Saint of the Day February 03
Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood
 Friday  Saints of this Day February  03 Tertio Nonas Februárii.  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

"Four Chaplains Day."


Lt. George L. Fox, Methodist; Lt. Clark V. Poling, Dutch Reformed;
Lt. John P. Washington, Roman Catholic; and Lt. Alexander D. Goode, Jewish.


Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here

Acts of the Apostles

February 3 - Our Lady of Seidaneida (near Damascus, Syria)
The Preservation of the Image of Guadalupe is Inexplicable for Science (I)
In 1531, a "Lady from Heaven" appeared to a poor Indian named Juan Diego, on the Mount of Teypeyac in Mexico. Juan Diego used his "tilma" to carry out-of-season roses to the bishop as a sign from the Mother of God and confirm the authenticity of the apparitions. As he unfolded his tilma before the Bishop, he discovered a miraculously printed picture of the Blessed Virgin on his humble cloak.
The tilma is a poor quality garment, made from cactus fiber, which should have deteriorated in 20 years' time. Copies of the original, some of them made in the eighteenth century, did not withstand the test of time. Juan Diego's tilma, 477 years old, is perfectly preserved and shows no signs of deterioration.
See http://www.maryofnazareth.com/

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us that a life of Christian perfection is not impossible.

According to St Luke's Gospel, "And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Aser.
She was of a great age, and had lived with a husband for seven years from her virginity; and she was a widow of about eighty-four years, who did not leave the temple,  but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.
 And coming at that very hour, also gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of Him to all those who looked for redemption at Jerusalem" (Luke 2:36-38).

316 St. Blaise martyr miracles Patron of Throat Illnesses bishop of Sebastea in Armenia message from God
Many Catholics might remember Saint Blaise's feast day because of the Blessing of the Throats that took place on this day. Two candles are blessed, held slightly open, and pressed against the throat as the blessing is said. Saint Blaise's protection of those with throat troubles apparently comes from a legend that a boy was brought to him who had a fishbone stuck in his throat. The boy was about to die when Saint Blaise healed him.
Very few facts are known about Saint Blaise. We believe he was a bishop of Sebastea (Cappadocia) in Armenia martyred under the reign of Licinius (308-316)in the early fourth century.

Ancient historians tell us that the Egyptian pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.)
wished to include texts of Holy Scripture in the famous Library at Alexandria.

He invited scholars from Jerusalem, and the Sanhedrin sent their wise men. The Righteous Simeon was one of the seventy scholars who came to Alexandria to translate the Holy Scriptures into Greek.
The completed work was called "The Septuagint," and is the version of the Old Testament used by the Orthodox Church.
St Simeon was translating a book of the Prophet Isaiah, and read the words:
"Behold, a virgin shall conceive in the womb, and shall bring forth a Son" (Is 7:14).

He thought that "virgin" was inaccurate, and he wanted to correct the text to read "woman."
At that moment an angel appeared to him and held back his hand saying,
 "You shall see these words fulfilled. You shall not die until you behold Christ the Lord
born of a pure and spotless Virgin."

From this day, St Simeon lived in expectation of the Promised Messiah.
One day, the righteous Elder received a revelation from the Holy Spirit, and came to the Temple.

It was on the very day (the fortieth after the Birth of Christ) when the All-Pure Virgin Mary and St Joseph came to the Temple in order to perform the ritual prescribed by Jewish Law.
Four Chaplains Day
      Righteous Simeon and Anna the prophetess On this first day of the
     Afterfeast of the Meeting of the Lord
3rd v. St. Laurentinus & brother and sister SS Laurentius and Clerina 3rd.
      century African martyrs 
 250 St. Celerinus African martyr revered for his sufferings
 316 St. Blaise miracles with animals martyr Patron of Throat Illnesses bishop
       of Sebastea  in Armenia
 486 St. Lupicinus & Felix Bishops of Lyons 
 550 Ia of Cornwall sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her
 576 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker
 578 St. Philip of Vienne Bishop of Vienne France. He served in a turbulent
       era of political wars and rampant heresies.
6th v Sts. Tigides & Remedius 2 bishops in the French Alps
6th v St. Caellainn She is an Irish saint  Martymlogy of Donegal , and a
       church in Roscommon is named in her honor
594 Theodore of Marseilles local persecutions
690 St. Hadelin Benedictine abbot disciple of St. Remaclus  founder of Celles,
       in the diocese of Liége, Belgium
700 Werburga of Chester founded new convents restored goose to life

702 St. Berlinda hermitess of Belgium protectress of trees and invoked against cattle diseases
        SS. Celsa and Nona bodies were found near that of Saint Berlinda
        St. Deodatus A monk of Lagny
785 St. Werburg Widow abbess 
856 Bl. Rabanus Maurus Abbot Fulda archbishop very learned man  intense charity also promoted clerical discipline
865 St. Ansgar 1st Archbishop of Hamburg & Bremen missionary first Christian church in Sweden Patron of Scandinavia 
980 St. Liafdag martyred Bishop of Jutland
1050 St. Oliver Benedictine monk
1050 St. Anatolius Scottish bishop hermit miracles  impossible to enumerate all the miracles he worked in his lifetime
1167 Aelred, OSB Cist. Abbot "a second Saint Bernard" or "the Bernard of the North."(AC)
1192 St. Margaret of England Cistercian nun Miracles followed her burial
1237 St Elinand of Froidmont, OSB Cist
1331 Bl. Odoric of Pordenone Franciscan missionary to Mongol Great Khan in Peking miracles performed 
1450 Blessed Matthew of Girgenti
1348 Blessed Simon Fidati 
         St. Remedius French or Gallic bishop of Gap
         Felix, Symphonius, Hippolytus & Companions. martyrs
1494 Blessed John Zakoly Hungary 
1578 Bl. John Nelson Jesuit martyr of England 

1840 Blessed Stephen Bellesini devoted ministrations to the victims of a cholera epidemic

Gregory IV (827-44) # 102
Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a Roman and the son of John. Before his election to the papacy he was the Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of St. Mark, which he adorned with mosaics yet visible. For his piety and learning he was ordained priest by Paschal I. This man, of distinguished appearance and high birth, was raised to the chair of Peter, despite his protestations of unfitness, mainly buy the instrumentality of the secular nobility of Rome who were then securing a preponderating influence in papal elections. But the representatives in Rome of the Emperor Louis the Pious would not allow him to be consecrated until his election had been approved by their master. This interference caused such delay that it was not, seemingly, till about March, 828, that he began to govern the Church.


Four Chaplains Day
Feb. 3 is “Four Chaplains Day” in America by the unanimous resolution of the U.S. Congress in 1988 – so Americans might remember, honor and be inspired by the example of the four military chaplains who sacrificed their lives in World War II “so that others might live.”

On Feb. 3, 2017, the 74th anniversary of their deaths, American veterans’ organizations all across the country will be holding annual ceremonies honoring “The Immortal Four Chaplains.”

But will Americans generally honor and remember the Four Chaplains? Will the example of their lives be taught to our American children in their schools? Do most Americans, especially new Americans, the young and immigrants, even know who the Four Chaplains are and what they did?


“Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends,” instructs St. John in the Bible. The Immortal Four Chaplains lived and embodied that truth:

On Feb. 3, 1943, the Dorchester, a converted luxury cruise ship, was transporting Army troops to Greenland in World War II, escorted by three Coast Guard cutters and accompanied by two slow-moving freighters.  On board were some 900 troops and four chaplains, of diverse religions and backgrounds but of a common faith and commitment to serve God, country and all the troops, regardless of their religious beliefs, or non-belief.  The Four Chaplains are: Rev. George Fox (Methodist); Father John Washington (Roman Catholic); Jewish Rabbi Alexander Goode; and Rev. Clark Poling (Dutch Reformed).

At approximately 12:55 a.m., in the dead of a freezing night, the Dorchester was hit by a torpedo fired by German U-boat 233 in an area so infested with German submarines it was known as “Torpedo Junction.” The blast ripped a hole in the ship from below the waterline to the top deck  The engine room was instantly flooded. Crewmen not scalded to death by steam escaping from broken pipes and the ship’s boiler drowned.  Hundreds of troops in the flooded lower compartments drowned, or washed out to the frigid waters, where most would die.


In less than a minute, the Dorchester listed on a 30-degree angle. Troops on deck searched for life jackets in panic, clung to rails and other handholds, saw overloaded lifeboats overturn in the turgid water, or leaped overboard as a last desperate hope for life. Many with life jackets drowned when the life preservers became water-logged.

Of the 900 troops and crew on board, two-thirds would ultimately die. Most of those who survived had lifelong infirmities and pain from their time in the icy waters.

Dorchester survivors told of the wild pandemonium on board when it was hit and began sinking. Many men had not slept in their clothes and life vests as ordered because of the heat in the crowded quarters below. There was panic, fear, terror – death was no abstraction but real, immediate, seemingly inescapable.  

The Four Chaplains acted together to try bring some order to the chaos, to calm the panic of the troops, to alleviate their fear and terror, to pray with and for them, to help save their lives and souls.  The chaplains passed out life jackets, helping those too panicked to put them on correctly, until the awful moment arrived when there were no more life jackets to be given out. It was then that one of the most remarkable acts of heroism, courage, faith and love in American, and human, history took place:

Each of the Four Chaplains took off his life jacket and, knowing that act made death certain, put his life jacket on a soldier who didn’t have one, refusing to listen to any protest that they should not make such a sacrifice.
They continued to help the troops until the last moment.
Then, as the ship sank into the raging sea, the Four Chaplains linked hands and arms and could be seen and heard by the survivors praying together, even singing hymns, joined together in faith, love and unity as they sacrificed their lives so “that others might live.”

Righteous Simeon and Anna the prophetess On this first day of the Afterfeast of the Meeting of the Lord
the Church commemorates the righteous Simeon and Anna the prophetess. The following words are ascribed to Christ in Ode 9 of the Canon: "I am not held by the Elder; it is I Who hold him, for he asks Me for forgiveness."

Righteous Simeon the God-Receiver was, according to the testimony of the holy Evangelist Luke, a just and devout man waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him (Luke 2:25). God promised him that he would not die until the promised Messiah, Christ the Lord, came into the world.

Ancient historians tell us that the Egyptian pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.) wished to include texts of Holy Scripture in the famous Library at Alexandria. He invited scholars from Jerusalem, and the Sanhedrin sent their wise men. The Righteous Simeon was one of the seventy scholars who came to Alexandria to translate the Holy Scriptures into Greek. The completed work was called "The Septuagint," and is the version of the Old Testament used by the Orthodox Church.

St Simeon was translating a book of the Prophet Isaiah, and read the words: "Behold, a virgin shall conceive in the womb, and shall bring forth a Son" (Is 7:14). He thought that "virgin" was inaccurate, and he wanted to correct the text to read "woman." At that moment an angel appeared to him and held back his hand saying, "You shall see these words fulfilled. You shall not die until you behold Christ the Lord born of a pure and spotless Virgin."

From this day, St Simeon lived in expectation of the Promised Messiah. One day, the righteous Elder received a revelation from the Holy Spirit, and came to the Temple. It was on the very day (the fortieth after the Birth of Christ) when the All-Pure Virgin Mary and St Joseph had come to the Temple in order to perform the ritual prescribed by Jewish Law.


Simeon und Hanna
Am Tag nach hohen Festtagen gedenkt die orthodoxe Kirche der mit dem Fest verbundenen Heiligen. So wird nach dem Fest der Darstellung Jesu im Tempel der Heiligen Simeon und Hannah gedacht.

Apokryphe Evangelien berichten, Simeon sei ein Priester oder Hohepriester gewesen, sein Name wird aber in den Priesterlisten nicht geführt. Nach anderen Berichten soll er der Sohn des berühmten Rabbis Hillel und Vater des Rabbis Gamaliel (Apg. 5, 34) gewesen sein. Das Nikodemusevangelium nennt auch seine Söhne Charinus und Leucius (die Verfasser des Nikodemusevangeliums und anderer Schriften gewesen sein sollen).

Die in Lukas 2, 25 berichtete Weissagung, Simeon werde nicht sterben, bevor er nicht den Messias gesehen habe, führte zu der Legende, Simeon sei einer der Übersetzer der Septuaginta (griechische Übersetzung des Alten Testaments, die um 250 vor Christus entstand) gewesen. Er habe den Propheten Jesaja übersetzt und das hebräische almah in Jes. 7, 14 als junge Frau übersetzen wollen, sei dann aber von einem Engel aufgefordert worden, Jungfrau zu übersetzen. Dieser Engel prophezeite Simeon, er werde erst sterben, wenn er den von einer Jungfrau geborenen Immanuel erblickt habe. Im 6. Jahrhundert wurden die Gebeine Simeons nach Konstantinopel gebracht. Im 13. Jahrhundert kamen die Gebeine nach Istrien, wo Simeon mit seinen Söhnen verehrt wurde.

Hanna steht nicht nur auf der Ikone im Hintergrund. Über sie ist außer dem Bericht des Lukas (2, 36-38) nichts bekannt, es scheint auch keine Legenden zu geben. Sie war die letzte Prophetin des alten Bundes. Nur von ihr berichtet die Bibel, daß sie die Geburt Jesu öffentlich verkündete.

250 St. Celerinus deacon African martyr revered for his sufferings
 In Africa sancti Celeríni Diáconi, qui, decem et novem dies custódia cárceris septus, in nervo et ferro variísque pœnis gloriósus fuit Christi Conféssor; et, dum inexpugnábili firmitáte certáminis sui vicit adversárium, vincéndi céteris viam fecit.
       In Africa, St. Celerinus, deacon, who was kept nineteen days in prison burdened with fetters, and who gloriously confessed Christ in the midst of afflictions.  By overcoming the enemy with invincible constancy, he shewed to others the road to victory.
while imprisoned by Emperor Trajanus Decius (249-251) in Rome. He was freed and returned to Carthage, where St. Cyprian ordained him as a deacon. Celerinus of Carthage M (RM) Died after 250. An African who, without shedding his blood, earned the title of martyr because of the sufferings he endured under Decius during a visit to Rome. Set at liberty, he returned to Carthage where he was ordained a deacon by Saint Cyprian. A church was dedicated to his honor in Carthage (Benedictines).
250 St. Laurentinus & brother and sister SS Laurentius and Clerina 3rd. century African martyrs
 Ibídem sanctórum trium Mártyrum, ipsíus Celeríni Diáconi consanguineórum, scílicet Laurentíni pátrui, Ignátii avúnculi, et Celerínæ áviæ, qui ántea martyrio coronáti fúerant; de quorum ómnium gloriósis láudibus exstat beáti Cypriáni epístola.
       In the same place, three holy martyrs who were relatives of the same deacon Celerinus; his father's brother Laurentinus, his mother's brother Ignatius and his grandmother Celerina.  They were crowned with martyrdom earlier, and were praised highly in an epistle by blessed Cyprian.
St. Laurentinus is a 3rd. century martyr. He and his brother and sister, SS Laurentius and Clerina, were put to death (St. Ignatius) near Carthage during the reign of Decius (249-250). Their nephew Celerinus suffered so extremely that he also is termed a martyr, though he lived to be ordained a deacon by St. Cyprian.
Laurentinus, Ignatius, and Celerina MM (RM) 3rd century. African martyrs, of whom Saint Cyprian writes movingly in one of his epistles. Saints Laurentinus and Ignatius were uncles of and Saint Celerina an aunt of the deacon Saint Celerinus, who is also commemorated today (Benedictines).

316 St. Blaise martyr miracles Patron of Throat Illnesses bishop of Sebastea in Armenia message from God
 Sebáste, in Arménia, pássio sancti Blásii, Epíscopi et Mártyris; qui, multórum patrátor miraculórum, sub Agricoláo Præside, post diútinam cæsiónem, atque in ligno suspensiónem, ubi férreis pectínibus carnes ejus dirúptæ sunt, post tetérrimum cárcerem et in lacum demersiónem, unde salvus exívit, tandem, jubénte eódem Júdice, una cum duóbus púeris, cápite truncátur.  Ante ipsum vero septem mulíeres, quæ guttas sánguinis ex ejúsdem Mártyris córpore defluéntes, dum torquerétur, colligébant, proptérea, deprehénsæ quod essent Christiánæ, omnes, post dira torménta, gládio percússæ sunt.
      At Sebaste in Armenia, in the time of the governor Agricolaus, the passion of St. Blase, bishop and martyr, who, after working many miracles, was scourged for a long time, suspended from a tree where his flesh was lacerated with iron combs.  He was then imprisoned in a dark dungeon, thrown into a lake from which he came out safe, and finally, by order of the judge, he and two boys were beheaded.  Before him, seven women who were gathering the drops of his blood during his torture, were recognized as Christians, and after undergoing severe torments, were put to death by the sword.

Many Catholics might remember Saint Blaise's feast day because of the Blessing of the Throats that took place on this day. Two candles are blessed, held slightly open, and pressed against the throat as the blessing is said. Saint Blaise's protection of those with throat troubles apparently comes from a legend that a boy was brought to him who had a fishbone stuck in his throat. The boy was about to die when Saint Blaise healed him.

Very few facts are known about Saint Blaise. We believe he was a bishop of Sebastea (Cappadocia) in Armenia who was martyred under the reign of Licinius (308-316 in the early fourth century.

The legend of his life that sprang up in the eighth century tell us that he was born in to a rich and noble family who raised him as a Christian. After becoming a bishop, a new persecution of Christians began. He received a message from God to go into the hills to escape persecution. Men hunting in the mountains discovered a cave surrounded by wild animals who were sick. Among them Blaise walked unafraid, curing them of their illnesses. Recognizing Blaise as a bishop, they captured him to take him back for trial. On the way back, he talked a wolf into releasing a pig that belonged to a poor woman. When Blaise was sentenced to be starved to death, the woman, in gratitude, sneaked into the prison with food and candles. Finally Blaise was killed by the governor.

Blaise is the patron saint of wild animals because of his care for them and of those with throat maladies.
In His Footsteps: Take time as Saint Blaise did to find out how you can help wild animals. Find out what is being done to support and protect the wildlife in your area. There is wildlife everywhere, even in cities. Even a birdfeeder can help God's creatures survive.
Prayer:  Saint Blaise, pray for us that we may not suffer from illnesses of the throat and pray that all who are suffering be healed by God's love. Amen

Blaise of Sebaste BM (RM) (also known as Blase, Blasien, Blasius, Biagio).
Image of Saint Blaise courtesy of  Catholic Pics
As someone who loves to sing and suffers from frequent sore throats, I always look forward to the feast of Saint Blaise. Since the 16th century, the throats of the faithful are blessed on this day using the sacramental of two crossed or intertwined candles. I hope this is still customary in all Catholic churches. The reason for Blaise's patronage of throats is that he reportedly revived a boy who choked to death on a fishbone (in some versions he raised the already dead boy). The candles used during the blessing are derived from the candles brought to Blaise in prison by the grateful mother. (I also wonder if there is some significance to the candles that were blessed the day before at Candlemas--Feast of the Presentation--being used to bless?) 
In the acta of Saint Eustratius, who perished in 303 under Diocletian (284-297), it is said that Blaise received his relics, deposited them with those of Saint Orestes, and executed every article of his last will and testament. This is all that can be confirmed of Saint Blaise with any accuracy as there is no evidence of a cultus for Blaise prior to the 8th century.
According to Blaise's legendary acta, which date no earlier than the 8th century, he was born into a rich and noble family, received a Christian education, and was consecrated a bishop of Sebaste, Cappadocia (now Armenia), while still quite young. Blaise was a physician in Sebaste, as well as bishop. As a doctor Blaise went into every home at all hours of the day and night, knew both the rich and the poor, comforted, cured, and advised them all. As a bishop, he did the same thing.
 
   When the governor of Cappadocia and Lesser Armenia, Agricolaus, began persecuting Christians, Bishop Blaise of Sebastea hid in a cave where the wild beasts, including lions, tigers, and bears, tended him because he cared for them whenever they were hurt. His hiding place was discovered by hunters seeking animals for the amphitheatre, who observed him curing sick and wounded animals. Because the wild animals were so tame around him, they thought that Blaise was a wizard and wanted to present him as such to the governor.
As he was being brought to Governor Agricolaus, a poor woman appealed for help because a wolf had taken her pig and Blaise persuaded the wolf to release the pig unharmed. Blaise was presented to the governor, who had him scourged and decided to starve Blaise to death in prison. But his plans were thwarted when the grateful woman secretly brought Blaise food and candles to dispel the darkness of his gloomy prison. When it was discovered that Blaise was still alive, the governor ordered soldiers to rake away the saint's skin with a woolcomb, and then Blaise was beheaded.

This is only one version of Blaise's story. In another he is repeatedly tortured, but refuses to give in. He is thrown into a nearby lake, but the waters remain frozen like ice, unwilling to be an accomplice in the death of this holy man. So, he is finally killed by the sword. Canterbury claimed his relics, and at least four miracles were said to have occurred at his shrine, one dated 1451. Parson Woodforde described a solemn procession in his honor at Norwich on March 24, 1783 (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Coulson, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Sheppard, Tabor, Walsh, White).

In art he is a bishop with a metal comb and a tall candle. Sometimes he may be shown: (1) with crozier and two candles (no comb); (2) martyred by being torn with iron combs; (3) in a cave with wild animals; (4) discovered by hunters, a fawn near him (not to be confused with the monk, Saint Giles); (5) blessing the birds in front of a cave; (6) rescuing a poor woman's pig from a wolf; (6) saving the life of a boy who swallowed a fishbone; or (7) with the city of Dubrovnik in his hand or being carried over the city by angels (Roeder).
486 St. Lupicinus & Felix Bishops of Lyons
 Lugdúni, in Gállia, sanctórum Lupicíni et Felícis, ítidem Episcopórum.
       At Lyons in France, Saints Lupicinus and Felix, also bishops.

France. Nothing is known about them except that Lupicinus is assigned the date 486. They are recorded in early martyrologies.
550 Ia of Cornwall sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her VM (AC)
(also known as Hia, Hya, Iia, Ives) Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two dates); another feast on October 27.

According to the late medieval legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny) and Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries. In Cornwall she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities. This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth of the Hayle River. Leland saw her vita at Saint Ives, which depicted her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall. Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was martyred.
She is the eponym of Plouyé, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her with Saint Ives of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague, Moran).
576 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker
of Spoleto, Italy, also called “the Illuminator.” He was a Syrian, forced to leave his homeland in 514 because of Arian persecution. He went to Rome and was ordained by Pope St. Hormisdas. He then preached in Umbria and founded a monastery in Spoleto. Named bishop of Spoleto, Lawrence was rejected as a foreigner until the city’s gates miraculously opened for his entrance.
He is called “the Illuminator” because of his ability to cure physical and spiritual blindness. After two decades, Lawrence resigned to found the Farfa Abbey near Rome.

Laurence the Illuminator B (AC) (also known as Laurence of Spoleto)  Died at Farfa Monastery in 576. Saint Laurence, a Syrian Catholic was driven into exile with 300 other Catholics during the persecution by the Monophysite patriarch Severus of Antioch in 514.
Laurence was ordained to the priesthood in Rome and sent to preach in Umbria, where he founded a monastery near Spoleto. Laurence was elected bishop of Spoleto and served as its prelate for 20 years. He then resigned and retired to the famous monastery of Farfa in the Sabine Hills near Rome, which he had founded.

Saint Laurence was renowned as a peacemaker who helped the parties to see the situation from the other side. It is said that he attained the surname "the Illuminator" because he had a special gift for healing blindness--both physical and spiritual (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson).

578 St. Philip of Vienne Bishop of Vienne France. He served in a turbulent era of political wars and rampant heresies.
6th v St. Caellainn She is an Irish saint  Martymlogy of Donegal , and a church in Roscommon is named in her honor.
also called Caoilfionn. She is listed in the Martymlogy of Donegal , and a church in Roscommon is named in her honor.

6th v. Sts. Tigides & Remedius 2 bishops in the French Alps.
who served in succession to each other in the French Alps. The details of their labors are not extant.

594 Theodore of Marseilles local persecutions B.
Saint Theodore was exiled three times from his bishopric in Marseilles because of local persecutions (Encyclopedia).

690 St. Hadelin Benedictine abbot disciple of St. Remaclus  founder of Celles, in the diocese of Liége, Belgium
He was born in Gascony, France, and became the founder of Chelles Abbey in liege diocese. Hadelin spent his last years as a hermit on the Meuse River, near Dinart.

Hadelin of Dinant, OSB, Abbot (AC) (also known as Adelin of Dinant). a native of Gascony, followed Saint Remaclus first to Solignac, then to Maestricht (Aquitaine) and Stavelot. He became the founder of Celles, in the diocese of Liége, Belgium.
Hadelin lived as a hermit near Dinant on the Meuse (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). In art, Saint Hadelin is portrayed as a Benedictine abbot being visited by King Pepin and his knights. He might also be enthroned before the Abbey of Celles (Roeder).

702 St. Berlinda hermitess of Belgium protectress of trees and invoked against cattle diseases
Berlinda, also called Berlindis or Bellaude, was a niece of St. Amandus. She entered the Benedictine convent of St. Mary's at Moorsel, in Belgium. She later became a hermitess at Meerbeke.

Berlinda of Meerbeke, OSB B (AC)(also known as Berlindis, Bellaude). A niece of Saint Amandus, Berlinda was disinherited by her father, the rich Count Odelard, in a fit of rage. He had leprosy and thought that she would not take proper care of him. She fled to Saint Mary's convent at Mooriel (Moorsel), near Alost, Belgium, where she became a Benedictine nun. After her father's death, she became a hermit at Meerbeke near his tomb and spent her life helping the poor and suffering (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Saint Berlinda is pictured as a Flemish nun with a cow and either a pruning hook or branch. Sometimes she is portrayed with Saints Nona and Celsa. She is venerated at Mooreel (Mooriel) convent and Meerbeche (Meerbeke) (Roeder).   Berlinda is protectress of trees and invoked against cattle diseases (Roeder).

Celsa and Nona bodies were found near that of Saint Berlinda VV.
  Virgins of Brabant, whose bodies were found near that of Saint Berlinda (Encyclopedia).

700 Werburga of Chester founded new convents restored goose to life , OSB V (AC)
(also known as Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c. 690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.
 
The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother, the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda), she learned as a child the Christian faith.
By temperament she was pious and virtuous, and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the royal abbess, Ethelreda, and her nuns. Werburga fell upon her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the chanting of the Te Deum they entered the cloister, where she was stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in a rough habit began her new life.

She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester, and in giving land to Egwin for the great abbey of Evesham.

Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In 1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her vita. The shrine was destroyed under King Henry VIII, although part of its stone base survives. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill).

In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet. Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer borrowed the story from his own vita of the Flemish Saint Amelburga (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

Like a cheerful gossip, William of Malmesbury writes this tale of a local miracle wrought by Saint Werburga:

"It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda... took her vows, and her goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the countryside.

"She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so, when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to the other tales he would tell her of the day.

"'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The countryman, dumbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them, speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him. Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to accuse him, made bold to dine.

"At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamor was not without cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

"She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing, launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it, their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their lady and deliverer.

"And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who pray as it might be to a neighbor and a woman of their own countryside" (Malmesbury).
8th v. St. Deodatus A monk of Lagny near Paris, France.
785 St. Werburg Widow abbess.
A woman from Mercia, England, she became a nun after her husband died. Werburg entered a convent, possibly Bardney, where she became abbess
.
865 St. Ansgar 1st Archbishop of Hamburg & Bremen missionary first Christian church in Sweden Patron of Scandinavia
 Bremæ sancti Anschárii, Hamburgénsis ac póstea Breménsis simul Epíscopi, qui Suécos et Danos ad Christi fidem convértit, et a Gregório Papa Quarto Legátus Apostólicus totíus Septentriónis fuit institútus.
       At Bremen, St. Ansgar, bishop of Hamburg and later of Bremen, who converted the Swedes and the Danes to the faith of Christ.  He was appointed Apostolic Delegate of all the North by Pope Gregory IV.
Ansgar was born of a noble family near Amiens. He became a monk at Old Corbie monastery in Picardy and later at New Corbie in Westphalia. He accompanied King Harold to Denmark when the exiled King returned to his native land and engaged in missionary work there. Ansgar's success caused King Bjorn of Sweden to invite him to that country, and he built the first Christian Church in Sweden. He became Abbot of New Corbie and first Archbishop of Hamburg about 831, and Pope Gregory IV appointed him Legate to the Scandinavian countries. He labored at his missionary works for the next fourteen years but saw all he had accomplished destroyed when invading pagan Northmen in 845 destroyed Hamburg and overran the Scandinavian countries, which lapsed into paganism.

He was appointed first Archbishop of Bremen about 848, and the See was united with that of Hamburg by Pope Nicholas I. Ansgar again returned to Denmark and Sweden in 854 and resumed his missionary activities, converting Erik, King of Jutland. Ansgar's success was due to his great preaching ability, the austerity and holiness of his life, and the miracles he is reputed to have performed. Though called "the Apostle of the North" and the first Christian missionary in Scandinavia, the whole area lapsed into paganism again after his death at Bremen on February 3rd. His name is also spelled Anskar.

Ansgar B (RM) (also known as Anskar, Anschar, Anscharius, Scharies)
Born near Amiens, Picardy, France in 801; died in Bremen, Germany on February 3, 865.
With the coming of the barbarian after the death of Charlemagne, darkness fell upon Europe. From the forests and fjords of the north, defying storm and danger, came a horde of pirate invaders, prowling round the undefended coasts, sweeping up the broad estuaries, and spreading havoc and fear. No town, however fair, no church, however sacred, and no community, however strong, was immune from their fury. Like a river of death the Vikings poured across Europe.

It's hard to believe that there would be an outbreak of missionary activity at such a time, but in Europe's darkest hour there were those who never faltered, and who set out to convert the pagan invader. Saint Ansgar was such a man. As a young boy of a noble family he was received at Corbie monastery in Picardy and educated under Saints Abelard and Paschasius Radbert. Once professed, he was transferred to New Corbie at Westphalia. He once said to a friend, "One miracle I would, if worthy, ask the Lord to grant me; and that is, that by His grace, he would make me a good man."

In France a call was made for a priest to go as a missionary to the Danes, and Ansgar, a young monk, volunteered. His friends tried to dissuade him, so dangerous was the mission. Nevertheless, when King Harold, who had become a Christian during his exile, returned to Denmark, Ansgar and another monk accompanied him. Equipped with tents and books, these two monks set out in 826 and founded a school in Denmark. Here Anskar's companion died, and he was obliged to move on to Sweden alone when his success in missionary work led King Bjoern to invite him to Sweden.

On the way, his boat was attacked by pirates and he lost all his possessions, arriving destitute at a small Swedish village. After this unpromising start, he succeeded in forming the nucleus of a church--the first Christian church in Sweden--and penetrated inland, confronting the heathen in their strongholds and converting the pagan chiefs.

Ansgar became the first archbishop of Hamburg, Germany, and abbot of New Corbie in Westphalia c. 831. The Pope Gregory IV appointed him legate to the Scandinavian countries and confided the Scandinavian souls to his care. He evangelized there for the next 14 years, building churches in Norway, Denmark, and northern Germany.

He saw his accomplishments obliterated when pagan Vikings invaded in 845, overran Scandinavia, and destroyed Hamburg. Thereafter, the natives reverted to paganism. Ansgar was then appointed first archbishop of Bremen around 848, but he was unable to establish himself there for a time and Pope Nicholas I united that see with Hamburg. Nicholas also gave him jurisdiction over Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

Ansgar returned to Denmark and Sweden in 854 to resume spreading the Gospel. When he returned to Denmark he saw the church and school he had built there destroyed before his eyes by an invading army.

His heart almost broke as he saw his work reduced to ashes. "The Lord gave," he said, "and the Lord has taken away; Blessed be the name of the Lord." With a handful of followers he wandered through his ruined diocese, but it was a grim and weary time. "Be assured, my dear brother," said the primate of France, who had commissioned him to this task, "that what we have striven to accomplish for the glory of Christ will yet, by God's help, bring forth fruit."

Heartened by these words, and with unfailing courage, Anskar pursued his Swedish mission. Though he had but four churches left and could find no one willing to go in his place, he established new outposts and consolidated his work.

King Olaf had cast a die to decide whether to allow the entrance of Christians, an action that Ansgar mourned as callous and unbefitting. He was encouraged, however, by a council of chiefs at which an aged man spoke in his defense. "Those who bring to us this new faith," he said, "by their voyage here have been exposed to many dangers. We see our own deities failing us. Why reject a religion thus brought to our very doors? Why not permit the servants of God to remain among us? Listen to my counsel and reject not what is plainly for our advantage."

As a result, Ansgar was free to preach the Christian faith, and though he met with many setbacks, he continued his work until he died at he age of 64 and was buried at Bremen. He was a great missionary, an indefatigable, outstanding preacher, renowned for his austerity, holiness of life, and charity to the poor. He built schools and was a great liberator of slaves captured by the Vikings. He converted King Erik of the Jutland and was called the 'Apostle of the North.' Yet Sweden reverted completely to paganism shortly after Ansgar's death.

Ansgar often wore a hairshirt, lived on bread and water when his health permitted it, and added short personal prayers to each Psalm in his psalter, thus contributing to a form of devotion that soon became widespread.

Miracles were said to have been worked by him. After Ansgar's death, the work he had begun came to a stop and the area reverted to paganism. Christianity did not begin to make headway in Scandinavia until two centuries later with the work of Saint Sigfrid and others. A life was written about Ansgar by his fellow missionary in Scandinavia, Saint Rembert (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Coulson, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Robinson, White).

In art Ansgar shown with converted Danes near him (White), wearing a fur pelisse (Roeder). He may sometimes be shown otherwise in a boat with King Harold and companions or in a cope and miter, holding Hamburg Cathedral (Roeder).

Saint Ansgar is the patron of Denmark, Germany, and Iceland (White). He is venerated in Old Corbie (Picardy) and New Corbie (Saxony) as well as in Scandinavia (Roeder).
856 Bl. Rabanus Maurus Abbot Fulda archbishop very learned man  intense charity. He also promoted clerical discipline
Germany archbishop of Mainz and a well known theologian.
Born in Mainz, he entered the Benedictine monastery of Fulda at an early age, receiving ordination as a deacon in 801. He then studied at Tours, France, under the famed scholar Blessed Alcuin and earned the Maurus in memory of St. Benedict's favorite pupil.
Rabanus went back to Fulda into one of Christendom's great centers of learning, especially within the Frankish Empire.
Ordained a priest in 814, Rabanus was elected abbot of Fulda in 822, and served until 842 when he retired, most likey under pressure from King Louis the German as relations between them were never cordial.

Rabanus went into a life of seclusion and prayer at Petersburg until 847, when, after being reconciled with Louis, he received appointment as archbishop of Mainz. As archbishop, Rabanus was best known and beloved for his intense charity. He also promoted clerical discipline through several provincial synods, defended the rights of the Church, and clarified through the synods the doctrine of predestination.
Considered one of the most learned men of his age.
980 St. Liafdag martyred Bishop of Jutland.
Denmark, where he was martyred by local pagans.

1050 St. Oliver Benedictine monk.
of the community of Maria di Portonuovo at Ancona, Italy.

1050 St. Anatolius Scottish bishop hermit miracles impossible to enumerate all the miracles he worked in his lifetime
Anatolius left his see and Scotland to make a pilgrimage to Rome. He became a hermit at Salins, France. Another tradition states that Anatolius was a bishop in Galicia, Spain.

Anatolius of Salins B (AC)(9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besançon, Burgundy, about 1029. He live the rest of life in a mountain retreat overlooking a favorite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honor at Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney, O'Hanlon).
1192 St. Margaret of England Cistercian nun Miracles followed her burial
She was born in Hungary, to an English mother who was related to St. Thomas of Canterbury, England. She went with her mother on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and lived a life of austerity and penance in Bethlehem. Her mother died there, and Margaret made pilgrimages to Montserrat, in Spain, and to Puy, France. There she entered the Cistercian convent at Suave-Benite. When she died, her tomb became a pilgrimage shrine.

Margaret "of England," OSB Cist. V (AC)
Born in Hungary (?), died 1192. Saint Margaret was possibly born in Hungary to an English mother and is probably related to Saint Thomas of Canterbury. She took her mother on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, where they both led an austere life of penance for some years in Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Her mother died there but Margaret continued on to Our Lady of Montserrat in the Spanish Catalonia, before joining the Cistercian nuns at Seauve-Bénite, in the diocese of Puy-en-Velay. She was greatly venerated in that district. Miracles followed her burial at Seauve-Bénite and her shrine became a principle feature of the church. Crowds came there to invoke 'Margaret the Englishwoman.' The local tradition that she was English was accepted by the Maurists and Gallia Christiana, yet an older French manuscript preserved by the Jesuits of Clermont College in Paris relates that she was indeed a Hungarian of noble birth (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, Farmer, Husenbeth).

1237 St Elinand of Froidmont, OSB Cist. (AC)
(also known as Helinand)
Born in Pronleroy, Oise, France; died 1237. Elinand, a court singer before his conversion, became a Cistercian of Froidmont. Beloved by Philip-Augustus, he was also a poet and writer of many lines about the saints. The Cistercians venerate him as a saint, though he is otherwise considered a beatus (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1331 Bl. Odoric of Pordenone Franciscan missionary to Mongol Great Khan in Peking miracles performed
Born Odoric Mattiussi at Villanova, near Pordenone, Italy, he entered the Franciscans in 1300 and became a hermit. After several years, he took to preaching in the region of Udine, northern Italy, attracting huge crowds through his eloquence. In 1316 he set out for the Far East, journeying through China and finally reaching the court of the Mongol Great Khan in Peking. From 1322 to 1328 he wandered throughout China and Tibet, finally returning to the West in 1330 where he made a report to the pope at Avignon and dictated an account of his travels. He died before he could find missionaries to return with him to the East. His cult was approved in 1755 owing to the reports of miracles he performed while preaching among the Chinese.

Blessed Odoric Mattiuzzi, OFM (AC) (also known as Odericus of Pordenone) Born in Villanova near Pordenone, Friuli, Italy, in 1285; died at Udine in 1331; cultus confirmed in 1775. Odoric Mattiuzzi became a Franciscan hermit, who made one of the most remarkable journeys of the middle ages. He became a missionary about 1317 and penetrated into Tibet by travelling through Armenia, Baghdad, Malabar, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. He was in Beijing for three years and returned home via Lhasa. Some believed he reached Japan. Odoric dictated an account of his adventures but does not recount much of his evangelical activities, though they were considerable. After 16 years in the mission fields, he returned to Europe to report to the pope at Avignon, but died en route (Attwater2, Benedictines, Gill).

1167 Aelred, OSB Cist. Abbot "a second Saint Bernard" or "the Bernard of the North."(AC)
(also known as Ailred, Ethelred)
Born in Hexham, Northumberland, England, c. 1109; died at Rievaulx Monastery, Yorkshire, England, on January 12, 1167; canonized by the General Chapter of Cîteaux in 1250 (and Attwater says he was canonized in 1191 but he is not in the Roman Martyrology so this statement may be in error); today is the feast celebrated by the Cistercians, feast day on calendar also on March 3, when it is celebrated in Hexham, Liverpool, Middleborough, and by the Cistercians; feast day formerly on January 12.

Aelred belonged to a noble family. He was the son and grandson of parish priests of Hexham--sainthood was probably in his genes. He was educated at Durham in the arts, letters, and the new humanism of the time.

At about age 20, Aelred was taken into the service of King Saint David at the beginning of his reign. Aelred became a clerk and then high steward of the household in the Scottish court because he was so beloved for his piety, gentleness, humility, and spirituality by King David, who, though son of Saint Margaret, considered the sword and knighthood more certain guarantees of his kingdom whose districts and frontier fiefs were in continual legal disputes.

The favors that Aelred received at court won him enemies. One of the king's knights, a jealous man, developed a hatred for Aelred because of the favors constantly bestowed upon him. One day his intense hatred burst out in the presence of the king himself. Bitter reproaches and insults followed.

Aelred replied without emotion: "You are right, Sir Knight, and you have said the truth: your words are exact, and I see that you are a true friend of mine." The soldier begged his pardon immediately, and swore that henceforth he would do everything he could for Aelred. "I am very happy you have repented," said Aelred, "and I like you the more for it, because your jealousy has been for you a means of advancing in the love of God."

Aelred formed a close relationship with David's son, Earl Henry. His soul was so torn between answering God's call to the cloistered life and remaining at court with Henry. Aelred considered friendship a most precious gift. His dilemma was solved when he visited the recently-founded Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx on his return from an interview with the archbishop of York.

Aelred chose not to return to the Scottish court. Thus, at age 24 (c. 1134), Aelred enter Rievaulx, where Saint Bernard had appointed his secretary William as abbot over the monks from Clairvaux who formed the community. In spite of delicate health, Aelred conformed to the austere regime and became so esteemed by his community that he was chosen as envoy to Rome in 1142 over the disputed election of Saint William of York and, soon afterwards, as master of novices.

Within a short time, he was obliged to change monasteries to avoid being named a bishop; but no sooner had he relocated himself than he was chosen to be abbot of a new Cistercian monastery in Revesby, Lincolnshire, in 1143. His biographers say that this new position did not prevent his "living a life of the severest asceticism." Under his rule, the house prospered, increasing in size to 150 choir monks and 500 lay brothers and lay servants--the largest in England. It expanded to five other foundations in England and Scotland.

Inspired by the writings of Saints John Chrysostom and Augustine and augmented by Aelred's own gentle holiness and natural charity, he was able to humanize the intransigence of Cistercian monasticism and attracted men of similar character to his own. Through his many friends as well as his writings, Aelred became a figure of national importance. He was chosen to preach at Westminster for the translation of Saint Edward the Confessor. This led him to compose a vita of Edward; he had already completed one on Saint Ninian and one the saints of Hexham.

Four years later he returned to Rievaulx as abbot, succeeding Abbot Maurice. During his abbacy the number of monks at Rievaulx rose to over 600, attracted by his kindly, humane nature. In addition to looking after these he had every year to visit other Cistercian houses in England and Scotland, and even to go as far afield as the Cistercian centers of Cîteaux and Clairvaux. These journeys must have been a great trial to him, for during his later years Aelred suffered from a painful disease in addition to rheumatism.

Aelred became known for his prudence and holiness throughout England. He was admitted to the councils of the highest dignitaries in the land and was constantly called upon to settle disputes. King Henry II of England was his friend, and, in 1160, during the papal schism, he was able to influence the king on behalf of Pope Alexander III.

In 1164, he went to Galway in Ireland as a missionary but the following year he returned to England. Famed for his preaching, energy, sympathetic gentleness, and asceticism, Aelred was consider a saint in his own lifetime. He was also considered a delightful companion because of his wit, easy speech, and brilliant mind.

His biographer and disciple, Walter Daniel records: "I lived under his rule for 17 years, and in that time he did not dismiss anyone from the monastery." Aelred's name, indeed, is particularly associated with friendship--human and divine. One of his two best known writings is a little work On Spiritual Friendship which is delicately beautiful. Only when Aelred's enormous capacity for friendship was transformed by charity was finally able to write the unique treatment of the subject. It resembles Cicero's dialogue on the topic, but is identifiably Christian in its approach.

Aelred also penned the Mirror of Charity (Seculum caritas), a treatise on Christian perfection. His sermons on Isaiah are also fine writing and he also composed biographies of the saints. He was in the process of writing a treatise on the human soul, which was left unfinished, by his death at age 57. His writings and sermons are characterized by a constant appeal to the Bible and to a love of Christ as friend and savior that was the mainspring of his life.

Saint Aelred's frequent travel and writings merited for him the title of "a second Saint Bernard" or "the Bernard of the North." On his way to his Scottish foundations, Aelred used to visit his friend Saint Godric of Finchale.
In the last year of his life, he could no longer travel. After being for a time virtually in a state of physical collapse, Saint Aelred died his monastery, in a shed adjoining the infirmary that he had made his quarters. The historian of monasticism in England, Professor David Knowles, says that Aelred is "a singularly attractive figure . . . No other English monk of the 12th century so lingers in the memory."

Saint Aelred was buried in the chapter house. Later his relics were translated to the church. Aelred was never formally canonized; however, his local cultus was approved by the Cistercians who promulgated his feast (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Powicke, Squire).
1348 Blessed Simon Fidati, OSA (AC)
(also known as Simon of Cascia)
Born in Cascia, Umbria, Italy, c. 1295; died 1348; cultus confirmed in 1833. Simon joined the friar-hermits of Saint Augustine and was a prominent writer and preacher, who was called upon to participate as an adviser in the public life of central Italy. Some ascetical works previously attributed to the Dominican Dominic Cavalca are now believed to be those of Fidati. In recent times scholars have claimed to find injudicious statements in his book De gestis Domini Salvatòris were the source of several of the Augustinian Luther's heretical doctrines (Attwater2, Benedictines).

1450 Blessed Matthew of Girgenti, OFM B (AC)
Born in Girgenti, Sicily; died at Palermo, 1450; cultus confirmed in 1767. Matthew became a Conventual Franciscan in his hometown. Then he turned to the Observants and worked zealously under Saint Bernardino of Siena, with whom he became close friends as they travelled together on Bernardino's preaching missions. He himself gained a reputation as a great preacher. Pope Eugene IV forced him to accept the bishopric of Girgenti. Once he accepted it as God's will, he set about reforming the see. As a result of the opposition the changes raised, he resigned the see. Then he was refused admittance to the friary he himself had founded because he was deemed to be too much of a firebrand. Matthew died in a Franciscan friary at Palermo (Attwater2, Benedictines).

1494 Blessed John Zakoly Hungary B (PC)
(also known as John of Csanad)
Died in 1494. Bishop John of Csanad, Hungary, entered the Pauline Order and died as prior of the monastery of Diosgyör (Benedictines).

St. Remedius French or Gallic bishop of Gap.
 France, of whom virtually nothing is known.

1578 Bl. John Nelson Jesuit martyr of England
a native of Skelton, near York. He was ordained at Douai at the age of forty. Sent to London in 1576, he was arrested in London and martyred at Tyburn by being hanged, drawn, and quartered and sentenced for refusing the Oath of Supremacy.  John became a Jesuit just before his death.

Felix, Symphonius, Hippolytus & Comps. martyrs MM (RM).
A group of martyrs who suffered probably in proconsular Africa (Benedictines).

1840 Blessed Stephen Bellesini devoted ministrations to the victims of a cholera epidemic, OSA (AC)
Born at Trent, Italy, in 1774; died 1840; beatified in 1904. Stephen joined the Augustinian hermits at Bologna, Italy, and completed his studies in Rome. After the outbreak of the French Revolution and the dispersement of his community, he retired to his home in the Trentino, where devoted himself to the instruction of children. For a time, he held the post of government inspector of schools. As soon as the disturbances died down, he returned to his community at Bologna. Shortly thereafter he was appointed novice master in Rome and later parish priest at the shrine of our Lady of Good Counsel at Genazzano. Here he died as a result of his devoted ministrations to the victims of a cholera epidemic (Attwater2, Benedictines).


Mary's Divine Motherhood
 Friday  Saints of this Day February  03 Tertio Nonas Februárii.  
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  February 2017
Comfort for the Afflicted
That all those who are afflicted, especially the poor, refugees,
and marginalized, may find welcome and comfort in our communities.
ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
                      

                                                                                   
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Saints of February 01 mention with Popes
865 St. Ansgar (b. 801) The “apostle of the north” (Scandinavia) had enough frustrations to become a saint—and he did. He became a Benedictine at Corbie, France, where he had been educated. Three years later, when the king of Denmark became a convert, Ansgar went to that country for three years of missionary work, without noticeable success. Sweden asked for Christian missionaries, and he went there, suffering capture by pirates and other hardships on the way. Less than two years later he was recalled, to become abbot of New Corbie (Corvey) and bishop of Hamburg. The pope made him legate for the Scandinavian missions. Funds for the northern apostolate stopped with Emperor Louis’s death. After 13 years’ work in Hamburg, Ansgar saw it burned to the ground by invading Northmen; Sweden and Denmark returned to paganism.

He directed new apostolic activities in the North, traveling to Denmark and being instrumental in the conversion of another king. By the strange device of casting lots, the king of Sweden allowed the Christian missionaries to return.  Ansgar’s biographers remark that he was an extraordinary preacher, a humble and ascetical priest. He was devoted to the poor and the sick, imitating the Lord in washing their feet and waiting on them at table. He died peacefully at Bremen, Germany, without achieving his wish to be a martyr.
Sweden became pagan again after his death, and remained so until the coming of missionaries two centuries later.


1645 St Henry Morse Jesuit fought off the plague returned several times to England ministering.  Born in Broome, Suffolk, England, in 1595; died at Tyburn, England, February 1, 1645; beatified in 1929; canonized in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
Saint Henry, like so many saints of his period in the British Isles, was a convert to Catholicism. He was a member of the country gentry, who studied at Cambridge then finished his study of law at Barnard's Inn, London. In 1614, he professed the Catholic faith at Douai. When he returned to England to settle an inheritance, he was arrested for his faith and spent the next four years in New Prison in Southwark. He was released in 1618 when a general amnesty was proclaimed by King James.

Saints of February 02 mention with Popes
  St. Cornelius sent for Peter First bishop of Caesarea.  1st century. Palestine, who was originally a centurion in the Italica cohort of the Roman legion in the area. Cornelius had a vision instructing him to send for St. Peter, who came to his home and baptized him, as described in Acts, chapter ten.

619 St. Lawrence of Canterbury Benedictine Archbishop scourged by St. Peter physical scars.  England, sent there by Pope St. Gregory I the Great. A Benedictine, Lawrence accompanied St. Augustine to Canterbury in 597 and succeeded him as archbishop in 604.  When the Britons lapsed into pagan customs, Lawrence planned to return to France, but in a dream he was rebuked by St. Peter for abandoning his flock. He remained in his see and converted the local ruler King Edbald to the faith. He died in Canterbury on February 2. Lawrence is commemorated in the Irish Stowe Missal and is reported to have been scourged by St. Peter in his dream, carrying the physical scars on his back.

1365 Blessed Peter Cambiano Dominican martyr.   Born in Chieri, Piedmont, Italy, in 1320; died February 2, 1365; beatified in 1856.
Peter Cambiano's father was a city councillor and his mother was of nobility. They were virtuous and careful parents, and they gave their little son a good education, especially in religion. Peter responded to all their care and became a fine student, as well as a pious and likeable child.
Peter was drawn to the Dominicans by devotion to the rosary. Our Lady of the Rosary was the special patroness of the Piedmont region, and he had a personal devotion to her. At 16, therefore, he presented himself at the convent in Piedmont and asked for the habit.       The inquisition had been set up to deal with these people in Lombardy before the death of Peter Martyr, a century before. So well did young Peter of Ruffia carryout the work of preaching among them that the order sent him to Rome to obtain higher degrees. The pope, impressed both by his talent and his family name, appointed him inquisitor-general of the Piedmont. This was a coveted appointment; to a Dominican it meant practically sure martyrdom and a carrying on of a proud tradition.

1640 St. Joan de Lestonnac Foundress many miracles different kinds occurred at her tomb.   After her children were raised, she entered the Cistercian monastery at Toulouse. Joan was forced to leave the Cistercians when she became afflicted with poor health.
She returned to Bordeaux with the idea of forming a new congregation, and several young girls joined her as novices. They ministered to victims of a plague that struck Bordeaux, and they were determined to counteract the evils of heresy promulgated by Calvinism. Thus was formed the Congregation of the Religious of Notre Dame of Bordeaux. In 1608, Joan and her companions received the religious habit from the Archbishop of Bordeaux. Joan was elected superior in 1610, and many miracles occurred at her tomb. She was canonized in 1949 by Pope Pius XII.



Saints of February 03 mention with Popes
Gregory IV (827-44) # 102
Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a Roman and the son of John. Before his election to the papacy he was the Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of St. Mark, which he adorned with mosaics yet visible. For his piety and learning he was ordained priest by Paschal I. This man, of distinguished appearance and high birth, was raised to the chair of Peter, despite his protestations of unfitness, mainly buy the instrumentality of the secular nobility of Rome who were then securing a preponderating influence in papal elections. But the representatives in Rome of the Emperor Louis the Pious would not allow him to be consecrated until his election had been approved by their master. This interference caused such delay that it was not, seemingly, till about March, 828, that he began to govern the Church.

576 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker  of Spoleto, Italy, also called “the Illuminator.” He was a Syrian, forced to leave his homeland in 514 because of Arian persecution. He went to Rome and was ordained by Pope St. Hormisdas. He then preached in Umbria and founded a monastery in Spoleto. Named bishop of Spoleto, Lawrence was rejected as a foreigner until the city’s gates miraculously opened for his entrance.
He is called “the Illuminator” because of his ability to cure physical and spiritual blindness. After two decades, Lawrence resigned to found the Farfa Abbey near Rome.

865 St. Ansgar 1st Archbishop of Hamburg & Bremen missionary first Christian church in Sweden Patron of Scandinavia  At Bremen, St. Ansgar, bishop of Hamburg and later of Bremen, who converted the Swedes and the Danes to the faith of Christ.  He was appointed Apostolic Delegate of all the North by Pope Gregory IV.
Ansgar was born of a noble family near Amiens. He became a monk at Old Corbie monastery in Picardy and later at New Corbie in Westphalia. He accompanied King Harold to Denmark when the exiled King returned to his native land and engaged in missionary work there. Ansgar's success caused King Bjorn of Sweden to invite him to that country, and he built the first Christian Church in Sweden. He became Abbot of New Corbie and first Archbishop of Hamburg about 831, and Pope Gregory IV appointed him Legate to the Scandinavian countries. He labored at his missionary works for the next fourteen years but saw all he had accomplished destroyed when invading pagan Northmen in 845 destroyed Hamburg and overran the Scandinavian countries, which lapsed into paganism.

1331 Bl. Odoric of Pordenone Franciscan missionary to Mongol Great Khan in Peking miracles performed . Born Odoric Mattiussi at Villanova, near Pordenone, Italy, he entered the Franciscans in 1300 and became a hermit. After several years, he took to preaching in the region of Udine, northern Italy, attracting huge crowds through his eloquence. In 1316 he set out for the Far East, journeying through China and finally reaching the court of the Mongol Great Khan in Peking. From 1322 to 1328 he wandered throughout China and Tibet, finally returning to the West in 1330 where he made a report to the pope at Avignon and dictated an account of his travels. He died before he could find missionaries to return with him to the East. His cult was approved in 1755 owing to the reports of miracles he performed while preaching among the Chinese.


1450 Blessed Matthew of Girgenti .  Matthew became a Conventual Franciscan in his hometown. Then he turned to the Observants and worked zealously under Saint Bernardino of Siena, with whom he became close friends as they travelled together on Bernardino's preaching missions. He himself gained a reputation as a great preacher. Pope Eugene IV forced him to accept the bishopric of Girgenti. Once he accepted it as God's will, he set about reforming the see. As a result of the opposition the changes raised, he resigned the see. Then he was refused admittance to the friary he himself had founded because he was deemed to be too much of a firebrand. Matthew died in a Franciscan friary at Palermo (Attwater2, Benedictines).


Saints of February 04 mention with Popes




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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed