Tuesday  Saints of this Day February  28 Prídie Kaléndas Mártii.  
The 69th miraculous healing of Lourdes
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us that a life of Christian perfection is not impossible.


468  St. Hilary, Pope from 461-468 guardian of Church unity sent decree to Eastern bishops validating decisions of General Councils Nicaea Ephesus and Chalcedon. Hilary consolidated the Church in Sandi, Africa, and Gaul
731 Saint Pope Gregory II served St Sergius I next 4 popes as treasurer of the Church, then librarian, Held synods to correct abuses, stopped heresy, promoted discipline, morality in religious and clerical life
1309 BD ANGELA OF FOLIGNO, WIDOW must always take her place among the great mystics and contemplatives of the middle ages, side by side with Catherine of Siena and Catherine of Genoa.
1936 Blessed Daniel Brottier Senegal, West Africa volunteer chaplain WWI 4yrs
February 28 – 11th apparition of Lourdes (1858) 
Mgr Giovanni Giudici, the bishop of Pavia recognizes a miraculous healing 
 43-year-old Danila Castelli, from Bereguardo (in the diocese of Pavia, Italy), had been suffering from high blood pressure with serious medical effects for nearly 10 years. Several surgical procedures were attempted in the hope of eliminating the points that caused high blood pressure until 1988, but they were unsuccessful.  In May 1989, during a pilgrimage to Lourdes, Danila came out of the shrine’s pools feeling incredibly well. She quickly declared her sudden cure to the Office of Medical Observations of Lourdes.  After five meetings (1989, 1992, 1994, 1997 and 2010) the Office recognized the healing through a formal and unanimous vote: "Danila Castelli was healed, in a comprehensive and sustainable manner, during her pilgrimage to Lourdes in 1989, 21 years ago, from the condition that affected her, in a manner completely unrelated to any surgical interventions or treatments."
Danila Castelli has since resumed a normal life. On June 20, 2013, Mgr Giovanni Giudici, the bishop of Pavia where Danila Castelli lives, declared the healing was "prodigious-miraculous" and had the value of a "sign."
The 69th miraculous healing of Lourdes recognized by Mgr Giovanni Giudici, bishop of Pavia.  rosairealsace.fr

February 28 – Our Lady of Tears (Italy, 1522) – 11th apparition of Lourdes (France, 1858)
 
Our Lady of Tears confirms the message of Fatima
Syracuse is a city in southeastern Sicily. Its Catholic shrine of Our Lady of Tears is the most recent shrine in Sicily and one of the busiest with visitors from all over the world.

It contains a bas-relief of painted plaster representing the Virgin Mary and her Immaculate heart crowned with thorns and inflamed (as in Fatima), which was originally in a modest home at the head of the bed of a couple named Lannuso. But from August 29th to September 1, 1953, the image of the Virgin wept human tears, which were scientifically analyzed. The episcopate of Sicily has recognized the supernatural origin of the occurrence and promoted the devotion. Our Lady of Tears took the world by surprise and obtained numerous miracles for the faithful.

Shortly before the miracle, in May 1952, Our Lady appeared to Sister Lucia in Fatima, Portugal, confiding to her that she was still awaiting the consecration of Russia. During the summer of 1952, Sister Lucia wrote: "I am sorry that it has not been done as Our Lady requested." In this context, the tears of the Virgin of Syracuse in the summer of 1953 were interpreted as a confirmation of the request of Fatima.
 
The Mary of Nazareth Team Adapted from Domenico MARCUZZI,
Original article published in Santuari mariani d’Italia, edizioni Paoline, Roma 1982

 
February 28 - Eleventh Apparition at Lourdes (France, 1858) Our Lady’s Messenger (I)
Why does the evangelist specify names in such detail at the Annunciation?
Undoubtedly, it is because he wants us to pay the same amount of attention to his story that he himself accords. Indeed, he introduces us to the Lord who sent the message, the Virgin to whom it is sent and the Virgin’s fiancé, using precise details by stating the family name, the city and the country of origin.
Why does he say all this? Does he speak without reason? Heaven preserve us to believe so, because in truth a leaf does not fall from a tree, nor does a sparrow in the sky fall to the ground without our Father knowing (Mt 10: 31). I cannot believe that one useless word could ever fall from the mouth of an evangelist, especially while telling the story of the Holy Word. No, I cannot believe that. These details are filled with divine mysteries and overflow with celestial sweetness.
If they find a diligent listener who is able to savor the honey running out of rock,
and taste the excellent oil that collects among the rocky ground.
Saint Bernard Sermon on the Missus Est

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

For the Son of God became man so that we might become God.
-- St. Athanasius, De incarnatione


February 28 - Our Lady of Tears (Italy, 1522) - 11th apparition in Lourdes
Would You Be So Kind As to Do Me the Favor...?
Bernadette's relationship with Our Lady begins with a gesture of poverty. As Jesus came to the world in a humble manger, so did Mary come to Massabielle, a muddy grotto filled with rubbish that washed up from the river,
dressed in pure white!
Bernadette was soon to discover in one of the purest dialogues ever exchanged between a human being and the Mother of God, that there is a poverty worse than destitution, hunger, cold, ignorance, social degradation, illness, death, and so on. This poverty is that of human sin. In her own physical poverty, she is enriched with this knowledge and grace. She discovers that true riches consist in the mercy of God, who offers Himself to sinners and transforms them
... if they consent, to His will.
Our Lady speaks respectfully to Bernadette in her own dialect. The young girl soon consents, at first to a simple request ... to meet the Lady again for fifteen days ... and begins her lifelong mission.
Adapted from André Ravier, Les Ecrits de Sainte Bernadette et Sa Voie Spirituelle
(The Writings of Saint Bernadette and Her Spiritual Way), Ed. Buchet-Chastel, 2003.

February 28 – Our Lady of Tears (Italy, 1522) - 11th Apparition of Lourdes (France, 1858) 
Mary knew from the beginning…
     During her whole life, the Blessed Mother's chief concern was to meditate on the virtues and sufferings of her Son.

When she heard the Angels sing their hymns of joy at His birth, and when she saw the shepherds adore Him in the stable, her heart and mind were filled with wonder and she reflected upon all these marvels.
She compared the might of God to the weakness of a Baby—and His wisdom to His simplicity.


One day Our Lady said to Saint Bridget: "Whenever I meditated on the beauty, modesty and wisdom of my Son, my heart was filled with joy: and whenever I thought of His hands and feet which would be pierced with cruel nails, I wept bitterly and my heart was rent with sorrow and pain."
 Saint Louis de Montfort
In The Secret of the Rosary - Twenty-fourth Rose

 
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

250  Alexandríæ pássio sanctórum Cæreális, Púpuli, Caji et Serapiónis.
         Ibídem commemorátio sanctórum Presbyterórum, Diaconórum et aliórum plurimórum
        Natális sanctórum Mártyrum Macárii, Rufíni, Justi et Theóphili.
  261 MARTYRS IN THE PLAGUE OF ALEXANDRIA
 460 St. Romanus of Condat Abbot of Gallo Roman hermit in the Jura Mountains
 457 Hieromartyr Proterius Patriarch of Alexandria and those with him teaching Christ as Perfect God and Perfect Man, existing in these two natures "unconfusedly" and "indivisibly" [and "immutably" and "inseparably"] was set forth.
  468  St. Hilary, Pope from 461-468 guardian of Church unity sent decree to Eastern bishops validating decisions of General Councils Nicaea Ephesus and Chalcedon. Hilary consolidated the Church in Sandi, Africa, and Gaul
      St. Ruellinus Bishop of Treguier, Brittany
      Papíæ Translátio córporis sancti Augustíni Epíscopi, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris, ex Sardínia ínsula, ópera Luitprándi, Regis Longobardórum.
 731 Saint Pope Gregory II served St Sergius I next 4 popes as treasurer of the Church, then librarian, Held synods to correct abuses, stopped heresy, promoted discipline and morality in religious and clerical life
 750 Saint Basil the Confessor monk suffered during the reign of the iconoclast emperor Leo the Isaurian (717-741)
 992 ST OSWALD OF WORCESTER, ARCHBISHOP OF York
1309 BD ANGELA OF FOLIGNO, WIDOW must always take her place among the great mystics and contemplatives of the middle ages, side by side with Catherine of Siena and Catherine of Genoa.
1360 BD VILLANA OF FLORENCE, MATRON wonderful visions and colloquies with our Lady and other saints
1377 Bl. Villana hideous demon in mirror wonderful visions olloquies our Lady and saints gift of prophecy
1399  St. Hedwig, Blessed Queen of Poland and model of faith in Lithuania
1472 Blessed Antonia (Antoinette) of Florence, OFM Widow (AC)
1533 BD LOUISA ALBERTONI, WIDOW
1576 Blessed Nicholas of Pskov graced by the Holy Spirit granted gifts of wonderworking and prophecy
1936 Blessed Daniel Brottier Senegal, West Africa volunteer chaplain WWI 4yrs


468  St. Hilary, Pope from 461-468 guardian of Church unity sent decree to Eastern bishops validating decisions of  General Councils Nicaea Ephesus and Chalcedon.
Hilary consolidated the Church in Sandi, Africa, and Gaul

731 Saint Pope Gregory II served St Sergius I next 4 popes as treasurer of the Church, then librarian, Held synods to correct abuses, stopped heresy, promoted discipline and morality in religious and clerical life
Also known as:  Gregory the Younger; Gregory Junior

Christ said his coming would bring not peace but a sword (see Matthew 10:34).  The Gospels offer no support for us if we fantasize about a sunlit holiness that knows no problems. Christ did not escape at the last moment, though he did live happily ever after —after a life of controversy, problems, pain and frustration. Hilary  (415-468) like all saints simply had more of the same.

"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him
" (Psalm 21:28)


  Romæ natális sanctórum Mártyrum Macárii, Rufíni, Justi et Theóphili. 
      At Rome, the birthday of the holy martyrs Macarius, Rufinus, Justus, and Theophilus
. St. Macarius Martyr with Justus. Rufinus. and Theophilus.  Reportedly potters by trade, these martyrs died at Alexandria. Egypt, or in Rome.

  250 St. Caerealis with Pupulus, Gaius, and Serapion Egyptian martyrs in Alexandria.
They were martyred in Alexandria. Caerealis is sometimes called Cerulus or Celerius.
Alexandríæ pássio sanctórum Cæreális, Púpuli, Caji et Serapiónis.
   
At Alexandria, the passion of the Saints Caerealis, Pupulus, Caius, and Serapion.
261 MARTYRS IN THE PLAGUE OF ALEXANDRIA
 Ibídem commemorátio sanctórum Presbyterórum, Diaconórum  et aliórum plurimórum; qui, témpore Valeriáni Imperatóris, cum pestis sævíssima grassarétur, morbo laborántibus ministrántes, libentíssime mortem oppetiére, et quos velut Mártyres religiósa piórum fides venerári consuévit.
       In the same city, in the reign of Emperor Valerian, the commemoration of the holy priests, deacons, and many others.  When a most deadly epidemic was raging, they willingly met their death by ministering to the sick.  The religious sentiment of the pious faithful has generally venerated them as martyrs.
PESTILENCE raged throughout the greater part of the Roman empire during the years from 249 to 263. In Rome, five thousand persons are said to have died in one day and Alexandria in particular suffered severely: St Dionysius of Alexandria tells us that his city had already been afflicted with famine,
and this was followed by tumults and violence so uncontrolled that it was safer to travel from one extremity of the known world to the, other than to go from one street of Alexandria to the next.
  To these scourges succeeded the plague, which raged until there was not one house in that great city that escaped or which had not some death to mourn. Corpses lay unburied, and the air was laden with infection, mingled with pestilential vapours from the Nile. The living appeared wild with terror, and the fear of death rendered the pagan citizens cruel to their nearest relations; as soon as anyone was known to have caught the infection, his friends fled from him: the bodies of those not yet dead were thrown into the streets and abandoned.

At this juncture, the Christians of Alexandria came forward and displayed a great example of charity. During the persecutions of Decius, Gallus and Valerian they had been obliged to remain hidden, and had held their assemblies in secret or in ships that put out to sea or in pestilential prisons. Now, however, they came forth, regardless of danger, and set to work to tend the sick and to comfort the dying. They closed the eyes of the plague-stricken and carried them when dead upon their shoulders, washing their bodies and decently burying them, although they knew they were likely to share the same fate. In the words of the bishop:

“Many who had healed others fell victims themselves. The best of our brethren have been taken from us in this manner: some were priests, others deacons and some laity of great worth. This death, with the faith which accompanied it, appears to be little inferior to martyrdom itself.”

The Roman Martyrology, recognizing the force of these words of St Dionysius, in fact honours those loving Christians as martyrs. Their charity in thus relieving their persecutors when attacked by sickness may well make us ask ourselves what our attitude is to the sick poor, who are not our enemies but who are, in most cases, our fellow Christians.

Our knowledge of the charity of the Christians of Alexandria is derived from Eusebius, who in bk vii, ch. 22, of his Ecclesiastical History inserts a long quotation from the letter of St Dionysius referred to above. The Greek text may be conveniently consulted in Feltoe’s edition of The Letters and other Remains of Dionysius of Alexandria, pp. 79—84.
Ibídem commemorátio sanctórum Presbyterórum, Diaconórum  et aliórum plurimórum; qui, témpore Valeriáni Imperatóris, cum pestis sævíssima grassarétur, morbo laborántibus ministrántes, libentíssime mortem oppetiére, et quos velut Mártyres religiósa piórum fides venerári consuévit.
     
In the same city, in the reign of Emperor Valerian, the commemoration of the holy priests, deacons, and many others.  When a most deadly epidemic was raging, they willingly met their death by ministering to the sick.  The religious sentiment of the pious faithful has generally venerated them as martyrs.
457 Hieromartyr Proterius Patriarch of Alexandria and those with him teaching Christ as Perfect God and Perfect Man, existing in these two natures "unconfusedly" and "indivisibly" [and "immutably" and "inseparably"] set forth.

457 ST PROTERIUS, PATRIARCH OF ALEXANDRIA, MARTYR
ST CYRIL’S successor as patriarch of Alexandria was an unprincipled man named­ Dioscorus, who patronized the heretic Eutyches and upheld his errors. The leader of the orthodox party was Proterius, who had been ordained by Cyril. Dioscorus, knowing his great reputation and hoping to win him over to his views, had appointed him archpriest and entrusted him with the care of his church, but when the patriarch began to show himself to be clearly heretical, Proterius openly opposed him. The Council of Chalcedon condemned and deposed Dioscorus in 451, and Proterius was elected in his place.

The city of Alexandria, always notorious for its riots and tumults, divided into two parties, the one demanding the return of Dioscorus and the other supporting Proterius. The schismatic party was headed by two priests, Timothy Elurus and Peter Mongus (Elurus, means “cat”, and Mongus , means “croaker”). So great and so frequent were the tumults they raised against Proterius that during the whole of his pontificate he was never out of danger of falling a victim to violence, in spite of the decision of the Council of Chalcedon and of the imperial orders. Dioscorus being dead, Elurus, who had contrived to get himself consecrated, was proclaimed by his party the sole lawful bishop in Alexandria. The imperial commander drove Elurus out, and this so enraged the Eutychian party that their menaces obliged St Proterius to take sanctuary in the baptistery adjoining the church of St Quirinus. The rabble had no respect for sanctuary, and, breaking into the church, they stabbed him to death during Holy Week in the year 457. Not satisfied with this, they dragged his dead body through the streets, cut it in pieces, burnt it and scattered the ashes in the air. The bishops of Thrace, in a letter they wrote to the Emperor Leo soon after, declared that they reckoned Proterius among the martyrs and hoped to find mercy through his inter­cession

There is no special biography of Proterius, but in the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, the principal texts, letters, etc., which make reference to him have been collected. See also Hefele-Leclercq, Conciles, vol. ii, p. 858.

 The priest Proterius lived in Alexandria during the patriarchal tenure of Dioscorus (444-451), an adherent of the Monophysite heresy of Eutyches. Proterius fearlessly denounced the heretics and confessed the Orthodox Faith.  In 451 at the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, the heresy of Eutyches was condemned and the teaching of Christ as Perfect God and Perfect Man, existing in these two natures "unconfusedly" and "indivisibly" [and "immutably" and "inseparably"] was set forth. The heretic Dioscorus was deposed and exiled, and Proterius, distinguished for his strict and virtuous life, was placed upon the patriarchal throne of Alexandria. However, many supporters of Dioscorus remained in Alexandria. Rebelling against the election of Proterius, they rioted and burned the soldiers who were sent out to pacify them. The pious emperor Marcian (450-457) deprived the Alexandrians of all the privileges they were accustomed to, and sent new and reinforced detachments of soldiers. The inhabitants of the city then quieted down and begged Patriarch Proterius to intercede with the emperor to restore their former privileges to them. The kindly saint consented and readily obtained their request.
After the death of Marcian the heretics again raised their heads.

Presbyter Menignus ("the Cat"), himself striving for the patriarchal dignity, and taking advantage of the absence of the prefect of the city, was at the head of the rioters. St Proterius decided to leave Alexandria, but that night he saw in a dream the holy Prophet Isaiah, who said to him, "Return to the city, I am waiting to take you." The saint realized that this was a prediction of his martyric end. He returned to Alexandria and concealed himself in a baptistry.
The insolent heretics broke into this refuge and killed the Patriarch and six men who were with him. The fact that it was Holy Saturday and the Canon of Pascha was being sung did not stop them. In their insane hatred they tied a rope to the body of the murdered Patriarch, and dragged it through the streets. They beat and lacerated it, and finally they burned it, scattering the ashes to the wind.
The Orthodox reported this to the holy Emperor Leo (457-474) and St Anatolius, Patriarch of Constantinople (July 3). An army arrived at Alexandria, the rebellion was crushed, and Menignus was brought to trial and exiled.  Regarding the death of the Hieromartyr Proterius, four Thracian bishops of his time wrote:  "We consider His Holiness Proterius to be in the ranks and choir of the saints, and we beseech God to be compassionate and merciful to us through his prayers."
460 St. Romanus of Condat  reputation for virtues and miracles Abbot of Gallo hermit in the Jura Mountains
  In território Lugdunénsi, locis Jurénsibus, deposítio sancti Románi Abbátis, qui primum illic eremíticam vitam duxit, et, multis virtútibus ac miráculis clarus, plurimórum póstea Pater éxstitit Monachórum.
       In the territory of Lyons, in the Jura Mountains, the death of St. Romanus, abbot, who first had led the life of a hermit there.  His reputation for virtues and miracles brought under his guidance many monks.



460 AND 480 SS. ROMANUS AND LUPICINUS, ABBOTS
ST ROMANUS had reached the age of thirty-five when he withdrew into the forests of the Jura Mountains between Switzerland and France to live there as a hermit. He took with him Cassian’s Lives of the Fathers of the Desert, a few tools and some seeds, and found his way to an uninhabited spot at the confluence of the Bienne and the Alière, enclosed between steep heights and difficult of access. Here under the shelter of an enormous fir tree he spent his time praying, reading and cultivating the soil. At first his solitude was disturbed only by the beasts and an occasional huntsman, but before long he was joined by his brother Lupicinus and by one or two more. Other recruits soon flocked to them, including their sister and a number of women.

The two brothers soon built the monastery of Condat and then that of Leuconne, two miles to the north, whilst for the women they established the nunnery of La Beaume (the site of the present village of Saint-Romain-de-la-Roche). The brothers ruled as joint abbots in perfect harmony, although Lupicinus was inclined to be the stricter; he generally lived at Leuconne, and when at one time the brethren at Condat were making their food more palatable, he came over and forbade the innovation. Although they strove to imitate the anchorites of the East, they were obliged to modify some of their austerities owing to climatic and other differences. The Gauls were naturally great eaters, and these monks spent much of their time in very hard manual labour, but they never touched flesh-meat and were only allowed milk and eggs when they were ill. They wore wooden sabots and the skins of animals sewn together, which protected them from the rain, but not from the bitter cold in winter or from the summer rays of the sun reflected from the perpendicular rocks.

St Romanus made a pilgrimage to what is now Saint-Maurice in the Valais, to visit the place of martyrdom of the Theban Legion. He cured two lepers on the way, and, the fame of this miracle reaching Geneva, the bishop, the clergy and the whole town turned out to greet him as he was passing through. He died about the year 460, and was buried, as he had desired, in the church of the nunnery where his sister ruled.
Lupicinus survived his elder brother by some twenty years, and he is commemorated separately on March 21. In the longer Latin biography the austerity of Lupicinus is much dilated on, but there are also wonderful things told of his compassion for his monks and of his spirit of faith. When starvation seemed to threaten he obtained from God by his prayers a multiplication of the
corn which remained to them; and when his subjects, yielding to temptation, planned to leave or actually quitted the monastery, he did not deal harshly with them, but was only intent on animating them with courage to persevere in their vocation.

The historical value of the Lives of Romanus, Lupicinus and Eugendus (January 1), which had gravely been called in question not only by Bruno Krusch, but also by Quesnel and Papebroch, was vindicated by Mgr Duchesne in a remarkable paper called “La Vie des Pères du Jura” in Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire, vol. xviii (1898), pp. 3—16. M. Poupardin in Le Moyen Age, vol. xi (1898), pp. 31—48, pronounced in a similar sense. Cf. M. Besson, Nos origines chrétiennes. The text of the Life of Romanus and Lupicinus may be found in the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, but it has been more recently edited by Krusch in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. iii, pp. 131—153. In the former it has been divided into two sections, so far as it treated separately of Romanus and Lupicinus; the latter prints the whole continuously.
In the territory of Lyons, in the Jura Mountains, the death of St. Romanus, abbot, who first had led the life of a hermit there.  His reputation for virtues and miracles brought under his guidance many monks.  Roman descent, he adopted the life of a hermit in the Jura Mountains, France, at age thirty five and was joined by his brother, St. Lupicinus, and many other disciples. The two brothers thus found it necessary to establish two monasteries, at Condat and Leuconne, and a convent at La Beaume which was governed by their sister. Romanus famed for his healing 2 lepers at Saint Maurice.  He is buried at La Beaume.
468  St. Hilary, Pope from 461-468 guardian of Church unity sent decree to Eastern bishops validating decisions of General Councils Nicaea Ephesus and Chalcedon. Hilary consolidated the Church in Sandi, Africa, and Gaul
Rom æ sancti Hílari, Papæ et Confessóris. At Rome, St. Hilary, pope and confessor.

468 ST HILARUS, POPE
UNDER St Flavian of Constantinople on February 18 mention has been made of the ominously-named “Robber Council” held at Ephesus in 449, when the heresiarch Eutyches was upheld by rebel bishops and those who maintained orthodoxy were abused and physically maltreated, St Flavian so that he died. The legates of Pope St Leo I were powerless: they made their protest and withdrew, barely escaping with their lives. One of these legates was Hilarus, a Sardinian by birth. His letter to the Empress St Pulcheria is extant, in which he apologizes for not personally delivering to her the pope’s letter after the synod, explaining that owing to the violence and intrigues of Dioscorus he could not get to Constantinople and was only just able to escape to Rome. As a votive offering for his preservation at this time he afterwards built the chapel of St John the Apostle in the baptistery of St John Lateran. Over the door may still be seen the inscription he put up there:

Liberatori suo beato Johanni evangelistae Hilarus episcopus famulus Christi: “Hilarus, bishop and servant of Christ, to his liberator, the blessed John the Evangelist.”

On the death of Leo the Great in 461 the deacon Hilarus was elected to the pontifical chair, and he was a worthy successor to Leo. Little or nothing is known of his personal life; but his chief work as pope seems to have been the strengthening of ecclesiastical discipline and administration in Gaul and Spain, both by curbing the excesses of individual bishops and by maintaining their rights. On one occasion he publicly rebuked the Emperor Anthemius in St Peter’s for favouring teachers of unsound doctrine. Pope St Hilarus died on February 28, 468 and was buried in the church of St Laurence outside the walls of Rome, where also he had provided a library and two public baths.

Beside the notice in the Liber Pontificalis (Duchesne~ vol. i, pp. 242—248) and the letters, which may be consulted in Thiel and in Jaffe, the Bollandists reproduce most of the relevant materials in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. iii. See also Hefele-Leclercq, Conches, vol. ii; Grisar, Geschichte Roms und der Päpste, pp. 323 and passim; and DCB., vol. iii, pp. 72—74.
He was born in Sardinia, Italy, and was a papal legate to the Robber Council of Ephesus in 449, barely escaping with his life from this affair.  Hilary was used by Pope St. Leo I the Great on many assignments. When Leo died, Hilary was elected pope and consecrated on November 19, 461. He worked diligently to strengthen the Church in France and Spain, calling councils in 462 and 465. Hilary also rebuilt many Roman churches and erected the chapel of St. John Lateran. He also publicly rebuked Emperor Anthemius in St. Peter’s for supporting the Macedonian heresy and sent a decree to the Eastern bishops validating the decisions of the General Councils of Nicaea, Ephesus, and Chalcedon. Hilary consolidated the Church in Sandi, Africa, and Gaul.  He died in Rome on February 28.
Pope Saint Hilarus [Also spelled HILARIUS]
Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After the death of Leo I, an archdeacon named Hilarus, a native of Sardinia, according to the "Liber Pontificalis", was chosen to succeed him, and in all probability received consecration on 19 November, 461. Together with Julius, Bishop of Puteoli, Hilarus acted as legate of Leo I at the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus in 449. There he fought vigorously for the rights of the Roman See and opposed the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople (see FLAVIAN, SAINT). He was therefore exposed to the violence of Dioscurus of Alexandria, and saved himself by flight. In one of his letters to the Empress Pulcheria, found in a collection of letters of Leo I ("Leonis I Epistolae", num. xlvi., in P.L., LIV, 837 sq.), Hilarus apologizes for not delivering to her the pope's letter after the synod; but owing to Dioscurus, who tried to hinder his going either to Rome or to Constantinople, he had great difficulty in making his escape in order to bring to the pontiff the news of the result of the council. His pontificate was marked by the same vigorous policy as that of his great predecessor. Church affairs in Gaul and Spain claimed his special attention. Owing to political disorganization in both countries, it was important to safeguard the hierarchy by strengthening church government. Hermes, a former archdeacon of Narbonne, had illegally acquired the bishopric of that town. Two Gallican prelates were dispatched to Rome to lay before the pope this and other matters concerning the Church in Gaul. A Roman synod held on 19 November, 462, passed judgment upon these matters, and Hilarus made known the following decisions in an Encyclical sent to the provincial bishops of Vienne, Lyons, Narbonne, and the Alps: Hermes was to remain Titular Bishop of Narbonne, but his episcopal faculties were withheld. A synod was to be convened yearly by the Bishop of Arles, for those of the provincial bishops who were able to attend; but all important matters were to be submitted to the Apostolic See. No bishop could leave his diocese without a written permission from the metropolitan; in case such permission be withheld he could appeal to the Bishop of Arles. Respecting the parishes (paroeciae) claimed by Leontius of Arles as belonging to his jurisdiction, the Gallican bishops could decide, after an investigation. Church property could not be alienated until a synod had examined into the cause of sale.

Shortly after this the pope found himself involved in another diocesan quarrel. In 463 Mamertus of Vienne had consecrated a Bishop of Die, although this Church, by a decree of Leo I, belonged to the metropolitan Diocese of Arles. When Hilarus heard of it he deputed Leontius of Arles to summon a great synod of the bishops of several provinces to investigate the matter. The synod took place and, on the strength of the report given him by Bishop Antonius, he issued an edict dated 25 February, 464, in which Bishop Veranus was commissioned to warn Mamertus that, if in the future he did not refrain from irregular ordinations, his faculties would be withdrawn. Consequently the consecration of the Bishop of Die must be sanctioned by Leontius of Arles. Thus the primatial privileges of the See of Arles were upheld as Leo I had defined them. At the same time the bishops were admonished not to overstep their boundaries, and to assemble in a yearly synod presided over by the Bishop of Arles. The metropolitan rights of the See of Embrun also over the dioceses of the Maritime Alps were protected against the encroachments of a certain Bishop Auxanius, particularly in connection with the two Churches of Nice and Cimiez.

In Spain, Silvanus, Bishop of Calahorra, had, by his episcopal ordinations, violated the church laws. Both the Metropolitan Ascanius and the bishops of the Province of Tarragona made complaint of this to the pope and asked for his decision. Before an answer came to their petition, the same bishops had recourse to the Holy See for an entirely different matter. Before his death Nundinarius, Bishop of Barcelona, expressed a wish that Irenaeus might be chosen his successor, although he had himself made Irenaeus bishop of another see. The request was granted, a Synod of Tarragona confirming the nomination of Irenaeus, after which the bishops sought the pope's approval. The Roman synod of 19 Nov., 465, took the matters up and settled them. This is the oldest Roman synod whose original records have been handed down to us. It was held in the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. After an address of the pope, and the reading of the Spanish letters, the synod decided that the church laws must not be tampered with. In addition to this Hilarus sent a letter to the bishops of Tarragona, declaring that no consecration was valid without the sanction of the Metropolitan Ascanius; and no bishop was permitted to be transferred from one diocese to another, so that some one else must be chosen for Barcelona in place of Irenaeus. The bishops consecrated by Silvanus would be recognized if they had been appointed to vacant sees, and otherwise met the requirements of the Church. The "Liber Pontificalis" mentions an Encyclical that Hilarus sent to the East, to confirm the Oecumenical Councils of Nicaea, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, and the dogmatic letter of Leo I to Flavian, but the sources at our disposal furnish us no further information. In Rome Hilarus worked zealously for the integrity of the Faith. The Emperor Anthemius had a favourite named Philotheus, who was a believer in the Macedonian heresy and attended meetings in Rome for the promulgation of this doctrine, 476. On one of the emperor's visits to St. Peter's, the pope openly called him to account for his favourite's conduct, exhorting him by the grave of St. Peter to promise that he would do all in his power to check the evil. Hilarus erected several churches and other buildings in Rome. Two oratories in the baptistery of the Lateran, one in honour of St. John the Baptist, the other of St. John the Apostle, are due to him. After his flight from the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, Hilarus had hidden himself in the crypt of St. John the Apostle, and he attributed his deliverance to the intercession of the Apostle. Over the ancient doors of the oratory this inscription is still to be seen: "To St. John the Evangelist, the liberator of Bishop Hilarus, a Servant of Christ". He also erected a chapel of the Holy Cross in the baptistery, a convent, two public baths, and libraries near the Church of St. Laurence Outside the Walls. He built another convent within the city walls. The "Liber Pontificalis" mentions many votive offerings made by Hilarus in the different churches. He died after a pontificate of six years, three months, and ten days.
He was buried in the church of St. Laurence Outside the Walls. His feast day is celebrated on 17 November.
6th v St. Ruellinus Bishop of Treguier, Brittany France he succeeded St. Tudwal there.
Papíæ Translátio córporis sancti Augustíni Epíscopi, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris, ex Sardínia ínsula, ópera Luitprándi, Regis Longobardórum.
       At Papia, the transfer, ordered by the Lombard King Luitprand, of the body of St. Augustine, bishop, away from the island of Sardinia.

731 Saint Pope Gregory II served St Sergius I next 4 popes as treasurer of the Church, then librarian, Held synods to correct abuses, stopped heresy, promoted discipline and morality in religious and clerical life
Also known as:  Gregory the Younger; Gregory Junior
Profile  Involved in Church affairs from an early age. Pope Saint Sergius I ordained Gregory a sub-deacon. He served the next four popes as treasurer of the Church, then librarian. Assigned important missions. Accompanied Pope Constantine to Constantinople for discussions with Emperor Justinian II.

Pope in 715. Held synods to correct abuses, stopped heresy and promoted discipline and morality in religious and clerical life. Rebuilt a great portion of the walls of Rome to protect the city against the Lombards. Restored churches, cared for the sick and aged, reestablished monasteries and abbeys. Consecrated Saint Boniface and Saint Corbinian as missionary bishops to the tribes in Germany. England pilgrims increased to the point that they required a church, cemetery, and school of their own.

In his dealings with Emperor Leo III, Gregory's showed strength and patience. Leo demanded destruction of holy images. When bishops failed to convince him of his error, they disobeyed and appealed to the pope. Gregory tried to change the emperor's thinking, counseled the people to maintain allegiance to the prince, and encouraged the bishops to oppose the heresy. It appears he won out.   Born:  at Rome, Italy  Papal Ascension:  19 May 715  Died:  early February 731 at Rome
750 Saint Basil the Confessor monk suffered during the reign of the iconoclast emperor Leo the Isaurian (717-741)
When a persecution started against those who venerated holy icons, St Basil and his companion St Procopius of Decapolis (February 27) were subjected to much torture and locked up in prison. Here both martyrs languished for a long while, until the death of the impious emperor. When the holy Confessors Basil and Procopius were set free along with other venerators of holy icons, they continued in their monastic struggles, instructing many in the Orthodox Faith and the virtuous life. St Basil died peacefully in the year 750.

992 ST OSWALD OF WORCESTER, ARCHBISHOP OF York
ST OSWALD, of Danish extraction, was the nephew of St Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated by Odo and became a priest of Winchester, but
he crossed over to. France and took the monastic habit at Fleury. In spite of invitations from his uncle to return to England he could not be prevailed upon to do so until he heard that the archbishop was dying, but he arrived too late to see him alive. Oswald then joined his other uncle, Oskitell, Archbishop of York, remaining with him for some years. Oswald’s piety and great qualities attracted the attention of St Dunstan who, upon being appointed to Canterbury, recom­mended him to King Edgar, by whose order he was made bishop of Worcester. He at once founded a monastery of twelve monks at Westbury-on-Trym, and he subsequently built the great abbey of Ramsey on an island formed by marshes and the River Ouse in Huntingdonshire, C. 970.

Oswald was a great supporter of St Dunstan’s plans for the revival of religion and for the spread of the monastic order. He and St Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, were the prelates specially charged to enforce the decree that the clergy must either live single lives or resign their cures. In his own diocesan city Oswald showed great forbearance and tact in dealing with the lax clergy of St Peter’s. Instead of removing them, he founded another church near by which was served by Benedictine monks and to which all the people soon flocked. Seeing their church empty the clergy of St Peter decided that they also would embrace the monastic rule, and they carried out their resolution.

The saint spent much of his time in visiting his diocese, preaching without intermission and reforming abuses; he also fostered the study of letters and encouraged learned men to come from abroad. In the year 972, he was promoted to the see of York, but by the wish of the king and with the pope’s sanction he retained Worcester, and although he divided his time between the two dioceses, Worcester remained the place of his predilection, and he loved to worship with the monks in the monastery church of St Mary which he had founded and which became the cathedral of Worcester. Every day St Oswald used to wash the feet~ of twelve poor persons whom he afterwards fed at his own table. On February 29, 992 he had just wiped and kissed the feet of the last poor man and was yet on his knees, saying, “Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost”, when he gently passed away. As his body was being borne to burial at Worcester it was noticed that a white dove was hovering over it. St Oswald’s feast is observed in the archdiocese of Birmingham.

There are several early lives of St Oswald, the more valuable of which have been edited by James Raine for the Rolls Series in the first and second volumes of his Historians of the Church of York. The earliest biography there printed must have been written by a monk of Ramsey between 995 and 1005, shortly after the saint’s death. See also Stanton, Menology, pp. 89—91, from which we may learn that St Oswald’s name is entered under this day in a considerable number of medieval English calendars, and D. Knowles, The Monastic Order in England (1949), pp. 40—56 and passim.
1309 BD ANGELA OF FOLIGNO, WIDOW must always take her place among the great mystics and contemplatives of the middle ages, side by side with Catherine of Siena and Catherine of Genoa.
ANGELA of Foligno must always take her place among the great mystics and contemplatives of the middle ages, side by side with Catherine of Siena and Catherine of Genoa. She has a very marked and distinct individuality of her own, and presents an unusual type of the great Franciscan revival which influenced central Italy so strongly: She seems in many ways the opposite to her great spiritual father, St Francis. His life was action, Angela’s was thought, vision; Francis saw God in all His creatures—Angela saw all creatures in God; but the underlying principle is the same, namely, joyful love. Very little is known of Bd Angela’s history—not even her surname.* [*Father Ferré is able to tell us from his examination of the Assisi manuscript that she was known among her family and intimates as “Lella”, but this was probably only a pet name derived from Angela,]

GENERAL AUDIENCE: SPIRITUAL JOURNEY OF ANGELA OF FOLIGNO
VATICAN CITY, 13 OCT 2010 (VIS) - Benedict XVI dedicated his catechesis during this morning's general audience to the Italian Blessed Angela of Foligno (ca. 1248 - 1309). The audience was celebrated in St. Peter's Square in the presence of 25,000 people.
  This great mediaeval mystic generally arouses admiration "for the heights she scaled in her experience of union with God", said the Pope. "However, perhaps too little attention has been given to her first steps, to her conversion and the journey that led her from her starting point of a 'great fear of hell', to her goal of complete union with the Trinity".
  Angela was born into a rich family and received a worldly education. She married very young, had a number of children and lived a carefree life until dramatic events such as the violent earthquake of 1279 and the consequences of a war with the city of Perugia led her to question the meaning of her existence. In 1285 she received a vision of St. Francis of Assisi whom she asked for help in making a general confession of her sins. Three years later, her husband and children having all died, Angela sold her goods and in 1291 entered the Third Order of St. Francis.
  Her story is recounted by her confessor in the "Book of Blessed Angela of Foligno". At the beginning of her spiritual itinerary the blessed felt the fear of hell for her sins. "This fear", the Pope explained, "reflected the kind of faith that Angela had at the moment of her conversion; a faith still poor in charity; that is, in love for God. Penance, fear of hell and atonement opened before Angela the prospect of the painful 'way of the cross', which ... would lead her to the 'way of love'".
  "Angela felt she had to give something to God to make up for her sins, but she slowly came to realise that she had nothing to give Him; indeed, that she was 'nothing' before Him. She understood that it was not her will that could give her the love of God, because her will could give her 'nothing', it could only give her 'non-love'". Little by little "she came to a profound understanding of the central reality: that what would save her from her 'unworthiness' and from her 'deserving hell' would not be her 'union with God' or her possession of the 'truth', but the crucified Jesus, ... His love, ... and her self-identification and self-transformation in the love and suffering of the crucified Christ".
  "Angela's conversion", the Holy Father concluded, "reached maturity only when in her heart she saw God's forgiveness as a gratuitous gift of the love of the Father, Who is the source of love". On her spiritual journey, "the move from conversion to mystical experience, from that which can be expressed to that which is inexpressible, came about through the crucified Christ. ... All her mystical experience thus tended to perfect 'likeness' with Him through increasingly profound and radical purifications and transformations. ... Such identification also meant living as Jesus lived, facing poverty, contempt and suffering. ... A sublime journey, the secret of which was constant prayer". AG/   VIS 20101013 (540)

The date of her birth must have been about 1248, and she belonged to a good family of Foligno, where she was born and lived. She was married to a rich man and was the mother of several sons. In her early life she was careless and worldly; indeed, according to her own account, her life was not only pleasure-seeking and self-indulgent, but actually sinful. Then suddenly about 1285 there came to her the vision of the True Light, the call to a love full of fruitful suffering, to the peace of greater and more living joys than any on earth. It was a sudden, vivid conversion, a conversion of her whole point of view, impetuous, painful, joyous. The life she had thought harmless, even if without any higher aim, she now saw in its true perspective, as sinful, and from this conviction of sin was born in her a craving for penance, suffering, renunciation—renunciation complete and joyful, that has lost all to find all, the victorious faith of her great model, St Francis, whose third order she eventually joined.
For some time after her conversion she continued outwardly her life in the world, Then gradually all ties were broken. Her mother, to whom she was much attached, though, perhaps naturally, she hindered her in her new life, died; then before long her husband; and finally her sons, and though her biographer exults over the providence displayed in thus removing all hindrances to her spiritual ascent, she was herself not inhuman, and Brother Arnold tells us how cruelly she suffered as blow after blow fell upon her. Still, her conversion had been so complete, so violent, that all things, joy or sorrow, as with St Francis, were but one, a living unity. For these early Franciscans nothing existed but the love of God.
What little we know of Angela’s life is told us mostly by Brother Arnold, a Friar Minor, who was her confessor and who prevailed upon her to dictate the account of her visions to him. [Later research has shown that the third of the three sections into which the manuscript is divided cannot, as was previously supposed, have been written or edited by Brother Arnold.]
He tells us that after a time she gave up all her possessions, selling last of all a “castle” which she loved very much. That this sacrifice was asked of her had been revealed in a vision, in which she was told that if she would be perfect she must follow St Francis in his absolute poverty. Arnold tells us pathetically how, time after time, when he read over to her what he had written, she exclaimed that he had misunderstood her and given quite a wrong meaning to her words. At other times she would cry out that when her visions were put into words they were blasphemous, and Arnold warns us not to be scandalized at the heights of ecstasy to which Angela rises, and adds that the greater her ecstasy the deeper was her humility. For instance, when she says she has been raised “for ever” to a new state of light and joy, she does not speak in any spirit of overconfidence or spiritual pride. She simply tells us that her state is one of continual progress, that she is entering into a new light, a new sense of God, a solitude which she has not yet inhabited.
She gathered round her a family of tertiaries, both men and women. We hear from Brother Arnold that she had one special companion, “una vergine Cristiana”, who lived with her and who was evidently not exempt from human respect, for
when she and Angela were walking from Foligno, perhaps climbing the heights to Spello or Assisi, or going along that wonderful plain of Umbria to Rivotorto or Santa Maria degli Angeli, Angela would fall into ecstasy, her face shining and her eyes burning. The companion became much embarrassed and, thinking to set a good example, covered her own head, imploring Angela to do the same, telling her that her eyes were like lamps. “Hide yourself—what will people say of you? Hide yourself from the eyes of men.” “Never mind,” said Angela, “if we meet anyone God will take care of us.” Arnold adds that the companion had to accustom herself to such episodes as Angela’s states of ecstasy occurred at any moment.

One Holy Thursday she said to the companion, “Let us go and look for Christ our Lord. We will go to the hospital and perhaps amongst the sick and suffering we shall find Him.” She could not go empty-handed, and the only things they possessed were their veils for covering their heads on which the companion set such store. These Angela hastily sold to buy food to take to the hospital, “and so we offered food to these poor sick people, and then we washed the feet of the women, and the men’s hands, as they lay lonely and forsaken on their wretched pallets— more especially was a poor leper much consoled”, and great was the joy and sweet­ness they experienced on their way home, and so they found the Lord Christ on this Maundy Thursday. And so this strange life of great simplicity and of such overwhelming spiritual experience ran its course, and at the end of 1308 she knew that death was near. She had all her spiritual children assembled and laid her hand in blessing on the head of each, leaving them as her last will and testament words of wonderful confidence and assurance. Bd Angela died happily and in great peace on January 4, 1309.

We have one other detail of her outer life. Ubertino di Casale entered the Order of Friars Minor in 1273. For fourteen years his life was zealous and exemplary. He was a man of great learning, and these years were spent in various universities. He then fell away grievously into carelessness and sin. He tells us he made Angela’s acquaintance in a wonderful manner which he does not relate, and that she revealed to him his most secret thoughts, “God speaking through her”, as he says, and that she brought him back to a holy life. He adds that he was only one of a large family of spiritual children who owed the life of their souls to her, Though so little is known of her outer life, she has revealed her inner life very fully. “I, called Angela of Foligno, walking in the path of penance, made eighteen spiritual steps before I knew all the imperfection of my life.” These eighteen steps begin with the consciousness of sin, then, through the shame of confession, to the mercy of God, to self-knowledge, to the cross of Christ. At the ninth step, “the way to the cross”, she discards her rich clothing, her delicate food, but this is all still done very much against the grain, for she is not yet really controlled by divine love. At the tenth step comes the vision of Jesus Christ, which is granted to her in answer to her prayer: “What can I do to please thee?” The vision of Christ and His passion reveals to her the smallness of all her sufferings, and she tells us that she wept so continuously and so bitterly that she had to bathe her eyes for a long time with cold water, After the vision of the Cross she knows true penitence, and she decides on a life of absolute poverty. So one by one she climbs her steps. She learns more and more of the Passion. God Himself through the Lord’s Prayer teaches her to pray. She finds what graces come from our Blessed Lady, and at the eighteenth step she says that she realizes God most vividly, and so delights in prayer that she forgets to eat. At this stage she sells her much-loved castle.

Angela tells us that she has dwelt in two abysses, of height and of depth. Now, after the eighteenth step, she is hurled from the abyss of height and we have a terrible chapter telling of her temptations. She seems to herself to be stripped of every good wish or thought. She is tried by the most horrible sensual temptations, haunted by longings for sins of which she had never heard. At last the light broke through and she had a short reprieve. What she calls the next abyss was the temp­tation to false humility, great self-consciousness and scrupulosity. She wanted to tear off her clothes and run about the town naked, with fish and meat hung round her neck, crying out, “This is a most vile woman who stinks of evil and falsehood, who spreads vice and sin wherever she goes. Yes, that is what I am—a humbug. I pretend I eat no fish or meat, and really I am a glutton and a drunkard. I pretend I wear common rough clothing, but at night I sleep under the softest coverings, which I hide in the morning.” She implored the Friars Minor and her tertiaries to believe these self-accusations. At last she was delivered from this curse of false humility only to fall into the other extreme of great spiritual pride. She was filled with anger, bitterness, ill-nature. This state of torment began in 1294 and lasted more than two years. At last her poor tortured soul was lifted out of this abyss of darkness and she was comforted with a vision of God as the highest good, and more and more, as her life proceeded, she was filled with great joy and happiness—that joy which was the keynote of the early Franciscan life. Over and over again in her visions she is shown the love and goodness and kindness of God; more and more she grasps the underlying principle that St Francis taught, which binds all things together and “makes of all things one”—namely, love. When she is in the state of love everything that could be said about God or the life of Christ in Holy Scripture would only be a hindrance—she is “in God” and reads much greater and incomparable words. When she comes to herself after this experience she is so peaceful and happy that she says she is full of love “even for the devils”. She is so lost in love that not even the passion of our Lord can sadden her—all is joy. Sometimes the soul contemplates the human flesh of God which died for us, at other times joyful love wipes out all the sorrow of the Passion. “Therefore” she concludes, “the Passion is to me only a shining path of life.”

A large part of the book of visions is taken up with these wonderful, vivid, but always restrained descriptions of every detail of Christ’s passion and crucifixion. More and more she rises above the pain and suffering in the spirit of her Lord Himself, “who for the joy set before Him endured the cross and despised the shame”. She tells us that assisting at a representation of the Passion (apparently a kind of mystery play) in the open air she was so overcome with this spirit of joy that she seemed to herself to be taken up and hidden in the shining wound of the side of Christ. Wonderful favours and visions were granted her at Mass and holy communion. One of the last recorded visions is Peace. Something had disturbed her and she had lost her joy and peace. At last God spoke to her and told her she was favoured above anyone in the valley of Spoleto. Her soul cried out, Why, then, did God desert her? The answer was that she must trust more and more, and gradually peace returned to her, greater than she had ever known.

The book concludes with a vision she calls the path of salvation, in which she speaks of the blessedness of those who know God, not by what He gives, but by what He is in Himself. “Lord”, she cried, “tell me what thou dost want of me I am all thine. But there was no answer, and I prayed from Matins till Terce— then I saw and heard.” There was an abyss of light—an abyss in which the truth of God was spread out like a road on which those passed who went to Him and those also who turned away from Him, and the voice of God said to me, “In truth the only way of salvation is to follow my footsteps from the cross on earth to this light”. Here the divine Word became clearer and more distinct, and the path was bathed in light and splendour as far as the eye could reach.

We know very little about Bd Angela of Foligno apart from her own disclosures regarding herself. These are printed in the Acta Sanctorum for January 4, and they were re-edited by Boccolini in the eighteenth century, and by Faloci-Pulignani from 1899. An Italian arrangement of the same materials had appeared in 1536, of which there is an English render­ing by Mary G. Steegman, which was published under the title The Book of the Divine Consolation of Bd Angela of Foligno (1909). But a re-editing of the sources was highly desirable (cf. the article “ Les oeuvres authentiques d’Angéle de Foligno” in the Revue d’histoire franciscaine, July, 1924); this was done from MS 342 in the municipal library at Assisi by Fr P. Doncoeur, text (1925) and French translation (1926), and by Fr M. J. Ferré (text and translation, 1927). See also L. Lecléve, Ste Angéle de Foligno (1936) and Fr Doncoeur’s bibliography in the Revue d’ascétique et de mystique, July, 1925. The cultus of Bd Angela has been approved by Pope Innocent XII and other pontiffs (she is sometimes called Saint).
1360 BD VILLANA OF FLORENCE, MATRON wonderful visions and colloquies with our Lady and other saints.
        
         Bd VILLANA was the daughter of Andrew de’ Botti, a Florentine merchant, and was born in 1332. When she was thirteen she ran away from home to enter a convent, but her attempts were unsuccessful and she was forced to return. To prevent any repetition of her flight, her father shortly afterwards gave her in marriage to Rosso di Piero. After her marriage she appeared completely changed: she gave herself up to pleasure and dissipation and lived a wholly idle and worldly life. One day, as she was about to start for an entertainment clad in a gorgeous dress adorned with pearls and precious stones, she looked at herself in a mirror. To her dismay the reflection that met her eyes was that of a hideous demon. A second and a third mirror showed the same ugly form. Thoroughly alarmed and recognizing in the reflection the image of her sin-stained soul, she tore off her fine attire and, clad in the simplest clothes she could find, she betook herself weeping to the Dominican fathers at Santa Maria Novella to make a full confession and to ask absolution and help. This proved the turning point of her life, and she never again fell away.                    -
           Ere long Villana was admitted to the third order of St Dominic, and after this she advanced rapidly in the spiritual life. Fulfilling all her duties as a married woman, she spent all her available time in prayer and reading. She particularly loved to study St Paul’s epistles and the lives of the saints. At one time, in her self-abasement and in her love for the poor, she would have gone begging for them from door to door had not her husband and parents interposed. So completely did she give herself up to God that she was often rapt in ecstasy, particularly during Mass or at spiritual conferences but she had to pass through a period of persecution when she was cruelly calumniated and her honour was assailed. Her soul was also purified by strange pains and by great bodily weakness. However, she passed unscathed through all these trials and was rewarded by wonderful visions and colloquies with our Lady and other saints.

Occasionally the room in which
she dwelt was filled with supernatural light, and she was also endowed with the gift of prophecy. As she lay on her deathbed she asked that the Passion should be read to her, and at the words He bowed His head and gave up the ghost”, she crossed her hands on her breast and passed away.
Her body was taken to Santa Maria Novella, where it became such an object of veneration that for over a month it was impossible to proceed with the funeral. People struggled to obtain shreds of her clothing, and she was honoured as a saint from the day of her death. Her bereaved husband used to say that, when he felt discouraged and depressed, he found strength by visiting the room in which his beloved wife had died. Bd Villana’s cultus was confirmed in 1824.
           See the Acta Sanctorum for August 26 (Aug. vol. v) Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints,
         pp. 50—52; M. C. Ganay, Les Bienheureuses Dominicaines, pp. 153—175.
1377 Bl. Villana hideous demon in mirror wonderful visions olloquies our Lady and saints gift of prophecy

1360 BD VILLANA OF FLORENCE, MATRON
BD VILLANA was the daughter of Andrew de’ Botti, a Florentine merchant, and was born in 1332. When she was thirteen she ran away from home to enter a convent, but her attempts were unsuccessful and she was forced to return. To prevent any repetition of her flight, her father shortly afterwards gave her in marriage to Rosso di Piero. After her marriage she appeared completely changed: she gave herself up to pleasure and dissipation and lived a wholly idle and worldly life. One day, as she was about to start for an entertainment clad in a gorgeous dress adorned with pearls and precious stones, she looked at herself in a mirror. To her dismay the reflection that met her eyes was that of a hideous demon. A second and a third mirror showed the same ugly form. Thoroughly alarmed and recognizing in the reflection the image of her sin-stained soul, she tore off her fine attire and, clad in the simplest clothes she could find, she betook herself weeping to the Dominican fathers at Santa Maria Novella to make a full confession and to ask absolution and help. This proved the turning point of her life, and she never again fell away.

Ere long Villana was admitted to the third order of St Dominic, and after this she advanced rapidly in the spiritual life. Fulfilling all her duties as a married woman, she spent all her available time in prayer and reading. She particularly loved to study St Paul’s epistles and the lives of the saints. At one time, in her self-abasement and in her love for the poor, she would have gone begging for them from door to door had not her husband and parents interposed. So completely did she give herself up to God that she was often rapt in ecstasy, particularly during Mass or at spiritual conferences but she had to pass through a period of perse­cution when she was cruelly calumniated and her honour was assailed. Her soul was also purified by strange pains and by great bodily weakness. However, she passed unscathed through all these trials and was rewarded by wonderful visions and colloquies with our Lady and other saints. Occasionally the room in which she dwelt was filled with supernatural light, and\she was also endowed with the gift of prophecy. As she lay on her deathbed she asked that the Passion should be read to her, and at the words “He bowed His head and gave up the ghost”, she crossed her hands on her breast and passed away. Her body was taken to Santa Maria Novella, where it became such an object of veneration that for over a month it was impossible to proceed with the funeral. People struggled to obtain shreds of her clothing, and she was honoured as a saint from the day of her death. Her bereaved husband used to say that, when he felt discouraged and depressed, he found strength by visiting the room in which his beloved wife had died. Bd Villana’s cultus was confirmed in 1824.

See the Acta Sanctorum for August 26 (Aug. vol. v); Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints, pp. 50—52 ; M. C. Ganay, Les Bienheureuses Dominicaines, pp. 153—175.

Blessed Villana was the daughter of Andrew de'Botti, a Florentine merchant, and was born in 1332. When she was thirteen she ran away from home to enter a convent but her attempts were unsuccessful and she was forced to return. To prevent any repetition of her flight, her father shortly afterwards gave her in marriage to Rosso di Piero. After her marriage she appeared completely changed; she gave herself up to pleasure and dissipation and lived a wholly idle and worldly life. One day, as she was about to start for an entertainment clad in a gorgeous dress adorned with pearls and precious stones, she looked at herself in a mirror. To her dismay, the reflection that met her eyes was that of a hideous demon. A second and a third mirror showed the same ugly form. Thoroughly alarmed and recognizing in the reflection the image of herself sin-stained soul, she tore off her fine attire and, clad in the simplest clothes she could find, she betook herself weeping to the Dominican Fathers at Santa Maria Novella to make a full confession and to ask absolution and help. This proved the turning point of her life, and she never again fell away.
Before long Villana was admitted to the Third Order of St. Dominic, and after this she advanced rapidly in the spiritual life.
Fulfilling all her duties as a married woman, she spent all her available time in prayer and reading. She particularly loved to read St. Paul's Epistles and the lives of the saints. At one time, in a self-abasement and in her love for the poor, she would have gone begging for them from door to door had not her husband and parents interposed. So completely did she give herself up to God that she was often rapt in ecstacy, particularly during Mass or at spiritual conferences; but she had to pass through a period of persecution when she was cruelly calumniated and her honor was assailed.
Her soul was also purified by strong pains and by great bodily weakness.
However, she passed unscathed through all these trials and was rewarded by wonderful visions and olloquies with our Lady and other saints. Occasionally the room in which she dwelt was filled with supernatural light, and she was also endowed with the gift of prophecy. As she lay on her deathbed, she asked that the Passion should be read to her, and at the words "He bowed His head and gave up the ghost", she crossed her hands on her breast and passed away.
   
Her body was taken to Santa Maria Novella, where it became such an object of veneration that for over a month it was impossible to proceed with the funeral. People struggled to obtain shreds of her clothing, and she was honored as a saint from the day of her death. Her bereaved husband use to say that, when he felt discouraged and depressed, he found strength by visiting the room in which his beloved wife had died. Blessed Villana's cultus was confirmed in 1824.
1399  St. Hedwig, Blessed Queen of Poland and model of faith in Lithuania
She was the daughter of King Louis I of Hungray, ascending the throne at age thirteen. She married Jagiello of Lithuania only after he became a chirstan, and then actively promoted Christianity in Lithuania.

1399 BD HEDWIG OF POLAND, MATRON
THERE are two Hedwigs (Jadwiga) of royal blood, both of whom Butter com­memorates on the same day (October 27). The younger of these, whose claim to liturgical celebration is not clearly made out, seems to be honoured in her own country on the last day of February with a popular cultus. The cause of her beatification was indeed introduced, but it has never been prosecuted to a successful issue. She was born in 1371, and was the youngest daughter of Louis, nephew and successor to Casimir III, King of Poland. After his death in 1382 it was pressed upon Hedwig as a religious duty to accept for a husband the still pagan Jagiello, Duke of Lithuania. Diplomatically such an alliance seemed most ad­vantageous for Poland and the Church, as the duke was not only willing in view of the marriage to accept Christianity himself, but promised that all his people should become Christians also. Hedwig, child as she still was in years (she was then thirteen), had to make a decision according to her conscience. A sympathetic pen in modem times has given this account of her surrender:

Covering herself with a thick black veil she proceeded on foot to the cathedral of Cracow, and repairing to one of the side chapels, threw herself on her knees, where for three hours with clasped hands and streaming eyes she wrestled with the repugnance that surged within her. At length she rose with a detached heart, having laid at the foot of the cross her affections, her will, her hopes of earthly happiness; offering herself, and all that belonged to her, as a perpetual holocaust to her crucified Redeemer, and esteeming herself happy, if so by this sacrifice she might purchase the salvation of those precious souls for whom He had shed His blood. Before leaving the chapel she cast her veil over the crucifix, hoping under that pall to bury all human infirmity that might still linger round her heart, and then hastened to establish a founda­tion for the perpetual renewal of this type of her soul’s sorrow. This founda­tion yet exists within the same chapel the crucifix still stands, covered by its sable drapery, being commonly known as the “crucifix of Hedwig.”

Jagiello seems to have been sincere. He received baptism, together with the new name of Ladislaus, and we read strange stories of the “conversion” of the Lithuanian people—how the temples of the false gods were destroyed wholesale, and how men, women and children drawn up in platoons, “were sprinkled [for their baptism] by the bishops and priests, every division receiving the same, name.”

All through the troubled years which followed, Hedwig was the most stable as well as the most judicious element in the government of the kingdom. She exercised a moderating influence upon the policy of her husband, she came to the rescue of the poor suffering people, who too often had to pay the penalty for the mistakes or the selfishness of their rulers, she won the love of her subjects by her gentleness and boundless charity, and yet she showed that she could defend herself with dignity against Ladislaus’s irrational outbursts of jealousy. It was only in her asceticism that she seemed to forget the need of a measure of prudence. But she was conscientious in all wifely duties, and her husband beyond doubt regarded her with deep affection as well as with a certain feeling of awe. When at last there was promise of an heir to the throne he was extravagant in the preparations he wished made. From the frontier where he was conducting a campaign he wrote about providing jewels and rich draperies. Hedwig replied “Seeing that I have so long renounced the pomps of this world, it is not on that treacherous couch—to so many the bed of death—that I would willingly be surrounded by their glitter. It is not by the help of gold or gems that I hope to render myself acceptable to that Almighty Father who has mercifully removed from me the reproach of barrenness, but rather by resignation to His will and a sense of my own nothingness.” Humanly speaking, she was not altogether wise in her use of penance and prayer. On the anniversary of her great renunciation she went out unattended to make a vigil in the cathedral before the veiled crucifix. Her ladies-in-waiting found her there, hours later, rapt in ecstasy or possibly in a swoon. Not long afterwards the birth of a daughter, who lived only a few days, cost the mother her life. It was believed that many miracles were wrought at her tomb.

See the Dublin Review, October, 1864, pp. 311—343; A. B. C. Dunbar, Dictionary of Saintly Women, vol. i, pp. 366—369; H. Sienkiewicz, Knights of the Cross, ch. 4 and the Cambridge History of Poland, vol. (1950), for the historical background of the marriage that united Poland and Lithuania for 400 years.
1472 Blessed Antonia (Antoinette) of Florence, OFM Widow (AC)
Born in Florence, Italy, in 1400; died 1472; cultus confirmed in 1847. Twice widowed, twice prioress, Antonia joined the Franciscan tertiaries when she was widowed while still very young. She was chosen as superioress of Aquila and adopted the original rule of the Poor Clares. She contracted a painful disease, which afflicted her for 15 years, but this and other trials she bore bravely under the guidance of Saint John of Capistrano (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1472 BD ANTONIA OF FLORENCE, WIDOW
THE town of Aquila in the Abruzzi contains the relics of three distinguished Franciscans—St Bernardino of Siena, Bd Vincent of Aquila and Bd Antonia of Florence. Antonia married whilst still quite young, lost her husband after a few years and, desiring after her widowhood to consecrate herself to God, she resisted the efforts of her relations who wished her to marry again. When in 1429 Bd Angelina of Marsciano sent two of her religious to found in Florence the fifth of her convents of regular tertiaries of St Francis. Antonia was one of the first to enter the new house. The following year. the superioress of the Observance, who recognized her exceptional merits and powers, transferred her to Foligno and placed her in, charge of the convent of St Anne, which was the original house founded by Bd Angelina. Here Antonia had the privilege of being under the immediate direction of the foundress. Three years later she was sent to rule a recently established community at Aquila, and once again she set the example of a holy life poured forth in acts of charity. Bd Angelina died the second year after Antonia had gone to Aquila, and she lost another of her chief supports in the person of St Bernardino of Siena, who died in 1444 at Aquila.

When St John Capistran visited the town, Antonia told him that she desired a stricter rule, and he so fully sympathized with her wishes that he obtained for her the monastery of Corpus Christi, which had just been built for another order, and thither she retired in 1447 with eleven of her nuns to practise the original rule of St Clare in all its rigour. Girls gave up brilliant prospects to join her and the convent soon had to be enlarged to contain the hundred or more nuns who sang the divine praises day and night. Humility and patience were the outstanding qualities of Bd Antonia, who for fifteen years bore uncomplainingly a most painful disease, and in her spiritual life had to undergo severe trials. Her son was nothing but a trouble to her he dissipated his whole fortune, and he and her other relations used to come and worry her with their quarrels and affairs. It was also a great blow to her when the Franciscans of Aquila, to whom St John Capistran had entrusted the care of the convent, gave up the direction of the nuns; but they subsequently resumed the spiritual guidance of the community. She was a true daughter of St Francis in her love for poverty, which she called the Queen of the House. She was full of tenderness to her spiritual daughters, and when after seven years she resigned her office, she retained the affection and veneration of the whole community. Bd Antonia at times was seen to be in ecstasy and upraised from the ground, and once a fiery globe appeared to rest upon her head and to light up the place in which she prayed. When she died in 1472 the bishop, magistrates and people of Aquila insisted on conducting her funeral with great solemnity at the public charge. Her cult was confirmed in 1847.

See Léon, L’Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 36—40; Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano, vol. i, pp. 287—289.
1533 BD LOUISA ALBERTONI, WIDOW
LOUISA’S (Lodovica) father, Stephen Albertoni, and her mother, Lucrezia Tebaldi, belonged to distinguished Roman families. She was born in 1473, and lost her father while yet an infant. Her mother married again, and Louisa was brought up first by her grandmother, and then by two of her aunts; and she was induced by family influence to marry James de Cithara, a young man of noble family and great wealth. She bore him three daughters and lived with him on terms of deep affection, but he died in 1506.
Becoming in this way her own mistress, Louisa gave herself up almost entirely to prayer, assuming finally the habit of the third order of St Francis. Her contemplation of the Passion was so uninterrupted, and the devotion with which she called to mind the sufferings of our Lord so intense, that she is said to have nearly lost her sight by the tears in which these hours of prayer were spent. What remained of her time was given to the service of the sick and the poor, and to visiting the seven great basilicas of Rome. She lived in the deepest poverty, her whole fortune expended in alleviating the distress of those around her.
The methods of relief which her humility adopted were often somewhat original, as when, for example, she baked a great batch of bread to be distributed at random to the poor, putting into the loaves gold and silver coins of different values, and praying at the same time that the largest alms might providentially find their way to those who most needed help. Louisa in fact stripped herself so generously of all she possessed that the time came when she had nothing left to give : her relatives supplied her with her daily food, but she kept little even of this for herself. In these last years of her life she enjoyed profound peace of soul and was constantly rapt in ecstasy, during which times, as we are told by her biographers, she was not
s eldom raised physically from the ground. She fell asleep in the Lord on January 31, 1533, as she repeated, like her Divine Master, the words “Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit”. Many miracles are said to have taken place when her body lay in the church awaiting burial, and afterwards at her tomb. Her cultus was confirmed in 1671.

See G. Peolo, Vita della B. Lodovica Albertoni (1672) Léon, L’Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. i, pp. 127—132 B. Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano (1676), vol. i, pp. 145—155.
1576 Blessed Nicholas of Pskov graced by the Holy Spirit granted gifts of wonderworking and prophecy
Blessed Nicholas of Pskov lived the life of a holy fool for more than three decades. Long before his death he acquired the grace of the Holy Spirit and was granted the gifts of wonderworking and of prophecy. The Pskov people of his time called him Mikula [Mikola, Nikola] the Fool. Even during his lifetime they revered him as a saint, even calling him Mikula the saintly.
In February 1570, after a devastating campaign against Novgorod, Tsar Ivan the TerribleLiubyatov Tenderness Icon of the Mother of God (March 19) in the Monastery of St Nicholas (the Tsar's army was at Lubyatov). "Be tender of heart," he said to his soldiers. "Blunt your swords upon the stones, and let there be an end to killing."

All the inhabitants of Pskov came out upon the streets, and each family knelt at the gate of their house, bearing bread and salt to the meet the Tsar. On one of the streets Blessed Nicholas ran toward the Tsar astride a stick as though riding a horse, and cried out: "Ivanushko, Ivanushko, eat our bread and salt, and not Christian blood."  The Tsar gave orders to capture the holy fool, but he disappeared.

Though he had forbidden his men to kill, Ivan still intended to sack the city.
The Tsar attended a Molieben at the Trinity cathedral, and he venerated the relics of holy Prince Vsevolod-Gabriel (February 11), and expressed his wish to receive the blessing of the holy fool Nicholas. The saint instructed the Tsar "by many terrible sayings," to stop the killing and not to plunder the holy churches of God. But Ivan did not heed him and gave orders to remove the bell from the Trinity cathedral.
    He moved against Pskov, suspecting the inhabitants of treason. As the Pskov Chronicler relates, "the Tsar came ... with great fierceness, like a roaring lion, to tear apart innocent people and to shed much blood."   On the first Saturday of Great Lent, the whole city prayed to be delivered from the Tsar's wrath. Hearing the peal of the bell for Matins in Pskov, the Tsar's heart was softened when he read the inscription on the fifteenth century wonderworking
Then, as the saint prophesied, the Tsar's finest horse fell dead.

The blessed one invited the Tsar to visit his cell under the belltower. When the Tsar arrived at the cell of the saint, he said, "Hush, come in and have a drink of water from us, there is no reason you should shun it." Then the holy fool offered the Tsar a piece of raw meat.
"I am a Christian and do not eat meat during Lent", said Ivan to him. "But you drink human blood," the saint replied.

Frightened by the fulfillment of the saint's prophecy and denounced for his wicked deeds, Ivan the Terrible ordered a stop to the looting and fled from the city. The Oprichniki, witnessing this, wrote: "The mighty tyrant ... departed beaten and shamed, driven off as though by an enemy.
    Thus did a worthless beggar terrify and drive off the Tsar with his multitude of a thousand soldiers."

Blessed Nicholas died on February 28, 1576 and was buried in the Trinity cathedral of the city he had saved. Such honors were granted only to the Pskov princes, and later on, to bishops.

The local veneration of the saint began five years after his death. In the year 1581, during a siege of Pskov by the soldiers of the Polish king Stephen Bathory, the Mother of God appeared to the blacksmith Dorotheus together with a number of Pskov saints praying for the city. Among these was Blessed Nicholas (the account about the Pskov-Protection Icon of the Mother of God is found under October 1).
At the Trinity cathedral they still venerate the relics of Blessed Nicholas of Pskov, who was "a holy fool in the flesh, and by assuming this holy folly he became a citizen of the heavenly Jerusalem" (Troparion). He also "transformed the Tsar's wild thoughts into mercy" (Kontakion).
1936 Blessed Daniel Brottier Senegal, West Africa volunteer chaplain WWI 4yrs
b. 1876 Daniel spent most of his life in the trenches—one way or another.  Born in France in 1876, Daniel was ordained in 1899 and began a teaching career. That didn’t satisfy him long. He wanted to use his zeal for the gospel far beyond the classroom. He joined the missionary Congregation of the Holy Spirit, which sent him to Senegal, West Africa. After eight years there, his health was suffering. He was forced to return to France, where he helped raise funds for the construction of a new cathedral in Senegal.
At the outbreak of World War I Daniel became a volunteer chaplain and spent four years at the front. He did not shrink from his duties. Indeed, he risked his life time and again in ministering to the suffering and dying. It was miraculous that he did not suffer a single wound during his 52 months in the heart of battle.

After the war he was invited to help establish a project for orphaned and abandoned children in a Paris suburb. He spent the final 13 years of his life there. He died in 1936 and was beatified by Pope John Paul II in Paris only 48 years later.


Mary's Divine Motherhood
   Tuesday  Saints of this Day February  28 Prídie Kaléndas Mártii.  
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  February 2017
Comfort for the Afflicted
That all those who are afflicted, especially the poor, refugees,
and marginalized, may find welcome and comfort in our communities.
ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
                      

                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Saints of February 01 mention with Popes
865 St. Ansgar (b. 801) The “apostle of the north” (Scandinavia) had enough frustrations to become a saint—and he did. He became a Benedictine at Corbie, France, where he had been educated. Three years later, when the king of Denmark became a convert, Ansgar went to that country for three years of missionary work, without noticeable success. Sweden asked for Christian missionaries, and he went there, suffering capture by pirates and other hardships on the way. Less than two years later he was recalled, to become abbot of New Corbie (Corvey) and bishop of Hamburg. The pope made him legate for the Scandinavian missions. Funds for the northern apostolate stopped with Emperor Louis’s death. After 13 years’ work in Hamburg, Ansgar saw it burned to the ground by invading Northmen; Sweden and Denmark returned to paganism.
He directed new apostolic activities in the North, traveling to Denmark and being instrumental in the conversion of another king. By the strange device of casting lots, the king of Sweden allowed the Christian missionaries to return.  Ansgar’s biographers remark that he was an extraordinary preacher, a humble and ascetical priest. He was devoted to the poor and the sick, imitating the Lord in washing their feet and waiting on them at table. He died peacefully at Bremen, Germany, without achieving his wish to be a martyr.
Sweden became pagan again after his death, and remained so until the coming of missionaries two centuries later.

1645 St Henry Morse Jesuit fought off the plague returned several times to England ministering.  Born in Broome, Suffolk, England, in 1595; died at Tyburn, England, February 1, 1645; beatified in 1929; canonized in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
Saint Henry, like so many saints of his period in the British Isles, was a convert to Catholicism. He was a member of the country gentry, who studied at Cambridge then finished his study of law at Barnard's Inn, London. In 1614, he professed the Catholic faith at Douai. When he returned to England to settle an inheritance, he was arrested for his faith and spent the next four years in New Prison in Southwark. He was released in 1618 when a general amnesty was proclaimed by King James.

Saints of February 02 mention with Popes
  St. Cornelius sent for Peter First bishop of Caesarea.  1st century. Palestine, who was originally a centurion in the Italica cohort of the Roman legion in the area. Cornelius had a vision instructing him to send for St. Peter, who came to his home and baptized him, as described in Acts, chapter ten.
619 St. Lawrence of Canterbury Benedictine Archbishop scourged by St. Peter physical scars.  England, sent there by Pope St. Gregory I the Great. A Benedictine, Lawrence accompanied St. Augustine to Canterbury in 597 and succeeded him as archbishop in 604.  When the Britons lapsed into pagan customs, Lawrence planned to return to France, but in a dream he was rebuked by St. Peter for abandoning his flock. He remained in his see and converted the local ruler King Edbald to the faith. He died in Canterbury on February 2. Lawrence is commemorated in the Irish Stowe Missal and is reported to have been scourged by St. Peter in his dream, carrying the physical scars on his back.
1365 Blessed Peter Cambiano Dominican martyr.   Born in Chieri, Piedmont, Italy, in 1320; died February 2, 1365; beatified in 1856.
Peter Cambiano's father was a city councillor and his mother was of nobility. They were virtuous and careful parents, and they gave their little son a good education, especially in religion. Peter responded to all their care and became a fine student, as well as a pious and likeable child.
Peter was drawn to the Dominicans by devotion to the rosary. Our Lady of the Rosary was the special patroness of the Piedmont region, and he had a personal devotion to her. At 16, therefore, he presented himself at the convent in Piedmont and asked for the habit.       The inquisition had been set up to deal with these people in Lombardy before the death of Peter Martyr, a century before. So well did young Peter of Ruffia carryout the work of preaching among them that the order sent him to Rome to obtain higher degrees. The pope, impressed both by his talent and his family name, appointed him inquisitor-general of the Piedmont. This was a coveted appointment; to a Dominican it meant practically sure martyrdom and a carrying on of a proud tradition.
1640 St. Joan de Lestonnac Foundress many miracles different kinds occurred at her tomb.   After her children were raised, she entered the Cistercian monastery at Toulouse. Joan was forced to leave the Cistercians when she became afflicted with poor health.
She returned to Bordeaux with the idea of forming a new congregation, and several young girls joined her as novices. They ministered to victims of a plague that struck Bordeaux, and they were determined to counteract the evils of heresy promulgated by Calvinism. Thus was formed the Congregation of the Religious of Notre Dame of Bordeaux. In 1608, Joan and her companions received the religious habit from the Archbishop of Bordeaux. Joan was elected superior in 1610, and many miracles occurred at her tomb. She was canonized in 1949 by Pope Pius XII.

Saints of February 03 mention with Popes
Gregory IV (827-44) # 102
Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a Roman and the son of John. Before his election to the papacy he was the Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of St. Mark, which he adorned with mosaics yet visible. For his piety and learning he was ordained priest by Paschal I. This man, of distinguished appearance and high birth, was raised to the chair of Peter, despite his protestations of unfitness, mainly buy the instrumentality of the secular nobility of Rome who were then securing a preponderating influence in papal elections. But the representatives in Rome of the Emperor Louis the Pious would not allow him to be consecrated until his election had been approved by their master. This interference caused such delay that it was not, seemingly, till about March, 828, that he began to govern the Church.
576 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker  of Spoleto, Italy, also called “the Illuminator.” He was a Syrian, forced to leave his homeland in 514 because of Arian persecution. He went to Rome and was ordained by Pope St. Hormisdas. He then preached in Umbria and founded a monastery in Spoleto. Named bishop of Spoleto, Lawrence was rejected as a foreigner until the city’s gates miraculously opened for his entrance.
He is called “the Illuminator” because of his ability to cure physical and spiritual blindness. After two decades, Lawrence resigned to found the Farfa Abbey near Rome.
865 St. Ansgar 1st Archbishop of Hamburg & Bremen missionary first Christian church in Sweden Patron of Scandinavia  At Bremen, St. Ansgar, bishop of Hamburg and later of Bremen, who converted the Swedes and the Danes to the faith of Christ.  He was appointed Apostolic Delegate of all the North by Pope Gregory IV.
Ansgar was born of a noble family near Amiens. He became a monk at Old Corbie monastery in Picardy and later at New Corbie in Westphalia. He accompanied King Harold to Denmark when the exiled King returned to his native land and engaged in missionary work there. Ansgar's success caused King Bjorn of Sweden to invite him to that country, and he built the first Christian Church in Sweden. He became Abbot of New Corbie and first Archbishop of Hamburg about 831, and Pope Gregory IV appointed him Legate to the Scandinavian countries. He labored at his missionary works for the next fourteen years but saw all he had accomplished destroyed when invading pagan Northmen in 845 destroyed Hamburg and overran the Scandinavian countries, which lapsed into paganism.
1331 Bl. Odoric of Pordenone Franciscan missionary to Mongol Great Khan in Peking miracles performed . Born Odoric Mattiussi at Villanova, near Pordenone, Italy, he entered the Franciscans in 1300 and became a hermit. After several years, he took to preaching in the region of Udine, northern Italy, attracting huge crowds through his eloquence. In 1316 he set out for the Far East, journeying through China and finally reaching the court of the Mongol Great Khan in Peking. From 1322 to 1328 he wandered throughout China and Tibet, finally returning to the West in 1330 where he made a report to the pope at Avignon and dictated an account of his travels. He died before he could find missionaries to return with him to the East. His cult was approved in 1755 owing to the reports of miracles he performed while preaching among the Chinese.
1450 Blessed Matthew of Girgenti .  Matthew became a Conventual Franciscan in his hometown. Then he turned to the Observants and worked zealously under Saint Bernardino of Siena, with whom he became close friends as they travelled together on Bernardino's preaching missions. He himself gained a reputation as a great preacher. Pope Eugene IV forced him to accept the bishopric of Girgenti. Once he accepted it as God's will, he set about reforming the see. As a result of the opposition the changes raised, he resigned the see. Then he was refused admittance to the friary he himself had founded because he was deemed to be too much of a firebrand. Matthew died in a Franciscan friary at Palermo (Attwater2, Benedictines).

Saints of February 04 mention with Popes
1373 St. Andrew Corsini Carmelite gifts of prophecy, miracles papal legate Apostle of Florence miracles at  death.  He was born in Florence on November 30, 1302, a member of the powerful Corsini family. Wild in his youth, Andrew was converted to a holy life by his mother and became a Carmelite monk. He studied in Paris and Avignon, France, returning to his birthplace. There he became known as the Apostle of Florence. He was called a prophet and miracle worker. Named as the bishop of Fiesole in 1349, Andrew fled the honor but was forced to accept the office, which he held for twelve years. He was sent by Pope Urban V to Bologna to settle disputes between the nobles and commoners, a mission he performed well. Andrew died in Fiesole on January 6, 1373. So many miracles took place at his death that Pope Eugenius IV permitted the immediate opening of his cause.
On Rabanus Maurus “A Truly Extraordinary Personality of the Latin West
784-856 Blessed Maurus Magnentius Rabanus; monk; celebrated theological and pedagogical writer Wrote Veni, Creator Spiritus.  A truly extraordinary personality of the Latin West: the monk Rabanus Maurus. Together with men such as Isidore of Seville, the Venerable Bede and Ambrose Auperto, already spoken in previous catechesis, [Rabanus Maurus] knew how to stay in contact with the great culture of the ancient scholars and the Christian fathers during the centuries of the High Middle Ages.
For this reason, Rabanus Maurus concentrated his attention above all on the liturgy, as the synthesis of all the dimension of our perception of reality. This intuition of Rabanus Maurus makes him extraordinarily relevant to our times. He also left the famous “Carmina” proposals to be used above all in liturgical celebrations. In fact, Rabanus' interest for the liturgy can be entirely taken for granted given that before all, he was a monk. Nevertheless, he did not dedicate himself to the art of poetry as an end in itself, but rather he used art and whatever other type of knowledge to go deeper in the Word of God. Because of this, he tried with all his might and rigor to introduce to his contemporaries, but above all to the ministers (bishops, priests and deacons), to the understanding of the profound theological and spiritual significance of all the elements of the liturgical celebration.

1505 St. Joan of Valois Order of the Annunciation that she founded holiness and spiritual testament.  At Bourges in Aquitaine, St. Jane de Valois, Queen of France, foundress of the Order of Sisters of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, renowned for her piety and singular devotion to the Cross, whom Pope Pius XII added to the catalogue of saints.
1693 St. John de Britto Jesuit martyr in India. In Marava Kingdom in India, St. John de Britto, priest of the Society of Jesus, who having converted many infidels to the faith, was gloriously crowned with martyrdom.
He was a native of Lisbon, Portugal, was dedicated at birth to St. Francis Xavier, and was a noble friend of King Pedro. He entered the Jesuits at the age of fifteen. In his effort to promote conversions among the native Indian people as a missionary to Goa, he wandered through Malabar and other regions and even adopted the customs and dress of the Brahmin caste which gave him access to the noble classes. In 1683, John had to leave India but returned in 1691. Arrested, tortured, and commanded to leave India, he refused and was put to death. Pope Pius XII canonized him in 1947.

Saints of February 05 mention with Popes
1005 Saint Fingen of Metz Abbot restoring old abbeys.  Saint Fingen, a celebrated Irish abbot, migrated to the kingdom of Lothaire, where he acquired a reputation for restoring old abbeys. One of them, Saint Symphorien's, was given over to him about 991 by Bishop Saint Adalbero and an Irish community. At the insistence of the dowager Empress Saint Adelaide, Pope John XVII issued a charter that declared that only Irish monks would administer the abbey as long as they could be found. She obtained a similar charter from Otto III in 992.
1597 St. Leo Karasuma Martyr of Japan Korean Franciscan tertiary.  At Nagasaki in Japan, the passion of twenty-six martyrs.  Three priests, one cleric, and two lay brothers were members of the Order of Friars Minor; one cleric was of the Society of Jesus, and seventeen belonged to the Third Order of St. Francis.  All of them, placed upon crosses for the Catholic faith, and pierced with lances, gloriously died in praising God and preaching that same faith.  Their names were added to the roll of saints by Pope Pius IX.
who served the Franciscan mission, Louis was crucified at Nagasaki, Japan, with twenty-five companions. He was canonized in 1867.

Saints of February 06 mention with Popes
891 Saint Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, "the Church's far-gleaming beacon," The Synod of 861 was called to end the unrest, at which the deposition of Ignatius and the installation of Photius as patriarch were confirmed. Pope Nicholas I, whose envoys were present at this council, hoped that by recognizing Photius as patriarch he could subordinate him to his power. When the new patriarch proved unsubmissive, Nicholas anathematized Photius at a Roman council.
Until the end of his life St Photius was a firm opponent of papal intrigues and designs upon the Orthodox Church of the East.
In 864, Bulgaria voluntarily converted to Christianity. The Bulgarian prince Boris was baptized by Patriarch Photius himself. Later, St Photius sent an archbishop and priests to baptize the Bulgarian people. In 865, Sts Cyril and Methodius were sent to preach Christ in the Slavonic language.  lived during the ninth century, and came from a family of zealous Christians.   His father Sergius died as a martyr in defense of holy icons.
1597 Philip of Jesus martyred in Japan patron of Mexico City  Born in Mexico City, Mexico, May 1, 1571; died in Nagasaki, Japan, 1597; beatified by Pope Urban VIII; canonized by Pope Pius IX in 1862; feast day formerly February 5. The life of Saint Philip points again to the importance of the domestic church--the family. Early in life Saint Philip ignored the pious teachings of his immigrant Spanish family, but eventually he entered the Reformed Franciscan Convent of Santa Barbara at Puebla, Mexico--and soon exited the novitiate in 1589. Grieved at the inconstancy of his son, Philip's father sent him on a business trip to the Philippines.

Saints of February 07 mention with Popes
ST THEODORE OF HERACLEA, MARTYR (No DATE?).  The differentiation of two separate Theodores seems to have occurred somewhat earlier than Father Delehaye supposes. An Armenian homily which F. C. Conybeare believes to be of the fourth century already regards them as distinct and Mgr Wilpert has reproduced a mosaic which Pope Felix IV (526—530) set up in the church of St Theodore on the Palatine, in which our Saviour is represented seated, while St Peter on one side presents to Him one St Theodore and St Paul on the other side presents another.


550 St. Tressan Irish missionary spread the faith in Gaul.   Tressan worked there as a swineherd, but he was ordained to the priesthood by Saint Remigius, who provided the siblings with suitable retreats from which they could spread the faith. Tressan became curate of Mareuil-sur-Marne, and the patron saint of Avenay in Champagne. His cultus is strong and has been continuous in the area of Rheims. More than 1,000 years after his death, Pope Clement VIII and Archbishop Philip of Rheims authorized the publishing of an Office for his feast (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Encyclopedia, Fitzpatrick, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).
1027 ST ROMUALD, ABBOT FOUNDER OF THE CAMALDOLESE BENEDICTINES.    Romuald seems to have spent the next thirty years wandering about Italy, founding hermitages and monasteries. He stayed three years in a cell near that house which he had founded at Parenzo. Here he labored for a time under great spiritual dryness, but suddenly, one day, as he was reciting the words of the Psalmist, I will give thee understanding and will instruct thee “, he was visited by God with an extraordinary light and a spirit of compunction which from that time never left him.
He wrote an exposition of the Psalms full of admirable thoughts, he often foretold things to come, and he gave counsel inspired by heavenly wisdom to all who came to consult him. He had always longed for martyrdom, and at last obtained the pope’s licence to preach the gospel in Hungary; but he was stricken with a grievous illness as soon as he set foot in the country, and as the malady returned each time he attempted to proceed, he concluded it was a plain indication of God’s will in the matter and he accordingly returned to Italy, though some of his associates went on and preached the faith to the Magyars.
1447 St. Colette Poor Clare 17 established monasteries  .   After four years of prayer and penance in this cell, she left it. With the approval and encouragement of the pope, she joined the Poor Clares and reintroduced the primitive Rule of St. Clare in the 17 monasteries she established. Her sisters were known for their poverty—they rejected any fixed income—and for their perpetual fast. Colette’s reform movement spread to other countries and is still thriving today. Colette was canonized in 1807.

Saints of February 08 mention with Popes
485 Martyrs of Constantinople community of monks of Saint Dius  .  At Constantinople, the birthday of the holy martyrs, monks of the monastery of Dius.  While bringing the letter of Pope St. Felix against Acacius, they were barbarously killed for their defence of the Catholic faith.
The community of monks of Saint Dius martyred at the time of the Acacian schism ( first significant break between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Catholic Church) for their fidelity to the Holy See (Benedictines).  Monophysites believed that Christ had only one nature: divine. But orthodox belief held that Christ had two natures: both divine and human expressed at the Council of Chalcedon, an ecumenical council held in 451.

1124 Stephen (Etienne) of Grandmont (of Muret) God give Stephen ability read hearts: deacon austere life little food/sleep for 46 years conversions many obstinate sinners.  At Muret, near Limoges, the birthday of the abbot St. Stephen, founder of the order of Grandmont, celebrated for his virtues and miracles.,
Born in Thiers, Auvergne, France, 1046; died 1124; canonized by Pope Clement III in 1189 at the request of King Henry II of England.
1213 John of Matha hermit first Mass celebrated: vision of angel clothed in white with a red and blue cross on his breast. The angel placed his hands on the heads of two slaves, who knelt beside him.   Pope Innocent III had experienced a similar vision Redemption of Captives (the Trinitarians).     St. John of Matha, priest and confessor, founder of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity for the redemption of captives, who went to repose in the Lord on the 17th of December. (RM) Born in Fauçon, Provence, France, June 23, 1160 (or June 24, 1169, according to Husenbeth, or 1154 per Tabor); died in Rome, Italy, December 17, 1213; cultus approved in 1655 and 1694.
1213 ST JOHN OF MATHA, Co-FOUNDER OF THE ORDER OF THE MOST HOLY  TRINITY
1270 Jacoba de Settesoli She joined the third order of Saint Francis buried in same crypt.  Jacqueline, friend of Saint Francis of Assisi, was born into a noble Italian family descended from the Norman knights who invaded Sicily. She married well to Gratien Frangipani, a family renowned for its charity.  When Jacqueline was about 22 (1212), Saint Francis came to Rome for an audience with the pope. While there, he preached so well that he became famous. When Jacqueline heard Francis praise poverty that opens wide the doors of the Kingdom of Heaven, she realized that charity is not dealt with as one would deal with a servant, and that charity is not a fact, but a state. The next day, Jacqueline sought Francis's direction.   Francis told her to return home, she could not abandon her family. "A perfect life can be lived anywhere. Poverty is everywhere. Charity is everywhere. It is where you are that counts. You have a husband and two children. That is a beautiful frame for a holy life."
And, so, Jacqueline joined the third order of Saint Francis; and because she was masculine and energetic she was nicknamed "Brother Jacoba."
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani devoted himself to poor and suffering special call to help orphans founded orphanages shelter for prostitutes.      At Somascha, in the district of Bergamo, the birthday of St. Jerome Emilian, confessor, who was the founder of the Congregation of Somascha.  Illustrious both during his life and after death for many miracles, he was inscribed in the roll of the saints by Pope Clement XIII.  Pope Pius XI chose and declared him to be the heavenly patron of orphans and abandoned children.  His feast is celebrated on the 20th of July.  b: 1481
Jerome Emiliani lay chained in the dark dirty dungeon. Only a short time before he had been a military commander for Venice in charge of a fortress. He didn't care much about God because he didn't need him -- he had his own strength and the strength of his soldiers and weapons. When Venice's enemies, the League of Cambrai, captured the fortress, he was dragged off and imprisoned. There in the dungeon, Jerome decided to get rid of the chains that bound him. He let go of his worldly attachments and embraced God.
1947 St. Josephine Bakhita slave her spirit was always free c. 1868 .  During his homily at her canonization Mass in St. Peter's Square, Pope John Paul II said that in St. Josephine Bakhita, "We find a shining advocate of genuine emancipation. The history of her life inspires not passive acceptance but the firm resolve to work effectively to free girls and women from oppression and violence, and to return them to their dignity in the full exercise of their rights."

Saints of February 09 mention with Popes
444 ST CYRIL, ARCHBISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH.  ST CYRIL has been called the Doctor of the Incarnation, as St Augustine was styled the Doctor of Divine Grace in the great intercession of the Syrian and Maronite Mass he is commemorated as “a tower of truth and interpreter of the Word of God made flesh”. He was declared a doctor of the Universal Church in 1882  and at the fifteenth centenary of his death in 1944 Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical letter, “Orientalis ecclesiae”, on “this light of Christian wisdom and valiant hero of the apostolate.
    The great devotion of this saint to the Blessed Sacrament is manifest from the frequency with which he emphasizes the effects it produces upon those who receive it worthily. Indeed, he says that by holy communion we are made concorporeal with Christ. And it must surely be difficult for those who profess to hold the same faith as that defined in the first six general councils to shut their eyes to the vigour and conviction with which St Cyril before the year 431 affirmed his Eucharistic doctrine. In a letter to Nestorius, which received the general and formal assent of the fathers at Ephesus, he had written:  Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of
            God, that is, Jesus Christ, and confessing His resurrection from the dead and
            ascent into Heaven, we celebrate the bloodless sacrifice in our churches and
            thus approach the mystic blessings, and are sanctified by partaking of the holy
            flesh and the precious blood of Christ the Saviour of us all. And we receive
            it, not as common flesh (God forbid), nor as the flesh of a man sanctified and
            associated with the Word according to the unity of merit, or as having a divine
            indwelling, but as really the life-giving and very flesh of the Word Himself
            (Migne, PG., lxxvii, xii).
            And he wrote to Calosyrius, Bishop of Arsinoë:
              I hear that they say that the sacramental consecration does not avail for
            hallowing if a portion of it be kept to another day. In saying so they are crazy.
            For Christ is not altered, nor will His holy body be changed; but the power
            of the consecration and the life-giving grace still remain in it (Migne, PG.,
            lxxvi, 1073).
           Our knowledge of St Cyril is derived principally from his own writings and from the church historians Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret. The view of his life and work presented by Butler is the traditional view, and we are not here directly concerned with the discussions which, owing mainly to the discovery of the work known as The Bazaar of Heracleides, have since been devoted to the character of Nestorius and his teaching.
566 Bishop Sabinus of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia   .  At Canossa in Apulia, St. Sabinus, bishop and confessor.  Blessed Pope Gregory tells that he was endowed with the spirit of prophecy and the power of miracles.  After he had become blind, when a cup of poison was offered to him by a servant who was bribed, he knew it by divine instinct.  He, however, declared that God would punish the one who had bribed the servant, and, making the sign of the cross, he drank the poison without anxiety and without harmful effect.
Bishop Sabinus of the now-destroyed city of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia was a friend of Saint Benedict. Pope Saint Agapitus I entrusted him with an embassy to Emperor Justinian (535-536). He is the patron saint of Bari, where his relics are now enshrined (Benedictines).
1088 Blessed Marianus Scotus extraordinarily gifted at producing manuscripts.   In 1078, he founded and became the abbot of the abbey of Saint Peter in Regensburg. Having successfully taken charge of the church and abbey attached to it for the task of copying manuscripts, other Irish monks were attracted to the mission. The abbey expanded to the point that, within 10 years, plans were made for another such monastery. In this way, Muirdach originated the congregation of 12 "Scottish," that is, Irish monasteries in southern Germany. (The reason for the term "Scottish" is that it was used from the time of the Romans for the Irish. Even 200 years after the establishment of the Scottish monarchy, the term was commonly used for things Irish. Although Scottish monks pressured Pope Leo XIII, who did permit them in 1515 to take possession of Saint James in Regensburg and the abbeys at Constanz and Erfurt. In Germany, the 12 are still known as the Schottenklöster. )
1430 Bl. Alvarez of Córdoba Dominican Confessor preacher born in Cordoba.  
When the antipope Benedict XIII came on the scene in 1394-1423, Alvarez opposed him successfully. Alvarez died about 1430. Blessed Alvarez is probably best remembered as a builder of churches and convents, an activity which was symbolic of the work he did in the souls of those among whom he preached. He founded, in one place, a convent to shelter a famous image of Our Lady, which had been discovered in a miraculous manner. Near Cordova he built the famous convent of Scala Coeli, a haven of regular observance. It had great influence for many years. His building enterprises were often aided by the angels, who, during the night, carried wood and stones to spots convenient for the workmen.The austerities of Alvarez were all the more remarkable in that they were not performed by a hermit, but by a man of action. He spent the night in prayer, as Saint Dominic had done; he wore a hairshirt and a penitential chain; and he begged alms in the streets of Cordova for the building of his churches, despite the fact that he had great favor at court and could have obtained all the money he needed from the queen. He had a deep devotion to the Passion, and had scenes of the Lord's sufferings made into small oratories in the garden of Scala Coeli.
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani b. 1481? in 1928 Pius Xl named him the patron of orphans and abandoned children.        At Somascha, in the district of Bergamo, the birthday of St. Jerome Emilian, confessor, who was the founder of the Congregation of Somascha.  Illustrious both during his life and after death for many miracles, he was inscribed in the roll of the saints by Pope Clement XIII.  Pope Pius XI chose and declared him to be the heavenly patron of orphans and abandoned children.  His feast is celebrated on the 20th of July.  b: 1481. Around 1532 Jerome and two other priests established a congregation dedicated to the care of orphans and the education of youth. Jerome died in 1537 from a disease he caugh t while tending the sick. He was canonized in 1767.
1910 St. Michael Cordero Ecuadorian de La Salle Brother first native vocation there.  Michael of Ecuador (RM) (also known as Miguel of Ecuador and Miguel or Francisco Febres Cordero Muñoz)
Born at Cuenca, Ecuador, on November 7, 1854; died near Barcelona, Spain, on February 9, 1910; beatified with fellow Christian Brother Mutien-Marie by Pope Paul VI on October 30, 1977; canonized by Pope John Paul II on April 7, 1984 (the feast of the order's founder).
  "The heart is rich when it is content, and it is always content when its desires are set upon God." --Saint Miguel of Ecuador.

Saints of February 10 mention with Popes
304 Soteris of Rome the Aureli family martyred for Jesus   . Also at Rome, on the Appian Way, St. Soter, virgin and martyr, descended of a noble family, but as St. Ambrose mentions, for the love of Christ she set at naught the consular and other dignitaries of her people.  Upon her refusal to sacrifice to the gods, she was for a long time cruelly scourged.  She overcame these and various other torments, then was struck with the sword; and joyfully went to her heavenly spouse. Two passages of St Ambrose for our knowledge of this martyr. He speaks of her In his De virginibus, iii, 7, and in his Exhortatio virginis, c. 12. At the same time we know from the Hieronymianum” that she was
         originally buried at Rome on the Via Appia. One of the catacombs, the location of which
         it is difficult to determine, afterwards bore her name. Her body was later on translated by
         Pope Sergius II to the church of San Martino di Monti. See the Acta Sanctorum, February,
         vol. ii, and the
mische Quartalschrift, 1905, pp. 50—63 and 105—133.
1157 St. William of Maleval Hermit licentious military life conversion of heart  gift of working miracles and  prophecy In Stábulo Rhodis, in territorio Senénsi, sancti Guiliélmi Eremítæ.  At Malavalle, near Siena, St. William, hermit.  A native of France, he led a dissolute early and maritial life but underwent a conversion through a pilgrimage to Rome, where he was forced to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land (at the command of Pope Eugenius Ill, r. 1145-1153). Upon his return, he lived as a hermit and then became head of a monastery near Pisa. As he failed to bring about serious reforms among the monks there or on Monte Pruno (Bruno), he departed and once more took up the life of a hermit near Siena. Attracting a group of followers, the hermits received papal sanction. They later developed into the Hermits of St. William (the Gulielmites) until absorbed into the Augustinian Canons. In his later years, William was noted for his gifts of prophecy and miracles.
William of Maleval, OSB Hermit (RM) (also known as William of Malval or Malvalla) Born in France; died at Maleval, Italy, February 10, 1157; canonized by Innocent III in 1202. After carefree years of licentious military life, William experienced a conversion of heart of which we are told nothing. The first real piece of information we have is that the penitent Frenchman made a pilgrimage to the tombs of the apostles at Rome. Here he begged Pope Eugenius III for pardon and to set him on a course of penance for his sins. Eugenius enjoined him to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1145. William followed his counsel and spent eight years on the journey, returning to Italy a changed man.
1960 Blessed Aloysius Stepinac, Cardinal demonstrating the importance of faith, charity and virtue.   (also known as Louis or Alojzije of Zagreb) Born at Brezaric near Krasic, Croatia, on May 8, 1898; died at Krasic, on February 10, 1960; beatified on October 3, 1998, by Pope John Paul II at the Marian shrine of Marija Bistrica.  Aloysius Stepinac, the eighth of 12 children of a peasant family, was always the special object of his mother's prayers to he might be ordained. In 1916, he was conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian army and fought on the Italian front until he was taken prisoner. Upon his return to civilian life in 1919, Stepinac entered the University of Zagreb to study agriculture, but soon recognized his call to the priesthood. In 1924, he was sent to Rome for his seminary studies leading to his ordination on October 26, 1930.
He returned to Zagreb in July 1931 with doctorates in theology and philosophy.
Soon afterwards, Stepinac was chosen to become secretary to Archbishop Antun Bauer. On June 24, 1934, he was nominated as coadjutor to the Archbishop of Zagreb. After this nomination, Stepinac stated: "I love my Croatian people and for their benefit I am ready to give everything, as well as I am ready to give everything for the Catholic Church." After Bauer's death on December 7, 1937, Stepinac became the Archbishop of Zagreb. He took as his motto, "In You, O Lord, I take refuge!" (Psalm 31:1), which was the inspiration for his service to the Church.
During the Second World War, Stepinac never turned his back on the refugees, or the persecuted.


Saints of February 11 mention with Popes
350 St. Lucius Martyred bishop of Adrianople opposed Arianism.  Lucius BM and Companions MM (RM) Died 350. Lucius, who succeeded Eutropius as bishop of Adrianople, was driven from his see to Gaul for having opposed Arianism. He played a leading role in the Council of Sardica in 347. Under the protection of Pope Saint Julius I, he returned to Adrianople, but refused to be in communion with the Arian bishops condemned at Sardica. On this account he was arrested and died in prison. A group of his faithful Catholics, who had been siezed with him, were beheaded by order of the Emperor Constantius (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson).
6th v Saint Gobnata (meaning Honey Bee) of Ballyvourney the angels spoke of 9 deer gift of healing, and there is a story of how she kept the plague from Ballyvourney.  The round stone associated with her is still preserved. Several leading families of Munster have a traditional devotion to this best-known and revered local saint. The devotion of the O'Sullivan Beare family may have been the reason that Pope Clement VIII honored Gobnata in 1601 by indulgencing a pilgrimage to her shrine and, in 1602, by authorizing a Proper Mass on her feast. About that time the chieftains of Ireland were making a final struggle for independence and the entire clan migrated to the North having dedicated their fortunes to Gobnata in a mass pilgrimage that included O'Sullivan Beare, his fighting men, and their women, children, and servants (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague, Neeson, O'Hanlon, Sullivan).
608 St. Desiderius martyred Bishop of Vienne  France, murdered by the Frankish queen Brunhildis and her followers, and is revered as a martyr. Born at Autun, he is also called Didier. As bishop, he attacked Queen Brunhildis for immorality. She accused him of paganism, but he was cleared by Pope St. Gregory the Great. Desiderius was then banished from his see. He was slain upon his return four years later at Saint-Didier-sur-Chalaronne.
731 Gregory II, 89th Pope educated at the Lateran  restore clerical discipline, fought heresies  helped restore and rebuild churches (including Saint Paul-Outside-the-Walls), hospitals, and monasteries, including Monte Cassino under Petrona The outstanding concern of his pontificate was his difficulties with Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (RM).   Born in Rome, Italy; sometimes celebrated also on February 13. The 89th pope, Saint Gregory, became involved in church affairs in his youth, was educated at the Lateran, became a subdeacon under Pope Saint Sergius, served as treasurer and librarian of the Church under four popes, and became widely known for his learning and wisdom.
In 710, now a deacon, he distinguished himself in his replies to Emperor Justinian when he accompanied Pope Constantine to Constantinople to oppose the Council of Trullo canon that had declared the patriarchate of Constantinople independent of Rome and helped to secure Justinian's acknowledgment of papal supremacy.
On May 19, 715, Gregory was elected pope to succeed Constantine, put into effect a program to restore clerical discipline, fought heresies, began to rebuild the walls around Rome as a defense against the Saracens, and helped restore and rebuild churches (including Saint Paul-Outside-the-Walls), hospitals, and monasteries, including Monte Cassino under Petronax, which had been destroyed by Lombards about 150 years previously.
 He sent missionaries into Germany, among them Saint Corbinian and Saint Boniface in 719, whom he consecrated bishop.
824 St. Paschal elected as the 94th pope on the day Pope Stephen IV (V) died, January 25, 817.  Paschal was the son of Bonosus, a Roman. He studied at the Lateran, was named head of St. Stephen's monastery, which housed pilgrims to Rome, and was elected Pope to succeed Pope Stephen IV (V) on the day Stephen died, January 25, 817. Emperor Louis the Pious agreed to respect papal jurisdiction, but when Louis' son Lothair I came to Rome in 823 to be consecrated king, he broke the pact by presiding at a trial involving a group of nobles opposing the Pope. When the two papal officials who had testified for the nobles were found blinded and murdered, Paschal was accused of the crime. He denied any complicity but refused to surrender the murderers, who were members of his household, declaring that the two dead officials were traitors and the secular authorities had no jurisdiction in the case. The result was the Constitution of Lothair, severely restricting papal judicial and police powers in Italy.
Paschal was unsuccessful in attempts to end the iconoclast heresy of Emperor Leo V, encouraged SS. Nicephorous and Theodore Studites in Constantinople to resist iconoclasm, and gave refuge to the many Greek monks who fled to Rome to escape persecution from the iconoclasts.
Paschal built and redecorated many churches in Rome and transferred many relics from the catacombs to churches in the city. Although listed in the Roman Martyrology, he has never been formally canonized.


Saints of February 12 mention with Popes
381 St. Meletius of Antioch Patriarch of Antioch presided Great Council of Constantinople, in 381 .  In 374, the situation was further complicated when Pope Damasus recognized Paulinus as archbishop, appointed him papal legate in the East, and Saint Jerome allowed himself to be ordained a priest by Paulinus. In 378, the death of the avidly pro-Arian Valens led to the restoration of the banished bishops by Emperor Gratian, and Meletius was reinstated. He was unable to reach an agreement with Paulinus before his death in Constantinople in May while presiding at the third General Council of Constantinople. His funeral was attended by all the fathers of the council and the faithful of the city.
Saint Gregory of Nyssa delivered his funeral panegyric (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Walsh).
Saint Meletius, Archbishop of Antioch, was Bishop of Sebaste in Armenia (ca. 357), and afterwards he was summoned to Antioch by the emperor Constantius to help combat the Arian heresy, and was appointed to that See.
St Meletius struggled zealously against the Arian error, but through the intrigues of the heretics he was thrice deposed from his cathedra. Constantius had become surrounded by the Arians and had accepted their position. In all this St Meletius was distinguished by an extraordinary gentleness, and he constantly led his flock by the example of his own virtue and kindly disposition, supposing that the seeds of the true teaching sprout more readily on such soil.
St Meletius was the one who ordained the future hierarch St Basil the Great as deacon. St Meletius also baptized and encouraged another of the greatest luminaries of Orthodoxy, St John Chrysostom, who later eulogized his former archpastor.
After Constantius, the throne was occupied by Julian the Apostate, and the saint again was expelled, having to hide himself in secret places for his safety. Returning under the emperor Jovian in the year 363, St Meletius wrote his theological treatise, "Exposition of the Faith," which facilitated the conversion of many of the Arians to Orthodoxy.
900 St. Benedict Revelli Benedictine bishop monk of Santa Maria dei Fonte .  Benedict Revelli, OSB B (AC) Died c. 900; cultus confirmed by Pope Gregory XVI. Benedict is said to have been a Benedictine monk of Santa Maria dei Fonti, and then a hermit on the island of Gallinaria in the Gulf of Genoa. In 870, he was chosen bishop of Albenga towards the western end of the Ligurian Riviera (Benedictines).

1584 Bl. Thomas Hemerford English martyr priest native of Dorsetshire .   IT was the name of Thomas Hemerford, with his companions, that distinguished and identified the cause of all the second group of English and Welsh martyrs (beatified in 1929) while that cause was under consideration in Rome. But actually, of the four secular priests who suffered at Tyburn on February 12, 1584, he is the one of whom least is known.  He was born somewhere in Dorsetshire and was educated at St John’s College and Hart Hall in the University of Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor of law in 1575. He went abroad to Rheims, and thence to the English College at Rome, being ordained priest in 1583 by Bishop GoIdwell of St Asaph, the last bishop of the old hierarchy. A few weeks later he left Rome for the English mission, but shortly after landing he was arrested, tried for his priesthood and sentenced to death. For six days before execution he lay loaded with fetters in Newgate jail, and then met the savagery of hanging, drawing and quartering with calm fortitude. Bd Thomas was a man “of moderate stature, a blackish beard, stern countenance, and yet of a playful temper, most amiable in conversation, and in every respect exemplary”. There suffered with him BD. JAMES FENN, JOHN NUTTER and JOHN MUNDEN, and GEORGE HAYDOCK.These four martyrs, together with the Venerable George Haydock, were all condemned and put to death ostensibly for high treason. What contemporaries thought is shown by the chronicler Stow, when he writes that their treason con­sisted “in being made priests beyond the seas and by the pope’s authority”. And that was the view that the Church took when she beatified them among the other English martyrs in 1929.
1584 St. James Feun, Blessed  English Martyr in Born in Somerset
1584 Bl. John Nutter & John Munden English martyrs 

Saints of February 13 mention with Popes

590 St Stephen of Rieti Abbot admirable sanctity despised all things for the love of heaven extreme poverty privation of all conveniences of life In his agony angels seen surrounding him conducting soul to bliss .  Pope St Gregory the Great in his writings speaks several times of this holy man “whose speech was so rude, but his life so cultured”, and he quotes an instance of his patience. Prompted by the Devil, a wicked man burnt down his barns with the corn that constituted the whole means of subsistence of the abbot and his household. “Alas,” cried the monks, “alas, for what has come upon you!” “Nay,” replied the abbot, “say rather, ‘Alas, for what has come upon him that did this deed’, for no harm has befallen me.” St Gregory also relates that eye­witnesses testified that they saw angels standing beside the saint on his death-bed ,and that these angels afterwards carried his soul to bliss—whereupon the watchers were so awe-stricken that they could not remain beside his dead body.

616 ST LICINIUS, OR LESIN, BISHOP OF ANGERS by the example of his severe and holy life and by miracles which were wrought through him he succeeded in winning the hearts of the most hardened and in making daily conquests of souls for God.. There is, however, no reason to doubt the existence of St Licinius or his episcopate or the reverence in which he was held. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux (vol. ii, p. 354), while treating the life as a very suspicious document, points out that a letter was written to Licinius in 601 by Pope Gregory the Great and that he is also mentioned in the will of St Bertram, Bishop of Le Mans, which is dated March 27, 616.
1237 Blessed JORDAN of Saxony noted for his charity to the poor from an early age  brought Saint Albert the Great into the Order  Spiritual director of Blessed Diana d'Andalo.   A noted and powerful preacher; one of his sermons brought Saint Albert the Great into the Order. Wrote a biography of Saint Dominic. His writings on Dominic and the early days of the Order are still considered a primary sources. Spiritual director of Blessed Diana d'Andalo.
Born c.1190 at Padberg Castle, diocese of Paderborn, Westphalia, old Saxony; rumoured to have been born in Palestine while his parents were on a pilgrimage, and named after the River Jordan, but this is apparently aprochryphal
drowned 1237 in a shipwreck off the coast of Syria while on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land
Beatified 1825 (cultus confirmed) by Pope Leo XII

1589 St. Catherine de Ricci miracles the "Ecstacy of the Passion" she was mystically scourged & crowned with thorns.  Her patience and healing impressed her sisters. While still very young, Catherine was chosen to serve the community as novice- mistress, then sub-prioress, and, at age 30, she was appointed prioress in perpetuity, despite her intense mystical life of prayer and penance. She managed the material details of running a large household were well, and became known as a kind and considerate superior. Catherine was particularly gentle with the sick. Troubled people, both within the convent and in the town, came to her for advice and prayer, and her participation in the Passion exerted a great influence for good among all who saw it. Three future popes (Cardinals Cervini later known as Pope Marcellus II, Alexander de Medici (Pope Leo XI), and Aldobrandini (Pope Clement VIII)) were among the thousands who flocked to the convent to beseech her intercession.
1812 St. Giles Mary of St. Joseph “Consoler of Naples.” served 53 years at St. Paschal’s Hospice in Naples various roles cook porter most often as official beggar for that community.  People often become arrogant and power hungry when they try to live a lie, for example, when they forget their own sinfulness and ignore the gifts God has given to other people. Giles had a healthy sense of his own sinfulness—not paralyzing but not superficial either. He invited men and women to recognize their own gifts and to live out their dignity as people made in God’s divine image. Knowing someone like Giles can help us on our own spiritual journey.
Quote:  In his homily at the canonization of Giles, Pope John Paul II said that the spiritual journey of Giles reflected “the humility of the Incarnation and the gratuitousness of the Eucharist” (L'Osservatore Romano 1996, volume 23, number 1).


Saints of February 14 mention with Popes
269 Valentine of Terni Valentine patron of beekeepers engaged couples travellers youth.  Valentine was a holy priest in Rome, who, with St Marius and his family, assisted the martyrs in the persecution under Claudius II. He was appre­hended, and sent by the emperor to the prefect of Rome, who, on finding all his promises to make him renounce his faith ineffectual, commanded him to be beaten with clubs, and afterwards to be beheaded, which was executed on February 14, about the year 270. Pope Julius I is said to have built a church near Ponte Mole to his memory, which for a long time gave name to the gate now called Porta del Popolo, formerly Porta Valentini. The greatest part of his relics are now in the church of St Praxedes His name is celebrated as that of an illustrious martyr in the sacramentary of St Gregory, the Roman Missal of Thomasius, in the calendar of F. Fronto and that of Allatius, in Bede, Usuard, Ado, Notker and all other martyrologies on this day. To abolish the heathen’s lewd superstitious custom of boys drawing the names of girls, in honour of their goddess Februata Juno, on the 15th of this month, several zealous pastors substituted the names of saints in billets given on this day.
869 Sts. Cyril and Methodius.  The holy brothers were then summoned to Rome at the invitation of the Roman Pope. Pope Adrian received them with great honor, since they brought with them the relics of the Hieromartyr Clement. Sickly by nature and in poor health, St Cyril soon fell ill from his many labors, and after taking the schema, he died in the year 869 at the age of forty-two. Before his death, he expressed his wish for his brother to continue the Christian enlightenment of the Slavs. St Cyril was buried in the Roman church of St Clement, whose own relics also rest there, brought to Italy from Cherson by the Enlighteners of the Slavs.
1325 Blessed Angelus of Gualdo Camaldolese lay-brother lived 40 years a hermit walled up in his cell OSB Cam. (AC).  In early life he made many pilgrimages, travelling in particular barefoot from Italy to St James of Compostela in Spain. On his return he offered himself as a lay-brother to the Camaldolese monks, but after a very short time received permission to lead a solitary life according to his desire. In this vocation he faithfully persisted for nearly forty years. When he died on January 25, 1325 it is said that the church bells in the neighbouring district rang of themselves: the people scoured the country to discover the cause, and coming to his little cell they found him dead, kneeling in the attitude of prayer. The miracles wrought at his tomb brought many to do him honour, and Pope Leo XII approved the cultus in 1825.

Saints of February 15 mention with Popes
695 St. Decorosus 30 years Bishop of Capua, Italy Council of Rome in 680 .  He attended the Council of Rome in 680 in the reign of Pope St. Agatho.. (The council, attended in the beginning by 100 bishops, later by 174, was opened 7 Nov., 680, in a domed hall (trullus) of the imperial palace and was presided over by the (three) papal legates who brought to the council a long dogmatic letter of Pope Agatho and another of similar import from a Roman synod held in the spring of 680. )
1045 ST SIGFRID, BISHOP OF Växjö: a spring bore Sigfrid’s name was the channel of many miracles.  After a time, St Sigfrid entrusted the care of his diocese to these three and set off to carry the light of the gospel into more distant provinces. During his absence, a troop, partly out of hatred for Christianity and partly for booty, plundered the church of VaxjO and murdered Unaman and his brothers, burying their bodies in a forest and placing their heads in a box which they sank in a pond. The heads were duly recovered and placed in a shrine, on which occasion, we are told, the three heads spoke. The king resolved to put the murderers to death, but St Sigfrid induced him to spare their lives. Olaf compelled them, however, to pay a heavy fine which he wished to bestow on the saint, who refused to accept a farthing of it, notwithstanding his extreme poverty and the difficulties with which he had to contend in rebuilding his church. He had inherited in an heroic degree the spirit of the apostles, and preached the gospel also in Denmark. Sigfrid is said, but doubtfully, to have been canonized by Pope Adrian IV, the Englishman who had himself laboured zealously for the propagation of the faith in the North over one hundred years after St Sigfrid. The Swedes honour St Sigfrid as their apostle.
1237 Bl. Jordan of Saxony thousand novices to the Dominicans established new foundations Germany and Switzerland
        
It was a sermon of Jordan’s that decided Albertus Magnus to enter the order.  Blessed Jordan of Saxony, OP (AC) Born in Germany, 1190; died 1237; cultus confirmed in 1828.
Men prayed for strength to resist Jordan's burning eloquence, and mothers hid their sons when Master Jordan came to town. Students and masters warned each other of the fatal magnetism of his sermons. The sweetness of his character and the holiness of his life shone through his most casual words in a flame that drew youth irresistibly to the ideal to which he had dedicated his own life. In his 16 years of preaching, Jordan is said to have drawn more than a thousand novices to the Dominican Order, among whom were two future popes, two canonized saints (e.g., Albert the Great), numerous beati, and countless intellectual lights of his dazzling century.
1682 St. Claude la Colombière special day for the Jesuits spiritual companion, St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. This is a special day for the Jesuits, who claim today’s saint as one of their own. It’s also a special day for people who have a special devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus—a devotion Claude la Colombière promoted, along with his friend and spiritual companion, St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. The emphasis on God’s love for all was an antidote to the rigorous moralism of the Jansenists, who were popular at the time.
     Claude showed remarkable preaching skills long before his ordination in 1675. Two months later he was made superior of a small Jesuit residence in Burgundy. It was there he first encountered Margaret Mary Alacoque. For many years after he served as her confessor.
     He was next sent to England to serve as confessor to the Duchess of York. He preached by both words and by the example of his holy life, converting a number of Protestants. Tensions arose against Catholics and Claude, rumored to be part of a plot against the king, was imprisoned. He was ultimately banished, but by then his health had been ruined. He died in 1682.
Pope John Paul the Second canonized Claude la Colombière in 1992.

Saints of February 16 mention with Popes
305 St. Juliana of Cumae Christian virgin martyred for the faith refused Roman prefect marriage.   Only after Juliana's death, thanks to the renewed efforts of Bl.  Eva, was the feastday of Corpus Christi accepted by the Latin Rite of the Church.  The pope who authorized the festival was none other than James Pantaleon, now Pope Urban IV, who had earlier confirmed Juliana's inquiry whether such a feast was feasible.  Urban commissioned St. Thomas Aquinas to compose the office of the feastday.  Aquinas's beautiful composition included those ever-popular Eucharistic hymns: the "Lauda Sion", the "Pange Lingua", the "O Salutaris", and the "Tantum Ergo." This feast was long a holy day of obligation.
When miracles were reported in connection with Juliana's tomb, she came to be venerated as a saint.  A local feast in her honor was allowed by Pius IX in 1869, but her feastday has not yet been extended to the whole church.
Thanks to St. Juliana's reverence for the Holy Eucharist, the dark line on the moon of her vision was eliminated.
May we imitate her in our love--and respect--for the real Eucharistic presence of Christ in our tabernacles.
--Father Robert F. McNamara
1189 St. Gilbert of Sempringham priest shared wealth with the poor miracles wrought at his tomb built 13 monasteries (9 were double).  ST GILBERT was born at Sempringham in Lincolnshire, and in due course was ordained priest. For some time he taught in a free school, but the advowson of the parsonages of Sempringham and Terrington being in the gift of his father, he was presented by him to the united livings in 1123. He gave the revenues of them to the poor, reserving only a small sum for bare necessaries. By his care, his parishioners were led to sanctity of life, and he drew up a rule for seven young women who lived in strict enclosure in a house adjoining the parish church of St Andrew at Sempringham. This foundation grew, and Gilbert found it necessary to add first lay-sisters and then lay-brothers to work the nuns’ land. In 1147 he went to Citeaux to ask the abbot to take over the foundation. This the Cistercians were unable to do, and Gilbert was encouraged by Pope Eugenius III to carry on the work himself. Finally Gilbert added a fourth element, of canons regular, as chaplains to the nuns.
1468 BD EUSTOCHIUM OF MESSINA, VIRGIN authority of her virtues was increased by fame of her miracles—the sick being healed even by the kerchief which had been bathed by her tears of penitence. She died at the age of thirty-five.  After eleven years spent at Basico, Bd Eustochium felt that she desired a stricter rule, and Pope Callistus III allowed her to found another convent to follow the first rule of St Francis under the Observants. In 1458—1459 her mother and sister built the convent which was called Maidens’ Hill (Monte Vergine). There she received, amongst others, her sister and her niece Paula, who was only eleven years of age. The foundation passed through many trials during its early years. When Eustochium became thirty—the legal age—she was elected abbess and gathered around her crowds of fervent souls. The authority of her virtues was increased by the fame of her miracles—the sick being healed even by the kerchief which had been bathed by her tears of penitence. She died at the age of thirty-five, her cultus being subsequently approved in 1782.
1940 St. Philip Siphong 7 Thai Catholics martyred for the faith "white-robed army of martyrs."    On October 22, 1989, Pope John Paul II formally beatified the seven Thai Catholics.  Deeply touched by their fidelity, the pope said that Blessed Philip ("the great tree" as he was called at Songkhon) exemplified the missionary zeal that is incumbent upon all of us by virtue of our baptism.  He quoted Sister Agnes' letter to the policeman: "We rejoice in giving back to God the life that He has given us.... We beseech you to open to us the doors of heaven… You are acting according to the orders of men, but we act according to the commandments of God." Sentiments like these, said John Paul II, resembled those of the Christian martyrs of antiquity.  Indeed, their very names were those of ancient saints: Agnes, Lucy, Agatha, Cecilia, Bibiana....
The Blessed Martyrs of Thailand, in "giving back to God the life that He had given them", were therefore contemporary soldiers in the age-old "white-robed army of martyrs." - -Father Robert R McNamara

Saints of February 17 mention with Popes
603   St. Fintan Abbot  .  In the monastery of Cluainedhech in Ireland, St. Fintan, abbot.
Fintan was a hermit in Clonenagh, Leix, Ireland. When disciples gathered around his hermitage he became their abbot.
A wonder worker, Fintan was known for clairvoyance, prophecies, and miracles. He also performed very austere penances.
603 ST FINTAN OF CLONEENAGH, ABBOT even in his boyhood he possessed the gift of prophecy and of a knowledge of distant events.  
IN a tractate preserved in the Book of Leinster St Fintan is presented as an Irish counterpart of St Benedict, and there can be no question as to the high repute in which his monastery of Cloneenagh in Leix was held by his contemporaries. An early litany speaks of “the monks of Fintan, descendant of Eochaid, who ate nothing but herbs of the earth and water; there is not room to enumerate them by reason of their multitude”. Quite in accord with this is a gloss in the Félire of Oengus: “Generous Fintan never consumed during his time aught save the bread of woody barley and muddy water of clay.” The Latin life bears out this description of extreme asceticism, which indeed St Canice of Aghaboe thought excessive and protested against.

Seven Founders of the Order of Servites (RM) 13th century; canonized in 1887 by Pope Leo XIII.
1233 7 Founders of the Order of Servites On the Feast of the Assumption the 7 single vision to withdraw from world forming new society within the Church devoted to prayer and solitudeIn 1233 seven wealthy councilors of the city of Florence, who had previously joined the Laudesi (Praisers), gave up the pleasures of this world in order to devote themselves to God through particular devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Their previous lives had been by no means lax or undisciplined, even though Florence was then a city filled with factions and immorality, and infected by the Cathar heresy (the belief that the body was evil and we are the souls of angels inserted by Satan into human bodies). Under the direction of James of Poggibonsi, who was the chaplain of the Laudesi and a man of great holiness and spiritual insight, they came to recognize the call to renunciation.
On the Feast of the Assumption, 1233, the seven had a single inspiration or vision to withdraw from the world to form a new society within the Church devoted to prayer and solitude.
1302 BD ANDREW OF ANAGNI was held in great veneration both in life and after death for the miracles he was believed to work.   IN the Franciscan supplement to the Roman Martyrology this servant of God is described as “Beatus Andreas de Comitibus”; but it would seem that the more accurate form of his name is Andrea dei Conti di Segni (Andrew of the Counts of Segni). In Mazzara he is called Andrea d’Anagni, from his birthplace. As we learn from these designations he was of noble family, nephew of the Roland Conti who became Pope Alexander IV and a near kinsman of another native of Anagni, Benedict Gaetani, Pope Boniface VIII.

Laying aside all thought of worldly advancement he gave himself to the Order of Friars Minor, in which he remained a simple brother, not even aspiring to the priesthood.

Saints of February 18 mention with Popes
107 St. Simon or Simeon father was Cleophas St. Joseph's brother. Mother was our Lady's sister 8 yrs older than Jesus.  At Jerusalem, the birthday of St. Simeon, bishop and martyr, who is said to have been the son of Cleophas, and a relative of the Saviour according to the flesh.  He was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem after St. James, the cousin of our Lord.  In the persecution of Trajan, after having endured many torments, his martyrdom was completed.  All who were present, even the judge himself, were astonished that a man one hundred and twenty years of age could bear the torment of crucifixion with such fortitude and constancy.
In St. Matthew's Gospel, we read of St. Simon or Simeon who is described as one of our Lord's brethren or kinsmen.
449 St. Flavian of Constantinople martyr Patriarch succeeding St. Proclus cum fidem cathólicam Ephesi propugnáret.    At Constantinople, St. Flavian, bishop, who, for having defended the Catholic faith at Ephesus, was attacked with slaps and kicks by the faction of the impious Dioscorus, and then driven into exile where he died within three days. The abbot, in his excessive zeal against Nestorius’s heresy of two distinct persons in Christ, had rushed to the other extreme and, denying that our Lord had two distinct natures after the Incarnation, was the protagonist of the monophysite heresy. In a synod held by St Flavian in 448, Eutyches was accused of this error by Eusebius of Dorylaeum, and the opinion was there condemned as heretical, Eutyches being cited to appear before the council to give an account of his faith. He eventually did so, and was deposed and excommunicated. Whereupon he declared that he appealed to the bishops of Rome, Egypt and Jerusalem; and he addressed a letter to St Leo I in which he complained of the way he had been treated and stated his case. But the pope was not misled. In a carefully-worded letter to Flavian, famous in ecclesiastical history as his “Tome” or “Dogmatic Letter”, Leo set out the orthodox faith upon the principal points in dispute.
1455 Blessed John of Fiesole patron of Christian artists  .   The patron of Christian artists was born around 1400 in a village overlooking Florence. He took up painting as a young boy and studied under the watchful eye of a local painting master. He joined the Dominicans at about age 20, taking the name Fra Giovanni. He eventually came to be known as Fra Angelico, perhaps a tribute to his own angelic qualities or maybe the devotional tone of his works.
1594 Bl. William Harrington priest Martyr of England.  Blessed William Harrington M (AC) Born at Mount Saint John, Felixkirk, Yorkshire, England; died at Tyburn, 1594; beatified in 1929. William was educated and ordained in 1592 at Rheims. He was only 27 when he was hanged, drawn, and quartered for his priesthood (Benedictines).
1601 Bl. John Pibush English martyr solely for his priesthood .   born in Thirsk, Yorkshire. He went to Reims and was ordained in 1587. Returning to England in 1589, John was arrested at Gloucestershire in 1593 and kept in prison in London. He escaped but was recaptured and then tried and condemned. He was executed at Southwark. His beatification took place in 1929.
        Bl. Martin Martyr of China native
        Blessed Agnes De martyred native cradle Christian VM (AC)
1855 Blessed Andrew Nam-Thung native catechist of Cochin-China M (AC)
1858 St. Agatha Lin Chinese martyr
1862 Blessed John Peter French missionary priest & Martin native catechist MM (AC)


Saints of February 19 mention with Popes
295 Gabinus of Rome Pope Caius brother father of Saint Suzanne M (RM) .  Saint Gabinus was a Roman Christian, brother of Pope Caius and father of the beautiful Saint Suzanne. He also seems to have been related to Emperor Diocletian. Gabinus was ordained a priest and died as a martyr of starvation under Diocletian.
682 St. Barbatus Bishop Benevento innocence, simplicity, and purity of heart .  In 680, Barbatus assisted in a council called by Pope Agatho at Rome and the following year attended the Sixth General Council held at Constantinople against the Monothelites. He died shortly after the council about age 70. He is honored as one of the chief patrons of Benevento (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
1350 St. Conrad of Piacenza reputation for holiness.  Conrad of Piacenza, OFM Tert. (AC) Born in 1290; died 1351 or 1354; cultus approved with the title of saint by Paul III. One day while hunting he ordered attendants to set fire to some brush in order to flush out the game. The fire spread to nearby fields and to a large forest. Conrad fled. An innocent peasant was imprisoned, tortured to confess and condemned to death. Conrad confessed his guilt, saved the man’s life and paid for the damaged property. Soon after this event, Conrad and his wife agreed to separate: she to a Poor Clare monastery and he to a group of hermits following the Third Order Rule. His reputation for holiness, however, spread quickly. Since his many visitors destroyed his solitude, Conrad went to a more remote spot in Sicily where he lived 36 years as a hermit, praying for himself and for the rest of the world.  Prayer and penance were his answer to the temptations that beset him. Conrad died kneeling before a crucifix. He was canonized in 1625.
1400 + St. Alvarez confessor Queen Catherine adviser tutor King John II teaching preaching asceticism holiness The Bishop of Syracuse himself visited him, and it was told afterwards that while his attendants were preparing to unpack the provisions they had brought, the bishop had asked St Conrad with a smile whether he had nothing to offer his visitors. The holy man replied that he would go and look in his cell, from which he emerged carrying became a favourite shrine at which many miraculous cures took place. He is more particularly invoked for ruptures on account of the large number of people who owed their recovery from hernia to his intercession. The cultus of St Conrad has been approved by three popes.
He became known for his preaching prowess in Spain and Italy, was confessor and adviser of Queen Catherine, John of Gaunt's daughter, and tutor of King John II in his youth.
He reformed the court, and then left the court to found a monastery near Cordova. There the Escalaceli (ladder of heaven) that he built became a center of religious devotion. He successfully led the opposition to antipope Benedict XII (Peter de Luna), and by the time of his death was famous all over Spain for his teaching, preaching, asceticism, and holiness. His cult was confirmed in 1741.

1862  Bl. Lucy Martyr of China Catholic schoolteacher She was a Catholic schoolteacher in China, where she was beheaded. Lucy was beatified in 1909.

Saints of February 20 mention with Popes
1920 Blessed Jacinta & Francisco Marto Between May 13 and October 13, 1917, three children, Portuguese shepherds The Church is always very cautious about endorsing alleged apparitions, but it has seen benefits from people changing their lives because of the message of Our Lady of Fatima. Prayer for sinners, devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and praying the rosary—all these reinforce the Good News Jesus came to preach.
Quote:  In his homily at their beatification, Pope John Paul II recalled that shortly before Francisco died, Jacinta said to him, “Give my greetings to Our Lord and to Our Lady and tell them that I am enduring everything they want for the conversion of sinners.”

Saints of February 21 mention with Popes
379 Irene Spanish Sister of Pope Saint Damasus ;  Irene was the sister of Pope Saint Damasus I (c. 304-384). She and her devout mother Laurentia are said to have often spent whole nights in the catacombs of Rome.
606 St. Paterius monk from Rome bishop of Brescia prolific writer on Biblical subjects.  Paterius of Brescia B (RM)  Paterius, a Roman monk, was a disciple and friend of Pope Saint Gregory the Great. He was a notary in the Roman Church, who was raised to the see of Brescia, Lombardy. Paterius was a prolific writer on Biblical subjects (Benedictines).
1072 Peter Damian brilliant teacher writer  transcribing manuscripts , B Doctor (RM).  Saint Peter Damian (born 1007, Ravenna—died Feb. 22, 1072, Faenze; feast day February 21) Italian cardinal and Doctor of the Church. He was prior of Fonte Avellana in the Apennines before being named a cardinal in 1057. A leading monastic reformer and ascetic, he played an important role in the promotion of apostolic poverty and in support of papal reformers who sought to enforce clerical celibacy and abolish simony. He defended Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II and reconciled Alexander with the city of Ravenna. He was also sent as a papal legate to resolve disputes in Milan and Cluny, Burgundy, and he played a key role in the formulation of the papal election decree of 1059. In 1828 he was declared a Doctor of the Church.
1562 Robert Southwell 1/40 martyrs of England and Wales SJ M (RM) .  Born at Horsham Saint Faith's, Norfolk, England, in 1561 or 1562; died at Tyburn, London, England, February 21, 1595; beatified in 1929; canonized on October 25, 1970, by Pope Paul VI as one of the 40 representative martyrs of England and Wales.
1794 Blessed Noel Pinot continued to minister to his flock.M (AC).  During the twelve days he was kept in prison, he was very roughly treated, and upon his reiterated refusal to take the oath he was sentenced off-hand to the guillotine. On February 21, 1794, he was led out to death still wearing the priestly vestments in which he had been arrested, and on the way to offer his final sacrifice he is said to have repeated aloud the words which the priest recites at the foot of the altar in beginning Mass Introibo ad altare Dei\...“I will enter unto the altar of God, to God who giveth joy to my youth.” Bd Noel Pinot was beatified in 1926 -- Pius XI 1922-1939.

Saints of February 22 mention with Popes
Chair of Saint Peter, Apostle.   WE are accustomed to use such phrases as the power of the “throne”, the heir to the “throne”, the prerogative of the “crown:, etc., substituting the concrete insignia of dignity for the office itself. The same metonomy is familiar in ecclesiastical matters. The “Holy See” is no more than the Sancta Sedes, the holy chair, for the word “see” is simply sedes, which has come to us through the Old French sied. But the Romans had another name, which they borrowed from the Greeks, for the seat occupied by a teacher or anyone who spoke with authority. This was cathedra, and its use in this sense can not only be traced back to the early Christian centuries, but it survives to this day, notably in the phrase “an ex cathedra decision”, that is to say a pronouncement in which the pope speaks as teacher of the Universal Church.
556 St. Maximian of Ravenna Bishop of Ravenna erected St. Vitalis Basilica, which was dedicated in the presence of Emperor Justinian and his wife, Theodora.  Ordained by Pope Vigilius in 546. Maximian erected St. Vitalis Basilica, which was dedicated in the presence of Emperor Justinian and his wife, Theodora.
Maximianus of Ravenna B (RM) Born in Pola, Italy, 499; died February 22, 556; feast day formerly February 21.


Saints of February 23 mention with Popes
156 Saint Polycarp a disciple of Saint John the Evangelist
Polycarp was, as was his friend St. Ignatius of Antioch, one of the most important intermediary links between the apostolic and the patristic eras in the Church, especially in Christian Asia Minor.The East, where Polycarp was from, celebrated the Passover as the Passion of Christ followed by a Eucharist on the following day. The West celebrated Easter on the Sunday of the week following Passover. When Polycarp went to Rome to discuss the difference with Pope Anicetus, they could not agree on this issue. But they found no difference in their Christian beliefs.
Anicetus asked Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in his own papal chapel.  
Polycarp faced persecution the way Christ did. His own church admired him for following the "gospel model" -- not chasing after martyrdom as some did, but avoiding it until it was God's will as Jesus did. They considered it "a sign of love to desire not to save oneself alone, but to save also all the Christian brothers and sisters."
324 St. Romana  Roman virgin.  At Todi in Umbria, St. Romana, virgin, who was baptized by Pope St. Sylvester, led a life of holiness in dens and caves, and wrought glorious miracles.  Almost certainly a legendary figure, she supposedly lived as a hermitess in a cave on the banks of the river Tiber in Rome. She figures in the doubtful life of Pope St. Sylvester.
372 Saint Gorgonia sister of St Gregory the Theologian distinguished for great virtue, piety, meekness, sagacity, toil.   Her house was a haven for the poor. The mother of five children, she died around the year 372 at the age of thirty-nine. Her last words were, "In peace I will both lie down and sleep" (Psalm 4:8).
1011 St. Willigis Bishop missionaries to Scandinavia, founded churches chaplain to Emperor Otto II.  Born at Schoningen, Germany, he was the son of a wheelwright. After studying and receiving ordination, he was named a canon at Hildesheim and then received appointment as a chaplain to Emperor Otto II. The ruler made Willigis chancellor of Germany in 971 and then archbishop of Mainz in 973. About the same time, Pope Benedict VII  (r. 974-983) named him vicar apostolic for Germany. In 983, he crowned the infant emperor Otto III (r. 996-1002) at Aachen and was one of the chief figures in the regency with Otto's mother, Empress Theophano (d. 991) and then Empress Adelaide (d. 999). Following Otto's death in 1002, Willigis was instrumental in securing the election of Henry (r. king, 1002-1024, emperor, 1014-1024) of Bavaria, whom he consecrated as Henry II. A brilliant statesman, he always strove first to a be Church man. He sent missionaries to Scandinavia, founded churches, was careful in the prelates that he appointed to the sees of Germany, and rebuilt the cathedral of Mainz.
St. Peter Damian: Monk And Church Reformer Vatican City, 9 Sep 2009 (VIS) - Benedict XVI
1072 St. Peter Damian stern figure recall men in lax age from error of ways  declared doctor of the Church in 1828.  Pope Benedict XVI dedicated the catechesis of his general audience, held this morning in the Paul VI Hall, to St. Peter Damian (1007-1072), "a monk, lover of solitude and, overall, an intrepid man of the Church who played a leading role in the reforms undertaken by the Popes of his time".
  Peter Damian, who lost both his parents while still very young and was raised by his siblings, received a superlative education in jurisprudence and Greek and Latin culture. As a young man he dedicated himself to teaching and authored a number of literary works, but he soon felt the call to become a monk and entered the monastery of Fonte Avellana.
  The monastery "was dedicated to the Holy Cross, and of all the Christian mysteries the Cross would be the one that most fascinated Peter Damian", explained Pope Benedict, expressing the hope that the saint's example "may encourage us too always to look to the Cross as God's supreme act of love towards man".

1771 St. Marguerite d'Youville allowed no obstacle in the way of her helping others canonized December 9, 1990..  In 1754, Mme. d'Youville took the now inevitable step of forming her women auxiliaries into a new religious order.
Their official title was "The Sisters of Charity of the General Hospital." For their religious habit she chose a grey material.  One reason for the choice was rather witty.  In their early years their enemies had sometimes called these women "les soeurs grises," which meant, "the drunken sisters." But it can also mean "the grey sisters." So ever since its foundation, Mother d'Youville's large congregation, today divided into several distinct communities, has been called by the nickname she adopted, the "Grey Sisters."
They rapidly expanded throughout Canada, always welcome because they were ready to undertake not only all the corporal works of mercy but also the spiritual works of mercy, including school teaching at all levels.  This comprehensive order eventually branched out into both Americas, Africa, and the Far East. (They made a foundation in Buffalo in 1857.  Out of this came D'Youville College.) From the start, the Grey Nuns were mission-minded.  In 1755, when the Indians of the Quebec Province were suffering a severe smallpox epidemic, Mother d'Youville and all 12 of her sisters volunteered to go nurse the Indian victims, willing to risk their own lives by so doing.  The Indians were touched by this devotion.
     These same Native Americans had earlier complained to the Governor about François d'Youville, who was disobediently selling them liquor.  "We cannot pray God because d'Youville made us drink every day.  If you don't expel him from this island, we don't want to go there again." Thus did Mother d'Youville make reparation for the sins of her husband.  Her nuns continued this restitution by becoming pioneer missionaries among the natives of Canada's West and Northwest. One cannot know St. Marguerite d'Youville without admiring her.  She was one of the most remarkable Catholic women in the history of the Western Hemisphere.   --Father Robert F. McNamara

Saints of February 24 mention with Popes
In Judæa natális sancti Matthíæ Apóstoli.  1st v. ST MATTHIAS, APOSTLE
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA says that according to tradition St Matthias was one of the seventy-two disciples whom our Lord had sent out, two by two, during His ministry, and this is also asserted by Eusebius and by St Jerome. We know from the Acts of the Apostles that he was constantly with the Saviour from the time of His baptism until His ascension. When St Peter soon after had declared that it was necessary to elect a twelfth apostle in place of Judas, two candidates were chosen as most worthy, Joseph called Barsabas and Matthias, After prayer to God that He would direct their choice, they proceeded to cast lots, and the lot fell upon Matthias, who was accordingly numbered with the eleven and ranked among the apostles. He received the Holy Ghost with the rest soon after his election and applied himself with zeal to his mission. It is stated by Clement of Alexandria that he was remarkable for his insistence upon the necessity of mortifying the flesh to subdue the sensual appetites—a lesson he had leant from Christ and which he faithfully practised himself.

1285 Blessed Luke Belludi nobleman talented, well-educated asked for the Franciscan habit St. Anthony recommended
         him to St. Francis;
gift of miracles.   After the fulfillment of the prophetic message, Luke was elected provincial minister and furthered the completion of the great basilica in honor of Anthony, his teacher. He founded many convents of the order and had, as Anthony, the gift of miracles. Upon his death he was laid to rest in the basilica that he had helped finish and has had a continual veneration up to the present time.
Comment:  The epistles refer several times to a man named Luke as Paul’s trusted companion on his missionary journeys. Perhaps every great preacher needs a Luke; Anthony surely did. Luke Belludi not only accompanied Anthony on his travels, he also cared for the great saint in his final illness and carried on Anthony’s mission after the saint’s death. Yes, every preacher needs a Luke, someone to offer support and reassurance—including those who minister to us. We don’t even have to change our names!
Saints of February 25 mention with Popes
616 Ethelbert of Kent, King Not since conversions of Constantine and Clovis had
       Christendom known an event so  momentous
.   ETHELBERT, King of Kent, married a Christian princess, Bertha, only child of Charibert, King of Paris. She had full liberty to practise her religion, and she brought with her a French prelate, Bishop Liudhard, who officiated in an ancient church, which he dedicated to God in honour of St Martin, at Canterbury.

Tradi­tion speaks of the piety and amiable qualities of Queen Bertha, and these no doubt made a great impression on her husband, but his conversion did not take place until the coming of St Augustine and his companions. These missionaries, sent by St Gregory the Great, first landed in Thanet, from whence they sent a message to the king announcing their arrival and explaining the reason of their coming. Ethelbert bade them remain in the island, and after some days he himself came to Thanet to hear what they had to say. His first conference with them took place in the open air, as he was afraid they might use spells or some form of magic, which were held to be powerless out of doors. Ethelbert, sitting under an oak, received them well and, after listening to them, told them that they might freely preach to the people and convert whom they could. As for himself, he could not immediately abandon all that he had held sacred, but he would undertake that the missionaries should be well treated and should have the means to live. Bede tells us that he gave them the church of St Martin in which  “to sing psalms, to pray, to offer Mass, to preach and to baptize”. Conversions took place, and it was not long before Ethelbert and many of his nobles were convinced. They received baptism on Whitsunday, 597; and the king’s conversion was followed by that of thousands of his subjects.

806 St. Tarasius saintly Bishop charity to poor no indigent person overlooked .  At Constantinople, St. Tharasius, bishop, a man of great learning and piety.  There exists a letter defending sacred images, written to him by Pope Hadrian I.  ST TARASIUS, although a layman and chief secretary to the young Emperor Con­stantine VI and his mother Irene, was chosen patriarch of Constantinople by the court, clergy and people after having been nominated by his predecessor Paul IV, who had retired into a monastery. Tarasius came of a patrician family, had had a good upbringing, and in the midst of the court, though surrounded by all that could flatter pride or gratify the senses, he had led a life of almost monastic severity. He was most loath to accept the dignity which had been conferred upon him, partly because he felt that a priest should have been chosen, but also on account of the position created by the succession of emperors, beginning with Leo III in 726, whose policy it was for various reasons to abolish the veneration of sacred images and banish eikons from the churches.* [* The use of sacred images had become general throughout the Church and had been encouraged by the authorities when, all danger of idolatry being over, it became necessary to impress on men’s minds that God had actually become man and had been born of a human mother. For this purpose, and as a means of reviving the memory of the saints and of lifting up the soul to God, pictures and other images were introduced into the churches.]  Soon after his consecration he wrote letters to Pope Adrian I (as did Irene) and the patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem requesting their attendance or that of their legates at the seventh ecumenical council. The Holy Father sent legates with letters to the emperor, empress, and patriarch that, in the presence of his legates, the false council of the Iconoclasts should first be condemned and efforts made to re-establish holy images throughout the empire. (His legates, who assumed the presidency of the council, were Peter, archpriest of the Roman church, and Peter, priest and abbot of Saint Sabas in Rome.)
1104 Gerland of Girgenti continually saddened by the sight of the world.  Born in Besançon, France. Saint Gerland is said to have been related to the Norman conqueror of Sicily, Robert Guiscard. He was consecrated bishop of Girgenti by Urban II, and labored for the restoration of Christianity in Sicily after the expulsion of the Saracens. It is said that Gerland was continually saddened by the sight of the world (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).  Count Roger recalled him to Sicily to appoint him bishop of Girgenti, and he was consecrated by Bd Urban II. He found much to do in a land where the Moslems had ruled for so long. He re-established the cathedral, which had been reduced to ruins, built an episcopal residence, and obtained a charter of his jurisdiction. He sought out Jews and Saracens, had private interviews with them besides public conferences, and converted many, baptizing them himself. His success has been described as marvellous. Gerland died soon after returning from a visit to Rome, having apparently foreseen his approaching end.
1380 St. Aventanus Carmelite mystic lay brother gift of ecstasies, miracles visions.   A native of Limoges, France, he joined the Carmelites as a lay brother. With another Carmelite, Romaeus, Aventanus started on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Crossing the Alps they encountered many difficulties, including an outbreak of plague. Aventanus, who had a gift of ecstasies, miracles, and visions, succumbed to the plague near Lucca, Italy. His cult was approved by Pope Gregory XVI.
1481 Bl. Constantius a boy of extraordinary goodness gift of prophecy or second sight miracles.  EARLY in the fifteenth century, there lived at Fabriano a boy of such extraordinary goodness that even his parents would sometimes wonder whether he were not rather an angel than a human child. Once, when his little sister was suffering from a disease which the doctors pronounced incurable, Constantius Bernocchi asked his father and mother to join him in prayer by her bedside that she might recover. They did so, and she was immediately cured. At the age of fifteen he was admitted to the Dominican convent of Santa Lucia and he seems to have received the habit from the hands of Bd Laurence of Ripafratta, at that time prior of this house of strict observance. Constantius was one of those concerned with the reform of San Marco in Florence, and it was whilst he was teaching in that city that it was dis­covered that he had the gift of prophecy or second sight. Among other examples, the death of St Antoninus was made known to him at the moment that it took place, and this is mentioned by Pope Clement VII in his bull for the canonization of that saint. He was also credited with the power of working miracles, and besides the cares of his office he acted as peacemaker outside the convent and quelled popular tumults.
1828 Bl. Dominic Lentini  called the Son and Servant of the Cross.   Blessed Dominic Lentini was born in Lauria and always lived there. Life for him stopped there. This already says a great deal: people can and ought to become saints in their own space of life and work. He moved from Lauria on account of his studies to the Seminary of Policastro and also as a Priest on account of his preaching in the surrounding towns. The towns he preached in were within the confines of the Noce Valley, the Gulf of Policastro and of Mercure. (N.B. These territories are all situated further south than Naples). The two Popes who glorified Bl. Dominic Lentini, Pius XI for his Heroic Virtues (27/1/35) and John Paul for his Beatification (12/10/97), will exalt the greatness of his Priesthood: Sacerdote sine adiunctis! (a Priest without equal) Rich only in his Priesthood!

Saints of February 26 mention with Popes
  328 St. Alexander of Alexandria Bishop defender of the faith drew up the acts of the 1st Gen Council of Nicaea 325.         At Alexandria, Bishop St. Alexander, an aged man held in great honour, who succeeded blessed Peter as bishop of that city.  He expelled Arius, one of his priests, from the Church because he was tainted with heretical ímpiety and convicted in the face of divine truth.  Later on he was one of the three hundred and eighteen Fathers who condemned him in the Council of Nicaea.
He was born circa (c.) 250, probably in Alexandria, Egypt, becoming the bishop of the see in 313. The heresy of Arianism was sweeping the region, as Arius was preaching the doctrine there. Alexander excommunicated Arius in 321, a decision upheld by a council. Alexander is also credited with drawing up the acts of the First General Council of Nicaea in 325. He was described by contemporaries as "a lover of God . . .just . . . eloquent." His successor, St. Athanasius, was the choice of Alexander on his deathbed. In due course, in the year 325, the first oecumenical council assembled at Nicaea to deal with the matter, Pope St Silvester being represented by legates. Anus was himself present, and both Marcellus of Ancyra and the deacon St Athanasius, whom St Alexander had brought with him, exposed the falsity of the new doctrines and completely confuted the Arians. The heresy was emphatically and finally condemned, and Anus and a few others banished by the Emperor Con­stantine to Illyricum. St Alexander, after this triumph of the faith, returned to Alexandria, where he died two years later, having named St Athanasius as his successor.
Her fasts and the nervous strain of the life she led brought on so severe an illness that she was publicly prayed for, and her mother sent to consult a holy woman at Nanterre who was reputed to have the gift of prophecy. The reply was that the princess would recover, but that she must never be counted among the living because for the rest of her life she would be dead to the world. The truth of this was soon perceived when various suitors presented themselves. She refused first Count Hugo of Austria and then Conrad, King of Jerusalem, although Pope innocent IV sent her a letter urging her to accept him for the benefit of Christendom. She answered him so humbly and wisely that he applauded her resolution to serve God in perpetual virginity.
421 St. Porphyry of Gaza Epíscopi  worked tirelessly for his people, instructed them and made many converts, miraculous healing.  
I tried to reach Mount Calvary, and there I fainted away and fell into a kind of trance or ecstasy in which I seemed to see our Saviour on the cross and the good thief hanging near Him. I said to Christ, ‘Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom’, and he replied by bidding the thief come to my assistance. This he did, and raising me from the ground he bade me go to Christ. I ran to Him and He came down from His cross, saying to me, ‘Take this wood’ (meaning the cross) ‘into thy custody’. In obedience to Him, methought I laid it on my shoulders and carried it some way. I awoke soon after and have been free from pain ever since, nor is there any sign left of the ailments from which I formerly suffered.”   We go far back in history today to learn a bit about a saint whose name is not familiar to most of us in the West but who is celebrated by the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches.  Born near Greece in the mid-fourth century, Porphry is most known for his generosity to the poor and for his ascetic lifestyle. Deserts and caves were his home for a time. At age 40, living in Jerusalem, Porphyry was ordained a priest.  
 Feeble as he was, he never omitted his usual visits to the holy places and he daily partook of the Blessed Sacrament. The only thing which troubled him was that his paternal estate had not as yet been disposed of and the proceeds given to the poor. This commission he entrusted to Mark, who set out for Thessalonica and in three months’ time returned to Jerusalem with money and effects of considerable value.  
Mark scarcely recognized Porphyry, so completely had he recovered his health. His face had lost its pallor and was fresh and ruddy. Seeing his friend’s amaze­ment, he said with a smile,
“Do not be surprised, Mark, to see me in perfect health, but only marvel at the unspeakable goodness of Christ who can easily cure what men despair of”.
1163 BD LEO OF SAINT-BERTIN, ABBOT.  He soon retired from the world and entered the monastery of Anchin, where he distinguished himself amongst his brother monks, and ere long was called to rule the abbey of Lobbes. During the protracted wars that had desolated the country the affairs of the monas­tery had fallen into a bad state, but Leo succeeded in setting them in order and in restoring discipline.
 In 1138 he was recalled to become abbot of Saint-Bertin—an abbey of such importance that it was known as the Monastery of Monasteries. His name appears on several contemporary charters. That same year he went to Rome, where the main purpose of his visit was to free his abbey from the interference of Cluny, which claimed certain rights over it. Amongst the works of St Bernard are two letters addressed “to the dear and venerable Leo and to all his community”.

When in 1146 Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders, took part in the Second Crusade, he was accompanied by Bd Leo, but, beyond the fact that he reached Jerusalem, nothing is known about the abbot’s stay in the Holy Land. On his return he brought with him to the chapel of St Blaise in Bruges the relic of the Precious Blood which the count had obtained and which is still treasured and venerated in that ancient city. When the abbot was quite an old man, his monas­tery was entirely destroyed by fire in the year 1152. Undismayed he started at once to rebuild it, and was fortunate in enlisting the help of a nobleman known as William of Ypres: in two years the monks were able to return, and Bd Leo lived to see the whole monastery entirely reconstructed. In 1161 he lost his sight, and two years later he died.

1270 St. Isabel of France virgin  ministered to the sick and the poor consecrated to God.   Sister of St. Louis and daughter of King Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile, she refused offers of marriage from several noble suitors to continue her life of virginity consecrated to God. She ministered to the sick and the poor, and after the death of her mother, founded the Franciscan Monastery of the Humility of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Longchamps in Paris. She lived there in austerity but never became a nun and refused to become abbess. She died there on February 23, and her cult was approved in 1521. Every day before her dinner Isabel would admit a number of poor people upon whom she waited herself, and after dinner she went out to visit the sick and the poor; and she used to pay the expenses of ten knights in the Holy Land as her share in the crusade. She was tried by several long and painful illnesses, but the ill-success of the crusade and her brother’s capture were far harder trials to her. After the death of her mother she resolved to establish a house for daughters of the Order of St Francis, and obtained the approval of St Louis, who promised material aid. The next thing was to have a rule drafted in accordance with the Rule of St Clare, and some of the greatest Franciscans of the day, including St Bonaventure himself, set to work to draw up a set of constitutions. Thus began the famous Franciscan convent of Longchamps, whose site was within what is now the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. It was called the Monastery of the Humility of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

1889 Saint Paula of Saint Joseph of Calasanz founded colleges, schools, spread to 4 continents.   Also known as:  Paula Montal Fornes; Paula Montal; Paola Montal; Paola Montal Fornes.
Profile:  Daughter of Ramon and Vicenta Fornes Montal. Raised in a large and pious family in a small seaside village. Her father died when Paula was 10 years old. She worked as a seamstress and lace-maker, and helped raise her siblings, then helped in her parish with other children.  At age thirty, still single and devoting herself privately to God, she and her friend Inez Busquets opened a school in Gerona to provide a good education mixed with spiritual guidance. The school was such a success that she was able to found a college in May 1842, and another school in 1846. To staff and manage the schools, she founded the Daughters of Mary (Pious School Sisters) on 2 February 1847, and took the name Paula of Saint Joseph of Calasanz. Paula served as its leader, and they received papal approval from Blessed Pope Pius IX in 1860. These schools have now spread to four continents.
Born:  11 October 1799 at Arenys de Mar, near Barcelona, Spain  Died:  26 February 1889 at Olesa de Montserrat of natural causes. Beatified:  18 April 1993 by Pope John Paul II at Rome  Canonized:  25 November 2001 by Pope John Paul II.


Saints of February 27 mention with Popes
596 St. Leander of Seville Bishop monk consubstantiality 3 Persons of the Trinity 1st introduce Nicene Creed at Mass
       At Seville in Spain, the birthday of St. Leander, bishop of that city, and of St. Florentina, virgin.  By his preaching and zeal the Visigoths, with the help of King Recared, were converted from the Arian heresy to the Catholic faith.
He was instrumental in converting the two sons Hermenegild and Reccared of the Arian Visigothic King Leovigild. This action earned him the kings's wrath and exile to Constantinople, where he met and became close friends of the Papal Legate, the future Pope Gregory the Great. It was Leander who suggested that Gregory write the famous commentary on the Book of Job called the Moralia.
1600 Bl. Mark Barkworth Martyr of England first Benedictine to die at Tyburn.  The day of his execution was very cold and it was snowing heavily. By some means Father Mark got hold of a Benedictine habit, which he put on, and had his head shaved in the monastic form of tonsure. When he and Father Roger Filcock arrived at Tyburn the dead body of Bd Anne Line (see below) was hanging from the gallows: he kissed the edge of her dress and her hand, saying, “Thou hast got the start of us, sister, but we will follow thee as quickly as we may”. He addressed the people, reminding them that Pope St Gregory had sent monks of St Benedict to preach the gospel to their heathen ancestors, “And I come here to die”, he said, “as a Catholic, a priest and a religious of the same order”.
1601 St. Anne Line  English 1/40 martyr from Dunmow, Essex  Widow. The daughter of William Heigham, she was disowned by him when she married a Catholic, Roger Line.
Roger was imprisoned for being a Catholic and was exiled and died in 1594 in Flanders, Belgium. Anne stayed in England where she hid Catholic priests in a London safe house. In this endeavor she aided Jesuit Father John Gerard until her arrest. Anne was hanged in Tyburn on February 27, 1601.  Pope Paul VI canonized Anne Line in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
1862 Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows  patron saint of students (Possenti) CP       At Isola, in the province of Abruzzi, St. Gabriel of the Sorrowful Virgin, confessor and cleric of the Passionist Congregation.  Having been known  for his merits during his short life, and after death renowned for miracles, Pope Benedict XV enrolled him in the canon of the saints. Born in Assisi, Italy, March 1, 1838; died on Isola di Gran Sasso, Abruzzi, Italy, February 27, 1862; canonized in 1920.
1856 Bl. Augustus Chapdelaine Martyr of China Kwang-si.  Born in 1814, in France, Augustus was ordained to the priesthood in the Paris Society of the Foreign Missions. He was sent to China after a brief period of parish work, going to Kwang-si. There he was taken prisoner during the persecution of the Church and was put to death brutally. He was beatified in 1900.

Saints of February 28 mention with Popes
468  St. Hilary, Pope from 461-468 guardian of Church unity sent decree to Eastern bishops validating decisions of General Councils Nicaea Ephesus and Chalcedon. Hilary consolidated the Church in Sandi, Africa, and Gaul.  UNDER St Flavian of Constantinople on February 18 mention has been made of the ominously-named “Robber Council” held at Ephesus in 449, when the heresiarch Eutyches was upheld by rebel bishops and those who maintained orthodoxy were abused and physically maltreated, St Flavian so that he died. The legates of Pope St Leo I were powerless: they made their protest and withdrew, barely escaping with their lives. One of these legates was Hilarus, a Sardinian by birth. His letter to the Empress St Pulcheria is extant, in which he apologizes for not personally delivering to her the pope’s letter after the synod, explaining that owing to the violence and intrigues of Dioscorus he could not get to Constantinople and was only just able to escape to Rome. As a votive offering for his preservation at this time he afterwards built the chapel of St John the Apostle in the baptistery of St John Lateran. Over the door may still be seen the inscription he put up there:  Liberatori suo beato Johanni evangelistae Hilarus episcopus famulus Christi: “Hilarus, bishop and servant of Christ, to his liberator, the blessed John the Evangelist.”
 731 Saint Pope Gregory II served St Sergius I next 4 popes as treasurer of the Church, then librarian, Held synods to correct abuses, stopped heresy, promoted discipline and morality in religious and clerical life.  Also known as:  Gregory the Younger; Gregory Junior
Profile  Involved in Church affairs from an early age. Pope Saint Sergius I ordained Gregory a sub-deacon. He served the next four popes as treasurer of the Church, then librarian. Assigned important missions. Accompanied Pope Constantine to Constantinople for discussions with Emperor Justinian II.


992 ST OSWALD OF WORCESTER, ARCHBISHOP OF York .  The saint spent much of his time in visiting his diocese, preaching without intermission and reforming abuses; he also fostered the study of letters and encouraged learned men to come from abroad. In the year 972, he was promoted to the see of York, but by the wish of the king and with the pope’s sanction he retained Worcester, and although he divided his time between the two dioceses, Worcester remained the place of his predilection, and he loved to worship with the monks in the monastery church of St Mary which he had founded and which became the cathedral of Worcester. Every day St Oswald used to wash the feet~ of twelve poor persons whom he afterwards fed at his own table. On February 29, 992 he had just wiped and kissed the feet of the last poor man and was yet on his knees, saying, “Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost”, when he gently passed away. As his body was being borne to burial at Worcester it was noticed that a white dove was hovering over it. St Oswald’s feast is observed in the archdiocese of Birmingham.
1309 BD ANGELA OF FOLIGNO, WIDOW must always take her place among the great mystics and contemplatives of the middle ages, side by side with Catherine of Siena and Catherine of Genoa.  ANGELA of Foligno must always take her place among the great mystics and contemplatives of the middle ages, side by side with Catherine of Siena and Catherine of Genoa. She has a very marked and distinct individuality of her own, and presents an unusual type of the great Franciscan revival which influenced central Italy so strongly: She seems in many ways the opposite to her great spiritual father, St Francis. His life was action, Angela’s was thought, vision; Francis saw God in all His creatures—Angela saw all creatures in God; but the underlying principle is the same, namely, joyful love. Very little is known of Bd Angela’s history—not even her surname.* [*Father Ferré is able to tell us from his examination of the Assisi manuscript that she was known among her family and intimates as “Lella”, but this was probably only a pet name derived from Angela,]
GENERAL AUDIENCE: SPIRITUAL JOURNEY OF ANGELA OF FOLIGNO.  VATICAN CITY, 13 OCT 2010 (VIS) - Benedict XVI dedicated his catechesis during this morning's general audience to the Italian Blessed Angela of Foligno (ca. 1248 - 1309). The audience was celebrated in St. Peter's Square in the presence of 25,000 people.
1936 Blessed Daniel Brottier Senegal, West Africa volunteer chaplain WWI 4yrs.   b. 1876 Daniel spent most of his life in the trenches—one way or another.  Born in France in 1876, Daniel was ordained in 1899 and began a teaching career. That didn’t satisfy him long. He wanted to use his zeal for the gospel far beyond the classroom. He joined the missionary Congregation of the Holy Spirit, which sent him to Senegal, West Africa. After eight years there, his health was suffering. He was forced to return to France, where he helped raise funds for the construction of a new cathedral in Senegal.
At the outbreak of World War I Daniel became a volunteer chaplain and spent four years at the front. He did not shrink from his duties. Indeed, he risked his life time and again in ministering to the suffering and dying. It was miraculous that he did not suffer a single wound during his 52 months in the heart of battle.

After the war he was invited to help establish a project for orphaned and abandoned children in a Paris suburb. He spent the final 13 years of his life there. He died in 1936 and was beatified by Pope John Paul II in Paris only 48 years later.


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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.