Mary Mother of GOD
 Friday   Saint of the Day July 15   Idibus Júlii  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum
et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum. RDeo grátias.

And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins. R.  Thanks be to God.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

 
CAUSES OF SAINTS


Commemoration Holy Fathers First 6 Ecumenical Councils

15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

The Psalter of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Pope Benedict XVI to The Catholic Church In China {whole article here }

                                           
 
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'


It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD
Every Christian must be a living book wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel
St. Bonaventure, Bishop, Doctor of the Church (Feast)
 Saint of the Day July 15   Idibus Júlii  

Wisdom 8:2-7, 16-18;  Psalms 16:5-9, 11 ; Matthew 5:13-19 ;
THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST  

Synaxis der 12 Aposte the First Six Ecumenical Councils Commemoration of the Holy Fathers An Ecumenical Council is comprised of archpastors and pastors of the Church, and representatives of all the local Churches, from every land of the"oikumene" (i.e. from all the whole inhabited world).
All Saints of Pskov on the Third Sunday after Pentecost The Russian Orthodox Church commemorates
  273 Eutropius, Zosima & Nonosa Martyrs of Porto near Rome under Aurelian (Benedictines). MM

4th v. St. Abudimus Greek martyr  born on the island of Tenedos in the Aegean
  338 St. Jacob of Nisibis First bishop of Nisibis 

355 St. Barhadbesaba zealous deacon of Arbela Persia, beheaded 15th year persecution under Shapur II
660 Eternus of Évreux The ninth bishop of Évreux, France (Benedictines) B (AC)
775 St. Plechelm Benedictine companion to St. Wiro. England, ordained priest establish a monastery at Odilienburg.
820 St. Benedict The bishop of Angers, France, in reign of Emperor Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne
872 St. Athanasius Bishop victim political turmoil suffered Saracen occupation; ransomed Christians
1024 St Henry The Emperor; prayer maintained spirit of humility and fear, miraculously cured by St Benedict at Monte Cassino
1140 Baldwin of Rieti Clairvaux monk beloved disciple of Saint Bernard abbot patron of San Pastore
1274 St. Bonaventure Franciscan, doctor of the Church, contemporary of St Thomas Aquinas and St Albert the Great
1550 Bd. Ignatius Azevedo Companions, Martyrs by Huguenot French privateer Missionaries to Brazil;
1756 St. Pompeius Maria Pirotti a renowned teacher and preacher
1851 Bl. Anne Jahouvey a vision of black children vocation to their needs; veil in Autun, France, Congregation of St. Joseph of Cluny founded houses in Europe, South America, and Africa--French Guyana educate six hundred slaves to be liberated; founded houses in Tahiti and Madagascar.

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

The Word Rosary Means Crown of Roses (II) July 15
- Our Lady of Molanus (Jerusalem, 1099)
At the end of the 12th century, Saint Dominic of Guzman was deeply grieved to see that the gravity of people's sins was preventing the conversion of the Albigensians. He decided to retire into the forest alone to pray.
He spent three days and three nights in prayer, doing penance, flagellating himself until he actually lost consciousness. At that moment, the Blessed Mother appeared to him with three angels and said that the best weapon for converting hardened souls was not flagellation, but the prayer of her Psalter. Saint Dominic went to Cathedral of Toulouse; bells rang people gathered to listen to him.
When Dominic began speaking, a fierce storm with claps of thunder and strong winds out and frightened the people. Everybody present saw the image of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the cathedral;
the Virgin raised her arms three times to heaven.
Saint Dominic began to pray the Psalter of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the storm ended.
On another occasion Saint Dominic was meant to preach in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris on the feast of Saint John. While he was praying the rosary before mass, the Blessed Virgin appeared and said to him that his homily was quite good, but that it would be better to change it and she gave him a book with images, in which she explained how much the rosary pleased God, because it reminded him of the moment when humanity,
represented by Mary, had accepted his Son as the Savior.  See www.pilgrimqueen.org

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Never doubt that the Blessed Mother and Virgin Mary chose to deliver her Son for the salvation of mankind
with a strong heart and constant determination, so as to be the Mother in total conformity with the Father.
Inasmuch, her approval of her only Son’s sacrifice for the salvation of mankind is what makes her praiseworthy and merits to be cherished. However, she sympathized to such a point that she would have readily (had that been possible) taken on all the torments that her Son endured.
Verily, she was strong and tender, sweet and rigorous all at the same time. Miserly for herself, generous for us! She therefore deserves to be loved and revered over all things, after the Holy Trinity - the Father, the Holy Spirit and her very holy Child Our Lord Jesus-Christ -
whose divine mystery no language can manage to explain…
Saint Bonaventure (1221-1274)
Synaxis der 12 Aposte the First Six Ecumenical Councils Commemoration of the Holy Fathers An Ecumenical Council is comprised of archpastors and pastors of the Church, and representatives of all the local Churches, from every land of the"oikumene" (i.e. from all the whole inhabited world).
All Saints of Pskov on the Third Sunday after Pentecost The Russian Orthodox Church commemorates

  273 Eutropius, Zosima & Nonosa Martyrs of Porto near Rome under Aurelian (Benedictines). MM (RM)
3rd v. Antiochus and Cyriacus "At Sebaste the passion of Saint Antiochus the physician who was beheaded under the governor Hadrian; and when milk flowed forth from the severed head in place of blood, Cyriacus, the executioner, was converted to Christ, and himself also suffered martyrdom" MM (RM)
Cyricus and Julitta The Holy Martyrs lived in the city of Iconium in the province of Lykaoneia in Asia Minor. St Julitta was descended from an illustrious family and a Christian.
4th v. St. Abudimus Greek martyr  born on the island of Tenedos in the Aegean
  338 St. Jacob of Nisibis First bishop of Nisibis 
355 St. Barhadbesaba (Barhadbesciabas), zealous deacon of Arbela (Adiabene), Persia, was beheaded in the 15th year of the persecutions under Shapur II.M (AC)
4th v.
St. Secundinus, Agrippinus, Maximus, Fortunatus, & Martialis A group of martyrs who were put to death in the Roman province of Pannonia.
5th-6th v
St. Apronia (Evronie)  nun and sister of St. Aprus. Born near Trier, Germany, Apronia was received into a convent by her brother, who was a bishop
  660 Eternus of Évreux The ninth bishop of Évreux, France (Benedictines) B (AC)
  716 St. Donald lived at Ogilvy in Forfarshire ubiquity of the sons of Somerled of the Isles, clan Donald
775 St. Plechelm A Benedictine companion to St. Wiro. Plecheim was from Northumbria, England, an ordained priest. He traveled with St. Wiro to establish a monastery at Odilienburg.
820 St. Benedict The bishop of Angers, France, in the reign of Emperor Louis the Pious, the son of Charlemagne
  824 Adalard the Younger a monk of Corbie Abbey under Abbot Saint Adalard. He was 20 when he died , OSB (PC)
  830 Saint Haruch of Werden Abbot Saint Haruch was regionary bishop in Werden (Benedictines)., OSB B (AC)
  862 St. Swithun educated at old monastery, Winchester, where ordained; became chaplain to King Egbert of the West Saxons appointed him tutor of son, Ethelwulf; one of the King's counselors; built several churches; known for humility and his aid to the poor and need Malmesbury affirms that a great number of miraculous cures of all kinds were wrought on occasion relics translation
 872 St. Athanasius Bishop and victim of political turmoil suffered during the Saracen occupation. He also ransomed Christians from Islamic captors attended the Lateran Council of 863
 937 St. Edith of Polesworth Sister of King Athelstan of England; married viking king Sihtric at York in 925, he died next year, she became a Benedictine nun at Polesworth, Warwickshire, where she was noted.
1015 St. Vladimir I, notorious for his barbarism and immorality. After conquest of Kherson in Crimea (988) became impressed by progrers of Christianity approached Eastern Emperor Basil II about marrying emperor's daughter Ann; converted, reformed his life, and married Anne
1024 St Henry The Emperor; by prayer maintained in his heart the necessary spirit of humility and fear, and was able without being spoiled to bear the tide of prosperity and honour; founded the see of Bamberg and built a great cathedral there; miraculously cured at the intercession of St Benedict at Monte Cassino
1080 St. David of Sweden Benedictine bishop and; missionary to Sweden aid Bishop Sigfrid of Vaxio, who had lost his 3 missionary nephews. Sigfrid sent David to Vastmanland, there David founded a monastery at Munktorp or Monkentorp; ruled mon­astery as abbot until becoming the bishop of Vastera Miracles were reported at his tomb
1122 St. Egino Camaldolese abbot involved in the many disputes of his era
1140 Baldwin of Rieti became a monk at Clairvaux under Saint Bernard and one of the most beloved disciples of the holy founder. He was sent back to his native Italy as abbot of San Pastore in the diocese of Rieti, of which he is the principal patron saint, OSB Cist. Abbot (AC)
St. Seduinus
1274 St. Bonaventure Franciscan, theologian, doctor of the Church, was both learned and holy;  contemporary of Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Albert the Great
1435 Blessed Angelina of Marsciano founded a convent of regular tertiaries of Saint Francis of Foligno, which was finished in 1397 with 135 convents, OFM Tert. Widow (AC)
1458 Blessed Bernard of Baden renounced his worldly power and possessions in order to organize a Crusade to the Holy Land died without having met his goal  (AC)
1550 Bd. Ignatius Azevedo and Companions, Martyrs
by Huguenot French privateer Missionaries to Brazil;
1570 Bl.  Joanninus de San Juan Martyr with Blessed Ignatius de Azevedo.
1583 Blessed Francis Aranha went to Goa in southern India with his uncle served as a missionary on the islet of Salsette, SJ M (AC)
1583 Bl. Peter Berna Jesuit martyr in India from Ascona, on Lake Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland studied at the German College and Rome entered the Jesuits. Sent to India with Blessed Rudolf Acquaviva, he received ordination at Goa working to convert Indian population. martyred with Blessed Rudolf by local opponents to Christian missionaries.
1583 Bl. Anthony Francisco Jesuit martyr with Rudolf Acquaviva. Born in Coimbra, Portugal, Anthony was professed as a Jesuit in 1570. working in the missions of Salsette, near Goa
1756 St. Pompeius Maria Pirotti a renowned teacher and preacher
1838 Blessed Peter Tuan Born in Tonkin (Vietnam) in 1766; beatified 1900 a native priest, died in prison of wounds received for faith while awaiting the decree of decapitation (Benedictines)
1851 Bl. Anne Jahouvey a vision of black children decided vocation to their needs; veil in Autun, France, and Congregation of St. Joseph of Cluny was founded; founded houses in Europe, South America, and Africa went to French Guyana educate six hundred slaves to be liberated; founded houses in Tahiti and Madagascar
1855 St. Andrew Nam-Thuong Martyr Vietnamese mayor of a village and a Catholic, Andrew served as a catechist until his arrest in a persecution. He died on a march into exile at Mi-Tho, Vietnam. Andrew was canonized in 1988.
Sts. Piroou and St. Athom  Martyrdom of St. Balanah, the Priest.  The Martyrdom of St. Epime (Pimanon). The Departure of Cyrus (Karas), brother of Emperor Theodosius.  {Coptic}
Papíæ sancti Felícis, Epíscopi et Mártyris.
At Pavia, St. Felix, bishop and martyr.

Carthágine beáti Catulíni Diáconi, de cujus láudibus sanctus Augustínus sermónem ad pópulum hábuit, et sanctórum Januárii, Floréntii, Júliæ et Justæ Mártyrum; qui pósiti sunt in Basílica Fausti.
At Carthage, blessed Catulinus, deacon, whose glories were proclaimed by St. Augustine in a sermon to his people.  Also the saints Januarius, Florentius, Julia, and Justa, martyrs, who were entombed in the Church of St. Faustus.
< Alexandríæ sanctórum Mártyrum Philíppi, Zenónis, Narséi et decem infántum.
At Alexandria, the holy martyrs Philip, Zeno, Narseus, and ten children.

Panórmi Invéntio córporis sanctæ Rosáliæ, Vírginis Panormitánæ; quod, Urbáno Octávo Pontífice Máximo, repértum divínitus, Jubilæi anno Sicíliam a peste liberávit.
   At Palermo, the finding of the body of St. Rosalia, virgin of that city.  Miraculously discovered in the time of Pope Urban VIII, it delivered Sicily from the plague in the year of the Jubilee.


Synaxis der 12 Apostel
Orthodoxe Kirche: 30. Juni - Synaxis der 12 Apostel Katholische Kirche: 15. Juli - Tag der Apostelteilung
Das griechische Wort Synaxis (russisch sobor) wird oft als Versammlung übersetzt. Gemeint ist aber bei diesen Heiligenfesten eine Zusammenschau, also eine Kommemoration mehrerer Heiliger oder nach großen Festtagen eine Betrachtung einzelner Heiliger im Zusammenhang mit ihrer Bedeutung für diese Feste. In unserem ökumenischen Kalender finden Sie: Synaxis der 70 Apostel (4.1.) Synaxis des Propheten und Vorläufers Johannes des Täufers (7.1.) Synaxis des Erzengels Gabriel (25.3.) Synaxis von Anna und Joachim (9.9.) Synaxis der Erzengel Michael und Gabriel und aller Engel (8.11.) Synaxis der Allerheiligsten Gottesgebärerin (Theotokos) (26.12.) und die Synaxis der 12 Apostel.

Während die katholische Kirche am 15.7. des Tages gedenkt, an dem sich die Apostel voneinander trennten, um das Evangelium in alle Welt zu bringen, schließt sich der 30. Juni an den Festtag der beiden größten Apostel Peter und Paul an, um an diesem Tag aller Apostel zu gedenken. Kurzbiographien finden Sie bei den Gedenktagen der einzelnen Apostel:
Andreas  Bartholomäus  Jakobus Alphäus  Jakobus Zebedäus  Johannes 
Judas Thaddäus  Matthäus  Matthias  Petrus  Philippus  Simon Zelotes  Thomas

Commemoration of the Holy Fathers of the First Six Ecumenical Councils.
In the Ninth Article of the Nicea-Constantinople Symbol of Faith proclaimed by the holy Fathers of the First and Second Ecumenical Councils, we confess our faith in
 "One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church."
By virtue of the catholic nature of the Church, an Ecumenical Council is the Church's supreme authority, and possesses the competence to resolve major questions of church life. An Ecumenical Council is comprised of archpastors and pastors of the Church, and representatives of all the local Churches, from every land of the "oikumene" (i.e. from the whole inhabited world).
The Orthodox Church acknowledges Seven Holy Ecumenical Councils:
The First Ecumenical Council (Nicea I) (May 29, and also on seventh Sunday after Pascha) was convened in the year 325 against the heresy of Arius, in the city of Nicea in Bithynia under StConstantine the Great, Equal of the Apostles.
The Second Ecumenical Council (Constantinople I) (May 22) was convened in the year 381 against the heresy of Macedonias, by the emperor Theodosius the Great.
The Third Ecumenical Council (Ephesus) (September 9) was convened in the year 431 against the heresy of Nestorius, in the city of Ephesus by the emperor Theodosius the Younger.
The Fourth Ecumenical Council (Chalcedon) (July 16) was convened in the year 451, against the Monophysite heresy, in the city of Chalcedon under the emperor Marcian.
The Fifth Ecumenical Council (Constnatinople II) (July 25) "Concerning the Three Chapters," was convened in the year 553, under the emperor Justinian the Great.
The Sixth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople III) (January 23) met during the years 680-681, to fight the Monothelite heresy, under the emperor Constantine Pogonatos.
The fact that the Seventh Ecumenical Council (Nicea II) is not commemorated today testifies to the antiquity of today's celebration. The Seventh Council, commemorated on the Sunday nearest to October 11, was convened at Nicea in the year 787 against the Iconoclast heresy, under the emperor Constantine and his mother Irene.
The Church venerates the Holy Fathers of the Ecumenical Councils because Christ has established them as "lights upon the earth," guiding us to the true Faith. "Adorned with the robe of truth," the doctrine of the Fathers, based upon the preaching of the Apostles, has established one faith for the Church. The Ecumenical Councils, are the highest authority in the Church.
Such Councils, guided by the grace of the Holy Spirit, and accepted by the Church, are infallible.
The Orthodox Church's conciliar definitions of dogma have the highest authority, and such definitions always begin with the Apostolic formula: "It seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us..." (Acts 15: 28).
The Ecumenical Councils were always convened for a specific reason: to combat false opinions and heresies, and to clarify the Orthodox Church's teaching.
But the Holy Spirit has thus seen fit, that the dogmas, the truths of faith, immutable in their content and scope, constantly and consequently are revealed by the conciliar mind of the Church, and are given precision by the holy Fathers within theological concepts and terms in exactly such measure as is needed by the Church itself for its economy of salvation. The Church, in expounding its dogmas, is dealing with the concerns of a given historical moment,
"not revealing everything in haste and thoughtlessly, nor indeed, ultimately hiding something" (St Gregory the Theologian).
A brief summary of the dogmatic theology of the First Six Ecumenical Councils is formulated and contained in the First Canon of the Council of Trullo (also known as Quinisext), held in the year 692.
The 318 Holy Fathers of the First Ecumenical Council are spoken of in this Canon I of Trullo as having: "with unanimity of faith revealed and declared to us the consubstantiality of the three Persons of the Divine nature and, ... instructing the faithful to adore the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit with one worship, they cast down and dispelled the false teaching about different degrees of Divinity."
The 150 Holy Fathers of the Second Ecumenical Council left their mark on the theology of the Church concerning the Holy Spirit,
"repudiating the teaching of Macedonius, as one who wished to divide the inseparable Unity,
so that there might be no perfect mystery of our hope
."
The 200 God-bearing Fathers of the Third Ecumenical Council expounded the teaching that
"Christ, the Incarnate Son of God is One." They also confessed that
"she who bore Him without seed was the spotless Ever-Virgin, glorifying her as truly the Mother of God.

The 630 Holy Fathers of the Fourth Ecumenical Council decreed that
"the One Christ, the Son of God... must be glorified in two natures."
The 165 God-bearing Holy Fathers of the Fifth Ecumenical Council
 "in synod anathematized and repudiated Theodore of Mopsuestia (the teacher of Nestorius),
and Origen, and Didymus, and Evagrius,
renovators of the Hellenic teaching about the transmigration of souls and the transmutation of bodies and the impieties they raised against the resurrection of the dead."
The 170 Holy Fathers of the Sixth Ecumenical Council
 "taught that we ought to confess two natural volitions, or two wills [trans. note: one divine, and the other human],
and two natural operations (energies) in Him Who was incarnate for our salvation, Jesus Christ, our true God."
In decisive moments of Church history, the holy Ecumenical Councils promulgated their dogmatic definitions, as trustworthy delimitations in the spiritual battle for the purity of Orthodoxy, which will last until such time, as "all shall come into the unity of faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God" (Eph. 4: 13).
In the struggle with new heresies, the Church does not abandon its former dogmatic concepts nor replace them with some sort of new formulations.
The dogmatic formulae of the Holy Ecumenical Councils need never be superseded, they remain always contemporary to the living Tradition of the Church. Therefore the Church proclaims:

"The faith of all in the Church of God hath been glorified by men, which were luminaries in the world, cleaving to the Word of Life, so that it be observed firmly, and that it dwell unshakably until the end of the ages, conjointly with their God-bestown writings and dogmas. We reject and we anathematize all whom they have rejected and anathematized, as being enemies of Truth. And if anyone does not cleave to nor admit the aforementioned pious dogmas, and does not teach or preach accordingly, let him be anathema" (Canon I of the Council of Trullo).
In addition to their dogmatic definitions, the Holy Fathers of the Ecumenical Councils exerted great efforts towards the strengthening of church discipline.
Local Councils promulgated their disciplinary canons according to the circumstances of the time and place, frequently differing among themselves in various particulars.
All Saints of Pskov on the Third Sunday after Pentecost The Russian Orthodox Church commemorates
The universal unity of the Orthodox Church required unity also in canonical practice, i.e. a conciliar deliberation and affirmation of the most important canonical norms by the Fathers of the Ecumenical Councils. Thus, according to conciliar judgment, the Church has accepted:
20 Canons from the First, 7 Canons from the Second, 8 Canons from the Third, and 30 Canons from the Fourth Ecumenical Synods.
The Fifth and the Sixth Councils concerned themselves only with resolving dogmatic questions, and did not leave behind any disciplinary canons.
The need to establish in codified form the customary practices during the years 451-680, and ultimately to compile a canonical codex for the Orthodox Church, occasioned the convening of a special Council, which was wholly devoted to the general application of churchly rules. This was convened in the year 692.
The Council "in the Imperial Palace" or "Under the Arches" (in Greek "en trullo"), came to be called the Council in Trullo. Also called the "Quinisext" [meaning the "fifth and sixth"], because it is considered to have completed the activities of the Fifth and Sixth Councils, simply a direct continuation of the Sixth Ecumenical Council itself, separated by just a few years.
The Council in Trullo, with its 102 Canons (more than of all the Ecumenical Synods combined), had a tremendous significance in the history of the canonical theology of the Orthodox Church.
It might be said that the Fathers of this Council produced a complete compilation of the basic codex from the relevant sources for the Orthodox Church's canons.
Listing through in chronological order, and having been accepted by the Church the Canons of the Holy Apostles, and the Canons of the Holy Ecumenical and the Local Councils and of the holy Fathers, the Trullo Council declared:
"Let no one be permitted to alter or to annul the aforementioned canons, nor in place of these put forth,
or to accept others, made of spurious inscription" (2nd Canon of the Council in Trullo)
.
Church canons, sanctified by the authority of the first Six Ecumenical Councils (including the rules of the Seventh Ecumenical Council in 787, and the Constantinople Councils of 861 and 879, which were added later under the holy Patriarch Photius), form the basis of THE RUDDER, or KORMCHAYA KNIGA (a canon law codex known as "Syntagma" or "Nomokanon" in 14 titles).
In its repository of grace is expressed a canonical norm, a connection to every era,
and a guide for all the local Orthodox Churches in churchly practice.
New historical conditions can lead to the change of some particular external aspect of the life of the Church. This makes creative canonical activity necessary in the conciliar reasoning of the Church, in order to reconcile the external norms of churchly life with historical circumstances. The details of canonical regulation are not fully developed for the various eras of churchly organization at all once. With every push to either forsake the literal meaning of a canon, or to fulfill and develop it, the Church again and again turns for reasoning and guidance to the eternal legacy of the Holy Ecumenical Councils, to the inexhaustable treasury of dogmatic and canonical truths.
273 Eutropius, Zosima & Nonosa Martyrs of Porto near Rome under Aurelian (Benedictines). MM (RM)
In Portu Románo natális sanctórum Mártyrum Eutrópii, atque Zósimæ et Bonósæ sorórum.
   At Porto, the birthday of the holy martyrs Eutropius, and the sisters Zosima and Bonosa.
3rd v. Antiochus and Cyriacus "At Sebaste the passion of Saint Antiochus the physician who was beheaded under the governor Hadrian; and when milk flowed forth from the severed head in place of blood, Cyriacus, the executioner, was converted to Christ, and himself also suffered martyrdom" MM (RM) <>
Sebáste, in Arménia, sancti Antíochi médici, qui, sub Hadriáno Præside, cápite obtruncátus est; cumque ex eo lac pro sánguine manáret, Cyríacus cárnifex, convérsus ad Christum, et ipse martyrium súbiit.
       At Sebaste in Armenia, St. Antiochus, a physician, who was beheaded under the governor Adrian.  On seeing milk flowing from his wounds instead of blood, Cyriacus, his executioner, was converted to Christ and endured martyrdom.

The laus in the Roman Martyrology reads: "At Sebaste the passion of Saint Antiochus the physician who was beheaded under the governor Hadrian; and when milk flowed forth from the severed head in place of blood, Cyriacus, the executioner, was converted to Christ, and himself also suffered martyrdom" (Benedictines)
.
Cyricus and Julitta The Holy Martyrs lived in the city of Iconium in the province of Lykaoneia in Asia Minor. St Julitta was descended from an illustrious family and was a Christian.
Orthodoxe Kirche: 15. Juli Katholische Kirche: 16. Juni

Widowed early on, she raised her three-year old-son Cyricus (Quiricus). During the emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians, St Julitta departed the city with her son and two trustworthy servants, leaving behind her home, property, and servants.  Concealing her noble rank, she hid out first at Seleucia, and then at Tarsus. There around the year 305 she was recognized, arrested and brought to trial before the governor, Alexander. Strengthened by the Lord, she fearlessly answered the judge's questions, and firmly confessed her faith in Christ.
The governor gave orders to beat the saint with rods. During her torments St Julitta kept repeating, "I am a Christian, and will not offer sacrifice to demons."
The little boy Cyricus cried, seeing his mother being tortured, and wanted to go to her. The governor Alexander tried to sit him on his lap, but the boy broke free and shouted, "Let me go to my mother, I am a Christian." The governor threw the boy down from the high tribunal and kicked him down the stone steps. The boy struck his head on the sharp edges and died.
St Julitta, seeing her lacerated son, gave thanks to God that He had permitted her child to be perfected before her, and to receive the unfading crown of martyrdom. After many cruel tortures St Julitta was beheaded with a sword.
The relics of Sts Cyricus and Julitta were uncovered during the reign of St Constantine the Great (May 21). A monastery was built near Constantinople in honor of these holy martyrs, and a church was built not far from Jerusalem.
We pray to Sts Cyricus and Julitta for family happiness, and the restoration of sick children to health.
Orthodoxe Kirche: 15. Juli Katholische Kirche: 16. Juni
Julitta und KyriakosJulitta, eine Christin und Witwe, lebte in Ikonium (Kleinasien). Als die Christenverfolgungen unter Kaiser Diokletian begannen, floh sie um 305 mit ihrem dreijährigen Sohn Cyricus (Kyriakos=dem Herrn geweihter) nach Tarsus. Hier wurde sie festgenommen und vor Gericht gestellt. Als sie gefoltert wurde, erklärte ihr Kind, es wolle zu seiner Mutter und es sei Christ. Der Richter warf Cyricus daraufhin auf den Boden und das Kind starb. Julitta wurde dann enthauptet. Ihr Kult breitete sich weit aus, die Lebensgeschichte dürfte aber legendär sein
355 Barhadbesaba (Barhadbesciabas), a zealous deacon of Arbela (Adiabene), Persia, was beheaded in the 15th year of the persecutions under Shapur II.M (AC)
Died July 20, Saint Barhadbesaba, a zealous deacon of Arbela (Adiabene), Persia, was beheaded in the 15th year of the persecutions under Shapur II. He was apprehended by the troops of Sapor Tamsapor, governor of Arbela, and put on the rack.
As he was tormented, the officers continually cried out, "Worship water and fire, and eat the blood of beasts, and you shall be set free immediately." Barhadbesaba's interior peace was so strong that he remained cheerful throughout. He often said to the judge, "Neither you nor your king, nor any torment shall ever separate me from the love of Jesus; Him alone have I served from my infancy to this old age."
Unable to persuade him to apostatize, Tamsapor condemned him to be decapitated by Aghaeus, an apostate Christian nobleman. The saint was filled with joyful anticipation of his martyrdom, but Aghaeus trembled so badly that he was unable to give the blow. He struck the martyr's neck seven times without finishing the deed; therefore, he ran his sword into the saint's bowels.
Although the judge set guards over the holy relics, two priests carried them off at night and buried them in the Roman fashion (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
Barhadbesaba  In the year 340 the Church in Persia began to undergo one of the most intense persecutions that any body of Christians has suffered.    In the fifteenth year of the persecution, by the command of Sapor Tamsapor, governor of Adiabene, Barhadbesaba, deacon of the city of Arbela, was apprehended and put on the rack.  Whilst he was tormented, the officers continually cried out to him, "Worship fire and water, and eat the blood of beasts, and you shall be set at liberty ". But the deacon said to the judge, " Neither you nor your king nor any manner of suffering shall ever be able to separate me from the love of Jesus: Him alone have I served from my childhood to this old age."
    The tyrant condemned him to be beheaded, and commanded Aggai, an apostate Christian, to be his executioner.        Barhadbesaba stood bound, waiting with joy for the moment which was to associate him with the angels;  but Aggai trembled so as not to be able to give the blow.  He struck, however, seven times at the martyr's neck, and not being able to sever his head from his body, ran his sword into him. The judge set guards to watch the body, but two clerks carried it off in the night, and buried it.
See Assemani, Acta martyrum orientalium, pp. 129-130; and P. Peeters in Anelecta Bolliandiana, vol. xxvii  (1908), p. 188, and xliii (1925), pp. 276, 279, 281. This martyr seems to be mentioned in the ancient Syriac martyrology under the form Barsabas, though he is by error included among the priests .
4th v. St. Secundinus, Agrippinus, Maximus, Fortunatus, & Martialis A group of martyrs who were put to death in the Roman province of Pannonia.
Catulinus (Cartholinus), Januarius, Florentius, Julia & Justa MM (RM)
The bodies of these Carthaginian martyrs are enshrined in the basilica of Fausta at Carthage. Saint Augustine preached a panegyric on Deacon Saint Catulinus, which is still extant. (Benedictines)
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338 St. Jacob of Nisibis First bishop of Nisibis
Nísibi, in Mesopotámia, natális sancti Jacóbi, ejúsdem urbis Epíscopi, magnæ sanctitátis viri.  Hic, miráculis et eruditióne clarus, unus fuit, sub persecutióne Galérii Maximiáni, ex número Confessórum, qui in Nicæna deínde Synodo perversitátem Aríi, Homoúsii oppositióne, damnárunt; cujus et sancti Alexándri Epíscopi oratióne ipse Aríus condígnam suæ iniquitátis mercédem, effúsis viscéribus, Constantinópoli recépit.
   At Nisibis in Mesopotamia, the birthday of St. James, bishop of that city, a man celebrated for great holiness, miracles and learning.  He was one of those who confessed the faith during the persecution of Galerius Maximian, and later condemned the perverse heresy of Arius in the Council of Nicaea by opposing to the doctrine of consubstantiality.  It was also owing to his prayers, and those of the bishop Alexander, that Arius received at Constantinople the suitable punishment of his iniquity, his bowels gushing out.

Also listed as James. He took part in the Council of Nicaea and is traditionally credited with pray­ing for the death of the heresiarch Arius. He was renowned in the Syriac Church for his learning and holiness and for building a basilica and founding the theological school of Nisibis. Jacob died at Nisibis.
James of Nisibis B (RM) Died at Nisibis, c. 338-340. A Syrian, James became a monk and about 308 was named the first bishop of Nisibis (Nusaybin), Mesopotamia. He built a basilica there and founded the theological school of Nisibis, which became famous. He was a teacher of Saint Ephraem but his memory is highly honored in the East, especially in Syrian churches, and legends coalesced around his name. A fierce opponent of Arianism at the Council of Nicaea in 325 (according to the legend repeated in the Roman Martyrology, the prayers of James and Alexander of Constantinople were responsible for the death of Arius and his "bowels gushing out"), he was renowned for his exceptional holiness, learning, and miracles. A number of writings were formerly attributed to him in error (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
This is one of the cases in which all Alban Butler's diligence and learning could not save him from error, for it was not till long after his time that the life of St James of Nisibis received the critical study that it demanded; accordingly he accorded several pages to an account of a saint about whom very little is in fact known.  That James was an important figure, venerated throughout the East from early times, is quite certain;  he is recognized liturgically in practically every Eastern church, and he is mentioned in the Hieronymian martymlogy.  He became the first bishop of Nisibis in Mesopotamia about the year 308, and St Ephraem, his disciple, refers to the importance of his services to that church, for which he built a great basilica and perhaps inaugurated its famous theological school.
     He was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325, and St Athanasius, the historian Theodoret and others record that he was an outstanding opponent of Arianism. (The Roman Martyrology refers to the fable that St James's prayers contributed to bring Anus to a shocking end at Constantinople.) When the Persian king, Sapor II, made his first attack on Nisibis in 338, the bishop was still alive, but there is good evidence that he died in the same year.
   Butler remarks that St James's learning and writings have procured him a rank next to St Ephraem among the doctors of the Syrian church, and that the Armenians too honour him as a doctor;  but it is now known that the writings formerly attributed to him are not his. He is named in the canon of the Syrian and Maronite Mass, and in the festal litany of the Chaldean.   It is only of recent years that the Bollandist, Father Paul Peeters, after a critical examination of all the sources, Greek, Latin and, more especially. Syriac and Armenian, has shown that the traditional story recounted in the original Butler's Lives is for the most part no better than a work of fiction, compiled out of elements borrowed from other hagiographical legends, particularly the Syriac Life of St Ephraem.
To give details would be impossible here, but the whole case is made clear in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxviii (1920), pp. 285-373. See also DTC., t. viii, cc. 292-295 .
4th v. St. Abudimus Greek martyr  born on the island of Tenedos in the Aegean
In ínsula Ténedo sancti Abudémii Mártyris, qui sub Diocletiáno passus est.
In the island of Tenedos, St. Abudemius, martyr, who suffered under Diocletian.
Also called Abudemius. He was born on the island of Tenedos in the Aegean. When Emperor Diocletian enforced a persecution, Abudimus was tortured and put to death. Abudimus (Abudemius) of Tenedos M (RM) 4th century. A native of the island of Tenedos in the Aegean, who was martyred under Diocletian (Benedictines).
5th, 6th v St. Apronia (Evronie)  nun and sister of St. Aprus. Born near Trier, Germany, Apronia was received into a convent by her brother, who was a bishop
She is recorded as dying in a convent in Troyes, France. In some lists she is called Evronie.
Apronia (Evronie) of Troyes V (AC) 5th or 6th century. Saint Apronia, born near Trier (Trèves), Germany, was the sister of Bishop Saint Aprus (Evre) of Toul, from whom she received the veil. Apronia died at Troyes (Benedictines)
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660 Eternus of Évreux The ninth bishop of Évreux, France (Benedictines) .B (AC)
Died after 660.

716 St. Donald lived at Ogilvy in Forfarshire ubiquity of the sons of Somerled of the Isles, clan Donald
All that is recorded of this saint, whose name is so common in Scotland, is that he lived at Ogilvy in Forfarshire in the eighth century, that his wife bore him nine daughters, and that on her death they formed a sort of community who led the religious life under his direction. But if no more is known of him, he has nevertheless left his mark otherwise, for the often found natural features, wells, hills, and so on, which are known as the "Nine Maidens", are so called in memory of his daughters. They are said to have afterwards entered a monastery founded by St. Darlugdach and St. Brigid at Abernethy, and were commemorated on July 18. The popularity of the name in Scotland must be attributed, not to veneration for the saint, but to the ubiquity of the sons of Somerled of the Isles, clan Donald.

Donald of Ogilvy (AC) (also known as Donivald, Domhnall) Died early 8th century. Donald, a resident of Ogilvy in Forfarshire, Scotland, formed a religious group with his nine daughters (the "Nine Maidens") on the death of his wife. They entered a monastery in Abernathy after his death (Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer).

All that is recorded of this saint, whose name is so common in Scotland, is that he lived at Ogilvy in Forfarshire in the eighth century, that his wife bore him nine daughters, and that on her death they formed a sort of community who led the religious life under his direction.   But if no more is known of him, he has nevertheless left his mark otherwise, for the often found natural features, wells, hills, and so on, which are known as the "Nine Maidens", are so called in memory of his daughters.  They are said to have afterwards entered a monastery founded by St Darlugdach and St Brigid at Abernethy, and were commemorated on July 18. The popularity of the name in Scotland must be attributed, not to veneration for the saint, but to the ubiquity of the sons of Somerled of the Isles, Clan Donald.
See Forbes, KSS., pp. 324-325; and cf. what is said ibid. of St Mazota, pp. 395-396 .
775 St. Plechelm A Benedictine priest companion to St. Wiro. Plecheim was from Northumbria, England, an ordained priest. He traveled with St. Wiro to establish a monastery at Odilienburg
Plechelm of Guelderland B (RM) Born in Northumberland; Plechelm was ordained a priest. He went to Rome with another Northumbrian priest, Saint Wiro, and a deacon named Otger. In Rome, Wiro and Plechelm were consecrated regionary bishops. After doing missionary work in Northumbria, they went to the Friesland area of the Netherlands, where they evangelized the inhabitants of the lower Meuse Valley under Saint Willibrord or Saint Swithbert, and built a church and cells at Odilienberg on land granted to them by Blessed Pepin of Herstal. They were martyred while preaching the Gospel (Benedictines, Delaney).
820 St. Benedict The bishop of Angers, France, in the reign of Emperor Louis the Pious, the son of Charlemagne.
Benedict of Angers B (AC)  Benedict was bishop of Angers during the reign of Louis the Pious (Benedictines).
824 Adalard the Younger a monk of Corbie Abbey under Abbot Saint Adalard. He was only 20 years old when he died , OSB (PC)
Saint Adalard was a monk of Corbie Abbey under Abbot Saint Adalard. He was only 20 years old when he died (Benedictines)
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830 Saint Haruch of Werden Abbot Saint Haruch was regionary bishop in Werden (Benedictines)., OSB B (AC)
862 St. Swithun educated at old monastery, Winchester, where ordained; became chaplain to King Egbert of the West Saxons appointed him tutor of son, Ethelwulf; one of the King's counselors; built several churches and was known for his humility and his aid to the poor and need Malmesbury affirms that a great number of miraculous cures of all kinds were wrought on occasion relics translation
Wintóniæ, in Anglia, sancti Swithúni Epíscopi, cujus sánctitas miráculis effúlsit.
    At Winchester in England, St. Swithin, bishop, whose sanctity was verified by the gift of miracles.
Swithun "Swithin", also spelled Swithin, was born in Wessex, England and was educated at the old monastery, Winchester, where he was ordained. He became chaplain to King Egbert of the West Saxons, who appointed him tutor of his son, Ethelwulf, and was one of the King's counselors. Swithun was named bishop of Winchester in 852 when Ethelwulf succeeded his father as king.
Swithun built several churches and was known for his humility and his aid to the poor and needy. He died on July 2. A long-held superstition declares it will rain for forty days if it rains on his feast day of July 15, but the reason for and origin of this belief are unknown.
St. Seduinus English saint possibly identical to St. Swithin or Sithian.
Swithun (Swithin) of Winchester, OSB B (RM) Born in Wessex, England; died at Winchester, England, July 2, 862. Saint Swithun was educated at the Old Abbey, Winchester, and was ordained (it is uncertain whether or not he was a monk). He became chaplain to King Egbert of the West Saxons, who appointed him tutor of his son Ethelwulf, and was one of the king's counselors. Swithun was named bishop of Winchester in 852 when Ethelwulf succeeded his father as king. Swithun built several churches and was known for his humility and his aid to the poor and needy. His veneration as a saint appears to date from the removal of his bones from the churchyard into the cathedral a century after his death.

Swithun was born in Wessex at the end of the eighth century or beginning of the ninth, and passed his youth in the study of grammar, philosophy and the Holy Scriptures at the Old Monastery in Winchester, of which, however, he was probably never a member. Being ordained priest, his learning, piety and prudence moved Egbert, King of the West Saxons, to make him his chaplain, under which title the saint subscribed a charter granted to the abbey of Croyland in 833. That prince also committed to his care the education of his son Ethelwulf, and made use of his counsels in the government of his kingdom.  On the death of Egbert, Ethelwulf succeeded, and he governed his kingdom by the prudent advice of Aelfstan, Bishop of Sherborne, in temporal affairs, and of St Swithun in ecclesiastical  matters, especially those which concerned his own soul. Bearing always the greatest reverence to Swithun, he procured him, upon the death of Helmstan, to be chosen bishop of Winchester, to which see he was consecrated by Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 852. William of Malmesbury says that this good bishop was a treasury of all virtues, and those in which he took most delight were humility and charity to the poor; in the discharge of his episcopal functions he omitted nothing belonging to a true pastor. He built several churches and repaired others; and when he had to dedicate any church, he used to go barefoot to the place.  He died on July 2, 862, and at his own request was buried in the churchyard, where his grave might be trodden by passers-by and the rain fail upon it.
   But his feast is observed in the dioceses of Portsmouth and Southwark on July 15, on which date, over a hundred years after, his relics were taken up and translated into the church, which legend says was done in accordance with a vision of the saint granted to a poor labourer. Malmesbury affirms that a great number of miraculous cures of all kinds were wrought on this occasion. In the reign of William the Conqueror, Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester, laid the foundation of a new cathedral church, and on July 15, 1093, the shrine of St Swithun was translated from the old to the new church.
      Swithun is still in the memory of the English people by reason of the superstition that if it rains on his feast-day it will rain for forty days after, and the opposite. Many ingenious attempts have been made to explain this belief, but no one of them is convincing.  Other saints elsewhere have the same story attaching to their day, for example, SS. Gervase and Protase, and St Medard in France and St Cewydd in Wales.
   The scanty sources available for the life of St Swithun have been printed by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. i, and in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. iv, pp. 367-410, vol. vii, pp.373-380, and vol. lviii, pp. 187-196.   There are also some fragments in Anglo-Saxon, for which see Earle, Glousester Fragments, vol. i (1861), and G. H. Gerould in the periodical Angus, vol. xx, pp. 347-357.   Most of this material, particularly the account by Santfrid and the long Latin poem by Wolstan (ed. Alistair Campbell, 1951), deals only with the translation and miracles of the saint.  For the little we know concerning his life we are indebted mainly to William of Malmesbury and Simeon of Durham. That a genuine cultus of Swithun existed in England is shown by the fact that, in contrast to many others commonly styled "saints ", his feast and translation day are entered in many of our native calendars. Churches were dedicated in his honour even in Scandinavia .
872 St. Athanasius Bishop and victim of political turmoil suffered during the Saracen occupation. He also ransomed Christians from Islamic captors attended the Lateran Council of 863
Neápoli, in Campánia, sancti Athanásii, ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopi, qui, ab ímpio nepóte Sérgio multa passus ac sede pulsus, tandem Vérulis, in Hérnicis, conféctus ærúmnis, migrávit in cælum, témpore Cároli Calvi.
   At Naples in Campania, St. Athanasius, bishop of that city, who suffered a great deal from his wicked nephew Sergius, by whom he was driven from his diocese.  Overcome with afflictions, he departed for heaven at Veroli, in the time of Charles the Bald.

He was born about 830, the son of the duke of Naples, and he spent his younger years repairing the city, which had suffered during the Saracen occupation. He also ransomed Christians from Islamic captors. In 850, Athanasius was named the bishop of Naples, Italy, at the age of twenty. He attended the Lateran Council of 863.
Denouncing his nephew Duke Sergius II of Naples for immorality, Athanasius was imprisoned. The people of Naples demanded and secured his release, and he went to the Island of the Savior nearby. Duke Sergius almost imprisoned Athanasius again because he refused to resign from his see. Emperor Louis II intervened and protected him, but Duke Surges started attacking Athanasius allies and looting the episcopal treasury. Pope Adrian II excommunicated Sergius, and Louis II started a campaign to punish the noble. Athanasius, exhausted by ill treatment, died at Veroli, near Monte Cassino, Italy, on July 15.

Athanasius of Naples B (RM). Saint Athanasius, son of the duke of Naples, became bishop of that city when he was just 18 years old. After he had governed it for 20 years, he began to suffer from the exactions of his relatives, who held the civil authority of Naples. Unwilling to concede ecclesial power to them, he was imprisoned, then exiled. He died at Veroli and was buried at Monte Cassino. His relics were later translated to Naples (Benedictines).

St. Athanasius Bishop This Athanasius became bishop of Naples about the year 850, when he was not yet twenty years old.   He was a native of the city, of which his father had been dux, and took much trouble both for its material and moral improvement; he repaired or built anew the buildings overset and despoiled by the Saracens, founded a hospice for pilgrims and the aged, and set on foot a scheme for the ransom of Christians captured by the Mohanimedans.
  In 863 be took part in the council at the Lateran, summoned by Pope St Nicholas I, where St Ignatius was declared to be lawful patriarch of Constantinople.  But St Athanasius, having thus assisted the Father of Christendom to vindicate justice on behalf of a bishop oppressed by the civil power, became himself victim of a similar oppression.  The dukedom of Naples had come into the hands of Sergius II, an ambitious and troublesome tyrant, whose private life was as unscrupulous as his public politics.  On every count he was no friend of the good Athanasius, and his enmity was aggravated by the fact that the bishop was his uncle and so had personal as well as official right to call him to order: and he was not afraid to do so, but sharply rebuked his nephew for simoniacal dealings and other disorders.
 Thereupon, instigated by his wife, Sergius clapped Athanasius into jail at Sorrento. The indignation of the Neapolitans frightened him into setting him at liberty again, but he continued to pursue the bishop with threats and hampered his work in every possible way, so that in 871 Athanasius left Naples and installed himself on the Island of the Saviour nearby.

  Here Sergius promised him peace and `freedom from persecution if he would resign his see. When Athanasius refused he sent troops to bring him back by force, which they were prevented from doing by the intervention of the Western emperor, Louis II, who had the bishop taken in safety to Benevento by the duke of Amalfi.  Sergius retorted by plundering the episcopal treasury at Naples and venting his anger on the bishop's supporters with such violence that the pope, Adrian II, excommunicated him.  The Emperor Louis again took up the bishop's cause and was about to restore him to his see by the force of the imperial authority and strength, when death overtook St Athanasius at Veroli, near Monte Cassino, on July 15, 872.
Most of the relevant material may be found in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. iv, and also in MGH., Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum.  It does not seem to be true that the expanded Life (BHL. 736) is a fabrication by Peter the Deacon of Monte Caasino, as has been maintained by E. Caspar in his monograph on Peter the Deacon's forgeries; see on this the Analecta Boilandiana, vol. xxix (1910), p. 169
937 St. Edith of Polesworth Sister of King Athelstan of England; married viking king Sihtric at York in 925, he died next year, she became a Benedictine nun at Polesworth, Warwickshire, where she was noted for her holiness and may have become Abbess. She may also have been the sister of King Edgar and aunt of St. Edith of Wilton; or possibly these were two different woman of Polesworth.
Edith of Polesworth, OSB Widow (AC) Died 925? The identity of Saint Edith  was definitely the widow of a king of Northumbria and died as a nun, perhaps the abbess, of Polesworth in Warwickshire. Some identify her as the sister of King Athelstan of England and wife of the Viking king, Sihtric. When Sihtric died the year after their marriage (926), she took the veil.
Others believe she was sister of King Edgar the Peaceful and aunt of Saint Edith of Wilton. There is a possibility there are 2 women named Edith of Polesworth (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
FROM the conflicting references to St Edith of Polesworth it has sometimes been supposed that there were several English women thus styled, one of whom is mentioned in the lives of St Modwenna (July 6).  Goscelin in his Life of St Edith of Wilton speaks of her holy aunt, Edith of Polesworth, sister of King Edgar; while another suggestion is that she is that sister of King Athelatan, said to have been called Edith, who in 925 married Sihtric; the Viking king at York.   He died in the following year; and his widow, who seems to have had the repute of holiness, was eventually buried at Tamworth, only a few miles from Polesworth.   On the whole she may be regarded as probably the one and only St Edith called "of Polesworth ".
These perplexities are set out in some detail by Stanton in his Menology, pp. 337-338. But cf. Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lvi (1938), p. 53, n. 4, and vol. lxv (1947), p. 315.
1015  St. Vladimir I, notorious for his barbarism and immorality. After conquest of Kherson in Crimea (988) became impressed by progrers of Christianity approached Eastern Emperor Basil II about marrying emperor's daughter Ann; converted, reformed his life, and married Anne
Born 956 Grandson of St. Olga and illegitimate son of Sviastoslav, grand duke of Kiev, and his mistress, Malushka, he was given Novgorod to rule by his father. Civil war broke out between his half-brothers Yaropolk and Oleg; Yaropolk made himself ruler by defeating and killing Oleg, and when he captured Novgorod, Vladimir was forced to flee to Scandinavia in 977. Vladimir returned with an army and captured Novgorod and defeated and slew Yaropolk at Rodno in 980; Vladimir was now sole ruler of Russia, notorious for his barbarism and immorality. After his conquest of Kherson in the Crimea in 988, he became impressed by the progrers of Christianity and approached Eastern Emperor Basil II about marrying the emperor's daughter Ann. He was converted, reformed his life and married Anne. On his return to Kiev, he invited Greek missionaries to Russia, led his people to Christianity, borrowed canonical features from the West and built schools and churches. His later years were troubled by rebellions led by the sons of his first marriages, although two sons by Anne, SS Romanus and David became martyrs. In 1014 he was obliged to march against his rebellious son Yaroslav in Novgorod, fell ill on the way and died at Beresyx, Russia. He is patron of Russian Catholics.

Vladimir of Kiev, King (AC) (also known as Vladimir of Russia) Born c. 955; died at Beresyx, Russia, 1015. Vladimir was the grandson of Saint Olga, an early convert to Christianity among the Scandinavian rulers of the province of Kiev, and the illegitimate son of Grand Duke Sviastoslav and his mistress, Malushka. He was given Novgorod to rule by Sviastoslav. When Sviastoslav died in 972, the three sons fought for the crown. Forced to flee to Scandinavia in 977 when his half brother Yaropolk defeated and killed another half brother, Oleg, and captured Novgorod. Vladimir returned with a Viking army, recaptured Novgorod, and captured and killed Yaropolk at Rodno in 980.
Notorious for his cruelty and barbarity, Vladimir was now ruler of Russia. He conquered Kherson in the Crimea in 988. That same year he proposed a military alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. After a good deal of hesitation, Vladimir was baptized in 989 in order to marry Anne, the Christian sister of the emperor. His conversion marked the beginning of Christianity in Russia.
Vladimir took his new religion very seriously and indeed sought to impose it by force on his people, not all of whom were willing to accept it. He reformed his own life (putting aside his five former wives), built schools and churches, destroyed idols, brought Greek and German missionaries to his realms, exchanged ambassadors with Rome, abolished or grated restricted capital punishment, gave lavish alms to the poor, and aided Saint Boniface in his mission to the Pechangs. In his later years he was troubled by rebellions led by the sons of his earlier marriages, but two of his sons by Anne, Romanus (Boris) and David (Gleb), became saints.
Vladimir died while leading an expedition against his rebellious son Yaroslav in Novgorod. Vladimir reportedly gave all his possessions to his friends and to the poor on his deathbed. His utter conversion resulted in a picture of him that caused later generations to look on Saint Vladimir as the first-born of the new Christian people of Russia and her borderland. He was esteemed as a saint and the subject of a cycle of folklore and heroic poems. A descendant of his, Vladimir Monomakh, married Gytha, the daughter of King Harold of England. Vladimir is the patron saint of Russian Catholics (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

St. Vladimir I,
This earliest saints of Russia, princes and monks, were connected with Kiev in the south-west, "the God-protected mother of Russian cities ", now the capital of what we call The Ukraine and in those days centre of a principality whose Finnish-Slav people were ruled by princes of Scandinavian origin, Varangians, who as pirates and traders had penetrated into Russia by its waterways.
        During the last quarter of the tenth century the grand-prince of Kiev was Vladimir, a man not only reared in idolatry but one who freely indulged in the barbarous excesses that were available to one in his position:  he was brutal and bloodthirsty, and a contemporary Arabian chronicler, ibn-Foslan, comments on his five wives and numerous female slaves, which supports the statement of the Chronicle of Nestor
that Vladimir's "desire for women was too much for him ".
      Circumstances of this prince's conversion to Christianity have been and still are much debated, but converted he was, probably in the year 989, when he was about thirty-two; and he then received in marriage Anne, daughter of the emperor Basil II at Constantinople-the two events were closely connected.
     And the conversion of the Russian people is dated from then.

   The fact that pious writers have attributed perfect purity of motive to Vladimir, when undoubtedly he was moved in great measure by the prospect of political and economic advantages from an alliance with the Byzantines and the Christian Church, must not be allowed to obscure that, once having accepted Christianity, he is said to have been wholehearted in his adherence to it.   He put away his former wives and mistresses and amended his life; he had idols publicly thrown down and destroyed; and he supported the Greek missionaries with energy and enthusiasm-indeed, with an excess of energy, for at times he did not stop short of "conversion" by force: to refuse baptism was to incur penalties.
    But quite apart from that sort of thing, the speed with which the Russians became Christian has been much exaggerated, and during the reign of Vladimir the new religion probably did not penetrate far beyond the Kievan nobility and wealthy merchants. Nor was its subsequent spreading so fast as has been represented: paganism gave ground but slowly.   Nevertheless he was revered in after years not only because he was a sinner who repented but because he brought about the reconciliation of the Russian people with God, he was the Apostle of Russia, chosen from on high for that end.

   The Devil was overcome by fools and madmen", says the Chronicle of Nestor, and emphasizes that St Vladimir received God's grace and forgiveness, while "many righteous and godly men strayed from the path of uprightness and perished".  And it would seem that his repentance and understanding of his new obligations were of that simple, straightforward kind which will forever remain at the heart of the most developed and complex Christianity: "When he had in a moment of passion fallen into sin he at once sought to make up for it by penitence and almsgiving", says a chronicler.  It is said that he even had scruples whether, now that he was a Christian, he was entitled to punish robbers or even murderers by putting them to death.
   Such ideas astonished the sophisticated Greek ecclesiastics, who appealed to examples in the Old Testament and Roman history to show that punishment of the wicked was the duty of a Christian prince. Vladimir seemed only half convinced.

   The circumstances of Vladimir's conversion brought his people within the Byzantine patriarchate, but he was not particularist.   He exchanged ambassadors with the apostolic court of Rome;  he helped the German bishop St Boniface (Bruno) of Querfurt in his mission to the Pechenegs; and he even borrowed certain canonical features from the West, notably the institution of tithes, which were unknown to the Byzantines.
    Not till the Mongol invasions was Christian Russia cut off from the West.   St Vladimir died in 1015, after, as is said, giving away all his personal belongings to his friends and to the poor. His feast is solemnly celebrated by the Russians, Ukrainians and others.
The original Russian sources are indicated in some detail in the bibliography of vol. iv of the Cambridge Medieval History, pp. 819-821. The Chronicle of Nestor has been translated by S. H. Cross, The Russian Primary Chronicle (1930).  See N. de Baumgarten, Orientalia Christiana, vol. xxiv, no. I, 1931 (Olaf Tryggwison...) and vol. xxvii, no. i, 1932 (St Vladimir..);  G. Fedotov,"Le baptême de St. Vladimir..."in Irénikon, t. xv (1938), pp. 417 seq. M. Jugie, "Les origines romaines de l'Eglise russe" in Echos d'Orient, no. 187 (1937).  Summaries in Fliche and Martin, Histoire de l'Eglise, vol. vii, pp. 444-451, and DTC., s.v. Russie. For Christians before Vladimir, see also M. de Taube, Rome et la Russie..vol. i (1947). And see F. Dvornik, The Making of Central and Eastern Europe (1949), pp. 170 Seq.
The Holy Great Prince Vladimir, Equal of the Apostles
   Few names in the annals of history can compare in significance with the name of St Vladimir, the Baptizer of Rus, who stands at the beginning of the spiritual destiny of the Russian Church and the Russian Orthodox people. Vladimir was the grandson of St Olga, and he was the son of Svyatoslav (+ 972). His mother, Malusha (+ 1001) was the daughter of Malk Liubechanin, whom historians identify with Mal, prince of the Drevlyani. Having subdued an uprising of the Drevlyani and conquered their cities, Princess Olga gave orders to execute Prince Mal for his attempt to marry her after he murdered her husband Igor, and she took to herself Mal's children, Dobrynya and Malusha. Dobrynya grew up to be a valiant brave warrior, endowed with a mind for state affairs, and he was later on an excellent help to his nephew Vladimir in matters of military and state administration.
   The "capable girl" Malusha became a Christian (together with Great Princess Olga at Constantinople), but she preserved in herself a bit of the mysterious darkness of the pagan Drevlyani forests. Thus she fell in love with the austere warrior Svyatoslav, who against the will of his mother Olga made her his wife. The enraged Olga, regarding as unseemly the marriage of her "housekeeper" and captive servant to her son Svyatoslav, heir to the Great Kiev principality, sent Malusha away to her own native region not far from Vybut. And there in about the year 960 was born the boy with the Russian pagan name Volodimir, meaning peaceful ruler, ruling with a special talent for peace.
  In the year 970 Svyatoslav set out on a campaign from which he was fated not to return. He had divided the Russian Land among his three sons. At Kiev Yaropolk was prince; at Ovrucha, the center of the Drevlyani lands, was Oleg; at Novgorod was Vladimir. In his first years as prince, we see Vladimir as a fierce pagan. He headed a campaign, in which the whole of pagan Rus is sympathetic to him, against Yaropolk the Christian, or in any case, according to the chronicles, "having given great freedom to the Christians", on July 11, 978 he entered into Kiev, having become the "sole ruler" of the Kiev realm, "having subdued the surrounding lands, some by peaceful means, and the unsubmissive ones by the sword."
    Though Vladimir indulged himself in a wild, sensuous life, he was far from the libertine that they sometimes portray him as being. He "shepherded his land with truth, valor and reason", as a good and diligent master, of necessity he extended and defended its boundaries by force of arms, and in returning from military campaigns, he made for his companions and for all Kiev liberal and merry feasts.
But the Lord prepared him for another task.
   Where sin increases, there, in the words of the Apostle, grace abounds (Rom. 5: 20). "And upon him came visitation of the Most High, and the All-Merciful eye of the Good God gazed upon him, and shone forth the thought in his heart, of understanding the vanity of idolous delusion, and of appealing to the One God, Creator of all things both visible and invisible." The matter of accepting Baptism was facilitated through external circumstances. The Byzantine Empire was in upheaval under the blows of the mutinous regiments of Bardas Skliros and Bardas Phocas, each of whom sought to gain the imperial throne. In these difficult circumstances the emperors, the coregent brothers Basil the Bulgar-Slayer and Constantine, turned for help to Vladimir.
    Events unfolded quickly. In August 987 Bardas Phocas proclaimed himself Emperor and moved against Constantinople, and in autumn of that same year the emissaries of Emperor Basil were at Kiev. "And having exhausted his (Basil's) wealth, it compelled him to enter into an alliance with the Emperor of the Russians. They were his enemies, but he besought their help," writes one of the Arab chronicles of events in the 980s. "And the Emperor of the Russians consented to this, and made common cause with him."
    As a reward for his military help, Vladimir asked for the hand of the emperors' sister Anna, which for the Byzantines was an unheard of audacity. Princesses of the imperial lineage did not marry "barbarian" rulers, even if they were Christians. At the same time the emperor Otto the Great was seeking the hand of Anna for his son, and he was refused. However, in Vladimir's case Constantinople was obliged to consent.
    An agreement was concluded, according to which Vladimir had to send the emperors six thousand Varangians, and to accept holy Baptism. Under these conditions he would receive the hand of the imperial daughter Anna. Thus in the strife of human events the will of God directed the entering of Rus into the grace-filled bosom of the Ecumenical Church. Great Prince Vladimir accepted Baptism and sent the military assistance to Byzantium. With the aid of the Russians, the mutineers were destroyed and Bardas Phocas killed. But the Greeks, gladdened by their unexpected deliverance, were in no hurry to fulfill their part of the bargain.
   Vexed at the Greek duplicity, Prince Vladimir "hastened to collect his forces" and he moved "against Korsun, the Greek city," the ancient Chersonessos. The "impenetrable" rampart of the Byzantine realm on the Black Sea fell. It was one of the vitally important hubs of the economic and mercantile links of the empire. This blow was so much felt, that its echo resounded throughout all the regions of Byzantium.
    Vladimir again had the upper hand. His emissaries, the commanders Oleg and Sjbern soon arrived in Constantinople for the imperial daughter. Eight days passed in Anna's preparation, during which time her brothers consoled her, stressing the significance of the opportunity before her: to enable the enlightening of the Russian realm and its lands, and to make them forever friends of the Byzantine realm. At Taurida St Vladimir awaited her, and to his titles there was added a new one: Caesar (Tsar). The haughty rulers of Constantinople had to accede also in this, to bestow upon their new brother-in-law the imperial insignia. In certain of the Greek historians, St Vladimir is termed from these times as a "mighty basileios-king", he coins money in the Byzantine style and is depicted on it with the symbols of imperial might: in imperial attire, and on his head the imperial crown, and in his right hand the sceptre with cross.
    Together with the empress Anna, there arrived for the Russian See Metropolitan Michael ordained by holy Patriarch Nicholas II Chrysoberges. He came with his retinue and clergy, and many holy relics and other holy things. In ancient Chersonessos, where each stone brings to mind St Andrew the First-Called, there took place the marriage-crowning of St Vladimir and Blessed Anna, both reminiscent and likewise affirming the oneness of the Gospel of Christ in Rus and in Byzantium. Korsun, the "empress's dowry", was returned to Byzantium. In the spring of 988 the Great Prince and his wife set out through the Crimea, Taman and the Azov lands, which had come into the complexion of his vast realm on the return trip to Kiev. Leading the princely cortege with frequent Services of Thanksgiving and incessant priestly singing they carried crosses, icons and holy relics. It seemed, that the Ecumenical Holy Church was moving into the spacious Russian land, and renewed in the font of Baptism, Holy Rus came forth to meet Christ and His Church.
   Then followed an unforgettable and quite singular event in Russian history: the morning of the Baptism of the Kievans in the waters of the River Dneipr. On the evening before, St Vladimir declared throughout the city: "If anyone does not go into the river tomorrow, be they rich or poor, beggar or slave, that one shall be my enemy." The sacred wish of the holy Prince was fulfilled without a murmur: "all our land glorified Christ with the Father and the Holy Spirit at the same time."
   It is difficult to overestimate the deep spiritual transformation of the Russian people effected by the prayers of St Vladimir, in every aspect of its life and world-view. In the pure Kievan waters, as in a "bath of regeneration", there was realized a sacramental transfiguration of the Russian spiritual element, the spiritual birth of the nation, called by God to unforeseen deeds of Christian service to mankind.
"Then did the darkness of the idols begin to lift from us,
and the dawn of Orthodoxy appear, and the Sun of the Gospel illumined our land."
  In memory of this sacred event, the regeneration of Rus by water and the Spirit, the Russian Church established the custom of an annual church procession "to the water" on August 1. Later, the Feast of the Procession of the Honorable Wood of the Life-Creating Cross of the Lord, which Russia celebrated with the Greek Church, was combined with the Feast of the All-Merciful Savior and the Most Holy Theotokos (established by St Andrew Bogoliubsky in the year 1164). In this combination of feasts there is found a precise expression of the Russian theological consciousness, for which both Baptism and the Cross are inseparable.
   Everywhere throughout Holy Rus, from the ancient cities to the far outposts, St Vladimir gave orders to destroy the pagan sanctuaries, to flog the idols, and in their place to clear land in the hilly woods for churches, in which altars would be consecrated for the Bloodless Sacrifice. Churches of God grew up along the face of the earth, at high elevated places, and at the bends of the rivers, along the ancient trail "from the Variangians to the Greeks" figuratively as road signs and lamps of national holiness. Concerning the famed church-building activity of St Vladimir, the Metropolitan of Kiev St Hilarion (author of the "Word on Law and Grace") exclaimed: "They demolished the pagan temples, and built up churches, they destroyed the idols and produced holy icons, the demons have fled, and the Cross has sanctified the cities."
   From the early centuries of Christianity it was the custom to raise up churches upon the ruins of pagan sanctuaries or upon the blood of the holy martyrs. Following this practice, St Vladimir built the church of St Basil the Great upon a hill, where a sanctuary of Perun had been located, and he built the stone church of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos (Desyatinnaya) on the place of the martyrdom of the holy Varangian Martyrs (July 12). The magnificent temple was intended to become the cathedral for the Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus, and thus the primal altar of the Russian Church. It was built in five years, and was richly adorned with frescoes, crosses, icons and sacred vessels, brought from Korsun. The day of the consecration of the church of the Most Holy Theotokos, May 12 (in some manuscripts May 11), was ordered by St Vladimir to be inserted into the Church calendar as an annual celebration. This event was linked with other events celebrated on May 11, and it provided the new Church a twofold sense of continuity. Under this day in the calendar is noted the churchly Founding of Constantinople "dedicated by the holy emperor St Constantine as the new capital of the Roman Empire, the city of Constantine is dedicated to the Most Holy Theotokos (330). On this same day of May 11, the church of Sophia, the Wisdom of God was consecrated at Kiev (in the year 960 under St Olga). St Vladimir, having had the cathedral church consecrated to the Most Holy Theotokos, followed the example of St Constantine in dedicating the capital city of the Russian Land (Kiev) to the Queen of Heaven.
   Then a tithe or tenth was bestown on the Church; and since this church had become the center of the All-Russian collection of churchly tithes, they called it the Tithe church. The most ancient text of the grant, or church rule by holy Prince Vladimir spoke thus: "For I do bestow on this church of the Holy Mother of God a tenth of all my principality, and also throughout all the Russian Land from all the princely jurisdiction a tithe of squirrel-pelts, and from the merchant, a tithe of the week, and from households each year, a tenth of every herd and every livelihood, to the wondrous Mother of God and the wondrous Savior." The grant also specified "church people" as being free from the jurisdictional power of the prince and his "tiuni" (officials) and placed them under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan.
   The chronicle has preserved a prayer of St Vladimir, with which he turned to the Almighty at the consecration of the Dormition Tithe church: "O Lord God, look down from Heaven and behold, and visit Your vineyard, which Your right hand has planted. And make this new people, whom You have converted in heart and mind to know You, the True God. And look down upon this Your church, which Your unworthy servant has built in the name of the Mother Who gave birth to Thee, the Ever-Virgin Theotokos. And whoever prays in this church, let his prayer be heard, through the prayers of the All-Pure Mother of God."
   With the Tithe church and Bishop Anastasius, certain historians have made a connection with the beginnings of Russian chronicle writing. At it were compiled the Life of St Olga and the account of the Varangian Martyrs in their original form, and likewise the "Account, How in the Taking of Korsun, Vladimir came to be Baptized." Here also originated the early Greek redaction of the Lives of the Holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb.
   During the time of St Vladimir, the Kiev Metropolitan See was occupied successively by the Metropolitan St Michael (September 30), Metropolitan Theophylactus, who transferred to Kiev from the See of Armenian Sebaste (991-997), Metropolitan Leontius (997-1008), and Metropolitan John I (1008-1037). Through their efforts the first dioceses of the Russian Church were opened: at Novgorod (its first representative was St Joachim of Korsun (+ 1030), compiler of the Joachimov Chronicle), Vladimir-Volyn (opened May 11, 992), Chernigov, Pereslavl, Belgorod, and Rostov. "And thus throughout all the cities and villages there were set up churches and monasteries, and the clergy increased, and the Orthodox Faith blossomed forth and shone like the sun."
   To advance the Faith among the newly enlightened people, learned people and schools were needed to help prepare them. Therefore, St Vladimir and the holy Metropolitan Michael "commanded fathers and mothers to take their young children and send them to schools to learn reading and writing." St Joachim of Korsun set up such a school at Novgorod, and they did the same in other cities. "And there were a multitude of schools of scholars, and of these were there a multitude of philosophers."
With a firm hand St Vladimir held in check enemies at the frontiers, and he built fortified cities. He was the first in Russian history to set up a "notched boundary," a line of defensive points against nomadic peoples. "Volodimir began to set up cities along the Desna, along the Vystra, along the Trubezha, along the Sula and along the Stugna. And he settled them with the Novgorodians, the Smolyani, the Chuds and the Vyatichi. He made war against the Pechenegs and defeated them." But the real reason for his success was the peaceful Christian preaching among the pagans of the steppes.
   In the Nikol'sk Chronicles under the year 990 was written: "And in that same year there came to Volodimir at Kiev four princes from the Bulgars and they were illumined with Divine Baptism." In the following year "the Pecheneg prince Kuchug came and accepted the Greek faith, and he was baptized in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and served Vladimir with a pure heart." Under the influence of the holy prince several apparent foreigners were also baptized. For example, the Norwegian "koenig" (king) Olaf Trueggvason (+ 1000) who lived several years at Kiev, and also the renowned Torvald the Wanderer, founder of a monastery of St John the Forerunner along the Dneipr near Polotsk, among others. In faraway Iceland the poet-skalds called God the "Protector of the Greeks and Russians."
In addition to the Christian preaching, there were the renowned feasts of St Vladimir. After Liturgy on Sundays and Church Feasts there were put out abundant feasting tables for the Kievans, they rang the bells, choirs sang praise, the "transported infirm" sang bylini-ballads and spiritual verses. On May 12, 996, for example, on the occasion of the consecration of the Tithe church, the prince "made a bright feast." He distributed goods "to many of the poor, and destitute and wanderers, and through the churches and the monasteries. To the sick and the needy he delivered through the streets casks and barrels of mead, and bread, and meat, and fish, and cheese, desiring that all might come and eat, glorifying God". Feasts were likewise celebrated in honor of the victories of Kievan warriors, and the regiments of Vladimir's retinue: of Dobrynya, Alexander Popovich, Rogda the Bold.
In the year 1007 St Vladimir transferred the relics of St Olga to the Tithe church. Four years later, in 1011, his spouse and companion in many of his undertakings, the Blessed Empress Anna, was also buried there. After her death the prince entered into a new marriage with the young daughter of the German Graf Kuno von Enningen, granddaughter of the emperor Otto the Great.
The era of St Vladimir was a crucial period for the formation of Orthodox Rus. The unification of the Slavic lands and the formation of state boundaries under the domain of the Rurikovichi resulted from a strenuous spiritual and political struggle with neighboring tribes and states. The Baptism of Rus by Orthodox Byzantium was a most important step in its self-definition as a state. The chief enemy of Vladimir became Boleslav the Brave, whose plans included the extensive unification of the West Slavic and East Slavic tribes under the aegis of Catholic Poland. This rivalry arose back when Vladimir was still a pagan: "In the year 6489 (981). Volodimir went against the Lakhs and took their cities, Peremyshl, Cherven, and other cities, which be under Rus." The final years of the tenth century are likewise filled with the wars of Vladimir and Boleslav.
After a brief lull (the first decade of the eleventh century), the "great stand-off" entered into a new phase: in the year 1013 a conspiracy against St Vladimir was discovered at Kiev. Svyatopolk the Accursed, who was married to a daughter of Boleslav, yearned for power. The instigator of the conspiracy was Boleslav's cleric, the Kolobzheg Catholic bishop Reibern.
 The conspiracy of Svyatopolk and Reibern was an all-out threat to the historical existence of the Russian state and the Russian Church. St Vladimir took decisive measures. All the three involved were arrested, and Reibern soon died in prison. St Vladimir did not take revenge on those that "opposed and hated" him. Under pretense of feigned repentance, Svyatopolk was set free.
A new misfortune erupted in the North, at Novgorod. Yaroslav, not yet "the Wise," as he was later to be known, in the year 1010 having become ruler of Novgorod, decided to defect from his father the Great Prince of Kiev. He formed his own separate army, moving on Kiev to demand the customary tribute and tithe. The unity of the Russian land, for which St Vladimir had struggled all his life, was threatened with ruin. In both anger and in sorrow St Vladimir gave orders to "secure the dams and set the bridges," and to prepare for a campaign against Novgorod. His powers were on the decline. In the preparations for his final campaign, happily not undertaken, the Baptizer of Rus fell grievously ill and surrendered his soul to the Lord in the village of Spas-Berestov on July 15, 1015. He had ruled the Russian realm for thirty-seven years (978-1015), twenty-eight of these years after his Baptism.
Preparing for a new struggle for power and hoping for Polish assistance, and to play for time, Svyatopolk attempted to conceal the death of his father. But patriotically inclined Kievan nobles, by night, secretly removed the body of the deceased sovereign from the Berestov court, where Svyatopolk's people were guarding it, and they conveyed the body to Kiev. At theTithe church the coffin with the relics of St Vladimir was met by Kievan clergy with Metropolitan John at the head of the procession. The holy relics were placed in a marble crypt, set within the St Clement chapel of the Dormition church beside the marble crypt of Empress Anna.
The name and deeds of the holy Equal of the Apostles St Vladimir, whom the people called the Splendid Sun, is interwoven with all the successive history of the Russian Church. "Through him we too have come to worship and to know Christ, the True Life," testified St Hilarion. His deeds were continued by his sons, and grandsons and descendants, rulers of the Russian land for almost six centuries, from Yaroslav the Wise, who took the first steps towards the independent existence of the Russian Church, down to the last of the Rurikovichi, Tsar Theodore Ioannovich, under whom (in 1589) the Russian Orthodox Church became the fifth independent Patriarchate in the dyptichs of Orthodox Autocephalous Churches.

The festal celebration of the holy Equal of the Apostles Vladimir was established under St Alexander Nevsky, in memory of the intercession of St Vladimir on May 15, 1240, for his help in gaining the renowned victory by Nevsky over Swedish crusaders.
The first veneration of the holy prince began in Rus rather earlier. The Metropolitan of Kiev St Hilarion (+1053), in his "Word on Law and Grace," spoken on the day of memory of St Vladimir at the saint's crypt in the Tithe church, calls him "an apostolic sovereign", like St Constantine, and he compares his apostolic evangelisation of the Russian Land to the evangelisation by the holy Apostles.
1024  St Henry The Emperor; by prayer maintained in his heart the necessary spirit of humility and fear, and was able without being spoiled to bear the tide of prosperity and honour;  founded the see of Bamberg and built a great cathedral there; miraculously cured at the intercession of St Benedict at Monte Cassino
Sancti Henríci Primi, Imperatóris Romanórum et Confessóris, cujus dies natális tértio Idus mensis hujus recensétur.
St. Henry I, Roman emperor and confessor, whose birthday was noted on the 13th of this month.
St Henry II was son of Henry, Duke of Bavaria, and Gisela of Burgundy, and was born in 972.   He was educated by St Wolfgang, Bishop of Ratisbon, and in 995 succeeded his father in the duchy of Bavaria; in 1002, upon the death of his cousin Otto III, he was chosen emperor.   He had always before his eyes the dangers to which those who move in places of power are exposed. He studied the extent and importance of the obligations which attended his dignity, and by prayer maintained in his heart the necessary spirit of humility and fear, and was able without being spoiled to bear the tide of prosperity and honour.   He knew the end for which alone he was exalted by God to the highest temporal dignity, and worked his hardest to promote the peace and happiness of his realm.   Nevertheless, Henry at times made use of the Church for political ends, in accordance with the imperial policy of his predecessor Otto the Great.    He refused his support to ecclesiastical aggrandizement in temporal concerns, while maintaining the Church's proper authority; but some of his politics look equivocal when examined from the point of view of the welfare of Christendom.
   He had to engage in numerous wars for the defence and consolidation of the empire, as for example in Italy, before he could receive that crown; Arduin of Ivrea had had himself crowned king at Milan, so the emperor crossed the Alps and drove him out.   In 1014 he went in triumph to Rome, where he was crowned emperor by Pope Benedict VIII.  Henry munificently repaired and restored the episcopal sees of Hildesheim, Magdeburg, Strasburg and Meersburg, and made benefaction to the churches of Aachen, Basle and others.  It is sometimes mistakenly asserted that he brought about the conversion of St Stephen, King of Hungary, who in fact was born of Christian parents; but he promoted his endeavours for the conversion of his people.   In 1006 Henry founded the see of Bamberg and built a great cathedral there, in order to solidify German power among the Wends.  In this he was opposed by the bishops of Wurzburg and Eichstätt, whose dioceses were thus dismembered, but  Pope John XIX approved, and Benedict VIII consecrated the cathedral in 1020.
   Henry also built and endowed a monastery at Bamberg, and made foundations in several other places, that the divine honour and the relief of the poor might be provided for to the end of time.  In 1021 the emperor again came to Italy, on an expedition against the Greeks in Apulia; on his way back he was taken ill at Monte Cassino, where he was said to
have been miraculously cured at the intercession of St Benedict, but he contracted a lameness which never left him.
     Henry was attentive to the smallest affairs amidst the multiplicity of business which attends the government of the state, and whilst he was most active and vigilant in every duty which he owed to the public, he did not forget that the government of himself was his first obligation.  He identified himself in time with those ideas of ecclesiastical reform which radiated from the great monastery of Cluny, and in support of them he even opposed himself to his kinsman, friend, and former chaplain, Aribo, whom he had appointed archbishop of Mainz and who in synod had condemned appeals to Rome without episcopal permission.
   It is a well-known story of Henry that, wishing to become a monk, he promised obedience to the abbot of Saint-Vanne at Verdun, whereupon the abbot put him under obedience to continue the administration of the empire. This and similar accounts of his ascetic practices do not entirely accord with what is known of his character and life; Henry was one of the great rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, and triumphed precisely as a Christian statesman and soldier, whose ways were, in the nature of things, not those of the cloister.  Edifying legends were invented about hint by the Bambergers, and such a work as Adalbert's life of the emperor does not give us the real Henry.  What we know of him is mostly a matter of general history; unlike St Louis of France, St Henry II did not have a Joinville. He dearly promoted ecclesiastical reform, taking great care about episcopal appointments and supporting such great monks as St Odilo of Cluny and Richard of Saint-Vanne.

      St Henry was canonized by Bd Eugenius III in 1146, and St Pius X declared hint the patron of Benedictine oblates.
As the most Important ruler in Europe at the beginning of the eleventh century, Henry was bound to fill a great place in the chronicles of the time, e.g. those of Raoul Glaber and Thietmar. But there are also two Latin biographies, attributed respectively to Adalbold, Bishop of Utrecht, and Adalbert, a deacon of Bamberg.  These will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. iii, and in MGH., Scriptores, vol. iv. The best life of St Henry from a religious point of view is that of H. Gunter, Kaiser Heinrici, der Heilige (1904).  For the part he took in secular history, Hauck, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, vol. iii, and the Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iii, may be consulted; see also F. Dvornilc, The Making of Central and Eastern Europe (1949), pp. 185-222.  On St Henry's alleged "celibate marriage", see the notice of St Cunegund, his wife, herein under March 3, and the bibliographical note thereto.
1080 St. David of Sweden Benedictine bishop; went as  missionary to Sweden aid Bishop Sigfrid of Vaxio, who had lost his three missionary nephews. Sigfrid sent David to Vastmanland, and there David founded a monastery at Munktorp or Monkentorp; ruled that mon­astery as abbot until becoming the bishop of Vastera Miracles were reported at his tomb

David of Munkentorp, born in England , OSB B (AC) (also known as David of Sweden); the feast of his translation is June 25 on some calendars. Tradition names David an English Benedictine, who had a passionate desire to give his life to Christ through martyrdom. When he heard of the death of Saint Sigfrid's three nephews--Winaman, Unaman, and Sunaman--he offered himself to the saint and was sent to Sinenga in Vastmanland. Eventually he founded a Benedictine abbey (Monkentorp or Munkthorp), which he governed as abbot. He is said to have been the first bishop of Västeräss (Vasteras). David worked strenuously to evangelize the region and died peacefully in old age. Miracles were reported at his tomb (Benedictines, Farmer).

David is said to have been an English monk who had a passionate desire to give his life for Christ by martyrdom.  When he heard of the death at the hands of the heathen of St Sigfrid's three nephews, he offered himself to the English mission in Sweden which was trying to rebuild the spoiled work of St Anskar.  He came to St Sigfrid, who was bishop at Växiö, and was sent to Västmanland; here he laboured for the conversion of the people, and to help in the work established a monastery, whence the place was afterwards known as Munktorp.  He gave himself whole-heartedly to his mission, with great success; he received the gift of miracles and the even more valuable gift of tears-but the grace of martyrdom for which he longed was denied him.  He lived instead to a considerable age and died peacefully, his sanctity being again confirmed by miracles at his tomb.  David is commonly said to have been the first bishop of Västeras, and is one of the saints of whom it was told that he hung a garment on a sunbeam- in this case, his gloves. Davis, where he lived for a time, gets its name from St David.
There is a short life printed in the Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. ii, pt. r, pp. 408-411. See also C. J. A. Oppermann, English Missionaries in Sweden (1937), pp. 112-117; and cf the note to St Sigfrid, under February 15 herein .
1122 St. Egino Camaldolese abbot involved in the many disputes of his era
He was born in Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany, and was placed in the abbey of Sts. Ulric and Afra as a child. He became abbot of the abbey but was expelled when he supported Pope Callistus II against Emperor Henry V  in a dispute. Residing in St. Blaise Abbey, he retumed to Augsburg in 1106, resuming his office of abbot in 1109.
In 1120, Egino fled to Rome because of his opposition to Bishop Hermann, who practiced simony. Retuming to Augsburg two years later, he died in Pisa.
Egino (Egon) of Augsburg, OSB Abbot (PC) Born at Augsburg, Germany; died at Pisa, Italy. Saint Egino was received at the Abbey of Saints Ulric and Afra in Augsburg as a child-oblate. Egino sided with the pope during the investiture controversy. For this reason, he was expelled by his abbot, but welcomed into Saint Blasien Abbey. In 1106, he was recalled to Augsburg and appointed abbot in 1109. He suffered a great deal at the hands of the simoniacal bishop Hermann and was forced to flee to Rome in 1120. On his return home, he died at Pisa in the monastery of his Camaldolese brethren (Benedictines).
1140 Baldwin of Rieti became a monk at Clairvaux under Saint Bernard and one of the most beloved disciples of the holy founder. He was sent back to his native Italy as abbot of San Pastore in the diocese of Rieti, of which he is the principal patron saint, OSB Cist. Abbot (AC)
Saint Baldwin became a monk at Clairvaux under Saint Bernard and one of the most beloved disciples of the holy founder. He was sent back to his native Italy as abbot of San Pastore in the diocese of Rieti, of which he is the principal patron saint (Benedictines).
1140 St. Baldwin Benedictine abbot and disciple of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. An Italian, Baldwin entered Clairvaux Monastery in France. He was assigned to Italy as abbot of San Pastore, near Rieti. He is patron saint of Rieti.
1274 St. Bonaventure Franciscan, theologian, doctor of the Church, was both learned and holy;  contemporary of Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Albert the Great
Lugdúni, in Gállia, deposítio sancti Bonaventúræ, Cardinális et Epíscopi Albanénsis, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris, ex Ordine Minórum, doctrína et vitæ sanctitáte celebérrimi.  Ipsíus tamen festívitas prídie hujus diéi recólitur.

   At Lyons in France, the death of St. Bonaventure, cardinal and bishop of Albano, confessor and doctor of the Church, of the Order of Friars Minor, who is famed for his learning and the sanctity of his life.  His feast is celebrated on the previous day.
Katholische, Anglikanische und Evangelische Kirche: 15. Juli

Born 1221.  Bonaventure, Franciscan, theologian, doctor of the Church, was both learned and holy. Because of the spirit that filled him and his writings, he was at first called the Devout Doctor; but in more recent centuries he has been known as the Seraphic Doctor after the “Seraphic Father” Francis because of the truly Franciscan spirit he possessed.

Born in Bagnoregio, a town in central Italy, he was cured of a serious illness as a boy through the prayers of Francis of Assisi. Later, he studied the liberal arts in Paris. Inspired by Francis and the example of the friars, especially of his master in theology, Alexander of Hales, he entered the Franciscan Order, and became in turn a teacher of theology in the university. Chosen as minister general of the Order in 1257, he was God’s instrument in bringing it back to a deeper love of the way of St. Francis, both through the life of Francis which he wrote at the behest of the brothers and through other works which defended the Order or explained its ideals and way of life.
Comment:  Bonaventure so united holiness and theological knowledge that he rose to the heights of mysticism while yet remaining a very active preacher and teacher, one beloved by all who met him. To know him was to love him; to read him is still for us today to meet a true Franciscan and a gentleman.
Bonaventure, OFM B Doctor (RM) Born in Bagnorea near Viterbo, Italy, in 1221; died at Lyons, France, in 1274; canonized in 1482; declared a Doctor (the "Seraphic Doctor") of the Church in 1587 by Sixtus V; feast day formerly on July 14.
"Look not to the light but rather to the raging fire that carries the soul to God with intense fervor and glowing love." -- Bonaventure.
    "Thorns and cross and nails and lance, Wounds, our rich inheritance...May these all our spirits fill,  And with love's devotion thrill...Christ, by coward hands betrayed, Christ, for us a captive made,
        Christ upon the bitter tree,  Slain for man--all praise to thee." --Saint Bonaventure
"In beautiful things Saint Francis saw Beauty itself, and through His vestiges imprinted on creation he followed his Beloved everywhere, making from all things a ladder by which he could climb up and embrace Him who is utterly desirable." --Bonaventure
"Since happiness is nothing but the enjoyment of the Supreme Good, and since the Supreme Good is above us, we cannot be happy unless we rise beyond ourselves. Since we cannot reach above ourselves in our own strength, we must be helped by supernatural strength, lifted up by a higher power that stoops to raise us. However much we structure our inner lives and make progress, it does us no good unless our efforts are accompanied by help from on high. Divine aid is available for those who seek it with a devout and humble heart; this is done by fervent prayer.
"Prayer is, therefore, the source and origin of every upward journey toward God. Let us each, then, turn to prayer and say to our Lord God: 'Lead me, O Lord, on your path, that I may walk in your truth.'"
"Meditation on Christ in His humanity is corporeal in deed, in fact, but spiritual in mind...By adopting this habit, you will steady your mind, be trained to virtues, and receive strength of soul...Let meditation of Christ's life be your one and only aim, your rest, your food, your desire, your study."
"From contemplation of the Passion the soul will receive a new compassion, a new love, new consolations, and consequently, as it were, a new state of soul, which seems to be a presage and share of eternal glory." --Saint Bonaventure.

Born Giovanni (John) di Fidanza, an untrustworthy legend says that his name was changed to Bonaventure ("good fortune") by Saint Francis of Assisi, who miraculously cured him of a dangerous illness during his childhood and exclaimed: O buona ventura!
A contemporary of Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Albert the Great, he went to the University of Paris when he was 14. There he studied theology under the English Franciscan, Alexander of Hales (the "Unanswerable Doctor"); and it was perhaps the influence of this teacher that induced him to enter the order when he was 20.

By 1248, he was a bachelor of Scripture; two years later he became a bachelor of theology; and three years after that he became a master of theology and was appointed to the professorial chair of the Friars Minor. He taught theology and Scripture, and preached in Paris for many years (1248-1255), concentrating on the elucidation of some of the problems that especially exercised men's minds in his day.  His teaching was curtailed by the opposition of secular professors, who were jealous of the new mendicants' success and were perhaps made uncomfortable by their austere lives when compared unfavorably with their own. Apparently, their disdain for the Franciscans, led the university to delay granting him a doctorate in theology, yet this did not embitter Bonaventure. With Aquinas he defended the mendicant friars against their opponents.
When the secular leader William of Saint-Armour wrote The perils of the last times, Bonaventure responded by publishing Concerning the poverty of Christ, a treatise on holy poverty. Pope Alexander IV denounced Saint-Armour, had his book burned, and ordered a halt to the attack on the mendicants. Thus, vindicated, the mendicant orders were re-established at Paris and Bonaventure and Aquina received their doctorates in theology in 1257.
That same year, when he was only 36, Bonaventure was elected minister general of the Franciscans. In this position he was faced with a difficult task, for though Saint Francis had established an incomparable spiritual ideal for his order, his organization was weak and since his death a number of different groups had arisen.  At the general chapter of Narbonne in 1260, Bonaventure designed a set of constitutions as a rule, which had a lasting effect on the order, and for which he is called the second founder of the Franciscans. It has, however, been claimed that he also weakened the spirit of Saint Francis; the Life that he wrote of him, in order to promote unity among the brothers, was accurate but incomplete, and he modified the rule that forbade the brothers to accept money or own property.
The severe-interpretation Spirituals valued poverty above all else, including learning. Bonaventure strongly supported the importance of study to the order and the need for the order to provide books and buildings. He confirmed the practice of monks teaching and studying at universities, believing that the Franciscans could better fulfill the need for preaching and spiritual guidance to compensate for other poorly educated clergy.
In addition to theological and philosophical works, Saint Bonaventure has left us sundry ascetical treatises, some of which have been translated into English including the Journey of the soul to God. The hymn In the Lord's atoning grief is a translation from Bonaventure. Among his works are Commentary on the sentences of Peter Lombard (which covers the whole field of scholastic theology), the mystical works Breviloquium, Itinerarium mentis ad Deum, De reductione artium ad theologium, Perfection of life (written for Blessed Isabella, sister of Saint Louis IX, and her convent of Poor Clares), Soliloquy, The three-fold way, biblical commentaries, and sermons.
Bonaventure was nominated as archbishop of York in 1265, but refused the honor. In 1273, much against his will, Bonaventure was made cardinal and bishop of Albano by Pope Gregory X. His personal simplicity is illustrated by the story that when his cardinal's hat was brought to him at the friary in Mugello (near Florence), he told the legates to hang it on a nearby tree, as he was washing the dishes and his hands were wet and greasy.  The following year, Pope Gregory called him to draw up the agenda for the 14th general council at Lyons to discuss the reunion of Rome with the churches of the East. Saint Thomas Aquinas died en route to the council. Bonaventure was the leading figure in the success of the council that effected the brief reunion, and led his last general chapter of the order between the third and fourth sessions. Bonaventure died while the Council of Lyons was still in session and was buried in Lyons.

Saint Bonaventure's reputation is based on his personal goodness and his skill as a theologian. "In him it seemed as though Adam had not sinned," wrote Alexander of Hales, and when he died the official record of the Council of Lyons stated: "In the morning died Brother Bonaventure of famous memory, a man outstanding in sanctity, kind, affable, pious and merciful, full of virtues, beloved of God and man...God gave him the grace that whoever saw him conceived a great and heartfelt love for him."
The saint was known for his accessibility to any and all who wished to consult him, and once explained his urgency in making himself available to a simple lay brother by saying, "I am at the same time both prelate and master, and that poor brother is both my brother and my master."
Though Bonaventure and Aquinas were friends in their lifetime, the two men had strongly opposed each other on the question of the neo- Aristotelianism that was being introduced into theology, for Saint Bonaventure feared that as a result philosophy would be elevated above theology and that reason would be made more important than revelation.

Saint Bonaventure was a man of the highest intellectual attainments, but he would emphasize that a fool's love and knowledge of God may be greater than that of a humanly wise man. To reach God, he said, "little attention must be given to reason and great attention to grace, little to books and everything to the gift of God, which is the Holy Spirit." Above all he emphasized charity: "For in truth, a poor and unlearned old woman can love God better than a Doctor of Theology."  
Bonaventure believed that the created world gave us a sign of God. But faith was needed, honed by reason, to lead to contemplation of the divine. When his friend Aquinas asked where Bonaventure gained his own great knowledge, Bonaventure pointed to a crucifix. "I study only the crucified one, Jesus Christ," he replied.   Philosophy in itself was only an instrument, and unless it was modified in the light of revelation would lead into error, or into an arid preoccupation with intellectual arguments for their own sake.
In his opposition to Aristotelian philosophy, Saint Bonaventure no doubt went too far, and the synthesis achieved by Saint Thomas has had none of the disastrous effects that he feared.
Yet in taking his stand on the primacy of theology, he was aligning himself with the greatest of all Christian thinkers, Saint Augustine, and in stressing the supremacy of grace, he was following in the footsteps of the founder of his order, Saint Francis (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Costelloe, Encyclopedia, Gilson, White).

Other documents on Saint Bonaventure:  Sixtus IV's Superna caelestis (1482) (On the Canonization of St. Bonaventure);  In art, Saint Bonaventure is a cardinal in a Franciscan habit reading or writing. At times he may be shown (1) with the Tree of Life (i.e., Christ crucified in a tree); (2) with a rod blossoming into a crucifix; (3) with a bishop's crozier and mitre as well as a cardinal's hat; (4) holding a pyx; (5) receiving the Eucharist from an angel; (6) with an angel near him listening to his prayers; (7) with a papal tiara on a table before him; (8) in a library with Saint Thomas Aquinas, to whom he points out the crucifix; (9) as a cardinal presiding at the Council of Lyons; or, as in this painting by Francisco de Zurbarán, (10) with the pope and emperor attending his funeral (Roeder).

Johannes Bonaventura
Katholische, Anglikanische und Evangelische Kirche: 15. Juli
Giovanni Fidanza wurde um 1221 in der Nähe von Viterbo (Latium/Italien) geboren. Franziskus von Assisi soll dem fünfjährigen den Namen Bonaventura (glückliches Ereignis) gegeben haben. Vielleicht als Jugendlicher, vielleicht auch erst 1243 trat Bonaventura in den Orden der Franziskaner ein. Er studierte von 1236 bis 1242 an der Pariser Hochschule, wurde 1256 Doktor und 1257 gemeinsam mit Thomas von Aquin Professor an der Pariser Sorbonne. Bonaventura setzte sich mit der auf Aristoteles basierenden Scholastik auseinander, der herrschenden Lehrmeinung seiner Zeit. Anders als die Scholastiker versuchte er aber nicht, Gott allein mit dem Verstand zu erfassen und zu beweisen, sondern auch das gottsuchende Gemüt anzusprechen. So lehrte er, daß die Philosophie nur auf den unteren Stufen der Leiter zu Gott helfen könne. Gott nahe komme man nur durch die Betrachtung der heiligen Schrift.
1257 wurde Bonaventura General des Franziskanerordens. Er leitete den Orden 17 Jahre lang von Paris aus. Es gelang ihm die drohende Spaltung des Ordens - ausgelöst durch die Frage, wie streng die Armutsverpflichtung zu befolgen sei - zu verhindern. 1273 bereitete er das Konzil von Lyon vor, dem er auch vorstand. Kurz vor Ende des Konzils starb er am 15.7.1274. Er ist der letzte Kirchenlehrer der alten Kirche und steht als 'Doctor seraphicus' zwischen dem 'Doctor angelicus' Thomas von Aquin und dem 'Pater seraphicus' Franz von Assisi. Die Spaltung der Franziskaner wurde 1517 durch Papst Leo X. vollzogen. Heute gibt es drei franziskanische Orden - neben die Franziskanern und den Minoriten die aus diesen hervorgegangenen Kapuziner .
1435 Blessed Angelina of Marsciano founded a convent of regular tertiaries of Saint Francis of Foligno, which was finished in 1397 with 135 convents, OFM Tert. Widow (AC)
Born at Montegiove, Umbria, in 1377; cultus confirmed in 1825. Angelina married at age 15 and was widowed by the time she was 17. Thereafter, Angelina founded a convent of regular tertiaries of Saint Francis of Foligno, which was finished in 1397. By the time that she died, there were no fewer than 135 such houses under her direction as superior general (Benedictines, Encyclopedia)
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1458 Blessed Bernard of Baden renounced his worldly power and possessions in order to organize a Crusade to the Holy Land died without having met his goal  (AC)
Born in 1428; cultus confirmed in 1481 and again in 1769. Bernard was the margrave of Baden, who renounced his worldly power and possessions in order to organize a Crusade to the Holy Land. While his brother took on Bernard's former secular rule, God's man offered himself to several European courts to undertake a crusade against the Turks. He died without having met his goal (Benedictines).
Amoung the descendants of Herman von Zahringen, who gave up the margravate of Baden to become a Cluniac monk, was the Margrave James I, who was known in his day as "the Solomon of Germany";    he married Catherine, the daughter of Charles II of Lorraine and Margaret of Bavaria, and to them was born a son Bernard, about the year 1429.   He turned out a brilliant young man, with a taste both for letters and for soldiering, but he refused to betroth himself to the daughter of the King of France; and when his father died in 1453 he turned his responsibilities and rights as margrave over to his brother Charles and went from court to court of Europe trying to stir up their sovereigns to a crusade against the Turks, who on May 29, 1453 had captured Constantinople.  Bernard set out for Rome to get the support of Pope Callistus III, but just after leaving Turin he was attacked by the plague and died in the Franciscan monastery at Moncalieri, being less than thirty years old,   On account of his great reputation for sanctity, supported by miracles reported at his tomb, he was beatified in 1479 by Pope Sixtus IV, in the presence of his mother and brothers.
There is some account in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. iv; and a fuller biography by 0. Ringholz (1892), who prints the contemporary attestations of a number of miracles submitted in the process of beatification; an abridgement of this appeared in 1907.  Two, more popular, small lives by J. Franck and H. Mohr were published in 1929, the fifth centenary of Bernard's birth 
1550 Bd. Ignatius Azevedo and His Companions, Martyrs Missionaries to Brazil; martyred by Huguenot French privateer
Ignatius Azevdo came from a family of wealth and rank on both his father's and mother's side; he was born at Oporto in 1528, and joined the Society of Jesus when he was twenty.     He proved to be a model novice, except that his physical mortifications made him so thin that the Portuguese provincial Father Simon Rodriguez had to remonstrate with him..  When he was still only twenty-five he was made rector of the college of St Antony at Lisbon.  Here he did not confine himself to the strict limits of his official duties, but was active in every good work; it is recorded that on one occasion he personally tended three men in such advanced stages of some loathsome disease that the ordinary hospitallers would not touch them:  and by caring for their bodies he converted their souls. With a brief interval as vice-provincial of Portugal, Father Azevedo persevered in this office for ten years, and was then removed to a similar post at the college in Braga founded by the famous Dominican archbishop Bartholomew Fernandez (" a Martyribus ").
   All this time he had been beset by a desire-kindled by a Japanese student at Lisbon-to preach the gospel to the heathen;  and at length, in 1566, he was appointed to go to Brazil as visitor, to inspect and advise on the Jesuit missions there,  He was away on this commission for two years; the first missionaries had landed in Brazil only seventeen years previously, but the Jesuits had already established residences among several of the cannibal tribes of that huge country. On his return to Rome he recommended to St Francis Borgia that more missionaries be sent out there, and the general ordered him to select suitable subjects for the work from the Spanish and Portuguese provinces and to go with them to Brazil as their superior.   The band which Father Azevedo enlisted set out on June 5,1570.   The superior and thirty-nine (at first forty-two) others of the party were on a merchant vessel, the Santiago, and the others on one of a squadron of men-o'-war going out under the command of Dom Luis Vasconcelos, governor of Brazil.
   They reached Madeira, and here Vasconcelos decided to stop for a time in order to get the advantage of more favourable winds;  the master of the Santiago, however, intended to continue the voyage to the Canaries. This put Father Azevedo into a quandary.  There was no room for the rest of the Jesuits on the other warships; but if he went on he would not have them under his care and there was very grave danger from pirates.  However, he decided to proceed with his ship, but seems to have had a premonition of what would happen, for before leaving Madeira he delivered a stirring address on the glory of martyrdom, and warned his own party of their danger.
  When within a few miles of her destination the Santiago was overtaken by a French privateer, commanded by James Soury, an implacable Huguenot, who directly he heard of the convoy of Jesuits going to Brazil had set out in chase from La Rochelle.  The Santiago put up a good fight, and the missionaries helped in every possible way, short of actually bearing anns and shedding blood; after she was boarded there was a fierce hand-to-hand struggle, but on the death of her captain she was constrained to strike her flag.   Thereupon Soury demonstrated his hatred of the Catholic religion by sparing the remainder of the crew and passengers but ordering the death of the missionaries.  Bd Ignatius and his thirty-nine companions were then and there brutally massacred in cold blood, meeting their death with heroism and joy; their leader was thrown into the sea clasping a picture of our Lady given to him by Pope St Pius V. Of these martyrs nine were Spanisrds and the rest Portuguese.
Several contemporary revelations of this massacre were reported, of which the chief were to Bd Ignatius's brother, Don Jerome, in the East Indies, and to St Teresa at Avila, whose kinsman, BD Francis GoDoy, was among the martyrs.  Their beatification took place in 1854.
A popular account may be found in the small volume, by Father Cordara in Italian and by Father de Beauvais in French in 1854. See also Astrain, Historia de la Compañia de Jesus en la Aristencia de Espñia, vol. ii, p. 244; and J. Brodrick, The Progress of the Jesuits (1946) pp. 220-230.  For bibliography, Dc Guilhermy, Ménologe de Portugal, vol. ii, pp. 39-43.
1570 Bl. John Fernandez Jesuit martyr who died with Blessed Ignatius de Azevedo and companions. Born at Braga, Portugal, he entered the Jesuits and set out with the other Jesuits for the East Indies. They were all slain When they were captured by Huguenot captain, pirates of the ship, near the Canary Islands.
Blessed Ignatius de Azevedo and Companions, SJ MM (AC) Died 1570; beatified in 1854. A band of 40 Portuguese and Spanish Jesuit missionaries, who were put to death by the Huguenot skipper, Jacques Sourie, near the Canary Islands, while on their way to the West Indies. Ignatius was the superior and leader of the band. He was born at Coimbra, where he joined the Society of Jesus in 1548. He was a religious of outstanding ability, highly revered by his superiors. Among the others are:
    Alphonsus de Vaena, born at Toledo, Spain, coadjutor.     Antony Correa     Antony Fernández     Antony Suarez     Benedict de Castro, born in Chacim, diocese of Miranda, Portugal.     Dominic Fernández, born at Villa Viciosa, Portugal, lay-brother.     Francis Alvarez, born in Covilhao, Portugal, lay-brother.     Father Francis Magallanes, born in Alcázar do Sal, Portugal.     Francis Perez Godoy, born in Torrijos, diocese of Toledo, Spain, Jesuit novice.     Gregory Escrivano, born at Logroño, Old Castile, Jesuit coadjutor.     Father James Andrade, born at Pedrogao, diocese of Coimbra, Portugal.     John de Baeza, a Spaniard and temporal- coadjutor.     Father John Fernández, born at Lisbon.     John Fernández, born at Braga, Portugal, temporal-coadjutor.     Father John of San Martin, born at Toledo, Spain.     John de Mavorga, born in Aragon, temporal- coadjutor.     John de Zafra, born at Toledo, Spain, temporal-coadjutor.     Father Louis Correa, born at Evora, Portugal.     Mark Caldeira, born at Feira, diocese of Oporto, novice.     Nicholas Dinnis, born in Braganza, Portugal, novice.     Father Peter Nuñez, born in Fronteria, Portugal.     Peter Fontura, born at Braga, Portugal, lay-brother.     Simon Acosta, born at Oporto, Portugal, lay-brother.     Father Simon Lopez, born at Ourem, Portugal,     Stephen de Zudaira, born at Viscaya, Spain, lay-brother (Benedictines).
1570 Bl.  Joanninus de San Juan Martyr with Blessed Ignatius de Azevedo. He was the nephew of the captain of the ship which carried Blessed Ignatius de Azevedo and his companions. When they were captured by Huguenot pirates, Joanninus volunteered to die with the Jesuits and was hurled into the sea by the Calvinists.
1583 Blessed Francis Aranha went to Goa in southern India with his uncle served as a missionary on the islet of Salsette, SJ M (AC)
Born in Braga, Portugal; Francis went to Goa in southern India with his uncle. There he joined the Society of Jesus in 1571 as a coadjutor. He served as a missionary on the islet of Salsette, where he was martyred with Blessed Rudolph Acquaviva (Benedictines)
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1583 Bl. Peter Berna Jesuit martyr in India. Originally from Ascona, on Lake Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland, he studied at the German College and Rome and then entered the Jesuits. Sent to India with Blessed Rudolf Acquaviva, he received ordination at Goa and spent his remaining time working to convert the Indian population. he was finally martyred with Blessed Rudolf by local opponents to Christian missionaries.
Blessed Peter Berna, SJ M (AC) Born at Ascona, Ticino, Switzerland; died in Goa in 1583. Peter studied at the German College in Rome and joined the Jesuits. He went to India with Blessed Rudolf Acquaviva, where he was ordained in Goa. After working as a missionary for many years he was martyred with Rudolf (Benedictines)
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1583 Bl. Anthony Francisco Jesuit martyr with Rudolf Acquaviva. Born in Coimbra, Portugal, Anthony was professed as a Jesuit in 1570. working in the missions of Salsette, near Goa
He was sent to India and ordained there, working in the missions of Salsette, near Goa. There he was also martyred for the faith with Rudolf and three other companions
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1710-1756 St. Pompeius Maria Pirotti a renowned teacher and preacher
Campi Salentinórum, in Apúlia, sancti Pompílii Maríæ Pirrótti, Confessóris, ex Ordine Clericórum Páuperum Matris Dei Scholárum Piárum, vita apostólica præclári, a Pio Undécimo, Pontífice Máximo, inter Sanctos reláti.
   At Campo in Italy, the birthday of St. Pompilio Maria Pirrotti of St. Nicholas, confessor, a member of the Congregation of Poor Clerks Regular of Pious Schools of the Mother of God, who spent his entire life in safeguarding the salvation of souls.  He was registered among the saints by Pope Pius XI.

Also Pompilio Pirotti, a renowned teacher and preacher. Born at Montecalvo, Campania, Italy, in 1710, he joined the Piarist Fathers at Naples in 1727 and was professed the next year. He took the name Maria of St. Nicholas in religious life. After his ordination, he taught school in Apulia, Italy, and received appointment as a missioner apostolic in Emilia and Venetia. His preaching in Naples was so brilliant and troublesome to many who were in power that influential personages secured his banishment; however, the King of Naples was forced to bring him back when public indignation proved overwhelming. He died at the Piarist house at Campo, Lecce, Apulia, and was canonized in 1934.
Pompilio (Pompilius) Mary Pirotti, Sc. P. (RM) Born in Montecalvo, diocese of Benevento, Italy, in 1710; died in Lecce in Apulia, 1756; canonized in 1934. Pompilio became a clerk regular of the Piarist fathers (Scolopi) at Naples in 1727 and devoted his life to teaching. After being falsely accused, he was imprisoned, but was later completely vindicated (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Pompeius Maria Pirotti was born in 1710 of a good family at Montecalvo in Campania.  He had a good education, and struck by the need of schools, especially among the poor, he decided to give his life to teaching.   He therefore joined the clerks regular of the Religious Schools ("Piarists" or Scolopini), founded by St Joseph Calasanctius for that work, and was professed in 1728, taking the name of Mary-of-St-Nicholas.
    He was ordained, and taught for some yeaxs in Apulia, and then on account of his sanctity and enthusiasm was appointed missioner apostolic in Emilia and Venetia.   At Naples his zeal got him into trouble, and a campaign of slander and persecution was worked up against him by those who feared his influence or were jealous of his success.   He was expelled from Naples, but such was the indignation of the people that the king had to revoke the decree of banishment.  St Pompillo continued his work with a splendid patience, until his superiors recalled him to the house of his order at Campo, near Lecce, where he died at the age of forty-six.  Ferdinand II, King of the Two Sicilies, took a keen interest in the cause of his beatification, which was achieved in 1890, and he was canonized in 1934.
See Seebock, Die Herrlichkeit der Katholischen Kirche ihren Heiligen und Seilgen des 19 Jahrhunderts (1900), p. 431; Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongregationen, vol. iii; and the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xxvii (1935), pp. 223-234 .
1838 St. Peter Tuan Vietnamese martyr native priest, he was arrested by Vietnamese authorities suffered such grievous tortures in prison died before they could carry out the order of execution by beheading. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.
1851 Bl. Anne Jahouvey a vision of black children decided vocation to their needs; veil in Autun, France, and Congregation of St. Joseph of Cluny was founded; founded houses in Europe, South America, and Africa went to French Guyana educate six hundred slaves to be liberated; founded houses in Tahiti and Madagascar
Foundress and missionary, the daughter of a wealthy farmer in Jallanges, France. Anne entered several convents but left each time, wanting to devote her life to educating the poor. In 1800, she had a vision of black children and decided to adapt her vocation to their needs. In 1807, Anne and eight other young women were given the veil in Autun, France, and the Congregation of St. Joseph of Cluny was founded. Anne founded houses in Europe, South America, and Africa. In 1828, she went to French Guyana to educate six hundred slaves who were about to be liberated. Anne Javouhey also founded houses in Tahiti and Madagascar. She died in Paris on July 15, 1851.
Blessed Anne Marie Javouhey (AC) (also known as Nanette) Born at Jallanges, Burgundy, France, on November 10, 1779; died Paris, France, July 15, 1851; beatified in 1950. Anne Marie was the fifth of ten children of a wealthy farmer, Balthazar Javouhey, and his wife, Claudine. She grew up during the terror of the French Revolution. She received her First Communion about a week before the Constituent Assembly in Paris that moved to confiscate all Church property and required that clergy swear an oath of allegiance to the secular state. Practicing priests who refused to take the oath were considered to be criminals; those who took it, including four of 135 bishops and about half the priests, were excommunicated.
Throughout her teen years she became accustomed to hiding and caring for persecuted priests. She would keep watch as they said Mass.
At an early age, she decided that she wanted to devote her life to the poor and the education of children. When the persecution had ended, she took the veil. At a convent in Besançon in 1800, she had a vision of Negro children, which was to influence her later life. After failing to adjust to life in several convents, she and eight companions founded the Institute of Saint Joseph of Cluny at Cabillon in 1805.  They were clothed by the bishop of Autun in 1807. Seven years later (1812), they purchased a friary and moved the congregation to Cluny. The Sisters of Saint Joseph gained renown for their successful teaching methods. Fired with apostolic zeal, she sent her nuns to work in far distant regions. She heroically labored for several years (1828-1832) in French Guyana. In 1834, she was again sent their, this time by the French government to educate 600 Guyanan slaves who were to be emancipated. She finally left French Guyana in 1843 and spent her remaining years establishing new house in Tahiti, Madagascar, and elsewhere (Benedictines, Delaney).
Bd Anne Mary Javouhey, Virgini, Foundress Of The Congregation Of St Joseph Of Cluny
Of the many remarkable women beatified or canonized during the second quarter of the twentieth century one of the most outstanding was Anne Mary Javouhey. She was born in 1779 at Jallanges in Burgundy, where her father was a well-to-do farmer, and she early showed the forcefulness of her character:   though the fifth of a large family she dominated the rest of the children.  Another characteristic that soon showed itself was courage, and during the revolution she often helped clergy and others at no little risk.   It was at a Mass celebrated secretly in the house in 1798 that Nanette (as she was commonly called) made a vow of celibacy, together with a promise to devote her life to the education of children and help of the poor.
   When religious communities were again allowed in France Nanette joined the Sisters of Charity at Besançon.   But she had no vocation there.  She went to the Cistercian nuns at Val-Sainte in Switzerland, with a like result.   But here she was directed by a well-known monk, Dom Augustine Lestrange (he introduced the Cistercians into the United States), who told her that her vocation was to found a new congregation.  Nanette had told him of her vision at Besançon of a room full of coloured boys and girls, and the voice which said to her,
 "These are the children God gives you.  I am Teresa, and I will look after your congregation."
     So she returned to France, and Javouhey pere, who alternated between opposition and a generous help of his daughter, set her up with rooms at Chamblanc where she and her three sisters could start a school.  When Pope Pius VII passed through Chalon in 1805 he received the four young women and gave them every encouragement.   Two years later Anne, her sisters and five others were clothed in a blue and black habit by the Bishop of Autun. Other schools and establishments were soon in demand.In 1812 Mr Javouhey bought a former Franciscan friary at Cluny to be the novitiate and mother-house.
   A school was opened in Paris, where Mother Javouhey's educational methods excited comment, favourable and other, and brought her to the notice of the government.*   The governor of the island of Bourbon (now Reunion, east of Madagascar) asked her to send some sisters there, and in September 1817 their first missionary school for coloured children ths begun.    This led to similar requests from elsewhere, and Mother Javouhey herself spent two years in Senegal, extending her work to Gambia and Sierra Leone to take over hospitals for the British authorities.   She supervised the inauguration of a large plantation for Africans up the Senegal river, and carried through a scheme for educating Senegalese in France for the priesthood.
    This last undertaking had eventually to be abandoned, and it was said with reference to it that " Mother Javouhey was before her time ".  The truth is just the opposite.     Establishment of a "native clergy" is no new policy of twentieth-century popes, but a return to the earlier and normal
practice of the Church in mission lands.
   With the passing of time Nanette's youthful forcefulness became inflexible determination, and a girl's pluck became adult fortitude in an heroic degree.  To these were added a clear and receptive mind and intellectual ability.  Those qualities have their dangers, even for a fervent religious.  She owed something to the work of Joseph Lancaster (d. 1838), one of the founders of the British and Foreign School Society.
    But they were balanced by a simplicity and humility in her dealings with men and women no less than towards God.  This can be clearly seen from her simple charity combined with firmness when things went wrong: the period of "schism" among the sisters in Bourbon, the long and bitter disagreement with Bishop d'Héricourt of Autun, and, partly as a consequence of this, the extraordinary behaviour of the prefect
apostolic in Guiana, who for two years deprived Anne of the sacraments.  "The Cross is found wherever there are servants of God, and I rejoice to be reckoned among them," she said; but to the priest who refused her the sacraments as she left Guiana on her last voyage to Europe she spoke out:   "Very well.  But if anything goes wrong, you will answer to God for it."
   If she received a heavy cross in French Guiana, there also was the field of Mother Javouhey's most striking achievements.  Her congregation already had establishments in Guadaloupe, Martinique, Saint-Pierre, Pondicherry-hospitals, schools, workshops-and at Cayenne and New Angouleme in Guiana, when in 1828 the government asked her to undertake a task in which men had already failed badly-the colonization of the Mana district there.  With thirty-six sisters, a number of French artisans and prospective colonists, and fifty Negro labourers she set to work according to a plan she had drawn up for the approval of the authorities.   Those four years were doubtless temporally the four hardest years she ever knew, planting not simply civilization but a Christian civilization in the forests of South America; and, as her success became apparent, doing it in the teeth of the jealousy of those in Guiana who had failed, and of lack of support from the government after the abdication of King Charles X in 1830.  She was tireless as well as intrepid, and would buy up a score of runaway slaves to save them from the lash, or establish a village for lepers, as it were " in passing ".
   Mother Javouhey had not been back in France two years when an even more surprising service was asked of her.   Much to the indignation of some of the Europeans there, several hundred Negro slaves in Guiana were to be emancipated they were a rough lot, and their sudden freedom might lead to grave difficulties.  Would Mother Javouhey, during the time before their liberation, train them in the ways of true religion and civilized society?  After much thought and more prayer she replied that, with God's help, she would do her best.  Nothing in her life amused more general interest than this, and there was adverse criticism too.  Lamartine, Chateaubriand, Lamennais all came to her defence.     And  King Louis-Philippe made the remark, "Madame Javouhey is a great man !"
   Back she went to Mana, and the Negroes were brought along in instalments as she was ready for them-not under armed guard, as was proposed, but in charge of a nun.   There were 200 men, 200 women and 111 children, afterwards increased to a round 600.  Their day was mapped out almost like that of a religious community; the greatest domestic difficulty was their disinclination to work, but Mother Javouhey took on herself to be foreman, as well as guide, philosopher, friend and magistrate.   She was clearly going to justify in practice the abstract arguments in favour of emancipation, and the hostility of the French planters increased.   They even bribed a Negro to upset a boat and drown the nun in the river. Mother Javouhey was warned of this, but she would not defer the journey nor change the crew. Nothing happened.    And on May 21, 1838 the first 185 Negro slaves were solemnly and publicly freed.  For each family a cottage, a piece of land and a sum of money were waiting-Mother Javouhey had looked after that.  And also, at their own earnest request, a pair of white-man's boots:   but never having worn such things before they were quite unable to walk in them.
   Mother Javouhey was now sixty-four.  In 1843 she left Guiana, and spent the last eight years of her life supervising her now large congregation, and arranging new foundations in Tahiti, Madagascar and elsewhere and the admission of Indian postulants in India.   There was, too, ecclesiastical opposition to be met.  She hoped to go to Rome to lay her work at the feet of the Father of Christendom; but she learned that "I have a different journey in front of me, and I must make it alone".   Anne Mary Javouhey died on July 15,  1851.  She was beatified ninety-nine years later, when the congregation she had founded had spread to thirty-two countries and colonies of the world.
Among the biographies in French are those of P. Kieffer (2 vols., 1915); V. Caillard (1909); G. Goyau (1934); and G. Bernoville (1942).   Father Plus studies her "physionomie morale "in Una passionnie de la Volonte de Dieu (1950).  In English, see J. A. Mullins, In Journeys Often; and C. C. Martindale, Mère Anne-Marie Javouhey (1953).
1855 St. Andrew Nam-Thuong Martyr Vietnamese mayor of a village and a Catholic, Andrew served as a catechist until his arrest in a persecution. He died on a march into exile at Mi-Tho, Vietnam. Andrew was canonized in 1988.
St. Piroou and St. Athom  Martyrdom   Martyrdom of St. Balanah, the Priest.  The Martyrdom of St. Epime (Pimanon).   The Departure of Cyrus (Karas), brother of Emperor Theodosius. {Coptic}
On this day also, St. Piroou and St. Athom were martyred. These two Saints were born in the city of "Sonbat", of Christian parents who were righteous, loving works of righteousness and charitable deeds. Their father's name was John and their mother's was Mary. St. Piroou was blond with curled hair, tall in stature, with blue eyes. St. Athom was tall in stature with white complexion, dark eyes and black beard. When Piroou was thirty years old, and Athom was twenty-seven, they attended church consistently during masses, and continued to give alms and provide shelter for strangers.
When persecution was incited against the Christians, they took some goods and went to the town of El-Farma to trade there. They found the body of a Saint called "Noua" with some of the soldiers. They bought the body from them with silver, placed the body in a marbled sarcophagus in their own home. They hung an oil lamb before it, and many miracles appeared from the body. The two saints reflected upon the vanity of the world, and the blessings of paradise. They distributed their money among the poor, went to Alexandria and confessed Christ before the Governor. He tortured them by beating and whipping them until their blood poured out on the ground. They hanged them and put fire under them. The Angel of the Lord came and brought them down and healed their wounds. Then, the Governor sent them to El-Farma. When the Governor of El-Farma saw their courage and the beauty of their appearance, he offered them the worship of the idols. When they refused, he pulled out the nails of their hands and feet. Then he put them on iron rods and lit fire under them.
   During this, the wife of the Governor died, and he asked the two Saints to forgive him for what he had done to them. They prayed to God for her and God raised her from the dead. The Governor and every one with him believed. He released the two Saints and they returned to their town "Sonbat". They gave the poor whatever was left of their money. They gave the body of St. Noua to a righteous man called Sarabamon. They asked him to hang an oil lamp before it at all times.
    Then, they went to the Governor and confessed Christ. He ordered them beaten and dragged in the city until their blood poured out on the ground. A deaf and dumb woman took some of the blood and anointed her ears and tongue with it. Instantly she was healed. She glorified the Lord Christ and confessed Him. The Governor ordered them all to be beheaded. They all received the crown of martyrdom. The righteous Sarabamon, and some people from Sonbat were present. They took the bodies of the two Saints, shrouded them, and took them to their town. A church was built for them, where their bodies and the body of St. Noua were placed. It was said that their bodies are now located in the church of St. Barbara in Old Cairo.  May their prayers be with us, Amen.
The Martyrdom of St. Balanah, the Priest.
  On this day also, St. Balanah the priest, was martyred. He was from the city of Bara, of the diocese of Sakha. When he heard of the persecution of the faithful and the slaying of the saints, he distributed all his money to the poor and the needy. He then went to "Antinoe" (Ansena), and confessed the Lord Christ before the governor. He tortured St. Balanah much with different kinds of tortures until he delivered up his soul in the hands of the Lord.
May his prayers be with us, Amen.
The Martyrdom of St. Epime (Pimanon).
   This day also, marks the martyrdom of St. Epime (Pimanon) (Bima). He was the chief of the village of "Panokleus" of the district of El-Bahnasa. He was rich and merciful to the poor. The Lord Christ appeared to him in a vision and told him, "Arise, go to the Governor and confess My Name, for there you have a crown prepared for you." When he awoke from his sleep, he distributed all his money to the poor and the needy. Then he prayed, and went to El-Bahnasa, and confessed the Lord Christ. When he confessed that he was the chief of the village, the Governor asked him about the vessels of the church in his town, and offered him the worship of the idols. St. Bima answered him saying, "I will not give you the vessels, and as for worshipping the idols, I only worship my Lord Jesus Christ." The Governor ordered his tongue cut off, and torture by the press and by burning. But the Lord saved and healed him.
   The Governor then, sent him to Alexandria, where he was imprisoned. Julius El-Akfahsi (the writer of the biographies of the saints) had a sister possessed with an evil spirit. This Saint prayed for her and she was healed. The report of this miracle spread out and many believed. The Governor became furious and he tortured the Saint with the press and by pulling out his nails. The Lord strengthened him and healed him. When the Governor became weary of torturing him, he sent him to Upper Egypt. There he was beheaded, and he received the crown of martyrdom. The servants of Julius El-Akfahsi carried his body to his town.
May his prayers be with us, Amen .
The Departure of Cyrus (Karas), brother of Emperor Theodosius.
Today also, St. Cyrus (Karas) departed. He was the brother of Emperor Theodosius the Great. This saint knew well the vanity of the world and its temporal nature. He left all his possessions and went out wandering without a destination. God guided him to the inner Western Wilderness, where he lived for many years alone, without seeing man or beast.
   There was in the wilderness of Shiheet (Scete) a holy priest called Bamwa (Pimwah) who shrouded the body of St. Hilaria. This father longed to see one of the servants of Christ, the hermits. The Lord helped him until he came to the inner wilderness, and he saw many of the saints. Everyone of them told him about his name, and the reason he came to the wilderness. But St. Pimwah asked each of them, "Is there is anyone who lives further in the inner desert?" They answered him, "Yes." He continued to walk until he finally arrived at St. Karas, the last one of them. St. Karas called him from inside his cell, "Welcome, Anba Pimwah, the priest of Shiheet." Anba Pimwah entered his cell, and after the greetings, St. Karas asked him about the news of the world, the governors and the faithful. At night, St. Karas prayed for a long time, then he knelt to the ground and delivered up his soul in the hands of the Lord. Anba Pimwah buried him in his cloak, then he returned glorifying God, telling everyone about the Saint and his strife.  May his prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever, Amen.

Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  July 2016
Universal:  
Indigenous Peoples; That indigenous peoples, whose identity
and very existence are threatened, will be shown due respect.
”.
Evangelization:  Latin America and the Caribbean; That the Church in Latin America and the Caribbean,
by means of her mission to the continent, may announce the Gospel with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. 

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

                                           
 
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish
 -- Mother Teresa

 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'  Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
 'The Gospel of Life'


"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics