Mary Mother of GOD
15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
 Thursday  Saint of the Day July 09 Séptimo Idus Júlii  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins. Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!  (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Cyprus_Icon_Most_Holy_Theotokos

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD
Every Christian must be a living book wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel
Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
 Thursday  Saint of the Day July 09 Séptimo Idus Júlii  

Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  JULY 2015
Universal:  That political responsibility may be lived at all levels as a high form of charity.
Evangelization: That, amid social inequalities, Latin American Christians may bear witness
to love for the poor and contribute to a more fraternal society.

Thursday, July 9, 2015
Genesis 44:18-21, 23-29; 45:1-5; Psalms 105:16-21 ;  Matthew 10:7-15;
THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST  
St. Thaddaeus, the Apostle travelled the world preaching the Gospel. returned many Jews and Gentiles to God and Baptized them; Coptic
1st v. Pancratius, Bishop of Taormina  born when Jesus Christ lived; Apostle Peter visited Pancratius at Pontus took him along to Antioch, & Sicily, where Apostle Paul was; There the holy Apostles Peter and Paul made St Pancratius Bishop of Taormina in Sicily

250 St. Anatolia Martyr with sister Victoria guard Audax, Thora, Lake Velino Italy; refused marriage; supported by a visit from an angel
Cyril, Bishop of Gortyna, island of Crete 50 years convert people of paganism to the light of Christ.
  300 St. Zeno leader of an enormous group of martyrs more than ten thousand
7th v. St. Golvinus Breton born; saint of Rennes, in Brittany, France, bishop of St. Pol de Leon. His relics are  enshrined in Rennes.
848 Saint Theodore, born Edessa Syrian bright witness of God healed converted Caliph Mavi of Baghdad
1008 St. Justus of Poland Camaldolese, 1/4brothers canonized: Sts. Benedict, Andrew, Barnabas, Justus.
1572 Martyrs of Gorkum 19 martyred Calvinists. Franciscans, Premonstratensians, Dominican, Canon Regular, 4 secular priests, laymen
1535 St. John Fisher confessor to Lady Margaret Beaufort mother of Henry VII; tutored Prince Henry -- Henry VIII refused allegiance to King
1535 St. Thomas More Martyr (Patron of Lawyers) 1516 wrote "Utopia" refused allegiance to the King as
1539 Bl. Adrian Fortescue Martyr opposed divorce Henry VIII of England from Catherine;
1681 Georg Neumark Evangelische Kirche: 09. Juli Nach dem Studium lebte Neumark 12 Jahre als freier Schriftsteller in Danzig und Thorn
1727 St. Veronica Giuliani Capuchin mystic who had many spiritual gifts; stigmata in 1697 and visions
1648 to 1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity in China by way of Syria 600s.
1900 St. Alberic Crescitelli Missionary martyr Milan Foreign Missionary Society sent to China 1888. He worked in schools and missions along the Han River until the Boxer Rebellion brought chaos to China


1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions
Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
hristianity over centuries was free to grow or was forced to operate secretly.

Pope Benedict XVI Catholic Church In China {article here}


  The Virgin of the Rosary (I) July 9 - Our Lady of Chiquinquirá (Colombia)
In the mid-sixteenth century the Spanish painter Alonso de Narvaez created a portrait of the Virgin of the Rosary. He painted on a cloth woven by Indians in pigments from the soil and herbs of the region. The image of Mary is about a meter high. She has a sweet smile, both her face and the Child's are light colored, and she seems to be about to take a step. She wears a white toque, a rose-colored robe, and a sky blue cape. A rosary hangs from the little finger of her left hand, and she holds a scepter in her right. She holds the Christ Child cradled in her left arm, and looks toward Him. Christ has a little bird tied to his thumb, and a small rosary hangs from His left hand.
In 1562 the portrait was placed in a rustic chapel. It was exposed to the air, the roof leaked, and soon the damage caused by the humidity and sun completely obscured the image. In 1577 the damaged painting was moved to Chiquinquirá and stored in an unused room. In 1585 Maria Ramos, a pious woman from Seville, cleaned up the little chapel, and hung the faded canvas in it. Though the image was in terrible shape, she loved to sit and contemplate it.
Adapted from Patron Saints Index

If we say less than we should, it is easy to add.
But having said too much, it is hard to take it away. -- St. Francis de Sales


Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.


July 9 - Our Lady of Itati (Argentina)  The Dazzling Face of Our Lady of Itati
In 1615, two Spanish missionaries (Brother Alonso de Buenaventura and Luis de Bolanos) arrived at Itati, a small village on the banks of the large Parana River, where they founded a mission. They brought a statue of the Blessed Virgin along with them and built a small oratory to house the holy image.  But, a few months later, the oratory was ransacked by hostile Indians and the statue of Mary disappeared. According to tradition, a few days later two Guaranis Indian children - who happened to be canoeing down the river - saw the statue of Mary standing on a stone surrounded by a radiant light.
Alerted missionaries and the entire village came in procession to collect the miraculously found statue of the Blessed Virgin.
This time a proper sanctuary was built for Our Lady of Itati. Within no time a great wonder occurred repetitiously to Our Lady’s statue: her face was transformed. The first transformation took place on Holy Saturday in 1624. Father Gamarra, who officiated this day, testified that while he sang the “Regina Coeli” the face of the Virgin became of a splendor never seen in this world. Then the father called the Indians of the village and they all had the same dazzling vision, which lasted until the Thursday after Easter, at which time the face took on its normal aspect. There were at least 60 other witnesses to the dazzling transformations of Our Lady of Itati’s face, which are consigned in the Annals of the Shrine.
Our Lady of Itati was solemnly crowned on July 16, 1900, by a favor obtained from Pope Leon XIII. In 1910, Our Lady of Itati was proclaimed Patron Saint of the newly created diocese, the current diocese of Corrientes in the north of Argentina. Today a splendid shrine stands in Itati, in this poor region where pilgrims come, often on foot from great distances, they themselves very poor as well but devoted to the Holy Mother like small children. This center of religious faith, rooted in historical tradition, was the site of the first disembarkation of the Spaniards in provincial territory.
The Feast of Our Lady of Itati is celebrated on July 9. Adapted from http://www.reinadelcielo.org/estructura.asp
St. Thaddaeus, the Apostle Departure of travelled around the world preaching the Gospel. He returned many of the Jews and Gentiles to the knowledge of God and Baptized them; Syria and preached to its people {Coptic}
1st v. Pancratius, Bishop of Taormina  Hieromartyr born when our Lord Jesus Christ yet lived upon the earth; Apostle Peter visited Pancratius at Pontus took him along to Antioch, & Sicily, where Apostle Paul was; There the holy Apostles Peter and Paul made St Pancratius Bishop of Taormina in Sicily
  250 St. Anatolia Martyr with sister Victoria & Her guard Audax, in Thora, Lake Velino Italy; refused marriage; supported in her decision by a visit from an angel
Cyprus_Kiprskaya_Icon_Stromynskaya
Cyril, Bishop of Gortyna, was bishop at Gortyna on the island of Crete for 50 years Hieromartyr continued to convert people from the darkness of paganism to the light of Christ.
  300 St. Zeno leader of an enormous group of martyrs more than ten thousand
 
312 St. Brictus Bishop of Martola, near Spoleto Italy, imprisoned in the reign of Emperor Diocletian. He was not martyred; died during Constantine era.
  363 St. Patermuthius Egyptian hermit and martyr with Alexander and Capres A robber, Patermuthius converted by St. Copres an eyewitness of how St Patermuthius tended sick & buried the dead. He recorded life & miracles
 
392 Cyprus Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos also commemorated on Sunday of Orthodoxy, Pentecost Monday, April 20 and July 9  Cyprus Icon of the Mother of God belongs to the Panachrana type
7th v. St. Golvinus Breton born; saint of Rennes, in Brittany, France, bishop of St. Pol de Leon. His relics are  enshrined in Rennes.
7th v. Everild of Everingham (now Humberside) joined by two other virgins Saints Bega and Wuldreda; Saint Wilfrid of York gave them the veil at a place called the Bishop's Farm, later known as Everildisham, i.e., the dwelling of Everildis, OSB Abbess (AC)
 751 St. Agilulfus martyr archbishop of Cologne tried to persuade King Pepin not to name his illegitimate son
       Charles Martel heir to the throne, and was slain as a result
848 Saint Theodore, Bishop & born in the Syrian city of Edessa. All his life the holy saint was a bright witness of the great deeds of God, glorified in His Saints; tonsured at the Lavra of the St Sava the Sanctified 12 years fervent monastic obedience & another 24 years of full seclusion/great abstinence, the Lord called the valiant ascetic to be a bishop healed and converted Caliph Mavi of Baghdad
1008 St. Justus of Poland Camaldolese hermit, one of four brothers who were also canonized: Sts. Benedict, Andrew, Barnabas, and Justus.
Martyrs of Gorkum 19 martyrs put to death with great cruelty by Protestant Calvinists in Gorkum, Holland. There were 10 Franciscans, 2 Premonstratensians, a Dominican, a Canon Regular, 4 secular priests, and one layman in the group. They were canonized in 1867.
1413 The Koloch Icon of the Mother of God manifested itself in that year
1491 Blessed Jane Scopelli; first prioress of a Carmel at Reggio. She refused all endowments except those freely given to the nuns as alms OC V (AC)
1535 St. John Fisher confessor to Lady Margaret Beaufort mother of Henry VII; tutored Prince Henry -- Henry VIII refused to render allegiance to the King as the Head of the Church of England
1535 St. Thomas More Martyr (Patron of Lawyers) 1516 wrote "Utopia" refused to render allegiance to the King as the Head of the Church of England
1572 St. Nicholas Poppel Franciscan martyr of Gorkum; A Dutch Franciscan serving as curate to Leonard van Wechel at the time of their martyrdom at Gorkum.
1539 Bl. Adrian Fortescue Martyr opposed divorce Henry VIII of England from Catherine; cousin of Anne Boleyn
1572 St. Leonard Wegel priest martyr of Gorkum, Hollands born in Blois-le-duc. Educated at Louvain, Belgium
1572 St. Godfrey priest and former rector Godfrey of Merville was a member of the Franciscan house at Gorkum, Holland: 2 martyrs of the same name: honored among the Martyrs of Gorkum
1572 St. Adrian Van Hilvarenbeek Martyr in religious wars of Holland during difficult years of the Reformation
1572 St. Willehad of Denmark
1572 St. James Lacop martyr of Gorkum. Born in Oudenarden, France; left the faith, returned to the Church -- Norbertine; Calvinists martyred him at Gorkum
1572 St. Nicholas Pieck Franciscan martyr of Gorkum native of Holland; served as a guardian of the friary at Gorkum, and devoted himself to converting Calvinists to the Catholic faith
1572 St. Nicasius Jonson member of the Martyrs of Gorkum; born in Brabant, entered Franciscans, authored several anti Protestant treatises before his martyrdom with other Franciscans at Gorkum.
1572 St. John of Osterwick Augustinian martyr of Gorkum; native of Holland; became confessor of Augustinian nuns at Gorkum; murdered by a group of Calvinists.
1572 St. Peter of Asche Franciscan lay brother member of the Gorkum Martyrs participated in the efforts of the Franciscans to convert the local Calvinists hanged at the ruined monastery of Ruggen
1572 St. John of Cologne Dominican priest -- Homer Holland -- Martyr of Gorkum; native of Cologne hanged with Gorkum Martyrs canonized with them in 1867
1572 St. Andrew Wouters Martyr of Gorkum; secular priest at Heinot in Holland,
1572 St. Willehad of Denmark Franciscan martyr (Dane), baptized Anthony 1483 exiled from Denmark -- Protestant Reformation in his country went to ill-fated Franciscan friary at Gorkum, in the Netherlands 90 At time of death
1572 St. Cornelius martyr of Gorkum, in the Netherlands, hanged with eight companions at Briel.
1572 St. Francis Rod  born in Brussels, Belgium, Franciscan martyr, hanged at Briel, by Calvinists
1681 Georg Neumark Evangelische Kirche: 09. Juli  Nach dem Studium lebte Neumark 12 Jahre als freier Schriftsteller in Danzig und Thorn
1727 St. Veronica Giuliani Capuchin mystic who had many spiritual gifts; recipient of a stigmata in 1697 and visions
1794 THE MARTYRS OF ORANGE
1648 to 1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s. Depending on China's relations with outside world, Christianity over centuries was free to grow or was forced to operate secretly.
1900 St. Alberic Crescitelli Missionary martyr joined the Milan Foreign Missionary Society and was sent to China in 1888. He worked in schools and missions along the Han River until the Boxer Rebellion brought chaos to China



St. Thaddaeus, the Apostle Departure of travelled around the world preaching the Gospel. He returned many of the Jews and Gentiles to the knowledge of God and Baptized them; Syria and preached to its people
On this day, St. Thaddaeus(1), the Apostle, departed. The Lord had chosen him among the twelve disciples. When he received the grace of the Comforter along with the disciples, he travelled around the world preaching the Gospel. He returned many of the Jews and Gentiles to the knowledge of God and Baptized them. Then he went to the land of Syria and preached to its people and many believed through his hands. He suffered from the Jews and Gentiles, much humiliation and many tortures, then departed in peace.
May his prayers be with us, and Glory be to God forever. Amen.
1st v. Pancratius, Bishop of Taormina  Hieromartyr born when our Lord Jesus Christ yet lived upon the earth; Apostle Peter visited Pancratius at Pontus took him along to Antioch, & Sicily, where Apostle Paul was; There the holy Apostles Peter and Paul made St Pancratius Bishop of Taormina in Sicily
The parents of Pancratius were natives of Antioch. Hearing the good news of Jesus Christ, Pancratius' father took his young son with him and went to Jerusalem in order to see the great Teacher for himself. The miracles astonished him, and when he heard the divine teaching, he then believed in Christ as the Son of God. He became close with the disciples of the Lord, especially with the holy Apostle Peter. It was during this period that young Pancratius got to know the holy Apostle Peter.
After the Ascension of the Savior, one of the Apostles came to Antioch and baptized the parents of Pancratius together with all their household. When the parents of Pancratius died, he left behind his inherited possessions and went to Pontus and began to live in a cave, spendng his days in prayer and deep spiritual contemplation. The holy Apostle Peter, while passing through those parts, visited Pancratius at Pontus. He took him along to Antioch, and then to Sicily, where the holy Apostle Paul then was. There the holy Apostles Peter and Paul made St Pancratius Bishop of Taormina in Sicily.

St Pancratius toiled zealously for the Christian enlightenment of the people. In a single month he built a church where he celebrated divine services. The number of believers quickly grew, and soon almost all the people of Taormina and the surrounding cities accepted the Christian Faith.
St Pancratius governed his flock peacefully for many years. However, pagans plotted against the saint, and seizing an appropriate moment, they fell upon him and stoned him. Thus, St Pancratius ended his life as a martyr.
The saint's relics are in the church named for him in Rome. He is also commemorated on February 9.
250 St. Anatolia Martyr with sister Victoria & Her guard Audax, in Thora, on Lake Velino in Italy refused marriage; supported in her decision by a visit from an angel
In civitáte Thora, apud lacum Velínum, item pássio sanctórum Anatóliæ et Audácis, sub Décio Imperatóre.  Ex his Anatóliæ, Christi Virgo, postquam plúrimos per totam Picéni provínciam váriis languóribus afféctos curásset et in Christum credéntes fecísset, Júdicis Faustiniáni jussu divérsis pœnárum genéribus est vexáta, et, cum ab immísso serpénte líbera evádens Audácem convertísset ad fidem, novíssime, exténsis mánibus orans, gládio transverberáta est; Audax quoque, in custódiam tráditus, sine mora senténtia capitáli coronátur.
    In the town of Thora, on Lake Velino in Italy, the martyrdom of the Saints Anatolia and Audax, under Ermperor Decius.  Anatolia, a virgin consecrated to Christ, cured many persons afflicted with various infirmities throughout the province of Piceno, and made them believe in Christ.  By order of the judge Faustinian she was condemned to different kinds of punishment.  She was cured of the sting of a serpent to which she had been exposed, a miracle that converted Audax to the faith.  At last, praying with outstretched hands, she was pierced with a sword.  Audax was sent to prison, and without delay sentenced to capital punishment, thus obtaining the crown of martyrdom.
    Anatolia lived with Victoria and was sought by a young man named Aurelius but refused him. She was supported in her decision by a visit from an angel. Her refusal brought about the arrest of the sisters during the persecutions conducted by Emperor Trajanus Decius. Banished to Thora, Anatolia was locked in a room with a venomous serpent, but the reptile did not attack her. Her guard, a man named Audax, was so moved by the event that he became a Christian and suffered Anatolia's martyrdom by the sword. The martyrdom has been recorded in two legends or traditions.
Cyril, Bishop of Gortyna, was bishop at Gortyna on the island of Crete for 50 years Hieromartyr continued to convert people from the darkness of paganism to the light of Christ
Gortynæ, in Creta, sancti Cyrílli Epíscopi, qui, in persecutióne Décii, sub Lúcio Præside, flammis est injéctus, et, cum ab igne, incénsis vínculis, illæsus evasísset, ac stupóre tanti miráculi a Júdice dimíssus esset, rursus ab eódem, pro instánti et álacri fídei prædicatióne facta de Christo, comprehénsus et cápite plexus est.
    At Gortyna in Crete, in the persecution of Decius, under the governor Lucius, Bishop St. Cyril.  When he was thrown into the flames his bonds were burned, but he was not injured.  The judge, struck with awe at so great a miracle, set him at liberty, but as the saint began again immediately to preach with zeal the faith of Christ, he was beheaded.
He suffered either under the emperor Decius (249-251), or according to other historical sources, the emperor Maximian (284-305).
Brought to trial before a governor named Lucius, who demanded that he offer sacrifice to idols, the holy Elder steadfastly confessed his faith in Christ and refused to fulfill the soul-destroying command. The governor sentenced St Cyril to burning, but the flames did not touch him. Seeing this miracle, many pagans came to believe in Christ. Lucius himself offered up praise to the Christian God and set the saint free.
St Cyril continued with his preaching and led many pagans to Christ, but also he grieved that he had not been allowed to suffer for the Savior. It was reported to the governor that St Cyril would not cease his preaching, and that he continued to convert people from the darkness of paganism to the light of Christ.
Hearing the sentence against him, St Cyril rejoiced that he was to be granted a martyr's death for Truth,
and the 84-year-old Elder willingly placed his head beneath the sword.
300 St. Zeno leader of an enormous group of martyrs more than ten thousand
Romæ ad Guttam júgiter manéntem, natális sanctórum Mártyrum Zenónis, et aliórum decem míllium ac ducentórum trium.
    At Rome, at the Ever-flowing Spring, the birthday of St. Zeno and ten thousand two hundred and three other martyrs.
The leader of an enormous group of martyrs who were all put to death at the command of Emperor Diocletian. The Christians, supposedly numbering more than ten thousand, were forced to labor upon public works constructed on behalf of the emperor, who then commanded all of them to be executed.

312 St. Brictus Bishop of Martola, near Spoleto Italy, imprisoned in the reign of Emperor Diocletian. He was not martyred; died during Constantine era
Mártulæ, in Umbria, sancti Bríctii Epíscopi, qui, sub Marciáno Júdice, ob confessiónem Dómini, multa passus est; ac tandem, cum magnam pópuli multitúdinem ad Christum convertísset, Conféssor in pace quiévit.
    At Martula in Umbria, St. Brictius, bishop.  Under the judge Marcian, after having suffered much for the confession of our Lord, and having converted to Christ a great multitude of people, he rested in peace, a confessor.

363 St. Patermuthius Egyptian hermit and martyr with Alexander and Capres. A robber, Patermuthius was converted by St. Copres an eyewitness of how St Patermuthius tended the sick and buried the dead. He also recorded his life and miracles
Alexandríæ sanctórum Mártyrum Patermúthii, Coprétis et Alexándri; qui sub Juliáno Apóstata cæsi sunt.
    At Alexandria, the holy martyrs Patermuthius, Copres, and Alexander, who were put to death under Julian the Apostate.
They were martyred with Alexander, a converted Roman soldier.
The Hosiomartyrs Patermuthius and Copres, and the Martyr Alexander suffered under the emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363). Patermuthius and his disciple Copres were Egyptian hermits. When the emperor heard about the saints, he ordered them to be brought to him, and he tried to turn them to paganism. He said that he had formerly served Christ, but had learned that only the pagan gods could provide salvation.
Copres was deceived by these words of the emperor and he denied Christ. By the prayers and tears of his Elder he came to understand what a mistake he had made. He repented and again confessed himself a Christian. The emperor became enraged and ordered that Copres be tortured. Patermuthius encouraged his brother monk to be brave and endure. One of the soldiers, whose name was Alexander, saw the terrible sufferings of Copres, and believed in Christ. He was sentenced to be burned alive. Sts Patermuthius and Copres were beheaded by the sword.

Saints Patermuthius and Copres: Patermuthius at first was a pagan and also the head of a band of robbers, but then he repented, was baptized and withdrew into the desert. The monk devoted all the rest of his life to attending the sick and burying the dead. For his love of toil and efforts, Patermuthius received from God the gift of wonderworking.

The priest Copres was an eyewitness of the doings of the venerable Patermuthius and recorded his life and miracles. St Copres narrated this Life to the presbyter Rufinus, who in turn transmitted it to Palladius, Bishop of Hellenopolis, who included the account in his book, the Lausiac History.

Once St Copres entered into a debate with the heretic Manicheus, and seeing that he could not prevail against him in dispute, he suggested that a large fire be lit, and that they should go into it together. In this way, the Lord Himself would decide whose was the true Faith. Manicheus refused to go in first, but Copres went into the fire, and standing in the midst of the flames, he remained unharmed. The people glorified the faith of Copres, and they threw the heretic into the fire. He jumped out all scorched and tried to flee, but they caught him and again cast him into the flames. St Copres then calmed the crowd and let Manicheus go .
392 Cyprus Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos is also commemorated on the Sunday of Orthodoxy, Pentecost Monday, April 20 and July 9  Cyprus Icon of the Mother of God belongs to the Panachrana type
In this icon the Mother of God is depicted sitting on a throne with the Divine Infant in Her arms. On either side of Her is an angel.

The prototype of this holy icon manifested itself in the year 392 on the island of Cyprus at the tomb of Righteous Lazarus, the friend of Christ (October 17), and is kept there in a monastery. renowned copies of the Cyprus Icon are at the Moscow's Dormition Cathedral, and in the Nikolo-Golutvin church in the village of Stromyn, Moscow diocese (Commemorated on the Sunday of Orthodoxy).

During the week of the Triumph of Orthodoxy, the Greek Synaxarion has an account of an icon which is probably the Cyprus Icon. On the island of Cyprus a certain Arab was passing by a church dedicated to the Most Holy Theotokos. In order to display his hatred for Christianity, the man shot an arrow at an icon of the Mother of God which hung by the gate. The arrow struck the Virgin's knee, from which blood began to flow. Overcome with fear, the Arab spurred his horse and rode for home, but was struck dead before he could get there. In this way, he was punished for his impiety.

Other days commemorating the Cyprus Icon are the Day of the Holy Spirit, and April 20. Some copies of the Cyprus Icon have additional names such as "Cleansing," "Knife," and "Hawk." The Cyprus Icon called "Hawk" was so named because of the way it was discovered. One day, the Christian ruler of Cyprus was hunting with his trained hawk. The hawk became tangled in a thicket while diving after another bird, and the ruler ordered the thicket to be cut away so that the hawk could be rescued. His servants rescued the hawk and also discovered an icon of the Mother of God in the thicket. The ruler later built a monastery on the site. The "Cleansing" Cyprus Icon was in another monastery on Cyprus, and was famous for healing many people with diseases of the eyes. The "Stromyn" Cyprus Icon became famous in 1841. An eighteen-year-old girl from Stromyn, a village not far from Moscow, was close to death from an illness. In a dream she saw the Cyprus Icon standing over the entrance to the church, and a voice came from the icon: "Take me into your home and have the priest serve a Molieben with the Blessing of Water, and you will be cured." The sick girl was brought to the church and finally located the icon after a long search. The girl obeyed the command of the Most Holy Theotokos, and after the Molieben she felt strong enough to carry the icon back to the church herself. Shortly thereafter, she was completely healed. The "Stromyn" Cyprus Icon continued to work miracles of healing, which the rector of the church reported to the holy Metropolitan Philaret of Moscow (November 19)
.
7th v. Everild of Everingham (now Humberside) joined by two other virgins Saints Bega and Wuldreda; Saint Wilfrid of York gave them the veil at a place called the Bishop's Farm, later known as Everildisham, i.e., the dwelling of Everildis, OSB Abbess (AC)
(also known as Averil, Everildis)
ST EVERILD, VIRGIN (c. A.D. 700)
ALL we know of this maiden is derived from the breviary lessons for her feast in the church of York. She was the daughter of a noble family converted some time after the baptism of Cynegils, King of Wessex, and in order to devote herself perfectly to the service and love of God she fled from the house of her parents to seek some monastery of nuns. She was joined by two other maidens named Bega and Wulfreda. They arrived at York, where St Wilfrid gave her a spot called the Bishop's Farm. Here she trained up many nuns to the perfection of divine love, the summit of Christian virtue, by animating them with the true spirit of the gospel; and continually encouraged them in the faithful discharge of all the duties and exercises of their holy state, until she was called to God.
See the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. ii; and Stanton, Menology, p. 328, who points out that three medieval northern English calendars insert the name of St Everildis on this day. On the strength of the name, Everingham in the East Riding has been claimed as the site of the nunnery, but E. Ekwall gives no support to such a derivation (Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names.) The name Everild still exists as Averil.
Sometime after King Kineglis of the West Saxons was baptized by Saint Birinus in 635, the noble Wessex maiden Everild was converted to Christ. Longing to devote herself most perfectly to the service and love of her heavenly spouse, she fled from her parents' house to seek a convent. En route she was joined by two other virgins named Saints Bega and Wuldreda. Saint Wilfrid of York gave them the veil at a place called the Bishop's Farm, later known as Everildisham, i.e., the dwelling of Everildis.
This place may be Everingham (now Humberside), but E. Ekwall gives its derivation as "the ham of Eofor's people." Here she gathered a large community, eventually numbering 80 women, and trained them in Christian perfection through her example and continual encouragement. Usuard's martyrology and two others mention her, as do the calendars of York and Northumbria.
Alford sent the Bollandists a transcript of her lessons once used in the York breviary,
which is the source of this information (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).

7th v. St. Golvinus Breton born saint of Rennes, in Brittany, France, the bishop of St. Pol de Leon. His relics are enshrined in Rennes.
Golvinus (Golwen) of Rennes B (AC) Although Golvinus was born in Britain, his sanctity became famous after his migration to Brittany.  He was promoted to the bishopric of Saint Pol-de-Léon; died at Rennes; his relics are enshrined (Benedictines).
751 St. Agilulfus martyr archbishop of Cologne tried to persuade King Pepin not to name his illegitimate son Charles Martel heir to the throne, and was slain as a result
   Also called Agilulf, a martyr and the archbishop of Cologne, Germany. He also served as abbot of Stavelot, and his life was written by a monk of the Benedictine house located in Malmedy, France. Agilulfus was from a good family and gained a reputation at Stavelot. Named archbishop of Cologne, he tried to persuade King Pepin not to name his illegitimate son Charles Martel heir to the throne, and was slain as a result. His remains were taken to the Church of Our Lady of the Steps in Cologne where they were venerated. He also received a commendation from Pope Zacharius in 747
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848 Saint Theodore, Bishop & born in the Syrian city of Edessa. All his life the holy saint was a bright witness of the great deeds of God, glorified in His Saints; tonsured at the Lavra of the St Sava the Sanctified 12 years fervent monastic obedience & another 24 years of full seclusion/great abstinence, the Lord called the valiant ascetic to be a bishop healed and converted Caliph Mavi of Baghdad
At twelve years of age, after he lost his parents and gave away his inheritance to the poor, he went to Jerusalem, where he was tonsured at the Lavra of the St Sava the Sanctified. After twelve years of fervent monastic obedience and then another twenty-four years of full seclusion and great abstinence, the Lord called the valiant ascetic to be a bishop, so that he might enlighten the world. After the death of the Bishop of Edessa, no worthier successor was found than Theodore, and with the mutual consent of the Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem, and of the clergy and laity, this fine man was chosen bishop.

It was not easy for St Theodore to forsake his solitude, but he submitted himself to the will of God and undertook his pastoral guidance of the Edessa Church. This occurred during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Michael and his mother Theodora (842-855). At the time of St Theodore's episcopal consecration, there occurred a great miracle. The people beheld a dove, white as snow, flying about beneath the cupola of the church, which then alit upon the head of the newly-made bishop.

St Theodore devoted all his abilities to the governance of his flock. He was a model for the faithful in word, in life, in love. By the good example of his holy ascetic life, he guided the flock entrusted to him by God, onto the path of salvation. Theodore exerted much effort in the struggle with heretics, and with a firm hand he guarded the Church from temptations and false teachings. By his consolation and support for St Theodore, the clairvoyant Elder Theodosius the Stylite also served the spiritual community while laboring in asceticism not far from the city, near the monastery of the holy Great Martyr George. With the blessing of the Elder, St Theodore journeyed to Baghdad to the caliph Mavi to complain about unjust measures against the Orthodox. Having come to Mavi, the saint found him seriously ill. Calling on the help of the Lord, the holy bishop threw a bit of earth from the Sepulchre of the Lord into a vessel of water and gave it to the caliph to drink, and the sick one was healed. The grateful Mavi, favorably disposed towards the saint, happily heard his teachings. Finally, together with three close associates, he accepted holy Baptism with the name John. Shortly afterwards for his open confession of faith in Christ before the Moslems, the caliph John was killed with his three associates. Having appeared in a dream simultaneously to St Theodore and to Theodosius the Stylite, he said that he had been granted to suffer for Christ, and was numbered among the ranks of the Martyrs. He promised that soon he would meet them in the Kingdom of Heaven. This was an indication to the saint of God that his own end was approaching.

In 848, again in solitude at the Lavra of St Sava the Sanctified, he peacefully departed to the Lord. St Theodore has left Christians his edifying writings.
The Life of St Theodore of Edessa was popular reading in Rus in the 16th and 17th centuries; preserved in many manuscripts.
1008 St. Justus of Poland Camaldolese hermit, one of four brothers who were also canonized: Sts. Benedict, Andrew, Barnabas, and Justus.
1413 The Koloch Icon of the Mother of God manifested itself in that year
During the reign of Basil I, 15 versts from the city of Mozhaisk, in the vicinity of Koloch in the Smolensk governia.
A peasant of this village by the name of Luke found the holy icon and took it to his home.
One of his household was paralyzed. The sick one put his forehead to the icon with faith and received complete healing.

This became known through the surrounding area, and many of the suffering began to flock to the wonderworking icon, and they received help from the Mother of God.
Luke afterwards took the icon to Mozhaisk, and from there to Moscow. At the capital, Metropolitan Photius, together with a gathering of clergy and a multitude of the people, met the holy icon.
As the icon was carried through Moscow many of the sick were healed of their infirmities. Later they returned the icon to Mozhaisk.

At the place where the icon appeared, a church was built in honor of the Mother of God. Here the holy icon was housed.
With the offerings of the peasant Luke and other Orthodox, Prince Andrew Dimitrievich built a monastery on this site called the Kolochsk or Mozhaisk.

1491 Blessed Jane Scopelli; first prioress of a Carmel at Reggio. She refused all endowments except those freely given to the nuns as alms OC V (AC)
BD JANE OF REGGIO, VIRGIN (A.D. 1491)
JANE SCOPELLI was born in 1428 at Reggio in Emilia, and while still young wished to become a nun. This her parents would not allow, so she put on the religious habit and led an ascetical life at home. When the death of both father and mother left her free, she set about founding a convent of Carmelites in Reggio; but she refused to make use for this purpose of the wealth she had inherited insisting that all must be done by means of alms and charitable bequests. She laboured unceasingly, and at the end of four years the monastery of our Lady of the People was established, with Bd Jane as prioress. In spite of the ties of administration and the choir-office she spent five hours a day in private prayer, while adding austerities to those prescribed by the rule. She fasted all the year round, and from Holy Cross day till Easter ate nothing but bread and water; her mortifications were indeed astonishing.
Several stories are told of the wonders she worked by prayer. She thus cured of bodily disease the noble lady Julia Sessi, whom the doctors had given up as hopeless, and of spiritual sickness a young man called Augustine. This youth was attached to Albigensian and other heretical opinions, and his distressed mother brought him to Bd Jane, who used all arguments and the most moving appeals to turn him from them; her efforts were vain, but when they had gone she made the matter a subject of fervent prayer, and Augustine opened his heart to the proffered grace. There is also attributed to her the miracle related of St Dominic, among other saints: coming to table one day the nuns were met by bare boards, for there was no food in the house. But at the prayer of the holy prioress the larder which a few minutes before had been empty was found to contain bread mote than sufficient for them all. Bd Jane died in 1491 at the age of sixty-three, after having with her last breath urged her sisters to join rigid observance of their rule to their love of God and of one another. Her cultus was confirmed in 1771.
A biography of moderate length written in Italian by Fr Benedict Mutti has been translated into Latin by the Bollandists and will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. ii.
Born in Reggio d'Emilia, Italy, c. 1428; died there in 1491; beatified in 1771. Jane founded and was the first prioress of a Carmel at Reggio. She refused all endowments except those freely given to the nuns as alms (Benedictines) .
1535 St. Thomas More Martyr (Patron of Lawyers) 1516 wrote "Utopia" refused to render allegiance to the King as the Head of the Church of England
Londíni in Anglia, sancti Joánnis Fisher, Epíscopi Roffénsis et Cardinális, qui pro fide cathólica et Románi Pontificis primátu, jubénte Henríco Octávo Rege, decollátus est.
    At London in England, on Tower Hill, St. John Fisher, bishop of Rochester and cardinal of the Holy Roman Church.  For the defence of the Catholic faith and the primacy of the Roman Pontiff he was beheaded by order of King Henry VIII.
ST THOMAS MORE, MARTYR (A.D. 1535)
AT either end of the medieval monarchy in England stands the figure of a great martyr: one gave his life to make the Church in this country safe from royal aggression for three hundred and fifty years, the other in a vain effort to save it from the like aggression; each was named Thomas, each was chancellor of the realm, each was a royal favourite who loved God more than his king; the coincidence is remarkable, though on closer examination the resemblance seems suddenly to end: yet the contrast is after all largely one of difference in timebetween the late twelfth century and the full tide of the Renaissance-and in status; Thomas Becket was a churchman, Thomas More a layman.
More's father was Sir John More, barrister-at-Iaw and judge, and he was born of his first wife Agnes, daughter of Thomas Grainger, in Milk Street, Cheapside, on February 6, 1478. He was sent as a child to St Antony's School in Threadneedle Street, and at thirteen was received into the household of Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who had sufficient opinion of his promise to send him to Oxford, where he was entered at Canterbury College (afterwards absorbed into Christ Church). Sir John was strict with his son, allowed him money only against bills for necessaries, and with nothing for himself; if young Thomas grumbled about this (and no doubt he did), he afterwards saw the sense of it: it had kept him out of mischief and he was not tempted away from the studies which he loved. But his father called him home when he had been only two years at the university. In February 1496, being now eighteen, he was admitted a student of Lincoln's Inn; he was called to the bar in 1501, and in 1504 he entered Parliament. He was already bosom friends with Erasmus, Dean Colet was his confessor, he made Latin epigrams from the Greek Anthology with William Lilly, lectured on St Augustine's de Civitate Dei at St Lawrence Jewry. He was a brilliant and successful young man and popular.
On the other hand, he was for a time very seriously perturbed about his vocation in life. For four years he lived at the London Charterhouse, and was indubitably drawn to the Carthusian life; alternatively, the possibility of becoming a Friar Minor engaged his attention. But he could find no assurance of his calling either to the monastic life or the secular priesthood; to be an unworthy priest was the last thing he wanted; and so in the early part of 1505 he married. Nevertheless, though a man of the world in the good sense of that expression, he had none of that contempt for asceticism which characterized so many at the Renaissance: from somewhere about his eighteenth year he wore a hair-shirt (to the amusement of his daughter-in-law, Anne Cresacre), and used the discipline on Fridays and vigils; he assisted at Mass every day and daily recited the Little Office. "I never saw anyone", says Erasmus, "so indifferent about food....Otherwise, he has no aversion from what gives harmless pleasure to the body."
Thomas More's first wife, "uxorcula Mori", as he called her, was Jane, the eldest daughter of John Colt of Nether-hall in Essex. We learn from his son-inlaw, William Roper, that More's mind "most served him to the second daughter, for that he thought her the fairest and best favoured, yet when he considered that it would be both great grief and some shame also to the eldest to see her younger sister preferred before her in marriage, he then, of a certain pity, framed his fancy toward her, and soon after married her". That, surely, was an act of pietas rather than pity and is worth recording both for what it tells about More and also as an instructive example of the shifting standards of what may be required of an English gentleman. They were happy together, and they had four children, Margaret, Elizabeth, Cecilia and John. More's household was a seat of learning and accomplishment which, from its lack of dilettantism, would today be dubbed "highbrow"; he was all for educating women, not from any doctrinaire feminism, but as a reasonable thing, recommended by the prudent and holy ancients, such as St Jerome and St Augustine, "not to speak of the rest". All the family and servants met together for night-prayers, and at meals a pericope from the Scriptures, with a short commentary, was read aloud by one of the children: this done, discussion and jesting followed; but cards and dicing he forbade in his house. He endowed a chapel in his parish church of Chelsea, and even when chancellor would sing in the choir, dressed in a surplice. "More was used, whenever in his house or in the village he lived in there was a woman in labour, to begin praying, and so continue until news was brought him that the delivery had come happily to pass....He used himself to go through the back lanes and inquire into the state of poor families...He often invited to his table his poorer neighbours, receiving them...familiarly and joyously; he rarely invited the rich, and scarcely ever the nobility" (Stapleton, Tres Thomae). But if the rich and great were rarely seen at his house, such men as Grocyn, Linacre, Colet, Lilly, Fisher, the religious and learned, not only of London but from the continent as well, were ever-welcome visitors, and no one was more frequent or more welcome than Desiderius Erasmus. Attempts have been made to misrepresent this friendship: some Protestants by maximizing the alleged unorthodoxy of Erasmus, some Catholics by minimizing the warmth of the friendship. There is no testimony better than More's own: "For had I found with Erasmus my darling the shrewd intent and purpose that I find in Tyndale, Erasmus my darling should be no more my darling. But I find in Erasmus my darling that he detesteth and abhorreth the errors and heresies that Tyndale plainly teacheth and abideth by, and therefore Erasmus my darling shall be my darling still."
During his first period of married life More lived in Bucklersbury, in the parish of St Peter Walbrook. In 1509 Henry VII died. More had led the opposition in Parliament to this king's monetary exactions, and his success had caused his father to be imprisoned in the Tower and fined £100. The accession of Henry VIII was to mean an accession of worldly fortune to the young lawyer, and in the next year it was presaged by his being elected a reader of Lincoln's Inn and appointed undersheriff of the City of London; but almost at the same time the "little Utopia of his own" was abruptly shaken: his beloved wife, Jane Colt, died. Within a few weeks he had married another, Alice Middleton. Quite a lot of nonsense has been written about this second and so quick marriage, but the position is clear. More was a man of sense as well as of sensibility, and he had four young children on his hands: so he married a widow, seven years older than himself, an experienced housewife, talkative, kindly and full of unimaginative common sense. Some writers have tried to see a double martyrdom for More: but it is no reproach to Mistress Alice that she could not live up to her second husband; she was no Xanthippe, and probably his only real complaint (ifhe can be imagined complaining) would be that she did not appreciate his jokes-an undeniable trial of patience. More now moved from Bucklersbury to Crosby Place, in what was then Bishopsgate Street Within; he did not go to his new house in Chelsea until some twelve years later.
In 1516 he finished writing Utopia. This is not the place to discuss the significance of that book; it is enough to say with Sir Sidney Lee that, "More's practical opinion on religion and politics must be sought elsewhere than in the Utopia". The king and Wolsey were now determined to have More's services at court; if the idea was not repugnant to him, he was at least unwilling: he knew too much about kings and courts, and that the good life was not there. But he did not refuse, and he received a rapid succession of preferments till he became, in October 1529, lord chancellor, in succession to the disgraced Wolsey. Contemporary records enable us to see Sir Thomas from two different sides at this period. Erasmus wrote: "In serious matters no man's advice is more prized, while if the king wishes to recreate himself, no man's conversation is gayer. Often there are deep and intricate matters that demand a grave and prudent judge. More unravels them in such a way that he satisfies both sides. No one, however, has ever prevailed on him to receive a gift for his decision. Happy the commonwealth where kings appoint such officials! His elevation has brought with it no pride...You would say that he had been appointed the public guardian of all those in need." From a yet more intimate knowledge, the Carthusian John Bouge wrote in 1535 : "Item, as for Sir Thomas More, he was my parishioner at London...This Mr More was my ghostly child; in his confession [he used] to be so pure, so clean, with great study, deliberation and devotion, I never heard many such. A gentleman of great learning both in law, art, and divinity...." Yet Sir Thomas was as good a courtier as a Christian man and a saint can be, and that does not mean to say he was not a very good one. Nor yet was the friendship with Henry VIII one-sided:  More retained his master's familiar affection, and never failed in it-but he had no illusions about him: "Son Roper, I may tell thee, I have no cause to be proud thereof, for if my head would win him a castle in France, it should not fail to go."

At the time when he was appointed lord chancellor, Sir Thomas More was engaged in writing against Protestantism, and particularly in opposition to Tyndale. Though some complained at the time that his controversial writing was insufficiently solemn, and others have complained since that it was insufficiently refined, his tone was much more moderate than was usual in the sixteenth centruy; "integrity and uprightness" characterized his polemics, and he always preferred ridicule to denunciation when sober and pitiless argument would not serve. But if More had the best of the argument, Tyndale was the better writer: More could not match his clear, terse English and perfect phrasing; he took six pages to say what Tyndale could say in one. Statements to the contrary notwithstanding, there is no doubt that More's attitude towards heretics was one of scrupulous fairness and notable moderation. It was to heresy and not the persons of heretics that he was opposed and "of all that ever came in my hand for heresy, as help me God, saving (as I said) the sure keeping of them...had never any of them any stripe or stroke given them, so much as a fillip on the forehead."
It is interesting, too, to read his view of the then acute question of free circulation of vernacular Bibles.
He advocated the dissemination of certain books thereof, but the reading of others should be at the discretion of each individual's ordinary, who would probably "suffer some to read the Acts of the Apostles, whom he would not suffer to meddle with the Apocalypse": just as "a father doth by his discretion appoint which of his children may for his sadness [i.e. seriousness] keep a knife to cut his meat, and which shall for his wantonness have his knife taken from him for cutting of his fingers. And thus am I bold, without prejudice of other men's judgement, to show you my mind in this matter, how the Scripture might without great peril, and not without great profit, be brought into our tongue and taken to lay men and women both, not yet meaning thereby but that the whole Bible might for my mind be suffered to be spread abroad in English...Among [the clergy] I have perceived some of the greatest and of the best of their own minds well inclinable thereto."
When King Henry VIII imposed on the clergy the acknowledgement of himself as "Protector and Supreme Head of the Church of England", to which Convocation managed to add, "so far as the law of Christ allows", More, according to Chapuys, the ambassador of the emperor, wished to resign his office, but was persuaded to retain it and also to give his attention to Henry's" great matter". This was the petition for a declaration of nullity ab initio of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, commonly called in English history the king's " divorce". The matter was involved, both as to the facts and the law, and was one in which men of good-will might well disagree; More upheld the validity of the marriage, but was allowed at his own wish to stand aside from the controversy. When in March 1531 he had to announce the then state of the case to the Houses of Parliament, he was asked for and refused to give his own opinion. But the position was fast becoming impossible. In 1532 the king proposed to forbid the clergy to prosecute heretics or to hold any meeting without his permission, and in May a parliamentary bill was introduced to withhold from the Holy See the firstfruits of bishoprics (annates); Sir Thomas opposed all these measures openly, and the king was greatly angered. On May 16 he accepted his chancellor's resignation, after he had held office for less than three years.
The loss of his official salary reduced More to little better than poverty; he had drastically to reduce his household and state, and gathering his family around him he explained the position to them in a good-humoured statement, ending up, "then may we yet with bags and wallets go a-begging together, and hoping that for pity some good folk will give us their charity, at every man's door to sing Salve regin " and so still keep company and be merry together". For eighteen months he lived very quietly, engaging himself in writing, and he refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn. His enemies missed no opportunity to harass him, as when they implicated him in the case of Elizabeth Barton, the "Holy Maid of Kent", and caused his name to be included in her bill of attainder, for misprision of treason; but the Lords wished to hear him in his own defence, which did not suit the king and he withdrew the charge. But the time was soon at hand. On March 30, 1534, the Act of Succession provided for the taking of an oath by the king's subjects recognizing succession to the throne in the offspring of Henry and Anne Boleyn; to which were later added particulars that his union with Catherine of Aragon had been no true marriage, that his union with Anne Boleyn was a true marriage, and repudiating the authority of "any foreign authority, prince or potentate". To oppose the act was high treason, and only a week before Pope Clement VII had pronounced the marriage of Henry and Catherine to be valid. Many Catholics took the oath with the reservation "so far as it be not contrary to the law of God". On April 13 Sir Thomas More and John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, were tendered the oath before the commission at Lambeth; they refused it. Thomas was committed to the custody of the Abbot of Westminster. Cranmer advised the king to compromise, but he would not; so the oath was again tendered and again refused, and More was imprisoned in the Tower-in itself an illegal proceeding on the part of the commissioners, for the proffered oath did not agree with the statute.
During the fifteen months that Thomas was in the Tower two things stand out, his quiet serenity under so unjust a captivity and his tender love for his eldest daughter, Margaret. The two are seen together in his letters to and recorded conversations with her there, as in the beautiful passage quoted by Roper, ending, "I find no cause, I thank God, Meg, to reckon myself in worse case here than at home, for methinks God maketh me a wanton and setteth me on His lap and dandleth me". The efforts of his family to induce him to come to terms with the king were fruitless; his custody was made more rigorous and visitors forbidden, so he began to write the Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, the best of his spiritual works, in which a French writer, the Abbe Bremond, sees a forerunner of St Francis de Sales, and an Englishman, the late W. H. Hutton, of Jeremy Taylor. In November he was attainted of misprision of treason and, but for a small pension from the Order of St John of Jerusalem, rendered penniless by forfeiture of the lands formerly granted by the Crown; Lady More had to sell her clothes to buy necessaries for him, and twice in vain petitioned the king for his release, pleading his sickness and poverty. On February I, 1535, the Acts of Supremacy came into operation, which gave the title of "only supreme head of the Church of England" to the king and made it treason to deny it. In April Cromwell came to ask More his opinion of this bill, but he would not give one. On May 4 his daughter visited him for the last time, and together they watched the first three Carthusian monks and their companions go to martyrdom: "Lo I dost thou not see, Meg, that these blessed fathers be now as cheerfully going to their deaths as bridegrooms to their marriage?...Whereas thy silly father, Meg, that like a most wicked caitiff hath passed forth the whole course of his miserable life most sinfully, God, thinking him not so worthy so soon to come to that eternal felicity, leaveth him here yet still in the world further to be plagued and turmoiled with misery." When a few days later Cromwell and others again examined him on the statute and taunted him for his silence, he replied: "1 have not been a man of such holy living as I might be bold to offer myself to death, lest God for my presumption might suffer me to fall."
On June 19 the second three Carthusians suffered, and on the 22nd, the feast of St Alban, protomartyr of Britain, St John Fisher was beheaded on Tower Hill. Nine days later St Thomas More was indicted and tried in Westminster Hall; he was very weak from illness and long captivity, and was permitted to sit during the proceedings. The charge was that he had in divers ways opposed the Act of Supremacy in conversation with the members of the council who had visited him in prison and in an alleged conversation with Rich, the solicitor general. St Thomas maintained that he had always kept silence on the subject and that Rich was swearing falsely; and he reminded the jury that, "Ye must understand that, in things touching conscience, every true and good subject is more bound to have respect to his said conscience and to his soul than to any other thing in all the world beside...". He was found guilty and condemned to death. Then at last he spoke, categorically denying that "a temporal lord could or ought to be head of the spirituality", and ending that, as St Paul had persecuted St Stephen "and yet be they now both twain holy saints in Heaven, and shall continue there friends for ever, so I verily trust, and shall therefore right heartily pray, that though your lordships have now here on earth been judges of my condemnation, we may yet hereafter in Heaven merrily all meet together to everlasting salvation". On his way back to the Tower he said farewell to his son and daughter, most movingly described by Roper, and the martyr referred to it four days later in a last letter which he sent to her with his hair-shirt (most of which relic is now in the care of the Austin canonesses at Newton Abbot, founded at Louvain by the daughter of More's adopted child, Margaret Clement): "I love when daughterly love and dear charity hath no desire to look to worldly courtesy."
Early on Tuesday, July 6, Sir Thomas Pope came to warn him that he was to die that day at nine o'clock (the king had commuted the sentence from hanging and quartering to beheading); whereupon St Thomas thanked him, said he would pray for the king, and comforted his weeping friend. He then put on his best clothes, walked quietly to Tower Hill, speaking to sundry persons on the way, and mounted the scaffold, with a jest for the lieutenant. He invoked the prayers of the people, protested that he died for the Holy Catholic Church and was "the king's good servant-but God's first", and said the psalm Miserere; he kissed and encouraged the headsman, covered his own eyes and adjusted his beard, and so was beheaded at one stroke. He was fifty-seven years old.
His body was buried somewhere in the church of St Peter ad Vincula within the Tower; his head, after being exposed on London Bridge, was begged by Margaret Roper and laid in the Roper vault in the church of St Dunstan, outside the West Gate of Canterbury, beneath the floor at the east end of the south aisle.
More was equivalently beatified with other English martyrs in 1886, and canonized in 1935. But, as has been pointed out more than once, had he never met his death as he did he would have been a good candidate for canonization as a confessor. Some saints have attained their honours by redeeming an indifferent or even sinful life by martyrdom; not so Thomas More. He was from first to last a holy man, living in the spirit of his own prayer: "Give me, good Lord, a longing to be with thee: not for the avoiding of the calamities of this wicked world, nor so much for the avoiding of the pains of Purgatory, nor of the pains of Hell neither, nor so much for the attaining of the joys of Heaven in respect of mine own commodity, as even for a very love of thee." And this when his ways were cast, not in the cloister, but in the ordinary places of the world-home and family, among scholars and lawyers, in tribunals, council-chambers, and royal courts.
The earliest formal biography of St Thomas More, that by Nicholas Harpsfield, has been edited by E. V. Hitchcock and R. W. Chambers (1932), and that by his son-in-law, Wm. Roper, by E. V. Hitchcock (1935), both published by the E.E.T.S. The first printed life was Thomas Stapleton's in Tres Thomae (1588; Eng. trans., 1928). The very valuable life by  "Ro: Ba:" (c. 1599) was edited by Miss Hitchcock, Mgr Hallett and Prof. A. W. Reed in 1950 (E.E.T.S.). A fourth life, by his great-grandson, Cresacre More, appeared before 1631. An edition of his English Works, ed. W. E. Campbell and others, is in progress; The Dialogue...concerning Tyndale (with valuable supplementary matter) and the Early Works are issued. A. Taft edited the Apologye for the E.E.T.S. (1930); it contains in text and notes much useful detail bearing on More's dealings with heretics. Father Bridgett's Life of Sir Thomas More (1891), with his supplementary booklets, still remain the fullest source of information for the reader who is not a specialist; but the best general life of all is R. W. Chambers's Thomas More (1935) j cf. review in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. liv (1936), p. 245. There are shorter recent biographies by J. Clayton, C. Hollis, D. Sargent, T. Maynard and others; and an excellent work by E. E. Reynolds (1953). More's Correspondence has been edited by E. F. Rogers (Princeton, 1947). But the bibliography of More is very long.
    St. Thomas More was born at London in 1478. After a thorough grounding in religion and the classics, he entered Oxford to study law. Upon leaving the university he embarked on a legal career which took him to Parliament. In 1505, he married his beloved Jane Colt who bore him four children, and when she died at a young age, he married a widow, Alice Middleton, to be a mother for his young children. A wit and a reformer, this learned man numbered Bishops and scholars among his friends, and by 1516 wrote his world-famous book "Utopia".
    He attracted the attention of Henry VIII who appointed him to a succession of high posts and missions, and finally made him Lord Chancellor in 1529. However, he resigned in 1532, at the height of his career and reputation, when Henry persisted in holding his own opinions regarding marriage and the supremacy of the Pope. The rest of his life was spent in writing mostly in defense of the Church.
    In 1534, with his close friend, St. John Fisher, he refused to render allegiance to the King as the Head of the Church of England and was confined to the Tower. Fifteen months later, and nine days after St. John Fisher's execution, he was tried and convicted of treason. He told the court that he could not go against his conscience and wished his judges that "we may yet hereafter in heaven merrily all meet together to everlasting salvation." And on the scaffold, he told the crowd of spectators that he was dying as "the King's good servant-but God's first." He was beheaded on July 6, 1535.
Thomas More M (RM) Born in London, England, 1478; died there in 1535; canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1935 as the "Martyr of the Papacy"; feast day formerly on July 6.
"If I am distracted, Holy Communion helps me become recollected. If opportunities are offered by each day to offend my God, I arm myself anew each day for the combat by reception of the Eucharist.
If I am in need of special light and prudence in order to discharge my burdensome duties,
I draw nigh to my Savior and seek counsel and light from Him." --Saint Thomas More

"These things, good Lord, that we pray for, give us Thy grace to labor for." --Saint Thomas More.
"It is a shorter thing and sooner done, to write heresies, than to answer them." --Saint Thomas More.
Thomas More studied at Canterbury Hall, Oxford, and read law at the Inns of Court, being called to the bar in 1501. Thomas was happiest in the bosom of his family--three generations living under one roof in Chelsea, and the congenial group of poets, scientists, and humanists that often gathered in his home, rather than at court.
Henry VIII was a man of rare personal magnetism; even Sir Thomas yielded to his charm. Thomas's daughter Margaret married Roper, who writes of More's friendship with Henry VIII: when the king had finished his devotions on holy days, he would talk to More about diverse matters, often far into the night. More often dined with the king and queen. Thomas would try to get two days per month to spend with his family, but he would be recalled to court. So Thomas tried to change his disposition before the king to be less likable, until the king started to come to Chelsea with Thomas and to be merry there. He recognized early that Henry's whims might prove dangerous to Thomas's health and life.

    More had considered the priesthood in his youth, and of joining the Franciscans, but his confessor advised against it. In 1505, he married Jane Colt, though it is said he preferred her younger sister. She bore him four children: Margaret (married Roper); Elizabeth, Cecily, and John. In the evening, Jane would study for an hour or two because Thomas wished her to be a scholar, or she would sing or play the clavichord. Jane died in 1510.
Soon after Jane's death, he married Alice Middleton, an older woman. Margaret, the eldest child, was five. Alice was unlearned, but had a great sense of humor. Thomas scolded her for her vanity and she reproached him for his lack of ambition.  More cared strongly for his children and their education, especially for Margaret. His home was a menagerie of birds, monkeys, foxes, ferrets, weasels, etc.
   More rose rapidly in public life despite his lack of ambition. He was a renowned lawyer and elected to Parliament in 1504 (at age 22). In 1510, he was appointed Undersheriff of London; 1518, Secretary to Henry VIII; 1521, he was knighted; 1523, chosen Speaker of Parliament; 1529, Lord Chancellor in succession to Cardinal Wolsey. Nevertheless, he continued to read, study, and write, and is known more as a scholar than as a jurist. Yet he was realistic and wrote in Utopia (1516), "philosophy had no place among kings....it is not possible for all things to be well, unless all men were good, which I think will not be this good many years."
He had a horror of luxury and worldly pomp. He found the lies and flatteries of court nauseating. It wearied him to be constantly at the King's command. He felt the scholars life was conducive to a virtuous life of piety toward God and service of his neighbor.
Virtue and religion were the supreme concerns of his life. He considered pride the chief danger of education. Education should inculcate a spirit of detachment from riches and earthly possessions, along with a spirit of gentleness.
During Henry's reign, 12,000 people were put to death for theft.  Thomas as Chancellor was hesitant to apply the death penalty to heretics.
More was a leader of the humanists, champion of the study of Greek and Latin classics, sympathetic to the Renaissance, and an advocate of needed Church reform; yet he was grounded in the Catholic tradition of the Middle Ages. He was also a friend of Erasmus. In 1527,
Erasmus wrote in a letter, "I wrote the Praise of Folly in times of peace;
I should never have written it if I had foreseen this tempest" of the Reformation.

Again, Erasmus in a letter to a monk about to leave his monastery, "...I see no one becoming better, every one becoming worse, so that I am deeply grieved that in my writings I once preached the liberty of the spirit....What I desired then was that the abatement of external ceremonies might much redound to the increase of true piety. But as it is, the ceremonies have been so destroyed that in place of them we have not the liberty of the spirit but the unbridled license of the flesh....What liberty is that which forbids us to say our prayers, and forbids us the sacrifice of the Mass?"
Thomas More did not think his Utopia, which is written in Latin, could be safely read by the multitude.

"Doubtless Christ could have caused the apostles not to sleep at all, but to stay awake, if that had been what He wished in an absolute and unqualified sense. But actually His wish was qualified by a condition -- namely that they themselves wish to do so, and wish it so effectually that each of them do his very best to comply with the outward command Christ Himself gave and to cooperate with the promptings of His inward assistance. In this way He also wishes for all men to be saved and for no one to suffer eternal torment, that is, always provided that we conform to His most loving will and do not set ourselves against it through our own willful malice. If someone stubbornly insists on doing this, God does not want to waft him off to heaven against his will, as if He were in need of our services there and could not continue His glorious reign without our support. Indeed, if He could not reign without us, He would immediately punish many offenses which now, out of consideration for us, He tolerates and overlooks for a long time to see if His kindness and patience will bring us to repent. But we meanwhile abuse this great mercy of His by adding sins to sins, thus heaping up for ourselves (as the apostle says) a treasure of wrath on the day of wrath (Rom 2:5).

"Nevertheless, such is God's kindness that even when we are negligent and slumbering on the pillow of our sins, He disturbs us from time to time, shakes us, strikes us, and does His best to wake us up by means of tribulations. But still, even though He thus proves Himself to be most loving even in His anger, most of us in our gross human stupidity misinterpret His action and imagine that such a great benefit is an injury, whereas actually (if we have any sense) we should feel bound to pray frequently and fervently that whenever we wander away from Him He may use blows to drive us back to the right way, even though we are unwilling and struggle against Him.
"Thus we must first pray that we may see the way and with the Church we must say to God, "From blindness of heart, deliver us, O Lord." And with the prophet we must say, "Teach me to do your will" and "Show me your ways and teach me your paths." Then we must intensely desire to run after you eagerly, O God, in the odor of your ointments, in the most sweet scent of your Spirit. But if we grow weary along the way (as we almost always do) and lag so far behind that we barely manage to follow at a distance, let us immediately say to God, "Take my right hand" and "Lead me along your path."
"Then if we are so overcome by weariness that we no longer have the heart to go on, if we are so soft and lazy that we are about to stop altogether, let us beg God to drag us along even as we struggle not to go. Finally, if we resist when He draws on us gently, and are stiff-necked against the will of God, against our own salvation, utterly irrational like horses and mules which have no intellects, we ought to beseech God humbly in the most fitting words of the prophet: "Hold my jaws hard, O God, with a bridle and bit when I do not draw near to you" (Ps 32:9)." --Saint Thomas More in The Sadness of Christ
1535 St. John Fisher is usually associated with Erasmus, Thomas More and other Renaissance humanists. His life, therefore, did not have the external simplicity found in the lives of some saints. Rather, he was a man of learning, associated with the intellectuals and political leaders of his day. He was interested in the contemporary culture and eventually became chancellor at Cambridge
John Fisher Katholische Kirche: 22. Juni Anglikanische Kirche: 6. Juli
ST JOHN FISHER, BISHOP OF ROCHESTER AND CARDINAL, MARTYR (A.D. 1535)
BEVERLEY, in Yorkshire, from which one St John, in the eighth century, derived his surname, was the native place nearly eight hundred years later of another and perhaps a greater, viz. St John Fisher, bishop, cardinal and martyr. Born in 1469, the son of a small mercer who died when his children were very young, John Fisher was sent to Cambridge University at the age of fourteen. There he distinguished himself greatly in his studies, was elected a fellow of Michaelhouse (since merged into Trinity), and was ordained priest by special permission when he was only twenty-two. He became successively senior proctor, doctor of divinity, master of Michaelhouse, and vice-chancellor of the university. In 1502 he resigned his mastership to become the chaplain of the king's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby. She appears first to have made his acquaintance seven years earlier, when as senior proctor he had visited the court at Greenwich on business; and, like everyone else who knew him, she WdS deeply impressed by his scholarship and by his sanctity. She was herself a capable and learned woman of great wealth, who, during the lifetime of three husbands, had been involved in many political intrigues: now finally a widow, she vowed to dedicate her remaining years to God under the direction of Dr Fisher.
Under his guidance she made a noble use of her fortune. By founding Christ's College and St John's College, Cambridge, to supersede earlier and decadent institutions; by establishing there, as well as at Oxford, a Lady Margaret divinity chair, and by other princely gifts, she has come to be regarded-and justly so-as the greatest benefactress Cambridge has ever known. The university's debt to St John Fisher is not so universally recognized. When he went to Cambridge its scholarship had sunk to a low ebb: no Greek or Hebrew was taught, and the library had been reduced to 300 volumes. Not only did all the administrative work in connection with Lady Margaret's benefactions fall upon his shoulders during her life and after her death, but he did much, entirely on his own initiative, to foster learning in the university. He endowed scholarships, he re-introduced Greek and Hebrew into the curriculum, and he brought Erasmus over to teach and to lecture.
In 1504 he was elected chancellor of the University of Cambridge-a post which he continued to hold until his death. Later in that same year King Henry VII nominated him to the bishopric of Rochester, although he was only thirty-five years of age. He accepted with reluctance an office which added the cares of a diocese to his work for Cambridge. Nevertheless, he carried out his pastoral duties with a zeal and thoroughness exceptional in those days. He held visitations, administered confirmation, disciplined his clergy, visited the sick poor in their hovels, distributed alms with his own hands, and exercised generous hospitality. Moreover, he found time to write books and to continue his studies. He was forty-eight when he began to learn Greek, and fifty-one when he started upon Hebrew. The sermons he preached in 1509 for the funerals of Henry VII and of Lady Margaret Beaufort have been preserved to us. Both of them are recognized as English classics of the period; that on the king is particularly remarkable as a noble and sincere tribute to the memory of a sovereign, with little trace of the exaggerated and adulatory language almost universally employed in such circumstances. St John Fisher's private life was most austere: he limited his sleep to four hours, used the discipline freely and, though his fare was of the scantiest, he kept a skull before him at meal-times to remind himself of death. Books were his one earthly pleasure: and, with a view to bequeathing his books to Cambridge, he formed a library which was among the finest in Europe.
Personal ambition he had none and, when offered preferment in the shape of wealthier sees, he refused them, saying that “he would not leave his poor old wife for the richest widow in England". Because of his learning and eloquence, he was specially selected to preach against Lutheranism when it was found to be making headway-particularly in London and in the universities. He also wrote four weighty volumes against Luther which can claim the distinction of being the first books to be published in refutation of the new doctrines. These and other literary works helped to spread his fame abroad as well as at home. But when a Carthusian monk afterwards congratulated him on the service he had thus rendered to the Church, he expressed his regret that the time he had devoted to writing had not been spent in prayer: prayer, he thought, would have done more good and was of greater merit. Such was the man whom the Emperor Charles V's ambassador described as "the paragon of Christian bishops for learning and holiness", concerning whom young King Henry VIII was wont to boast that no other prince or kingdom had so distinguished a prelate. With unclouded vision John Fisher apprehended the evils of the time and the dangers that threatened the Church of God. He was himself a reformer, but of abuses and evils, not a deformer of religious truth. At a synod called by Cardinal Wolsey in 1518 he boldly protested against the worldliness, the laxity and the vanity of the higher clergy, the greater part of whom had won their preferments through secular service to the state or by private interest. Because, unlike them, he was not trying to serve two masters, he had no hesitation, some nine years later, in upholding the validity of King Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon when other men in high office were temporizing or yielding.
He was chosen to be one of the queen's counsellors in the nullity suit begun before Cardinal Campeggio at Blackfriars in 1529, and he proved to be her ablest champion. In an eloquent speech before the court he demonstrated that the marriage was valid and that it could be dissolved by no power, human or divine, winding up with the reminder that the Baptist of old had died in defence of the marriage tie. To his arguments, embodied in literary form and presented to the king, Henry sent a furious reply, which with Fisher's marginal comments may still be seen at the Record Office. Shortly afterwards the case was recalled to Rome and Fisher's immediate connection with it ceased. He had upheld the sanctity of marriage: he now became the champion of the rights of the Church and the supremacy of the Pope. As a member of the House of Lords he denounced the measures against the clergy which were being forced through the Commons: "With them", he exclaimed, "is nothing but Down with the Church! ,,, He uttered another great protest in Convocation when that assembly was called upon to agree that Henry VIII was head of the Church in England. To him it was due that the words "So far as the law of Christ allows" were added to the form of assent that was eventually signed, but he regarded even that as too much in the nature of a compromise.
The warnings of friends and the threats of his enemies were not necessary to bring home to Bishop Fisher the danger he now ran by his opposition to the ruling powers. Twice already he had suffered short terms of imprisonment, at least one attempt was made to poison him, and on another occasion a shot fired from across the river penetrated his library window. Then came an unsuccessful effort on the part of Thomas Cromwell to connect him with the affair of Elizabeth Barton, the "Holy Maid of Kent". Eventually the passage into law of the bill of succession provided his enemies with the means of securing his downfall. He was summoned to Lambeth to subscribe to it, although he was so ill that he fainted on the road between Rochester and London. To the actual succession he would have been willing to agree, but he absolutely refused to take the oath in the form presented because it was so worded as to make it practically an oath of supremacy. "Not that I condemn any other men's conscience", he had written to Cromwell. "Their conscience may save them, and mine must save me." For the other bishops took the oath. John of Rochester was immediately arrested and conveyed to the Tower.
An act of attainder of misprision of treason was then passed against the prisoner; he was declared to be degraded from his office and his see was pronounced vacant. He was sixty-six years of age, but so reduced by physical ill-health, by his austerities, and by all he had gone through that he looked more like a man of eighty-six. His wasted body, we are told, could scarcely bear the weight of his clothes. Three years earlier Cardinal Pole had reckoned him a dying man, and he afterwards expressed his wonder that Fisher should have survived the ordeal of a ten-months' imprisonment in the Bell Tower. In November 1534, a second act of attainder was passed upon him, but he still lingered on in prison. By sending him the cardinal's hat, six months later, Pope Paul III infuriated Henry VIII and hastened the end. "Let the pope send him a hat", the king exclaimed, "I will so provide that whensoever it cometh he shall wear it on his shoulders, for head he shall have none to set it on." After that the result of his so-called trial was a foregone conclusion, for the king's will was law. Though some of the judges wept when the sentence was declared, John Fisher was condemned to death on June 17, 1535.
Five days later, at five in the morning, he was roused with the intelligence that he was to be executed that day. He asked to be allowed to rest a little longer and he slept soundly for two hours. He then dressed, putting on a fur tippet "to keep me warm for the while until the very time of execution"; then he took his little New Testament, and, with great difficulty owing to his excessive weakness, went down the steps to the entrance from whence he was conveyed in a chair to the Tower gate. There, as he leant against a wall before proceeding to the place of execution, he opened his book with a prayer for some word of comfort. The first words he saw were, it is said, those spoken by our Lord before His passion; "This is life everlasting that they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent. I have glorified thee upon the earth; I have finished the work that thou gavest me to do." Thus fortified, he walked up Tower Hill, mounted the scaffold unassisted, and in the customary terms pardoned his executioner. As he stood up to address the crowd his tall emaciated figure made him appear like a living skeleton. With a clear voice he said that he was dying for the faith of Christ's holy Catholic Church, and he asked the people to pray that he might be steadfast to the end. After he had recited the Te Deum and the psalm In te Domine speravi, he was blindfolded, and with one blow from the axe his head was severed from his body. Henry's vindictive spirit pursued the martyr even beyond his death. His body, after lying exposed all day, was thrust without shroud or rites into a hole in All Hallows Barking churchyard, and his head was impaled for fourteen days on London Bridge with the heads of the Carthusian martyrs, seeming "as though it had been alive, looking upon the people coming into London". A fortnight later it was thrown into the river, to make room for More's.
In May 1935, almost exactly four hundred years after his death, John Fisher was solemnly numbered among the saints, together with his friend and fellow martyr, Sir Thomas More; and on July 9 the feast of these two martyrs is kept together throughout England and Wales, and in the Scottish diocese of Dunkeld.
It might be said that to a very large extent the Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, published by the Record Office, supply the best materials for the life of St John Fisher, but there is also an important biography written by one who was in part a contemporary. In 1891-93 an accurate edition of it, based upon a collation of the available manuscripts and of the Latin translation, was produced by the Bollandist, Fr van Ortroy, and printed in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. x and vol. xii. Another text was printed in 1915 by the Early English Text Society. Both these preserved the original spelling, but in 1935 an edition for popular perusal with modernized spelling was brought out, together with an excellent introduction and occasional notes, by Fr Philip Hughes. The author of this biography was not, as was for a long time supposed, Richard Hall, though it was he who made the Latin version, but, most probably, Dr John Young, vice-chancellor of Cambridge in Mary's reign. It seems to have been written some time after 1567. But nearly all the materials available for Fisher's life have been utilized in the great work of Fr T. Bridgett; his Life of John Fisher (3rd ed., 1902) is extremely thorough, discerning and spiritual, altogether a model biography. See also the admirable lecture of E. A. Benians, entitled John Fisher (1935); N. M. Wilby's popular sketch (1929); R. L. Smith, John Fisher and Thomas More (1935). The E.E.T.S. has published Bishop Fisher's English Works (pt. i, ed. J. E. B. Mayor, 1876; pt. ii, ed. R. Bayne, 1915).
John Fisher is usually associated with Erasmus, Thomas More and other Renaissance humanists. His life, therefore, did not have the external simplicity found in the lives of some saints. Rather, he was a man of learning, associated with the intellectuals and political leaders of his day. He was interested in the contemporary culture and eventually became chancellor at Cambridge. He had been made a bishop at 35, and one of his interests was raising the standard of preaching in England. Fisher himself was an accomplished preacher and writer. His sermons on the penitential psalms were reprinted seven times before his death. With the coming of Lutheranism, he was drawn into controversy. His eight books against heresy gave him a leading position among European theologians.
b. 1469
In 1521 he was asked to study the problem of Henry VIII’s marriage. He incurred Henry’s anger by defending the validity of the king’s marriage with Catherine and later by rejecting Henry’s claim to be the supreme head of the Church of England.
In an attempt to be rid of him, Henry first had him accused of not reporting all the “revelations” of the nun of Kent, Elizabeth Barton. John was summoned, in feeble health, to take the oath to the new Act of Succession. He and Thomas More refused because the Act presumed the legality of Henry’s divorce and his claim to be head of the English Church. They were sent to the Tower of London, where Fisher remained 14 months without trial. They were finally sentenced to life imprisonment and loss of goods .
When the two were called to further interrogations, they remained silent. Fisher was tricked, on the supposition he was speaking privately as a priest, and declared again that the king was not supreme head. The king, further angered that the pope had made John Fisher a cardinal, had him brought to trial on the charge of high treason. He was condemned and executed, his body left to lie all day on the scaffold and his head hung on London Bridge. More was executed two weeks later.
Comment: Today many questions are raised about Christians' and priests' active involvement in social issues. John Fisher remained faithful to his calling as a bishop. He strongly upheld the teachings of the Church; the very cause of his martyrdom was his loyalty to Rome. He was involved in the cultural enrichment circles as well as in the political struggles of his time. This involvement caused him to question the moral conduct of the leadership of his country. "The Church has the right, indeed the duty, to proclaim justice on the social, national and international level, and to denounce instances of injustice, when the fundamental rights of man and his very salvation demand it" (Justice in the World, 1971 Synod of Bishops).
Quote:  Erasmus said of John Fisher: "He is the one man at this time who is incomparable for uprightness of life, for learning and for greatness of soul."
John Fisher Katholische Kirche: 22. Juni Anglikanische Kirche: 6. Juli
John Fisher wurde um 1469 in Beverley geboren. Er studierte in Cambridge, wurde zum Priester geweiht und 1503 Professor der Theologie und 1504 Kanzler der Universität. Ebenfalls 1504 wurde er zum Bischof von Rochester ernannt. Seine antireformatorischen Schriften wurden auf dem Konzil von Trient gerne genutzt. Als Fisher die Ehescheidung von Heinrich VIII. öffentlich verurteilte, zog er den Haß des Königs auf sich. Als er den Sukzessionseid verweigerte, wurde er des Hochverrats angeklagt und 1534 eingekerkert. 1535 wurde er zum Kardinal ernannt und einen Monat später am 22.6.1535 enthauptet .
1539 Bl. Adrian Fortescue Martyr opposed divorce of King Henry VIII of England from Catherine; cousin of Anne Boleyn
Adrian was born in Punsborne, England, and was married twice. When his first wife Anne Stonor died in 1499, Adrian raised their two daughters. Twelve years later he married Anne Rede, who gave him three sons. A Knight of the Bath and a justice of the peace for Oxford, Adrian was a Dominican tertiary. Although related to Anne Boleyn, he opposed her marriage to the king and was arrested in 1534 for a short time. In 1539, when he refused to take the Oath of Supremacy supporting Henry VIII' s separation for Rome, Adrian was placed in the Tower of London. Permitted no trial and condemned by Parliament, Adrian was beheaded along with Thomas Dinglay on July 8 or 9
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Martyrs of Gorkum 19 martyrs put to death with great cruelty by Protestant Calvinists in Gorkum, Holland. There were ten Franciscans, two Premonstratensians, a Dominican, a Canon Regular, four secular priests, and one layman in the group. They were canonized in 1867
Brilæ, in Hollándia, pássio novémdecim Mártyrum, Gorcomiénsium nuncupatórum; quorum ex número novem Sacerdótes ac duo Láici erant Fratres Minóres, quátuor Presbyteri sæculáres, duo Præmonstraténses, unus Reguláris Canónicus sancti Augústíni, et unus Dominicánus.  Hi omnes, ob tuéndam Ecclésiæ Románæ auctoritátem et reálem Christi in Eucharístia præséntiam, a Calviniánis hæréticis varia ludíbria et torménta perpéssi, tandem, in trabem acti, agónem suum adstríctis láqueo fáucibus, consummárunt; et a Pio Nono, Pontífice Máximo, inter sanctos Mártyres reláti sunt.
    At Briel in Holland, the passion of the nineteen martyrs of Gorcum.  Of these, nine priests and two lay brothers were of the Order of Friars Minor, four were secular priests, two Premonstratensians, one Canon Regular of St. Augustine, and one Dominican.  For vindicating the authority of the Roman Church and the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they endured various insults and torments from the Calvinist heretics, and their great suffering was ended by all of them being hanged.  Pope Pius IX included them in the number of holy martyrs
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 SS. NICHOLAS PIECK AND HIS COMPANIONS, THE MARTYRS OF  GORKUM (A.D. 1572)
 NINETEEN priests and religious, taken by Calvinists in Gorkum, near Dordrecht, were hanged on account of their religion. Of these, eleven were Franciscan friars of the Observance of the convent of Gorkum, amongst whom were ST NICHOLAS PIECK, the guardian, and ST JEROME WEERDEN, vicar. With them were taken SS. LEONARD VECHEL, NICHOLAS JANSSEN and GODFREY VAN DUYNEN, secular priests, and JOHN VAN OOSTERWYK, a canon regular of St Augustine of great age. Vechel was the parish priest at Gorkum. To these fifteen were afterwards added ST JOHN VAN HOORNAER, a Dominican, who came to the assistance of his Franciscan brethren when he heard that they were taken; two Premonstratensians, SS. ADRIAN VAN HILVARENBEEK and JAMES LACOPS, the last of whom had been very slack in his religious observance and contumacious under reproof; and ST ANDREW WOUTERS, a secular priest, who went straight from an irregular life to imprisonment and martyrdom.
In June 1572 the anti-Spanish Calvinist forces called the Watergeuzen, "SeaBeggars", or Gueux, "Ragamuffins", seized Gorkum, and from June 26 to July 5 the Franciscans and four other priests were at the mercy of the soldiers, who treated them with incredible cruelty, partly out of contempt for their religion and partly in order to discover the whereabouts of the hidden church vessels. Then word came from the admiral, Lumaye, Baron de la Marck, to bring them to Briel, where they disembarked in the early morning of the 7th and, half-naked as they were, marched to the market-place with the caricatured circumstance of a religious procession, and there contemptuously ordered to sing the Litany of the Saints, which they did gladly enough. That evening and the next morning they were interrogated before the admiral and, confronted by Calvinist ministers, invited to purchase their freedom by abandoning the Catholic doctrine of the Blessed Sacrament; this they refused to do. Letters now arrived to the Baron de la Marck from the magisttates of Gorkum, complaining of the detention of the prisoners, and from the Prince of Orange, ordering that they be released; at the same time two brothers of Nicholas Pieck made personal appeal for him. The admiral said that all should at once be set free if they would abjure the primacy of the pope: again they refused, and all the efforts of his brothers could not induce Father Pieck to abandon either his faith or his religious brethren. Soon after midnight an apostate priest of Liege was sent to lead the prisoners to a sacked and deserted monastery at Ruggen, in the outskirts of Briel.
Here they were gathered in a turf-shed where were two convenient beams. At this last moment, when already Father Pieck had been flung off the ladder, speaking words of encouragement, the courage of some failed them; it is a significant warning against judging the character of our neighbour or pretending to read his heart that, while a priest of blameless life recanted in a moment of weakness, the two who had been an occasion of scandal gave their lives without a tremor. All the nineteen were hanged, St James Lacops from a ladder, the rest from the beams; one, ST ANTONY VAN WILLEHAD, was ninety years old. The execution was the sheerest butchery: all hung long before they were dead, ST NICASIUS VAN HEEZE till after dawn, and the bodies were mutilated before they were cold, some before life was extinct.
Like the martyrs of England and Wales, these men gave their lives for the Catholic faith in general, and for the truth of its eucharistic teaching and the primacy of the Roman pontiff in particular. Their bodies were ignominiously cast into two ditches and there lay till 1616, when, during a truce between Spain and the United Provinces, they were dug up and the remains translated to the Franciscan church in Brussels. The martyrs of Gorkum were canonized in 1867.
The story of the martyrdom was told in detail by William Estius, the Scripture commentator, himself a native of Gorkum and a nephew of Father Pieck. His account with other illustrative matter is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. ii. See also the modern narratives of Kronenburg, Spilbeek, and in particular Hubert Meuffels. This last volume, written in French, which belongs to the series "Les Saints", contains a quite formidable bibliography.
1572 St. Nicholas Poppel Franciscan martyr of Gorkum; A Dutch Franciscan serving as curate to Leonard van Wechel at the time of their martyrdom at Gorkum.  canonized in 1867
1572 St. Nicasius Jonson member of the Martyrs of Gorkum; born in Brabant, entered Franciscans, authored several anti Protestant treatises before his martyrdom with other Franciscans at Gorkum.
1572 St. Nicholas Pieck Franciscan martyr of Gorkum native of Holland; served as a guardian of the friary at Gorkum, and devoted himself to converting Calvinists to the Catholic faith
He was martyred with the other Franciscans at Gorkum and was canonized in 1867
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1572 St. John of Osterwick Augustinian martyr of Gorkum; native of Holland; became confessor of Augustinian nuns at Gorkum; murdered by a group of Calvinists.
1572 St. Peter of Asche Franciscan lay brother member of the Gorkum Martyrs participated in the efforts of the Franciscans to convert the local Calvinists hanged at the ruined monastery of Ruggen
Also called Peter van Asche, he was a native of Asche, near Brussels, Belgium. Entering the Franciscans as a lay brother, he served as Guardian of the Franciscan house at Gorkum, Holland, and participated in the efforts of the Franciscans to convert the local Calvinists. He was seized by Protestant forces when Gorkum fell into Calvinist hands and, with four priests, was taken to Briel. There he endured severe tortures before being hanged at the ruined monastery of Ruggen
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1572 St. Leonard Wegel priest in Gorkum martyr of Gorkum, Hollands born in Blois-le-duc. Educated at Louvain, Belgium
Sometimes called Veckel or Wickel. Born in Blois-le-duc. Educated at Louvain, Belgium, Leonard became a priest in Gorkum serving there until brutally slain by Calvinists. His canonization was in 1867.
1572 St. John of Cologne Dominican priest in Homer, Holland Martyr of Gorkum native of Cologne hanged with the other Gorkum Martyrs and canonized with them in 1867  He served as a Dominican priest in Homer, Holland.
1572 St. Godfrey priest and former rector Godfrey of Merville was a member of the Franciscan house at Gorkum, Holland: 2 martyrs of the same name: honored among the Martyrs of Gorkum
Godfrey of Duynen, and Godfrey of Merville, both hanged by Calvinists.  Godfrey of Merville was a member of the Franciscan house at Gorkum, Holland. They were hanged at Briel and are honored among the Martyrs of Gorkum
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1572 St. Andrew Wouters Martyr of Gorkum; secular priest at Heinot in Holland, Andrew was scandalous in his behavior until pressured by the local Calvinists to renounce the Church. Andrew confessed his sins and was imprisoned in Briel, Holland. He was hanged with other martyrs.
1572 St. Willehad of Denmark Franciscan martyr Dane, baptized Anthony 1483 exiled from Denmark -- Protestant Reformation in his country went to the ill-fated Franciscan friary at Gorkum, in the Netherlands 90 At time of death
He went to the ill-fated Franciscan friary at Gorkum, in the Netherlands, and was thus among the Franciscans who were condemned and hanged by the Protestants at Biel. At the time of his death, he was 90
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1572 St. Cornelius One of the martyrs of Gorkum, Netherlands, who were hanged with eight companions at Briel.
1572 St. James Lacop martyr of Gorkum. Born in Oudenarden, France; left the faith, returned to the Church -- Norbertine; Calvinists martyred him at Gorkum
He left the faith but returned to the Church and the Norbertines. The Calvinists martyred him at Gorkum with the other better known Franciscans. James was canonized in 1867
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1572 St. Francis Rod  born in Brussels, Belgium, Franciscan martyr, hanged at Briel, by the Calvinists
He was born in Brussels, Belgium, and became a Franciscan at Gorkum, Holland. A short time later he was martyred
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1572 St. Adrian Van Hilvarenbeek Martyr in the religious wars of Holland during the difficult years of the Reformation
He was born and educated in Hilvarenbeek, and joined the Premonstratensians for a time before becoming a parish priest. One of the Martyrs of Gorkum, Adrian was arrested with Jacob Lacops and Andreas Wouters. The three were taken to Briel and charged with refusing to deny papal supremacy in religious matters and for teaching others about the Blessed Sacrament
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1681 Georg Neumark Evangelische Kirche: 09. Juli  Nach dem Studium lebte Neumark 12 Jahre als freier Schriftsteller in Danzig und Thorn
Georg Neumark wurde am 16.3.1621 in Mühlhausen (Thüringen) geboren. 1640 reiste er nach Königsberg, um dort zu studieren und bei Simon Dach die Dichtkunst zu lernen. Der Kaufmannszug, mit dem er reiste, wurde überfallen und Neumark verlor seine ganze Habe. Er gelangte mittellos über Magdeburg und Hamburg nach Lübeck, wo ihm ein Landsmann eine Hauslehrerstelle vermittelte. Bei Antritt dieser Stelle schrieb Neumark das Lied "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten" (EG 369). Sein Arbeitgeber verschaffte Neumark einen Schiffsplatz nach Danzig. Von hier gelangte er dann nach Königsberg. Nach dem Studium lebte Neumark 12 Jahre als freier Schriftsteller in Danzig und Thorn. Dann kehrte er in seine Heimat zurück. Herzog Wilhelm bestellte ihn zum Bibliothekar und Hofpoeten in Weimar. Hier starb er am 8.7.1681
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1727 St. Veronica Giuliani Capuchin mystic who had many spiritual gifts; recipient of a stigmata in 1697 and visions
Tiférni, in Umbria, sanctæ Verónicæ de Juliánis, Vírginis, in Urbaniénsis diœcésis óppido Mercatéllo natæ, Moniális e secúndo sancti Francísci Ordine ac Tifernátis ascetérii Abbatíssæ; quam, insígni patiéndi stúdio, ceterísque virtútibus et cæléstibus charismátibus illústrem, Gregórius Papa Décimus sextus in sanctárum Vírginum collégium adscrípsit.
    At Tiferno in Umbria, St. Veronica Giuliani, a nun of the second Order of St. Francis and abbess of the monastery in that town.  Born at Mercatello in the diocese of Urbania, she became illustrious by her great love for suffering and other virtues, and by her heavenly gifts.  She was inscribed among the holy virgins by Pope Gregory XVI.
ST VERONICA GIULIANI, VIRGIN (A.D. 1727)
URSULA GIULIANI was born at Mercatello in Urbino in 1660, her parents being gentlefolk of that city. She is said to have begun to show signs of unusual piety at a very early age; at six and seven she was concerned to give away her own food and clothing to the needy, and at eleven devotion to our Lord's passion had begun to colour her own life. She had the not uncommon fault of resenting when others did not join in her religious practices, which was cured by a vision in which she saw her own heart made, as it were, of steel. When her father received a public office at Piacenza she took a good deal of pleasure in the increased dignity and more affluent circumstances which this meant for the family; no bad thing in itself, but she made it a matter of self-reproach in after years.
In consequence of a vision of our Lady, Ursula made a vow to become a nun, but met with strong opposition from her father, Francis Giuliani: he not only wanted her to marry, but insisted on presenting eligible suitors. This worried her into an illness; Francis gave way, and in 1677 she was clothed a Capuchiness in the convent of Citta di Castello, in Umbria, taking the name of Veronica. Her noviciate was a difficult one; in addition to interior trials she was subjected to severe discipline by her superiors, for her holy ambition was such that it required careful testing; moreover, the bishop who clothed her had predicted that she would be a saint. After her profession her absorption in the Passion deepened, she had a vision of our Lord bearing the cross, and she began to have acute pain over her heart. In 1693 she experienced another vision in which the chalice of Christ's sufferings was offered to her; after a great struggle she accepted it, and henceforth reproduced in her own body and soul something of the sufferings of the divine Master. In the following year the imprint of the crown of thorns appeared on her head, and on Good Friday, 1697, the impress of the five sacred wounds. These physical manifestations were subjected to medical treatment, but without any effect on them. These things being reported to the Bishop of Citta di Castello, he referred to the Holy Office for direction, and was told to do nothing and to say no more about it. But when the phenomena became more pronounced he decided to examine them for himself, which he did at the convent grille in the presence of four nuns, and was convinced of their objective reality. To get rid of any possibility of fraud he had every moment of Sister Veronica's time controlled; she was forbidden to receive holy communion, to mix with the other nuns, or to have any sort of communication with the outside world; and she was to be day and night under the eye of a lay-sister. The bishop, moreover, ordered that the wounds were to be dressed and bandaged, and her hands put into gloves with the fastenings sealed with his signet. Veronica suffered these prudent precautions with exemplary patience. They made no difference at all to the phenomena, and the bishop having communicated this and the nun's obedient and humble demeanour to the Holy Office, it was ordered that she should be allowed to return to the normal life of her community.
St Veronica was of the type of St Teresa of Avila and all the greatest contemplatives, adding to her devotion and supernatural gifts common sense and ability in affairs. She was novice-mistress of her convent for thirty-four years, which itself shows how well she fulfilled the office, and eleven years before her death was elected abbess. She would not allow the novices under her to read any books of advanced mysticism. She bade them be content with such practical works as the Christian and Religious Perfection of Rodriguez, and thought that during that time of preparation they had enough to do in laying the foundations of humility, obedience and charity. It may also be supposed that this saint, herself a mystic, knew the damage that may be done to unformed minds and aspiring souls by being excited and puffed up by the doctrine of the great masters, which is as yet too high for them. We expect to find that such a woman improved the convent's water supply by having it piped in, and that she enlarged the conventual buildings-and so she did.
At the end of her life this "spouse of the Lord" who for nearly fifty years had suffered with patience, resignation, and joy, was afflicted with apoplexy, and she died of this disorder on July 9, 1727. She left an account of her life and spiritual experiences, written by order of her confessor, and this was much used in the process of beatification; she was canonized in 1839. Long before her death she had told her confessor that the instruments of our Lord's passion were imprinted on her heart, giving him more than once, for they, as she averred, shifted their position, a rough plan of a heart on which they were sketched. A post-mortem examination in the presence of the bishop, the mayor, surgeons, and other witnesses, revealed in the right ventricle a number of minute objects corresponding to those she had drawn.
So far as concerns the evidence of mystical phenomena, the case of St Veronica is perhaps the most remarkable known to Catholic hagiology. The writer of this note, Father Thurston, had the opportunity in the Bollandist library of consulting the very rare summarium of the evidence presented for her beatification. The sworn testimony of the saint's confessor and fellow religious goes to show that her stigmatic wounds opened and bled at command, and that they closed again and healed perfectly in a short space of time while the bishop waited. And there were many other phenomena of levitations, perfumes, etc., not mentioned above. The least unsatisfactory life is probably that of Father F. M. Salvatore (1839), founded on the process; it was translated into English in 1874. Father Pizzicaria has edited St Veronica's spiritual diary in ten volumes, and there is a good selection therefrom by Fr Désiré des Planches, Le journal de Ste Véronique Giuliani (1931), with medical comment by J. F. Gentili; other extracts in Franciscan Annals for 1944 and 1945. See also an article by Fr L. Veuthey in Vita Cristiana, vol. xv (1943), pp. 481-489, 566-589.

A native of Binasco, near Milan, Italy, born in 1660, she entered the Capuchins at Citttidi Castello, Umbria, in 1677. She remained there for the rest of her life and served as novice mistress 34 years.

A mystic, she was the recipient of a stigmata in 1697 and visions, the accounts of which are quite detailed. She impressed her fellow nuns by remaining remarkably practical despite her numerous ecstatic experiences. Veronica was named abbess of the convent in 1716, remaining in that role until her death. She is called one of the most extraordinary mystics of her era.
Veronica Giuliani, OFM Cap. Abbess (RM) Born in Mercatello, Urbino, Italy, 1660;
died at Città di Castello, Umbria, July 9, 1727; beatified in 1804; canonized in 1839.

   Saint Veronica Giuliani was canonized for her piety but she is more often remembered for the marvels surrounding her life. She was born Ursula Giuliana, the daughter of a family of wealth and breeding.
   Ursula was devout from a very early age. By the time she was six, she was giving her food and clothing to the poor. By age 11, she was pursuing a devotion to the Lord's Passion. Also early in life she was intolerant of those who were not as devoted as she, but this tendency was tempered by a vision.
   She took great enjoyment in the increased station her father's promotion to public office at Piacenza brought, and she reproached herself for it in later years. She decided to become a nun after experiencing a vision of the Virgin Mary, but her father opposed her plan. He insisted on introducing her to eligible suitors, which caused her to become ill from anxiety. In 1677, her father finally gave in and allowed her to become a nun at the Capuchin convent of Città di Castello in Umbria, where she took the name Veronica.
   Her novitiate was difficult. She became more intense in her devotion to the Passion of Christ and experienced a vision of Him bearing the cross. At this time, she began to experience a feeling of pain over her heart. In 1693, she had another vision in which the chalice of Christ's sufferings was offered to her. On Easter 1694 she was espoused to Jesus in a vision and the imprint of the Crown of Thorns appeared on her head.
   Three years later she saw Blessed Virgin Mary say to Jesus, 'let thy bride be crucified with thee.' Then at age 37, she received the stigmata in hands, feet, and side during a long period of ecstasy on April 5, 1697. Medical treatment was given, but the wounds did not heal. Her journal records experience.
   In her journal she tells of the rays of light that came from Jesus' wounds and became small flames of fire, four in the form of great pointed nails, the fifth a spear-head of gleaming gold. She writes, "I felt a fearful agony of pain, but with the pain I clearly saw and was conscious that I was wholly transformed into God. When I had been thus wounded, in my heart, in my hands and feet, the rays of light gleaming with a new radiance shot back to the Crucifix, and illuminated the gashed side, the hands and feet of Him who was hanging there. Thus My Lord and My God espoused me, and gave me in charge to His Most Holy Mother for ever and ever, and bade my Guardian Angel watch over me, for He was jealous of His honor, and then thus He spoke to me: 'I am Thine, I give Myself wholly unto thee. Ask whatsoever thou wilt, it shall be granted thee.' I made reply: 'Beloved, only one thing I ask, never to be separated from Thee.' And then in a twinkling all vanished away."
Roused, she found the wounds aching and blood and water pouring from her side. She did not want the wounds to be seen, but they were visible until 1700, because Jesus promised her the marks would only last three years. Thereafter, only her side bled.
Shortly after they first appeared, her wounds were examined by the bishop of Città di Castello, who devised a special, fraud excluding regimen for her. The wounds were bandaged, and the dressings fastened shut with the bishop's seal; she was separated from the other sisters and watched carefully. The wounds remained. During her ecstasies she emitted a sweet odor of sanctity and she levitated. The local bishop was impressed by her obedience and humility throughout and was convinced that the phenomenon was genuine. A favorable report was given to the Holy Office and Veronica was permitted to resume normal community life.
   Veronica was the novice mistress for 34 years, forbidding the novices to read books of advanced mysticism. Instead, she insisted on the fundamental virtues fostered by reading Rodriguez's Christian and religious perfection. She was elected abbess in 1716 and served in that capacity for the last 11 years of her life. Not only did the spiritual life of the community improve during her abbacy, but also their physical comfort for Veronica was a practical woman. She installed piped water into the convent and expanded and enlarged its buildings.
    She died of apoplexy. She had told her confessor that the instruments of the Lord's Passion were imprinted on her heart, and she drew their positioning for him more than once as she said they changed location over the years. Her heart was examined after death and "miraculously" showed images of a cross, crown of thorns, and chalice, as she had said it would. Examination also revealed a curvature of the right shoulder as if she had carried a heavy cross. (Imagination of the doctors?)
   An autobiographical account (10 volumes) she had written at the command of her confessor was used in the process of her beatification and has been published since her canonization. Her mystical experiences were accurately authenticated by eyewitnesses. Through she was in a state of almost continuous ecstacy, she was in no way visionary, but a most practical and level-headed religious. Levitations and stigmata, which ceased bleeding at a word of command, reveal Veronica as one of the best documented examples of how prolonged and intense consideration of Christ's Passion can have an extraordinary effect in the faithful.
She is portrayed in art holding a heart marked with a cross (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Harrison).
1794 THE MARTYRS OF ORANGE
AT the time of the French Revolution there were in the little town of Bollène in the Comtat-Venaissin two convents, one of Ursulines and the other of Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament, the congregation founded at Marseilles by the Venerable Antony Le Quien in 1639. When in April 1794 the local authorities tendered the republican oath to these nuns they refused to take it, for both Christians and others attributed to it an anti-religious significance. Twenty-nine of them were accordingly arrested and lodged in jail at Orange where, amid numerous other women prisoners, they organized so far as possible a communal religious life, beginning with the Little Office at 7 a.m.
The first victim was BD MARY ROSE DELOYE, a Benedictine, who on July 6 was sentenced to death for having tried "to destroy the republic by fanaticism and superstition". The first Sacramentine was BD IPHIGENIA DE GAILLARD DE LAVALDENE the next day, and the first Ursulines BD MELANIA DE GUILHERMIER and BD ANGELA DE ROCHER on the 9th. Others followed almost daily till nearly the end of the month. In all, thirty-two nuns suffered on the guillotine at this time, sixteen of them being Ursulines, thirteen Sacramentines, two Bernardines and one Benedictine.
We have the testimony of one who was released from the prison that each day the dwindling band of survivors said together the prayers for the dying for the day's victims and then sang the Te Deum. BD PELAGIA Bés after her sentence shared out a box of sweets, "For my wedding"; BD THEOCTISTA PELISSIER wrote a song in prison, welcoming the guillotine; while BD MARTHA CLUSE, a pretty lay-sister, refused to save her life at the last moment at the price of marrying one of the executioners. "These jades die laughing", commented the guards.
These thirty-two martyrs were beatified in 1925. After the fall of Robespierre the notorious Orange tribunal was condemned in its turn: two of its judges and the public prosecutor were reconciled with the Church before execution. In 1802 the Sacramentine house at Bollène was reopened, and sisters from there had for a time a convent at Taunton, opened in 1863.
These thirty-two martyrs were beatified in 1925. After the fall of Robespierre the notorious Orange tribunal was condemned in its turn: two of its judges and the public prosecutor were reconciled with the Church before execution. In 1802 the Sacramentine house at Bollène was reopened, and sisters from there had for a time a convent at Taunton, opened in 1863.
See Redon, Les trente-deux religieuses guillotinées à Orange; H. Leclercq, Les martyrs, t. xii (1913). Summary in Baudot and Chaussin, Vies des Saints…, t. vii (1949), pp. 209-215.  
 1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions  Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria in the 600s. Depending on China's relations with the outside world, Christianity over the centuries was free to grow or was forced to operate secretly.
Chinese Martyrs Continue to Inspire Hong Kong Catholics Mark Feast of 121 Saints
HONG KONG, JULY 9, 2010 (Zenit.org).- Martyrdom isn't merely an event from the past, but an event that continues to inspire, says the Hong Kong diocesan weekly, the Sunday Examiner.  The newspaper reflected this week on the canonization in 2000 of 121 martyrs that had triggered conflict between the Holy See and the Chinese government at that time.  The canonization took place on Oct. 1, the National Day of China, and was viewed by Beijing as "an intentional provocation to hurt the Chinese people," the editorial recalled.  "Ten years have passed," it continued. "We need to consider whether anything was learned from these unfortunate disputes or did those 121 martyrs die in vain?
"Martyrdom is not merely an event of the past, but something that can inspire us today."
"On the mainland, many local Churches still struggle to be in communion with each other," the editorial stated. "The faithful suffer because of misguided political ideology and pressure to reject revealed truth. However, past experience has taught the Church that in every era, the presence of martyrs only strengthens the fidelity of the faithful toward the Church.  "The martyrs of China gave the ultimate witness to the Gospel with courage. Their faithfulness echoes the Confucian ideal of sacrificing oneself for a noble cause."
The editorial recalled that "the blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians" (Tertullian, ca. 160-220AD), and "certainly, this seed of faith will bear fruit in China." 
Among the 121 martyrs declared saints in 2000, the youngest was seven and the oldest 79, and there were 87 Chinese and 34 expatriate missionaries.

The saints, martyred between 1648 (the Qing Dynasty) and 1930 (the period of the Republic of China), including 6 bishops, 24 priests, 8 brothers, 7 religious sisters and 76 laypeople.  Today is the feast of the Chinese Martyrs, and a liturgical celebration was held at the Holy Martyrs and Blessed of China Mass Center, in the New Territories. They also attended a seminar on "How the Chinese Catholics follow the example of the Holy Martyrs and Blessed."  The 120 martyrs in this group died between 1648 and 1930. Most of them (87) were born in China and were children, parents, catechists or laborers, ranging from nine years of age to 72. This group includes four Chinese diocesan priests. The 33 foreign-born martyrs were mostly priests or women religious, especially from the Order of Preachers, the Paris Foreign Mission Society, the Friars Minor, Jesuits, Salesians and Franciscan Missionaries of Mary.

Augustine Zhao Rong was a Chinese solider who accompanied Bishop John Gabriel Taurin Dufresse (Paris Foreign Mission Society) to his martyrdom in Beijing. Augustine was baptized and not long after was ordained as a diocesan priest. He was martyred in 1815.
Beatified in groups at various times, these 120 martyrs were canonized in Rome on October 1, 2000.
Comment:  The People's Republic of China and the Roman Catholic Church each have over a billion members, but there are only 10 million Catholics in China. The reasons for that are better explained by historical conflicts than by a wholesale rejection of the Good News of Jesus Christ. The Chinese-born martyrs honored by today's feast were regarded by their persecutors as dangerous because they were considered allies of enemy, Catholics countries. The martyrs born outside China often tried to distance themselves from European political struggles relating to China, but their persecutors saw them as Westerners and therefore, by definition, anti-Chinese. The Good News of Jesus Christ is intended to benefit all peoples; today's martyrs knew that. May 21st-century Christians live in such a way that Chinese women and men will be attracted to hear that Good News and embrace it.
Quote: A year after these martyrs we re canonized, Pope John Paul II addressed a group of Chinese and Western scholars, gathered in Rome for a symposium honoring the 400th anniversary of the arrival in Beijing of Matteo Ricci, a Jesuit scholar and Chinese intellectual.
    After noting the positive contributions that Christianity had made to China, especially in health care and education, Pope John Paul II continued: “History, however, reminds us of the unfortunate fact that the work of members of the church in China was not always without error, the bitter fruit of their personal limitations and of the limits of their action. Moreover, their action was often conditioned by difficult situations connected with complex historical events and conflicting political interests. Nor were theological disputes lacking, which caused bad feelings and created serious difficulties in preaching the Gospel….
    “I feel deep sadness for these errors and limits of the past, and I regret that in many people these failings may have given the impression of a lack of respect and esteem for the Chinese people on the part of the Catholic Church, making them feel that the church was motivated by feelings of hostility toward China. For all of this I ask the forgiveness and understanding of those who may have felt hurt in some way by such actions on the part of Christians.”

THE MARTYRS OF CHINA, II, UNDER THE BOXERS (A.D. 1900)
THE modern era in Chinese missions dates from the middle of the nineteenth century, when by the Treaty of Nanking and other international agreements "Forbidden China" at last opened her doors to the outside world and guaranteed tolerance for Christianity. A period of great missionary enterprise and expansion followed-but not missionary only, for by the end of the century four fifths of the country's external trade was in English hands. The prospect of European merchants making of China another India caused alarm, and there was a reaction against the "foreign devils" after the encouragement given them by the chief minister, Li Hungchang.
With the support of the dowager empress, Tzu-hsi, a secret society was formed to drive the Europeans out. It was called Yi Ho Chuan, meaning "Righteous Harmony Boxers", and so its members are referred to in English as Boxers. In 1900 they took up arms; foreign diplomatic bodies were besieged in their legations, and large numbers of merchants, missionaries and others were massacred. Among the victims were five bishops, twenty-nine priests and nine nuns (all Europeans) and between twenty and thirty thousand other Catholics. The cases of nearly three thousand of them are under examination at Rome, and the first twenty-nine were beatified in 1946.
At the time of the Boxer outbreak the vicar apostolic of Northern Shansi was BD GREGORY GRASSI, Titular Bishop of Orthosias. He was sixty-seven years old, a native of the Piedmont, and a Friar Minor. He had been a missionary in China for forty years, and at the midsummer of 1900 was in Taiyuanfu, where the seminary of his vicariate was situated.
July 8, 2010 St. Gregory Grassi and Companions (d. 1900)
Christian missionaries have often gotten caught in the crossfire of wars against their own countries. When the governments of Britain, Germany, Russia and France forced substantial territorial concessions from the Chinese in 1898, anti-foreign sentiment grew very strong among many Chinese people.
Gregory Grassi was born in Italy in 1833, ordained in 1856 and sent to China five years later. Gregory was later ordained Bishop of North Shanxi. With 14 other European missionaries and 14 Chinese religious, he was martyred during the short but bloody Boxer Uprising of 1900.
Twenty-six of these martyrs were arrested on the orders of Yu Hsien, the governor of Shanxi province. They were hacked to death on July 9, 1900. Five of them were Friars Minor; seven were Franciscan Missionaries of Mary — the first martyrs of their congregation. Seven were Chinese seminarians and Secular Franciscans; four martyrs were Chinese laymen and Secular Franciscans. The other three Chinese laymen killed in Shanxi simply worked for the Franciscans and were rounded up with all the others. Three Italian Franciscans were martyred that same week in the province of Hunan. All these martyrs were beatified in 1946.
Comment: Martyrdom is the occupational hazard of missionaries. Throughout China during the Boxer Uprising, five bishops, 50 priests, two brothers, 15 sisters and 40,000 Chinese Christians were killed. The 146,575 Catholics served by the Franciscans in China in 1906 had grown to 303,760 by 1924 and were served by 282 Franciscans and 174 local priests. Great sacrifices often bring great results.
Quote: "Martyrdom is part of the Church's nature since it manifests Christian death in its pure form, as the death of unrestrained faith, which is otherwise hidden in the ambivalence of all human events. Through martyrdom the Church's holiness, instead of remaining purely subjective, achieves by God's grace the visible expression it needs. As early as the second century one who accepted death for the sake of Christian faith or Christian morals was looked on and revered as a 'martus' (witness). The term is scriptural in that Jesus Christ is the 'faithful witness' absolutely (Revelations 1:5; 3:14)" (Karl Rahner, Theological Dictionary, volume 2, pp. 108-09).


In the previous Maya notorious enemy of Christianity, Yu Hsien, had been made governor of Taiyuanfu, and week by week the situation there became more threatening. Among the Friars Minor was a herculean lay-brother, BD ANDREW BAUER, an Alsatian who had served in the 7th Cuirassiers, and he, together with a Christian mandarin, Li Fu, wanted to organize armed resistance. But their superiors would have none of it. "If it be God's will that we should be martyred, then we must accept it", declared BD FRANCIS FOGOLLA. He was the coadjutor bishop of Mgr Grassi, and like him an Italian Franciscan, but from Tuscany, where he was born in 1839.
On June 27 the Boxers raided the Protestant missions of the neighbourhood.
That night Mgr Grassi shut up the seminary, telling the students to disperse to their homes, and all but five succeeded in getting away. Those five were BD. JOHN CHANG, PATRICK TONG, PHILIP CHANG, JOHN CHANG junior, and JOHN WANG, of whom the eldest was twenty-three and the youngest sixteen. They were stopped at the town gate, arrested, and taken before the sub-prefect, who called on them to repudiate Christianity. They refused, and after some days in prison were taken to the courtyard of Yu Hsien's house.
Meanwhile Mgr Grassi was very perturbed for the nuns, Franciscan Missionaries of Mary
[This congregation was founded in 1877 by Mother Mary Helen de Chappotin de Neuville.] They first came to China nine years later, for whom he was responsible. He told them to dress in Chinese clothes, to give them a better chance to escape. But they showed no particular desire to be spared: "Don't stop us from dying with you, Monsignor", they said. "If we are not brave enough, God will give us strength." Their superioress was BD MARY HERMINA GRIVOT, who was a Burgundian from Beaune, born in 1866, and she had been in China only fifteen months. The witnesses agree that it was her strength and courage above all that nerved the rest, under God, to face their terrible ordeal. Two of her nuns were Italian, BE. MARY GIULIANI and CLARE NANETTI, one French, MARY ST JUST MOREAU, one Breton, NATALIA KERGUIN, one Belgian, AMANDINE JEURIS, and one Dutch, ADOLPHINE DIERKX. They were all between twenty-five and thirty-five years old. Mgr Grassi got some carts, and told the nuns to take their orphan charges off in them to Christian households; but they were turned back, and after a day or two the children were forcibly carried away by soldiers. An order came from Yu Hsien forbidding Christians to meet together for prayer; the bishop refused to confirm such an order. Mother Hermina was anxious to do something to protect her orphans, but her nuns implored her to take some rest. "Rest!" she retorted. "Time enough to rest in Heaven!" The flames of burning houses were coming nearer, and the little group around Bishop Grassi was completely cut off from the outer world.
On July 5 the two bishops and the nuns were made to go to a building adjoining Yu Hsien's house. With them were two Franciscan priests, Fathers Elias and Theodoric, and the Brother Andrew mentioned above. BD ELIAS FACCHINI was an old man, born near Bologna, who had been training young clergy in Shansi for over thirty years. BD THEODORIC BALAT was a Frenchman from near Albi, a man of gentle and reserved character, whose reliability and knowledge of the Chinese language had caused his being entrusted for ten years with a remote and difficult mission-post in the mountains.
In the afternoon of July 9 an attack was made on a number of devoted Protestants in a neighbouring building, and all knew the end was at hand. *[* These were the thirty-three victims (including two of her own step-daughters) referred to by the wife of an American Protestant missionary, Ernest Atwater, in a letter from Fenchufu on August 3. She adds, "The following [same?] day the Roman Catholic priests and nuns, Taiyuan, were also beheaded".  Mrs Atwater and her husband and two more children were themselves martyred about August 15.]  The Boxers broke in and drove the Catholics out just as Bishop Grassi had given the last absolution. There was no pretence of a trial. Yu Hsien himself cut down the two bishops. The nuns knelt, singing the Te Deum and drawing back their veils for the death-blow; but they were cruelly hoisted up by their hands behind their backs before their throats were cut. Mother Clare was the first to die, she who had long before foreseen her death for Christ. The three Friars Minor and the five Chinese seminarians perished by the sword; and with them the nine mission servants and others, who could have saved themselves and would not, humble and obscure men whose names are written in the Church's roll of holiness as BB. THOMAS SEN, SIMON CHEN, PETER U NGANPAN, FRANCIS CHANG YUN, MATTHIAS FUN TE, JAMES YEN KUTUN, PETER CHANG PANNIEN, JAMES CHAO SIUENSIN, and PETER YANOL MAN. Of these twenty-six, the seminarians and the nuns were the protomartyrs of the Chinese seminaries and the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary respectively. And the building where they were all gathered together at the end was known in Chinese, with nice appropriateness, as the "Inn of Heavenly Peace".
Four days earlier, at Hengchowfu in the province of Honan, another Franciscan, Father CESIDIO GIACOMANTONIO, going to a place of greater safety, had turned back to remove the Blessed Sacrament from the tabernacle in his chapel. He was caught by the Boxers, severely beaten, wrapped in sacking soaked with oil and slowly burned to death. Bd Cesidio had been in China only seven months and he is the first martyr and the first beatus of the international Franciscan College of St Antony at Rome.
The news of this priest's death had brought the vicar apostolic of Southern Honan, Bishop ANTONY FANTOSATI, hurrying to Hengchowfu, accompanied by another friar, Father JOSEPH GAMBARO. In their boat on the river they were recognized. Boxer boats surrounded them and pushed their boat aground, where they were met with showers of heavy stones. Bd Joseph was killed first, but Bd Antony lingered for two hours before a spear put an end to his life.

Before these twenty-nine persons could be beatified as martyrs it had to be  proved that they had been killed out of hatred of the Christian faith, and not simply because they--or some of them- were foreigners, or for other political reasons. The principal piece of evidence adduced was a proclamation of the governor, Yu Hsien, in which he said: "The European religion is wicked and cruel, it despises the spirit and oppresses peoples. All [Chinese] Christians who do not sincerely repudiate it will be executed ...o. Christians, hear and tremble!  Give up this perverse religion! Let all Christians fear and obey: the Boxers will not hurt persons-it is this religion they hate."
And so the beatification of the first group of martyrs in China in 1900 duly took place in the archbasilica of St Peter at Rome, on November 24, 1946. Among the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary from China who were present were two Chinese nuns who had been witnesses of some of the martyrdoms. One of them, seventy years of age, had been without the use of her thumbs for forty-six years, for the Boxers had hung her up by them for an hour, and then forced the blood of one of their victims down her throat. Another nun was the granddaughter of one of the martyrs.
Five years later took place the beatification of ALBERIC CRESCITELLI, an Italian missionary, born near Naples in 1863, who came to China in 1888. His huge field was along the Han river, where for over ten years he travelled from village to village, preaching and establishing schools. He eventually reached southern Shansi, after a three-months' journey by boat, on horseback and on foot. When the Boxer rising happened Father Crescitelli was seized by a howling mob; for twenty-four hours he was tortured, and finally hacked to death on July 22, 1900.
There were a number of eye-witnesses of the passion of these martyrs whose testimony is extant. In 1902 there was published in Rome a Vie de la Mére Marie-Hermine de Jèsus et de ses compagnes; it is a smaIl-royal 8vo volume of 580 pages, and it narrates the lives of the seven nuns in considerable detail. An abbreviation of this (146 pages), by M. T. de Blarer, appeared in Paris in 1946. Both these books contain some particulars of the other Franciscan martyrs. See also Les vingt-neuf martyrs de Chine…(1946). A list of European missionaries killed in China between 1815 and 1923 can be found in Missions de Scheut (1924). For other martyrs in China, see under February 17.
After noting the positive contributions that Christianity had made to China, especially in health care and education, Pope John Paul II continued: “History, however, reminds us of the unfortunate fact that the work of members of the church in China was not always without error, the bitter fruit of their personal limitations and of the limits of their action. Moreover, their action was often conditioned by difficult situations connected with complex historical events and conflicting political interests. Nor were theological disputes lacking, which caused bad feelings and created serious difficulties in preaching the Gospel….
“I feel deep sadness for these errors and limits of the past, and I regret that in many people these failings may have given the impression of a lack of respect and esteem for the Chinese people on the part of the Catholic Church, making them feel that the church was motivated by feelings of hostility toward China. For all of this I ask the forgiveness and understanding of those who may have felt hurt in some way by such actions on the part of Christians
.”
1900 St. Alberic Crescitelli Missionary martyr joined the Milan Foreign Missionary Society and was sent to China in 1888. He worked in schools and missions along the Han River until the Boxer Rebellion brought chaos to China
Born near Naples, Italy, Alberic joined the Milan Foreign Missionary Society and was sent to China in 1888. He worked in schools and missions along the Han River until the Boxer Rebellion brought chaos to China. A group of boxers captured Alberic and hacked him to pieces on July 21, 1900. He was beatified in 1951
.

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798
 
Links to Related MarianWebsites  Angels and Archangels  Saints Visions of Heaven and Hell

Widowed Saints  html
Doctors_of_the_Church   Acts_Of_The_Apostles  Roman Catholic Popes  Purgatory  UniateChalcedon

Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles_BLay Saints  Miraculous_IconMiraculous_Medal_Novena Patron Saints
Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800  1900 2000
Miracles 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000  
 
1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900 Lay Saints
The POPES HTML
Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005 Benedict XVI

Pope St. Clement:  Since all things lie open to His eyes and ears, let us hold Him in awe and rid ourselves of impure desires to do works of evil, so that we may be protected by His mercy from the judgement that is to come.
Which of us can escape His mighty hand? 

"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious."  1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR benefit of others.
Non est inventus similis illis
God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today
 

1153 Bd Eugenius III, Pope Cistercian monk at Clairvaux; he took in religion the name of Bernard, his great namesake being his superior at Clairvaux
Romæ beáti Eugénii Papæ Tértii, qui, postquam cœnóbium sanctórum Vincéntii et Anastásii ad Aquas Sálvias magna sanctimóniæ ac prudéntiæ laude rexísset, Ecclésiam univérsam, Póntifex Máximus renuntiátus, sanctíssime gubernávit.  Cultum autem, ab immemorábili témpore ipsi exhíbitum, Pius Papa Nonus ratum hábuit et confirmávit.
    At Rome, blessed Eugene III, pope.  Having gained a great reputation for sanctity and prudence in his government of the monastery of Saints Vincent and Anastasius, he was raised to the Sovereign Pontificate and ruled the universal Church in much holiness.  Pope Pius IX approved and confirmed the veneration paid to him.


Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

Benedict_XVI_Patriarch_Bartholomew

Jesus Christ is the blessing for every man and woman ... The Church, in giving us Jesus, offers us the fullness of the Lord’s blessing. This is precisely the mission of the people of God: to spread to all peoples God’s blessing made flesh in Jesus Christ. And Mary, the first and most perfect disciple of Jesus, the first and most perfect believer, the model of the pilgrim Church, is the one who opens the way to the Church’s motherhood and constantly sustains her maternal mission to all mankind. Mary’s tactful maternal witness has accompanied the Church from the beginning. She, the Mother of God, is also the Mother of the Church, and through the Church, the mother of all men and women, and of every people. …

Let us look to Mary, let us contemplate the Holy Mother of God. I suggest that you all greet her together, just like those courageous people of Ephesus, who cried out before their pastors when they entered Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!” What a beautiful greeting for our Mother. There is a story – I do not know if it is true – that some among those people had clubs in their hands, perhaps to make the Bishops understand what would happen if they did not have the courage to proclaim Mary “Mother of God”! I invite all of you, without clubs, to stand up and to greet her three times with this greeting of the early Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!”  Pope Francis; Homily, Holy Mass on the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God

Chinese Catholics Celebrate Pentecost, World Day of Prayer for Church in China
Sacraments of Initiation Administered During Course of Celebrations
Hail, Holy Mother of God -- Pope Francis
By Staff Reporter
Rome, May 27, 2015 (ZENIT.org)

Many Chinese Catholic communities celebrated the World Day of Prayer for the Church in China last Sunday, reported Fides. Pope Benedict XVI instituted this day of prayer in 2007.

The May 24 prayer day coincides with the Marian feast day of Our Lady Help of Christians, and this year it coincided with the feast of Pentecost.  At the end of last Wednesday's General Audience in the Vatican, Pope Francis remembered the prayer day for the Asian nation.

In China on the prayer day, the sacraments of Christian initiation were administered to seven catechumans, 13 infants, and 38 adults in the He Bei province's parishes of Yan Jiao and of Bao Ding, as well as in the Zhe Jiang province's parish of Long Gang in the diocese of Wen Zhou.

The feast day of Our Lady Help of Christians is celebrated at the Shrine of Our Lady of Sheshan in Shanghai and on the day, the parish of Chang Shu in the diocese of Su Zhou, along with many other communities, prayed: "Let us pray for the Church in China, that faces major challenges in the life of the Church and society. Let us pray so that the Holy Spirit guides us ... and may Our Lady Help of Christians protect us."  Four infants were also baptized during Mass in Chang Shu.

Also to celebrate, the parish of Yi Shan in the Diocese of Wen Zhou in the province of Zhe Jiang held a solemn Marian procession, so that, as observers noted, "the Church is one and united and a witness of love."

Moreover, religious and some lay people of the diocese of Nan Chong, located in the southern province of Sichuan, went on a pilgrimage not only to celebrate the special feasts of Sunday, but also to celebrate the Year of Consecrated Life. During it, those partaking exchanged their experiences of vocation, faith, mission and pastoral activity.

Pope Francis called for the Year of Consecrated Life at the end of his meeting with 120 superior generals of male institutes last November. The year started on the First Sunday of Advent, the weekend of Nov. 29, 2014, and ends on Feb. 2, 2016, the World Day of Consecrated Life. (D.C.L.)


  Popes Html link here: 
 “Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.” Pope Francis:
It Is a Mortal Sin When Children Don't Visit Their Elderly Parents.
By Deborah Castellano Lubov VATICAN CITY, March 04, 2015 (Zenit.org) –

“Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.”
During his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis made this strong statement while continuing his catechesis on the family, with this and next week focusing on the elderly.  Confining this week’s address to their problematic current condition, the Holy Father said the elderly are ignored and that a society that does this is perverse.
While noting that life has been lengthened thanks to advances in medicine, he lamented that while the number of older people has multiplied, "our societies are not organized enough to make room for them, with proper respect and concrete consideration for their fragility and their dignity.”

“As long as we are young, we are led to ignore old age, as if it were a disease to be taken away. Then when we become older, especially if we are poor, sick and alone, we experience the shortcomings of a society planned on efficiency, which consequently ignores the elderly.”


He went on to quote his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI, who, when visiting a nursing home in November 2012, “used clear and prophetic words: ‘The quality of a society, I would say of a civilization, is judged also on how the elderly are treated and the place reserved for them in the common life.’"  Without a space for them, Francis highlighted, society dies.

Cultures, he decried, see the elderly as a burden who do not produce and should be discarded.
“You do not say it openly, but you do it!” he exclaimed. "Out of our fear of weakness and vulnerability, we do not tolerate and abandon the elderly," he said. “It’s sickening to see the elderly discarded. It is ugly. It’s a sin. Abandoning the elderly is a mortal sin.”
“Children who do not visit their elderly and ill parents have mortally sinned. Understand?”

The Pope expressed his dismay at children who go months without seeing a parent, or how elderly are confined to little tables in their kitchens alone, without anyone caring for them.  He noted that he observed this reality during his ministry in Buenos Aires.  Unwilling to accept limits, society, he noted, doesn’t allow elderly to participate and gives into the mentality that only the young can be useful and enjoy life.
The whole society must realize, the Pope said, the elderly contain the wisdom of the people.
The tradition of the Church, Pope Francis reaffirmed, has always supported a culture of closeness to the elderly, involving affectionately and supportively accompanying them in this final part of life.  The Church cannot, and does not want to, Francis underscored, comply with a mentality of impatience, and even less of indifference and contempt towards old age.
Sooner or later, we will all be old, he said. If we do not treat the elderly well, he stressed we will not be treated well either.
“We must awaken the collective sense of gratitude, of appreciation, of hospitality, which make them feel the elderly living part of his community.”

Concluding his address, Pope Francis noted how old age will come to all one day and reminded the faithful how much they have received from their elders. He also challenged them to not take a step back and abandon them to their fate.


The Church without Mary is an orphanage
 
Pope Francis:
“It is  very different to try and grow in the faith without Mary's help. It is something else. It is like growing in the faith, yes, but in a Church that is an orphanage. A Church without Mary is an orphanage. With Mary—she educates us, she makes us grow, she accompanies us, she touches consciences. She knows how to touch consciences, for repentance.”
Pope Francis Speech of October 25, 2014, to the Schönstatt Apostolic Movement
on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of its founding
.

 "Whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you shall receive it, and it shall come to you. St. Mark 11:24"

Nazareth is the School of the Gospel (II)
It is first a lesson of silence.
May the esteem of silence be born in us anew, this admirable and indispensable condition of the spirit, in us who are assailed by so much clamor, noise and shouting in our modern life, so noisy and hyper sensitized. O silence of Nazareth, teach us recollection, interiority, disposition to listen to the good inspirations and words of the true masters; teach us the need and value of preparation, study, meditation, personal and interior life, and prayer that God alone sees in secret.

It is a lesson of family life.
May Nazareth teach us what a family is, with its communion of love, its austere and simple beauty, its sacred and inviolable character; let us learn from Nazareth how sweet and irreplaceable is the formation one receives within it; let us learn how primordial its role is on the social level.

It is a lesson of work. Nazareth, the house of the carpenter's son; it is there that we would like to understand and celebrate the severe and redeeming law of human labor; there, to reestablish the conscience of work's nobility; to remind people that working cannot be an end in itself, but that its freedom and nobility come, in addition to its economic value, from the value that finalize it; how we wish to salute here all the workers of the world and show them their great model, their divine brother, the prophet of all their just causes, Christ Our Lord.
Homily of Paul VI in Nazareth January 5, 1964

  Pope Francis: The Kingdom of God is found in silence, not in causing a spectacle (Video)
He explained that it can also be found in day to day life By Staff

ROME, November 13, 2014 (Rome Reports) - To view the video click here.
     
At the end of its Constitution on the Church, the Second Vatican Council left us a very beautiful meditation on Mary Most Holy.
Let me (Pope Francis) just recall the words referring to the mystery we celebrate today: “The immaculate Virgin preserved free from all stain of original sin, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory, when her earthly life was over, and exalted by the Lord as Queen over all things” (no. 59).
Then towards the end, there is: “The Mother of Jesus in the glory which she possesses in body and soul in heaven is the image and the beginning of the Church as it is to be perfected in the world to come. Likewise, she shines forth on earth, until the day of the Lord shall come” (no. 68). Pope Francis