecution of Valerian.  Being exhorted by St. Numidicus, they obtained the palm of martyrdom by being cast into the fire, but Numidicus, although thrown into the flames with the others and overwhelmed with stones, was nevertheless taken out by his daughter.  Found half dead, he was restored and deserved afterwards by his virtue to be made priest of the Church of Carthage by blessed Cyprian.

In Africa commemorátio plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum, qui, in persecutióne Valeriáni, hortánte eos ad constántiam sancto Numídico, in ignem conjécti, martyrii palmam adépti sunt.  Ipse autem Numídicus, licet cum áliis in rogum injéctus et lapídibus óbrutus fuísset, a fília tamen, effóssus et semivívus repértus, curátus est; ac póstea, ob ejus virtútem, in Ecclésiæ Carthaginénsis Presbyterum a beáto Cypriáno méruit cooptári
.
250 St. Secundian Senator With Marcellian and Verian, martyrs put to death under Emperor Trajanus Decius. Little is known about them except that they came from Tuscany. Secundian was a Senator or government official, and the other two were scholars or students.
In Túscia natális sanctórum Mártyrum Secundiáni, Marcelliáni et Veriáni; qui, témpore Décii, a Promóto Consulári primum cæsi sunt, deínde in equúleo suspénsi, et abrási úngulis, atque latéribus appósito assáti, ac tandem triumphálem martyrii palmam, cápite cæsi, meruérunt.
    In Tuscany, the birthday of the holy martyrs Secundian, Marcellian, and Verian.  In the time of Decius, they were scourged by the exconsul Promotus, then racked and torn with iron hooks.  Being burned with fire applied to their sides, they merited the triumphant palm of martyrdom by being beheaded
.
Vigília sancti Lauréntii Mártyris.      The vigil of St. Lawrence, martyr.





















258 St Romanus, Martyr doorkeeper of the Roman church; baptized by him in prison by St Laurence.
Romæ sancti Románi, mílitis et Mártyris; qui, confessióne beáti Lauréntii compúnctus, pétiit ab eo baptizári, et, mox exhíbitus ac fústibus cæsus, ad últimum decollátus est.
    At Rome, St. Romanus, a soldier, who was moved by the torments of blessed Lawrence to ask for baptism from him.  He was immediately prosecuted, scourged, and finally beheaded.
According to the Liber Pontificalis Romanus was a doorkeeper of the Roman church who suffered martyrdom at the same time as St Laurence, whose unreliable acta make of him a soldier in Rome at the time of the martyrdom of Laurence.
   Seeing the joy and constancy with which that holy martyr suffered persecution, he was moved to embrace the faith, was instructed and baptized by him in prison.  Confessing aloud what he had done, he was arraigned, condemned and beheaded the day before the execution of St Laurence.  Thus he arrived at his crown before his guide and master. The body of St Romanus was buried on the road to Tivoli in the cemetery of Cyriaca, and his grave is mentioned as being there in the itineraries of the seventh century.
Mgr Duchesne's note in his edition of the Liber Pontificalis, vol. i, p.156, supplies all the information which is available; and see CMH., p. 428.
Anthony The Martyr, a native of the city of Alexandria, was a Christian. For his confession of faith they tied him to a tree and tore at his body with iron hooks, and then sentenced him to burning. Standing in the fire, he calmly exhorted those standing about to toil not for body for soul in aspiring towards God. After the fire flared up, the body of the saint remained unharmed.
290 St. Firmus & Rusticus Martyrs of Bergamo, in Lombardy, Italy, supposedly related to each other and prominent citizens of that city. They died in Verona.  
Verónæ sanctórum Mártyrum Firmi et Rústici, qui, témpore Maximiáni Imperatóris, sub Anolíno Júdice, cum sacrificáre idólis renuérunt et constánter in Christi fide persísterent, ambo jussi sunt, post ália superáta supplícia, fústibus cædi et cápite amputári.
    At Verona, the holy martyrs Firmus and Rusticus.  When they refused to sacrifice to idols and remained constant in confessing Christ, after they had overcome many other torments, they were condemned to be scourged and beheaded by Anolinus, a judge, during the reign of Emperor Maximian.

Firmus and Rusticus MM (RM). The stories that have come down to us about these kinsmen are unreliable. It is said that they were prominent citizens of Bergamo, who were martyred at Verona under Maximian. It is possible that the relics of two African martyrs of these names were translated to Verona and appropriate stories developed to make them local heroes (Benedictines)
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304 St Emygdius (Emidius), Martyr beheaded with three companions, SS. Eupolus, Germanus and Valentinus.
    Chiefly because he is regarded as patron against earthquakes, St Emygdius (Emidius) is greatly honoured in Italy: for the same reason his cultus has, in later years, been extended to San Francisco and Los Angeles in the United States.  The saint's true history has long since been forgotten, but his legend is preserved in his so-called "acts".  He is there described as a German who, after being converted to Christianity, left his native city of Trier and came to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Marcellus I. Full of zeal for the faith, Emygdius entered a heathen temple and dashed a statue of Aesculapius to the ground.  Pagans of Rome were so incensed by this action that Pope Marcellus, in order to protect Emygdius from their vengeance, ordained him, consecrated him a bishop, and sent him to evangelize the territory of Ascoli Piceno.  There he laboured with success, making many converts.
   He was beheaded during the persecution of Diocletian, together with three companions, SS. Eupolus, Germanus and Valentinus.  Seeing that St Marcellus did not occupy the chair of St Peter until 308, he could scarcely have been the pope who ordained St Emygdius, but popular tradition is notoriously indifferent to chronology.   On the other hand, it is possible that a careless scribe may have substituted the name of Marcellus for that of Marcellinus, who was his predecessor.  The festival of St Emygdius is kept throughout Italy on August 9 and other dates, in accordance with local use and tradition.
The Bollandists have printed the supposed passio of St Emygdius in the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. ii, but they regard the story as altogether untrustworthy.  Several booklets have been written by devout inhabitants of Ascoli and others about their patron, but most of these are entirely uncritical.  The most considerable seem to be the volumes by P. A. Appiani (1702), A. G. Andreucci (1729), C. Masdeu (1794) and C. Levis (1809)
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4th v. St. Rusticus A martyr who was put to death in the area of Sirmium, in Pannonia.  
4th v. St. Domitian of Chalons Successor to St. Donation as the bishop of Chalons-sur-Mame, France.  
Cataláuni, in Gállia, sancti Domitiáni, Epíscopi et Confessóris.
    At Chalons in France, St. Domitian, bishop and confessor.
Saint Psoes disciple of St Pachomius the Great (May 15) and lived during the fourth century in the Egyptian desert.
5th century St. Autor Bishop also called Adinctor or Auteur. He was a bishop of Metz, France. In 830, his remains were enshrined in Marmoutier Abbey.
496 St. Samuel of Edessa Ecclesiastical writer, mentioned by the fifth-century priest and historian Gennadius of Marseilles. Samuel authored works against the Nestorians and other heretics.
6th v. Century SS Nathy and  Felim, Bishops.
Though not associated with one another so far as is known, these two saints are celebrated throughout Ireland by a common feast on this day. St Felim (Fedhlimidh) was the son of Dediva, a lady who was married four times, and had several saints among her children, including Dermot, Abbot of Inis Clothrann, brother-german to Felim.  We have no particulars or even legends of St Felim, but he is traditionally venerated as the first bishop of Kilmore; he was probably a regionary bishop in the Breffney country.  Another FELIM, named on the 18th or 28th of this month, was king of Munster in the ninth century; according to the exploits of his life he must have been included in the Martyrology of Gorman either in error or as a penitent.
   St Nathy Cruimthir, that is "the Priest", was a native of the Luigline district in Sligo and is mentioned in the life of St Attracta, who was probably his contemporary.  He is said to have been put at Achonry by St Finnian of Clonard, though the name by which he was known makes it unlikely that he was a bishop.
No biography either in Latin or Irish seems to be available in either case. Nathy is commemorated under this day in the Félire of Oengus. See O'Hanlon, LIS., vol. viii.
St. Nathy surnamed Cruimthir (the priest) Irish Nathy  was born at Luighne, Sligo, Ireland and became a disciple of St. Finnian of Clonnard, who made him a bishop. He was founder-abbot of a monastery, which is questioned by some in view of his surname. His cult was confirmed in 1903
6th v.  St. Phelim Irish monk and disciple of St. Columba. He is honored as a patron saint of Kilmore and is also listed as Fidleminus and Felix.
556 St. Bandaridus Bishop of Soissons founded Crépin Abbey and served the area until King Clotaire I banished him over a disagreement. He went to England and became a gardener in an abbey, living there anonymously.
also called Banderik, Bandarinus, and Bandery. In 540, Bandaridus was made bishop of Soissons, France. He founded Crépin Abbey and served the area until King Clotaire I banished him over a disagreement. He went to England and became a gardener in an abbey, living there anonymously. When he was recognized after seven years, Bandaridus was recalled by the king.  Bandaridus was buried in Crépin Abbey.
606 St. Serenus Bishop Bishop of Marseilles, France. He is best known for having been a correspondent with Pope St. Gregory I the Great (r. 590-604) who sent him several letters. One endorsed the Roman missionanes who were then on their way to Britain.
642 St Oswald Of Northumbria, Martyr.  
   After death of King St Edwin in the year 633 in battle against Penda and Cadwailon, Oswald, nephew of Edwin, prepared to regain possession of both parts of Northumbria; he had received Christianity with his whole heart and, far from forsaking Christ as his unhappy brothers had done to court the favour of his subjects, he wished to bring them to the spiritual kingdom of divine grace.
  While Cadwallon ravaged the Northumbrian provinces, Oswald assembled what troops he was able, and marched confidently, though with a small force, against his enemy.  In 634 battle was joined some three miles south of Hexham, near Rowley Burn.  The evening before the engagement, the king caused a great wooden cross to be made, and he held it up whilst the hole dug in the earth to plant it in was filled up round the foot.  When it was fixed, St Oswald cried out to his army (in which only a handful of individuals were Christians), "Let us now kneel down, and together pray to the almighty and only true God that He will mercifully defend us from our enemy; for He knows that we fight in defence of our lives and country".
   All the soldiers did as he commanded, and that same night Oswald had a vision wherein St Columba of Jona appeared to stretch his cloak over his sleeping troops and to promise them victory on the morrow.
  And so it fell out.  God blessed Oswald's faith and the superior forces of Cadwallon were muted and himself killed in the battle. It was a happy omen, says St Bede, that the place where this cross was set up was called in English Hefenfelth, that is. "Heaven field" (though doubtless in fact it was given that name later), because there was erected the first heavenly trophy of faith: before that time no church or altar was known to have been raised in the kingdom of the Bernicians.  This cross of St Oswald was afterwards very famous.
  In St Bede's time little chips of it were steeped in water, and drunk by sick persons, or sprinkled upon them, and many recovered their health.  After death of King Oswald, the monks of Hexham used to come to the place on the day before the anniversary of his death, there to sing the night-office and to celebrate Mass the next morning.  A church was built on the spot some time before Bede wrote.

  St Oswald immediately set himself to restore good order throughout his dominions, and plant in them the faith of Christ. Naturally enough he looked not to Canterbury but to Scotland, where he had received the faith himself, for help in this task, and asked for a bishop and assistants by whose preaching the people whom he governed might be grounded in the Christian religion and receive baptism.
   St Aidan, a native of Ireland and a monk of Iona, was chosen for the arduous undertaking, and he by his mildness repaired the mischief done by another monk, sent before him, whose harshness had alienated many from the gospel which he professed to preach.  The king bestowed on Aidan the isle of Lindisfarne for his episcopal see, and, before the bishop could sufficiently speak the English language, he would himself be his interpreter and explain his sermons and instructions to the people.
"From that time many of the Scots [Irish] came daily into Britain and preached the word with great devotion to those provinces of the English over which King Oswald reigned...Churches were built in a number of places; the people gladly gathered to hear the gospel; money and land were given by the king to build monasteries; and the English, high and low, were instructed by their Scottish teachers in the rules and observance of regular discipline, for most of them that came to preach were monks" (Bede).
  Oswald, whilst he was governing his temporal kingdom, was intent to labour and pray also for an eternal crown; and by reason of his praying and giving thanks at all times, it is said that whenever he was sitting he would have his hands on his knees turned upwards, toward Heaven.  The kingdom of Northumberland then extended as far as the Firth of Forth, and so great was his power that the other kings of England recognized in him some sort of nominal overlordship (bretwalda), so that St Adamnan, in his life of St Columba, styles him" Emperor of all Britain".
Bede gives the following example of the charity of this great king amidst his prosperity. 
One Easter day, whilst he was sitting down to dinner, an officer came in and told him there was a multitude of poor people at his gate, asking alms. The king sent them a large silver dish full of meat, and ordered the dish to be broken into small pieces and distributed among them. Upon this, St Aidan, who happened to be at table, taking him by the right hand, said, "May this hand never perish."
After St Oswald's death his right arm was cut off and remained incorrupt at least till the time of Simeon of Durham (d.c. 1135), when it was kept at the minster of Peterborough.
  St Oswald married Cyneburga, daughter of Cynegils, the first Christian king of Wessex; he stood sponsor for him at his baptism.  They had one child, a son, Ethelwald, who became king of Deira and was little credit to his father.

   When St Oswald had reigned some years war broke out with the pagan Penda of Mercia.  Penda again allied himself with the Welsh and the struggle lasted until a decisive battle was fought at Maserfield (probably Oswestry in Shropshire).  St Oswald met him with an inferior force, and was killed in the battle.  When he saw himself surrounded with his enemies, he offered his last prayer for the souls of his soldiers, and it became a proverb:
"O God, be merciful to their souls, as said Oswald when he fell."
He was slain in the thirty-eighth year of his age, on August 5, 642.
His relics were eventually distributed to various places and St Bede chronicles some of the many miracles of which they were the occasion; nor is it to be wondered at that the sick should be healed by him when dead, for while he lived he never ceased to provide for the poor and infirm.
   St Oswald was formerly remembered as one of the great national heroes of England, and his veneration extended to Scotland, Ireland, Portugal, northern Italy, Bohemia, southern Germany and Switzerland, where he is patron of Zug.  His memory is now somewhat dim but his feast is observed in several English dioceses and in Argyll (with a proper Mass) on August 9; and at Meissen and Trier. He is named in the Roman Martyrology on the 5th.

We know little of St Oswald beyond what has been recorded in Bede's Ecclesiastical History, bk iii, but C. Plummer gives (vol. ii, p. 161) a list of subsequent lives of the holy king.  That by Drogo (eleventh century) is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, August,vol. ii; that by Reginald of Durham may be found in Arnold's edition of Simeon of Durham (Rolls Series). Plummer points out in detail (pp. 159-160) how widespread was the cultus of St Oswald in central Europe. Plummer's notes upon Bede's text are also valuable, as well as those in the edition of Mayor and Lumby (1881). For the Swiss cultus, see E. P. Baker`s article in Archaeologia, vol. xciii (1949), pp. 103-123, and for northern Italy, the same writer in Archaeologia, vol. xciv (1951), pp. 167-194.
730 St. Julian anti-Iconoclast Martyr with Marcian and ten Christians of Constantinople. They were martyred by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian for opposing Iconoclasts.  The Martyrs Julian, Marcian, John, James, Alexius, Demetrius, Photius, Peter, Leontius, Maria the Patrician, the Protospatharios ("Sword-Captain") Gregory and Others suffered for holy icons in the year 730 under the Iconoclast emperor Leo the Isaurian (717-741). The emperor deposed the holy Patriarch Germanus (715-730) from the patriarchal throne and sent him off to prison, raising up onto the patriarchal throne the iconoclast Athanasius (730-753); discovered incorrupt 139 years later.

Constantinópoli sanctórum Mártyrum Juliáni, Marciáni et aliórum octo; qui, ob Salvatóris imáginem, quam in porta ǽnea constitúerant, omnes, ímpii Leónis Imperatóris jussu, post multa torménta, gládio necáti sunt.
    At Constantinople, the holy martyrs Julian, Marcian, and eight others.  For having set up the image of our Saviour on the brass gate, they were exposed to many torments, and then beheaded by order of the impious emperor Leo.

By decree of the emperor, all icons were to be confiscated from homes and churches and then destroyed. At Constantinople from the time of the holy Emperor Constantine the Great (324-337) there was over the so-called "Copper Gates" a wonderworking icon of the Savior, made of copper.

The emperor and heretical Patriarch Anastasius gave orders to seize this icon. The gathered crowd became outraged at this sacrilege. In the crowd was the Patrician Maria, a woman of illustrious family, who with many others rushed to the ladder and pulled it from the wall to keep the soldier from touching the icon. The ladder came down, and the soldier standing on it fell to his death. This occurred on January 19, 730. The Protospatherios ("Sword-Captain") Gregory and the nun St Theodosia (May 29) also took part in the defense of the icon.

Learning of this, the emperor executed a multitude of the faithful, the names of whom are known only to the Lord. The Protospatherios Gregory also received a martyr's death. Some of the Orthodox are known, however: Julian, Marcian, John, James, Alexius, Demetrius, Leontius, Photius and Peter, who were locked up in prison and kept there for about eight months, each day receiving 500 blows. In these torments they remained alive by the power of Christ and bravely endured their sufferings.

By order of the emperor they were burned with a red-hot iron and their heads cut off. St Maria the Patrician, who had not been locked up in prison, learning about the executions, voluntarily accepted a martyr's death. The bodies of the martyrs were buried in a coastal area near the church of the holy Martyr Theodore, and were discovered incorrupt 139 years later .
St. Amor a martyr venerated in the Franche-Comté province of France with St.  Viator. The relics of these two martyrs are enshrined in Saint-Amour, in Burgundy.
1242 Bd John Of Salerno; gift of reading minds and consciences.
John Guarna was born at Salerno about 1190.  While studying at Bologna he met St Dominic; they were mutually attracted one to the other, and John received the habit of the new order.  In 1219 thirteen friars were sent to preach in Etruria and of these, though he was easily the youngest, John of Salerno was made superior.  A house was given them at Ripoli, near Florence, from whence they went out to the whole neighbourhood, but particularly to Florence itself, where John every day preached in the streets and sought the sheep that were lost.  This arrangement was soon found to be too inconvenient and wasteful of time, and the community moved to San Pancrazio, adjoining the walls of the city.   Here Bd John had a trying experience with a young woman of undisciplined desires who had given herself up to a passion for him.   She pretended she was ill, went to bed, and sent for Brother John to hear her confession; the friar went at once, only to discover his "penitent" taking brazen advantage of their being alone. He rebuked the girl severely and tried to bring her to reason but she took no notice, so he could only go away and leave her. But he did not forget her, and his prayers eventually brought the girl to repentance towards God and humble apology to himself. This incident is said to have been made public in the following way. A possessed woman was being exorcized by a priest when the evil spirit, speaking by her mouth, exclaimed, "Only he who was unburned in the fire can drive me out!"  He was adjured to explain who and what he meant, and he named the prior of the Dominicans and told the story; Bd John was sent for and the woman was freed.
   He had the gift of reading minds and consciences, and would sometimes abash or enlighten a penitent or one of his subjects by his knowledge of them.  In 1221 he found his community turned out of the church in which they had been wont to sing the Divine Office; he soon established them at Santa Maria Novella, whose famous present church was begun fifty years later. Florence was troubled at this time by the Patarines, a sect which had penetrated into Italy from Bosnia; Pope Gregory IX. commissioned Bd John to deal with these heretics, whose tenets and life were similar to those of the Albigensians who had first exercised St Dominic.  They were indignant at his campaign but he refused to be intimidated by their threats or ruffled by their insults, and succeeded in bringing numbers back to the Church and to a Christian life.
   While he lay dying Bd John reminded his brethren that no action requires so much care, devotion and purity as the reception of holy communion.  His cultus was approved in 1783.
A life by John Caroli has been printed in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. iii, but with lacunae, which in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. vii (1888), pp. 85-94, have been made good from a recovered copy of the text.  Mortier speaks of Bd John in his Histoire des maître, généraux O.P., vol. i, pp. 106 seq.  See also Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints, pp. 326-228.  A fuller bibliography is supplied in Taurisano, p. 11.
1067 St. Maurilius Benedictine archbishop A leading churchman of his era. He was a native of Reims and served the Benedictines in many administrative capacities in Normandy, and in Florence, Italy. In 1055, he became archbishop of Rouen and was considered an outstanding churchman of his era.
1350 Bd John Of Rieti  joined the Hermits of St Augustine (Austin friars) at Rieti.  He was ever at the service of his neighbour, especially the sick and strangers, and delighted to wait on guests who came to the monastery;  he spent long hours in contemplation and especially valued the opportunities provided by serving Mass in the friary church for loving converse with God.   He had the gift of tears, not only for his own faults but for those of others; when walking in the garden he would say, "How can one not weep...?" His holy life and miracles taking place at his tomb were the cause of a cultus which persisted.

John Bufalari was born about the beginning of the fourteenth century at Castel Porziano in Umbria, brother to Bd Lucy of Amelia. Little is known of his life, except that it was uneventful, but none the less significant in that he grew daily in grace and virtue.  He early determined to leave the world and joined the Hermits of St Augustine (Austin friars) at Rieti.  He was ever at the service of his neighbour, especially the sick and strangers, and delighted to wait on guests who came to the monastery;  he spent long hours in contemplation and especially valued the opportunities provided by serving Mass in the friary church for loving converse with God.  He had the gift of tears, not only for his own faults but for those of others; when walking in the garden he would say,
"How can one not weep? For we see all around us trees and grass and flowers and plants germinating, growing, producing their fruit, and dying back again into the earth in accordance with the laws of their Creator: while men, to whom God has given a reasoning intelligence and the promise of a transcendent reward, continually oppose His will."
"A simple reflection whose force, if rightly understood, is not lessened by the consideration that the vegetable creation could not do otherwise if it would."
The exact date of the death of Bd John is not known, but his holy life and the miracles taking place at his tomb were the cause of a cultus which persisted and was formally confirmed in 1832.
See Torelli, Secoli Agostiniani, vol. ii, and P. Seeböck, Die Herrlichkeit day Katholischen Kirche (1900), pp. 299-300.
1482 St. Amedeus  Franciscan founder Portugal He was born to a noble family 1420 and entered the Franciscans as a lay brother at Assisi, Italy. After some time as a hermit, Amedeus was ordained and founded Franciscan monasteries. He was revered by Pope Sixtus IV.
1532 Saint Macarius of Oredezhsk was a disciple of St Alexander of Svir (August 30). He pursued asceticism at the River Oredezha at Lake Ladoga, where he founded a monastery. He died in the year 1532.
1837 Venerable Herman of Alaska, Wonderworker of All America.
A spiritual mission was organized in 1793, made up of monks of the Valaam Monastery. They were sent to preach the Word of God to the native inhabitants of northwestern America, who only ten years before had come under the sovereignty of Russia. St Herman was among the members of this Mission.

St Herman came from a family of merchants of Serpukhov, a city of the Moscow Diocese. His name before he was tonsured, and his family name are not known. (The monastic name is given when a monk takes his vows). He had a great zeal for piety from youth, and at sixteen he entered monastic life. (This was in 1772, if we assume that Herman was born in 1756, although sometimes 1760 is given as the date of his birth.) First he entered the Trinity-Sergius Hermitage which was located near the Gulf of Finland on the Peterhof Road, about 15 versts (about 10 miles) from St Petersburg.
MIRACULOUS HEALING OF HERMAN
At the St Sergius Hermitage there occurred the following incident to Father Herman. On the right side of his throat under his chin there appeared an abcess. The swelling grew rapidly, disfiguring his face. It became difficult for him to swallow, and the odor was unbearable. In this critical condition Father Herman awaited death. He did not appeal to a physician of this world, but locking his cell he fell before an lcon of the Queen of Heaven. With fervent tears he prayed, asking of Her that he might be healed. He prayed the whole night. Then he took a wet towel and with it wiped the face of the Most Holy Mother, and with this towel he covered the swelling. He continued to pray with tears until he fell asleep from sheer exhaustion on the floor. In a dream he saw the Virgin Mary healing him.
When Herman awoke in the morning, he found to his great surprise that he was fully healed. The swelling had disappeared, even though the abscess had not broken through, leaving behind but a small mark as though a reminder of the miracle. Physicians to whom this healing was described did not believe it, arguing that it was necessary for the abscess to have either broken through of its own accord or to have been cut open. But the words of the physicians were the words of human experience, for where the grace of God operates there the order of nature is overcome. Such occurrences humble human reason under the strong hand of God's Mercy.
HERMAN'S LIFE AT VALAAM
 For five or six years Father Herman continued to live in the St Sergius Hermitage, and then he transferred to the Valaam Monastery, which was widely scattered on the large islands in the waters of the great Lake Ladoga. He came to love the Valaam haven with all his soul, as he came to love its unforgettable Superior, the pious Elder Nazarius, and all the brethren. He wrote to Father Nazarius later from America, "Your fatherly goodness to me, humble one, will be erased out of my heart neither by the terrible, unpassable Siberian lands, nor by the dark forests. Nor will it be wiped out by the swift flow of the great rivers; nor will the awful ocean quench these feelings. In my mind I imagine my beloved Valaam, looking to it beyond the great ocean." He praised the Elder Nazarius in his letters as,"the most reverend, and my beloved father." (Batushka) and the brethren of Valaam he called, "my beloved and dearest." The place where he lived in America, deserted Spruce Island, he called "Now Valaam." And as we can see, he always remained in spiritual contact with his spiritual homeland', for as late as 1823, that is after thirty years of his life within the borders of America, he wrote letters to the successor of Father Nazarius, the lgumen Innocent.
Father Barlaam, later lgumen of Valaam, and a contemporary of Father Herman, who accepted his tonsure from Father Nazarius, wrote thus of the life of Father Herman.
"Father Herman went through the various obediences here, and being ‘well disposed toward every thing’ was in the course of events sent to Serdobol to oversee there the work of quarrying marble. The Brothers loved Father Herman, and awaited impatiently his return to the cloisters from Serdobol. Recognizing the zeal of the young hermit the wise elder, Father Nazarius, released him to take abode in the wilderness. This wilderness was in the deep forest about a mile from the cloister: to this day this place has retained the name 'Herman's.' On holy days, Father Herman returned to the monastery from the wilderness. Then it was that at Little Vespers he would stand in the choir and sing in his pleasant tenor the responses with the brethren from the Canon, 'O Sweetest Jesus, save us sinners. Most Holy Theotokos, Save us,' and tears would fall like hail from his eyes."
THE FIRST MISSION TO AMERICA
 In the second half of the 18th century the borders of Holy Russia expanded to the north. In those years Russian merchants discovered the Aleutian Islands which formed in the Pacific Ocean a chain from the eastern shares of Kamchatka to the western shares of North America. With the opening of these islands there was revealed the sacred necessity to illumine with the light of the Gospel the native inhabitants. With the blessing of the Holy Synod, Metropolitan Gabriel gave to the Elder Nazarius the task of selecting capable persons from the brethern of Valaam for this holy endeavor. Ten men were selected, and among them was Father Herman. The chosen men left Valaam for the place of their great appointment in 1793. (The members of this historical mission were: Archimandrite Joseph (Bolotoff), the Hieromonks, Juvenal, Macarius, Athanasius, Stephan and Nectarius, Hierodeacons, Nectarius and Stephen, and the monks Joasaph, and Herman.)

As a result of the holy zeal of the preachers the light of the evangelic sermon quickly poured out among the sons of Russia, and several thousand pagans accepted Christianity. A school for the education of newly-baptized children was organized, and a church was built at the place where the missionaries lived. But by the inscrutable providence of God the general progress of the mission was unsatisfactory. After five years of very productive labor, Archimandrite Joasaph, who had just been elevated to the rank of bishop, was drowned with his party. (This occurred on the Pacific Ocean been Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands. The ship, Phoenix, one of the first sea-going ships built in Alaska, sailed from Okhotsk carrying the first Bishop for the American Mission and his party. The Phoenix was caught in one of the many storms which periodically sweep the northern Pacific, and the ship and all hands perished together with Bishop Joasaph and his party.) Before this the zealous Hieromonk Juvenal was granted the martyr's crown. The others died one after another until in the end only Father Herman remained. The Lord permitted him to labor longer than any of his brethren in the apostolic task of enlightening the Aleutians.
THE NEW VALAAM - SPRUCE ISLAND
 In America Father Herman chose as his place of habitation Spruce Island, which he called New Valaam. This island is separted by a strait about a mile and a quarter wide from Kodiak Island on which had been built a wooden monastery for the residence of the members of the mission, and a wooden church dedicated to the Resurrection of the Savior. (New Valaam was named for Valaam on Lake Ladoga, the monastery from which Father Herman came to America. It is interesting to note that Valaam is also located on an island, although, this island is in a fresh water lake, whereas, Spruce Island is on the Pacific Ocean, although near other islands and the Alaskan mainland.)
   Spruce Island is not large, and is almost completely covered by a forest. Almost through its middle a small brook flows to the sea. Herman selected this picturesque island for the location of his hermitage. He dug a cave out of the ground with his own hands, and in it he lived his first full summer. For winter there was built for him a cell near the cave, in which he lived until his death. The cave was converted by him into a place for his burial. A wooden chapel, and a wooden house to be used as a schoolhouse and a guest house were built not too distant from his cell. A garden was laid out in front of his cell. For more than forty years Father Herman lived here.
FATHER HERMAN'S WAY OF LIFE
  Father Herman himself spaded the garden, planted potatoes and cabbage and various vegetables in it. For winter, he preserved mushrooms, salting or drying them. The salt was obtained by him from ocean water. It is said that a wicker basket in which the Elder carried seaweed from the shore, was so large that it was difficult for one person to carry. The seaweed was used for fertilizing the soil. But to the astonishment of all, Father Herman carried a basket filled with seaweed for a long distance without any help at all. By chance his disciple, Gerasim, saw him one winter night carrying a large log which normally would be carried by four men; and he was bare footed. Thus worked the Elder, and everything that he acquired as a result of his immeasurable labors was used for the feeding and clothing of orphans and also for books for his students.
   His clothes were the same for winter as for summer. He did not wear a shirt; instead he wore a smock of deer skin, which he did not take off for several years at a time, nor did he change it, so that the fur in it was completely worn away, and the leather became glossy. Then there were his boots or shoes, cassock (podrasnik), an ancient and faded out cassock (riasa) full of patchwork, and his headdress (klobuk). He went everywhere in these clothes, and at all times; in the rain, in snowstorms, and during the coldest freezing weather. In this, Father Herman followed the example of many Eastern Ascetic Fathers and Monks who showed the greatest concern for the welfare and needs of others. Yet, they themselves wore the oldest possible clothes to show their great humility before God, and their contempt for worldly things.
  A small bench covered with a time-worn deerskin served as Father Herman's bed. He used two bricks for a pillow; these were hidden from visitors by a skin or a shirt. There was no blanket. Instead, he covered himself with a wooden board which lay on the stove. This board Father Herman, himself called his blanket, and he willed that it be used to cover his remains; it was as long as he was tall. "During my stay in the cell of Father Herman," writes the creole Constantine Larionov, "I, a sinner, sat on his 'blanket'-and I consider this the acme of my fortune!" ('creole' is the name by which the Russians referred to the children of mixed marriages of native Indians of Alaska, Eskimo and Aleuts with Russians.)
   On the occasions when Father Herman was the guest of administrators of the American Company and in the course of their soul-saving talks he sat up with them until midnight. He never spent the night with them, but regardless of the weather he always returned to his hermitage. If for some extraordinary reason it was necessary for him to spend the night away from his cell, then in the morning the bed which had been prepared for him would be found untouched; the Elder not having slept at all. The same was true in his hermitage where having spent the night in talks, he never rested.
   The Elder ate very little. As a guest, he scarcely tasted the food, and remained without dinner. In his call his dinner consisted of a very small portion of a small fish or some vegetables.  His body, emaciated as a result of his labors, his vigils, and fasting, was crushed by chains which weighed about sixteen pounds. These chains are kept to this day in the chapel.
Telling of these deeds of Father Herman, his disciple, the Aleut lgnaty Aligyaga, added, "Yes, Apa led a very hard life, and no one can imitate his life!" (Apa, Aleutian word means Elder or grandfather, and it is a name indicative of the great affection in which he was held).
   Our writing of the incidents in the life of the Elder deal, so to speak, with the external aspects of his labor. "His most important works," says the Bishop Peter, "were his exercises in spiritual endeavor in his isolated cell where no one saw him, but outside the cell they heard him singing and celebrating services to God according to the monastic rule." This witness of the Bishop is supported by the following answers of Father Herman, himself, "How do you manage to live alone in the forest, Father Herman? Don't you ever become lonesome?" He answered, "No I am not there alone! God is here, as God is everywhere. The Holy Angels are there. With whom is it better to talk, with people, or with Angels? Most certainly with Angels."
FATHER HERMAN AND THE NATIVES
  The way in which Father Herman looked upon the natives of America, how he understood his own relations with them, and how he was concerned for their needs he expressed himself in one of his letters to the former administrator of the colony, Simeon Yanovsky.  He wrote,
 "Our Creator granted to our beloved homeland this land which like a newly-born babe does not yet have the strength for knowledge or understanding. It requires not only protection, because of its infantile weakness and impotence, but also his sustenance. Even for this it does not yet have the ability to make an appeal on its own behalf. And since the welfare of this nation by the Providence of God, it is not known for how long, is dependent on and has been entrusted into the hands of the Russian government which has now been given into your own power, therefore I, the most humble servant of these people, and their nurse (nyanka) stand before you in their behalf, write this petition with tears of blood. Be our Father and our Protector. Certainly we do not know how to be eloquent, so with an inarticulate infant's tonque we say: Wipe away the tears of the defenseless orphans, cool the hearts melting away in the fire of sorrow. Help us to know what consolation means."

   The Elder acted the way he felt. He always interceded before the governors in behalf of those who had transgressed. He defended those who had been offended. He helped those who were in need with whatever means he had available. The Aleuts, men, women and children, often visited him. Some asked for advice, others complained of oppression, others sought out defense, and still others desired help. Each one received the greatest possible satisfaction from the Elder. He discussed their mutual difficulties, and he tried to settle these peacefully. He was especially concerned about reestablishing understanding in families. If he did not succeed in reconciling a husband and wife, the Elder prevailed upon them to separate temporarily. The need for such a procedure he explained thus, "it is better to let them live apart, or believe me, it can be terrible if they are not separated. There have been incidents when a husband killed his wife, or when a wife destroyed her husband."
   Father Herman especially loved children. He made large quantities of biscuits for them, and he baked cookies (krendelki) for them; and the children were fond of the Elder. Father Herman's love for the Aleuts reached the point of self-denial.
AN EPIDEMIC STRIKES
A ship from the United States brought to Sitka Island, and from there to Kodiak Island, a contagious disease, a fatal illness. It began with a fever, a heavy cold, and difficult respiration, and it ended with chills; in three days the victim died. On the island there was neither a doctor nor medicine. The illness spread rapidly through the village, and then throughout the nearby areas. The disease affected all, even infants. The fatalities were so great that for three days there was no one to dig graves, and the bodies remained unburied. An eyewitness said,
 "I cannot imagine anything more tragic and horrible than the sight which struck me when I visited an Aleutian 'Kazhim'. This was a large building, or barracks, with dividing sections, in which the Aleuts lived with their families; it contained about 100 people. Here some had died, their cold bodies lay near the living; others were dying; there were groans and weeping which tore at one's soul."

   "I saw mothers over whose bodies cold in death crawled a hungry child, crying and searching in vain for its food...My heart was bursting with compassion! It seemed that if anyone could paint with a worthy brush the full horror of this tragic scene, that he would have successfully aroused fear of death in the most embittered heart."
   Father Herman, during this terrible sickness which lasted a whole month, gradually dying out towards the end, visited the sick, never tiring. He admonished them in their fear, prayed, brought them to penance, or prepared them for death. He never spared himself.

FATHER HERMAN AS A SPIRITUAL TEACHER 
The Elder was concerned in particular for the moral growth of the Aleuts. With this end in mind a school was built for children-the orphans of the Aleuts. He himself taught them the Law of God and church music. For this same purpose he gathered the Aleuts on Sunday and Holy Days for prayer in the chapel near his cell. Here his disciple read the Hours and the various prayers while the Elder himself read the Epistle and Gospel. He also preached to them. His students sang, and they sang very well. The Aleuts loved to hear his sermons, gathering around him in large numbers. The Elder's talks were captivating, and his listeners were moved by their wonderous power. He himself writes of one example of the beneficial results of his words.
   "Glory to the holy destinies of the Merciful God! He has shown me now through his unfathomable Providence a new occurence which I, who have lived here for twenty years had never seen before on Kodiak. Recently after Easter, a young girl about twenty years of age who knows Russian well, came to me. Having heard of the Incarnation of the Son of God and of Eternal Life, she became so inflamed with love for Jesus Christ that she does not wish to leave me. She pleaded eloquently with me. Contrary to my personal inclination and love for solitude, and despite all the hindrances and difficulties which I put forward before accepting her, she has now been living near the school for a month and is not lonesome."
   "I, looking on this with great wonder, remembered the 'words of the Savior: that which is hidden from the wise and learned is revealed to babes." (Matt. 11:25)
This woman lived at the school until the death of the Elder. She watched for the good conduct of the children who studied in his school. Father Herman willed that after his death she was to continue to live on Spruce Island. Her name was Sophia Vlasova.
Yanovsky writes about the character and the eloquence of the talks of the Elder thus:
   "When I met Father Herman I was thirty years old. I must say that I was educated in the naval corps school; that I knew many sciences having read extensively. But to my regret, the Science of sciences, that is the Law of God, I barely remembered the externals - and these only theoretically, not applying them to life. I was a Christian in name only, but in my soul and in reality, I was a freethinker. Furthermore, I did not admit the divinity and holiness of our religion, for I had read through many atheistic works. Father Herman recognized this immediately and he desired to reconvert me. To my great surprise he spoke so convincingly, wisely - and he argued with such conviction- that it seemed to me that no learning or worldly wisdom could stand one's ground before his words. We conversed with him daily until midnight, and even later, of God's love, of eternity, of the salvation of souls, and of Christian living. From his lips flowed a ceaseless stream of sweet words! By these continual talks and by the prayers of the holy Elder the Lord returned me completely to the way of Truth, and I became a real Christian. I am indebted for all this to Father Herman he is my true benefactor."
   "Several years ago," continues Yanovsky, "Father Herman converted a certain naval captain G. to Orthodoxy from the Lutheran Faith. This captain was well educated. Besides many sciences, he was well versed in languages. He knew Russian, English, German, French, Italian and also some Spanish. But for all this he could not resist the convictions and proofs of Father Herman. He changed his faith and was united to the Orthodox Church through Chrismation. When he was leaving America, the Elder said to him while they were parting, "Be on guard, if the Lord should take your wife from you then do not marry a German woman under any circumstance. If you do marry a German woman, undoubtedly she will damage your Orthodoxy." The Captain gave his word, but he failed to keep it. The warning of the Elder was prophetic. Indeed, after several years the Captain's wife did die, and he married a German woman. There is no doubt that his faith weakened or that he left it; for he died suddenly without penance."
Further on Yanovsky writes,
   "Once the Elder was invited aboard a frigate which came from St Petersburg. The Captain of the frigate was a highly educated man, who had been sent to America by order of the Emperor to make an inspection of all the colonies. There were more than twenty-five officers with the Captain, and they also were educated men. In the company of this group sat a monk of a hermitage, small in stature and wearing very old clothes. All these educated conversationalists were placed in such a position by his wise talks that they did not know how to answer him. The Captain himself used to say, 'We were lost for an answer before him.'
   "Father Herman gave them all one general question: 'Gentlemen, What do you love above all, and what will each of you wish for your happiness?' Various answers were offered...Some desired wealth, others glory, some a beautiful wife, and still others a beautiful ship he would captain; and so forth in the same vein. 'It is not true,' Father Herman said to them concerning this, 'that all your various wishes can bring us to one conclusion - that each of you desires that which in his own understanding he considers the best, and which is most worthy of his love?' They all answered, 'Yes, that is so!' He then continued, 'Would you not say, Is not that which is best, above all, and surpassing all, and that which by preference is most worthy of love, the Very Lord, our Jesus Christ, who created us, adorned us with such ideals, gave life to all, sustains everything, nurtures and loves all, who is Himself Love and most beautiful of all men? Should we not then love God above every thing, desire Him more than anything, and search Him out?' "
   All said, "Why, yes! That's self-evident!" Then the Elder asked, "But do you love God?" They all answered, "Certainly, we love God. How can we not love God?" "And I a sinner have been trying for more than forty years to love God, I cannot say that I love Him completely," Father Herman protested to them. He then began to demonstrate to them the way in which we should love God. "if we love someone," he said, "we always remember them; we try to please them. Day and night our heart is concerned with the subject. Is that the way you gentlemen love God? Do you turn to Him often? Do you always remember Him? Do you always pray to Him and fulfill His holy commandments?" They had to admit that they had not! "For our own good, and for our own fortune," concluded the Elder, "let us at least promise ourselves that from this very minute we will try to love God more than anything and to fulfill His Holy Will!" Without any doubt this conversation was imprinted in the hearts of the listeners for the rest of their lives.
   "In general, Father Herman liked to talk of eternity, of salvation of the future life, of our destinies under God. He often talked on the lives of the Saints, on the Prologue, but he never spoke about anything frivolous. It was so pleasant to hear him that those who conversed with him, the Aleuts and their wives, were so captivated by his talks that often they did not leave him until dawn, and then they left him with reluctance;" thus witnesses the creole, Constantine Larionov.
A DESCRIPTION OF FATHER HERMAN
Yanovsky writes a detailed description of Father Herman.
  "I have a vivid memory," he said, "Of all the features of the Elder's face reflecting goodness; his pleasant smile, his meek and attractive mien, his humble and quiet behavior, and his gracious word. He was short of stature. His face was pale and covered with wrinkles. His eyes were greyish-blue, full of sparkle, and on his head there were a few gray hairs. His voice was not powerful, but it was very pleasant."
Yanovsky relates two incidents from his conversations with the Elder. "Once,
 " he writes, "I read to Father Herman the ode, 'God,' by Derzhavin. The Elder was surprised, and entranced. He asked me to read it again. I read it once more, "Is it possible that a simple, educated man wrote this?" he asked. "Yes, a learned poet," I answered. "This has been written under God's inspiration," said the Elder.

THE MARTYRDOM OF PETER 
   "On another occasion I was relating to him how the Spanish in California had imprisoned fourteen Aleuts, and how the Jesuits were forcing all of them to accept the Catholic Faith. But this Aleut would not agree under any circumstances, saying, 'We are Christians.' The Jesuits protested, 'That's not true; you are heretics and schismatics. If you do not agree to accept our faith then we will torture all of you.' Then the Aleuts were placed in cells until evening; two to a cell. At night the Jesuits came to the prison with lanterns and lighted candles. They began to persuade the Aleuts in the cell once again to accept the Catholic Faith. 'We are Christians,' was the answer of the Aleuts, 'and we will not change our Faith.' Then the Jesuits began to torture them, at first the one while his companion was the witness. They cut the toes off his feet, first one joint and then the other joint. And then they cut the first joint on the fingers of the hands, and then the other joint. Afterwards they cut off his feet, and his hands; the blood flowed. The martyr endured all and steadfastly insisted on one thing: "I am a Christian.' In such suffering, he bled to death. The Jesuit promised to torture to death his comrades also on the next day.
   But that night an order was received from Monterey stating that the imprisoned Aleuts were to be released immediately, and sent there under escort. Therefore, in the morning all were dispatched to Monterey with the exception of the martyred Aleut. This was related to me by a witness, the same Aleut who was the comrade of the tortured Aleut. Afterwards he escaped from imprisonment, and I reported this incident to the supreme authorities in St Petersburg. When I finished my story, Father Herman asked, 'And how did they call the martyred Aleut?' I answered, 'Peter; I do not remember his family name.' The Elder stood up before an icon reverently, made the sign of the Cross and pronounced, "Holy newly-martyred Peter, pray to God for usl"
THE SPIRIT OF FATHER HERMAN’S TEACHING
In order to express the spirit of Father Herman's teaching, we present here a quotation from a letter that was written by his own hand.
   "The empty years of these desires separate us from our heavenly homeland, and our Love for these desires and our habits clothe us, as it were, in an odious dress; it is called by the Apostle 'the external (earthy) man.' (I Cor. 15:47). We who are wanderers in the journey of this life call to God for aid. We must divest ourselves of this repulsiveness, and put on new desires, and a new love for the coming age. Thus, through this we will know either an attraction or a repulsion for the heavenly homeland. It is possible to do this quickly, but we must follow the example of the sick, who wishing for desired health, do not stop searching for means of curing themselves. But I am not speaking clearly."
   Not desiring anything for himself in life; long ago when he first came to America having refused, because of his humility, the dignity of hiero-monk and archimandrite; and deciding to remain forever a common monk, Father Herman, without the least fear before the, powerful, strove with all sincerity for God. With gentle love, and disregarding the person, he criticized many for intemperate living, for unworthy behalvor, and for oppressing the Aleuts.
   Evil armed itself against him and gave him all sorts of trouble and sorrow. But God protected the Elder. The Administrator of the Colony, Yanovsky, not having yet seen Father Herman, after receiving one of those complaints, had already written to St Petersburg of the necessity of his removal. He explained that it seemed that he was arousing the Aleuts against the administration. But this accusation turned out to be unjust, and in the end Yanovsky was numbered among the admirers of Father Herman.

Once an inspector came to Spruce Island with the Administrator of the Colony N. and with company employees to search through Father Herman's call.
This party expected to find property of great value in Father Herman's call. But when they found nothing of value, an employee (of the American Company), Ponomarkhov, began to tear up the floor with an axe, undoubtedly with the consent of his seniors. Then Father Herman said to him, "My friend, you have lifted the axe in vain; this weapon shall deprive you of your life." Some time later people were needed at Fort Nicholas, and for that reason several Russian employees were sent there from Kodiak; among them was Ponomarkhov; there the natives of Kenai cut off his head while he slept.
THE TEMPTATIONS OF FATHER HERMAN
 Many great sorrows were borne by Father Herman from evil spirits. He himself revealed this to his disciple, Gerasim. Once when he entered Father Herman's cell without the usual prayer he received no answer from Father Herman to any of his questions. The next day Gerasim asked him the reason for his silence. On that occasion Father Herman said to him, "When I came to this island and settled in this hermitage the evil spirits approached me ostensibly to be helpful. They came in the form of a man, and in the form of animals. I suffered much from them; from various afflictions and temptations. And that is why I do not speak now to anyone who enters into my presence without prayer." (It is customary among devout laymen, as well as clergy, to say out loud a prayer, and upon hearing a response ending with Amen, to enter and go to the icon in the room to reverence it, and to say a prayer before greeting the host).
SUPERNATURAL GIFTS FROM GOD
   Herman dedicated himself fully for the Lord's service; he strove with zeal solely for the glorification of His Most Holy Name. Far from his homeland in the midst of a variety of afflictions and privations Father Herman spent several decades performing the noblest deeds of self-sacrifice. He was privileged to receive many supernatural gifts from God.
   In the midst of Spruce Island down the hill flows a little stream into the sea. The mouth of this stream was always swept by surf. In the spring when the brook fish appeared the Elder raked away some of the sand at its mouth so that the fish could enter, and at their first appearance they rushed up the stream'. His disciple, lgnaty, said, "it was so that if 'Apa' would tell me, I would go and get fish in the streaml" Father Herman fed the birds with dried fish, and they would gather in great numbers around his call. Underneath his cell there lived an ermine. This little animal can not be approached when it has had its young, but the Elder fed it from his own hand. "Was not this a miracle that we had seen?" said his disciple, lgnaty. They also saw Father Herman feeding bears. But when Father Herman died the birds and animals left; even the garden would not give any sort of crops even though someone had willingly taken care of it, lgnaty insisted.
   On Spruce Island there once occurred a flood. The inhabitants came to the Elder in great fear. Father Herman then took an icon of the Mother of God from the home where his students lived, and placed it on a "laida" (a sandy bank) and began to pray. After his prayer he turned to those present and said, "Have no fear, the water will not go any higher than the place where this holy icon stands." The words of the Elder were fullfilled. After this he promised the same aid from this holy icon in the future through the intercessions of the Most Immaculate Queen. He entrusted the icon to his disciple, Sophia; in case of future floods the icon was to be placed on the "laida."
  At the request of the Elder, Baron F.P. Wrangel wrote a letter to a Metropolitan - his name is not known - which was dictated by Father Herman. When the letter was completed and read, the Elder congratulated the Baron upon his attaining the rank of admiral. The Baron was taken aback. This was news to him. It was confirmed, but only after an elapse of some time and just before he departed for St. Petersburg.
   Father Herman said to the administrator Kashevarov from whom he accepted his son from the font (during the Sacrament of Baptism), "I am sorry for you my dear 'kum.' It's a shame, the change will be unpleasant for you!" In two years during a change of administration Kashevarov was sent to Sitka in chains.
   Once the forest on Spruce Island caught fire. The Elder with his disciple, Ignaty, in a thicket of the forest made a belt about a yard wide in which they turned over the moss. They extended it to the foot of the hill. The Elder said, "Rest assured, the fire will not pass this line." On the next day according to the testimony of lgnaty there was no hope for salvation (from the fire) and the fire, pushed by a strong wind, reached the place where the moss had been turned over by the Elder. The fire ran over the moss and halted, leaving untouched the thick forest which was beyond the line.
   The Elder often said that there would be a bishop for America; this at a time when no one even thought of it, and there was no hope that there would be a bishop for America; this was related by the Bishop Peter and his prophecy was fulfilled in time.
"After my death," said Father Herman, "there will be an epidemic and many people shall die during it and the Russians shall unite the Aleuts." And so it happened; it seems that about a half a year after his passing there was a smallpox epidemic; the death rate in America during the epidemic was tremendous. In some villages only a few inhabitants remained alive. This led the administration of the colony to unite the Aleuts; the twelve settlements were consolidated into seven.
   "Although a long time shall elapse after my death, I will not be forgotten," said Father Herman to his disciples. "My place of habitation will not remain empty. A monk like myself who will be escaping from the glory of men, will come and he will live on Spruce Island, and Spruce Island will not be without people."
(This prophecy has now been fulfilled in its entirety. Just such a monk as Father Herman described lived on Spruce Island for many years; his name was Archimandrite Gerasim, who died on October 13, 1969. This monk took on himself the responsibility of taking care of the Chapel under which at first was buried the Elder Herman. Metropolitan Leonty soon after his elevation to the primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church in America made a pilgrimage to Spruce Island, and the grave of Herman.)
HERMAN'S PROPHECIES FOR THE FUTURE 
The creole Constantine, when he was not more than twelve years old, was asked by Father Herman, "My beloved one, what do you think; this chapel which they are now building, will it ever stand empty?" The youngster answered, "I do not know, 'Apa.' "And indeed," said Constantine, "I did not understand his question at that time, even though that whole conversation with the Elder remains vivid in my memory." The Elder remained silent for a short time, and then said, "My child remember, in time in this place there will be a monastery."
   Father Herman said to his disciple the Aleut lgnaty Aiigyaga,
  "Thirty years shall pass after my death, and all those living on Spruce Island will have died, but you alone will remain alive. You will be old and poor when I will be remembered." And indeed after the death of Father Herman thirty years passed when they were reminded of him, and they began to gather information and facts about him; on the basis of which was written his life.
   "It is amazing," exclaims lgnaty, "how a man like us could know all this so long before it happened! However, no, he was no ordinary man! He knew our thoughts, and involuntarily he led us to the point where we revealed them to him, and we received counsel from him!"

   "When I die," said the Elder to his disciples, "you will bury me alongside Father Joasaph. You will bury me by yourself, for you will not wait for the priest! Do not wash my body. Lay it on a board, clasp my hands over my chest, wrap me in my 'mantia' (the monk's outer cloak), and with its wings cover my face and place the 'kiobuk' on my head. (The 'klobuk' is the monastic head-dress.) If anyone wishes to bid farewell to me, let them kiss the Cross. Do not show my face to anyone..."
THE DEATH OF FATHER HERMAN
The time of the Elder's passing had come.
    One day he ordered his disciple, Gerasim, to light a candle before the icons, and to read the Acts of the Holy Apostles. After some time his face glowed brightly and he said in a loud voice, "Glory to Thee, O Lord!" He then ordered the reading to be halted, and he announced that the Lord had willed that his life would now be spared for another week.
   A week later again by his orders the candies were lit, and the Acts of the Holy Apostles were read. Quietly the Elder bowed his head on the chest of Gerasim; the cell was filled with a pleasant smelling odor; and his face glowed, and Father Herman was no more! Thus in blessedness he died, he passed away in the sleep of a righteous man in the 81st year of his life of great labor, the 25th day of December, 1837. (According to the Julian Calendar, the 13th of December 1837, although there are some records which state he died on the 28th of November, and was buried on the 26th of December).

   Those sent with the sad news to the harbor returned to announce that the administrator of the colony Kashevarov had forbidden the burial of the Elder until his own arrival. He also ordered that a finer coffin be made for Father Herman, and that he would come as soon as possible and would bring a priest with him. But then a great wind came up, a rain fell, and a terrible storm broke. The distance from the Harbor to Spruce Island is not great - about a two hour journey - but no one would agree to go to sea in such weather. Thus it continued for a full month and although the body lay in state for a full month in the warm house of his students, his face did not undergo any change at all, and not the slightest odor emanated from his body. Finally through the efforts of Kuzma Uchilischev, a coffin was obtained. No one arrived from the Harbor, and the inhabitants of Spruce Island alone buried in the ground the remains of the Elder. Thus the words which Herman uttered before his death were fulfilled.
 After this the wind quieted down, and the surface of the sea became as smooth as a mirror.
   One evening from the village Katani (on Afognak) was seen above Spruce Island an unusual pillar of light which reached up to heaven. Astonished by the miraculous appearance, experienced elders and the creole Gerasim Vologdin and his wife, Anna, said, "it seems that Father Herman has left us," and they began to pray. After a time, they were informed that the Elder had indeed passed away that very night. This same pillar was seen in various places by others. The night of his death in another of the settlements on Afognak was seen a vision; it seemed as though a man was rising from Spruce Island into the clouds.
   The disciples buried their father, and placed above his grave a wooden memorial marker. The priest on Kodiak, Peter Kashevarov, says, "I saw it myself, and I can say that today it seems as though it had never been touched by time; as though it had been cut this day."
   Having witnessed the life of Father Herman glorified by his zealous labors, having seen his miracles, and the fulfillment of his predictions, finally having observed his blessed falling-asleep, "in general all the local inhabitants" witnesses Bishop Peter, "have the highest esteem for him, as though he was a holy ascetic, and are fully convinced that he has found favor in the presence of God."
   In 1842, five years after the passing away of the Elder, Innocent, Archbishop of Kamchatka and the Aleutians, was near Kodiak on a sailing vessel which was in great distress. He looked to Spruce Island, and said to himself, "if you, Father Herman, have found favor in God's presence then may the wind change!" It seems as though not more than fifteen minutes had passed, said the Bishop, when the wind became favorable, and he successfully reached the shore. In thanksgiving for his salvation, Archbishop Innocent himself conducted a Memorial Service over the grave of the Blessed Elder Herman.
In 1970, the Orthodox Church in America glorified the monk Herman
as the Venerable Herman of Alaska, Wonderworker of All America.

1859 Sancti Joánnis Baptístæ-Maríæ Vianney, Presbyteri et Confessóris, cæléstis ómnium parochórum Patróni; cujus dies natális prídie Nonas mensis hujus recensétur.
   
St. John Baptist-Mary Vianney, priest and confessor, and heavenly patron of all parish priests, whose birthday is remembered on the 4th day of this month. 

1942 Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein). Beatified in the Cologne cathedral by Pope John Paul II; canonized on October 11, 1998.
Katholische und Evangelische Kirche: 9. August
Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein)Virgin and Martyr Edith Stein, born in 1891 in Breslau, Poland, was the youngest child of a large Jewish family. She was an outstanding student and was well versed in philosophy with a particular interest in phenomenology. Eventually she became interested in the Catholic Faith, and in 1922, she was baptized at the Cathedral Church in Cologne, Germany. Eleven years later Edith entered the Cologne Carmel. Because of the ramifications of politics in Germany, Edith, whose name in religion was Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, was sent to the Carmel at Echt, Holland. When the Nazis conquered Holland, Teresa was arrested, and, with her sister Rose, was sent to the concentration camp at Auschwitz. Teresa died in the gas chambers of Auschwitz in 1942 at the age of fifty-one. In 1987, she was beatified in the Cologne cathedral by Pope John Paul II. Out of the unspeakable human suffering caused by the Nazis in western Europe in the 1930's and 1940's, there blossomed the beautiful life of dedication, consecration, prayer, fasting, and penance of Saint Teresa. Even though her life was snuffed out by the satanic evil of genocide, her memory stands as a light undimmed in the midst of evil, darkness, and suffering. She was canonized on October 11, 1998.
Edith Stein Katholische und Evangelische Kirche: 9. August

Edith Stein wurde am 12.10.1891 in Breslau geboren. Ihre Eltern waren Juden und sie wurde im jüdischen Glauben erzogen. Edith war sehr klug, sie entwickelte sich während der Schulzeit zu einer radikalen Frauenrechtlerin, wandte sich aber vom Glauben ab. Sie studierte zunächst in Breslau, ging dann 1913 nach Göttingen, um bei Edmund Husserl zu studieren. 1922 konvertierte sie zur katholischen Kirche, 1933 wurde sie Karmelitin in Köln und nahm den Namen Teresia Benedicta a Santa Cruce an. Als sie wegen ihrer jüdischen Abstammung im Kloster nicht mehr sicher war, floh sie nach Holland. Aber dort wurde sie verhaftet und nach Ausschwitz verschleppt und 1942 vergast.
1987 wurde Edith Stein selig gesprochen und 1999 zusammen mit Birgitta von Schweden und Katharina von Siena zur Patronin Europas ernannt.
  St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein)
(1891-1942)

A brilliant philosopher who stopped believing in God when she was 14, Edith Stein was so captivated by reading the autobiography of Teresa of Avila that she began a spiritual journey that led to her Baptism in 1922. Twelve years later she imitated Teresa by becoming a Carmelite, taking the name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.
Born into a prominent Jewish family in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland), Edith abandoned Judaism in her teens. As a student at the University of Göttingen, she became fascinated by phenomenology, an approach to philosophy. Excelling as a protégé of Edmund Husserl, one of the leading phenomenologists, Edith earned a doctorate in philosophy in 1916. She continued as a university teacher until 1922 when she moved to a Dominican school in Speyer; her appointment as lecturer at the Educational Institute of Munich ended under pressure from the Nazis.

After living in the Cologne Carmel (1934-38), she moved to the Carmelite monastery in Echt, Netherlands. The Nazis occupied that country in 1940. In retaliation for being denounced by the Dutch bishops, the Nazis arrested all Dutch Jews who had become Christians. Teresa Benedicta and her sister Rosa, also a Catholic, died in a gas chamber in Auschwitz on August 9, 1942.
Pope John Paul II beatified Teresa Benedicta in 1987 and canonized her in 1998.
Comment:  The writings of Edith Stein fill 17 volumes, many of which have been translated into English. A woman of integrity, she followed the truth wherever it led her. After becoming a Catholic, Edith continued to honor her mother’s Jewish faith. Sister Josephine Koeppel, O.C.D. , translator of several of Edith’s books, sums up this saint with the phrase,
“Learn to live at God’s hands.”
Quote:  In his homily at the canonization Mass, Pope John Paul II said: “Because she was Jewish, Edith Stein was taken with her sister Rosa and many other Catholics and Jews from the Netherlands to the concentration camp in Auschwitz, where she died with them in the gas chambers. Today we remember them all with deep respect. A few days before her deportation, the woman religious had dismissed the question about a possible rescue: ‘Do not do it! Why should I be spared? Is it not right that I should gain no advantage from my Baptism? If I cannot share the lot of my brothers and sisters, my life, in a certain sense, is destroyed.’” Addressing himself to the young people gathered for the canonization, the pope said: “Your life is not an endless series of open doors! Listen to your heart! Do not stay on the surface but go to the heart of things! And when the time is right, have the courage to decide! The Lord is waiting for you to put your freedom in his good hands.”
1942 Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein) Katholische und Evangelische Kirche: 9. August
Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein)Virgin and Martyr Edith Stein, born in 1891 in Breslau, Poland, was the youngest child of a large Jewish family. She was an outstanding student and was well versed in philosophy with a particular interest in phenomenology. Eventually she became interested in the Catholic Faith, and in 1922, she was baptized at the Cathedral Church in Cologne, Germany. Eleven years later Edith entered the Cologne Carmel. Because of the ramifications of politics in Germany, Edith, whose name in religion was Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, was sent to the Carmel at Echt, Holland. When the Nazis conquered Holland, Teresa was arrested, and, with her sister Rose, was sent to the concentration camp at Auschwitz. Teresa died in the gas chambers of Auschwitz in 1942 at the age of fifty-one. In 1987, she was beatified in the Cologne cathedral by Pope John Paul II. Out of the unspeakable human suffering caused by the Nazis in western Europe in the 1930's and 1940's, there blossomed the beautiful life of dedication, consecration, prayer, fasting, and penance of Saint Teresa. Even though her life was snuffed out by the satanic evil of genocide, her memory stands as a light undimmed in the midst of evil, darkness, and suffering. She was canonized on October 11, 1998.
Edith Stein Katholische und Evangelische Kirche: 9. August
Edith Stein wurde am 12.10.1891 in Breslau geboren. Ihre Eltern waren Juden und sie wurde im jüdischen Glauben erzogen. Edith war sehr klug, sie entwickelte sich während der Schulzeit zu einer radikalen Frauenrechtlerin, wandte sich aber vom Glauben ab. Sie studierte zunächst in Breslau, ging dann 1913 nach Göttingen, um bei Edmund Husserl zu studieren. 1922 konvertierte sie zur katholischen Kirche, 1933 wurde sie Karmelitin in Köln und nahm den Namen Teresia Benedicta a Santa Cruce an. Als sie wegen ihrer jüdischen Abstammung im Kloster nicht mehr sicher war, floh sie nach Holland. Aber dort wurde sie verhaftet und nach Ausschwitz verschleppt und 1942 vergast.
1987 wurde Edith Stein selig gesprochen und 1999 zusammen mit Birgitta von Schweden und Katharina von Siena zur Patronin Europas ernannt.
  St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein) (1891-1942)
A brilliant philosopher who stopped believing in God when she was 14, Edith Stein was so captivated by reading the autobiography of Teresa of Avila that she began a spiritual journey that led to her Baptism in 1922. Twelve years later she imitated Teresa by becoming a Carmelite, taking the name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.
Born into a prominent Jewish family in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland), Edith abandoned Judaism in her teens. As a student at the University of Göttingen, she became fascinated by phenomenology, an approach to philosophy. Excelling as a protégé of Edmund Husserl, one of the leading phenomenologists, Edith earned a doctorate in philosophy in 1916. She continued as a university teacher until 1922 when she moved to a Dominican school in Speyer; her appointment as lecturer at the Educational Institute of Munich ended under pressure from the Nazis.
After living in the Cologne Carmel (1934-38), she moved to the Carmelite monastery in Echt, Netherlands. The Nazis occupied that country in 1940. In retaliation for being denounced by the Dutch bishops, the Nazis arrested all Dutch Jews who had become Christians. Teresa Benedicta and her sister Rosa, also a Catholic, died in a gas chamber in Auschwitz on August 9, 1942.
Pope John Paul II beatified Teresa Benedicta in 1987 and canonized her in 1998.
Comment: The writings of Edith Stein fill 17 volumes, many of which have been translated into English. A woman of integrity, she followed the truth wherever it led her. After becoming a Catholic, Edith continued to honor her mother’s Jewish faith. Sister Josephine Koeppel, O.C.D. , translator of several of Edith’s books, sums up this saint with the phrase,
“Learn to live at God’s hands.”
Quote: In his homily at the canonization Mass, Pope John Paul II said: “Because she was Jewish, Edith Stein was taken with her sister Rosa and many other Catholics and Jews from the Netherlands to the concentration camp in Auschwitz, where she died with them in the gas chambers. Today we remember them all with deep respect. A few days before her deportation, the woman religious had dismissed the question about a possible rescue: ‘Do not do it! Why should I be spared? Is it not right that I should gain no advantage from my Baptism? If I cannot share the lot of my brothers and sisters, my life, in a certain sense, is destroyed.’”

    Addressing himself to the young people gathered for the canonization, the pope said: “Your life is not an endless series of open doors! Listen to your heart! Do not stay on the surface but go to the heart of things! And when the time is right, have the courage to decide! The Lord is waiting for you to put your freedom in his good hands.”
St. Edith Stein Catholic Church - Katy, TX 
"Are you new looking for a new parish to call home?  If so, please consider joining our community at St. Edith Stein. We are located in Katy, Texas and our parish serves the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston. We are home to more than 1500 families and we celebrated our 10 year anniversary in October of 2009. Although our parish has grown in size over the last decade, one thing we continue to do is try to make every effort to welcome new members with open  hearts and to maintain a friendly, encouraging place of worship for everyone."
Life
Stein was born in Breslau (Wrocław), in the German Empire's Prussian Province of Silesia, into an observant Jewish family. Born on October 12, 1891, Edith was a very gifted child who enjoyed learning. She greatly admired her mother's strong faith; however, by her teenage years Stein had become an atheist.
In 1916, she received a doctorate of philosophy from the University of Göttingen, with a dissertation under Edmund Husserl, Zum Problem der Einfühlung (On the Problem of Empathy). She then became a member of the faculty in Freiburg. In the previous year she had worked with Martin Heidegger in editing Husserl's papers for publication, Heidegger being appointed similarly as a teaching assistant to Husserl at Freiburg in October 1916. But she was rejected as a woman with further habilitational studies at the University of Freiburg and failed to successfully reach in a habilitational study "Psychische Kausalität" (Psychic Causality) at the University of Göttingen in 1919.
Relief of Edith SteinWhile Stein had earlier contacts with Catholicism, it was her reading of the autobiography of the mystic St. Teresa of Ávila on a holiday in Göttingen in 1921 that caused her conversion. Baptized on January 1, 1922, she gave up her assistantship with Husserl to teach at a Dominican girls' school in Speyer from 1922 to 1932. While there, she translated Thomas Aquinas' De Veritate (On Truth) into German and familiarized herself with Catholic philosophy in general and abandoned the phenomenology of her former teacher Husserl for Thomism. She visited Husserl and Heidegger at Freiburg in April 1929, in the same month that Heidegger gave a speech to Husserl (like Stein, a Jewish convert to Christianity) on his 70th birthday. In 1932 she became a lecturer at the Institute for Pedagogy at Münster, but anti-Semitic legislation passed by the Nazi government forced her to resign the post in 1933: the same year in which her former colleague Martin Heidegger became Rector at Freiburg and stated that "The Führer, and he alone, is the present and future law of Germany." In a letter to Pope Pius XI, she denounced the Nazi regime and asked the Pope to openly denounce the regime "to put a stop to this abuse of Christ's name."
Stein's letter received no answer, and it is not known for sure whether Pius XI even read it. However, in 1937, Pope Pius XI issued an encyclical written in German, Mit brennender Sorge, in which he criticized Nazism, listed breaches of an agreement signed between Germany and the Church and condemned anti-semitism.
She entered the Discalced Carmelite monastery St. Maria vom Frieden (Our Lady of Peace) at Cologne in 1933 and took the name Teresia Benedicta a cruce (Teresia Benedicta of the Cross). There she wrote her metaphysical book Endliches und ewiges Sein, which tries to combine the philosophies of Aquinas and Husserl.
To avoid the growing Nazi threat, her order transferred Sr. Teresia Benedicta to the Carmelite monastery at Echt in the Netherlands . There she wrote Studie über Joannes a Cruce: Kreuzeswissenschaft (The Science of the Cross: Studies on John of the Cross). Her testament of June 6, 1939 states, "I beg the Lord to take my life and my death … for all concerns of the sacred hearts of Jesus and Mary and the holy church, especially for the preservation of our holy order, in particular the Carmelite monasteries of Cologne and Echt, as atonement for the unbelief of the Jewish People and that the Lord will be received by his own people and his kingdom shall come in glory, for the salvation of Germany and the peace of the world, at last for my loved ones, living or dead, and for all God gave to me: that none of them shall go astray."
However, Sr. Teresia Benedicta was not safe in the Netherlands—the Dutch Bishops' Conference had a public statement read in all the churches of the country on July 20, 1942, condemning Nazi racism. In a retaliatory response on July 26, 1942, the Reichskomissar of the Netherlands, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, ordered the arrest of all Jewish converts, who had previously been spared. Sr. Teresia Benedicta and her sister Rosa, also a convert, were captured and shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where they were gassed on August 9, 1942 when Edith was 50. They received no numbers, as these were only for prisoners who were to be kept alive to work.
Legacy
Edith Stein and Maximilian Kolbe, are represented in stained glass by Alois Plum in Kassel.
Teresia Benedicta of the Cross was beatified as a martyr on May 1, 1987, in Cologne, Germany, by Pope John Paul II, and canonized by him on October 11, 1998. The miracle which was the basis for her canonization was the cure of Teresa Benedicta McCarthy, a little girl who had swallowed a large amount of paracetamol which causes hepatic necrosis in small children. Her father, Rev. Emmanuel Charles McCarthy, a Melkite Catholic, immediately rounded up relatives and prayed for Edith Stein's intercession. Shortly thereafter the nurses in the intensive care unit saw her sit up completely healthy. Dr. Ronald Kleinman, a pediatric specialist at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston who treated Teresa Benedicta, testified about her recovery to Church tribunals, stating "I was willing to say that it was miraculous." Teresa Benedicta would later attend Sr. Teresia Benedicta's canonization ceremony in the Vatican.
Today, there are many schools named in tribute to Edith Stein, for example in Darmstadt, Germany, Hengelo, the Netherlands, and Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Also named for her are a women's dormitory at the University of Tübingen and a classroom building at The College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA.
The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre published a book in 2006 entitled, Edith Stein: A Philosophical Prologue, 1913-1922, in which he contrasted Stein's living out of her own personal philosophy with Martin Heidegger, whose actions during the Nazi era according to MacIntyre suggested a "bifurcation of personality."
In 2009, her bust was introduced to the Walhalla temple near Regensburg.
 Controversy
The Anti-Defamation League challenges the beatification of Edith Stein as a martyr, stating Stein was killed for her Jewish nationality rather than for her faith, and that the misappropriation and Christianization of an event that targeted Jews diminishes the memory of the Holocaust.
The position of the Catholic Church hierarchy is that Edith Stein also died because of the Dutch hierarchy's public condemnation of Nazi racism in 1942; in other words, that she died to uphold the moral position of the Church, and is thus a true martyr.
 Writings
Memorial to Edith Stein in PragueLife in a Jewish Family: Her Unfinished Autobiographical Account, translated by Josephine Koeppel, 1986
On the Problem of Empathy, Translated by Waltraut Stein 1989
Essays on Woman, translated by Freda Mary Oben, 1996
The Hidden Life, translated by Josephine Koeppel, 1993
The Science of the Cross, translated by Josephine Koeppel, 1998
Knowledge and Faith
Finite and Eternal Being: An Attempt to an Ascent to the Meaning of Being
Philosophy of Psychology and the Humanities, translated by Mary Catharine Baseheart and Marianne Sawicki, 2000
An Investigation Concerning the State, translated by Marianne Sawicki, 2006
Martin Heidegger's Existential Philosophy, translated by Mette Lebech, 2007
Self-Portrait in Letters, 1916-1942
The Hidden Life
 References
1.^ "Patron Saints Index: Saint Teresia Benedicta of the Cross" Accessed 26 January 2007.
2.^ http://www.vatican.va/news_services/liturgy/saints/ns_lit_doc_19981011_edith_stein_en.html
3.^ “ As a child of the Jewish people who, by the grace of God, for the past eleven years has also been a child of the Catholic Church, I dare to speak to the Father of Christianity about that which oppresses millions of Germans. For weeks we have seen deeds perpetrated in Germany which mock any sense of justice and humanity, not to mention love of neighbor. For years the leaders of National Socialism have been preaching hatred of the Jews. But the responsibility must fall, after all, on those who brought them to this point and it also falls on those who keep silent in the face of such happenings.
Everything that happened and continues to happen on a daily basis originates with a government that calls itself "Christian." For weeks not only Jews but also thousands of faithful Catholics in Germany, and, I believe, all over the world, have been waiting and hoping for the Church of Christ to raise its voice to put a stop to this abuse of Christ’s name." —Edith Stein, Letter to Pope Pius XI.
4.^ Popham, Peter (February 21, 2003). "This Europe: Letters reveal Auschwitz victim's plea to Pope Pius XI". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/this-europe-letters-reveal-auschwitz-victims-plea-to-pope-pius-xi-598301.html. Retrieved 2003-02-21.
5.^ "Edith Stein". Internationaal College Edith Stein. http://www.edithsteincollege.nl/engels/edithe.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
6.^ María Ruiz Scaperlanda, Edith Stein: St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2001), 154.
7.^ a b "Jewish-born nun gassed by Nazis is declared saint; Prayer to Edith Stein sparked tot's 'miraculous' recovery". The Toronto Star: pp. A22. May 24, 1997.
8.^ Edith-Stein-Schule
9.^ Hogeschool Edith Stein
10.^ St. Edith Stein Elementary School
11.^ Edith-Stein-Studentinnen-Wohnheim
12.^ [1] Alasdair MacIntyre, Edith Stein: A Philosophical Prologue, 1913-1922, Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, pg. 5
13.^ Canonization Homily
14.^ Biography on the Vatican's website
 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Edith Stein
 Intellectual and spiritual contemporaries of note
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Lutheran pastor, and theologian.
Simone Weil, philosopher, and theological writer.
Jan Tyranowski, hermit layman and mentor to John Paul II.
Dorothy Day, founder of the Catholic Worker Movement.
Catherine Doherty, founder of the Madonna House Apostolate.
Martin Heidegger, philosopher, Rector of University of Freiburg (1933/34)
Dietrich von Hildebrand, philosopher and theologian.
Edmund Husserl, founder of Phenomenology.
491 582  The Restoration of the Temple of the 40 Martyrs (March 9) is celebrated on this day. There were two churches dedicated to them at Constantinople: one, built by the emperor Anastasius I (491-518), and the other, by the emperor Tiberius (578-582). There is a service for this Feastday in a Greek Menaion of the thirteenth century.
St. Simon (Simeon) the Stylite to the city of Antioch Relocation of the Body of
On this day, St. Simeon (Simon) the Stylite, departed. He was from Syria and he had shepherded his father's flocks since he was young. He regularly attended the church. The Grace of God moved him and he came to one of the monasteries, where he stayed and worshiped God in great asceticism. He exerted himself with much fasting and excessive thirst. Then he tied a rope around his loins until it pierced his flesh, and a repulsive smell came out of him. When the other monks were offended by his smell, he left the monastery and came to a pit where he dwelt for a short time. The abbot of the monastery saw in a vision, as someone was telling him, "Why did you send away My servant Simon? Seek him, and bring him back," as if the voice was rebuking them for his dismissal from the monastery. The abbot informed the brethren of this vision and they became troubled and they began to look for St. Simeon until they found him in the pit, without food or water. They confessed to him their transgression, asked for his forgiveness, and brought him back to the monastery. When they started to exalt him, he felt that he was unworthy, so he left the monastery secretly, and came to a certain rock, where he lived for sixty days without sleeping. Afterwards, the Angel of the Lord came to him, comforted him, and told him that God had called him for the salvation of many souls. Then he dwelt over a pillar, thirty cubits in height, for fifteen years. He performed many signs and great wonders, and preached to all those who came to him.
His father sought him, but did not find him and he died without seeing him. His mother, after a long time, found out about him, so she came to him where he was staying on that pillar. There she wept greatly, then she slept under that pillar. The Saint asked the Lord Christ to have mercy on her. His mother died while she was sleeping, and they buried her under the pillar.
Satan became envious of the saint for all his good deeds, and moved against him. He smote him in one of his legs with ulcerations which forced him to use the other leg for many years, until the diseased leg rotted, and worms dropped from it under the pillar. A chief of a band of thieves came to him and slept under his pillar. The Saint prayed to Christ on his behalf, and he stayed for a few days, and died. The Saint asked Christ to supply him with water, and a spring of water sprang up at the foot of the pillar. Then he moved to a taller pillar, where he stayed on top for thirty years. After he completed forty-eight years in worshipping, he departed to the Lord. He preached many people, taught them, and brought many back to the knowledge of Christ.
When the patriarch of Antioch heard about his departure from this world, he came to him and took his body to Antioch in great veneration.
May his prayers be with us. Amen.


Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  July 2016
Universal:  
Indigenous Peoples; That indigenous peoples, whose identity
and very existence are threatened, will be shown due respect.
”.
Evangelization:  Latin America and the Caribbean; That the Church in Latin America and the Caribbean,
by means of her mission to the continent, may announce the Gospel with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. 

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
   
                                           
 
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish
 -- Mother Teresa

 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'  Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
 'The Gospel of Life'


"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.