Mary Mother of GOD
Jesus_Crucified
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
  RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

The Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ (Solemnity)


The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.


 

 
373 St Ephraem, Doctor of The Church

At Edessa in Mesopotamia, St. Ephraem, deacon of the church of Edessa in the time of Emperor Valens and confessor.  Famous in his lifetime as a great teacher, orator, poet, commentator and defender of the faith, St Ephraem is the only Syrian father who is honoured as a doctor of the Universal Church (since 1920); the Syrians, both Catholic and separated, style him “the Harp of the Holy Ghost”, and enrich their liturgies with his homilies and hymns.

373 St Ephraem, Doctor of The Church
 135 Saint Leontius Roman Greek general martyrs killed with Hypatius and Theodolus in Tripoli, Phoenicia (Syria) many miracles occurred and were attributed to him
 305 Saint Cyriacus and Saint Paula virgin death at Málaga, Spain MM (RM)
373 St Ephraem, Doctor of The Church
486 Sts. Gregory, Demetrius, and Calogerus Greek hermit missionary called "the Anchoret."  received monastic habit from the pope
 750 St. Marina Virgin flourished in Bithynia in the eighth century served God under the habit of a monk, with extraordinary fervor.
1164 St. Elizabeth of Schonau Benedictine abbess gifted mystic ecstasies, prophecies, diabolical visitations visions in 3 books
13th v. Saint Gerland of Caltagirone either a Knight Templar or a Knight Hospitaller (AC)
1300 Blessed Marina Vallarina of Spoleto lively cultus Augustinian nun V (AC)

1505 Blessed Hosanna of Mantua spent her fortune service of poor; stigmata OP Tert. miraculously learned to read/write V (AC)
1697 Saint  Gregory Barbarigo first Bishop of Bergamo worked unceasingly in carrying out the reforms set forth by the Council of Trent
1925 Venerable Matt Talbot patron people struggling with alcoholism Secular Franciscan Order began life of strict penance contributed generously to the missions


Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
June 18 - Our Lady of Prada (Italy, 1747) 
The Only True Child-like Gaze Ever Raised Upon Our Shame
The Virgin was innocence itself.
Do you realize what we, the human race, are to her?
Oh, of course she despises sin, but when all is said and done, she has no experience of it.
The Virgin has the only true child-like gaze that was ever raised upon our shame and wretchedness.
Yes, my child, when you pray to her you should feel upon you that gaze which is not one of indulgence - for indulgence is a product of some bitter experience - but one of tender compassion, pained surprise, of some as yet indefinable, inconceivable, unutterable feeling that makes her younger than the race that gave her birth;
for although she is our Mother by grace, she is also humankind's little sister.
Excerpt from Georges Bernanos, Diary of a Country Priest, 1936.

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.


Morning Prayer and Hymn   Meditation of the Day

June 18 - Apparition of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
 (Garabandal, Spain, 1961 to 1965, investigation in process)   
The First International Route to Our Lady of Fatima
On 18 June 1947, the Pilgrim Virgin statue finally arrived at the Spanish border closed since the civil war of Spain, after journeying for more than a year through the Iberian peninsula.
The police force had received the order not to let the fervent crowd cross the border. But, suddenly, thanks to the enthusiasm of the Basques, the border gate was raised. With a “customs visa” (for merchandise)
they allowed the statue as well as its thousands of followers to cross the border.
A few days later, the border was definitively opened.  
Brother Albert Pfleger, Marian Collection (Collection Mariale n°12, 1980)

June 18 – Apparition of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Garabandal from 1961 to 1965 (Spain - approval pending)  
 
In Garabandal, as in Lourdes and Fatima
In 1961, in Garabandal, a village in the Spanish Pyrenees, at a place called the Calleja, four girls, Conchita, Jacinta, Mari Loli and Mari Cruz were witnesses to an apparition of the Virgin Mary who came under the title of Our Lady of Carmel. From July 2, 1961 to November 13, 1965, the girls reported more than 2,000 encounters with the Virgin.

The title that Mary gave herself in Garabandal—Our Lady of Mount Carmel
suggests a connection with the apparitions of Lourdes and Fatima. Indeed:

- By ending her visits to Lourdes on July 16, the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Mary placed the symbol of Mount Carmel as a culmination of a spiritual journey whose previous apparitions constitute the necessary steps;

 - In Fatima, on October 13, 1917, after the miracle of the sun, Lucia alone again saw Our Lady of Sorrows
and Our Lord who were still blessing the world, and Our Lady of Mount Carmel giving the scapular.

At Garabandal, wearing the scapular, Mary invited us to (re)discover its meaning.
 The Scapular of Carmel is another way of showing our devotion to Jesus through Mary.
 Adapted by Françoise Breynaert

 135 Saint Leontius Roman Greek general martyrs killed with Hypatius and Theodolus in Tripoli, Phoenicia (Syria)
many miracles occurred and were attributed to him

 286 Sts. Mark & Marcellian twins were both married deacons in Rome refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods
 293 St. Aquilina Virgin martyr beheaded at Byblos at 12
 303 Etherius of Nicomedia Martyr at Nicomedia M (RM)
 305 Saint Cyriacus and Saint Paula virgin death at Málaga, Spain MM (RM)
373 St Ephraem, Doctor of The Church
 431 Saint Amandus of Bordeaux; he succeeded Bishop Saint Delphinus his mentor & became an outstanding holy
bishop; instructor of Saint Paulinus of Nola

 486 Sts. Gregory, Demetrius, and Calogerus Greek hermit missionary called "the Anchoret."  received the monastic habit from the pope in Rome
 569 St. Fortunatus Italian bishop called “the Philosopher;” esteemed by St. Germanicus of Paris, France, driven from his see in northern Italy by the Lombards.
 640 St Alena Born pagan became a Christian martyred during a secret ceremony of the Holy Eucharist
 700 St. Osmanna Irish maiden crossed the Channel became hermitess Brieuc
 750 St. Marina Virgin flourished in Bithynia in the eighth century served God under the habit of a monk, with
extraordinary fervor.

 940 St. Guy Benedictine abbot, successor of St. Berno in Baume Abbey retired became a hermit.
1135 Blessed Jerome of Vallumbrosa  lived 35 years on nothing but bread /water OSB Vall. (AC)
1164 St. Elizabeth of Schonau Benedictine abbess gifted mystic known for ecstasies, prophecies, and diabolical
visitations visions in 3 books
13th v. Saint Gerland of Caltagirone either a Knight Templar or a Knight Hospitaller (AC)
1300 Blessed Marina Vallarina of Spoleto lively cultus Augustinian nun V (AC)
1505 Blessed Hosanna of Mantua spent her fortune in the service of the poor stigmata OP Tert.  miraculously learned to read/write V (AC)
1697 Saint  Gregory Barbarigo first Bishop of Bergamo worked unceasingly in carrying out the reforms set forth by the Council of Trent
1925 Venerable Matt Talbot patron people struggling with alcoholism Secular Franciscan Order began life of strict
penance contributed generously to the missions

Morning Prayer and Hymn   Meditation of the Day
Miracles 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900 Lay Saints

It Makes No Sense
Not To Believe In GOD
Every Christian must be a living book wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel



135 Saint Leontius Roman Greek general martyrs killed with Hypatius and Theodolus in Tripoli, Phoenicia (Syria) many miracles occurred and were attributed to him
Trípoli, in Phœnícia, sancti Leóntii mílitis, qui, sub Hadriáno Præside, una cum Hypátio Tribúno et Theodúlo, quos convértit ad Christum, per acérba torménta pervénit ad corónam martyrii.
    At Tripoli in Phoenicia, in the time of the governor Adrian, St. Leontius, a soldier, who attained the crown of martyrdom through bitter torments together with the tribune Hypatius and Theodulus, whom he had converted to Christ.

In Tripoli, Lebanon, or Libya, Leontius (d.c. 135) + Leontius, Hypatius (Ipazio), and Theodulus MM (RM) Died in Tripoli, Phoenicia (Syria), 135? Saint Leontius of Tripoli was a Greek general in the Roman army serving in Syria. A religious man, he was tortured and beaten to death under the Emperor Vespasian for converting non-Christians. Two soldiers who were to arrest him, Hypatius and Theodulus were converted and martyred as well.

Leontius was buried in the yard of a woman by the name of Giovannia (Joanna). Her husband built a church in honor of Leontius and it was there that many miracles occurred and were attributed to him. Many other churches were dedicated to him. A cathedral at Bosra, Syria was consecrated to him, SS. Sergio and Bacco in 513. He was formerly the patron saint of Syria (Benedictines, Bibliotheca Sanctorum, VII, 1966, researched by Robert Leonzio; Encyclopedia).

286 St. Mark & Marcellian twins were both married deacons in Rome refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods
Romæ, via Ardeatína, natális sanctórum Mártyrum Marci et Marcelliáni fratrum, qui, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, a Júdice Fabiáno tenti et ad stípitem alligáti, in pédibus clavos auctos accepérunt; cumque non cessárent laudáre Christum, lánceis per látera transfíxi sunt, et cum glória martyrii ad sidérea regna migrárunt.
    At Rome, on the Ardeatine Way, in the persecution of Diocletian, the birthday of the saintly brothers Mark and Marcellian, martyrs, who were arrested by the judge Fabian, tied to a stake, and had sharp nails driven into their feet.  Because they would not cease praising the name of Christ they were pierced through the sides with lances, and thus went to the kingdom of heaven with the glory of martyrdom.

Roman martyrs, twin brothers and deacons. From a distinguished family, they lived in Rome with their wives and children. Arrested, the brothers refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods and were arrested. They converted their guards and escaped but were soon recaptured. Both died in Rome. Their basilica in the catacombs of St. Balbina was discovered in 1902. Their cult was confined to local calendars in 1969. Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286.

287 Ss. Mark and Marcellian, Martyrs
Interest in SS. Mark and Marcellian has been revived in modern times by the discovery, in that part of the Catacomb of St Balbina which bears their name, of the tombs of the two martyrs, surmounted by a fresco representing the “corona­tion” of themselves and their companions. They were brothers, deacons of the Roman church, who perished early in the reign of Diocletian. For details of their sufferings and death we have nothing more reliable than the so-called Passion of St Sebastian, a fifth-century collection of traditions and legends. According to this compilation Mark and Marcellian were twins of high birth who had been converted to Christianity in their youth and had married. In the persecution which broke out soon after Diocletian’s accession, they were cast into prison and were condemned by Chromatius, lieutenant of the prefect of Rome, to be beheaded. Their friends obtained for them a thirty-days’ respite in the hope of being able during that time to persuade them to offer the required sacrifices, and they were removed to the house of Nicostratus, the public registrar. Their wives, their little children, and their heathen parents, Tranquillinus and Martia, sought by tears and entreaties to shake their constancy, but St Sebastian, then an officer in the emperor’s household, visited them daily and encouraged them to persevere.

The outcome of the various interviews and discussions which look place was the conversion of the martyrs’ relations, of Nicostratus, and shortly afterwards of Chromatius, who set the prisoners free, resigned his post and retired into the country. Although Mark and Marcellian were concealed by a Christian official of the imperial household, they were betrayed by a renegade and recaptured. Fabian, who had succeeded Chromatius, condemned them to be bound to two wooden pillars, to which their feet were then nailed. When they had been thus exposed for twenty-four hours they were pierced by lances. Their relics were translated from the catacombs to the church of SS. Cosmas and Damian, and are now in the basilica of St Praxedes in Rome.

That portion of the passio of St Sebastian which relates to SS. Mark and Marcellian has been printed in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, as well as elsewhere. Upon the question of the crypt in the cemetery of Balbina, much has been written. See especially G. Wilpert in the Nuovo Bullettino di arch. crist., 1903, pp. 43—58 ; Wilpert in the Römische Quartalschrift, 1908, pp. 124—164, and 1930, pp. 1—5; 0. Marucchi, in Nuovo Bullettino, 1909, pp. 221—235, and 1910, pp. 120—130; J. P. Kirsch, Der stadtrömische christ. Festkalender (1924), pp. 155—156; Delehaye’s CMH., pp. 324—325 ; and Leclercq in DAC., vol. x (1932), cc. 1749—1753.
These martyrs were brothers and their martyrdom is known to us from the Acts of St. Sebastian, which, though in great part legendary, are nevertheless very ancient. Cast into prison for being Christians, they were visited by their father and mother, Tranquillinus and Martia, who, being still idolaters, implored them to return to the worship of the false gods to save their lives. But Sebastian, whose approaching martyrdom was to render him illustrious, having penetrated into their prison at the same time, exhorted them so earnestly not to abandon the Christian Faith, that he not only rendered their fidelity immovable, but also converted their parents and several of their friends who were present. The judge, before whom they were at length brought, not being able to induce them to apostatize, condemned them to death. They were buried in the Via Ardeatina, near the cemetery of Domitilla. Their bodies were translated at a later date (which is not quite certain, but probably in the ninth century) to the church of Sts. Cosmas and Damian, where they were rediscovered in 1583 in the reign of Gregory XIII. They still rest there in a tomb, near which may be seen an ancient painting wherein the two martyrs are represented with a third person who seems be the Blessed Virgin.

Mark and Marcellian MM (RM) second feast on July 29. These twins were both married deacons in Rome, who suffered martyrdom under Maximianus Herculeus. After they were condemned and thrown into prison, their powerful friends convinced the judge to delay their execution for thirty days, so that they might try to dissuade the twins their present course. They were released into the custody of Nicostratus, the public register. Their pagan parents, Tranquillinus and Martia, their wives, and their children all tried to entreat them to renounce their faith. Meanwhile, Saint Sebastian, visited the twins daily to encourage them to persevere. With Sebastian's help, their parents, wives, the wife of the judge Nicostratus, and Chromatius, were all converted. Chromatius set his prisoners free, resigned his position, and retired to the country. Castulus, a Christian officer, hid them in his apartments in the palace, but they were betrayed by an apostate, Torquatus, and again taken into custody. Chromatius's successor, Fabian, condemned them to be bound to two pillars with their feet nailed to them. They hanged there for a full day until they were pierced with lances. They were buried in the Arenarium two miles from Rome between the Appian and Ardeatine roads. Their basilica in the catacombs of Saint Balbina was rediscovered in 1902 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

293 St. AquilinaVirgin martyr beheaded at Byblos at 12
She was reported to have been only twelve years old.

303 Etherius of Nicomedia Martyr at Nicomedia M (RM)
Eódem die sancti Æthérii Mártyris, qui, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, post ignes et álios cruciátus, gládio cæsus est.
    The same day, St. Aetherius, martyr, in the persecution of Diocletian.  After enduring fire and other torments, he was put to death with the sword.
 Martyr under Diocletian at Nicomedia (Benedictines).
305 Saint Cyriacus and Saint Paula virgin death at Málaga, Spain MM (RM)
Málacæ, in Hispánia, sanctórum Mártyrum Cyríaci, et Paulæ Vírginis, qui, lapídibus óbruti, inter saxa cælo ánimas reddidérunt.
    At Malaga in Spain, the holy martyrs Cyriacus and the virgin Paula, who were overwhelmed with stones, and yielded up their souls to God.
The virgin Saint Paula and Cyriacus were stoned to death at Málaga, Spain, during the Diocletian persecution (Benedictines).

373 St Ephraem, Doctor of The Church declared a doctor of the Universal Church by Pope Benedict XV

Edéssæ, in Mesopotámia, sancti Ephræm, Diáconi Edesséni et Confessóris, qui, post multos labóres pro Christi fide suscéptos, doctrína et sanctitáte conspícuus, sub Valénte Imperatóre quiévit in Dómino, et a Benedícto Papa Décimo quinto Doctor Ecclésiæ universális est declarátus.
    At Edessa in Mesopotamia, St. Ephraem, deacon of the church of Edessa in the time of Emperor Valens and confessor.  After suffering many trials for the faith of Christ and gaining great renown for holiness and learning, he went to rest in the Lord.  He was declared a doctor of the Universal Church by Pope Benedict XV

Famous in his lifetime as a great teacher, orator, poet, commentator and defender of the faith, St Ephraem is the only Syrian father who is honoured as a doctor of the Universal Church (since 1920); the Syrians, both Catholic and separated, style him “the Harp of the Holy Ghost”, and enrich their liturgies with his homilies and hymns. Steeped in the Holy Scriptures, though not a man of wide scholarship he had a deep insight into the mysteries of God.*[*It was the opinion of another doctor of the Church, St Robert Bellarmine, that St Ephraem was “more pious than learned”.]

St Basil described him as “one conversant with the knowledge of all that is true”; and St Jerome mentions him in these terms when making a catalogue of the great Christian writers: “Ephraem, deacon of the Church of Edessa, wrote many works in Syriac, and became so famous that his writings are publicly read in some churches after the Sacred Scriptures. I have read in Greek a volume of his on the Holy Spirit; though it was only a translation I recognized therein the sublime genius of the man.”

His chief interest to most people, however, lies in the fact that to him we owe very largely the introduction of sacred songs into the Church’s public services as an important feature in her worship and a recognized means of instruc­tion. It soon found its way from Edessa into all the Eastern churches and gradually it spread to the West. “To the hymns on which his fame rests”, writes a modern Anglican commentator, “the Syrian ritual in all its forms owes much of its strength and richness, and to them is largely due the place which hymnody holds throughout the churches everywhere” (Dr John Gwynn in vol. xiii of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers).

St Ephraem was born about the year 306 at Nisibis in Mesopotamia, then still under Roman rule. That his parents were Christians is asserted in what purport to be his own words. “I was born in the way of truth”, he tells us. “Although my boyhood did not understand the greatness of it, I knew it when trial came.” Else­where, in the same doubtful source, he is made to say: “I had been early taught about Christ by my parents: they who begat me after the flesh had trained me in the fear of the Lord. . . . My parents were confessors before the judge: yea, I am of the kindred of the martyrs.”
   It is, however, more commonly believed that his father and mother were pagan, and that on his conversion in his boyhood he was turned out of doors by them. He was baptized at the age of eighteen, and attached himself to the famous bishop of Nisibis, St Jacob (or James), whom he is said to have accompanied to the Council of Nicaea in 325. After St Jacob’s death, Ephraem remained in close relation with the three succeeding hierarchs, probably as head of their school. He was living at Nisibis through the three sieges laid to it by the Persians, and in some of his Nisibeian hymns are to be found descriptions of the city’s perils, of its defences, and of the final repulse of the enemy in 350. But although the Persians failed to capture Nisibis by direct attack, they obtained it thirteen years later as part of the price of the peace the Emperor Jovian was forced to negotiate after the defeat and death of Julian. The Christians abandoned the city, and Ephraem retired finally to a cave in a rocky height over­looking Edessa. Here he led a most austere life, sustained only by a little barley bread and a few vegetables, and here he wrote the greater part of his spiritual works.

His appearance was indeed that of an ascetic: he was of small stature, we are told, bald, beardless, and with skin shrivelled and dried up like a potsherd; his gown was all patches, the colour of dirt, he wept much and never laughed. Never­theless, an incident related by all his biographers proves that in spite of his gravity he could appreciate a repartee, even when directed against himself. On the first occasion that he entered the city of Edessa he encountered the bold stare of a woman who was washing clothes in the river and rebuked her sharply, bidding her cast her eyes modestly to the ground. Unabashed, she promptly retorted, “No: it is for you to look down to the ground because out of it you were taken. It is quite right for me to look at you, for from you—as man—I was taken.” Ephraem was impressed by her ready wit and exclaimed, “ If the women of this city are so wise, how ex­ceedingly wise its men must be!”

Although the cave continued to be his head­quarters, he was by no means a recluse, and concerned himself with all questions that affected the Church especially in Edessa, which he called “the city of blessing” manifest itself in the West before the period of St Francis of Assisi. A few specimens of St Ephraem’s language can hardly be out of place. For example, in one of his hymns or addresses—it is difficult to decide how these metrical compositions should be classed—the poet apostrophizes the upper room of the Last Supper in these terms:

O blessed spot, thy narrow room may be set against all the world. That which is contained in thee, though bounded in so strait a compass, filleth the universe. Blessed is the dwelling-place in which with holy hand the bread was broken.
In thee the grape which grew on Mary’s vine was crushed in the chalice of salvation.

O blessed spot! No man hath seen nor shall see the things which thou hast seen. In thee the Lord Himself became true altar, priest, and bread and chalice of salvation. He alone sufficeth for all, yet none for Him sufficeth.  Altar He is and lamb, victim and sacrificer, priest as well as food.

Or take this description of the scourging at the pillar: 

After many vehement outcries against Pilate, the all-mighty One was scourged like the meanest criminal. Surely there must have been commotion and horror at the sight. Let the heavens and earth stand awe-struck to behold Him who swayed the rod of fire, Himself smitten with scourges; to behold Him who spread over the earth the veil of the skies and who set fast the foundations of the mountains, who poised the earth over the waters and sent down the blazing lightning-flash, now beaten by infamous wretches over a stone pillar that His own word had created. They, indeed, stretched out His limbs and outraged Him with mockeries. A man whom He had formed wielded the scourge. He who sustains all creatures with His might submitted His back to their stripes; He who is the Father’s right arm yielded His own arms to be extended. The pillar of ignominy was embraced by Him who sustains the heavens and earth in all their splendour. Savage dogs did bark at the Lord who with his thunder shakes the mountains, they sharpened their teeth against the Son of Glory.

An even fuller revelation of the character of the saintly writer is supplied by the document known as the Testament of St Ephraem. Though it has probably been subject to interpolations at a later date, Rubens Duval, who speaks authori­tatively on such questions, is satisfied that the greater part of the testament is authentic and in particular the passages now to be quoted.

St Ephraem appeals to his friends and disciples in such language of profound humility as the following:
Lay me not with sweet spices,  For this honour avails me not,  Nor yet use incense and perfumes,
For the honour benefits me not.
Burn ye the incense in the holy place; As for me, escort me only with your prayers. Give ye your incense to God, And over me send up hymns.  Instead of perfumes and spices.  Be mindful of me in your intercessions.

The decree has gone forth that I can tarry no longer.  Give me, as provision for my journey, Your prayers, your psalms and your sacrifices. When the number of thirty days is complete, Then, 0 my brothers, make remembrance of me, 
For the dead truly derive succour; From the sacrifices offered up by the living.

There are several documents, both in Syriac and in Greek, which purport to be lives or biographical notices of St Ephraem. The Greek texts have been printed by J. S. Assemani, in his introduction to the first volume of S. P. N. Ephraem Syri Opera, pp. i-xxxiii, and in that of the third volume, pp. xxiii—xxxv. The Syriac texts may be found in Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis, vol. i, p. 26, and in Lamy, S. Ephraem Syri Hymni et Sermones, vol. ii, pp. 5—90. There are also two similar pieces of Nestorian origin which are printed in the Patrologia Orientalis, vol. iv, pp. 293—295, and vol. v, pp. 291—299. It is generally agreed that no trust can be placed in any of the information which comes from these sources. To discuss the character or the authenticity of the many works which have been attributed to St Ephraem would be out of place here. The interesting “Testament of St Ephraem” has been critically edited and translated by Rubens Duval in the Journal Asiatique for 1901, pp. 234—319. See also C. W. Mitchell, St Ephraem’s Prose Refutations of Mani, Marcion and Bardesanes (1912—1924) ; and the articles on Ephraem, with bibliographies, in Barden­hewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur, vol. iv, pp. 342—375 ; DTC., vol. v, cc. 188—193 DCB., vol. ii, pp. 137—144; Lexikon f. Theologie und Kirche, vol. iii (1931), cc. 715—718 E. Emerau, St Ephrem le Syrien (1919) ; and G. Ricciotti. Sant’ Efrem Siro (1925).
431 Saint Amandus of Bordeaux; he succeeded Bishop Saint Delphinus his mentor & became an outstanding holy bishop; instructor of Saint Paulinus of Nola
Burdígalæ sancti Amándi, Epíscopi et Confessóris.    At Bordeaux, St. Amandus, bishop and confessor.
Amandus was ordained by Delphinus of Bordeaux, France. He then instructed Paulinus and succeeded Delphinus as bishop of Bordeaux sometime about 404. He resigned in favor of St. Severinus, assuming the office when Severinus died in 405. Amandus was credited with being an outstanding and holy bishop.

431 St Amandus, Bishop of Bordeaux
We read in the letters of St Paulinus of Nola that St Amandus served God from his infancy, that he was nurtured in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, and that he always remained uncontaminated by carnal sin or by worldly intercourse. Nothing whatever is known of his birth or parentage. Ordained priest by St Delphinus, bishop of Bordeaux, who retained him to serve in his church, Amandus displayed great zeal for the glory of God. It was he who gave St Paulinus of Nola the necessary instruction to prepare him for baptism. This led to a lifelong friendship between them. St Paulinus wrote him many letters, and we see from those which survive that he had the highest opinion of his piety and wisdom. Upon the death of St Delphinus, in the year 400, St Amandus was elected to fill the vacant see. He resigned some years later in favour of St Severinus, after whose death he was prevailed upon to resume his former office. “If you wish to see bishops worthy of God”, wrote St Gregory of Tours, quoting the words of St Paulinus, “you have only to look at Exuperius of Toulouse, Simplicius of Vienne, Amandus of Bordeaux . . .” It is said that to St Amandus is due the preservation of the writings of St Paulinus, but this is very doubtful. The exact date of his death is uncertain.

We have no materials beyond those indicated above for any biography of St Amandus. There is a short notice in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol iv. On his relations with St Paulinus of Nola, consult P. Reinelt, Studien über die Briefe der hl. Paulinus (1904), pp. 17 seq.; and see also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p. 59; and DHG., vol. ii, c. 938.
Amandus of Bordeaux B (RM) Saint Paulinus of Nola, who was converted and prepared for baptism by Saint Amandus, provides most of the details we have about his spiritual father. They developed a lasting friendship that is recorded in many letters. From him we know that Amandus served God from his infancy and was given an early education in the things of God, including Sacred Scripture.
Bishop Saint Delphinus ordained Amandus and employed him in his church. Upon the death of Delphinus about 404, Amandus succeeded him to the episcopal chair of Bordeaux, but shortly after his election he resigned in favor of Saint Seurin. Seurin died about 420 and, again, Amandus was cajoled into resuming the role of bishop. Saint Paulinus tells us that Amandus always conducted himself as a zealous guardian of faith of Christ. He is credited with preserving the writings of his son in faith (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

486 Sts. Gregory, Deacon Demetrius, and Abbot Calogerus Greek hermit missionary called "the Anchoret."  received the monastic habit from the pope {probably 440 Pope Saint Sixtus III was pope from July 31, 432 to August 18,} in Rome
Apud Saccam, in Sicília, sancti Calógeri Eremítæ, cujus sánctitas in energúmenis liberándis máxime effúlget.
    At Sacca in Sicily, St. Calogerus, hermit, whose holiness is shewn especially in the deliverance of possessed persons.
<Bishop Calogerus.jpg
He received the monastic habit from the pope in Rome {probably 440 Pope Saint Sixtus III was pope from July 31, 432 to August 18,} and lived as a hermit for more than three decades near Girgenti, in Sicily. Calogerus is also reported to have served as a missionary on the isles of Lepari.
Gregory, Demetrius, and Calogerus the Anchoret (AC)
Late 5th century. Bishop Gregory, Deacon Demetrius, and Abbot Calogerus were driven from their homeland in North Africa by the Arian Vandals. They settled at and evangelized the area around Fragalata (near Messina), Sicily, of which they are not patrons (Benedictines).

569 St. Fortunatus Italian bishopcalled “the Philosopher;” esteemed by St. Germanicus of Paris, France, driven from his see in northern Italy by the Lombards.
Fortunatus the Philosopher (AC)  Bishop Saint Fortunatus, who is often confused with Saint Venantius Fortunatus, was driven from his see in northern Italy by the Lombards. Saint Germanus of Paris held him in high esteem (Benedictines).

640 St Alena Born pagan became a Christian martyred during a secret ceremony of the Holy Eucharist
Martyr born near Brussels, Belgium. Born into a pagan family, Alena became a Christian in secret. She was arrested and martyred during a secret ceremony of the Holy Eucharist.
700 St. Osmanna Irish maiden crossed the Channel became hermitess Brieuc
Nun, also called Osanna. She served in a Benedictine convent in Jouarre, France.
Osmanna of Jouarre, OSB V (AC) (also known as Argariarga) This Irish maiden crossed the Channel to become a hermitess near Brieuc (Benedictines).

750 St. Marina Virgin flourished in Bithynia in the eighth century served God under the habit of a monk, with extraordinary fervor.
Alexandríæ pássio sanctæ Marínæ Vírginis.
    At Alexandria, the passion of St. Marina, virgin.

Her wonderful humility, meekness, and patience are celebrated in the lives of the fathers of the desert. She died about the middle of the eighth century. Her relics were translated from Constantinople to Venice in 1230, and are venerated there in a church which bears her name. She is also titular saint of a parish church in Paris, which is mentioned by the celebrated William of Paris, in 1228. In it is preserved a portion of her relics, brought from Venice. St. Marina is commemorated in the Roman Martyrology and in the New Paris Breviary on the 18th of June; and the feast of the translation of her relics is kept at Venice on the 17th of July.

Marina (Marinus, Maria) VM (RM) 8th century? The Roman Martyrology names Marina a virgin martyr of Alexandria; however, many ancient martyrologies identified her only as a virgin. She is so often confused with Saint Margaret, with the Saint Marina who lived at a monastery dressed as a boy, and her Greek duplicate, Saint Pelagia. Her life was the model for the legends of Saints Euphrosyne, Theodora, and others. Marina's relics were translated from Constantinople to Venice in 1230, and are venerated there in a church which bears her name. She is also titular saint of a parish church in Paris, which is mentioned by the celebrated William of Paris, in 1228. In it is preserved a portion of her relics, brought from Venice. The feast of the translation of her relics is kept at Venice on July 17 (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

940 St. Guy Benedictine abbot, successor of St. Berno in Baume Abbey retired became a hermit.
Guy of Baume, OSB Abbot (AC)  Saint Guy succeeded Saint Berno as abbot of Baume-les-Messieurs. He resigned about 940 and retired to a hermitage near Fay-en-Bresse (Benedictines).

1135 Blessed Jerome of Vallumbrosa  lived 35 years on nothing but bread /water OSB Vall. (AC)
Jerome lived for 35 years on nothing but bread and water. He moved from the abbey of Masso delle celle into a hermitage (Benedictines).
1164 St. Elizabeth of Schonau Benedictine abbess gifted mystic known for ecstasies, prophecies, and diabolical visitations visions in 3 books
Schonáugiæ, in Germánia, sanctæ Elísabeth Vírginis, ob monásticæ vitæ observántiam célebris.
    At Schongau in Germany, St. Elizabeth, virgin, celebrated for her observance of the monastic life.

She had her first vision in 1152 and was known for ecstasies, prophecies, and diabolical visitations. She became abbess in 1157.  Her cult was never formalized, but she is listed as a saint in the Roman Martyrology. Her brother, Ethbert, a Benedictine abbot, wrote her biography and recorded her visions in three books.
Elizabeth of Schönau, OSB V (RM) Born 1130; died June 18, 1164.

1164 St Elizabeth Of Schönau, Virgin
Three German monasteries have borne the name of Schönau: one, a community of Cistercian monks near Heidelberg; another, a nunnery in Franconia; and the third, a double house of Benedictines not far from Bonn, built by Hildelin, who became its first abbot in 1125. Into the great nunnery of Hildelin’s foundation, Elizabeth, a girl of humble extraction, entered at the age of twelve. Some six years later, in 1147, she was professed. She threw herself fervently into the religious activities of the convent, and, though suffering from continual ill-health, wore a hair-shirt, girded herself with an iron chain, and practised other austerities. “The lowliest of His poor”  she says of herself in one of her books, “I thank God that from the moment I entered the order until this hour, His hand has pressed down upon me so persistently that I have never ceased to feel His arrows in my body.”

From her twenty-third year onwards she was subject to extraordinary supernatural manifestations, celestial visions, and diabolic persecutions. In a letter addressed to her friend St Hildegard, Elizabeth describes how an angel had told her to pro­claim a series of judgements that would fall on the people unless they did penance, and how, because she had delayed obeying him, he had beaten her so severely with a whip that she had been ill for three days!

At a later date, when some of her prophecies had failed in their fulfilment, the angel informed her that penance had actually averted the impending doom. For a time she was assailed by terrible temptations, and worried by the sudden appear­ance in her cell and elsewhere of demons habited as monks or priests, who mocked, mimicked and threatened her. Once she saw the devil as a black bull, presently metamorphosed into a black fire, from the midst of which there emerged a herd of loathsome goats. But this period of trial was the prelude to great consolations and heavenly visitations. On Sundays and festivals in particular she would fall into ecstasies during the saying of the Office or at Mass. In this condition she would receive, as she believed, admonitions and messages from an angel, or from the saint whose feast was then being kept. She visualized these celestial visitors so distinctly that she could afterwards describe in detail their appearance and attire. Scenes from the passion, resurrection and ascension of our Lord presented themselves similarly as though enacted before her bodily eyes. She recorded some of her visions on wax tablets which, at the bidding of Abbot Hildelin, she sent to her brother Egbert, a canon of Bonn, who subsequently took the habit at Schönau and succeeded Hildelin as abbot. These notes, supplemented by her oral explanations, Egbert embodied in three books of her visions, which he published with a preface of his own and a chronological list of her chief religious experiences.

The first book is written in simple language, such as Elizabeth herself might have used; but the others are more sophisticated in terminology and in thought, evincing at times a theological training more suggestive of Egbert than of his sister. This is even more evidently the case with another of her works, viz. The Book of the Ways of God, written, apparently, in imitation of the Scivias of St Hildegard. It sets forth stern warnings addressed to various classes of clergy and laymen, and in its advocacy of the anti pope “Victor IV”, whom Egbert’s friends supported, and in the terms of its denunciation of the Cathari and of its invectives against worldly prelates and unfaithful priests, it clearly reveals the mind and the hand of Egbert.

The last of Elizabeth’s books, as well as the most famous, was her con­tribution to the Ursuline Legend. It has a curious history. Excavations, which had been made on several occasions since the beginning of the twelfth century in a certain district of Cologne, had resulted in the discovery of a great number of human bones. The place came to be known as the “Ager Ursulinus “, and the remains were thought to be those of St Ursula’s eleven thousand virgins. Mingled with the rest, however, were the skeletons of men, and a number of tablets—now known to have been forgeries—ostensibly bearing names of the supposed martyrs. Gerlac, abbot of Jieutz, who had assisted in translating the alleged relics of St Ursula in 1142, and who had spent nine years searching for the remains of her companions, addressed himself to Egbert in the hope that Elizabeth, through her visions, might be able to throw light on the problem thus presented.

Under strong pressure from her brother, as it would appear, she evolved an elaboration of the already fantastic story of St Ursula, into which she introduced a Pope Cyriacus, who never existed, and all the newly discovered “martyrs”. That this extravagant romance, entirely at variance with easily verifiable historical facts, should have gained immediate and widespread acceptance throws a rather sinister light upon the credulity of the age; though, on the other hand, it is proof of the esteem in which Elizabeth was held.

She must actually have been a woman of judgement in the affairs of daily life, or she could scarcely have held, as she did, the post of superioress during the last seven years of her life. Her office was second only to that of the abbot, who ruled the double community. She died on June 18, 1164, in her thirty-eighth year. Confusion between the abbeys at Schönau afterwards led to her being regarded as a Cistercian, and entered as such by Molanus in 1568 in a new edition of Usuard.

From Molanus her name was transferred in 1584 to the Roman Martyrology, where it still stands, without any reference to her writings. Elizabeth has never been formally canonized or beatified, and widely divergent views have been entertained as to the nature of her visions. All critics, however, admit that Elizabeth herself, her brother, and those who knew them best, were firmly convinced that they came to her from on high.

What we know of the life of Elizabeth is mainly derived from a memoir which her brother Egbert prefixed to the collection of her visions. This biographical matter, with a letter also of Egbert’s, is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iv, and elsewhere. The best edition of the visions and the writings which bear her name is that of F. W. E. Roth (1884). Roth also printed in i886 a copy of what he called the “Prayerbook” (Gebetbuch) of Eliza­beth; on this, cf. Omont, in vol. xxxviii (1905) of Notices et Extraits des MSS. de la Bib. Nationale. The Ursula visions are also printed in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. viii (pp. 165—173). See further, Nebe in the Annalen of the Nassau Verein f. Alt, etc., vol. viii (i866), pp. 157—292; Preger, Deutsche Mystik, vol. i, pp. 37—43; and L. Oliger, who in vol. (1926) of Antonianum has shown that certain revelations attributed by Montalembert to St Elizabeth of Hungary are really taken from the writings of Elizabeth of Schönau. A popular but quite uncritical life with a selection of her visions was brought out by J. Ibach, Das Leben der hi. Jungfrau Elizabeth von Schönau (1898). See, also, P. Schmitz, in the Revue Bénédictine, vol. xlvii (1935), pp. 181—183; and Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxxi (1953), pp. 494—496, where two important studies on false ascriptions are reviewed.
Mysticism was a phenomenon that found expression in the mid-11th century. It is an endeavor to reach a knowledge of and union with God directly and "experimentally." The mystic renounces his senses and the images they offer of God. This is the "Negative road" that begins by recognizing the complete "Otherness" of God. The pseudo- Dionysius wrote On the Divine Names , which influenced this movement in the Middle Ages.  It is characterized by abnormal psychic states which culminate in ecstasy. Such states are sanctified when perfectly united with God and the whole personality is fully free. As a rule, mystics exhibit extraordinary self-knowledge, which leads to an ever more passionate love of God and His Son. Mystical life in no way need conflict with a married, intellectual, or active life, although many mystics, like Elizabeth were professed religious.

Elizabeth of Schönau entered the great Black Benedictine double monastery at Schönau (16 miles northeast of Bonn, Germany) at age 11 or 12. She was professed in 1147, and shortly thereafter, she began to experience clairvoyance. This was the origin of her experiences, but she distinguishes them from her later ones.

In 1157, Elizabeth became abbess of Schönau and a friend of Saint Hildegard. In a letter to Hildegard, Elizabeth describes how an angel had told her to proclaim a series of judgements that would fall on the world unless they did penance, and how, because she delayed obeying him, he had beaten her so severely with a whip that she had been ill for three days! At a later time, when some prophecies had failed in their fulfillment, the angel informed her that penance had actually averted the impending doom. She was assailed with terrible temptations, but prayed against them.

She would often fall into ecstasies while saying the Divine Office or at Mass on Sundays and on feast days. At the prompting of the abbey's founder, Abbot Hildelin, she recorded some of her visions on wax tablets, which were sent to her brother, canon Egbert, in Bonn. Later he took the habit at Schönau and succeeded Hildelin as abbot in the same Benedictine monastery. He wrote her vita and three books of her visions using the tablets she wrote, supplemented by her oral explanations.

The first book seems to be the simple language that Elizabeth might have used herself, but the others are more sophisticated--probably written by Egbert. The last and most famous book dealt with her vision of Saint Ursula. This was the result of pressure placed on her brother by Bishop Gerlac of Deutz, who had assisted in the translation of the supposed relics of Saint Ursula and her 11,000 virgins after searching nine years for them. Under strong pressure from her brother, Elizabeth evolved an elaboration of the already fantastic story of Ursula. She even introduced into it a Pope Cyriacus, who never existed.

Elizabeth "saw" the whole of Our Lord's life and that of various saints, but had to describe it in terms of which she had "real" knowledge. We need to discriminate between gift as given and the way in which it is described by the recipient--some may be part of the imagination without basis in historical fact. For example, inculpably, Elizabeth contributed to the further elaboration of the mythical legend of Saint Ursula. She knew when she had been in ecstasy, which was different than being "near" ecstasy. She described her visions in moral and allegorical rather than mystical terms. Like most medieval mystics, she was practical, and believed in her smallness before God. This is the "heart of the mystical life--the self, as such, is nothing; it needs to be wholly filled and activated by God" (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Martindale, Walsh).
13th v. Saint Gerland of Caltagirone either a Knight Templar or a Knight Hospitaller (AC)
13th century. Gerland was either a Knight Templar or a Knight Hospitaller, whose relics are venerated in Caltagirone, Sicily (Benedictines).

1298 June 12, 2010 Blessed Jolenta (Yolanda) of Poland daughter of Bela IV, King of Hungary. Her sister, St. Kunigunde, was married to the Duke of Poland

Jolenta was the daughter of Bela IV, King of Hungary. Her sister, St. Kunigunde, was married to the Duke of Poland. Jolenta was sent to Poland where her sister was to supervise her education. Eventually married to Boleslaus, the Duke of Greater Poland, Jolenta was able to use her material means to assist the poor, the sick, widows and orphans. Her husband joined her in building hospitals, convents and churches so that he was surnamed "the Pious."

Upon the death of her husband and the marriage of two of her daughters, Jolenta and her third daughter entered the convent of the Poor Clares. War forced Jolenta to move to another convent where, despite her reluctance, she was made abbess.

So well did she serve her Franciscan sisters by word and example that her fame and good works continued to spread beyond the walls of the cloister. Her favorite devotion was the Passion of Christ. Indeed, Jesus appeared to her, telling her of her coming death. Many miracles, down to our own day, are said to have occurred at her grave.
Comment: Jolenta’s story begins like a fairy tale. But fairy tales seldom include the death of the prince and never end with the princess living out her days in a convent. Nonetheless, Jolenta’s story has a happy ending. Her life of charity toward the poor and devotion to her Franciscan sisters indeed brought her to a “happily ever after.” Our lives may be short on fairy-tale elements, but our generosity and our willingness to serve well the people we live with lead us toward an ending happier than we can imagine.
1300 Blessed Marina Vallarina of Spoleto lively cultus Augustinian nun V (AC)
Marina had a lively cultus in Spoleto, Umbria, Italy, where she was an Augustinian nun (Benedictines).

1505 Blessed Hosanna of Mantua spent her fortune in the service of the poor stigmata OP Tert.  miraculously learned to read/write V (AC)

(also known as Osanna) Born in Mantua, Lombardy, Italy, 1449; cultus confirmed by Popes Leo X and Innocent XII; beatified in 16. Osanna Andreassi was the daughter of the wealthy patrician Andreasio. She experienced visions from her early childhood, but kept the experiences to herself. At the age of six, she saw the Child Jesus carrying a cross and wearing a crown of thorns. He told her that He has a special love of children and purity. She was so impressed, as we all would be, that she immediately consecrated her entire life to God.

Osanna begged her father to allow her to learn to read so that she might be able to pray the Divine Office. He refused her request because it was a waste for a woman who was expected simply to raise a family. Osanna couldn't explain why she wanted to learn; she couldn't reveal her plans to him. When she was 14 and knew that he was arranging a marriage for her, she furtively went to the Dominican church and received the habit of its tertiaries. When she appeared at home in her religious garb, she explained that she had made a vow and must wear it until she had fulfilled her promise.

Now, this should not be understood as condoning deceit, but it served God's purpose. Her pious father accepted her explanation for a time. As the months passed he began to suspect what had happened. He had already refused to give her permission to enter the convent, and he was displeased that she should try to live as a tertiary in his own home. Eventually, his father's heart melted and he allowed Osanna to continue her routine of prayer, penance, and charity for the rest of her life. She was not professed until a few months before her death forty-two years later.

After the early death of both her parents, Osanna spent her fortune in the service of the poor. Her house became a center for people to discuss spiritual matters, for the needy and the sick, for the wealthy and the noble.
It is said that like Saint Catherine, she miraculously learned to read. One day she saw a piece of paper with two words and said, "Those words are 'Jesus' and 'Mary.'" From that time she could read anything pertaining to spiritual matters. By the same sort of favor, she also learned to write.

At age 28 (1477), Osanna received the mark of the wound in Jesus' side, caused by a long nail. For the next year various of the sacred wounds would appear, including the crown of thorns. Others saw them only on Wednesdays, Fridays, and during Holy Week, but it appears that they were visible to her and caused both pain and joy.

At this time Osanna felt the need for a spiritual director and prayed for one with wisdom, patience, and understanding. She found him during Mass when an interior voice said to her, "That's the one you need, the one who is saying Mass." Osanna thought he was too young, but, upon meeting him in the confessional a few days later, all doubts were erased.
Before her death, the soul of Blessed Columba of Rieti, another Dominican tertiary, appeared to her and told Osanna to prepare for death (Benedictines, Dorcy).

In art, Osanna is a Dominican tertiary wearing a crown of thorns, surrounded by rays of light (not the halo of a saint), a lily, a broken heart with a crucifix springing from it, the devil under her feet, two angels (one with a lily, one with a cross). This is similar to the image of Saint Catherine of Siena, who has a halo. Osanna is the patroness of school girls (Roeder).
1697 Saint  Gregory Barbarigo first Bishop of Bergamo worked unceasingly in carrying out the reforms set forth by the Council of Trent; consecrated as the first Bishop of Bergamo by Pope Alexander VII.
St. Gregory Barbarigo was born in 1625, of a very old and distinguished Venetian family. A brilliant student, he embraced a diplomatic career and accompanied the Venetian Ambassador, Contarini, to the Congress of Munster in 1648. Then he became a priest and was soon thereafter consecrated as the first Bishop of Bergamo by Pope Alexander VII. Later on he was elevated to the rank of Cardinal and also given authority over the diocese of Padua. He guided his flock with pastoral wisdom and deep understanding.
St. Gregory Barbarigo worked unceasingly in carrying out the reforms set forth by the Council of Trent. Through his efforts the seminaries of both Bergamo and Padua were substantially enlarged. At Padua he also added a library and a printing press.
Gregory Barbarigo (Barbadigo) B (AC) Born in Venice, Italy, 1625; died June 15, 1697; beatified in 1761; canonized in 1960.

When Saint Gregory was born into a noble family, Protestants and Catholics in Europe had been waging a vicious war against each other for seven years--the start of the Thirty Years War. He was educated at Venice.  Gregory was in his early twenties when the Venetian government chose him to go with their ambassador, Luigi Contarini, to Münster, Germany, where in 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia was drawn up to establish peace. At the conference was the papal representative, Fabio Chigi. He found Gregory to be a quite exceptional young man, and they became friends. Gregory was ordained priest in 1655 and worked heroically during the plague of 1657.
When Fabio Chigi was consecrated Pope Alexander VII, he did not forget the impression the Venetian had made at Münster: he consecrated Gregory bishop of Bergamo. Three years later (1660) he named him cardinal and then, in 1664, bishop of Padua--an office he held for 33 years.
Gregory was equally distinguished as a churchman and as a statesman. He set about improving the training of the clergy, endowing an excellent college and seminary for them, building its fine patristic library, setting up its own printing press, appointing teachers who knew the writings of the Church Fathers and who were devoted to sacred Scripture. Some of the works published on his press were distributed to Christians in Islamic countries. His charities were on a princely scale (he is said to have given at least 8,000 crowns in charity), and his benefactions to Padua numerous and lasting. He was an earnest worker for the reconciliation of the dissident Greeks.
Gregory's pastoral commitment was comparable to that of Saint Charles Borromeo. While very demanding of himself, he was kind to others, treating those in trouble with great compassion. As a cardinal, he participated in five conclaves and was himself considered a serious candidate for the papacy. He was buried in Padua cathedral (Bentley, Benedictines, Farmer, White).
St. Gregory Barbarigo Feastday: June 18 1697
St. Gregory Barbarigo was born in 1625, of a very old and distinguished Venetian family. A brilliant student, he embraced a diplomatic career and accompanied the Venetian Ambassador, Contarini, to the Congress of Munster in 1648. Then he became a priest and was soon thereafter consecrated as the first Bishop of Bergamo by Pope Alexander VII. Later on he was elevated to the rank of Cardinal and also given authority over the diocese of Padua. He guided his flock with pastoral wisdom and deep understanding. St. Gregory Barbarigo worked unceasingly in carrying out the reforms set forth by the Council of Trent. Through his efforts the seminaries of both Bergamo and Padua were substantially enlarged. At Padua he also added a library and a printing press. He died in 1697.
1925 Venerable Matt Talbot; 1973 Pope Paul VI gave him the title venerable.-- patron people struggling with alcoholism Secular Franciscan Order began life of strict penance contributed generously to the missions

Matt can be considered the patron of men and women struggling with alcoholism.  Matt was born 1856 in Dublin, where his father worked on the docks and had a difficult time supporting his family. After a few years of schooling, Matt obtained work as a messenger for some liquor merchants; there he began to drink excessively. For 15 years—until he was 30—Matt was an active alcoholic.

One day he decided to take "the pledge" for three months, make a general confession and begin to attend daily Mass. There is evidence that Matt’s first seven years after taking the pledge were especially difficult. Avoiding his former drinking places was hard. He began to pray as intensely as he used to drink. He also tried to pay back people from whom he had borrowed or stolen money while he was drinking.

Most of his life Matt worked as a builder’s laborer. He joined the Secular Franciscan Order and began a life of strict penance; he abstained from meat nine months a year. Matt spent hours every night avidly reading Scripture and the lives of the saints. He prayed the rosary conscientiously. Though his job did not make him rich, Matt contributed generously to the missions.

After 1923 his health failed and Matt was forced to quit work. He died on his way to church on Trinity Sunday. Fifty years later Pope Paul VI gave him the title venerable.

Comment:  In looking at the life of Matt Talbot, we may easily focus on the later years when he had stopped drinking for some time and was leading a penitential life. Only alcoholic men and women who have stopped drinking can fully appreciate how difficult the earliest years of sobriety were for Matt.  He had to take one day at a time. So do the rest of us.
Quote:  On an otherwise blank page in one of Matt’s books, the following is written: "God console thee and make thee a saint. To arrive at the perfection of humility four things are necessary: to despise the world, to despise no one, to despise self, to despise being despised by others."



Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR June
National Leaders.
That national leaders may firmly commit themselves to ending the arms trade,
which victimizes so many innocent people.

 
ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
  RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

The Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ (Solemnity)

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
Saints and Popes mentioned June 02

350
St Barlaam The first Friday of the Apostles' Fast. St Barlaam also commemorated November 6 and February 10.

657
St. Eugene I a Roman priest who held various positions in the Church known for his charity and his sanctity


1340 John the New of Sochi The Holy Great Martyr a merchant, devout and firm in his Orthodoxy, and generous to the poor calling on the help of Him Who said, "When they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what you shall speak, neither do you premeditate; but whatsoever will be given you in that hour, speak that, for it is not you that speaks, but the Holy Spirit" (Mark 13:11)

1795  Ibrahim El-Gohari Departure of the most honored Layman transscribe the religion books, and distribute them to the church at his own expense

1819 Constantine The Holy Martyr was born upon the island of Mytilene into a Mahometan family.
In his youth he fell ill with smallpox, from which he completely lost his eyesight and awaited death.
A certain Christian took him to church and washed him with holy water.
They brought him out of the temple completely healthy.


Saints and Popes mentioned June 03
On his deathbed he said:
It is not that the gospel has changed;
it is that we have begun to understand it better.
Those who have lived as long as I have…were enabled to compare different cultures and traditions, and know that the moment has come to discern the signs of the times, to seize the opportunity and to look far ahead.
1963 Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli ordination 1904.  Secular Franciscan; canon law studies;
worked as his bishop’s secretary; Church history teacher in the seminary;
publisher of the diocesan paper; stretcher-bearer for the Italian army during World War I;
1921 national director of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith; taught patristics at Eternal City seminary;
1925 papal diplomat, first in Bulgaria, then Turkey finally in France (1944-53). 

During World War II, became well acquainted with Orthodox Church leaders
with the help of Germany’s ambassador to Turkey. Archbishop Roncalli helped save 24,000 Jewish people. 
Cardinal and appointed patriarch of Venice in 1953, finally residential bishop; elected pope at 78,
taking the name John, his father’s name and the two patrons of Rome’s cathedral, St. John Lateran;


270-275 Saint Lucillian pagan priest old age became persuaded falseness of pagan religion turned to faith in Christ the Savior; martyred with Claudius,
Hypatius, Paul and Dionysius and later holy virgin Paula who cared for them
 

545 Clotilda of France Queen Widow At her passing, a dazzling light and heavenly incense filled the room Clothilde built Church of the Apostles, later  called Saint Geneviève, in Paris her relics survived the French Revolution found in the church of Saint-Leu, Paris.) (RM)

7th v. Glunshallaich Saint Kevin preached the Gospel and the Holy Spirit led the heart of the Irish Saint Glunshallaich to conversion penitent rest of his life

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