Mary Mother of GOD
 Friday   Saints June 1Quintodécimo Kaléndas Júlii  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.

Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2016

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

1856 St. Emily de Vialar Virgin,
Foundress of the
Sisters of St. Joseph "of the Apparition" 
A shining example of fortitude, patience and charity, the Sovereign Pontiff Pius XII added her to the number of the saints.  Their work was to be the care of the needy, especially the sick, and the education of children. In 1835, she made her profession with seventeen other sisters, and received formal approval for the rule of the Congregation.
1856 St. Emily de Vialar Virgin, Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph "of the Apparition"
Pray to Our Lady of Grace
 2nd v. St. Nicander and Marcian Martyrs, possibly of Durostorum, Bulgaria; members of the imperial army in the region of the Balkans and were martyred in the region that eventually became Romania,
 265 St. Antidius Bishop and martyr; disciple of  St. Fironinus in the see of Besancon, in France.

4th v. St Bessarion a native of Egypt; having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness; disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macarius; neighborly charity led him to a height of perfection was manifested by miracles:  made salt water fresh, several times brought rain during drought, walked on the Nile admirers compared him with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist
 363 St. Manuel, Sabel and Ismael Persian Christians martyred by Julian the Apostate at Chalcedon; legates from Persia sent to negotiate peace who were slain when it was discovered they were Christians. A church was dedicated to them by Emperor Theodosius the Great.
 575 St. Harvey blind abbot of Plouvien; later he transferred his community to Lanhourneau, where he passed the rest of his days and was famous for miracles.
 697 St. Moling Bishop of Ferns; successor of St. Aidan. Born in Wexford, Ireland
1250 St. Teresa of Portugal the eldest daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal and sister of SS. Mafalda and Sanchia; married her cousin, King Alfonso IX of Leon & had several children; the marriage was declared invalid because of consanguinity, she returned to Portugal and founded a Benedictine monastery on her estate at Lorvao.
1697 St Gregory Barbarigo, Bishop Of Padua And Cardinal; charities were enormous kind to all, especially to those in trouble or distress founded a college, and also a seminary for young priests
1856 St. Emily de Vialar Virgin, Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph "of the Apparition"  Their work was to be the care of the needy, especially the sick, and the education of children. In 1835, she made her profession with seventeen other sisters, and received formal approval for the rule of the Congregation.
1860 St. Joseph Cafasso assigned to a seminary in Turin After ordination there he worked especially against the spirit of Jansenism, an excessive preoccupation with sin and damnation; St. John Bosco was one of Joseph’s pupils. Joseph urged John Bosco to establish the Salesians to work with the youth of Turin

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary  .


June 17 - Message of the Sacred Heart of Jesus to Saint Margaret Mary
"Like the King of France...
"(Paray-le-Monial, France, 1689)
In August of 1931, during of her convalescence in Rianjo, a small city near Pontevedra, the Lord complained to Sr Lucia of Fatima about the absence of response to his request of consecrating Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.
  "They did not want to listen to my request! Like the King of France, they will repent, and they will do it, but it will be too late. Russia will have already spread its errors in the world, causing wars and persecutions against the Church.
The Holy Father will greatly suffer."

Why this reference to the King of France? Quite simply because in 1689, when Jesus revealed his Sacred Heart to St Margaret Mary, he also made a very important request:
"Make it known to the oldest son of my Sacred Heart (Jesus was alluding to King Louis XIV) that, since his temporal birth was obtained by the devotion to the merits of my Holy Infancy, in the same way he will obtain his birth to eternal glory by his consecration to my Adorable Heart. My Heart wants to reign in his palace, to be painted on his standards and engraved on his weapons in order to make them victorious against all his enemies as well as those of Holy Church.
My Father himself wants to help carry out his plan, which is the construction of a public building where the painting of my Sacred Heart would be placed to receive there homage from all of France."

Our Lord thus promised France, his "eldest daughter," powerful protection but with three conditions:
that the Sacred Heart be added to the arms of the King and to the standards of France; that a national shrine be built for him; and that in that church France be solemnly consecrated to him by its sovereign. Nothing was ever accomplished by Louis XIV and one hundred years later, day for day, the message of June 17, 1689 remained unanswered, and the Third Estate proclaimed itself the Constitutive Assembly and brought blood and terror to the French Monarchy...
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.


At a meeting with young people of Genoa, Pope Benedict XVI noted that many youth face a future with a dual outlook. On the one hand there is the specter of great promise; but on the other, the fear of failure and hardships. Today, he said, "many desire to stop time for fear of a future in emptiness." His advice to his audience was to make a fundamental choice for God, revealed in the Son Jesus Christ. The Pontiff added: "Those who have chosen God still have before them in old age a future without end and without threats. It is therefore vital to choose well, not to destroy the future."
Any serious reflection on the nature and purpose of human communications must deal with questions of truth, insists Pope Benedict XVI. The Holy Father, addressing participants in a Vatican-organized convention on the theme "Identity and Mission of a Communications Faculty in a Catholic University," said that a communicator can try to inform, to educate, to entertain, to convince. "But," he added, "the final worth of any communication lies in its truthfulness." The Pontiff also urged that the new instruments of communication be made accessible to the poor and socially marginalized.
Morning Prayer and Hymn   Meditation of the Day
Prayer to Our Lady of Grace  June 16 - Canonization of Padre Pio in 2002
Saint Pio of Pietrelcina presented himself to everyone - priests, men and women, religious and lay people - as a credible witness to Christ and his Gospel. May his example and intercession spur everyone to greater love for God and a concrete solidarity with their neighbor, especially those who are in greatest need.
May the Blessed Virgin Mary, whom Padre Pio called by the beautiful name of "Our Lady of Grace" (Santa Maria delle Grazie), help us to follow in the footprints of this religious who is so beloved by the people!
Canonization of Padre Pio of Pietrelcina,  Capuchin Franciscan Friar,

Address of John Paul II, June 16, 2002
June 17 - Our Lady of the Forest (Brittany, France, 1419) A Miracle in Bogota
Brother Araguen, a catechist teaching in the thick jungles south of Bogota, was suffering from tongue cancer and taken to the city for an operation. He dearly hoped to save his tongue so that he could continue his work. The doctors began by doing only a partial ablation, but the cancer developed and appeared to require a total ablation. The night before the operation, Our Lady appeared to the brother and touched him. He was cured immediately. “Continue teaching catechism,” she said, “and recite the Rosary with the children. Do not tell anybody about what has happened until you have spoken to the doctor.”
The next morning, the brother refused to be anaesthetized, so the doctor was called in, who spoke to him about the importance of prolonging his life, even at the price of losing his tongue. But the brother explained to him that the cancer had disappeared and the doctor noted that the excised part of the tongue had been entirely and perfectly reconstituted…
A bronze plate at the Jesuit College in Bogota commemorates this event and Brother Araguen lived many more years, singing the praises of Our Lady and extolling the power and the importance of the Rosary, while teaching catechism to children.
Excerpt from John Haffert, Fatima, Global Apostolate, quoted by Brother Albert Pfleger, Marist, in his Marian Collection 1988

Prayer to Mary June 17 - Our Lady of the Forest (Brittany, 1419)
May we access to your Son through you, O Blessed Virgin
You who have been graced, O Mother of life, O Mother of Salvation.
And, through you, may Jesus welcome us, the One who was given us by you!
May your unsoiled purity excuse our sins to escape corruption.
May your humility obtain forgiveness for our vain pride.
May your immense charity cover up the multitude of our sins.
And may your glorious fertility make us ourselves rich in merit.
O Our Lady, our Mediatrix, make peace with your Son, recommend us to your Son, go to your Son.
Blessed Virgin, by the grace that you have radiated, by the powers that you deserved, by the mercy of whom you are the Mother, May He who, through you, has deigned to take on our infirmity, allow us to participate, both us and our children, through your intercession, in the glory and the holiness of Jesus Christ who is God blessed forever and ever. Amen.
Jean-Marc Miguet
 2nd v. St. Nicander and Marcian Martyrs, possibly of Durostorum, Bulgaria; members of the imperial army in the region of the Balkans and were martyred in the region that eventually became Romania,
 265 St. Antidius Bishop and martyr; disciple of  St. Fironinus in the see of Besancon, in France.
4th v. St Bessarion a native of Egypt; having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness; disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macarius; neighborly charity led him to a height of perfection was manifested by miracles:  made salt water fresh, several times brought rain during drought, walked on the Nile admirers compared him with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist
 300 St. Montanus Martyred soldier on the island of Ponza, off the Italian coast. Thrown into the sea with a stone tied to his neck, Montanus drowned. His relics were enshrined at Gaeta.
 363 St. Manuel, Sabel and Ismael Persian Christians martyred by Julian the Apostate at Chalcedon; legates from Persia sent to negotiate peace who were slain when it was discovered they were Christians. A church was dedicated to them by Emperor Theodosius the Great.
 366-450 St. Hypatius Hermit, called “the Scholar of Christ.” vision that sent him to Thrace where he became a hermit foe of Nestorianism, he sheltered St. Alexander Akimetes and others at his hermitage near Chalcedon when their lives were threatened by the heretics known for miracles and prophecies.
 510 St. Nectan one of the most celebrated saints in the West of England; tended to the needs of the poor throughout Devon, Cornwall and even Brittany, where churches dedicated to him may be found
 530 St. Avitus Abbot tried to save St. Sigismund and family; a monk of Men at in Auvergne, France, elected abbot against his will; tried to halt execution of St. Sigismund his wife and sons, by King Clodomir, unsuccessful.
 6th v.  St. Gundulphus Bishop of France who recorded as dying in Bourges.
 560 St. Himerius Bishop of Amelia, in Umbria, Italy. Himerius’ relics were translated to Cremona in 995, where he is a patron of the region.
 575 St. Harvey blind abbot of Plouvien; later he transferred his community to Lanhourneau, where he passed the rest of his days and was famous for miracles
 680 St. Adulf Bishop and missionary, venerated with his brother, Butulf nobles of Saxon or Irish lineage who became monks; went as missionaries to Germany. There Adulf was made the bishop of Utrecht. Butulf returned to England and founded a religious house in 654, becoming widely respected for his holiness.
 697 St. Moling Bishop of Ferns; successor of St. Aidan. Born in Wexford, Ireland
1001 St. Rainbold Benedictine abbot; monk of St Maximinus at Trier, Germany; became abbot of St. Emmeram. St. Wolfgang appointed him to the pos; reputedly extremely long lived, reportedly dying at the age of one hundred.
1160 St. Raynerius Hermit and Benedictine monk led a dissolute life until undergo­ing a conversion after pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Returning home, he entered the Benedictine abbey of St Andrew at Pisa he lived as a conventual oblate;   His great reputation is primarily due to the numerous cures which were worked by him during his life and after his death. From the use he made of holy water in his miracles of healing he received the nickname of De Aqua,
1245 Saint Shalva of Akhaltsikhe a brilliant military commander in army of Queen Tamar and prince of Akhaltsikhe
1250 St. Teresa of Portugal the eldest daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal and sister of SS. Mafalda and Sanchia; married her cousin, King Alfonso IX of Leon & had several children; the marriage was declared invalid because of consanguinity, she returned to Portugal and founded a Benedictine monastery on her estate at Lorvao. She replaced the monks with nuns following the Cistercian Rule; accounts of miracles are attributed to Teresa's intercession. She expanded a monastery to accommodate three hundred nuns, and lived there. In about 1231, at the request of Alfonso's second wife and widow, Berengaria, she settled a dispute among their children over the succession of the throne of Leon, and on her return to Lorvao, she probably became a nun.
1435 BD PETER OF PISA Many miracles were ascribed to him;
1697 St Gregory Barbarigo, Bishop Of Padua And Cardinal; charities were enormous kind to all, especially to those in trouble or distress founded a college, and also a seminary for young priests
1737 Bl. Emmanuel d'Abreu Martyr of China, a Portuguese Jesuit. He entered the Order in 1724 and was stationed in China. In 1736, he was arrested in Tonkin and was martyred the following year with three companions.
1856 St. Emily de Vialar Virgin, Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph "of the Apparition"  Their work was to be the care of the needy, especially the sick, and the education of children. In 1835, she made her profession with seventeen other sisters, and received formal approval for the rule of the Congregation.
1860 St. Joseph Cafasso assigned to a seminary in Turin After ordination there he worked especially against the spirit of Jansenism, an excessive preoccupation with sin and damnation; St. John Bosco was one of Joseph’s pupils. Joseph urged John Bosco to establish the Salesians to work with the youth of Turin
         St. Briavel patron of a parish in Dean Forest, Gloucestershire, England.


4th v. St. Nicander and Marcian Martyrs, possibly of Durostorum, Bulgaria; members of the imperial army in the region of the Balkans and were martyred in the region that eventually became Romania, perhaps in the late second century. Tradition reports that they were slain in front of their wives and families.
Apud Venáfrum, in Campánia, sanctórum Mártyrum Nicándri et Marciáni, qui, in persecutióne Maximiáni, cápite cæsi sunt.
    At Venafro in Campania, the holy martyrs Nicander and Marcian, who were beheaded in the persecution of Maximian.
    Alban Butler, putting his trust in Ruinart, accepted without question the
acts of these saints as a genuine document. The narrative certainly cannot claim to be regarded as authentic history, but it is a favorable specimen of the art of the hagiographer who made it his business to embellish a kernel of fact with fictional details. Following more or less closely Butler’s presentment the story runs thus:
Nicander and Marcian had served some time in the Roman army, but when the edicts were published against Christians they gave up their military career. This was made a crime in them, and they were impeached before Maximus, governor of the province. The judge informed them of the imperial order that all were commanded to sacrifice to the gods. Nicander replied that the order could not be binding on Christians who looked upon it as unlawful to abandon the immortal God in order to worship wood and stone. Dana, the wife of Nicander, was present and encouraged her husband. Maximus, interrupting her, said, “You wicked woman; why do you want your husband to die?” “I do not wish for his death, she said,
“but that he live in God, so as never to die.” Maximus insinuated that she desired his death because she wanted another husband. “ If you suspect that said she, “put me to death first.”
Maximus, turning again to Nicander, said, “Take a little time and deliberate with yourself whether you will decide to die or to live
. Nicander answered, “I have already made up my mind that my own safety must come first.” The judge took it that he meant that he would save his life by sacrificing to the idols. But Nicander soon undeceived him, for he prayed aloud, expressing his joy that he was to be delivered from the dangers and temptations of the world. “How is this, asked the governor, “you but just now desired to live, and now you ask to die?” Nicander replied, “I desire that life which is immortal, not the fleeting life of this world. To you I willingly yield up my body; do with it what you please: I am a Christian.” “And what is your view, Marcian?” asked the judge, addressing himself to the other. He declared that it was the same as that of his fellow prisoner. Maximus then gave orders that they should be both confined in a dungeon, where they lay twenty days.
After this they were again brought before the governor, who asked them if they would at length obey the edicts of the emperor. Marcian replied, “All you can say will never make us abandon our religion or deny God. By faith we behold Him present and know whither He calls us. Do not, we beseech you, detain us, but send us quickly to Him that was crucified, whom you fear not to blaspheme, but whom we honour and worship.” The governor, excusing himself by the necessity he was under of complying with his orders, condemned them both to be beheaded. The martyrs expressed their gratitude and said, “May peace be with you, most kind judge
.
They walked to the place of execution joyful, and praising God as they went. Nicander was followed by his wife, Dana, with his child whom Papinian, brother to the martyr St Pasicrates, carried in his arms. Marcian’s wife followed him too, but weeping and making an outcry. She did all in her power to overcome his resolution, drawing his attention to their little child. At the place of execution Marcian kissed his son, and looking up to Heaven said, “Lord, all-powerful God, do thou take this child under thy protection
. Then with a rebuke to his wife for her faint-heartedness, he bade her go away in peace, because she would not have the courage to see him die. The wife of Nicander continued by his side, exhorting him to constancy and joy. “Be of good heart, master, said she. “Ten years have I lived at home away from you, never ceasing to pray that I might see you again. Now I have that comfort, and I behold you going to glory and myself the wife of a martyr. Give to God that testimony you owe to His holy truth, that you may also deliver me from eternal death”; meaning that by his sufferings and prayers he might obtain mercy for her. The executioner having bound their eyes with handkerchiefs struck off their heads, the day assigned in this version of the passio being June 17.
It may seem a wanton piece of iconoclasm to discredit this very natural and relatively sober tale, but the difficulty is that among a number of differing accounts there is no agreement as to the place where the martyrdom took place, the names of the group of martyrs, for Nicander and Marcian are often grouped with several others, or, what is perhaps most suspicious of all, the date of the celebration. No one has ever doubted that the “acts” have some historical foundation and that Nicander and Marcian really existed as martyrs. But four distinct regions in different countries claim to have been the scene of their passion: Durostorum, in Moesia or Bulgaria; Tomi, or Constanta, in what is now Rumania; Alexandria in Egypt; and Venafro in Italy, where their reputed relics are still venerated. The Bollandist Father Dehehaye, however, inclined to the belief that they suffered at Durostorum. In his opinion, Italy merely imported their cultus, whilst with regard to the inclusion of their names in a list of Egyptian martyrs in the Hieronymianum, he suggests that a careless copyist, seeing the name of Marcian, may quite possibly have interpolated that of Nicander through associating in his mind the two martyrs of Durostorum.
As well as Nicander and Marcian, “at Venafro
, today, the Roman Martyrology on June 5 commemorates SS. Marcian, Nicanor and others, “in Egypt.
The passio from which Alban Butler took his account is printed in Ruinart’s Acta Sincera. There is another version, in Latin and Greek, in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, and another in vol. i  For other texts, consult BHL., nn. 5260, 6070-6074, and supplement, and BHG., nn. 1194 and 1330; with B. Latysev, Menologii byzantini saeculi X quae supersunt, vol. ii, pp. 16-17 and 27-30. See also Delehaye in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxi (1912), pp. 268-272 and vol. xl (1922), pp. 54-60; his Origines du Culte des Martyrs, pp. 249-250, etc.; and his CMH., pp. 305 and 323; and P. Franchi de' Cavalieri in Studi e Testi, vol. xxiv (1912), pp. 141-,157 .
265 St. Antidius Bishop and martyr; disciple of  St. Fironinus in the see of Besancon, in France.
Vesontióne, in Gálliis, sancti Antídii, Epíscopi et Mártyris, qui, ob Christi fidem, a Wándalis occísus fuit.
    At Besançon in France, St. Antidius, bishop and martyr, who was slain by the Vandals for the faith of Christ.
Sometimes called Tude, Antidius succeeded St. Fironinus as bishop but was martyred by a band of German or barbarian marauders.
300 St. Montanus Martyred soldier on the island of Ponza, off the Italian coast. Thrown into the sea with a stone tied to his neck, Montanus drowned. His relics were enshrined at Gaeta.
Apollóniæ, in Macedónia, sanctórum Mártyrum Atheniénsium Isáuri Diáconi, Innocéntii, Felícis, Jeremíæ et Peregríni, qui, a Tripóntio Tribúno várie torti, cápite obtruncáti sunt.
    At Apollonia in Macedonia, the holy martyrs Isaurus, a deacon, Innocent, Felix, Jeremias, and Peregrínus, all of them Athenians who were tortured in various ways by the tribune Tripontius, and beheaded.
4th v. St Bessarion a native of Egypt; having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness; disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macanus; neighborly charity led him to a height of perfection was manifested by miracles: made salt water fresh, several times brought rain during drought, walked on the Nile admirers compared him with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist
Item sancti Bessariónis Anachorétæ.    Also, St. Bessarion, anchoret.
Orthodoxe Kirche: 20. Februar und 06. Juni Katholische Kirche: 17. Juni
4th v. ST BESSARION
BESSARION is greatly venerated in the East, where his name in various forms is sometimes given in baptism; e.g. Joseph Stalin's father was called Vissarion. He was a native of Egypt, and having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness, where he was a disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macarius. We are told that rather than live under a roof he wandered about like a bird, observing silence and subduing his flesh by mighty fasting; he is said to have once gone forty days without food, standing in prayer amid brambles. His neighbourly charity led him to a height of perfection that was manifested by miracles: he made salt water fresh, he several times brought rain during drought, he walked on the Nile, he overcame demons. Like so many other desert fathers, St Bessarion lived to a great age; and he was compared by his admirers with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist.
St Bessarion is named in the Roman Martyrology to-day, but his usual date in the East is June 6.

The above particulars are taken from a panegyric of his namesake written by the great Cardinal Bessarion, the text of which was printed, with an introduction by Peter Joannou, in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxv (1947), pp. 107-138. The cardinal's sources were the pertinent Greek synaxaries. See also the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iii. The three Bessarions in DHG., t. viii, cc. 1180-1181, are apparently all the same person.
Bessarion is greatly venerated in the East, where his name in various forms is sometimes given in baptism; e.g. Joseph Stalin’s father was called Vissarion. He was a native of Egypt, and having heard the call to perfection he went into the wilderness, where he was a disciple first of St Antony and then of St Macanus. We are told that rather than live under a roof he wandered about like a bird, observing silence and subduing his flesh by mighty fasting; he is said to have once gone forty days without food, standing in prayer amid brambles. His neighborly charity led him to a height of perfection that was manifested by miracles: he made salt water fresh, he several times brought rain during drought, he walked on the Nile, he overcame demons. Like so many other desert fathers, St Bessarion lived to a great age; admirers compared him with Moses, Joshua, Elias and John the Baptist.
St Bessarion is named in the Roman Martyrology today, but his usual date in the East is June 6.
The above particulars are taken from a panegyric of his namesake written by the great Cardinal Bessarion, the text of which was printed, with an introduction by Peter Joannou, in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxv (1947), pp. 107—138. The cardinal’s sources were the pertinent Greek synaxaries. See also the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iii. The three Bessarions in DHG., t. viii, cc. 1180—1181, are apparently all the same person.
4th v. Bessarion von Ägypten
Orthodoxe Kirche: 20. Februar und 06. Juni Katholische Kirche: 17. Juni
Bessarion lebte im 4. Jahrhundert. Er wollte Einsiedler werden und unternahm eine Pilgerreise um verschiedene Einsiedler kennenzulernen. Er besuchte Gerasimos in Jerusalem und wurde Schüler von Isidor von Pelusium (nach anderen Berichten von Antonius). Er lebte in der Wüste und trug unter seinem Arm immer eine Abschrift der vier Evangelien. Sein einziges Kleidungsstück verschenkte er an einen Bettler. Eine Überlieferung berichtet, er habe schließlich sogar sein Buch verkauft, um das Geld an Arme zu verteilen.
In der russisch-orthodoxen Kirche wird Bessarion am 20.02. gefeiert, in der griechisch-orthodoxen Kirche am 06.06.
363 (362) St. Manuel Sabel and Ismael Persian Christians martyred by Emperor Julian the Apostate at Chalcedon; legates from Persia sent to negotiate peace who were slain when it was discovered they were Christians. A church was dedicated to them by Emperor Theodosius the Great.

Chalcédone sanctórum Mártyrum Manuélis, Sabélis et Ismaélis, qui, pacis causa apud Juliánum Apóstatam pro Persárum Rege legatióne fungéntes, ab ipso Imperatóre, cum idóla venerári compelleréntur idque constánti ánimo recusárent, gládio feríri jubéntur.
    At Chalcedon, the holy martyrs Manuel, Sabel, and Ismael, whom the king of Persia sent as ambassadors to Julian the Apostate to obtain peace.  Having firmly refused to worship idols when commanded by the emperor, they were put to the sword.

The Holy Martyrs Manuel, Sabel and Ismael, brothers by birth, were descended from an illustrious Persian family. Their father was a pagan, but their mother was a Christian, who baptized the children and raised them with firm faith in Christ the Savior.  When they reached adulthood, the brothers entered military service. Speaking on behalf of the Persian emperor Alamundar, they were his emissaries in concluding a peace treaty with the emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363). Julian received them with due honor and showed them his favor. But when the brothers refused to take part in a pagan sacrifice, Julian became angry. He annulled the treaty and incarcerated the ambassadors of a foreign country like common criminals. At the interrogation he told them that if they scorned the gods he worshipped, it would be impossible to reach any peace or accord between the two sides. The holy brothers answered that they were sent as emissaries of their emperor on matters of state, and not to argue about "gods." Seeing their firmness of faith, the emperor ordered the brothers to be tortured.  They beat the holy martyrs, then nailed their hands and feet to trees. Later, they drove iron spikes into their heads, and wedged sharp splinters under their fingernails and toenails. During this time of torment the saints glorified God and prayed as if they did not feel the tortures. Finally, the holy martyrs were beheaded.

Julian ordered their bodies to be burned, and suddenly there was an earthquake. The ground opened up and the bodies of the holy martyrs disappeared into the abyss. After two days of fervent prayer by the Christians, the earth returned the bodies of the holy brothers, from which a sweet fragrance issued forth. Many pagans, witnessing the miracle, came to believe in Christ and were baptized. Christians reverently buried the bodies of the holy martyrs Manuel, Sabel and Ismael in the year 362. Since that time the relics of the holy passion-bearers have been glorified with miracles. When he heard about the murder of his emissaries, and that Julian was marching against him with a vast army, the Persian emperor Alamundar mustered his army and started off toward the border of his domain. The Persians vanquished the Greeks in a great battle, and Julian the Apostate was killed by the holy Great Martyr Mercurius (November 24).

Thirty years later the pious emperor Theodosius the Great (+ 397) built at Constantinople a church in honor of the holy martyrs, and St Germanus, Patriarch of Constantinople (May 12), then still a hieromonk, wrote a Canon in memory and in praise of the holy brothers.

Manuel, Sabel und Ismael Orthodoxe Kirche: 17. Juni
Manuel, Sabel und Ismael lebten in Persien. Sie waren von ihrer Mutter christlich erzogen worden und dienten im kaiserlichen Heer. Der persische Kaiser schickte sie als Gesandte nach Konstantinopel, um mit Kaiser Julian Apostates einen Friedensvertrag abzuschliessen. Als die drei Brüder sich weigerten, heidnischen Göttern zu opfern, ließ Julian Apostates sie foltern und hinrichten. Sie starben 362. Der persische Kaiser erklärte daraufhin Julian den Krieg und Julian wurde im Kampf von Merkurios erschlagen.
An den Gräbern der drei Märtyrer ereigneten sich zahlreiche Wunder und Kaiser Theodosius ließ 30 Jahre nach ihrem Tod eine Kirche zu ihren Ehren errichten.
466 St. Hypatius Hermit, called “the Scholar of Christ.” vision that sent him to Thrace where he became a hermit foe of Nestorianism, he sheltered St. Alexander Akimetes and others at his hermitage near Chalcedon when their lives were threatened by the heretics known for miracles and prophecies.
In Phrygia sancti Hypátii Confessóris.    In Phrygia, St. Hypatius, confessor.
He was born in 366  Phrygia, and became a monk. Hypatius had a vision that sent him to Thrace where he became a hermit with a man named Jonas. The two then went to Constantinople and Chalcedon. A foe of Nestorianism, he sheltered St. Alexander Akimetes and others at his hermitage near Chalcedon when their lives were threatened by the heretics. Hypatius is credited with halting a revival of the Olympic games because of their pagan origins. He died at the age of eighty and was known for miracles and prophecies.

In the suburb of Chalcedon that gave its name—The Oak—to the infamous pseudo-synod by which St John Chrysostom was condemned, a certain consular official called Rufinus built a church dedicated under the names of St Peter and St Paul, together with a monastery alongside to serve it. The community flourished for a time, but after the founder’s death the monks dispersed and the derelict fabric soon acquired an unsavory reputation as the haunt of evil spirits. The building remained unoccupied until a holy ascetic named Hypatius, attended by two companions, Timotheus and Moschion, came upon it in their wanderings through Bithynia in search of a suitable retreat, and took up their residence in the ruins. Disciples gathered round them and a great community was formed over which Hypatius ruled for many years. After his death the monastery was known by his name.
The life of St Hypatius has come down to us in the shape of a biography written by Callinicus, one of his monks, who in his desire to glorify his master sometimes lets his imagination or his credulity run away with him. According to him St Hypatius was born in Phrygia and was educated by his father, a learned scholar who intended that his son should follow in his steps. Hypatius himself, however, always desired monastic life. At the age of eighteen, having been cruelly beaten by his father, he ran away from home, and in obedience to a supernatural admonition proceeded to Thrace. There for a considerable time he acted as a shepherd. A priest who heard him singing to his flock taught him the Psalter and the chant. Hypatius then joined a solitary, an ex-soldier named Jonas, with whom he led a most austere life, abstaining, it is said, from drink of any kind sometimes for forty consecutive days. His father discovered Hypatius, and reconciliation took place.

Afterwards Hypatius and Jonas made their way to Constantinople, where Jonas seems to have remained. Hypatius crossed the straits into Asia Minor again, and revived religious life in the ruins of the old Rufinian monastery. As head of a great body of monks he stood forth as a powerful champion of orthodoxy. Even before the Church had denounced the errors of Nestorius, he ordered removal of that hierarch’s name from the office books of his church, paying no heed to the remonstrances of Bishop Eulalius of Chalcedon. He protected and hospitably entertained St Alexander Akimetes and his monks who had fled from Constantinople to Bithynia; and when a proposal to revive the Olympic games it Chalcedon had met with no opposition from Eulalius, Hypatius defeated the project by the vehemence with which he protested that he and his monks would die rather than permit any such restoration of pagan practices.
Critical commentators, it must be said, discredit the historical accuracy of these stories. They question the very existence of Eulalius: no other record can be found of any such bishop of Chalcedon; his name appears neither amongst signatories of the Council of Ephesus in 431, nor amongst those of the Latrocinium in 449. On the other hand, it is certain that a certain Eleutherius was bishop of Chalcedon in 451.
St Hypatius, “the scholar of Christ
, became famous for his reputed miracles and prophecies. He is said to have died about the middle of the fifth century at the age of eighty. His name is entered on this day in the Roman Martyrology as belonging to Phrygia.
The long Greek life by Callinicus is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, but the text is unfortunately incomplete. It has since been edited critically (1895) from another manuscript which contains the whole, by the pupils of H. Usener. Sec also II. Mertel, Die biograph. Form der griech. Heiligenlegenden (1909). Hypatius seems to have brrn especially invoked in the Greek Church as a protector against harmful beasts; see Franz, Kirchlichen Benediktionen, vol. ii, p. 143.
510 St. Nectan one of the most celebrated saints in the West of England; tended to the needs of the poor throughout Devon, Cornwall and even Brittany, where churches dedicated to him may be found miracles after death
St Nectan was born in Wales and lived in the sixth century, but we know few details about his life. He was the oldest of the twenty-four children of St Brychan of Brecknock (April 6). While he was still living in Wales, God inspired him to imitate the example of St Anthony (January 17) and other ascetics, and to embrace the monastic life.

6th V. St Nectan
The tomb of St Nectan at Hartland in Devonshire was the centre of a cultus which seems to have been fostered in the middle ages by the Augustinian canons, who were the custodians of his tomb. He was also venerated in Cornwall, especially at Launceston, where a fair is still held on his feast-day, June 17. In the neigh­bourhood of Lostwithiel and Newlyn chapels were dedicated in his honour under the name of St Nighton, and perhaps also at Tintagel, not far from which famous resort “St Nighton’s Kieve” (i.e. vat) is still shown. William of Worcester and some later writers, such as Nicholas Roscarrock, describe the saint as having been the eldest of the twenty-four children of the Welsh king, Brychan, who gave his name to Brecknock. The saint may possibly have been an Irish missionary who came to England and founded churches in Devon and Cornwall. Actually nothing is known of his true history. All that Worcester is able to tell us about him is this: “And the venerable man Nectan, while he was making his way through certain woody districts in order to explore the country, was found by robbers in the place which to this day is called New Town (i.e. New Stoke), and there a church is built to his honour. On the fifteenth day before the kalends of July he was beheaded, and he took up his head in his own hands and carried it about a distance of half a stadium, as far as the fountain where he lived, and there laid it down, besmeared with his blood and sweat, on a certain stone, and blood-stained traces of this murder and miracle still remain on that same stone.” This is a quotation from the saint’s Life.

The twelfth-century life of St Nectan, which came to light in the Gotha MS. I. 81 in 1937 and was translated by Canon Doble (see note below), adds little of interest about the saint, though it gives interesting particulars about his shrine and side­lights on life at Hartland in the middle ages.

By far the best attempt in English to cope with the incoherencies of the materials is that of Canon Doble in no. 25 of his “Cornish Saints” series, St Nectan and the Children of Brychan (1930); his translation of the vita appeared in A Book of Hartland (1940), ed. by Miss I.  D. Thornley, and was reprinted separately in the same year. See also DCB., vol. iv, pp. 10—11, and LBS., vol. iv, pp. 1—2. But consult especially Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxxi (1953).
Seeking greater solitude, St Nectan and his companions left Wales, intending to settle wherever their boat happened to land. Divine providence brought them to the northern coast of Devonshire at Hartland, where they lived for several years in a dense forest. The saint's family would visit him there on the last day of the year. Later, he relocated to a remote valley with a spring.

Once, St Nectan found a stray pig and returned it to its owner. In gratitude, the swineherd gave St Nectan two cows. The saint accepted the gift, but the cows were soon stolen by two robbers. St Nectan found the thieves who took the animals, and tried to preach to them about Christ. They became angry and cut off his head. Then the saint picked up his head and carried it for half a mile, laying it down near the spring by his cell. Seeing this, the man who killed St Nectan went out of his mind, but the other thief buried him. From that time, miracles began to take place at St Nectan's tomb.

In 937 St Nectan appeared on the eve of the Battle of Brunanburgh to a young man from Hartland who was in a tent near King Athelstan's pavilion. Suddenly, he felt himself afflicted with the plague which was then destroying the English army. The young man wept and called upon God and St Nectan to help him. His cries were so loud that he woke the king and others around him.  St Nectan came to the young man just after midnight and touched the afflicted area of his body, healing him. In the morning, he was brought before the king and admitted that it was he who had disturbed Athelstan's sleep. The king asked gently why he had been crying out during the night.  The young man explained that he felt himself stricken with the plague, and was afraid that he would die. Therefore, he entreated God and St Nectan to help him, and his prayer was answered.  Athelstan asked for more information about the life and martyrdom of St Nectan, which the young man provided. He also urged the king to turn to St Nectan with faith, promising that he would be victorious in battle if he did so.  The king promised to honor God and St Nectan, and so his faith was rewarded. Not only did he win the battle, but the plague disappeared and his soldiers recovered. The first time that King Athelstan visited Hartland in Devonshire, he donated property to the saint's church. For the rest of his life, the king placed great confidence in the intercession of St Nectan.

St Nectan is the patron of Hartland, Devonshire. The fullest surviving Life dates from the twelfth century (See Vol. 5 of THE SAINTS OF CORNWALL by G. H. Doble for an English translation).
There is an Orthodox house chapel (Russian diocese of Sourozh) dedicated to St Simeon and St Anna at Combe Martin, N. Devon where St Nectan is venerated.

(c.AD 468-510) (Welsh-Nudd, Latin-Natanus, English-Nathan), although details from his life-story are rather sparse. He is chief amongst the Cornish list of children of King Brychan Brycheiniog, usually said to have been the eldest. Nectan sailed south from Wales and landed on the Corno-Devon border at Hartland Point. He found a beautiful valley there, at Stoke St. Nectan near Hartland, with a never-failing spring. He built a little church and a hermitage, forty paces away and lived there many years. He tended to the needs of the poor throughout Devon, Cornwall and even Brittany, where churches dedicated to him may be found. He once helped a swineherd find his lost pigs and, in return, was given two cows who provided his daily comestible needs. Most of Nectan's siblings followed him from Wales and were instrumental in evangelising the south-west. They saw Nectan as their leader and gathered every New Year's Eve at Hartland to talk with him.

Eventually, Nectan's two cows were stolen by bandits. He tracked them to New Stoke, took them back and tried to convert his persecutors to Christianity. For all his hard work, they struck off his head! Legend says Nectan picked up the severed object and returned, with it, to his chapel at Stoke. This occurred on 17th June AD 510. His body was translated to a more fitting shrine in the 1030s and later looked after by the Austin Canons who built an Abbey nearby.

Little historical credit is given to the Cornish lists of the children of Brychan and many scholars believe they only indicate that the named persons originated in South Wales. Nechtan's name is Pictish and some think he has been confused with Noethon ap Gildas who is known to have come from the North. Prof. Charles Thomas, meanwhile, believes that Nectan is, in fact, a corruption of the name Brychan itself: father and son being one and the same. He identifies Lundy Island as Brychan's mysterious burial place, Ynys Brychan, from where his body was removed to Stoke in the 7th century.
530 St. Avitus Abbot who tried to save St. Sigismund and his family; a monk of Men at in Auvergne, France, elected abbot against his will. He tried to halt the execution of St. Sigismund and his wife and sons, by King Clodomir, but was not successful.
Aureliánis, in Gállia, sancti Avíti, Presbyteri et Confessóris.    At Orleans in France, St. Avitus, priest and confessor.
Soon after, he retired to a hermitage near Maine, in Perche province, France. There he built a new monastery and church with the patronage of King Clotaire.

At the close of a scholarly article upon St Avitus and the Saints of Micy in the Analecta Bollandiana, the late Father Albert Poncelet, s.j., urged his readers to convince themselves that a wide difference exists between evidence of cultus and hagiographical narratives. “The former“, i.e. evidence of cultus, “attests the actual existence of the saint and the fact that devotion has been paid to him from early times. It is a very different matter when we have to deal with lives compiled two or three hundred years after the hero’s death, and seldom embodying a wholly reliable collection of traditions. For the honour of the saints and in the interest of sane hagiography one cannot be too careful not to be led astray by those who, not satisfied with venerating the saints, imagine that respect for them entails a sort of canonization of the stories whereby posterity has sought to enhance their glory, in the compilation of which knowledge of the facts has unfortunately not always been on a level with the piety of the author.”
That St Avitus was a real person is unquestionable. St Gregory of Tours informs us that he was an abbot in that part of France which formed the ancient province of Perche, that he pleaded unsuccessfully with King Clodomir to spare the lives of St Sigismund of Burgundy, his wife and his sons, whom Clodomir had captured, and that he was buried near Orleans, where he was held in great honour. St Gregory had visited the church which was dedicated under his name, and adds, as an instance of his miraculous powers, that a citizen of Orleans, who refused to observe his festival because he wanted to work in his vineyard was punished by a painful affliction from which he was not freed until he visited the saint’s church and paid him the respect which was his due. This is all that is known about St Avitus—despite his so-called biographies, none of which are earlier than the ninth century. They form part of an attempt made, when the abbey of Micy had taken on a new lease of life under Benedictine rule, to shed lustre on an obscure and inglorious phase of its past history by assigning to it as former abbots a number of saints honoured in the neighbourhood of Orleans and Le Mans, but of whom very little indeed was known.

The legend of St Avitus, which appears with variations in these so-called biographies, represents him as having entered the abbey of Micy as a lay-brother. His ignorance and simplicity caused him to be despised by all except the abbot, St Maximinus, who recognized his sanctity and made him cellarer. Avitus, however, left the abbey and retired into solitude. After the death of Maximinus the monks made search for Avitus and elected him abbot. Again, after a short stay at Micy, he escaped, this time with St Calais (Carilefus), and lived as a recluse on the fron­tiers of Perche. Others joining them, St Calais withdrew into a forest in Maine; but King Clotaire built a church and monastery for St Avitus and his companions at the place which is now Châteaudun. There he died in the year 530 (?).

For one text of the life of St Avitus see the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv; another has been printed entire by the Bollandists in their catalogue of the hagiographical manuscripts of the Brussels Library, vol. i, pp. 57—63. B. Krusch has re-edited portions of this in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. iii, pp. 380—385. The article of Albert Poncelet referred to above is in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxiv (1905), pp. 5—97.
6th v.  St. Gundulphus Bishop of France who recorded as dying in Bourges.
In pago Bituricénsi, sancti Gundúlphi Epíscopi.    In the territory of Bourges, St. Gundulphus, bishop.
560 St. Himerius Bishop of Amelia, in Umbria, Italy. Himerius’ relics were translated to Cremona in 995, where he is a patron of the region.
Amériæ, in Umbria, sancti Himérii Epíscopi, cujus corpus Cremónam, in Insúbria, translátum est.
    At Amelia in Umbria, Bishop St. Himerius, whose body was translated to Cremona.
575 St. Harvey blind abbot of Plouvien; later he transferred his community to Lanhourneau, where he passed the rest of his days and was famous for miracles Hervaeus, Herve or Harvey (after a sixth-century Breton monk).

6th V. St Hervé, or Harvey, Abbot
St Hervé
is one of the most popular saints in Brittany, and figures largely in the folklore and ballads of the country. At one period his feast was a holiday of obligation in the diocese of Leon. His cultus, which originally centred in Lan­houarneau, Le Menez-Bré and Porzay, was propagated by a distribution of his relics in 1002, and is general throughout Brittany. No name, with the exception of Yves, is more commonly given to Breton boys than that of Hervé. Solemn oaths were taken over his relics until the year 1610, when the parlement made it obligatory for legal declarations to be made only upon the Gospels. In the absence of any reliable records it is unfortunately impossible to reconstruct St Hervé’s true history, but the legend, as set forth in a late medieval Latin manuscript, may be summarized as follows

In the early years of the reign of King Childebert, there came to the court of Paris a British bard named Hyvarnion, who had been driven from his country by the Saxons. He charmed all who heard him by his music, but worldly applause had no attraction for him. After two or three years he retired to Brittany, where he married a girl called Rivanon, and became the father of a little blind boy, who received the name of Hervé. The child, bereft in infancy of his father, was brought up until he was seven by his mother. She then confided him to the care of a holy man called Arthian, and afterwards he joined his uncle, who had founded a little monastic school at Plouvien, and helped him with his farm and his pupils. One day, as Hervé was working in the fields, a wolf came and devoured the ass which was drawing the plough; a young child, who was the saint’s guide, uttered cries of distress, but in answer to Hervé’s prayers the wolf meekly passed his head into the ass’s collar and finished his work. During these years his mother Rivanon had been living in the heart of a dense forest, seeing no human face except that of her niece, who waited on her. Now the hour of departure was at hand, and Hervé sought her out in time to receive her last blessing and to close her eyes.

Soon afterwards he was entrusted with the care of the community of Plouvien by his uncle, and the monastery continued to flourish; but after three years he was inspired to establish it elsewhere. Surrounded by a band of monks and scholars he went forth, directing his steps first to Leon. There he was cordially received by the bishop, who would have conferred the priesthood on him if the saint’s humility had not precluded him from accepting any higher order than that of exorcist. From Leon they made their way westward, and beside the road to Lesneven may still be seen the fountain of St Hervé, which he caused to spring forth to quench the thirst of his companions. They reached their final destination at the place now known as Lanhouarneau, where St Hervé founded a monastery which became famous throughout the country. It was his home for the rest of his life, although he sometimes left it in order to preach to the people and to exercise the duties of an exorcist, in which capacity some of his most outstanding miracles were worked. Venerated by all for his sanctity and for his miracles, the blind abbot lived on for many years; his monks, as they watched beside his death-bed, heard the music of the celestial choirs welcoming the saint to Heaven.
St Hervé is usually represented with the wolf, and with Guiharan, his child guide. He is invoked for eye-trouble of all sorts, and his wolf serves Breton mothers as a bugbear with which to threaten troublesome children.
The so-called life of St Hervé, which in the very competent judgement of A. de la Borderie cannot have been written (at any rate in the form in which it has been preserved to us) earlier than the thirteenth century, was published for the first time by the same distinguished scholar in 1892 in the Memoires de la Soc. d'Émulation des Cotes-du-Nord, vol. xxix, pp. 251-304. There is an account in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, mainly based on Albert Le Grand. See, further, LBS., vol. iii, pp. 270 seq., but Canon Doble affirms strongly that there is no ground for connecting Hervé in any way with either Cornwall or Wales; he had no cult in Britain. Cf. Duine, Memento, p. 91.
St. Harvey was blind, but became abbot of Plouvien; later he transferred his community to Lanhourneau, where he passed the rest of his days and was famous for miracles. Sixth Century.  Especially after St. Harvey's relics were distributed throughout Brittany in 1002, this monk-saint became intensely popular.  Indeed, up to 1610 when the local court ordered that all official oaths be taken on the bible only, the Bretons took solemn oaths on the relics of St. Herve.  His feast was also for some time listed as one of the holydays of obligation in the Breton diocese of Leon.

Abbot Harvey is often mentioned in the tales and songs of Brittany.  Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to discern what is told of him as fact or folklore.  The traditional legend of Herve is nevertheless charming enough to be related here.
Around the year 520, we are told, a Celtic bard (folk singer/historian) driven out of Britain by the Anglo-Saxon invaders, came to the court of Childebert I, the Frankish king of Paris.  The bard's name was Hyvarnion.  Although Hyvarnion delighted the royal court with his songs, he was too earnest a man to desire to be a mere court musician.  A couple of years later, therefore, he moved to Brittany to be in the company of his exiled fellow countrymen.The story goes that a young British bard named Hyvarnion, a pupil of Saint Cadoc, lived at the court of Childebert, king of the Franks.

After four years, desiring to return to his native land, he set off through Brittany, where one day, riding through a wood, he heard a young girl singing. The sweetness of her voice made him curious and, dismounting from his horse, he made his way through the trees to where in a sunny glade he found a maiden gathering herbs. He asked her what they were for. "This herb," she replied, "drives away sadness, that one banishes blindness, and I look for the herb of life that drives away death." Hyvarnion, forgetting his homeward journey, in that hour loved her, and later he married her.

A girl named Rivanon bore him a son baptized Hervaeus.  Unfortunately, the child was born functionally blind.
His father died soon after his birth.  Rivanon raised her child until he was seven.  Then she entrusted him to the care of Arthian, a holy man.  Later Herve joined his uncle, a monk who had launched a little school in his monastery in Plouvien.  Despite his poor sight, young Harvey was able to help the uncle with the children and the farm tasks of the monastery.  Eventually he became a monk of the Plouvien community.
One day, we are told, while he was plowing in the fields, a wolf attacked the donkey that was drawing his plow.  Guiharan, a small child who was assisting the monk, cried out in panic.  But Harvey, already a devout young man, simply prayed for divine help.  The response, says the legend, was miraculous.  The wolf, repenting, shouldered the dead donkey's harness and meekly pulled the plow himself until the task was finished!
Harvey's mother had meanwhile been living far away in the depths of a forest, with only a niece to keep her company and do her service in her declining years.  Learning of her grave illness, the future saint traveled back to see her.  She gave him her last blessing, and he closed her eyes in death.
Not long after Herve returned to Plouvien, his uncle put him in charge of the little monastery.  Three years later, he decided to move the whole establishment elsewhere.  Accompanied by all his monks and students, he set out for western Brittany.  At Leon, the bishop cordially greeted the travelers.  He offered to ordain their superior a priest; but Herve, out of humility, would accept only the minor order of exorcist.  Eventually his community reached the present Lanhouarneau.  There he established a new monastery that was to become famous throughout Brittany.
Abbot Hervaeus spent the rest of his life at Lanhouarneau, although from time to time he was called forth to preach to the people of the area and to exercise his office of exorcist.  It was in the latter capacities that he performed many of the miracles attributed to him. (Once, it is said, noisy frogs that interfered with his sermon stopped their croaking at his command.) The older he grew, the more revered he became for his holiness.
Fr. Harvey lived a long life.  When he was breathing his last, says the legend, the monks at his bedside heard angel choirs singing him a song of welcome.
St. Hervaeus is identified in pictures and statues by a wolf, with or without his child-guide.  Sometimes he is also shown as a preacher quieting frogs.  The Bretons invoke his aid against diseases of the eye, and cite his wolf as a warning to disobedient children

680 St. Adulf Bishop and missionary, venerated with his brother, Butulf nobles of Saxon or Irish lineage who became monks; went as missionaries to Germany. There Adulf was made the bishop of Utrecht. Butulf returned to England and founded a religious house in 654, becoming widely respected for his holiness.
680 ST BOTULF, OR BOTOLPH, ABBOT, AND ST ADULF
No less than seventy English churches-sixteen of them in Norfolk-are dedicated in honour of St Botulf, but though he seems to have been held in great veneration in Anglo-Saxon England little is actually known of his history. According to a life written by Folcard, abbot of Thorney, in 1068, he and his brother Adulf were the sons of noble Saxon parents and were born early in the seventh century. In the Slesvig Breviary, however, he is said to have been a "Scot", i.e. an Irishman. Brought up Christians, they were sent to complete their education in Germany or in Belgian Gaul, where they received the monastic habit. Adulf is said to have been raised to the episcopate, either at Utrecht or Maestricht. If this statement is correct, he was probably a regionary bishop, for his name does not appear in the list of prelates of either diocese. Botulf in the course of time returned to England, and was favourably received by Ethelmund, a king of the southern Angles, whose sisters he had met abroad.
At his request, Ethelmund (of whom no other record exists) granted him a barren spot, almost surrounded by water, on which to build a monastery. It was called Icanhoh, and is usually identified with Boston, i.e. Botulf's stone, in Lincolnshire, but it may have been Iken in Suffolk, or elsewhere. He began to build his abbey in 654, as we learn from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and soon gathered round him a band of disciples. We read that they suffered molestation from the evil spirits who had formerly haunted the district. Otherwise, St Botulf, except for two recorded journeys, appears to have led a peaceful, uneventful life amongst his brethren until his death in 680. It is related of St Ceolfrid, abbot of Wearmouth, that he "once journeyed to the East Angles that he might see the foundation of Abbot Botulf, whom fame had proclaimed far and wide as a man of remarkable life and learning, full of the grace of the Holy Spirit" and that "after having been instructed as far as possible in a short time, he returned home so well grounded that no one could be found better versed than he, either in ecclesiastical or in monastic traditions."
Although Icanhoh and its church were destroyed in one of the Danish invasions, the remains of St Botulf were saved, as well as those of St Adulf, who had been buried with him. In the reign of King Edgar the relics were distributed to the abbeys of Thomey and Ely. The feast of St Botulf is now kept in the dioceses of Brentwood, Northampton and Nottingham.
In the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, the Bollandists have printed such information regarding St Botulf as was accessible to them at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Not very much has been added since; but it is worth while to consult the notes to Plummer's edition of the Ecclesiastical History of Bede, and also the article in the Dictionary of Christian Biography vol. i, p. 332. Edmund Bishop's notes on the English calendars in Stanton's Menology point to the fact that the observance of some feast in commemoration of St Botulf was widespread in this country. By far the most thorough account which has been written of Botulf is that contributed in 1922 to the Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History (pp. 29-52) by F. S. Stevenson.
697 St. Moling Bishop of Ferns; successor of St. Aidan. Born in Wexford, Ireland
He is also listed as Dairchilla, Molignus, Moling, or Myllin. Moling was a monk at Glendalough and then founded an abbey at Achad Cainigh, which became Teghmollin, or Tech Molin, St. Mullins. He was buried there.
THE cultus of St Moling (Mulling, Molingus, Daircheall) goes back to a very early date and has been widespread over Ireland. Giraldus Cambrensis states that the books of SS. Patrick, Columba, Moling and Broccan, whom he characterizes as the four prophets of Ireland, were extant in his time in the Irish language. Unfortunately no accurate record of the history of St Moling, nor any of his writings, have been preserved to us, and we can only arrive at a conjectural outline of his career based on a late tradition. He is said to have been born in the district of Kinsellagh in County Wexford, of a family related to the kings of Leinster. After spending some years at Glendalough, where he received the monastic habit, he founded an abbey at Achad Cainigb, which derived so much glory from his wisdom and example that it was named Tech Moling in his honour. He is said to have lived for a time in a hollow tree, and to have fasted every day during all his later life, except when he was entertaining guests. He succeeded St Aidan as bishop at Ferns, and induced King Finacta, in 693, to remit for the kingdom of Leinster the heavy tribute of oxen, called the Cattle tribute, that had been imposed by King Tuathal Techtmar and had been the cause of many wars. The holy bishop resigned his see several years before his death, which occurred in 697. He was interred in his own monastery of Tech Moling, a site now covered by the town of St Mullins, in County Carlow.
The Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, have printed a Latin life from the Codex Salmanticensis, and another has been edited by C. Plummer in VSH., vol. ii, pp. 190-205. There is also an Irish life, which has been printed by Whitley Stokes in the Revue Celtique, vol. xxviii (1906), pp. 256-312. See further Kenney, The Sources for the Early History of Ireland, vol. i. What is believed to be St Moling's book shrine is preserved as a notable work of art.
 St. Briavel patron of a parish in Dean Forest, Gloucestershire, England.
1001 St. Rainbold Benedictine abbot also called Rainnold. He was a monk of St Maximinus at Trier, Germany, and became abbot of St. Emmeram. St. Wolfgang appointed him to the post. He was reputedly extremely long lived, reportedly dying at the age of one hundred.
1160 St. Raynerius Hermit and Benedictine monk led a dissolute life until undergo­ing a conversion after pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Returning home, he entered the Benedictine abbey of St. Andrew at Pisa where he lived as a conventual oblate;  His great reputation is primarily due to the numerous cures which were worked by him during his life and after his death. From the use he made of holy water in his miracles of healing he received the nickname of De Aqua,
Pisis, in Túscia, sancti Rainérii Confessóris.    At Pisa in Tuscany, St. Rainerius, confessor.
Born in Pisa, Italy, he led a dissolute life until undergo­ing a conversion after pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Returning home, he entered the Benedictine abbey of St. Andrew at Pisa where he lived as a conventual oblate. He died at the Pisan abbey of San Vito. Raynerius was credited with various miracles during his lifetime, earn­ing the name “de Aqua” for his use of holy water in healing.
ST RAINERIUS OF PISA (A.D. 1160)
THE relics of the saint who is Pisa's principal patron lie in the chapel of St Rainerius, or Raniero, at the end of the south transept of the cathedral, and eight scenes from his life and some of his miracles are amongst the celebrated fourteenth-century frescoes which adorn the walls of the ancient Campo Santo. His life was written soon after his death by Canon Benincasa, a personal friend who regarded himself as a disciple. Rainerius, sprung from a good Pisan family, frittered away his early manhood in frivolity and dissipation. Through the influence of an aunt or cousin, however, he came into contact with Alberto Leccapecore, a religious from the monastery of San Vito, who made him realize the error of his ways. So over- whelming was his penitence for his sinful life that he refused to eat, and wept unceasingly-to the scornful amusement of his former associates and to the distress of his parents, who thought he was going out of his mind. At the end of three days he could weep no longer: he was blind. His mother was in despair, but God restored sight to his body, besides enlightening his soul.
Business as a merchant soon afterwards took him to Palestine, and as he followed in the footsteps of our Lord his spiritual life developed. Then one day he seemed to see his jewelled money-pouch filled, not with coins, but with pitch and sulphur. It suddenly caught fire and he was unable to extinguish the flames until he had sprinkled it with water from a vessel which he found himself holding in his hand. The meaning of the vision was explained by a voice which said: "The purse is your body: fire, pitch and sulphur are inordinate desires which water alone can wash away." He had purged himself from past sin by penitential tears, but from that time forth he redoubled his austerities, going barefoot and begging his way, and was rewarded with the gift of miracles. We read that on the road to Mount Tabor he tamed wild beasts by making the sign of the cross, that he multiplied the bread a charitable woman was distributing to the poor, and that he wrought many other wonders.
Upon his return to Pisa Rainerius made his home for a time with the canons of Santa Maria. Afterwards, though he never joined an order, he lived a more or less cloistered life, first in the abbey of St Andrew, and later in the monastery of St Vitus, where he died in 1160. Because he seems sometimes to have preached, it has been inferred that he must have received holy orders, but this is doubtful. His great reputation is primarily due to the numerous cures which were worked by him during his life and after his death. From the use he made of holy water in his miracles of healing he received the nickname of De Aqua, and his name was inserted in the Roman Martyrology by Cardinal Baronius.
The long biography of Rainerius, much of it taken up with miracles attributed to him before and after his death, seems really to have been compiled by a contemporary. It is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv. The devotion of the people of Pisa to St Rainerius is attested by the considerable number of books which have been printed there to do him honour. See particularly G. M. Sanminiatelli, Vita di St Ranieri first published in 1704, but followed by other editions; and G. Sainati, Vita di S. Ranieri Scacceri (1890).
1245 Saint Shalva of Akhaltsikhe was a brilliant military commander in the army of Queen Tamar and the prince of Akhaltsikhe
After his victory at Shamkori in the Ganja region, Shalva carried with him the flag of the caliph, as a sign of the invincibility of the Christian Faith, and conferred it, along with the wealth he had won, as an offering to the Khakhuli Icon of the Theotokos. For his selfless service, Queen Tamar honored him with the rank of commander-in-chief of the Georgian army.

During the reign of Queen Tamar’s daughter Rusudan (1222–1245), the armies of Sultan Jalal al-Din stormed into Georgia. Rusudan rallied the Georgian forces and appointed a new commander-in-chief by the name of John Atabeg.  Six thousand Georgians confronted a Muslim army of two hundred thousand near the village of Garnisi. Command of the advance guard was entrusted to the brave and valorous brothers Shalva and John of Akhaltsikhe, while John Atabeg remained with the main body of the army for the decisive battle. The advance guard fought fearlessly, though the enemy’s army greatly surpassed it in number. The brothers fought with great devotion, hoping for support from the commander-in-chief, but John Atabeg was seized with envy—rather than fear—and never offered them his help. “O envy, source of every evil!” wrote one chronicler of the incident. The enemy devastated the Georgian army, killing four thousand of its most valiant soldiers. Among them was John of Akhaltsikhe, whose brother Shalva was captured and delivered as a slave to Jalal al-Din.

Jalal al-Din was overjoyed to have the famed soldier and military leader brought before him. He received him with proper honor, offered him cities of great wealth, and promised him more if he agreed to convert to Islam. Jalal al-Din sought with great persistence to convert Shalva to Islam, but his efforts were in vain—Shalva would not be converted, and nothing in the world would change his mind. So the sultan ordered that he be tortured to death. After hours of torment failed to kill him, Jalal al-Din’s servants cast the half-dead martyr in prison, where he later reposed.

1250 St. Teresa of Portugal the eldest daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal and sister of SS. Mafalda and Sanchia; married her cousin, King Alfonso IX of Leon & had several children; the marriage was declared invalid because of consanguinity, she returned to Portugal and founded a Benedictine monastery on her estate at Lorvao. She replaced the monks with nuns following the Cistercian Rule, accounts of miracles are attributed to Teresa's intercession. She expanded a monastery to accommodate three hundred nuns, and lived there. In about 1231, at the request of Alfonso's second wife and widow, Berengaria, she settled a dispute among their children over the succession of the throne of Leon, and on her return to Lorvao, she probably became a nun.
Her cult, with that of her sister Sanchia, was approved by Pope Clement XI in 1705.
SS. TERESA AND SANCHIA OF PORTUGAL     (A.D. 1250 AND 1229)
SANCHO I, King of Portugal, had three daughters, Teresa, Sanchia and Mafalda, all of whom are honoured by the Church. Teresa, the eldest, became the wife of her cousin, Alfonso IX, King of Léon, by whom she had several children. The marriage, however, was after some years pronounced invalid, because it had been contracted within prohibited degrees without dispensation. Teresa was attached to her husband and loth to leave him, but eventually they agreed to part. Teresa returned to Portugal, and at Lorvâo she found on her estate an abbey of Benedictine monks now fallen low in numbers and observance. These she ejected and replaced by a community of women pledged to the Cistercian rule. She rebuilt the church, besides restoring and extending the buildings to accommodate 300 nuns. Although she made her home with them, taking full part in their life, yet she retained the direction of her affairs, the disposal of her property, and the right to come and go as she pleased.
Teresa's sister, Sanchia, who never married, had lived since their father's death on her estates at Alenquer, where she devoted herself to good works. She welcomed the Franciscan and Dominican friars into Portugal, and founded the convent of Cellas, for women under the Augustinian rule. But during a visit to her sister she was so impressed by the life led by the community at Lorvao that she afterwards converted Cellas into a Cistercian abbey, and herself took the veil there. Sanchia died in 1229, at the age of forty-seven; Teresa surreptitiously smuggled her sister's body out of the choir at Cellas, where it lay on a bier, and conveyed it to Lorvao, where it was buried. The last public appearance of Teresa occurred two or three years later. It was made in response to an earnest entreaty from Berengaria, the widow of her former husband, that she would intervene to settle the quarrels between their respective children over the succession to the kingdom of Léon. Teresa went, and through her mediation an equitable arrangement was arrived at and peace was restored. Her work in the world, she felt, was now done and she determined never again to leave the convent. It was probably at this time that she actually received the veil. She survived until 1250, and at her death was buried beside St Sanchia. Their cultus was approved in 1705.
The life of Teresa by Francis Macedo, though written in the seventeenth century, purports to be based on authentic materials, especially those collected in view of her expected canonization. This biography has been reprinted in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, and the Bollandists have added certain documents also drawn from the process of canonization, with accounts of miracles attributed to Teresa's intercession. Henriquez in his Lilia Cistercii (1633), vol. ii, pp. 131-144, also recounts her history in some detail. J. P. Bayao in his Portugal glorioso e illustrado (1727) gives an account of both sisters and of St Mafalda (May 2).  
1435 BD PETER OF PISA Many miracles were ascribed to him;
THE founder of the Hermits, or Poor Brothers, of St Jerome was born in 1355 at Pisa, while his father, Peter Gambacorta, whose name he bore, was ruling that republic. At the age of twenty-five he secretly left the court in the disguise of a penitent, and retired to the Umbrian solitude of Monte Bello. There he subsisted on alms, which he collected in the nearest village. In 1380 he found means to build an oratory and cells for a dozen companions who had joined him (according to popular tradition they were highwaymen whom he had converted). He prescribed for his community a rule supplemented by certain constitutions gathered from the works of St Jerome, whom he chose as patron of the new congregation. His monks kept four Lents in the year, fasted on all Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and continued in prayer every night for two hours after Matins. As for himself, his whole time was spent in prayer or in penitential exercises. Many miracles were ascribed to him.
When his father and brothers were assassinated in 1393 by Giacomo Appiano, he was sorely tempted to leave his retreat to punish the perpetrator of the outrage; but he overcame the temptation and, following the example of his sister, Bd Clare Gambacorta (April 17) he freely forgave the murderer. His congregation, approved by Pope Martin V in 1421, soon established itself elsewhere in Italy. Bd Peter survived until 1435, dying in Venice at the age of eighty, and was beatified in 1693. At one time there were forty-six houses of Poor Brothers in the provinces of Ancona and Treviso. Small groups of hermits and tertiaries became affiliated to them, and in 1668 Pope Clement IX united the community of St Jerome of Fiesole, which had been founded by Charles Montegranelli, to Bd Peter's order. But by 1933 its members had become so few that it was suppressed by the Holy See.
An account, founded on rather late materials, is given in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv; but see further the Kirchenlexikon, vol. v, cc. 2016-2017; SajaneIlo, Hist. Mon. Ord. S. Hieron. Congo S. Petri de Pisis, vol. i, pp. 100 seq.; and Heimbucher, Orden und Kongregationen, vol. i, pp. 592-596. The brief of suppression is in Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xxv (1933), pp. 147-149.
1697 St Gregory Barbarigo, Bishop Of Padua And Cardinal  charities were enormous kind to all, especially to those in trouble or distress founded a college, and also a seminary for young priests
BORN at Venice in 1625 of an ancient and noble house, Gregory Luigi Barbarigo was educated in his native city. While still in his early twenties he was chosen by the Venetian government to accompany its ambassador, Luigi Contarini, to the famous Congress of Münster, where on October 24, 1648, the plenipotentiaries of Germany, France and Sweden signed the Treaty of Westphalia, and thus brought to an end the Thirty Years’ War.
At Münster Barbarigo became acquainted with the apostolic nuncio, Fabio Chigi, who was so favourably impressed with him that, after he had been raised to the papal throne as Alexander VII, he showed the young Venetian many tokens of his esteem and became his strong Supporter. In 1657 he nominated him to the bishopric of Bergamo, in 1660 he created him a cardinal, and in 1664 he transferred him to the bishopric of Padua.
The zeal with which Blessed Gregory carried out his pastoral duties caused him to be hailed as a second Charles Borromeo. He was indeed exemplary in every relation of life. His charities were enormous, and he is known to have distributed in alms eight hundred thousand crowns. Severe only with himself, he was kind to all, especially to those in trouble or distress. In the interest of learning he founded a college, and also a seminary for young priests which attained great renown. He gave it a printing press of its own, and also a fine library particularly well furnished with the writings of the fathers and with works dealing with the Holy Scriptures. He died a peaceful death on June 15, 1697, and was beatified in 1761.
A life of Bd Gregory was written in Latin by A. Ricchini, which was also translated into Italian. His unpublished writings were edited by P. Uccelli in 1877, and the account of his pastoral visitations by A. Coi in 1907. His earnest efforts to bring about a union with the Greeks are described by G. Poletto in three articles in Bessarione for 1901-1902. See also the references to him in Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste, vol. xiv; and in P. Bergamaschi's life of his namesake, Marc' Antonio Barbarigo (1919). Nine studies for the biography of Bd Gregory were published by Prof. S. Serena, of Venice, between 1929 and 1940.
1737 Bl. Emmanuel d'Abreu Martyr of China, a Portuguese Jesuit. He entered the Order in 1724 and was stationed in China. In 1736, he was arrested in Tonkin and was martyred the following year with three companions.
1856 St. Emily de Vialar Virgin, Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph "of the Apparition" 
Massíliæ, in Gállia, sanctæ Æmíliæ de Vialár, Vírginis, Fundatrícis Institúti Sorórum a sancto Joseph ab Apparitióne, fortitúdine, patiéntia et caritáte insígnis, quam Pius Duodécimus, Póntifex Máximus, in Sanctárum númerum rétulit.
    At Marseilles in France, St. Emily de Vialar, virgin, foundress of the Congregation of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Apparition.  A shining example of fortitude, patience and charity, the Sovereign Pontiff Pius XII added her to the number of the saints.
Their work was to be the care of the needy, especially the sick, and the education of children. In 1835, she made her profession with seventeen other sisters, and received formal approval for the rule of the Congregation.

ST EMILY DE VIALAR, VIRGIN, FOUNDRESS OF THE SISTERS OF
    ST JOSEPH" OF THE APPARITION"     (A.D, 1856)
ANNE MARGUERITE ADELAIDE EMILY DE VIALAR was the eldest child and only daughter of Baron James Augustine de Vialar and his wife Antoinette, daughter of that Baron de Portal who was physician-in-ordinary to Louis XVIII and Charles X of France. She was born at Gaillac in Languedoc in 1797. At the age of fifteen she was removed from school in Paris to be companion to her father, now a widower, at Gaillac; but unhappily differences arose between them because of Emily's refusal to consider a suitable marriage. On one occasion M. de Vialar threw a decanter at his daughter's head, and she was relegated to a place of no importance in the household. Moreover, things were made more difficult for her by there being no priest or other suitable person in the place to advise and guide her; "God became my director", she said in after years: but even so it is not always easy to be certain what is the voice of God and what the voice of self. Of Emily de Vialar's religious experiences at this time a vision of our Lord, His body showing the wounds of His passion, made so deep an impression on her that it is still commemorated daily in the congregation she founded.
Then in 1818, when she was twenty-one, a young curate (afterwards rector), the abbé Mercier, came to Gaillac, and in him Emily found a friend who understood and appreciated her. He set himself to test her religious vocation, and in the meantime she devoted herself to the care of children neglected by their parents and to the help of the poor generally; this led to further difficulties with her father, who objected to the use of the terrace of his house as a sort of out-patients' department for the sick, the destitute and the sad. For fifteen years Emily was the good angel of Gaillac; and then, in 1832, occurred the event which decided both her and the abbé Mercier that the time had come for her to launch out on her own: her maternal grandfather, the Baron de Portal, died, and Emily's share of his estate was a quite considerable fortune.
She at once bought a large house at Gaillac, and at Christmas took possession of it with three companions, Victoria Teyssonnière, Rose Mongis and Pauline Gineste. Others joined them, and three months later the archbishop of Albi authorized the abbé Mercier to clothe twelve postulants with the religious habit. They called themselves the Congregation of Sisters of St Joseph of the Apparition, the epithet referring to the appearing (apparitio) of the angel to Joseph to reveal the divine incarnation (Matthew i 18-21); and their work was to be the care of the needy, especially the sick, and the education of children. They looked not only to France but also to foreign countries and the missions; and in fact they developed as a primarily missionary congregation. The sisters encountered the usual initial opposition and criticism,[* A less usual trial was a threat of extirpation by a band of brigands, who were said to have threatened to strangle everyone of the sisters.]  Details of which found a lively chronicler in Eugenie de Guérin: postulants too young and pretty to be exposed to the air, a too-becoming head-dress, "A new order? It's a disorder! "That Vialar girl...". But Miss de Guérin opined that Sister Emily would do great things, and the discerning archbishop of Albi, Mgr de Gualy, agreed: in 1835 he received her profession, with that of seventeen other sisters, and gave formal approval to the rule of the congregation.
In the previous year the second foundation was made, at Algiers, whither the sisters were invited at the instance of Emily's brother Augustine, one of the municipal councillors, to take charge of a hospital. A correspondent of Eugenie de Guerin speaks of "Emily de Vialar's conquest of Algeria"-but it proved to be only a temporary occupation. From the big establishment at Algiers another foundation was made at Bône, which in turn gave birth to convents in Constantine and Tunis; Tunis had a filiation in Malta, and from there sprang the houses of the Balkans and the Near East. The Sisters of St Joseph were the first Catholic nuns in modem times to be established in Jerusalem, whither they were invited by the Franciscan Guardian of the Holy Land; and when Mgr Dupuch, the first bishop of Algiers, celebrated the Holy Mysteries on the hill of St Augustine's Hippo, Mother Emily and some of her sisters were there. Unfortunately her relations with this prelate were spoiled by a long disagreement about jurisdiction; Rome decided in her favour, but Mgr Dupuch had the support of the civil power and the sisters had to give up the Algerian establishments, at great temporal loss to themselves. It was at this time that Mother Emily turned her attention to Tunisia and then Malta, on which island she landed from a wrecked ship, as St Paul did.
Her friend and helper the abbé Mercier had died in 1845, and on her return to Gaillac in the following year the foundress found her headquarters in a state of confusion, and its finances in a chronic mess owing to the rashness-if not worse-of a trustee. Consequent lawsuits did nothing to improve matters; and the upshot was that the mother house was moved to Toulouse, after several of the senior nuns had left the congregation and its very existence was threatened. "I've had my lesson", wrote Mother Emily. "A quiet trust in God is better than trying to safeguard material advantages." Then she set out for Greece, and founded a convent on the island of Syra.
The visit to Greece was the last of Mother Emily's longer journeys (these fatiguing undertakings provoked un favourable comments from some highly-placed ecclesiastics); but during her lifetime foundations were made much farther away. In 1847 a call from Burma was answered by the dispatch of six sisters thither, and in 1854 the bishop of Perth in Australia visited Mother Emily to ask for help. Accordingly a contingent was sent to Freemantle. The foundress thus in the course of twenty-two years saw her congregation grow from one to some forty houses, many of which she had founded in person. Two years before, the mother house had again been moved, this time to Marseilles (where it still is). Here Mother Emily was warmly welcomed by the famous bishop Mgr de Mazenod, himself the founder of a missionary congregation, the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
St Emily de Vialar was by nature shrewd, exact, lively but well-balanced, qualities that showed themselves in her face no less than in her life, and her intelligence was controlled and directed by a will of exceptional strength. Not otherwise could she have done the work that she did, beginning only when she was already thirty-five, and meeting with considerable opposition in the preparatory stages and serious set-backs from time to time afterwards. She was particularly immovable when the constitutional or canonical integrity of her congregation seemed to be threatened: it was that which led to the breach with Mgr Dupuch, and to the abandonment of Toulouse as headquarters after only five years there. Such difficulties, and the troubles at Gaillac in 1846, seemed not to discourage her; but her letters show what interior trials and uncertainties she underwent. St Emily's correspondence was necessarily voluminous, and her writing is marked by a vigorous and appealing style, especially when some moral implication added a touch of high eloquence to her pen; this is well illustrated in the memorial she addressed to Field-Marshal Soult after the Algerian disaster.
St Emily deliberately chose the way of Martha, but she was not excluded from the way of Mary. From the account written at the direction of her confessor we know in how close a state of union with God she lived, and there is as well the testimony of her daughters in religion as to how far she progressed in the path of contemplation. "I have plenty of trials, but God is always there to support me", she wrote. "How often is the Lord with me in the long night watches. The outpouring of His love is all about me, and I try to follow Him always, even though some new tribulation will come upon me .... But as troubles increase, so does my trust in Him...." It has been well said that" Civilization is a matter of the spirit"; and the spirit of St Emily, inspired by a love that Cardinal Granito di Belmonte characterized as "wise, understanding and most considerate", has through the congregation that she founded "done more in the past hundred years for civilization in Africa, Asia and Australia than conquerors and colonizers could ever do".
The physical energy and achievements of St Emily de Vialar are the more remarkable in that from her youth she was troubled by hernia, contracted characteristically in doing a deed of charity. From 1850 this became more and more serious, and it hastened her end, which came on August 24, 1856. The burden of her last testament to her daughters was "Love one another". Her canonization took place in 1951, and her feast is kept on this day.
The standard biography is La vie militante de la Bse Mere Emilie de Vialar, by Canon Testas, reissued in 1939. The author made an Histoire abrégée from this in 1938. The letters of Eugenie de Guerin (1805-48), to her brother Maurice, referred to above, were published at Paris in the sixties of last century; a fresh English translation of this "journal", by Naomi Royde Smith, appeared in The Idol and the Shrine (1949). Like Bd Emily, Miss de Guerin was a native of Languedoc. See also G. Bernoville, Emilie de Vialar (1953).
Anne Marguerite Adelaide Emily de Vialar was the eldest child and only daughter of Baron James Augustine de Vialar and his wife Antoinette, daughter of that Baron de Portal who was physician-in-ordinary to Louis XVIII and Charles X of France. She was born at Gaillac in Languedoc in 1797. At the age of fifteen she was removed from school in Paris to be companion to her father, now a widower, at Gaillac; but unhappily, differences arose between them because of Emily's refusal to consider a suitable marriage.

For fifteen years, Emily was the good angel of Gaillac, devoting herself to the care of children neglected by their parents and to the help of the poor generally. In 1832, her maternal grandfather died, leaving her a share of his estate which was a quite considerable fortune. She bought a large house at Gaillac and took possession of it with three companions. Others joined them and three months later, the archbishop authorized the Abbe to clothe twelve postulants with the religious habit. They called themselves the Congregation of Sisters of St. Joseph of the Apparition. Their work was to be the care of the needy, especially the sick, and the education of children. In 1835, she made her profession with seventeen other sisters, and received formal approval for the rule of the Congregation.
The foundress, in the course of twenty-two years, saw her Congregation grow from one to some forty houses, many of which she had founded in person. The physical energy and achievements of St. Emily de Vialar are the more remarkable in that from her youth she was troubled by hernia, contracted characteristically in doing a deed of charity. From 1850 this became more and more serious, and it hastened her end, which came on August 24, 1856. The burden of her last testament to her daughters was "Love one another". Her canonization took place in 1951;  her feast is June 17th.
1860 St. Joseph Cafasso assigned to a seminary in Turin After ordination there he worked especially against the spirit of Jansenism, an excessive preoccupation with sin and damnation St. John Bosco was one of Joseph’s pupils. Joseph urged John Bosco to establish the Salesians to work with the youth of Turin
Even as a young man, Joseph loved to attend Mass and was known for his humility and fervor in prayer. After his ordination he was assigned to a seminary in Turin. There he worked especially against the spirit of Jansenism, an excessive preoccupation with sin and damnation. Joseph used the works of St. Francis de Sales and St. Alphonsus Liguori to moderate rigorism popular at the seminary.
Joseph recommended membership in the Secular Franciscan Order to priests. He urged devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and encouraged daily Communion. In addition to his teaching duties, Joseph was an excellent preacher, confessor and retreat master. Noted for his work with condemned prisoners, Joseph helped many of them die at peace with God. 
St. John Bosco was one of Joseph’s pupils. Joseph urged John Bosco to establish the Salesians to work with the youth of Turin. Joseph was canonized in 1947.
Comment:  Devotion to the Eucharist gave energy to all Joseph's other activities. Long prayer before the Blessed Sacrament has been characteristic of many Catholics who have lived out the gospel well, St. Francis, Bishop Sheen, Cardinal Bernardin and Mother Teresa among them.
Quote: “O admirable heights and sublime lowliness! O sublime humility! O humble sublimity! That the Lord of the universe, God and the Son of God, so humbles Himself that for our salvation He hides Himself under the little form of bread! Look, brothers, at the humility of God and pour out your hearts before Him! Humble yourselves, as well, that you may be exalted by Him. Therefore, hold back nothing of yourselves for yourselves so that He Who gives Himself totally to you may receive you totally” (Saint Francis, Letter to the Entire Order).

Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  May 2016
Universal:   “That in every country in the world, women may be honoured and respected
and that their essential contribution to society may be highly esteemed”.

Evangelization:  “That families, communities and groups may pray the Holy Rosary for evangelisation and peace”.
God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

 
 
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die
 so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

 Saving babies, healing moms and dads,
 'The Gospel of Life'


"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel


Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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