Saturday  Saints of this Day February  18 Duodécimo Kaléndas Mártii.  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us that a life of Christian perfection is not impossible.

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

St. Simon or Simeon 110
Father was Cleophas St. Joseph's brother: mother was our Lady's sister 8 yrs older than Jesus

SCRIPTURE
My power is made perfect in weakness. -- 2 Corinthians 12:9


Day 9 40 Days for Life

40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Saint Bernadette's Silence (I) February 18 - Saint Bernadette Soubirous (1844 - 1879)
Bernadette was born in a mill, among the noise of grinding wheat.
Her cries disturbed the baptism ceremony held on January 9, the day after her birth.
Was this an omen of the suffering that life had in store for her? Should we at least see it as a symbol?
Her godfather was baffled. On the way home from church he said, "She cries all the time. She will be naughty." But the wailing of a new born baby is not yet speech... Afterwards, many years passed before we can find the slightest echo of her voice. Bernadette did not leave us any of those admirable or silly childish words...
Adapted from Father René Laurentin, Bernadette vous parle (Bernadette Speaks), Mediaspaul, 1972, p. 11

February 18 - Saint Bernadette Soubirous (d. 1879)  
 
“After one has seen her once, one would wish to die to see her again”
 
Bernadette Soubirous was 14 when she saw the Virgin for the first time. In February 1858, when she was collecting wood with two other girls, the Virgin Mary appeared to her in the hollow of the rock of Massabielle, near Lourdes (south of France). Eighteen apparitions took place between February and July 1858.

During the third apparition, on February 18, 1858, the 'beautiful lady' who appeared to Bernadette, spoke. Bernadette held up a writing tablet to her and asked her to write down her name. The Lady said: "It is not necessary," and she added: "I do not promise to make you happy in this world but in the other.
Would you do me the favor of coming here for 15 days?"

Charged with transmitting the message of the Virgin Mary, but not to make people believe it, Bernadette suffered many accusations made by her contemporaries. On July 7, 1866, she joined the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity in Nevers (central France).

It was something to hear her say: "Mary is so beautiful that when one has seen her once, one would wish to die to see her again." She died on April 16, 1879, in Nevers at the age of 35. Her coffin was subsequently opened 3 times and each time her body was found incorrupt.
 
notredamedesneiges.over-blog.com


Thursday, February 18, 2016
Esther C:12, 14-16, 23-25 ; Psalms 138:1-3, 7-8 ;  Matthew 7:7-12 ;
Please pray for those who have no one to pray for them.
107 St. Simon or Simeon father was Cleophas St. Joseph's brother. Mother was our Lady's sister 8 yrs older than Jesus
203 St. Charalampias priest Martyr of Magnesia Asia Minor with companions
260 St. Leo & Paregorius Martyrs of Patara in Lycia
295 St. Maximus Martyr with Alexander & others
354 Constance, Attica & Artemia VV MM (RM)
449 St. Flavian of Constantinople martyr Patriarch succeeding St. Proclus cum fidem cathólicam Ephesi propugnáret
632 Helladius of Toledo native minister court of Visigoth kings B (RM)
676 St. Colman of Lindisfarne Irish bishop chief defender of Celtic customs
814 St. Angilbert Benedictine abbot advisor to Charlemagne body was found to be incorrupt  
1166 St. Theotonius Augustinian, trusted canon; royal advisor, all forms of royal corruption opponent  
1455 Blessed John of Fiesole patron of Christian artists  
        St. Lucius African martyr with Classicus & others  
1594 Bl. William Harrington priest Martyr of England
1601 Bl. John Pibush English martyr solely for his priesthood
        Bl. Martin Martyr of China native
        Blessed Agnes De martyred native cradle Christian VM (AC)
1855 Blessed Andrew Nam-Thung native catechist of Cochin-China M (AC)
1858 St. Agatha Lin Chinese martyr
1862 Blessed John Peter French missionary priest & Martin native catechist MM (AC)
"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him"
(Psalm 21:28)

107 St. Simon or Simeon father was Cleophas St. Joseph's brother. Mother was our Lady's sister 8 yrs older than Jesus
Hierosólymis natális sancti Simeónis, Epíscopi et Mártyris; qui fílius Cléophæ et propínquus Salvatóris secúndum carnem fuísse tráditur.  Hic, Hierosolymórum Epíscopus post Jacóbum, fratrem Dómini, ordinátus, et, in Trajáni persecutióne, multis supplíciis afféctus, martyrio consummátus est, ómnibus qui áderant et Júdice ipso mirántibus ut centum vigínti annórum senex fórtiter constantérque supplícium crucis pertulísset.
      At Jerusalem, the birthday of St. Simeon, bishop and martyr, who is said to have been the son of Cleophas, and a relative of the Saviour according to the flesh.  He was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem after St. James, the cousin of our Lord.  In the persecution of Trajan, after having endured many torments, his martyrdom was completed.  All who were present, even the judge himself, were astonished that a man one hundred and twenty years of age could bear the torment of crucifixion with such fortitude and constancy.
In St. Matthew's Gospel, we read of St. Simon or Simeon who is described as one of our Lord's brethren or kinsmen.

His father was Cleophas, St. Joseph's brother and his mother, according to some writers, was our Lady's sister.  He would therefore be our Lord's first cousin and is supposed to have been about eight years older than He. No doubt he is one of those brethren of Christ who are  mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as having received the Holy Spirit on Pentecost.  Some think that Simeon was the bridegroom for which Jesus changed the water into wine at Cana.
St. Epiphanius says that when the Jews massacred St. James the Lesser, his brother Simeon upbraided them for their cruelty.

The apostles and disciples afterwards met together to appoint a successor to James as bishop of Jerusalem, and they unanimously chose Simeon, who had probably assisted his brother in the government of that church. 
In the year 66 civil war broke out in Palestine, as a consequence of Jewish opposition to the Romans. Christians in Jerusalem were warned of the impending destruction of the city and appear to have been divinely ordered to leave it.
Accordingly that same year, before Vespasian entered Judaea, they retired with St. Simeon at their head to the other side of the Jordan, occupying a small city called Pella. After the capture and burning of Jerusalem, the Christians returned and settled among the ruins until the Emperor Hadrian afterwards entirely razed it.
We are told by St. Epiphanius and by Eusebius that the church here flourished greatly, and that many Jews were converted by the miracles wrought by the saints.
When Vespasian and Domitian had ordered the destruction of all who were of the race of David, St. Simeon had escaped their search; but when Trajan gave a similar injunction, he was denounced as being not only one of David's descendants, but also a Christian, and he was brought before Atticus, the Roman governor. He was condemned to death and, after being tortured, was crucified. Although he was extremely old - tradition reports him to have attained the age of 120 - Simeon endured his sufferings with a degree of fortitude which roused the admiration of Atticus himself.

107 ST SIMEON, Bishop AND MARTYR
IN St Matthew’s Gospel, ch. xiii, we read of St Simon or Simeon who is described as one of our Lord’s brethren or kinsmen. His father was Cleophas, St Joseph’s brother, and his mother, according to some early writers, was our Lady’s sister. He would therefore be our Lord’s first cousin and is supposed to have been about eight years older than He. No doubt he was one of those brethren of Christ who are mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as having received the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. St Epiphanius says that when the Jews massacred St James the Lesser, his brother Simeon upbraided them for their cruelty. The apostles and disciples afterwards met together to appoint a successor to James as bishop of Jerusalem, and they unanimously chose Simeon, who had probably assisted his brother in the government of that church.

In the year 66 civil war broke out in Palestine, as a consequence of Jewish opposition to the Romans. The Christians in Jerusalem were warned of the impending destruction of the city and appear to have been divinely ordered to leave it. Accordingly that same year, before Vespasian entered Judaea, they retired with St Simeon at their head to the other side of the Jordan, occupying a small city called Pella. After the capture and burning of Jerusalem, the Christians returned and settled among the ruins until the Emperor Hadrian afterwards entirely razed it. We are told by St Epiphanius and by Eusebius that the church here flourished greatly, and that many Jews were converted by the miracles wrought by the saints.

When Vespasian and Domitian had ordered the destruction of all who were of the race of David, St Simeon had escaped their search but when Trajan gave a similar injunction, he was denounced as being not only one of David’s descendants but also a Christian, and he was brought before Atticus, the Roman governor. He was condemned to death and, after being tortured, was crucified. Although he was extremely old—tradition reports him to have attained the age of 120—Simeon endured his sufferings with a degree of fortitude which roused the admiration of Atticus himself.

The above account of St Simeon, which follows in substance the elogium printed in the Roman Martyrology, is by no means free from difficulty. See the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, and Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., bk iii. No final solution can be arrived at determining the identity of our Lord’s “brethren”. See, e.g. Comely, Introduct. in S. Scrip., vol. iii, 2nd  edn., pp. 595 seq.
Simeon of Jerusalem BM (RM) (also known as Simon of Jerusalem). Not all of Jesus's relatives understood His teaching or recognized His divinity. One who did was Simeon, His first cousin. Tradition says that Simeon was the son of Cleophas (Alpheus, brother to Saint Joseph) and Mary (sister-in-law of the Blessed Virgin).  Some think that Simeon was the bridegroom for which Jesus changed the water into wine at Cana.
Some Christians believe that this Simeon was the same person as Jesus's disciple who was nicknamed 'the Zealot' because he belonged to a party of strongly nationalistic Jews. If Simeon and Simon are one, he was also brother to Saint James the Lesser and Saint Jude, apostles, and of Joseph. If they are identical, Simeon was among the band of followers, who, after His Resurrection, devoted themselves to prayer in Jerusalem until the descent of the Holy Spirit to bless and inspire them all.

Saint Epiphanius relates in Panarion seu adversus LXXX haereses (78, c. 14) that when the Jews massacred Saint James the Lesser in 62 AD, Simeon reproached them for their atrocious cruelty. Simeon was unanimously chosen successor to his brother as patriarch of Jerusalem. He was the natural choice because he had probably assisted his brother in the government of that church.
Tradition says that, like Lot in Sodom, Simeon was supernaturally warned of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 66, and withdrew with many fellow-Christians to the small city of Pella, where they remained until it was safe for them to return to Jerusalem after its destruction in AD 70.
Epiphanius and Eusebius assure us, that the church flourished at Pella, and that multitudes of Jews were converted by the great number of prodigies and miracles wrought in it.

Nevertheless, already during this early period the Church saw the rise of heresy in the form of the Nazareans, who thought Jesus to be the greatest of prophets but only a man, and the Ebonites and Docetists, which seems to be gnostic sects.
The Nazareans joined all the ceremonies of the old law with the new, and observed both the Jewish Sabbath and the Lord's Day (Sunday).

Ebion added other errors to these, which Cerenthus had also espoused, and taught many superstitions, permitted divorces, and allowed of the most infamous abominations.

The authority of Simeon kept the heretics in some awe during his life, which was the longest upon earth of any of our Lord's disciples. But, as Eusebius says, he was no sooner dead than a deluge of execrable heresies broke out of hell upon the Church, which durst not openly appear during his life.

Simeon's life was never free of danger. He escaped the death ordered by Emperors Vespasian and Domitian when they decreed that all of Jewish origin were to be executed, but finally, during the persecutions of Atticus under the Emperor Trajan in 107, Simeon was caught, tortured, and crucified like his Lord. Reputedly, he was well over 100 (120 by most accounts) years old at the time of his death. Atticus and the executioners expressed admiration of Simeon's fortitude and strength in martyrdom. Tradition places the site of his martyrdom in far-flung Persia, Egypt, or the British Isles (Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
In art, Saint Simeon is portrayed as an ancient bishop being crucified (easily confused with Saint Nestor) (Roeder).
203 St. Charalampias priest Martyr of Magnesia Asia Minor with companions
He was a priest taken in the persecution of Emperor Septimius Severus. He was martyred with two soldiers and three women.

Charalampias and Companions MM (AC) Died 203. Saint Charalampias was a priest who was martyred in Magnesia, Asia Minor, together with two soldiers and three women during the persecution of Septimius Severus (Benedictines).

260 St. Leo & Paregorius Martyrs of Patara in Lycia

SS. LEO AND PAREGORIUS, MARTYRS
ACCORDING to their legend these two were close friends, and when Paregorius had suffered martyrdom at Patara in Lycia, Leo was disconsolate at being deprived of the happiness of sharing his victory. But Lollian, the governor of Lycia, published an edict obliging all men to offer sacrifice on the festival of Serapis. Now the mysteries celebrated in honour of this deity were of such a licentious character that the Roman senate had at one time ordered them to be abolished. St Leo, on his way to the martyr’s tomb, had to pass the temple of Serapis, and was greatly distressed to see amongst the crowds some whom he knew to be Christians, but who were led by fear to join in the worship of the false god. Soon after his return from his friend’s tomb he fell asleep and had a dream in which it was revealed to him that God was calling him to a conflict similar to that which St Paregorius had endured. Filled with exultation, he determined that the next time he visited the martyr’s grave he would not go through by-roads, but would make his way openly through the city. As he crossed the market-place, he saw that the Tychaeum or Temple of Fortune was illuminated with lanterns and candles. In his zeal for God he did not scruple to pull down all the lanterns he could reach and to trample the tapers under foot. When the priest cried out to the people, “If this sacrilege is not punished, the goddess Fortune will withdraw her protection from the city.”
St Leo exclaimed, “Let the idol take vengeance if it can!”
The report of these proceedings soon reached the governor, who commanded that St Leo should be brought before him, and charged him with impiety to the gods and to the emperors. The martyr replied calmly, “You are mistaken in supposing that there are many gods: there is only one God, who is Lord of Heaven and earth and who does not require men to worship Him in the gross way that men worship idols”—“Answer the charges that are brought against you “, said the governor, “this is not the time to preach your Christianity. Either sacrifice to the gods or else suffer the punishment due to impiety.” Leo answered, “The fear of torment shall never deter me from my duty. I am quite prepared to suffer whatever you may inflict: all your tortures cannot reach beyond death. Eternal life can only be won through tribulation, for, as the Holy Scriptures teach us, narrow is the way that leadeth to life.”—“Since you own that the path you tread is narrow,” retorted the governor, “exchange it for ours which is broad and easy.”—“I called it narrow” said the saint, “because it is hard to enter and because at the beginning it is often beset with afflictions and persecution. But when once it has been entered, it can be kept to without great difficulty through the practice of virtue which helps to widen it and makes it easier—as many have discovered.”

The people cried out to the judge to silence him, but Lollian protested that he was willing to allow him liberty of speech and would even befriend him if he would only sacrifice. The confessor replied, “Would you have me acknowledge as a god that which has nothing divine about it?” Then the governor, losing patience, ordered Leo to be scourged. Whilst the executioners were tearing his body, Lollian, who pitied his old age, continued to urge him at least to say that the gods were great. Leo retorted, “If I say they are great, it is only with reference to their power to destroy their worshippers”. The judge threatened to have him dragged over rocks and stones, but the martyr said, “You do nothing but threaten: why do you not carry out your threats?” By this time the mob had become clamorous, and Lollian sentenced Leo to be tied by the feet, dragged to the torrent and there executed. Before he died, the martyr thanked God that he was not long separated from Paregorius, commended his soul to the care of the angels, and prayed for his enemies. After his death the executioners threw the body down a precipice but the Christians recovered it, unbruised and entire. It was noticed that his face was quite peaceful and appeared to be smiling.

This passion has been included by Ruinart in his collection of Acta sincera. Later criticism has not endorsed this favourable view. The story must probably be classed among the historical romances which were so widely disseminated both in East and West from the fifth century onwards (Delehaye, Les Légendes Hagiographiques, 1927, p. 114). Lollian was, no doubt, an historical personage, but that does not make the story true. A Latin rendering of the “acts” will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii. The original Greek may be consulted in Migne, PG., vol. cxiv, cc. 1452—1461.
Paregorius was martyred first, and when Leo protested a pagan festival near Paregorius’ grave, he was martyred.
Leo and Paregorius MM (AC) Died c. 260. Saint Leo witnessed the martyrdom of Saint Paregorius at Patara, Lycia, and found his heart divided between joy for his friend's glorious victory, and sorrow to see himself deprived of the happiness of sharing in it.  In the absence of the proconsul of Asia, the governor of Lycia demonstrated his piety to the gods by publishing an order obliging all citizens to offer sacrifice to Serapis. Leo, sad to see both the pagans and some Christians going to adore the idol, went to the tomb of Saint Paregorius and passed the temple of Serapis en route.

The heathens that saw him knew that his was a Christian because of his modesty. From his youth, Leo had practiced austerity and the devotions of an ascetic life. Returning home he fell asleep and dreamed that God was calling him to martyrdom, too.

The next time he visited Paregorius's tomb he walked boldly through the market place and passed the temple of Fortune, which he saw illumined by lanterns. He pitied their blindness and, moved with zeal for the living God, broke many of the lanterns and trampled on the tapers, saying, "Let your gods revenge the injury if they are able to do it." The priest of the temple cried out, "Unless this impiety be punished, the goddess Fortune will withdraw her protection from the city."

An account of the affair soon reached the governor's ears. He ordered the saint brought before him, and said: "Wicked wretch, your sacrilegious action surely bespeaks that you are either ignorant of the immortal gods, or downright mad, in flying in the face of our most divine emperors, whom we justly regard as secondary deities and saviors."

The martyr replied, "You are under a great mistake, in supposing a plurality of gods; there is but one, who is the God of heaven and earth, and who does not stand in need of being worshipped after that gross manner that men worship idols. The most acceptable sacrifice we can offer him is that of a contrite and humble heart."

Offered the choice of sacrificing or dying, Leo chose the narrow way rather than the broad, commodious path offered by the governor. "When I called it narrow," said the martyr, "this was only because it is not entered without difficulty, and that its beginnings are often attended with afflictions and persecutions for justice' sake. But being once entered, it is not difficult to keep in it by the practice of virtue, which helps to widen it and render it easy to those that persevere in it, which has been done by many."

After continued debate, the saint was mercilessly scourged. The governor relented because of Leo's venerable age and told him he would only have to acknowledge the gods and not sacrifice, but still Leo refused. He was then dragged by his feet to his place of execution. After his death his executioners threw his body over a precipice into a deep pit, but it received only a few bruises. The Christians recovered Leo's body and found it of a lively color, and entire, and his face appeared comely and smiling, and they buried it in the most honorable manner they could (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

295 St. Maximus Martyr with Alexander & others
Apud Ostia Tiberína sanctórum Mártyrum Máximi et Cláudii fratrum, et Præpedígnæ, uxóris Cláudii, cum duóbus fíliis Alexándro et Cútia; qui, cum essent præclaríssimi géneris, omnes, jubénte Diocletiáno, tenti atque in exsílium deportáti sunt, ac deínde, incéndio concremáti, Deo ipsi odoríferum martyrii sacrifícium obtulérunt.  Eórum relíquiæ, in flumen projéctæ et a Christiánis perquisítæ, juxta eándem civitátem sepúltæ sunt.
      
At Ostia, the holy martyrs Maximus and his brother Claudius, and Praepedigna, the wife of Claudius, with her two sons Alexander and Cutias.  Although all of a noble birth, by the order of Diocletian, they were apprehended and sent into exile.  Afterwards being burned alive, they offered to God the sweet sacrifice of martyrdom. 
Their remains were cast into the river, but the Christians found them and buried them near the city.
Claudius, Cutias, and Praepedigna. Nothing can be documented about their sufferings under Emperor Diocletian.
295 St. Lucius African martyr with Classicus & others
In Africa sanctórum Mártyrum Lúcii, Silváni, Rútuli, Clássici, Secundíni, Frúctuli et Máximi.
In Africa, the holy martyrs Lucius, Sylvanus, Rutulus, Classicus, Secundinus, Fructulus, and Maximus. 
Fructulus, Maximus, Rutulus, Secundinus, and Silvanus.

Lucius, Silvanus, and Companions (RM) Dates unknown. Lucius, Silvanus, Tutilus, Classicus, Secundinus, Fructuosus, and Maximus were African martyrs whose names were inserted in the Roman Martyrology by Baronius on the authority of a reliable manuscript (Benedictines).

Maximus, Claudius, Praepedigna, Alexander & Cutia MM (RM) Died 295. Praepedigna was the wife of Claudius; Alexander and Cutia, their children. They were said to have been martyred in Ostie (Ostia) under Diocletian but their legend seems to be no more than a pious fiction (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

354 Constance, Attica & Artemia VV MM (RM)
Constance was engaged to be married to Saint Gallican, the brother of Attica and Artemia (Encyclopedia).

449 St. Flavian of Constantinople martyr Patriarch  succeeding St. Proclus cum fidem cathólicam Ephesi propugnáret,
Constantinópoli sancti Flaviáni Epíscopi, qui, cum fidem cathólicam Ephesi propugnáret, ab ímpii Dióscori factióne pugnis et cálcibus percússus est, et, in exsílium actus, ibídem post tríduum vitam finívit.
  At Constantinople, St. Flavian, bishop, who, for having defended the Catholic faith at Ephesus, was attacked with slaps and kicks by the faction of the impious Dioscorus, and then driven into exile where he died within three days.

449 ST FLAVIAN, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE, MARTYR
ST Flavian, priest and treasurer of the church of Constantinople, succeeded St Proclus as patriarch or archbishop in 447. The chamberlain Chrysaphius, a special favourite with the Emperor Theodosius II, suggested to his master that he should require a present of Flavian as an expression of gratitude to the emperor for his promotion. The bishop sent him some blessed bread, according to the custom of the Church at that time, as a benediction and symbol of communion.
Chrysaphius intimated that it was a very different sort of present which was expected. St Flavian answered resolutely that the revenues and treasure of the Church were designed for other uses. From that moment the favourite resolved to compass his ruin. Chrysaphius persuaded the emperor, through his wife Eudocia, to order the patriarch to make St Pulcheria, sister to Theodosius, a deaconess of his church, and so get rid of her influence over her brother. Flavian’s avoidance of this was a second offence in the eyes of Chrysaphius, who was still further incensed by the saint’s condemnation of the errors of Eutyches, abbot of a monastery near the city. The abbot, in his excessive zeal against Nestorius’s heresy of two distinct persons in Christ, had rushed to the other extreme and, denying that our Lord had two distinct natures after the Incarnation, was the protagonist of the monophysite heresy. In a synod held by St Flavian in 448, Eutyches was accused of this error by Eusebius of Dorylaeum, and the opinion was there condemned as heretical, Eutyches being cited to appear before the council to give an account of his faith. He eventually did so, and was deposed and excommunicated. Whereupon he declared that he appealed to the bishops of Rome, Egypt and Jerusalem; and he addressed a letter to St Leo I in which he complained of the way he had been treated and stated his case. But the pope was not misled. In a carefully-worded
letter to Flavian, famous in ecclesiastical history as his “Tome” or “Dogmatic Letter”, Leo set out the orthodox faith upon the principal points in dispute.

A further council having confirmed the findings of the first one, Chrysaphius, baffled but not beaten, sought to gain his ends by other means. He wrote to Dioscorus, St Cyril’s successor in the see of Alexandria, promising him his friend­ship and support if he would undertake the defence of the deposed abbot against Flavian and Eusebius. Dioscorus fell in with the proposal, and they used their interest with the Empress Eudocia, who hoped that by striking at Flavian she would mortify her sister-in-law Pulcheria. Theodosius was prevailed on to summon another council which should be held at Ephesus. Dioscorus of Alexandria was invited by the emperor to preside, and with him came a number of his bishops and also of lay supporters who, it seems, were simply an organized gang of roughs. Other Eastern bishops were present, and Pope St Leo sent legates.

This assembly at Ephesus, which is commonly called by the name Leo after­wards gave it, the Latrocinium or Robber Synod, on account of the violence that accompanied it, opened on August 8, 449.  Eutyches was there, and two officials from the emperor with a considerable body of soldiers. Everything was carried on by violence and open faction in favour of Eutyches, and the pope’s legates were not allowed to read his letters to the council. Amidst wild disorder the result of these proceedings was a sentence of deposition against Flavian and Eusebius. The papal legates protested. When Dioscorus began to read the sentence he was interrupted by several of the bishops, who besought him to proceed no further in so unwarrantable a course. Dioscorus started up and called loudly for Elpidius and Eulogius, the imperial commissioners, who without more ado ordered the church doors to be opened, thus giving admittance to Proclus, the proconsul of Asia, who entered surrounded by soldiers and followed by a mob with clubs. The assembly was so intimidated that, when the bishops were required to subscribe, few or none had the courage to withstand the threats of Dioscorus except the pope’s legates who loudly protested and left in disgust.

St Flavian was able to appeal to Pope Leo and the other bishops in the West, and to deliver his written acts of appeal to the legates. But during the confusion and disorder he was thrown to the ground and, egged on it is said by Dioscorus himself and the abbot Barsumas, he was kicked and beaten so severely by the soldiers and roughs that he died very shortly after—not at Ephesus as some have supposed but in his place of exile near Sardis in Lydia. The triumph of Chrysa­phius was short-lived. The Emperor Theodosius died in the following year, and Chrysaphius was executed by order of Marcian, whose consort St Pulcheria had St Flavian’s body brought to Constantinople with great honour to be buried among his predecessors in the see. He was vindicated at the great Council of Chalcedon in 451, when Eusebius of Dorylaeum was reinstated and Dioscorus of Alexandria deprived of his see and exiled.

Despite the copious materials, supplemented in recent years by fresh Syriac documents, which we possess regarding St Flavian and the “Robber Council” of Ephesus, some of the evidence is contradictory and many points still remain obscure. A very full discussion of these matters will be found in the text and notes of Hefele.-Leclercq, Histoire des Conciles, vol. ii, pp. 499—880. The Roman Martyrology does not explicitly call St Flavian a martyr, but it says that he was attacked “by the faction of the impious Dioscorus with blows and kicks and driven into exile where after three days he died”. There is, however, some conflict of evidence as to the occasion and manner of his death.
At Constantinople, St. Flavian, bishop, who, for having defended the Catholic faith at Ephesus, was attacked with slaps and kicks by the faction of the impious Dioscorus, and then driven into exile where he died within three days.
from 446 or 447, succeeding St. Proclus. Refusing to give Em­peror Theodosius II a bribe upon becoming patriarch and making the emperor’s sister Pulcherius a deaconess, Flavian received hostile treat­ment from the imperial court. Flavian also started the condemnation of Eutyches, who began the heresy of Monophysitism. This led to his being deposed and exiled at the so-called “Robber Synod” at Ephesus in 449, whereupon the famous “Tome” of dogmatic letters of Pope Leo I the Great was ignored. Appealing to the Pope, Flavian was beaten so mercilessly that he was mortally wounded and died three days later in exile. He was proclaimed a saint and martyr by the Council of Chalcedon in 451.

Flavian of Constantinople BM (RM) Died in Hypepe, Lydia, 449. Appointed patriarch of Constantinople to succeed Saint Proclus in 447, Flavian incurred the enmity of Chrysaphius, chancellor of Emperor Theodosius III, by withholding the customary bribe on his accession to the see and that of the emperor himself by refusing to make his sister, Pulcheria, a deaconess. It was not long before Flavian crowned these political nightmares by denouncing the heresy of Eutyches, abbot of a nearby monastery and a favorite of the imperial court (he was godfather to Chrysaphius).
Flavian maintained that Jesus was fully human against those like Eutyches who taught that he had only a divine nature. The condemnation was repeated by Eusebius of Dorylaeum at a synod called by Flavian in 448, and Eutyches was deposed and excommunicated. In this Flavian was supported by Pope Leo the Great who sent Flavian a letter, which we now call the 'Tome of Leo,' asserting that in Jesus Christ 'there was born true God in the entire and perfect nature of true man.'

Chrysaphius persuaded Theodosius to convene a council at Ephesus (the 'Robber Synod') in 449. Dioscorus of Alexandria presided, and in meetings characterized by violence and intimidation, the emperor's soldiers refused to allow Leo's letter to be read. Eusebius and Flavian were deposed and Dioscorus was declared patriarch. The order was enforced by the soldiers who required each bishop present to sign the deposition order. Flavian was so badly beaten that he died three days later in prison.

the acts of this 'robber synod' were reversed when Theodosius died in 450 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451 reinstated Eusebius, deposed and exiled Dioscoros, and proclaimed Flavian a saint and a martyr. Upon his accession to the throne in 451, Emperor Marcian had Chrysaphius executed (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia)

632 Helladius of Toledo native minister court of Visigoth kings B (RM)
 Toléti, in Hispánia, sancti Helládii, Epíscopi et Confessóris, qui a sancto Ildefónso, Toletáno Episcopo, multis láudibus celebrátur.
       At Toledo, Spain, St. Helladius, bishop and confessor, who received much praise from St. Ildefonse, Bishop of Toledo.
Helladius, a native of Toledo, Spain, and a minister of the court of the Visigoth kings, loved to pay frequent visits to the abbey of Agali (Agallia) near Toledo on the banks of the Tagus River. One day he joined the community and eventually in 605 was made its abbot. In 615, he was promoted to archbishop of Toledo (Benedictines).
633 ST HELLADIUS, ARCHBISHOP OF TOLEDO
ST HELLADIUS in early life as a layman was attached to the court of the Visigothic kings. Not only was he a learned man but he was also an able diplomatist; he became a royal official, and in that capacity he attended the Council of Toledo in 589 and was one of its signatories. Even at that period he had aspirations after the religious life, and St Ildephonsus, who was afterwards ordained deacon by him, describes how he loved to slip away to the monastery of Agali near the banks of the Tagus. There he would assist the brethren in their labours and help them to carry home the sheaves of corn. After some time, the call became so insistent that he abandoned the world altogether and entered the monastery. In 605 he was elected abbot and when, after the death of Archbishop Aurasius in 615, the vacant see was pressed upon him, he accepted with the greatest reluctance. He showed boundless generosity to the poor, but we have few, if any, other details of his episcopate. Some writers have conjectured that it was Helladius who instigated King Sisebut to expel the Jews from his kingdom, but there is no positive evidence to go upon. He died in 633.

See the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, and cf. Gams, Kirchengeschichte von Spanien, vol. ii, Pt 2, pp. 82 seq.
676 St. Colman of Lindisfarne; Irish bishop of Lindisfarne; chief defender of Celtic customs
England a disciple of St. Columba. He was born in Connaught, Ireland. At the Synod of Whitby Colman defended the Celtic ecclesiastical practices against St. Eilfrid and St. Agilbert.
When King Oswy introduced the Roman rites, Colman refused to accept the decision and led a group of Irish and English monks to the Isle of Innishboffin, near Connaught. In time he moved the English monks to Mayo. Colman was praised by Blessed Alcuin and St. Bede.
676 ST COLMAN, BISHOPof LINDISFARNE
ST COLMAN, the third bishop of Lindisfarne, equalled St Aidan and St Finan in piety and zeal; like them, he was a native of Ireland and had been a monk of St Columba’s on the island of Iona. His short episcopal rule of three years’ duration is, however, chiefly remembered from the part he took in the Synod of Whitby. Differences of discipline and custom between the adherents of the Celtic tradition in the Church and those who followed the Roman use had been the cause of disputes for some years, but the question came to a head when King Oswy of Northumbria found that one year when he and his subjects were keeping Easter, his wife Eanfleda and her Kentish chaplain were observing the day as Palm Sunday. This question of the date of Easter was the burning one. To settle the matter once for all, a synod was in 663 or 664* [*Following Bede, the date of the important synod of Whitby is generally given as 664. According to our system of reckoning it was perhaps in the autumn of 663: see F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, p. 129. But cf. W. Levison, England and the Continent (1946), pp. 265 seq.] called at Whitby at the instance of King Oswy, and whilst St Wilfrid and the Frankish bishop St Agilbert defended the Roman cause St Colman upheld the Scottish use. Colman alleged the example of his predecessors and of St Columba himself, and claimed that practice to have been established in Asia by St John the Evangelist: which assertion it would have been a difficult task to prove, as Alban Butler gently observes. Agilbert, pleading himself unpractised in English, asked St Wilfrid to reply for him. He accordingly pointed out to the assembly at some length that Colman and his followers would be at fault did they refuse to follow the instructions of the Apostolic See, and claimed that the whole of the rest of the Church followed the Roman use: “Only these people [i.e. the Irish] with their confederates the Picts and the Britons, inhabitants of two islands in the farthest west—and not even all of them—persistently stand out against the whole world.” It is so that Bede reports Wilfrid’s somewhat intemperate words, St Wilfrid concluded his fighting speech by quoting our Lord’s commission to Peter “Thou art Peter...” Oswy asked Colman if it were true that these words were spoken. “It is true,” answered Colman. Then said the king, “Can you show any such power given to your Columba?” “None.”—“Do you all”, asked Oswy, “on both sides admit that our Lord said this particularly to Peter, and that the Lord gave him the keys of the kingdom of Heaven?” They replied: “We do,” “Then”, he concluded, “I declare that I will not oppose this keeper of the gate of Heaven, and that I will obey his orders to the utmost of my power lest he shut that gate against me.”
This resolution of the king was approved by the assembly.* [*The form of the tonsure was also discussed the Celtic monks shaved the part of the head in front of a line drawn over the crown from ear to ear. There was also supposed to be something the matter with the way they baptized. The synod of Whitby marked the end of the paschal controversy in the West, but as in other like disputes there was more than matters of discipline at stake. St Wilfrid definitely led the churches of the British Isles towards closer dependence on Rome. Had both “Celts” and “Romans” previously shown more of the Roman tolerance, the acerbities and damage of their controversy would have been considerably less. Some of the arguments used on either side would not hold water. Italy, Gaul and Egypt all kept Easter on different dates at the end of the fourth century, to name no other variations even today some Eastern Catholics celebrate the feast by the discarded Julian computation.]

St Colman, however, could not bring himself to accept the decision, and he preferred to resign his bishopric. With all the Irish monks of Lindisfarne and thirty of the Englishmen he withdrew, first to Iona and then to Ireland, where he founded a monastery on the Isle of Inishbofin, off the coast of Connacht. Here they could continue to carry out their traditional use, for the authorities in Rome were not disposed to press a point which involved no question of doctrine they trusted that time would bring about the gradual adoption of the practice of the rest of the Church—and the event proved their wisdom.

Even now, St Colman’s troubles were not over, for his English and Irish monks could not get on together. The Englishmen complained that the Irishmen left them to do the work of har­vesting and then expected to enjoy the fruit of their labours. The saint decided to found a second house, and built a monastery at Mayo on the mainland to which he transferred the English monks. He remained abbot over the two communities until his death in 676.

St Bede could not bear the “strange practices” of the Celtic churchmen, but neither could he resist the fragrant memory of St Colman and his monks, and he wrote a long generous tribute to them. “The whole care of those teachers was to serve God, not the world, to feed the soul rather than pamper the belly . . . so that wherever any priest or monk went all gladly received him as God’s servant.”   St Colman’s feast is observed in the diocese of Argyll and the Isles.

The story is told in Bede, Eccl. Hist., bk iii, caps 25 and 26, and bk iv, cap. 4. On the paschal controversy among the Celts, see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxiv (1946), pp. 200~244 ; and cf. MacNaught’s Celtic Church and the See of Peter (1927), pp. 68—93. The Colmans in the Irish martyrologies are innumerable, and it does not seem quite certain that the “chaste Colman” who left his native land and who is commemorated in the Félire of Oengus on February 18 is to be identified with this Colman. We are told in the Life of St Carthage that some of his monks were working beside a stream. The one in charge called out, “Colman, get into the water”. Twelve jumped in.
Colman of Lindisfarne B (AC) Born in Connaught, Ireland, c. 605; died on Inishbofin, 676 (some chronicles give it as 672, 674, or 675; some parts of Ireland celebrate his feast on August 8.  Saint Colman became a monk at Iona under Saint Columba and c. 661 succeeded Saint Finan as the third abbot-bishop of Lindisfarne, the most important monastery in Northumbria, England, close to the royal castle at Bamburg. At that time the disagreement in Northumbria about the date of Easter, style of tonsure, the role of the bishop, and other Celtic ecclesiastical usages had reached a critical stage, and in 664 a synod met at Whitby Abbey under Saint Hilda to settle the matter.

Saint Colman was the chief defender of the Celtic customs; Saints Wilfrid and Agilbert those of Rome. King Oswy of Northumbria came favoring the Irish view, but accepted Wilfrid's argument in favor of adopting the practice of the rest of the known contemporary Church. Thereupon Colman, refusing to accept the king's ruling in a spiritual matter, resigned his bishopric and retired, first to Iona and then (c. 667) to Inishbofin off the Connaught coast. All his Irish monks and 30 English monks went with him and brought with them some of the relics of Saint Aidan.

But the two elements of the community disagreed among themselves because, as Saint Bede reports, the English complained that all the work of the harvest was left to them. Apparently, each summer the Irish monks went off, leaving the Anglo-Saxons to plant and harvest the fields. So, Colman made a separate foundation for the English monks on the mainland called Mayo of the Saxons. The first abbot of Mayo after Colman was an Englishman, Saint Gerald, who lived until 732. Bede praises the fact that the abbots of Mayo were elected, rather than following the Celtic custom as a "hereditary" monastery.

Saint Bede, who was not in sympathy with the distinctively Celtic practices, gives a glowing account of the church of Lindisfarne under Saint Colman's rule. He emphasizes the example of frugality and simplicity of living set by the bishop and the complete devotion of his clergy to their proper business of imparting the word of God and ministering to their people.

Blessed Alcuin also praised the monks of the Mayo of the Saxons for leaving their homeland in voluntary exile, where they shone by their learning among a "very barbarous nation" (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Montague).

814 St. Angilbert Benedictine abbot advisor to Charlemagne body was found to be incorrupt

814 ST ANGILBERT, ABBOT.  There is no satisfactory evidence that at that time he was either monk or priest it is indeed not certain that he ever was a priest.
THE early career of St Angilbert gave no indication of the sanctity to which he afterwards is said to have attained. Brought up at the court of Charlemagne and educated by Alcuin, he grew up a brilliant and able but worldly young man. Classical nicknames were in vogue amongst the aristocratic young highbrows of the time, and Angilbert was known as “Homer”. His Latin verses were greatly admired by his contemporaries, and they prove that he possessed something of the poetic genius; but he was far removed from Homer. So greatly was he loved by Charlemagne, that it was said of him that he was the monarch’s second self. Al­though destined eventually for an archbishopric, he is stated by his biographer Anscher to have married Bertha, a daughter of the king, and the monk Nithard distinctly claimed that he and his brother Harnid were the sons of Angilbert and Bertha. On the other hand Eginhard never even mentions Angilbert in his Life of Charlemagne—a strange omission if he had been Charlemagne’s son-in-law, but natural enough if the union had been a mere intrigue, as it may well have been in that licentious court.

   According to his biographer it was a dangerous illness that first turned Angil­bert’s thoughts towards the religious life. Amongst the offices he is said to have held was that of count or protector of the maritime provinces against the Northmen, who were a constant menace. We are told that on one occasion he had to cope with a most dangerous invasion when the Danes actually sailed up the Somme. On the eve of battle, St Angilbert went to implore aid at the tomb of St Riquier in the monastery of Centula, near Amiens, and he then vowed that, if successful, he would himself become one of the monks. His prayer was answered by a violent storm which utterly disorganized the enemy’s fleet and made the defeat of the invaders an easy matter. Angilbert carried out his vow, and Bertha also entered a convent. It must be confessed, however, that the whole story is very doubtful. In any case the king continued to shower favours upon him: he invested him with the revenues of Centula and helped him to rebuild the abbey with great magnificence, and he made him his privy councillor as well as chief court chaplain, and entrusted him with important missions to Rome and elsewhere. Angilbert did, however, spend his last years as a monk of Centula, of which he soon became abbot. He built a fine library, and instituted amongst his monks the laus perennis, or continuous choir service whereby the praise of God never ceased by day or night. He lived to a great age, but managed to travel to court to append his signature to the last will and testament of his great earthly patron, who made him one of his executors. But Angilbert took to his bed immediately after his return, and died twenty-two days after the death of Charlemagne.

The two late medieval biographies of Angilbert, by Hariulf and by Anscher, are not very reliable, but they supply a certain amount of detail and they may be supplemented from contemporary letters and chronicles. The lives will be found in Mabillon, vol. iv. A good account of Angilbert is given in the Kirchenlexikon, vol. i, cc. 849—851 see also DHG., vol. iii, cc. 520—523. Modern writers are apt to set Angilbert’s lapses in a very misleading light. In the Cambridge Medieval History (vol. ii, p. 663) Prof. C. Seeliger remarks that Charlemagne’s daughter Bertha “had two sons by the pious Abbot Angilbert of St Riquier.”  There is no satisfactory evidence that at that time he was either monk or priest it is indeed not certain that he ever was a priest.

He was raised in the court of Emperor Charlemagne, and studied under the great English scholar, Alcuin. Receiving minor orders, Angilbert accompanied King Pepin to Italy in 782. Returning to the court, he became known as "Homer" because of his literary and language skills. He also served as an envoy of the court to the pope. In 790, Angilbert was named the abbot of Saint-Riquier in Picardy, France. Angilbert either rebuilt or restored the abbey and endowed it with two hundred books. In the year 800, Charlemagne came to visit him. Angilbert also fathered two children, having had an affair with Bertha, Charlemagne's daughter. Angilbert did penance for this relationship, and Bertha entered a convent. Nithard, a noted historian of the era and Angilbert's son, wrote of the penance's and austerities undertaken. Angilbert died on February 18, 814. Some years after his burial, his body was found to be incorrupt.

Angilbert of Centula, OSB, Abbot (AC)  Died 814. Nicknamed "Homer" because of his Latin verses, he was raised at the court of Charlemagne and studied under Alcuin. He married Charlemagne's daughter, Bertha (some scholars believe it was an affair rather than a marriage), but turned to religious life when prayers for a successful resistance to a Danish invasion were answered when a storm scattered the Danish fleet.
Bertha entered a convent and he became a monk, excelled as a minister, and filled several important offices. As a reward Charlemagne gave Angilbert the abbey of Saint Riquier (Centula) and Angilbert became a model abbot. He established a library at Centula and also introduced continuous chanting in the abbey, using his three hundred monks and 100 boys in relays to do so. He was a close friend and confidante of Charlemagne, was his court chaplain and privy councilor, undertook several diplomatic missions for the emperor, and was one of the executors of the emperor's will (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

1166 St. Theotonius Augustinian, trusted canon; royal advisor all forms of royal corruption opponent
Born in Gonfeo, Spain, in 1088, he studied at Coimbra, Portugal, and served for a time as archpriest of Viseu. After undertaking a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, he returned home and entered the Augustinian Canons at Coimbra. He held a trusted position as advisor to King Alfonso I Henriquez of Portugal (r. 1128-1181) and was a dedicated opponent of all forms of royal corruption. Theotonius rebuked the queen for an adulterous affair and refused a bishopric from her.
1166 ST THEOTONIUS
ST THEOTONIUS is held in great honour in Portugal. A nephew of Cresconius, Bishop of Coimbra, he had been destined for the priesthood from his earliest years after his ordination he was appointed to Viseu, and in a short time the spiritual charge of all in that township was entrusted to him. A man of true holiness and austerity of life, he was also a great preacher whose fame spread far and wide. He resigned his office of archpriest to visit the Holy Land, but on his return continued to work at Viseu. The queen and her husband, Henry, Count of Portugal, repeatedly urged him to accept a bishopric, but he always refused. He had a great love for the poor and for the souls in Purgatory, for whom he used to sing solemn Mass every Friday. This was followed by a procession to the cemetery in which the whole population joined and in the course of which large sums of money were given in alms: these he invariably distributed amongst the poor. He was out­spoken in rebuking vice, and the greatest in the land feared and respected him. When the widowed queen and Count Ferdinand (whose association with her was causing scandal) were present at one of his sermons, St Theotonius uttered from the pulpit stern words so obviously aimed at them that they were filled with con­fusion and beat a hasty retreat. On another occasion he was vested and about to celebrate a Mass of our Lady when he received a message from the queen, who was at the church, asking him to shorten the time he usually took. He sent back word that he was offering Mass in honour of a sovereign who was greater than any royal personage on earth, and that the queen was quite at liberty to stay or to go. Far from resenting this, she was filled with penitence and waited till after the service was over to ask pardon and to receive the saint’s reprimand.

    After a second pilgrimage to the Holy Land, St Theotonius found that his former preceptor, Tellus, was busied with a scheme of a new monastery at Coimbra to be composed of Canons Regular of St Augustine; and Theotonius decided to join them, being the twelfth on the original foundation, of which he soon became prior. King Alphonsus, who greatly venerated him, heaped gifts on this monastery of the Holy Cross, as did also Queen Mafalda, although she sought in vain to be permitted to cross the threshold. In a careless age, St Theotonius was remarkable for his insistence on the exact and reverent recitation of the daily offices : he would never allow them to be gabbled or hurried. The king attributed to the holy man’s prayers his victories over his enemies and recovery from illness, and in his gratitude granted the saint’s request that he should liberate all his Mozarabic Christian captives. Theotonius rose to be abbot of the monastery, where he spent the last thirty years of his life, dying at the age of eighty. When Alphonsus heard of his death, he exclaimed, “His soul will have gone up to Heaven before his body is lowered into the tomb. 
The Life of St Theotonius, written by a contemporary who was one of the com­munity of the Holy Cross which he governed so wisely, leaves the impression of an ex­ceptionally sane and trustworthy document. There are no extravagant miracles, but there breathes in every line a true and reverent affection for the saint which it commemorates. It is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii. Cf. also Florez, España Sagrada, vol. xxiii, pp. 105 seq., and Carvalho da Silva, Vida do admiravel Padre S. Theotonio (1764).
Theotonius of Coimbra, OSA, Abbot (AC) Born in Spain; died 1166; cultus approved by Benedict XIV. Theotonius, nephew of Bishop Cresconius of Coimbra, Portugal, was educated in Coimbra and became an archpriest of Viseu. He proved himself to be an outstanding preacher as well as a man of holiness and austerity. He resigned that office to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On his return, he continued to work at Viseu. While the queen and her husband, Henry, Count of Portugal, repeatedly urged him to accept a bishopric, he was contemplating retiring further from the world.
Theotonius had a tremendous love of the poor and the souls in purgatory, for whom he sang solemn Mass every Friday. This would be followed by a procession to the cemetery in which to whole city joined and in the course of which large sums of money were given in alms for him to distribute among the poor.

But he was no wimp. He was outspoken in rebuking vice, and the greatest in the land feared and respected him. When the widowed queen and Count Ferdinand (whose alliance with her was causing scandal) were present at one of his sermons, Saint Theotonius uttered stern words so obviously directed at them that they were both filled with confusion and retreated hastily. Another time, he was vested to begin the celebration of the Mass of the Blessed Virgin, when he received a message from the queen, who was at the church, asking him to shorten the time he usually took. He sent back word that he was offering Mass in honor of a sovereign who was greater than any royal personage on earth, and that the queen was free to leave or stay.

After a second pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he found that his former preceptor, Tellus, was founding a new Augustinian monastery at Coimbra, and Theotonius decided to join them. He became its 12th prior. Theotonius was highly esteemed by King Alphonsus of Portugal and his Queen Matilda, who lavished gifts on the monastery of the Holy Cross. He was fearless in rebuking vice and exact in the performance of divine service. He was remarkable for his insistence on the exact and reverent recitation of the daily offices; he would never allow them to be garbled or hurried. The king attributed victory over his enemies and recovery from illness to the prayers of Saint Theotonius, and in his gratitude granted the saint's request that he should liberate all his Mozarabic Christian captives. When Alphonsus heard of Theotonius's death, he exclaimed, "His soul will have gone up to heaven before his body is lowered into the tomb." This saint is still highly venerated in Portugal (Benedictines, Walsh).

1455 Blessed John of Fiesole patron of Christian artists
b 1400
The patron of Christian artists was born around 1400 in a village overlooking Florence. He took up painting as a young boy and studied under the watchful eye of a local painting master. He joined the Dominicans at about age 20, taking the name Fra Giovanni. He eventually came to be known as Fra Angelico, perhaps a tribute to his own angelic qualities or maybe the devotional tone of his works.

He continued to study painting and perfect his own techniques, which included broad-brush strokes, vivid colors and generous, lifelike figures. Michelangelo once said of Fra Angelico: “One has to believe that this good monk has visited paradise and been allowed to choose his models there.” Whatever his subject matter, Fra Angelico sought to generate feelings of religious devotion in response to his paintings. Among his most famous works are the Annunciation and Descent from the Cross as well as frescoes in the monastery of San Marco in Florence.

He also served in leadership positions within the Dominican Order. At one point Pope Eugenius approached him about serving as archbishop of Florence. Fra Angelico declined, preferring a simpler life. He died in 1455.

1594 Bl. William Harrington priest Martyr of England
Born at Mt. St. John, Yorkshire, he studied for the priesthood after meeting St. Edmund Campion and was ordained at Reims, France, in 1592. William returned to England to work in the English mission. Arrested in London in 1593 for being a priest, he was hanged, drawn, and quartered atTyburn.
1594 BD WILLIAM HARRINGTON, MARTYR
A curious fact about this martyr is that after his death he was accused by a woman of having had a child by her before he was ordained. She was an apostate Catholic, of disorderly life, and this was only one charge among others made by her against Harrington and Catholics in general, some of them of such a kind that her testimony about anything is discredited from the start. The baselessness of the particular accusation against Harrington has been shown by Father Morris in his Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers. Father Pollen has noted that, at a time when Catholics were subjected to the most outrageous charges, this is the only one of its kind on record as having been made against one who died for his faith.

William Harrington was born in 1566 at Mount St John, Felixkirk, in the North Riding. When he was a youth of fifteen he met Bd Edmund Campion who was a guest in his father’s house, and under the force of that example he went abroad to become a priest, first to the college at Rheims and then to the Jesuits at Tournai. But here his health gave way; he had to give up any idea of joining that order, and for half-a-dozen or more years he returned home. Then he went back to Rheims, and was ordained in 1592. In midsummer of that year Mr Harrington came on the mission, and in the following May was apprehended in London, where he had been ministering. For nine months he was kept in prison, and bore its rigours with notable fortitude and constancy. His demeanour at his trial made a deep impres­sion; but he was condemned for his priesthood, and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered.

The sentence was carried out on February 8, 1594. Stow in his Chronicle recording that, “Harrington, a seminary priest, was drawn from Newgate to Tyburn, and there hanged, cut down alive, struggled with the hangman, but was bowelled and quartered”. Of which Bishop Challoner pertinently remarks that it  “cannot be drawn to an argument of his not being resigned to die, but only shows the efforts which nature will be sure to make in a man whose senses are stunned by having been half hanged, and therefore, by the motions of his hands and body, strives to resist that unnatural violence which is offered by the hands and knife of the executioner”. Bd William Harrington was only twenty-seven years old at his death. 

See MMP., p. 197; Morris, Troubles… pp. 104—107; Gillow, Biog. Dict. Pollen in the Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v., and The Month for April, 1874. The source for the slander on Barrington’s memory is Harsnet, Declaration of egregious Popish Impostures (London, 1603). The poet John Donne’s brother, Henry, was imprisoned in 1593 for harbouring Barrington, and died of jail-fever.

Blessed William Harrington M (AC) Born at Mount Saint John, Felixkirk, Yorkshire, England; died at Tyburn, 1594; beatified in 1929. William was educated and ordained in 1592 at Rheims. He was only 27 when he was hanged, drawn, and quartered for his priesthood (Benedictines).
1601 Bl. John Pibush English martyr solely for his priesthood
born in Thirsk, Yorkshire. He went to Reims and was ordained in 1587. Returning to England in 1589, John was arrested at Gloucestershire in 1593 and kept in prison in London. He escaped but was recaptured and then tried and condemned. He was executed at Southwark. His beatification took place in 1929.

1601 BD JOHN PIBUSH, MARTYR

This martyr was born at Thirsk in the North Riding and was made priest at Rheims in 1587. After ministering in England for four years he was arrested at Moreton-in-the-Marsh in Gloucestershire in 1593, and taken to London, where he was confined without trial in the Gatehouse for a year. Then he was brought up at the Gloucester assizes and convicted of being a seminary priest, but was sent back to the local jail without being sentenced. In the following February he took advantage of a break-out by other prisoners to escape himself, but was careless enough to walk openly on the highway and so was retaken the next day, at Matson. He was then sent to London again, retried, and sentenced to death, on July 1, 1595.  But in fact the sentence was not carried out for another five years and more. In the meantime Mr Pibush was left to suffer in the filth and brutality of the Queen’s Bench prison. Not only was his health undermined, so that his lungs rotted with tuberculosis, but he was subjected to ill-treatment from his fellow prisoners, especially when he tried to bring them to a more godly frame of mind. However, in the long run he seems to have softened both them and his jailers, for he was allowed some little privacy and was even able to celebrate Mass occasionally. His name was on the list of those imprisoned Catholics to be sent to Wisbech castle, but at the last moment it was struck off; and after all this time in prison Mr Pibush was put to death at twenty-four hours’ notice.
On February 17, 1601, he was brought before Popham, L.C.J. (who had removed his name from the Wisbech list) and asked for any reason why his sentence should not be carried out. He replied that he had never in his life done anything for which he could justly be put to death; that he was condemned simply for being a Catholic priest; and that he was willing to lay down his life several times over for that cause. He was then told to prepare for death, which took place the next day at St Thomas’s Waterings in Southwark, a spot whose very name spoke of pilgrims to the shrine of another martyr, Thomas Becket.

See MMP., pp. 152—153 Gillow, Biog. Dict. Pollen, Acts of the English Martyrs, pp. 335—336 Catholic Record Society’s publications, vol. v, pp. 337—340.
Blessed John Pibush M (AC) Born at Thirsk, Yorkshire, England; died 1601; beatified in 1929. John was educated at Rheims and ordained in 1587. He was sent to the English mission where he spent his time mostly in prison until he was finally executed at Southwark, solely for his priesthood (Benedictines).
1855 Blessed Andrew Nam-Thung native catechist of Cochin-China M (AC)
Born c. 1790; beatified 1909. Andrew was a native catechist of Cochin-China and mayor of his village. He died on the way to exile at Mi-Tho, eastern Cochin-China (Benedictines).

Bl. Martin Martyr of China native Chinese
who sheltered Blessed John Peter Neel. Martin was beheaded and beatified in 1909.

Blessed Agnes De martyred native cradle Christian VM (AC)
Born in Bai-den, West Tonkin (Vietnam); died at Nam-dinh July 12, 1841; beatified 1909. Agnes was born into a Christian family and died in prison for the faith (Benedictines).

1858 St. Agatha Lin Chinese martyr
She was born in 1817 at Ma-Tchang, China. A teacher at a Christian school, Agatha was beheaded for the faith in Mao-kin on January 28, 1858. She was beatified on May 2, 1909.

Blessed Agatha Lin VM (AC) Born at Ma-Tchang, China, in 1817; died at Mao-ken, China, January 28, 1858; beatified on May 2, 1909. Agatha was a Chinese school teacher, who was beheaded for the faith (Benedictines).

1862 Blessed John Peter French missionary priest & Martin native catechist MM (AC)
(also known as Jean-Pierre Néel) beatified in 1909. A French missionary priest who was martyred because he baptized too many Chinese. He was arrested, tied by his hair to a horse's tail, dragged, then beheaded at Kuy- tsheu. Three of his converts were beheaded at the same time as he was. Martin (1815-1862) was one of Jean-Pierre's native catechists and his host, who was among those beheaded (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).


Mary's Divine Motherhood
   Saturday  Saints of this Day February  18 Duodécimo Kaléndas Mártii.  
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  February 2017
Comfort for the Afflicted
That all those who are afflicted, especially the poor, refugees,
and marginalized, may find welcome and comfort in our communities.
ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
                      

                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Saints of February 01 mention with Popes
865 St. Ansgar (b. 801) The “apostle of the north” (Scandinavia) had enough frustrations to become a saint—and he did. He became a Benedictine at Corbie, France, where he had been educated. Three years later, when the king of Denmark became a convert, Ansgar went to that country for three years of missionary work, without noticeable success. Sweden asked for Christian missionaries, and he went there, suffering capture by pirates and other hardships on the way. Less than two years later he was recalled, to become abbot of New Corbie (Corvey) and bishop of Hamburg. The pope made him legate for the Scandinavian missions. Funds for the northern apostolate stopped with Emperor Louis’s death. After 13 years’ work in Hamburg, Ansgar saw it burned to the ground by invading Northmen; Sweden and Denmark returned to paganism.
He directed new apostolic activities in the North, traveling to Denmark and being instrumental in the conversion of another king. By the strange device of casting lots, the king of Sweden allowed the Christian missionaries to return.  Ansgar’s biographers remark that he was an extraordinary preacher, a humble and ascetical priest. He was devoted to the poor and the sick, imitating the Lord in washing their feet and waiting on them at table. He died peacefully at Bremen, Germany, without achieving his wish to be a martyr.
Sweden became pagan again after his death, and remained so until the coming of missionaries two centuries later.

1645 St Henry Morse Jesuit fought off the plague returned several times to England ministering.  Born in Broome, Suffolk, England, in 1595; died at Tyburn, England, February 1, 1645; beatified in 1929; canonized in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
Saint Henry, like so many saints of his period in the British Isles, was a convert to Catholicism. He was a member of the country gentry, who studied at Cambridge then finished his study of law at Barnard's Inn, London. In 1614, he professed the Catholic faith at Douai. When he returned to England to settle an inheritance, he was arrested for his faith and spent the next four years in New Prison in Southwark. He was released in 1618 when a general amnesty was proclaimed by King James.

Saints of February 02 mention with Popes
  St. Cornelius sent for Peter First bishop of Caesarea.  1st century. Palestine, who was originally a centurion in the Italica cohort of the Roman legion in the area. Cornelius had a vision instructing him to send for St. Peter, who came to his home and baptized him, as described in Acts, chapter ten.
619 St. Lawrence of Canterbury Benedictine Archbishop scourged by St. Peter physical scars.  England, sent there by Pope St. Gregory I the Great. A Benedictine, Lawrence accompanied St. Augustine to Canterbury in 597 and succeeded him as archbishop in 604.  When the Britons lapsed into pagan customs, Lawrence planned to return to France, but in a dream he was rebuked by St. Peter for abandoning his flock. He remained in his see and converted the local ruler King Edbald to the faith. He died in Canterbury on February 2. Lawrence is commemorated in the Irish Stowe Missal and is reported to have been scourged by St. Peter in his dream, carrying the physical scars on his back.
1365 Blessed Peter Cambiano Dominican martyr.   Born in Chieri, Piedmont, Italy, in 1320; died February 2, 1365; beatified in 1856.
Peter Cambiano's father was a city councillor and his mother was of nobility. They were virtuous and careful parents, and they gave their little son a good education, especially in religion. Peter responded to all their care and became a fine student, as well as a pious and likeable child.
Peter was drawn to the Dominicans by devotion to the rosary. Our Lady of the Rosary was the special patroness of the Piedmont region, and he had a personal devotion to her. At 16, therefore, he presented himself at the convent in Piedmont and asked for the habit.       The inquisition had been set up to deal with these people in Lombardy before the death of Peter Martyr, a century before. So well did young Peter of Ruffia carryout the work of preaching among them that the order sent him to Rome to obtain higher degrees. The pope, impressed both by his talent and his family name, appointed him inquisitor-general of the Piedmont. This was a coveted appointment; to a Dominican it meant practically sure martyrdom and a carrying on of a proud tradition.
1640 St. Joan de Lestonnac Foundress many miracles different kinds occurred at her tomb.   After her children were raised, she entered the Cistercian monastery at Toulouse. Joan was forced to leave the Cistercians when she became afflicted with poor health.
She returned to Bordeaux with the idea of forming a new congregation, and several young girls joined her as novices. They ministered to victims of a plague that struck Bordeaux, and they were determined to counteract the evils of heresy promulgated by Calvinism. Thus was formed the Congregation of the Religious of Notre Dame of Bordeaux. In 1608, Joan and her companions received the religious habit from the Archbishop of Bordeaux. Joan was elected superior in 1610, and many miracles occurred at her tomb. She was canonized in 1949 by Pope Pius XII.

Saints of February 03 mention with Popes
Gregory IV (827-44) # 102
Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a Roman and the son of John. Before his election to the papacy he was the Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of St. Mark, which he adorned with mosaics yet visible. For his piety and learning he was ordained priest by Paschal I. This man, of distinguished appearance and high birth, was raised to the chair of Peter, despite his protestations of unfitness, mainly buy the instrumentality of the secular nobility of Rome who were then securing a preponderating influence in papal elections. But the representatives in Rome of the Emperor Louis the Pious would not allow him to be consecrated until his election had been approved by their master. This interference caused such delay that it was not, seemingly, till about March, 828, that he began to govern the Church.
576 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker  of Spoleto, Italy, also called “the Illuminator.” He was a Syrian, forced to leave his homeland in 514 because of Arian persecution. He went to Rome and was ordained by Pope St. Hormisdas. He then preached in Umbria and founded a monastery in Spoleto. Named bishop of Spoleto, Lawrence was rejected as a foreigner until the city’s gates miraculously opened for his entrance.
He is called “the Illuminator” because of his ability to cure physical and spiritual blindness. After two decades, Lawrence resigned to found the Farfa Abbey near Rome.
865 St. Ansgar 1st Archbishop of Hamburg & Bremen missionary first Christian church in Sweden Patron of Scandinavia  At Bremen, St. Ansgar, bishop of Hamburg and later of Bremen, who converted the Swedes and the Danes to the faith of Christ.  He was appointed Apostolic Delegate of all the North by Pope Gregory IV.
Ansgar was born of a noble family near Amiens. He became a monk at Old Corbie monastery in Picardy and later at New Corbie in Westphalia. He accompanied King Harold to Denmark when the exiled King returned to his native land and engaged in missionary work there. Ansgar's success caused King Bjorn of Sweden to invite him to that country, and he built the first Christian Church in Sweden. He became Abbot of New Corbie and first Archbishop of Hamburg about 831, and Pope Gregory IV appointed him Legate to the Scandinavian countries. He labored at his missionary works for the next fourteen years but saw all he had accomplished destroyed when invading pagan Northmen in 845 destroyed Hamburg and overran the Scandinavian countries, which lapsed into paganism.
1331 Bl. Odoric of Pordenone Franciscan missionary to Mongol Great Khan in Peking miracles performed . Born Odoric Mattiussi at Villanova, near Pordenone, Italy, he entered the Franciscans in 1300 and became a hermit. After several years, he took to preaching in the region of Udine, northern Italy, attracting huge crowds through his eloquence. In 1316 he set out for the Far East, journeying through China and finally reaching the court of the Mongol Great Khan in Peking. From 1322 to 1328 he wandered throughout China and Tibet, finally returning to the West in 1330 where he made a report to the pope at Avignon and dictated an account of his travels. He died before he could find missionaries to return with him to the East. His cult was approved in 1755 owing to the reports of miracles he performed while preaching among the Chinese.
1450 Blessed Matthew of Girgenti .  Matthew became a Conventual Franciscan in his hometown. Then he turned to the Observants and worked zealously under Saint Bernardino of Siena, with whom he became close friends as they travelled together on Bernardino's preaching missions. He himself gained a reputation as a great preacher. Pope Eugene IV forced him to accept the bishopric of Girgenti. Once he accepted it as God's will, he set about reforming the see. As a result of the opposition the changes raised, he resigned the see. Then he was refused admittance to the friary he himself had founded because he was deemed to be too much of a firebrand. Matthew died in a Franciscan friary at Palermo (Attwater2, Benedictines).

Saints of February 04 mention with Popes
1373 St. Andrew Corsini Carmelite gifts of prophecy, miracles papal legate Apostle of Florence miracles at  death.  He was born in Florence on November 30, 1302, a member of the powerful Corsini family. Wild in his youth, Andrew was converted to a holy life by his mother and became a Carmelite monk. He studied in Paris and Avignon, France, returning to his birthplace. There he became known as the Apostle of Florence. He was called a prophet and miracle worker. Named as the bishop of Fiesole in 1349, Andrew fled the honor but was forced to accept the office, which he held for twelve years. He was sent by Pope Urban V to Bologna to settle disputes between the nobles and commoners, a mission he performed well. Andrew died in Fiesole on January 6, 1373. So many miracles took place at his death that Pope Eugenius IV permitted the immediate opening of his cause.
On Rabanus Maurus “A Truly Extraordinary Personality of the Latin West
784-856 Blessed Maurus Magnentius Rabanus; monk; celebrated theological and pedagogical writer Wrote Veni, Creator Spiritus.  A truly extraordinary personality of the Latin West: the monk Rabanus Maurus. Together with men such as Isidore of Seville, the Venerable Bede and Ambrose Auperto, already spoken in previous catechesis, [Rabanus Maurus] knew how to stay in contact with the great culture of the ancient scholars and the Christian fathers during the centuries of the High Middle Ages.
For this reason, Rabanus Maurus concentrated his attention above all on the liturgy, as the synthesis of all the dimension of our perception of reality. This intuition of Rabanus Maurus makes him extraordinarily relevant to our times. He also left the famous “Carmina” proposals to be used above all in liturgical celebrations. In fact, Rabanus' interest for the liturgy can be entirely taken for granted given that before all, he was a monk. Nevertheless, he did not dedicate himself to the art of poetry as an end in itself, but rather he used art and whatever other type of knowledge to go deeper in the Word of God. Because of this, he tried with all his might and rigor to introduce to his contemporaries, but above all to the ministers (bishops, priests and deacons), to the understanding of the profound theological and spiritual significance of all the elements of the liturgical celebration.

1505 St. Joan of Valois Order of the Annunciation that she founded holiness and spiritual testament.  At Bourges in Aquitaine, St. Jane de Valois, Queen of France, foundress of the Order of Sisters of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, renowned for her piety and singular devotion to the Cross, whom Pope Pius XII added to the catalogue of saints.
1693 St. John de Britto Jesuit martyr in India. In Marava Kingdom in India, St. John de Britto, priest of the Society of Jesus, who having converted many infidels to the faith, was gloriously crowned with martyrdom.
He was a native of Lisbon, Portugal, was dedicated at birth to St. Francis Xavier, and was a noble friend of King Pedro. He entered the Jesuits at the age of fifteen. In his effort to promote conversions among the native Indian people as a missionary to Goa, he wandered through Malabar and other regions and even adopted the customs and dress of the Brahmin caste which gave him access to the noble classes. In 1683, John had to leave India but returned in 1691. Arrested, tortured, and commanded to leave India, he refused and was put to death. Pope Pius XII canonized him in 1947.

Saints of February 05 mention with Popes
1005 Saint Fingen of Metz Abbot restoring old abbeys.  Saint Fingen, a celebrated Irish abbot, migrated to the kingdom of Lothaire, where he acquired a reputation for restoring old abbeys. One of them, Saint Symphorien's, was given over to him about 991 by Bishop Saint Adalbero and an Irish community. At the insistence of the dowager Empress Saint Adelaide, Pope John XVII issued a charter that declared that only Irish monks would administer the abbey as long as they could be found. She obtained a similar charter from Otto III in 992.
1597 St. Leo Karasuma Martyr of Japan Korean Franciscan tertiary.  At Nagasaki in Japan, the passion of twenty-six martyrs.  Three priests, one cleric, and two lay brothers were members of the Order of Friars Minor; one cleric was of the Society of Jesus, and seventeen belonged to the Third Order of St. Francis.  All of them, placed upon crosses for the Catholic faith, and pierced with lances, gloriously died in praising God and preaching that same faith.  Their names were added to the roll of saints by Pope Pius IX.
who served the Franciscan mission, Louis was crucified at Nagasaki, Japan, with twenty-five companions. He was canonized in 1867.

Saints of February 06 mention with Popes
891 Saint Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, "the Church's far-gleaming beacon," The Synod of 861 was called to end the unrest, at which the deposition of Ignatius and the installation of Photius as patriarch were confirmed. Pope Nicholas I, whose envoys were present at this council, hoped that by recognizing Photius as patriarch he could subordinate him to his power. When the new patriarch proved unsubmissive, Nicholas anathematized Photius at a Roman council.
Until the end of his life St Photius was a firm opponent of papal intrigues and designs upon the Orthodox Church of the East.
In 864, Bulgaria voluntarily converted to Christianity. The Bulgarian prince Boris was baptized by Patriarch Photius himself. Later, St Photius sent an archbishop and priests to baptize the Bulgarian people. In 865, Sts Cyril and Methodius were sent to preach Christ in the Slavonic language.  lived during the ninth century, and came from a family of zealous Christians.   His father Sergius died as a martyr in defense of holy icons.
1597 Philip of Jesus martyred in Japan patron of Mexico City  Born in Mexico City, Mexico, May 1, 1571; died in Nagasaki, Japan, 1597; beatified by Pope Urban VIII; canonized by Pope Pius IX in 1862; feast day formerly February 5. The life of Saint Philip points again to the importance of the domestic church--the family. Early in life Saint Philip ignored the pious teachings of his immigrant Spanish family, but eventually he entered the Reformed Franciscan Convent of Santa Barbara at Puebla, Mexico--and soon exited the novitiate in 1589. Grieved at the inconstancy of his son, Philip's father sent him on a business trip to the Philippines.

Saints of February 07 mention with Popes
ST THEODORE OF HERACLEA, MARTYR (No DATE?).  The differentiation of two separate Theodores seems to have occurred somewhat earlier than Father Delehaye supposes. An Armenian homily which F. C. Conybeare believes to be of the fourth century already regards them as distinct and Mgr Wilpert has reproduced a mosaic which Pope Felix IV (526—530) set up in the church of St Theodore on the Palatine, in which our Saviour is represented seated, while St Peter on one side presents to Him one St Theodore and St Paul on the other side presents another.


550 St. Tressan Irish missionary spread the faith in Gaul.   Tressan worked there as a swineherd, but he was ordained to the priesthood by Saint Remigius, who provided the siblings with suitable retreats from which they could spread the faith. Tressan became curate of Mareuil-sur-Marne, and the patron saint of Avenay in Champagne. His cultus is strong and has been continuous in the area of Rheims. More than 1,000 years after his death, Pope Clement VIII and Archbishop Philip of Rheims authorized the publishing of an Office for his feast (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Encyclopedia, Fitzpatrick, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).
1027 ST ROMUALD, ABBOT FOUNDER OF THE CAMALDOLESE BENEDICTINES.    Romuald seems to have spent the next thirty years wandering about Italy, founding hermitages and monasteries. He stayed three years in a cell near that house which he had founded at Parenzo. Here he labored for a time under great spiritual dryness, but suddenly, one day, as he was reciting the words of the Psalmist, I will give thee understanding and will instruct thee “, he was visited by God with an extraordinary light and a spirit of compunction which from that time never left him.
He wrote an exposition of the Psalms full of admirable thoughts, he often foretold things to come, and he gave counsel inspired by heavenly wisdom to all who came to consult him. He had always longed for martyrdom, and at last obtained the pope’s licence to preach the gospel in Hungary; but he was stricken with a grievous illness as soon as he set foot in the country, and as the malady returned each time he attempted to proceed, he concluded it was a plain indication of God’s will in the matter and he accordingly returned to Italy, though some of his associates went on and preached the faith to the Magyars.
1447 St. Colette Poor Clare 17 established monasteries  .   After four years of prayer and penance in this cell, she left it. With the approval and encouragement of the pope, she joined the Poor Clares and reintroduced the primitive Rule of St. Clare in the 17 monasteries she established. Her sisters were known for their poverty—they rejected any fixed income—and for their perpetual fast. Colette’s reform movement spread to other countries and is still thriving today. Colette was canonized in 1807.

Saints of February 08 mention with Popes
485 Martyrs of Constantinople community of monks of Saint Dius  .  At Constantinople, the birthday of the holy martyrs, monks of the monastery of Dius.  While bringing the letter of Pope St. Felix against Acacius, they were barbarously killed for their defence of the Catholic faith.
The community of monks of Saint Dius martyred at the time of the Acacian schism ( first significant break between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Catholic Church) for their fidelity to the Holy See (Benedictines).  Monophysites believed that Christ had only one nature: divine. But orthodox belief held that Christ had two natures: both divine and human expressed at the Council of Chalcedon, an ecumenical council held in 451.

1124 Stephen (Etienne) of Grandmont (of Muret) God give Stephen ability read hearts: deacon austere life little food/sleep for 46 years conversions many obstinate sinners.  At Muret, near Limoges, the birthday of the abbot St. Stephen, founder of the order of Grandmont, celebrated for his virtues and miracles.,
Born in Thiers, Auvergne, France, 1046; died 1124; canonized by Pope Clement III in 1189 at the request of King Henry II of England.
1213 John of Matha hermit first Mass celebrated: vision of angel clothed in white with a red and blue cross on his breast. The angel placed his hands on the heads of two slaves, who knelt beside him.   Pope Innocent III had experienced a similar vision Redemption of Captives (the Trinitarians).     St. John of Matha, priest and confessor, founder of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity for the redemption of captives, who went to repose in the Lord on the 17th of December. (RM) Born in Fauçon, Provence, France, June 23, 1160 (or June 24, 1169, according to Husenbeth, or 1154 per Tabor); died in Rome, Italy, December 17, 1213; cultus approved in 1655 and 1694.
1213 ST JOHN OF MATHA, Co-FOUNDER OF THE ORDER OF THE MOST HOLY  TRINITY
1270 Jacoba de Settesoli She joined the third order of Saint Francis buried in same crypt.  Jacqueline, friend of Saint Francis of Assisi, was born into a noble Italian family descended from the Norman knights who invaded Sicily. She married well to Gratien Frangipani, a family renowned for its charity.  When Jacqueline was about 22 (1212), Saint Francis came to Rome for an audience with the pope. While there, he preached so well that he became famous. When Jacqueline heard Francis praise poverty that opens wide the doors of the Kingdom of Heaven, she realized that charity is not dealt with as one would deal with a servant, and that charity is not a fact, but a state. The next day, Jacqueline sought Francis's direction.   Francis told her to return home, she could not abandon her family. "A perfect life can be lived anywhere. Poverty is everywhere. Charity is everywhere. It is where you are that counts. You have a husband and two children. That is a beautiful frame for a holy life."
And, so, Jacqueline joined the third order of Saint Francis; and because she was masculine and energetic she was nicknamed "Brother Jacoba."
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani devoted himself to poor and suffering special call to help orphans founded orphanages shelter for prostitutes.      At Somascha, in the district of Bergamo, the birthday of St. Jerome Emilian, confessor, who was the founder of the Congregation of Somascha.  Illustrious both during his life and after death for many miracles, he was inscribed in the roll of the saints by Pope Clement XIII.  Pope Pius XI chose and declared him to be the heavenly patron of orphans and abandoned children.  His feast is celebrated on the 20th of July.  b: 1481
Jerome Emiliani lay chained in the dark dirty dungeon. Only a short time before he had been a military commander for Venice in charge of a fortress. He didn't care much about God because he didn't need him -- he had his own strength and the strength of his soldiers and weapons. When Venice's enemies, the League of Cambrai, captured the fortress, he was dragged off and imprisoned. There in the dungeon, Jerome decided to get rid of the chains that bound him. He let go of his worldly attachments and embraced God.
1947 St. Josephine Bakhita slave her spirit was always free c. 1868 .  During his homily at her canonization Mass in St. Peter's Square, Pope John Paul II said that in St. Josephine Bakhita, "We find a shining advocate of genuine emancipation. The history of her life inspires not passive acceptance but the firm resolve to work effectively to free girls and women from oppression and violence, and to return them to their dignity in the full exercise of their rights."

Saints of February 09 mention with Popes
444 ST CYRIL, ARCHBISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH.  ST CYRIL has been called the Doctor of the Incarnation, as St Augustine was styled the Doctor of Divine Grace in the great intercession of the Syrian and Maronite Mass he is commemorated as “a tower of truth and interpreter of the Word of God made flesh”. He was declared a doctor of the Universal Church in 1882  and at the fifteenth centenary of his death in 1944 Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical letter, “Orientalis ecclesiae”, on “this light of Christian wisdom and valiant hero of the apostolate.
    The great devotion of this saint to the Blessed Sacrament is manifest from the frequency with which he emphasizes the effects it produces upon those who receive it worthily. Indeed, he says that by holy communion we are made concorporeal with Christ. And it must surely be difficult for those who profess to hold the same faith as that defined in the first six general councils to shut their eyes to the vigour and conviction with which St Cyril before the year 431 affirmed his Eucharistic doctrine. In a letter to Nestorius, which received the general and formal assent of the fathers at Ephesus, he had written:  Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of
            God, that is, Jesus Christ, and confessing His resurrection from the dead and
            ascent into Heaven, we celebrate the bloodless sacrifice in our churches and
            thus approach the mystic blessings, and are sanctified by partaking of the holy
            flesh and the precious blood of Christ the Saviour of us all. And we receive
            it, not as common flesh (God forbid), nor as the flesh of a man sanctified and
            associated with the Word according to the unity of merit, or as having a divine
            indwelling, but as really the life-giving and very flesh of the Word Himself
            (Migne, PG., lxxvii, xii).
            And he wrote to Calosyrius, Bishop of Arsinoë:
              I hear that they say that the sacramental consecration does not avail for
            hallowing if a portion of it be kept to another day. In saying so they are crazy.
            For Christ is not altered, nor will His holy body be changed; but the power
            of the consecration and the life-giving grace still remain in it (Migne, PG.,
            lxxvi, 1073).
           Our knowledge of St Cyril is derived principally from his own writings and from the church historians Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret. The view of his life and work presented by Butler is the traditional view, and we are not here directly concerned with the discussions which, owing mainly to the discovery of the work known as The Bazaar of Heracleides, have since been devoted to the character of Nestorius and his teaching.
566 Bishop Sabinus of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia   .  At Canossa in Apulia, St. Sabinus, bishop and confessor.  Blessed Pope Gregory tells that he was endowed with the spirit of prophecy and the power of miracles.  After he had become blind, when a cup of poison was offered to him by a servant who was bribed, he knew it by divine instinct.  He, however, declared that God would punish the one who had bribed the servant, and, making the sign of the cross, he drank the poison without anxiety and without harmful effect.
Bishop Sabinus of the now-destroyed city of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia was a friend of Saint Benedict. Pope Saint Agapitus I entrusted him with an embassy to Emperor Justinian (535-536). He is the patron saint of Bari, where his relics are now enshrined (Benedictines).
1088 Blessed Marianus Scotus extraordinarily gifted at producing manuscripts.   In 1078, he founded and became the abbot of the abbey of Saint Peter in Regensburg. Having successfully taken charge of the church and abbey attached to it for the task of copying manuscripts, other Irish monks were attracted to the mission. The abbey expanded to the point that, within 10 years, plans were made for another such monastery. In this way, Muirdach originated the congregation of 12 "Scottish," that is, Irish monasteries in southern Germany. (The reason for the term "Scottish" is that it was used from the time of the Romans for the Irish. Even 200 years after the establishment of the Scottish monarchy, the term was commonly used for things Irish. Although Scottish monks pressured Pope Leo XIII, who did permit them in 1515 to take possession of Saint James in Regensburg and the abbeys at Constanz and Erfurt. In Germany, the 12 are still known as the Schottenklöster. )
1430 Bl. Alvarez of Córdoba Dominican Confessor preacher born in Cordoba.  
When the antipope Benedict XIII came on the scene in 1394-1423, Alvarez opposed him successfully. Alvarez died about 1430. Blessed Alvarez is probably best remembered as a builder of churches and convents, an activity which was symbolic of the work he did in the souls of those among whom he preached. He founded, in one place, a convent to shelter a famous image of Our Lady, which had been discovered in a miraculous manner. Near Cordova he built the famous convent of Scala Coeli, a haven of regular observance. It had great influence for many years. His building enterprises were often aided by the angels, who, during the night, carried wood and stones to spots convenient for the workmen.The austerities of Alvarez were all the more remarkable in that they were not performed by a hermit, but by a man of action. He spent the night in prayer, as Saint Dominic had done; he wore a hairshirt and a penitential chain; and he begged alms in the streets of Cordova for the building of his churches, despite the fact that he had great favor at court and could have obtained all the money he needed from the queen. He had a deep devotion to the Passion, and had scenes of the Lord's sufferings made into small oratories in the garden of Scala Coeli.
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani b. 1481? in 1928 Pius Xl named him the patron of orphans and abandoned children.        At Somascha, in the district of Bergamo, the birthday of St. Jerome Emilian, confessor, who was the founder of the Congregation of Somascha.  Illustrious both during his life and after death for many miracles, he was inscribed in the roll of the saints by Pope Clement XIII.  Pope Pius XI chose and declared him to be the heavenly patron of orphans and abandoned children.  His feast is celebrated on the 20th of July.  b: 1481. Around 1532 Jerome and two other priests established a congregation dedicated to the care of orphans and the education of youth. Jerome died in 1537 from a disease he caugh t while tending the sick. He was canonized in 1767.
1910 St. Michael Cordero Ecuadorian de La Salle Brother first native vocation there.  Michael of Ecuador (RM) (also known as Miguel of Ecuador and Miguel or Francisco Febres Cordero Muñoz)
Born at Cuenca, Ecuador, on November 7, 1854; died near Barcelona, Spain, on February 9, 1910; beatified with fellow Christian Brother Mutien-Marie by Pope Paul VI on October 30, 1977; canonized by Pope John Paul II on April 7, 1984 (the feast of the order's founder).
  "The heart is rich when it is content, and it is always content when its desires are set upon God." --Saint Miguel of Ecuador.

Saints of February 10 mention with Popes
304 Soteris of Rome the Aureli family martyred for Jesus   . Also at Rome, on the Appian Way, St. Soter, virgin and martyr, descended of a noble family, but as St. Ambrose mentions, for the love of Christ she set at naught the consular and other dignitaries of her people.  Upon her refusal to sacrifice to the gods, she was for a long time cruelly scourged.  She overcame these and various other torments, then was struck with the sword; and joyfully went to her heavenly spouse. Two passages of St Ambrose for our knowledge of this martyr. He speaks of her In his De virginibus, iii, 7, and in his Exhortatio virginis, c. 12. At the same time we know from the Hieronymianum” that she was
         originally buried at Rome on the Via Appia. One of the catacombs, the location of which
         it is difficult to determine, afterwards bore her name. Her body was later on translated by
         Pope Sergius II to the church of San Martino di Monti. See the Acta Sanctorum, February,
         vol. ii, and the
mische Quartalschrift, 1905, pp. 50—63 and 105—133.
1157 St. William of Maleval Hermit licentious military life conversion of heart  gift of working miracles and  prophecy In Stábulo Rhodis, in territorio Senénsi, sancti Guiliélmi Eremítæ.  At Malavalle, near Siena, St. William, hermit.  A native of France, he led a dissolute early and maritial life but underwent a conversion through a pilgrimage to Rome, where he was forced to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land (at the command of Pope Eugenius Ill, r. 1145-1153). Upon his return, he lived as a hermit and then became head of a monastery near Pisa. As he failed to bring about serious reforms among the monks there or on Monte Pruno (Bruno), he departed and once more took up the life of a hermit near Siena. Attracting a group of followers, the hermits received papal sanction. They later developed into the Hermits of St. William (the Gulielmites) until absorbed into the Augustinian Canons. In his later years, William was noted for his gifts of prophecy and miracles.
William of Maleval, OSB Hermit (RM) (also known as William of Malval or Malvalla) Born in France; died at Maleval, Italy, February 10, 1157; canonized by Innocent III in 1202. After carefree years of licentious military life, William experienced a conversion of heart of which we are told nothing. The first real piece of information we have is that the penitent Frenchman made a pilgrimage to the tombs of the apostles at Rome. Here he begged Pope Eugenius III for pardon and to set him on a course of penance for his sins. Eugenius enjoined him to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1145. William followed his counsel and spent eight years on the journey, returning to Italy a changed man.
1960 Blessed Aloysius Stepinac, Cardinal demonstrating the importance of faith, charity and virtue.   (also known as Louis or Alojzije of Zagreb) Born at Brezaric near Krasic, Croatia, on May 8, 1898; died at Krasic, on February 10, 1960; beatified on October 3, 1998, by Pope John Paul II at the Marian shrine of Marija Bistrica.  Aloysius Stepinac, the eighth of 12 children of a peasant family, was always the special object of his mother's prayers to he might be ordained. In 1916, he was conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian army and fought on the Italian front until he was taken prisoner. Upon his return to civilian life in 1919, Stepinac entered the University of Zagreb to study agriculture, but soon recognized his call to the priesthood. In 1924, he was sent to Rome for his seminary studies leading to his ordination on October 26, 1930.
He returned to Zagreb in July 1931 with doctorates in theology and philosophy.
Soon afterwards, Stepinac was chosen to become secretary to Archbishop Antun Bauer. On June 24, 1934, he was nominated as coadjutor to the Archbishop of Zagreb. After this nomination, Stepinac stated: "I love my Croatian people and for their benefit I am ready to give everything, as well as I am ready to give everything for the Catholic Church." After Bauer's death on December 7, 1937, Stepinac became the Archbishop of Zagreb. He took as his motto, "In You, O Lord, I take refuge!" (Psalm 31:1), which was the inspiration for his service to the Church.
During the Second World War, Stepinac never turned his back on the refugees, or the persecuted.


Saints of February 11 mention with Popes
350 St. Lucius Martyred bishop of Adrianople opposed Arianism.  Lucius BM and Companions MM (RM) Died 350. Lucius, who succeeded Eutropius as bishop of Adrianople, was driven from his see to Gaul for having opposed Arianism. He played a leading role in the Council of Sardica in 347. Under the protection of Pope Saint Julius I, he returned to Adrianople, but refused to be in communion with the Arian bishops condemned at Sardica. On this account he was arrested and died in prison. A group of his faithful Catholics, who had been siezed with him, were beheaded by order of the Emperor Constantius (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson).
6th v Saint Gobnata (meaning Honey Bee) of Ballyvourney the angels spoke of 9 deer gift of healing, and there is a story of how she kept the plague from Ballyvourney.  The round stone associated with her is still preserved. Several leading families of Munster have a traditional devotion to this best-known and revered local saint. The devotion of the O'Sullivan Beare family may have been the reason that Pope Clement VIII honored Gobnata in 1601 by indulgencing a pilgrimage to her shrine and, in 1602, by authorizing a Proper Mass on her feast. About that time the chieftains of Ireland were making a final struggle for independence and the entire clan migrated to the North having dedicated their fortunes to Gobnata in a mass pilgrimage that included O'Sullivan Beare, his fighting men, and their women, children, and servants (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague, Neeson, O'Hanlon, Sullivan).
608 St. Desiderius martyred Bishop of Vienne  France, murdered by the Frankish queen Brunhildis and her followers, and is revered as a martyr. Born at Autun, he is also called Didier. As bishop, he attacked Queen Brunhildis for immorality. She accused him of paganism, but he was cleared by Pope St. Gregory the Great. Desiderius was then banished from his see. He was slain upon his return four years later at Saint-Didier-sur-Chalaronne.
731 Gregory II, 89th Pope educated at the Lateran  restore clerical discipline, fought heresies  helped restore and rebuild churches (including Saint Paul-Outside-the-Walls), hospitals, and monasteries, including Monte Cassino under Petrona The outstanding concern of his pontificate was his difficulties with Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (RM).   Born in Rome, Italy; sometimes celebrated also on February 13. The 89th pope, Saint Gregory, became involved in church affairs in his youth, was educated at the Lateran, became a subdeacon under Pope Saint Sergius, served as treasurer and librarian of the Church under four popes, and became widely known for his learning and wisdom.
In 710, now a deacon, he distinguished himself in his replies to Emperor Justinian when he accompanied Pope Constantine to Constantinople to oppose the Council of Trullo canon that had declared the patriarchate of Constantinople independent of Rome and helped to secure Justinian's acknowledgment of papal supremacy.
On May 19, 715, Gregory was elected pope to succeed Constantine, put into effect a program to restore clerical discipline, fought heresies, began to rebuild the walls around Rome as a defense against the Saracens, and helped restore and rebuild churches (including Saint Paul-Outside-the-Walls), hospitals, and monasteries, including Monte Cassino under Petronax, which had been destroyed by Lombards about 150 years previously.
 He sent missionaries into Germany, among them Saint Corbinian and Saint Boniface in 719, whom he consecrated bishop.
824 St. Paschal elected as the 94th pope on the day Pope Stephen IV (V) died, January 25, 817.  Paschal was the son of Bonosus, a Roman. He studied at the Lateran, was named head of St. Stephen's monastery, which housed pilgrims to Rome, and was elected Pope to succeed Pope Stephen IV (V) on the day Stephen died, January 25, 817. Emperor Louis the Pious agreed to respect papal jurisdiction, but when Louis' son Lothair I came to Rome in 823 to be consecrated king, he broke the pact by presiding at a trial involving a group of nobles opposing the Pope. When the two papal officials who had testified for the nobles were found blinded and murdered, Paschal was accused of the crime. He denied any complicity but refused to surrender the murderers, who were members of his household, declaring that the two dead officials were traitors and the secular authorities had no jurisdiction in the case. The result was the Constitution of Lothair, severely restricting papal judicial and police powers in Italy.
Paschal was unsuccessful in attempts to end the iconoclast heresy of Emperor Leo V, encouraged SS. Nicephorous and Theodore Studites in Constantinople to resist iconoclasm, and gave refuge to the many Greek monks who fled to Rome to escape persecution from the iconoclasts.
Paschal built and redecorated many churches in Rome and transferred many relics from the catacombs to churches in the city. Although listed in the Roman Martyrology, he has never been formally canonized.


Saints of February 12 mention with Popes
381 St. Meletius of Antioch Patriarch of Antioch presided Great Council of Constantinople, in 381 .  In 374, the situation was further complicated when Pope Damasus recognized Paulinus as archbishop, appointed him papal legate in the East, and Saint Jerome allowed himself to be ordained a priest by Paulinus. In 378, the death of the avidly pro-Arian Valens led to the restoration of the banished bishops by Emperor Gratian, and Meletius was reinstated. He was unable to reach an agreement with Paulinus before his death in Constantinople in May while presiding at the third General Council of Constantinople. His funeral was attended by all the fathers of the council and the faithful of the city.
Saint Gregory of Nyssa delivered his funeral panegyric (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Walsh).
Saint Meletius, Archbishop of Antioch, was Bishop of Sebaste in Armenia (ca. 357), and afterwards he was summoned to Antioch by the emperor Constantius to help combat the Arian heresy, and was appointed to that See.
St Meletius struggled zealously against the Arian error, but through the intrigues of the heretics he was thrice deposed from his cathedra. Constantius had become surrounded by the Arians and had accepted their position. In all this St Meletius was distinguished by an extraordinary gentleness, and he constantly led his flock by the example of his own virtue and kindly disposition, supposing that the seeds of the true teaching sprout more readily on such soil.
St Meletius was the one who ordained the future hierarch St Basil the Great as deacon. St Meletius also baptized and encouraged another of the greatest luminaries of Orthodoxy, St John Chrysostom, who later eulogized his former archpastor.
After Constantius, the throne was occupied by Julian the Apostate, and the saint again was expelled, having to hide himself in secret places for his safety. Returning under the emperor Jovian in the year 363, St Meletius wrote his theological treatise, "Exposition of the Faith," which facilitated the conversion of many of the Arians to Orthodoxy.
900 St. Benedict Revelli Benedictine bishop monk of Santa Maria dei Fonte .  Benedict Revelli, OSB B (AC) Died c. 900; cultus confirmed by Pope Gregory XVI. Benedict is said to have been a Benedictine monk of Santa Maria dei Fonti, and then a hermit on the island of Gallinaria in the Gulf of Genoa. In 870, he was chosen bishop of Albenga towards the western end of the Ligurian Riviera (Benedictines).

1584 Bl. Thomas Hemerford English martyr priest native of Dorsetshire .   IT was the name of Thomas Hemerford, with his companions, that distinguished and identified the cause of all the second group of English and Welsh martyrs (beatified in 1929) while that cause was under consideration in Rome. But actually, of the four secular priests who suffered at Tyburn on February 12, 1584, he is the one of whom least is known.  He was born somewhere in Dorsetshire and was educated at St John’s College and Hart Hall in the University of Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor of law in 1575. He went abroad to Rheims, and thence to the English College at Rome, being ordained priest in 1583 by Bishop GoIdwell of St Asaph, the last bishop of the old hierarchy. A few weeks later he left Rome for the English mission, but shortly after landing he was arrested, tried for his priesthood and sentenced to death. For six days before execution he lay loaded with fetters in Newgate jail, and then met the savagery of hanging, drawing and quartering with calm fortitude. Bd Thomas was a man “of moderate stature, a blackish beard, stern countenance, and yet of a playful temper, most amiable in conversation, and in every respect exemplary”. There suffered with him BD. JAMES FENN, JOHN NUTTER and JOHN MUNDEN, and GEORGE HAYDOCK.These four martyrs, together with the Venerable George Haydock, were all condemned and put to death ostensibly for high treason. What contemporaries thought is shown by the chronicler Stow, when he writes that their treason con­sisted “in being made priests beyond the seas and by the pope’s authority”. And that was the view that the Church took when she beatified them among the other English martyrs in 1929.
1584 St. James Feun, Blessed  English Martyr in Born in Somerset
1584 Bl. John Nutter & John Munden English martyrs 

Saints of February 13 mention with Popes

590 St Stephen of Rieti Abbot admirable sanctity despised all things for the love of heaven extreme poverty privation of all conveniences of life In his agony angels seen surrounding him conducting soul to bliss .  Pope St Gregory the Great in his writings speaks several times of this holy man “whose speech was so rude, but his life so cultured”, and he quotes an instance of his patience. Prompted by the Devil, a wicked man burnt down his barns with the corn that constituted the whole means of subsistence of the abbot and his household. “Alas,” cried the monks, “alas, for what has come upon you!” “Nay,” replied the abbot, “say rather, ‘Alas, for what has come upon him that did this deed’, for no harm has befallen me.” St Gregory also relates that eye­witnesses testified that they saw angels standing beside the saint on his death-bed ,and that these angels afterwards carried his soul to bliss—whereupon the watchers were so awe-stricken that they could not remain beside his dead body.

616 ST LICINIUS, OR LESIN, BISHOP OF ANGERS by the example of his severe and holy life and by miracles which were wrought through him he succeeded in winning the hearts of the most hardened and in making daily conquests of souls for God.. There is, however, no reason to doubt the existence of St Licinius or his episcopate or the reverence in which he was held. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux (vol. ii, p. 354), while treating the life as a very suspicious document, points out that a letter was written to Licinius in 601 by Pope Gregory the Great and that he is also mentioned in the will of St Bertram, Bishop of Le Mans, which is dated March 27, 616.
1237 Blessed JORDAN of Saxony noted for his charity to the poor from an early age  brought Saint Albert the Great into the Order  Spiritual director of Blessed Diana d'Andalo.   A noted and powerful preacher; one of his sermons brought Saint Albert the Great into the Order. Wrote a biography of Saint Dominic. His writings on Dominic and the early days of the Order are still considered a primary sources. Spiritual director of Blessed Diana d'Andalo.
Born c.1190 at Padberg Castle, diocese of Paderborn, Westphalia, old Saxony; rumoured to have been born in Palestine while his parents were on a pilgrimage, and named after the River Jordan, but this is apparently aprochryphal
drowned 1237 in a shipwreck off the coast of Syria while on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land
Beatified 1825 (cultus confirmed) by Pope Leo XII

1589 St. Catherine de Ricci miracles the "Ecstacy of the Passion" she was mystically scourged & crowned with thorns.  Her patience and healing impressed her sisters. While still very young, Catherine was chosen to serve the community as novice- mistress, then sub-prioress, and, at age 30, she was appointed prioress in perpetuity, despite her intense mystical life of prayer and penance. She managed the material details of running a large household were well, and became known as a kind and considerate superior. Catherine was particularly gentle with the sick. Troubled people, both within the convent and in the town, came to her for advice and prayer, and her participation in the Passion exerted a great influence for good among all who saw it. Three future popes (Cardinals Cervini later known as Pope Marcellus II, Alexander de Medici (Pope Leo XI), and Aldobrandini (Pope Clement VIII)) were among the thousands who flocked to the convent to beseech her intercession.
1812 St. Giles Mary of St. Joseph “Consoler of Naples.” served 53 years at St. Paschal’s Hospice in Naples various roles cook porter most often as official beggar for that community.  People often become arrogant and power hungry when they try to live a lie, for example, when they forget their own sinfulness and ignore the gifts God has given to other people. Giles had a healthy sense of his own sinfulness—not paralyzing but not superficial either. He invited men and women to recognize their own gifts and to live out their dignity as people made in God’s divine image. Knowing someone like Giles can help us on our own spiritual journey.
Quote:  In his homily at the canonization of Giles, Pope John Paul II said that the spiritual journey of Giles reflected “the humility of the Incarnation and the gratuitousness of the Eucharist” (L'Osservatore Romano 1996, volume 23, number 1).


Saints of February 14 mention with Popes
269 Valentine of Terni Valentine patron of beekeepers engaged couples travellers youth.  Valentine was a holy priest in Rome, who, with St Marius and his family, assisted the martyrs in the persecution under Claudius II. He was appre­hended, and sent by the emperor to the prefect of Rome, who, on finding all his promises to make him renounce his faith ineffectual, commanded him to be beaten with clubs, and afterwards to be beheaded, which was executed on February 14, about the year 270. Pope Julius I is said to have built a church near Ponte Mole to his memory, which for a long time gave name to the gate now called Porta del Popolo, formerly Porta Valentini. The greatest part of his relics are now in the church of St Praxedes His name is celebrated as that of an illustrious martyr in the sacramentary of St Gregory, the Roman Missal of Thomasius, in the calendar of F. Fronto and that of Allatius, in Bede, Usuard, Ado, Notker and all other martyrologies on this day. To abolish the heathen’s lewd superstitious custom of boys drawing the names of girls, in honour of their goddess Februata Juno, on the 15th of this month, several zealous pastors substituted the names of saints in billets given on this day.
869 Sts. Cyril and Methodius.  The holy brothers were then summoned to Rome at the invitation of the Roman Pope. Pope Adrian received them with great honor, since they brought with them the relics of the Hieromartyr Clement. Sickly by nature and in poor health, St Cyril soon fell ill from his many labors, and after taking the schema, he died in the year 869 at the age of forty-two. Before his death, he expressed his wish for his brother to continue the Christian enlightenment of the Slavs. St Cyril was buried in the Roman church of St Clement, whose own relics also rest there, brought to Italy from Cherson by the Enlighteners of the Slavs.
1325 Blessed Angelus of Gualdo Camaldolese lay-brother lived 40 years a hermit walled up in his cell OSB Cam. (AC).  In early life he made many pilgrimages, travelling in particular barefoot from Italy to St James of Compostela in Spain. On his return he offered himself as a lay-brother to the Camaldolese monks, but after a very short time received permission to lead a solitary life according to his desire. In this vocation he faithfully persisted for nearly forty years. When he died on January 25, 1325 it is said that the church bells in the neighbouring district rang of themselves: the people scoured the country to discover the cause, and coming to his little cell they found him dead, kneeling in the attitude of prayer. The miracles wrought at his tomb brought many to do him honour, and Pope Leo XII approved the cultus in 1825.

Saints of February 15 mention with Popes
695 St. Decorosus 30 years Bishop of Capua, Italy Council of Rome in 680 .  He attended the Council of Rome in 680 in the reign of Pope St. Agatho.. (The council, attended in the beginning by 100 bishops, later by 174, was opened 7 Nov., 680, in a domed hall (trullus) of the imperial palace and was presided over by the (three) papal legates who brought to the council a long dogmatic letter of Pope Agatho and another of similar import from a Roman synod held in the spring of 680. )
1045 ST SIGFRID, BISHOP OF Växjö: a spring bore Sigfrid’s name was the channel of many miracles.  After a time, St Sigfrid entrusted the care of his diocese to these three and set off to carry the light of the gospel into more distant provinces. During his absence, a troop, partly out of hatred for Christianity and partly for booty, plundered the church of VaxjO and murdered Unaman and his brothers, burying their bodies in a forest and placing their heads in a box which they sank in a pond. The heads were duly recovered and placed in a shrine, on which occasion, we are told, the three heads spoke. The king resolved to put the murderers to death, but St Sigfrid induced him to spare their lives. Olaf compelled them, however, to pay a heavy fine which he wished to bestow on the saint, who refused to accept a farthing of it, notwithstanding his extreme poverty and the difficulties with which he had to contend in rebuilding his church. He had inherited in an heroic degree the spirit of the apostles, and preached the gospel also in Denmark. Sigfrid is said, but doubtfully, to have been canonized by Pope Adrian IV, the Englishman who had himself laboured zealously for the propagation of the faith in the North over one hundred years after St Sigfrid. The Swedes honour St Sigfrid as their apostle.
1237 Bl. Jordan of Saxony thousand novices to the Dominicans established new foundations Germany and Switzerland
        
It was a sermon of Jordan’s that decided Albertus Magnus to enter the order.  Blessed Jordan of Saxony, OP (AC) Born in Germany, 1190; died 1237; cultus confirmed in 1828.
Men prayed for strength to resist Jordan's burning eloquence, and mothers hid their sons when Master Jordan came to town. Students and masters warned each other of the fatal magnetism of his sermons. The sweetness of his character and the holiness of his life shone through his most casual words in a flame that drew youth irresistibly to the ideal to which he had dedicated his own life. In his 16 years of preaching, Jordan is said to have drawn more than a thousand novices to the Dominican Order, among whom were two future popes, two canonized saints (e.g., Albert the Great), numerous beati, and countless intellectual lights of his dazzling century.
1682 St. Claude la Colombière special day for the Jesuits spiritual companion, St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. This is a special day for the Jesuits, who claim today’s saint as one of their own. It’s also a special day for people who have a special devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus—a devotion Claude la Colombière promoted, along with his friend and spiritual companion, St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. The emphasis on God’s love for all was an antidote to the rigorous moralism of the Jansenists, who were popular at the time.
     Claude showed remarkable preaching skills long before his ordination in 1675. Two months later he was made superior of a small Jesuit residence in Burgundy. It was there he first encountered Margaret Mary Alacoque. For many years after he served as her confessor.
     He was next sent to England to serve as confessor to the Duchess of York. He preached by both words and by the example of his holy life, converting a number of Protestants. Tensions arose against Catholics and Claude, rumored to be part of a plot against the king, was imprisoned. He was ultimately banished, but by then his health had been ruined. He died in 1682.
Pope John Paul the Second canonized Claude la Colombière in 1992.

Saints of February 16 mention with Popes
305 St. Juliana of Cumae Christian virgin martyred for the faith refused Roman prefect marriage.   Only after Juliana's death, thanks to the renewed efforts of Bl.  Eva, was the feastday of Corpus Christi accepted by the Latin Rite of the Church.  The pope who authorized the festival was none other than James Pantaleon, now Pope Urban IV, who had earlier confirmed Juliana's inquiry whether such a feast was feasible.  Urban commissioned St. Thomas Aquinas to compose the office of the feastday.  Aquinas's beautiful composition included those ever-popular Eucharistic hymns: the "Lauda Sion", the "Pange Lingua", the "O Salutaris", and the "Tantum Ergo." This feast was long a holy day of obligation.
When miracles were reported in connection with Juliana's tomb, she came to be venerated as a saint.  A local feast in her honor was allowed by Pius IX in 1869, but her feastday has not yet been extended to the whole church.
Thanks to St. Juliana's reverence for the Holy Eucharist, the dark line on the moon of her vision was eliminated.
May we imitate her in our love--and respect--for the real Eucharistic presence of Christ in our tabernacles.
--Father Robert F. McNamara
1189 St. Gilbert of Sempringham priest shared wealth with the poor miracles wrought at his tomb built 13 monasteries (9 were double).  ST GILBERT was born at Sempringham in Lincolnshire, and in due course was ordained priest. For some time he taught in a free school, but the advowson of the parsonages of Sempringham and Terrington being in the gift of his father, he was presented by him to the united livings in 1123. He gave the revenues of them to the poor, reserving only a small sum for bare necessaries. By his care, his parishioners were led to sanctity of life, and he drew up a rule for seven young women who lived in strict enclosure in a house adjoining the parish church of St Andrew at Sempringham. This foundation grew, and Gilbert found it necessary to add first lay-sisters and then lay-brothers to work the nuns’ land. In 1147 he went to Citeaux to ask the abbot to take over the foundation. This the Cistercians were unable to do, and Gilbert was encouraged by Pope Eugenius III to carry on the work himself. Finally Gilbert added a fourth element, of canons regular, as chaplains to the nuns.
1468 BD EUSTOCHIUM OF MESSINA, VIRGIN authority of her virtues was increased by fame of her miracles—the sick being healed even by the kerchief which had been bathed by her tears of penitence. She died at the age of thirty-five.  After eleven years spent at Basico, Bd Eustochium felt that she desired a stricter rule, and Pope Callistus III allowed her to found another convent to follow the first rule of St Francis under the Observants. In 1458—1459 her mother and sister built the convent which was called Maidens’ Hill (Monte Vergine). There she received, amongst others, her sister and her niece Paula, who was only eleven years of age. The foundation passed through many trials during its early years. When Eustochium became thirty—the legal age—she was elected abbess and gathered around her crowds of fervent souls. The authority of her virtues was increased by the fame of her miracles—the sick being healed even by the kerchief which had been bathed by her tears of penitence. She died at the age of thirty-five, her cultus being subsequently approved in 1782.
1940 St. Philip Siphong 7 Thai Catholics martyred for the faith "white-robed army of martyrs."    On October 22, 1989, Pope John Paul II formally beatified the seven Thai Catholics.  Deeply touched by their fidelity, the pope said that Blessed Philip ("the great tree" as he was called at Songkhon) exemplified the missionary zeal that is incumbent upon all of us by virtue of our baptism.  He quoted Sister Agnes' letter to the policeman: "We rejoice in giving back to God the life that He has given us.... We beseech you to open to us the doors of heaven… You are acting according to the orders of men, but we act according to the commandments of God." Sentiments like these, said John Paul II, resembled those of the Christian martyrs of antiquity.  Indeed, their very names were those of ancient saints: Agnes, Lucy, Agatha, Cecilia, Bibiana....
The Blessed Martyrs of Thailand, in "giving back to God the life that He had given them", were therefore contemporary soldiers in the age-old "white-robed army of martyrs." - -Father Robert R McNamara

Saints of February 17 mention with Popes
603   St. Fintan Abbot  .  In the monastery of Cluainedhech in Ireland, St. Fintan, abbot.
Fintan was a hermit in Clonenagh, Leix, Ireland. When disciples gathered around his hermitage he became their abbot.
A wonder worker, Fintan was known for clairvoyance, prophecies, and miracles. He also performed very austere penances.
603 ST FINTAN OF CLONEENAGH, ABBOT even in his boyhood he possessed the gift of prophecy and of a knowledge of distant events.  
IN a tractate preserved in the Book of Leinster St Fintan is presented as an Irish counterpart of St Benedict, and there can be no question as to the high repute in which his monastery of Cloneenagh in Leix was held by his contemporaries. An early litany speaks of “the monks of Fintan, descendant of Eochaid, who ate nothing but herbs of the earth and water; there is not room to enumerate them by reason of their multitude”. Quite in accord with this is a gloss in the Félire of Oengus: “Generous Fintan never consumed during his time aught save the bread of woody barley and muddy water of clay.” The Latin life bears out this description of extreme asceticism, which indeed St Canice of Aghaboe thought excessive and protested against.

Seven Founders of the Order of Servites (RM) 13th century; canonized in 1887 by Pope Leo XIII.
1233 7 Founders of the Order of Servites On the Feast of the Assumption the 7 single vision to withdraw from world forming new society within the Church devoted to prayer and solitudeIn 1233 seven wealthy councilors of the city of Florence, who had previously joined the Laudesi (Praisers), gave up the pleasures of this world in order to devote themselves to God through particular devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Their previous lives had been by no means lax or undisciplined, even though Florence was then a city filled with factions and immorality, and infected by the Cathar heresy (the belief that the body was evil and we are the souls of angels inserted by Satan into human bodies). Under the direction of James of Poggibonsi, who was the chaplain of the Laudesi and a man of great holiness and spiritual insight, they came to recognize the call to renunciation.
On the Feast of the Assumption, 1233, the seven had a single inspiration or vision to withdraw from the world to form a new society within the Church devoted to prayer and solitude.
1302 BD ANDREW OF ANAGNI was held in great veneration both in life and after death for the miracles he was believed to work.   IN the Franciscan supplement to the Roman Martyrology this servant of God is described as “Beatus Andreas de Comitibus”; but it would seem that the more accurate form of his name is Andrea dei Conti di Segni (Andrew of the Counts of Segni). In Mazzara he is called Andrea d’Anagni, from his birthplace. As we learn from these designations he was of noble family, nephew of the Roland Conti who became Pope Alexander IV and a near kinsman of another native of Anagni, Benedict Gaetani, Pope Boniface VIII.

Laying aside all thought of worldly advancement he gave himself to the Order of Friars Minor, in which he remained a simple brother, not even aspiring to the priesthood.

Saints of February 18 mention with Popes
107 St. Simon or Simeon father was Cleophas St. Joseph's brother. Mother was our Lady's sister 8 yrs older than Jesus.  At Jerusalem, the birthday of St. Simeon, bishop and martyr, who is said to have been the son of Cleophas, and a relative of the Saviour according to the flesh.  He was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem after St. James, the cousin of our Lord.  In the persecution of Trajan, after having endured many torments, his martyrdom was completed.  All who were present, even the judge himself, were astonished that a man one hundred and twenty years of age could bear the torment of crucifixion with such fortitude and constancy.
In St. Matthew's Gospel, we read of St. Simon or Simeon who is described as one of our Lord's brethren or kinsmen.
449 St. Flavian of Constantinople martyr Patriarch succeeding St. Proclus cum fidem cathólicam Ephesi propugnáret.    At Constantinople, St. Flavian, bishop, who, for having defended the Catholic faith at Ephesus, was attacked with slaps and kicks by the faction of the impious Dioscorus, and then driven into exile where he died within three days. The abbot, in his excessive zeal against Nestorius’s heresy of two distinct persons in Christ, had rushed to the other extreme and, denying that our Lord had two distinct natures after the Incarnation, was the protagonist of the monophysite heresy. In a synod held by St Flavian in 448, Eutyches was accused of this error by Eusebius of Dorylaeum, and the opinion was there condemned as heretical, Eutyches being cited to appear before the council to give an account of his faith. He eventually did so, and was deposed and excommunicated. Whereupon he declared that he appealed to the bishops of Rome, Egypt and Jerusalem; and he addressed a letter to St Leo I in which he complained of the way he had been treated and stated his case. But the pope was not misled. In a carefully-worded letter to Flavian, famous in ecclesiastical history as his “Tome” or “Dogmatic Letter”, Leo set out the orthodox faith upon the principal points in dispute.
1455 Blessed John of Fiesole patron of Christian artists  .   The patron of Christian artists was born around 1400 in a village overlooking Florence. He took up painting as a young boy and studied under the watchful eye of a local painting master. He joined the Dominicans at about age 20, taking the name Fra Giovanni. He eventually came to be known as Fra Angelico, perhaps a tribute to his own angelic qualities or maybe the devotional tone of his works.
1594 Bl. William Harrington priest Martyr of England.  Blessed William Harrington M (AC) Born at Mount Saint John, Felixkirk, Yorkshire, England; died at Tyburn, 1594; beatified in 1929. William was educated and ordained in 1592 at Rheims. He was only 27 when he was hanged, drawn, and quartered for his priesthood (Benedictines).
1601 Bl. John Pibush English martyr solely for his priesthood .   born in Thirsk, Yorkshire. He went to Reims and was ordained in 1587. Returning to England in 1589, John was arrested at Gloucestershire in 1593 and kept in prison in London. He escaped but was recaptured and then tried and condemned. He was executed at Southwark. His beatification took place in 1929.
        Bl. Martin Martyr of China native
        Blessed Agnes De martyred native cradle Christian VM (AC)
1855 Blessed Andrew Nam-Thung native catechist of Cochin-China M (AC)
1858 St. Agatha Lin Chinese martyr
1862 Blessed John Peter French missionary priest & Martin native catechist MM (AC)


Saints of February 19 mention with Popes
 
Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.