Saturday Saint of the Day March 18 Quintodécimo Kaléndas Aprilis  
Day 18 of 40 days for Life

Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum,
atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors,
and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


St_John_of_the_Ladder_Climacus.jpg



 
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

Loreto, Pilgrimage of the Humble: A Testimony
March 18 - Cathedral of Our Lady of Loreto (1586)
Father Jean Ladame, author of numerous books on Marian shrines,
gives his testimony on a pilgrimage he once made to Loreto,
on September 8, 1964:

"Indeed, what a strange spectacle all those people presented, lying on the ground under the arcades of the Apostolic Palace, near the shrine. Opposite the main square, souvenir or candy sellers tried to attract customers.
But in that area, the pilgrims were trying to sleep or at least to get some rest.
They must have had to wake up early, perhaps even during the night, coming on foot from their villages in Ancona. They wanted to be there to celebrate Our Lady's birthday. But, before or after their devotions, they were tired from their route. These poor people were lying on the slabs of stone with their meagre bundles under their heads as a pillow.
These people are country folk, with prematurely-aged and sunburnt faces from outdoor work.
They are the little and simple people of God; their faith is far from being intellectual, nonetheless it is strong, and they have placed their hope in the Blessed Virgin. They would not have wanted to miss being here with her on this day. At the high altar of the Basilica, a hieratic cardinal officiates pontifically, surrounded by bearded religious. At the podium, a choir sings hymns in four voices: even the Creed is sung in polyphony.
People congregated to receive communion in the French chapel of the Holy Sacrament, the others rush to enter the Santa Casa. Each person waiting his turn speaks loudly to his neighbor: we are in Italy! We, too, stand in line and prepare ourselves to enter the holy place. We recite the Litany of the Blessed Virgin which was, in fact, composed here in Loreto: the Italian pilgrims seem surprised to see us pray together in this way, especially since we had not taken our handkerchiefs out of our pockets like they had. Everyone took theirs in hand and when entering the door of the Holy House, they would rub the walls to turn their hanky into a relic.
This made me whisper to my neighbor: 'Have the angels forgotten to clean and dust the Holy House?'
People kissed the walls, and then, leaving, they scattered in different directions into the small village, looking for a place to eat their picnics. This is the devotion of these humble people, who are content with simple naïve gestures, expressed with so much love and faithfulness. After the Pontifical Mass an air show flew over the Basilica.
Isn't the Santa Casa, once brought here by the Angels, not the patron saint of airways?
Never mind these demonstrations: what counts for us is to have met these little people in the kingdom of God. They don't argue about authenticity or legend; their faith is sincere and entire.
Never without them could we now imagine a pilgrimage to Loreto." Read: http://www.mariedenazareth.com

March 18 – Our Lady of Mercy (Savona, Italy, 1586) - St Cyril of Jerusalem 
 
Mary taught Jesus how to live humanly as a true son of God
In what sense do we say that Mary forms the heart and conscience of those of us who are her children? We are touching on a fundamental point here, which is not only emotional, but which especially has to do with our own prayer life.  When Jesus told us that no one can enter the kingdom if they do not change into children, he did not mean to infantilize us by advising us to behave in a naive, overly sweet or childish way.

What he asks of us is to allow his condition of eternal and beloved Son of the Father to live again in us, by adding a touch of humility, littleness and refuge. And this is how Mary’s maternal education takes place, since she is the one who taught Jesus how to live humanly as a true son of God.
Jean Lafrance, In  En prière avec Marie, mère de Jésus, (Prayer with Mary, Mother of Jesus) Mediaspaul 1992
 
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
Cheerfulness strengthens the heart and makes us persevere in a good life.
Therefore the servant of God ought always to be in good spirits. -- St. Philip Neri

You must realize that when the Father shows His works to Christ's members, it is to Christ that He shows them. He shows them to the members through the Head. Suppose you wish to take hold of an object with your eyes closed. Your hand does not know where to go, yet your hand is your member. Open your eyes and your hand will now see where it must go.
The member follows the way indicated by its head! -- St. Augustine
St_John_of_the_Ladder_Climacus
The Fourth Sunday of Lent is dedicated to St John of the Ladder (Climacus), the author of the work, The Ladder of Divine Ascent.
  251 St. Alexander Bishop Martyr an individual of great mildness, especially in his sermons
         Augústæ sancti Narcíssi Epíscopi
     Nicomedíæ sanctórum decem míllium Mártyrum, qui, pro Christi confessióne, gládio percússi sunt
 195 Augústæ sancti Narcíssi Epíscopi, qui primus in Rhǽtia Evangélium prædicávit; deínde in Hispániam profectus est, et, cum Gerúndæ multos ad Christi fidem convertísset, ibídem, in persecutióne Diocletiáni Imperatóris, una cum Felíce Diácono, martyrii palmam accépit.   See October 29 for feast day
      At Augsburg, St. Narcissus, bishop, who was the first to preach the Gospel in the Tyrol.  Afterwards, setting out for Spain, he converted many to the faith of Christ at Gerona, and there, along with the deacon Felix, he received the palm of martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian.
  304 St. Trophimus & Eucarpius martyrs two pagan soldiers became converts while hunting Christians beheld within a cloud image of Radiant Man and great multitude about Him 
  386 St. Cyril of Jerusalem Bishop Doctor of the Church seeing poor starving he sold goods of the churches 
          Saint Aninas was born at Chalcedon into a Christian family
588 St. Frediano Irish bishop founded a group of eremetical canons  Miraculously a river followed him 
978 St. Edward the Martyr miracles reported from his tomb at Shaftesbury 
1086 St. Anselm of Lucca Bishop held in high regard for his holiness austerity Biblical knowledge learning   
1186 Bl. Christian Abbot of the first Cistercian monastery ever established in Ireland 
St. Narcissus bishop and Felix, his deacon Martyrs 
1455 Blessed Fra Angelico priest artist frescoes unfaded loveliness after 400 years " nothing--painting, statue, sermon, poem, or building--should obstruct one's view of God"
1567 St. Salvatore Franciscan of the Observance specially devoted to our Lady and to St. Paul who appeared to him on several occasions many and severe austerities 
1956  Saint Nicholas of Zhicha Ph.D "the Serbian Chrysostom," renowned for his sermons fearless critic of the Nazis survived Dachau establishing orphanages and helping the poor in Serbia taught philosophy, logic, history, foreign languages at the seminary spoke 7 languages.


The Fourth Sunday of Lent is dedicated to St John of the Ladder (Climacus), the author of the work, The Ladder of Divine Ascent.
Abbot of St Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai (6th century) stands as a witness to the violent effort needed for entrance into God's Kingdom (Mt.10: 12).
The spiritual struggle of the Christian life is a real one, "not against flesh and blood, but against ... the rulers of the present darkness ... the hosts of wickedness in heavenly places ..." (Eph 6:12).
Saint John encourages the faithful in their efforts for, according to the Lord, only "he who endures to the end will be saved" (Mt.24:13).

251 St. Alexander Bishop Martyr an individual of great mildness, especially in his sermons
 Cæsaréæ, in Palæstína, natális beáti Alexándri Epíscopi, qui de Cappadócia, ex própria civitáte, ubi erat Epíscopus, sanctórum locórum desidério Hierosólymam pétiit; atque ibi, cum a Narcísso, ejúsdem urbis Epíscopo, jam sene, illa regerétur Ecclésia, ipsíus gubernácula, divína edóctus revelatióne, suscépit.  Póstmodum vero, in persecutióne Décii, cum jam longævæ ætátis veneránda canítie præfúlgeret, ductus est Cæsaréam, et clausus in cárcere, ob confessiónem Christi, martyrium complévit.
       At Caesarea in Palestine, the birthday of the blessed Bishop Alexander, who, from his own city in Cappadocia, where he was bishop, coming to Jerusalem to visit the holy places, took upon himself, by divine revelation, the government of that church in place of the aged Narcissus.  Sometime afterwards, when he had become venerable by his age and gray hair, he was led to Caesarea and shut up in prison, where he completed his martyrdom for the confession of Christ during the persecution of Decius.

251 ST ALEXANDER, BISHOP OF JERUSALEM, MARTYR
ST ALEXANDER was a student with Origen in the great Christian school of Alexandria, at first under St Pantaenus and then under his successor Clement. He was chosen bishop of his native city in Cappadocia, and during the persecution of Severus he made a good confession of his faith. Although not put to death, he was imprisoned for several years, until the beginning of the reign of Caracalla. His former master, Clement, who had been forced to leave Alexandria, undertook to convey a letter to the church of Antioch, in which St Alexander sent his congratulations upon the election of St Asclepiades—the news of which, he said, had lightened the chains with which he was loaded. When released from prison, he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and there we read that moved by some celestial portent the people appointed him coadjutor bishop of that see.
This event, which took place in 212, is the earliest recorded instance of an episcopal translation and coadjutorship, and it had to be ratified by the hierarchy of Palestine assembled in council. The two bishops were still governing the church of Jerusalem when St Alexander wrote to another see: “I salute you in the name of Narcissus who here, in his 116th year, implores you with me to live in inviolable peace and union.”

St Alexander came into conflict with Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria, who censured him for having taken part in the ordination of Origen and for having encouraged him while still a layman to teach in the churches. We have Origen‘s testimony that Alexander of Jerusalem excelled all other prelates in mildness and in the sweetness of his dis­courses. Amongst the benefits which he conferred on the city was the formation of a great theological library which still existed when Eusebius wrote and of which he made considerable use. In the persecution of Decius, St Alexander was seized and made a second public confession. He was condemned to the beasts, but they could not, we are told, be induced to attack him, and he was taken back to prison in Caesarea where he died in chains. The Church reckons him as a martyr.

Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History (bk vi) is the primary source of information con­cerning St Alexander, from whose letters he quotes a few extracts. See also the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii; and Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur, vol. ii, pp. 271—273.

Alexander was a student with Origen at the famous Christian school of Alexandria in the late second century. He became bishop of Cappadocia and during the persecution of Severus was imprisoned for several years (204-211). Following his release from prison, he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and was proclaimed coadjutor bishop there in the year 212.
Demetrius, the bishop of Alexandria, censured Alexander for participating in the ordination of Origen and for encouraging Origen to teach in churches while still a layman. Despite this, Alexander received Origen in exile. Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, Alexander developed a great theological library. During the persecution of Decius, he was seized and again imprisoned. After making a public confession of faith, he was condemned and thrown to the wild beasts, but they refused to attack him. Alexander was then taken to Caesarea where he died in chains in the year 251. The Church recognizes him as a martyr. St. Alexander, despite his great learning and important ecclesiastical positions, was known as an individual of great mildness, especially in his sermons. When put to the test during two persecutions, he remained steadfast in faith and was willing to suffer death for the Faith.
Today when we are criticized by friends and society for the moral tenets of our Faith,
 St. Alexander is a prime example of how we should stand fast in the face of ridicule and ostracism.

St. Irenaeus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the fifth pope in succession from the Apostles, though he says nothing of his martyrdom. His pontificate is variously dated by critics, e. g. 106-115 (Duchesne) or 109-116 (Lightfoot). In Christian antiquity he was credited with a pontificate of about ten years (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. IV, i,) and there is no reason to doubt that he was on the "catalogue of bishops" drawn up at Rome by Hegesippus (Eusebius, IV, xxii, 3) before the death of Pope Eleutherius (c. 189). According to a tradition extant in the Roman Church at the end of the fifth century, and recorded in the Liber Pontificalis he suffered a martyr's death by decapitation on the Via Nomentana in Rome, 3 May. The same tradition declares him to have been a Roman by birth and to have ruled the Church in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It likewise attributes to him, but scarcely with accuracy, the insertion in the canon of the Qui Pridie, or words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist, such being certainly primitive and original in the Mass. He is also said to have introduced the use of blessing water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences (constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedici in habitaculis hominum). Duchesne (Lib. Pont., I, 127) calls attention to the persistence of this early Roman custom by way of a blessing in the Gelasian Sacramentary that recalls very forcibly the actual Asperges prayer at the beginning of Mass. In 1855, a semi-subterranean cemetery of the holy martyrs Sts. Alexander, Eventulus, and Theodulus was discovered near Rome, at the spot where the above mentioned tradition declares the Pope to have been martyred. According to some archaeologists, this Alexander is identical with the Pope, and this ancient and important tomb marks the actual site of the Pope's martyrdom. Duchesne, however (op. cit., I, xci-ii) denies the identity of the martyr and the pope, while admitting that the confusion of both personages is of ancient date, probably anterior to the beginning of the sixth century when the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled [Dufourcq, Gesta Martyrum Romains (Paris, 1900), 210-211]. The difficulties raised in recent times by Richard Lipsius (Chronologie der römischen Bischofe, Kiel, 1869) and Adolph Harnack (Die Zeit des Ignatius u. die Chronologie der antiochenischen Bischofe, 1878) concerning the earliest successors of St. Peter are ably discussed and answered by F. S. (Cardinal Francesco Segna) in his "De successione priorum Romanorum Pontificum" (Rome 1897); with moderation and learning by Bishop Lightfoot, in his "Apostolic Fathers: St. Clement ' (London, 1890) I, 201-345- especially by Duchesne in the introduction to his edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" (Paris, 1886) I, i-xlviii and lxviii-lxxiii. The letters ascribed to Alexander I by PseudoIsidore may be seen in P. G., V, 1057 sq., and in Hinschius, "Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae" (Leipzig, 1863) 94-105. His remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria in 834 (Dummler, Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini, Berlin, 1884, II, 120). His so-called "Acts" are not genuine, and were compiled at a much later date (Tillemont, Mem. II, 590 sqq; Dufourcq, op. cit., 210-211).
Augústæ sancti Narcíssi Epíscopi, qui primus in Rhǽtia Evangélium prædicávit; deínde in Hispániam profectus est, et, cum Gerúndæ multos ad Christi fidem convertísset, ibídem, in persecutióne Diocletiáni Imperatóris, una cum Felíce Diácono, martyrii palmam accépit.
       At Augsburg, St. Narcissus, bishop, who was the first to preach the Gospel in the Tyrol.  Afterwards, setting out for Spain, he converted many to the faith of Christ at Gerona, and there, along with the deacon Felix, he received the palm of martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian.

 Nicomedíæ sanctórum decem míllium Mártyrum, qui, pro Christi confessióne, gládio percússi sunt.
       At Nicomedia, ten thousand holy martyrs, who were put to the sword for the confession of Christ.

Saint_Trophimus
304 St. Trophimus & Eucarpius martyrs two pagan soldiers became converts while hunting Christians beheld within a cloud the image of a Radiant Man and a great multitude standing about Him  Saint_Eucarpion >
 Ibídem sanctórum Mártyrum Tróphimi et Eucárpii.
       In the same place, the holy martyrs Trophimus and Eucarpius.
during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian.
They were two pagan soldiers in the Roman army stationed in Nicomedia (modern Turkey) who were ordered to pursue Christians.
While hunting Christians, they became converts and as a result, they were burned alive at Nicomedia.
Holy Martyrs Trophimus and Eucarpion were soldiers at Nicomedia during the persecution against Christians under the emperor Diocletian (284-305). They distinguished themselves by their great ferocity in carrying out all of the emperor's decrees.
Once, when these soldiers had caught up with some Christians, they suddenly saw a large fiery cloud which had come down from the sky, thickening in form as it drew close to them. From out of the cloud came forth a Voice: "Why are you so zealous in threatening My servants? Don't be deluded! No one can suppress those believing in Me through their own strength. It is better to join them and discover the Heavenly Kingdom yourselves."
The soldiers fell to the ground in fright, not daring to lift up their eyes, and only said to one another, "Truly this is the great God, Who has manifested Himself to us. We would do well to become His servants." The Lord then spoke saying, "Rise up, repent, for your sins are forgiven." As they got up, they beheld within the cloud the image of a Radiant Man and a great multitude standing about Him.
The astonished soldiers cried out with one voice, "Receive us, for our sins are inexpressibly wicked. There is no other God but You, the Creator and true God, and we are not yet numbered among Your servants." But just as they spoke this, the cloud receded and rose up into the sky.
Spiritually reborn after this miracle, the soldiers released all the jailed Christians from the prisons. For this Sts Trophimus and Eucarpion were handed over to terrible torments: they suspended the saints and tore their bodies with iron hooks. They gave thanks unto God, certain that the Lord would forgive them their former sins.
When a fire had been lit, the holy martyrs went willingly into the fire and there gave up their souls to God.
386 St. Cyril of Jerusalem Bishop seeing the poor starving to death he sold some of the goods of the churches
 Hierosólymis sancti Cyrílli Epíscopi, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris; qui, ab Ariánis multas pro fidei causa perpéssus injúrias et ex Ecclésia sua sæpe depúlsus, tandem, sanctitátis glória clarus, in pace quiévit.  Ipsíus porro intemerátam fidem prima Constantinopolitána Synodus œcuménica, sancto Dámaso Papæ scribens, præcláro testimónio commendávit.
       At Jerusalem, St. Cyril, bishop, {Confessor and Doctor of the Church} who suffered many injuries from the Arians for the faith.  Often exiled from his church, he at length rested in peace with a great reputation for sanctity.  A magnificent testimony of the purity of his faith is given by the first ecumenical Council of Constantinople in a letter to Pope Damasus.
b: 315? "Make your fold with the sheep; flee from the wolves: depart not from the Church," Cyril admonished catechumens surrounded by heresy.
These were prophetic words for Cyril was to be hounded by enemies and heretics for most of his life,
and although they could exile him from his diocese he never left his beloved Church.


386 ST CYRIL, ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM, DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH
IT was the lot of St Cyril of Jerusalem, a man of gentle and conciliatory dis­position, to live at a time of bitter religious Controversy. The DUC de Broglie characterizes him as “forming the extreme right wing of Semi-Arianism, touching on orthodoxy, or the extreme left wing of orthodoxy, bordering on Semi­-Arianism, but there is nothing heretical in his. Teaching”, and Newman describes him more accurately when he says: “He seems to have been afraid of the word Homoousios’ (consubstantial), to have been disinclined to the friends of Athan­asius and to the Arians, to have allowed the tyranny of the latter, to have shared in the general reconciliation, and at length, both in life and death, to have received honours from the Church which, in spite of whatever objections may be made to them, appear, on a closer examination of his history, not to be undeserved.”  (Preface to the translation of Cyril’s Catecheses, p. ii).
If he was not born in Jerusalem (about 315), he was certainly brought up there, and his parents, who were probably Christians, gave him an excellent education. He acquired a wide know­ledge of the text of Holy Scripture, of which he made great use, some of his instruc­tions consisting almost entirely of biblical passages connected and interwoven with each other. He seems to have been ordained priest by the bishop of Jerusalem, St Maximus, who thought so highly of his abilities that he charged him with the important duty of instructing the catechumens. His catechetical lectures were delivered for several years—those to the illuminandi, or candidates for baptism, taking place in Constantine’s basilica of the Holy Cross, usually called the Martyrion, and those to the newly-baptized being given during Easter week in the circular Anastasis or church of the Resurrection. They were delivered without book, and the nineteen catechetical discourses which have come down to us are perhaps the only ones ever committed to writing. They are most valuable as containing an exposition of the teaching and ritual of the Church in the middle of the fourth century, and are said to be “the earliest example extant of anything in the shape of a formal system of theology”. We find in them also interesting allusions to the discovery of the cross, to the proximity of the rock which closed the Holy Sepulchre, to the weariness his hearers must be experiencing after their long fast, and so on.

The circumstances under which Cyril succeeded St Maximus in the see of Jerusalem are obscure. We have two stories recorded by his opponents, but they are quite inconsistent with each other, and St Jerome, who is responsible for one of them, seems to have been prejudiced against him. In any case it is certain that St Cyril was properly consecrated by the bishops of his province, and if the Arian Acacius, who was one of them, expected to find in him a pliable tool he was doomed to disappointment. The first year of his episcopate was marked by a physical phenomenon which made a great impression on the city, and of which he sent an account to the Emperor Constantius in a letter which has been preserved. Its genuineness has been questioned, but the style is undoubtedly his, and, though possibly interpolated, it has resisted adverse criticism. The letter says

“On the nones of May, about the third hour, a great luminous cross appeared in the heavens, just over Golgotha, reaching as far as the holy mount of Olivet, seen, not by one or two persons, but clearly and evidently by the whole city. This was not, as might be thought, a fancy-bred and transient appearance but it continued several hours together, visible to our eyes and brighter than the sun. The whole city, penetrated alike with awe and with joy at this portent, ran immediately to the church, all with one voice giving praise to our Lord Jesus Christ, the only Son of God.”

Not very long after Cyril’s accession, misunderstandings began to arise between him and Acacius, primarily about the precedence and jurisdiction of their respective sees, but also over matters of faith, for Acacius had now become imbued with the full Arian heresy. Cyril maintained the priority of his see as possessing an “apos­tolic throne”, whilst Acacius, as metropolitan of Caesarea, claimed control over it and pointed to a canon of the Council Of Nicaea which ran, “Since a custom and old tradition has obtained that the bishop of Aelia [Jerusalem] should receive honour, let him hold the second place, the metropolitan [of Caesarea] being secured in his own dignity”. Disagreement increased to open strife, and finally Acacius called a small council of bishops of his own party, to which Cyril was summoned, but before which he refused to appear. To the charge of contumacy was added that of having sold church property during a famine to relieve the poor. This he had certainly done, as it was also done by St Ambrose, St Augustine and many other great prelates, who have been held fully justified. However, the packed meeting condemned him and he was driven out of Jerusalem. He made his way to Tarsus, where he was hospitably received by Silvanus, the semi-Arian bishop, and where he remained pending the hearing of an appeal which he had sent to a higher court. Two years after his deposition, the appeal came before the Council of Seleucia, which consisted of semi-Arians, Arians and a very few members of the strictly orthodox party—all from Egypt. Cyril himself sat among the semi-Arians, the best of whom had befriended and supported him during his exile. Acacius took violent exception to his presence and departed in anger, though he soon returned and took a prominent part in the subsequent debates. His party, however, was in the minority, and he himself was deposed, whilst Cyril was vindicated and rein­stated.

Acacius thereupon, making his way to Constantinople, persuaded the Emperor Constantius to summon another council. Fresh accusations were made in addition to the old ones, and what particularly incensed the emperor was the information that a gold-brocaded vestment presented by his father Constantine to Macarius for administering baptism had been sold, and had been seen and recognized on a comedian performing on the boards of a theatre. Acacius triumphed and obtained a second decree of exile against Cyril within a year of his vindication. But upon the death of Constantius in 361, his successor Julian recalled all the bishops whom his predecessor had expelled, and Cyril returned to his see with the rest.

Com­paratively few martyrdoms marked the reign of the Apostate, who recognized that the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church, and who sought by other and more insidious means to discredit the religion he had abandoned. One of the schemes he evolved was the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem in order to falsify the prophecy of our Lord, who had foretold its permanent and utter ruin. The church historians Socrates, Theodoret and others expatiate in great detail upon the attempt made by Julian to rebuild the Temple and to appeal to the national sentiment of the Jews to further this scheme. Gibbon and other more modern agnostics scoff at the record of preternatural occurrences, the earthquakes, the visible balls of fire, the collapsing walls, etc., which led to the abandonment of the enterprise, but even Gibbon is constrained to admit that the story of these prodigies is confirmed not only by such Christian writers as St John Chrysostom and St Ambrose, but, “strange as it may seem, by the unexceptionable testimony of Ammianus Marcellinus, the philosophic soldier”, and a heathen. St Cyril, we are informed, looked on calmly at the vast preparations made for the rebuilding of the Temple and prophesied that it would fail.

In 367 St Cyril was banished for the third time, Valens having decreed the expulsion of all prelates recalled by Julian, but about the date of the accession of Theodosius he was finally reinstated and enjoyed undisturbed possession of his see for the last eight years of his life. He was distressed on his return to find Jerusalem torn with schisms and party strife, overrun with heresy and stained by appalling crimes. The Council of Antioch to which he appealed for help sent him St Gregory of Nyssa, who, however, found himself unable to do much and soon departed, leaving to posterity in his “Warning against Pilgrimages” a highly-coloured description of the morals of the holy city at this period.

In 381 both Cyril and Gregory were present at the great Council of Constan­tinople—the second oecumenical council—and the bishop of Jerusalem on this occasion took his place as a metropolitan with the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch. At this gathering the Nicene Creed was promulgated in its amended form, and Cyril, who subscribed to it with the rest, accepted the term “Homoo­usios”, which had come to be regarded as the test word of orthodoxy. Socrates and Sozomen have described this as an act of repentance. On the other hand, in the letter written by the bishops who had been at Constantinople to Pope St Damasus, Cyril is extolled as one who, had at various times, been a champion of orthodox truth against the Arians; and the whole Catholic Church, by including him among her doctors (in 1882) confirms the theory that he had been, all along, one of those whom Athanasius calls “brothers, who mean what we mean and only differ about the word”. He is thought to have died in 386 at the age of nearly seventy, after an episcopate of thirty-five years, sixteen of which were spent in exile. Of St Cyril’s writings, the only ones which have survived are the Catechetical Lectures, a sermon on the Pool of Bethesda, the letter to the Emperor Constantius, and three small fragments.

Our knowledge of St Cyril’s life’ and work is mainly derived from the church historians and from the writings of his contemporaries. The Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii, and especially Dom Touttée in his preface to the Benedictine edition of this father, have brought together the most notable references. See also the articles devoted to St Cyril in Bardenhewer’s Patrology, the DCB. and the DTC. J. H. Newman’s preface to the translation of the Catechetical Discourses is still of value; see also the text and translation published by Dr F. L. Cross in 1952. There is an excellent sketch of St Cyril in A. Fortescue’s Greek Fathers (1908), pp. 150—168.

Cyril's life began a few years before Arianism (the heresy that Jesus was not divine or one in being with the Father) and he lived to see its suppression and condemnation at the end of his life. In between he was the victim of many of the power struggles that took place.

We know little about Cyril's early life. Historians estimate he was born about 315 and that he was brought up in Jerusalem. He speaks about the appearance of the sites of the Nativity and Holy Sepulchre before they were "improved" by human hands as if he were a witness. All we know of his family were that his parents were probably Christians and he seemed to care for them a great deal. He exhorted catechumens to honor parents "for however much we may repay them, yet we can never be to them what they as parents have been to us." We know he also had a sister and a nephew, Saint Gelasius, who became a bishop and a saint.
He speaks as one who belonged to a group called the Solitaries.
These were men who lived in their own houses in the cities but practiced a life of complete chastity, ascetism, and service.
After being ordained a deacon and then a priest, his bishop Saint Maximus respected him enough to put him in charge of the instruction of catechumens. We still have these catechetical lectures of Cyril's that were written down by someone in the congregation. When speaking of so many mysteries, Cyril anticipated the question, "But some one will say, If the Divine substance is incomprehensible, why then do you discourse of these things? So then, because I cannot drink up all the river, am I not even to take in moderation what is expedient for me? Because with eyes so constituted as mine I cannot take in all the sun, am I not even to look upon it enough to satisfy my wants? Or again, because I have entered into a great garden, and cannot eat all the supply of fruits, would you have me go away altogether hungry?.. I am attempting not to glorify the Lord, but not to describe him, knowing nevertheless that I shall fall short of glorifying God worthily, yet deeming it a work of piety even to attempt it at all."
When Maximus died, Cyril was consecrated as bishop of Jerusalem. Because he was supported by the Arian bishop of Caesarea, Acacius, the orthodox criticized the appointment and the Arians thought they had a friend. Both factions were wrong, but Cyril wound up in the middle.
When a famine hit Jerusalem, the poor turned to Cyril for help. Cyril, seeing the poor starving to death and having no money, sold some of the goods of the churches. This was something that other saints including Ambrose and Augustine had done and it probably saved many lives. There were rumors, however, that some of the vestments wound up as clothing for actors.
Actually, the initial cause of the falling out between Acacius and Cyril was territory not beliefs. As bishop of Caesarea, Acacia had authority over all the bishops of Palestine. Cyril argued that his authority did not include Jerusalem because Jerusalem was an "apostolic see" -- one of the original sees set up by the apostles. When Cyril did not appear at councils that Acacius called, Acacius accused him of selling church goods to raise money and had him banished.
Cyril stayed in Tarsus while waiting for an appeal. Constantius called a council where the appeal was supposed to take place. The council consisted of orthodox, Arians, and semi-Arian bishops. When Acacius and his faction saw that Cyril and other exiled orthodox bishops were attending, they demanded that the persecuted bishops leave. Acacius walked out when the demand was not met. The other bishops prevailed on Cyril and the others to give in to this point because they didn't want Acacius to have reason to deny the validity of the council. Acacius returned but left again for good when his creed was rejected -- and refused to come back even to give testimony against his enemy Cyril. The result of the council was the Acacius and the other Arian bishops were condemned. There's no final judgment on Cyril's case but it was probably thrown out when Acacius refused to testify and Cyril returned to Jerusalem.
This was not the end of Cyril's troubles because Acacius carried his story to the emperor -- embellishing it with details that it was a gift of the emperor's that was sold to a dancer who died wearing the robe. This brought about a new synod run by Acacius who now had him banished again on the basis of what some bishops of Tarsus had done while Cyril was there.
This exile lasted until Julian became emperor and recalled all exiled bishops, orthodox or Arian. Some said this was to exacerbate tension in the Church and increase his imperial power. So Cyril returned to Jerusalem. When Acacius died, each faction nominated their own replacement for Caesarea. Cyril appointed his nephew Gelasius -- which may seem like nepotism, except that all orthodox sources spoke of Gelasius' holiness. A year later both Cyril and Gelasius were driven out of Palestine again as the new emperor's consul reversed Julian's ruling.
Eleven years later, Cyril was allowed to go back to find a Jerusalem destroyed by heresy and strife. He was never able to put things completely right. He did attend the Council at Constantinople in 381 where the Nicene Creed and orthodoxy triumphed and Arianism was finally condemned. Cyril received justice at the same Council who cleared him of all previous rumors and commended him for fighting "a good fight in various places against the Arians."
Cyril had eight years of peace in Jerusalem before he died in 386, at about seventy years old.

Saint Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem, was born in Jerusalem in the year 315 and was raised in strict Christian piety. Upon reaching the age of maturity, he became a monk, and in the year 346 he became a presbyter. In the year 350, upon the death of Archbishop Maximus, he succeeded him on the episcopal throne of Jerusalem.
As Patriarch of Jerusalem, St Cyril zealously fought against the heresies of Arius and Macedonius. In so doing, he aroused the animosity of the Arian bishops, who sought to have him deposed and banished from Jerusalem.
There was a miraculous portent in 351 at Jerusalem: at the third hour of the day on the Feast of Pentecost, the Holy Cross appeared in the heavens, shining with a radiant light. It stretched from Golgotha above the Mount of Olives. St Cyril reported this portent to the Arian emperor Constantius (351-363), hoping to convert him to Orthodoxy.
The heretic Acacius, deposed by the Council of Sardica, was formerly the Metropolitan of Caesarea, and he collaborated with the emperor to have St Cyril removed. An intense famine struck Jerusalem, and St Cyril expended all his wealth in charity. But since the famine did not abate, the saint pawned church utensils, and used the money to buy wheat for the starving. The saint's enemies spread a scandalous rumor that they had seen a woman in the city dancing around in clerical garb. Taking advantage of this rumor, the heretics forcibly expelled the saint.
The saint found shelter with Bishop Silvanus in Tarsus. After this, a local Council at Seleucia, at which there were about 150 bishops, and among them St Cyril. The heretical Metropolitan Acacius did not want to allow him to take a seat, but the Council would not consent to this. Acacius stormed out of the Council, and before the emperor and the Arian patriarch Eudoxius, he denounced both the Council and St Cyril. The emperor had the saint imprisoned.
When the emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363) ascended the throne he repealed all the anti-Orthodox decrees of Constantius, seemingly out of piety. St Cyril returned to his own flock. But after a certain while, when Julian had become secure upon the throne, he openly apostasized and renounced Christ. He permitted the Jews to start rebuilding the Temple of Jerusalem that had been destroyed by the Romans, and he even provided them part of the funds for the building from the state treasury.
St Cyril predicted that the words of the Savior about the destruction of the Temple down to its very stones (Luke. 21:6) would undoubtedly transpire, and the blasphemous intent of Julian would come to naught. Soon there was such a powerful earthquake, that even the solidly set foundation of the ancient Temple ofSolomon shifted in its place, and what had been rebuilt fell down and shattered into dust. When the Jews resumed construction, a fire came down from the heavens and destroyed the tools of the workmen. Great terror seized everyone. On the following night, the Sign of the Cross appeared on the clothing of the Jews, which they could not remove by any means.
After this heavenly confirmation of St Cyril's prediction, they banished him again, and the bishop's throne was occupied by St Cyriacus. But St Cyriacus soon suffered a martyr's death (October 28).
After the emperor Julian perished in 363, St Cyril returned to his See, but during the reign of the emperor Valens (364-378) he was exiled for a third time. It was only under the holy emperor St Theodosius the Great (379-395) that he finally returned to his archpastoral activity. In 381 St Cyril participated in the Second Ecumenical Council, which condemned the heresy of Macedonius and affirmed the Nicea-Constantinople Symbol of Faith (Creed).
St Cyril's works include twenty-three Instructions (Eighteen are Catechetical, intended for those preparing for Baptism, and five are for the newly-baptized) and two discourses on Gospel themes: "On the Paralytic," and "Concerning the Transformation of Water into Wine at Cana."
At the heart of the Catechetical Instructions is a detailed explanation of the Symbol of Faith. The saint suggests that a Christian should inscribe the Symbol of Faith upon "the tablets of the heart."
"The articles of the Faith," St Cyril teaches, "were not written through human cleverness, but they contain everything that is most important in all the Scriptures, in a single teaching of faith. Just as the mustard seed contains all its plethora of branches within its small kernel, so also does the Faith in its several declarations combine all the pious teachings of the Old and the New Testaments."

 March 18, 2010 St. Cyril of Jerusalem (315?-386) 
The crises that the Church faces today may seem minor when compared to the Arian heresy, which denied the divinity of Christ and threatened to overcome Christinity in the fourth century. Cyril was to be caught up in the controversy, accused (later) of Arianism by St. Jerome, and ultimately vindicated both by the men of his own time and by being declared a Doctor of the Church in 1822. Raised in Jerusalem, well-educated, especially in the Scriptures, he was ordained a priest by the bishop of Jerusalem and given the task of catechizing during Lent those preparing for Baptism and during the Easter season the newly baptized. His Catecheses remain valuable as examples of the ritual and theology of the Church in the mid-fourth century.

There are conflicting reports about the circumstances of his becoming bishop of Jerusalem. It is certain that he was validly consecrated by bishops of the province. Since one of them was an Arian, Acacius, it may have been expected that his “cooperation” would follow. Conflict soon rose between Cyril and Acacius, bishop of the rival nearby see of Caesarea. Cyril was summoned to a council, accused of insubordination and of selling Church property to relieve the poor. Probably, however, a theological difference was also involved. He was condemned, driven from Jerusalem, and later vindicated, not without some assoc iation and help of Semi-Arians. Half his episcopate was spent in exile (his first experience was repeated twice). He finally returned to find Jerusalem torn with heresy, schism and strife, and wracked with crime. Even St. Gregory of Nyssa, sent to help, left in despair.

They both went to the (second ecumenical) Council of Constantinople, where the amended form of the Nicene Creed was promulgated. Cyril accepted the word consubstantial (that is, of Christ and the Father). Some said it was an act of repentance, but the bishops of the Council praised him as a champion of orthodoxy against the Arians. Though not friendly with the greatest defender of orthodoxy against the Arians, Cyril may be counted among those whom Athanasius called “brothers, who mean what we mean, and differ only about the word [consubstantial].”

Comment: Those who imagine that the lives of saints are simple and placid, untouched by the vulgar breath of controversy, are rudely shocked by history. Yet it should be no surprise that saints, indeed all Christians, will experience the same difficulties as their Master. The definition of truth is an endless, complex pursuit, and good men and women have suffered the pain of both controversy and error. Intellectual, emotional and political roadblocks may slow up people like Cyril for a time. But their lives taken as a whole are monuments to honesty and courage.
Quote:  “It is not only among us, who are marked with the name of Christ, that the dignity of faith is great; all the business of the world, even of those outside the Church, is accomplished by faith. By faith, marriage laws join in union persons who were strangers to one another. By faith, agriculture is sustained; for a man does not endure the toil involved unless he believes he will reap a harvest. By faith, seafaring men, entrusting themselves to a tiny wooden craft, exchange the solid element of the land for the unstable motion of the waves. Not only among us does this hold true but also, as I have said, among those outside the fold. For though they do not accept the Scriptures but advance certain doctrines of their own, yet even these they receive on faith” (Catechesis V).
St Cyril, a great ascetic and a champion of Orthodoxy, died in the year 386.
Saint Aninas was born at Chalcedon into a Christian family
After the death of his parents, he withdrew at age fifteen into a monastery, where he received monastic tonsure. In search of complete solitude, he went off into the heart of the desert where the River Euphrates separates Syria from Persia. There he came upon an Elder named Maium and settled there with him. Both ascetics led a very strict life. During the forty days of the Great Fast they ate nothing, taking delight and joy instead in spiritual nourishment.
Every day St Aninas carried drinking water from afar. Once, he returned with full water pitchers earlier than usual, since an angel had filled the vessels with water. The Elder Maium realized that his disciple had attained to high level of spiritual accomplishment, and he in turn asled St Aninas to become his guide, but he refused out of humility. Later, the Elder went to a monastery, and St Aninas remained alone in the wilderness.
By constant struggles the saint conquered the passions within himself, and he was granted gifts of healing and clairvoyance. Even the wild beasts became docile and served him. Wherever the saint went, two lions followed after him, one of which he had healed of a wound on its paw.
Accounts of the saint spread throughout all the surrounding area, and the sick and those afflicted by evil spirits began to come to him, seeking healing. Several disciples also gathered around the saint. Once, in his seventeenth year as an ascetic, several men had come to the saint and asked for something to quench their thirst. Relying on the power of God, the saint sent one of his disciples to a dried-up well. The well miraculously filled up to its very top, and this water remained for many days. When the water ended, the saint did not dare to ask for a miracle for himself, and so he began to carry water from the Euphrates at night.
Bishop Patrick of Neocaesarea repeatedly visited the monk and ordained him presbyter, although the humble ascetic was resolved not to accept the priestly office. When he learned that the saint himself carried water from a distance, Bishop Patrick twice gave him donkeys, but each time St Aninas gave them away to the poor and continued to carry the water himself. Then the bishop ordered that a large well be dug, which they filled from time to time, bringing donkeys from the city.
St Aninas discerned the desire of a certain stylite monk, who struggled far from him, to come down off his pillar and make a complaint in court against a robber who had hurt him with a stone. St Aninas wrote a letter to the stylite, advising him not to carry out his intent. The letter was brought to the stylite by a trusty lion, and it brought him to his senses.
A certain pious woman, who had fallen ill, went to St Aninas to ask for his prayers. Along the way a robber chanced upon her. Since the woman had no money, he decided to assault her and force her into sin. The woman called on the saint's help and cried out, "St Aninas, help me!" Terror suddenly overcame the robber, and he let go of the woman.
The woman went to St Aninas and told him everything, and she also received healing. The robber also came to the monk in repentance, was baptized, and then tonsured as a monk. A spear which he had thrust into the ground when he attacked the woman, grew into a mighty oak.
At the age of 110 the saint predicted the time of his death, and he directed his successor as igumen to assemble the brethren.
Before his death, St Aninas conversed with the holy Prophets Moses, Aaron and Or [or Hur: Ex. 24:14].
He fell asleep in the Lord saying, "O Lord, receive my soul."

588 St. Frediano Irish bishop founded a group of eremetical canons  Miraculously, the river followed him.
 Lucæ, in Túscia, natális sancti Frigdiáni Epíscopi, virtúte miraculórum illústris.
      At Lucca in Tuscany, the birthday of the holy bishop Fridian, who was illustrious by the power of working miracles.

also called Frigidanus and Frigidian. He was reportedly a prince of Ireland who went on a pilgrimage to Rome and settled into a hermitage on Mount Pisano, near Lucca. The pope (Pelagius II 520-590) made him bishop of Lucca, but his see was attacked by Lombards. Frediano is believed to have founded a group of eremetical canons who merged with those of St. John Lateran in 1507.

588 ST FRIGIDIAN, OR FREDIANO, BISHOP OF Lucca
ST FRIGIDIAN, or Frediano as he is called in Italy, was an Irishman by birth or by extraction. He is said to have been the son of a king of Ulster and to have been educated in Ireland, where he was raised to the priesthood. Irish writers have tried to identify him with St Finnian of Moville, but St Frediano lived for over twenty-eight years in Lucca and died there, whereas Finnian ended his days in Ireland, where he had spent the greater part of his life. On a pilgrimage to Italy Frediano visited Lucca, and was so greatly attracted by the hermitages on Monte Pisano that he decided to settle there himself as an anchorite. His repute for sanctity caused him to be chosen for the bishopric of Lucca; it required, however, the intervention of Pope John II ( 533-535 )to induce Frediano to give up his life of solitude.
After seven years of peaceful rule he was temporarily driven out of the city by the Lombard invaders, who sacked and burnt the cathedral; but the holy bishop returned, and when the ferocity of the invaders had begun to abate he set to work to repair the damage. He rebuilt his cathedral on a new site outside the north wall of the city. This church, which now bears his own name, was by him dedicated to the Three Deacons (Stephen, Vincent and Laurence). We are told that he showed goodwill and charity to all, relieved the necessitous, clothed the naked, comforted the sorrowful and visited the sick. His influence extended to the conquerors, many of whom were converted. He never ceased to aspire to the solitary life, and would retire from time to time to some lonely hermitage. It is stated that he formed a community of clergy, with whom he lived, sharing their austere discipline. This association continued after his death, and we read that when relaxation had crept in among the canons of the Lateran, Pope Alexander II (d. 1073), who had been bishop of Lucci, “sent for some regular canons from San Frediano, as from a house of strict observance”. It was not till 1507 that the congregation of San Frediano was merged into that of St John Lateran.

One of the many miracles said to have been worked by St Frediano has become specially famous, because it is recorded in the Dialogues of St Gregory, who writes:

“Nor shall I be silent on this also which was related to me by the venerable Venantius, Bishop of Luni. I learned from him two days ago that at Lucca there had lived a bishop of marvellous power, by name Frediano, of whom the inhabitants relate this great miracle that the river Auxer [Serchio] running close under the walls of the city and often bursting from its bed with great force, caused grievous damage to its inhabitants, so that they…strove to divert its course…but failed in the attempt. Then the man of God Frediano made them give him a little rake, and advancing to where the stream flowed, he knelt in prayer. He then got up and ordered the river to follow him. As he dragged the rake behind him, the waters left their usual course and ran after it, making a new bed wherever the saint marked the way. Whence thus ever following on, it ceased to do injury to the fields and crops.”

When St Frediano felt his death approaching he gathered his brethren round him, and while they were singing hymns of praise and thanksgiving, he fell into a placid sleep and passed to his rest. His relics were, it is said, miraculously redis­covered during the reign of Charlemagne; in 1652 the bones were put together and the skeleton now lies in a glass coffin under the high altar of the cathedral at Lucca. As well as at Lucca the feast of St Frediano is kept throughout Ireland (as St Frigidian) and by the Canons Regular of the Lateran.

See Colgan, Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae, pp. 634-641, and especially Guerra and Guidi, Compendio di storia ecclesiastica Lucchese dalle origini . . . (1924). On St Finnian or Winnin, with whom St Frediano has been wrongly identified, see KSS., pp. 465—466. See also A. M. Tommasini, Irish Saints in Italy (1937), pp. 360—377; A. Pedemonte, S. Frediano (1937), who denies that the saint was Irish, and, with less reason, dates him in the third century; and M; Giusti in Bollettino storico lucchese, vol. xi, pp. 1—27.

Frigidian of Lucca B (RM) (also known as Frediano, Frigdianus) Born in Ireland; died 588; feast day formerly March 15.
In spite of the Italian name Frediano, by which he is usually called, St. Frigidian was an Irishman, the son of King Ultach of Ulster. He was trained in Irish monasteries and ordained a priest. His learning was imparted by such flowers of the 6th century Irish culture as Saint Enda and Saint Colman.
St. Frigidian arrived in Italy on a pilgrimage to Rome and decided to settle as a hermit on Mount Pisano. In 566, he was elected bishop of Lucca and was persuaded by Pope John II him to accept the position. Even thereafter the saint frequently left the city to spend many days in prayer and solitude. As bishop he formed the clergy of the city into a community of canons regular and rebuilt the cathedral after it had been destroyed by fire by the Lombards.
His most famous miracle is certainly legendary. The River Serchio frequently bursts its banks, causing great damage to the city of Lucca. The citizens reputedly called on their bishop for aid. He asked for an ordinary rake. Fortified by prayer, Frigidian commanded the Serchio to follow his rake. He charted a new, safer course for the water, avoiding the city walls, as well as the cultivated land outside. Miraculously, the river followed him.
Sometimes there is confusion between Saint Finnian of Moville and St. Frigidian. They could perhaps be the same person but the links have never been well established. Frigidian is still greatly venerated in Lucca (Attwater, Bentley, Encyclopedia).
In art, St. Frigidian walks in procession as the Volto Santo crucifix is brought to Lucca on an ox cart. He may also be shown changing the course of the Serchio River or as a bishop with a crown at his feet (Roeder).
978 St. Edward the Martyr miracles reported from his tomb at Shaftesbury
 In Británnia sancti Eduárdi Regis, qui, dolis novércæ necátus, multis miráculis cláruit.
       In England, St. Edward, king, who was assassinated by order of his treacherous stepmother, and became celebrated for many miracles.
Edward was the eldest son of King Edgar of England and his first wife, Ethelfleda who died shortly after her son's birth. He was baptized by St. Dunstan and became King in 975 on his father's death with the support of Dunstan but against the wishes of his stepmother, Queen Elfrida, who wished the throne for her son Ethelred.
Edward ruled only three years when he was murdered on March 18 while hunting near Corfe Dastle, reportedly by adherents of Ethelred, though William of Malmesbury, the English historian of the twelfth century, said Elfrida was the actual murderer. In the end, Elfrida was seized with remorse for her crime and, retiring from the world, she built the monasteries of Amesbury and Wherwell, in the latter of which she died. Edward was a martyr only in the broad sense of one who suffers an unjust death, but his cultus was considerable, encouraged by the miracles reported from his tomb at Shaftesbury; His feast day is March 18 and still observed in the diocese of Plymouth.

979 ST EDWARD THE MARTYR
ST EDWARD was the son of King Edgar, sovereign of all the English, by his first wife, Ethelfleda, who did not long survive the birth of her son; he was baptized by St Dunstan, then archbishop of Canterbury. After Edgar’s death a party sought to set aside Edward in favour of Ethelred, a boy hardly ten years old, who was Edgar’s son by his second queen, Elfrida. Edward himself was but a youth 
when he came to the throne, and his reign lasted a brief three years. The guidance of St Dunstan was unable to commend him to the disaffected thegns, for which the young king’s violent temper was perhaps partly responsible. The chroniclers, who are all agreed that he was murdered, are not in accord as to the actual perpetrator of the deed, but William of Malmesbury claims to describe the crime in detail. He tells us that, from the moment of Edward’s accession, his stepmother had sought an opportunity to slay him. One day, after hunting in Dorsetshire, the king, who was weary and wished to see his little stepbrother, of whom he was fond, determined to visit Corfe Castle, the residence of Elfrida, which was close at hand. Apprised of his arrival, the queen went out to meet him and noticed that he was alone, having outstripped his companions and attendants. She feigned pleasure at seeing him and ordered a cup to be brought to allay his thirst. As he drank, Elfrida made a sign to one of her servants, who stabbed the young king with a dagger. Although Edward immediately set spurs to his horse and tried to regain his escort, he slipped from the saddle, his foot caught in the stirrup, and he was dragged along till he died. “This year”, says the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under 979, “was King Edward slain at eventide at Corfe-gate, and was buried at Wareham without any kind of kingly honours.” William of Malmesbury says that Elfrida had his body thrown into a marsh, thinking thus to dispose of it, but a pillar of light caused it to be discovered, and it was taken up and buried in the church at Wareham. His relics were afterwards removed to Shaftesbury. Elfrida herself was in the end seized with remorse for her crime and, retiring from the world, she built the monasteries of Amesbury and Wherwell, in the latter of which she died.

The earliest account of the murder attributes it to Ethelred’s retainers there is no good evidence for Queen Elfrida’s alleged part in it, which is not mentioned till over a hundred years after the event. Edward was a martyr only in the broad sense of one who suffers an unjust death, but his cultus was considerable, encouraged by the miracles reported from his tomb at Shaftesbury and his feast is still observed in the diocese of Plymouth.

Our principal authorities are William of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Osbern the hagiographer and, earliest of all, the author of the Life of St Oswald in the Historians of the Church of York (Rolls Series), vol. i, pp. 448—452. See also F.M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1943), pp. 366—369; and particularly K. M. Wilson, Lost Literature of Medieval England (1952), pp. 111—112.
1086 St. Anselm of Lucca Bishop held in high regard for his holiness austerity Biblical knowledge learning
 Mántuæ sancti Ansélmi, Epíscopi Lucénsis et Confessóris.
       At Mantua, St. Anselm, bishop and confessor.
1086 ST ANSELM, BISHOP OF Lucca
IT was in 1036 that St Anselm was born in Mantua, and in 1073 his uncle, Pope Alexander II ( 1061-1073 ) , nominated him to the bishopric of Lucca, left vacant by his own elevation to the chair of St Peter, and sent him to Germany to receive from the Emperor Henry IV the crozier and the ring— in accordance with the regrettable custom of the time. Anselm, however, was so strongly convinced that the secular power had no authority to confer ecclesiastical dignities that he could not bring himself to accept investiture from the emperor and returned to Italy without it. Only after he had been consecrated by Alexander’s successor, Pope St Gregory VII (1073-1085), did he consent to accept from Henry the crozier and the ring, and even then he felt scruples of conscience on the subject.
These doubts led him to leave his diocese and to withdraw to a congregation of Cluniac monks at Polirone. A dignitary of such high-minded views could ill be spared, and Pope Gregory recalled him from his retirement and sent him back to Lucca to resume the government of his diocese. Zealous with regard to discipline, he strove to enforce among his canons the common life enjoined by the decree of Pope St Leo IX (
1049-1054). In acute discordance with the edifying example accredited to them above in our notice of St Frediano, the canons refused to obey, although they were placed under an interdict by the pope and afterwards excommunicated. Countess Matilda of Tuscany undertook to expel them, but they raised a revolt and, being supported by the Emperor Henry, drove the bishop out of the city in 1079.

St Anselm retired to Canossa, to the Countess Matilda, whose director he became, and in all the territories under her jurisdiction he established strict order among the monks and the canons. He was wont to say that he would prefer that the Church should have neither, rather than that they should live undisciplined lives. He himself was most austere, and always spent several hours daily in prayer: he never drank wine, and found some pretext for avoiding delicate food at well-served tables. Although he used to celebrate every day, he was moved to tears in saying Mass, and he lived so continually in the presence of God that no secular affairs could banish the remembrance of it.

As one of Pope Gregory’s most faithful supporters, he drew upon himself much persecution. His chief services to the pontiff were rendered in connection with investitures, the suppression of which was at that period a matter of life or death to the orderly government of the Church. This abuse had been gradually increasing until it had become a grievous scandal, especially in Germany. It had its roots in the feudal system, under which bishops and abbots had become owners of lands and even of cities, for which they naturally paid allegiance to the sovereign, receiving in exchange temporal authority over the territories they governed. But the consequence was that in course of time all sacred offices were shamelessly sold to the highest bidder or bestowed on profligate courtiers. Gregory had no more vigorous supporter than Anselm of Lucca, who had himself protested against receiving investiture at secular hands. After the death of Gregory, the next pope nominated St Anselm to be his legate in Lombardy—a post which entailed the administration of several dioceses left vacant in consequence of the investitures quarrel. Thus Anselm was apostolic visitor, but he was never actually made bishop of Mantua, as some of his biographers have claimed.

We read that he was a man of great learning, and had made a special study of the Bible and of its commentators if questioned on the meaning of any passage of Holy Scripture—a great part of which he knew by heart—he could cite at once the explanations given by all the great fathers of the Church. Amongst his writings may be mentioned an important collection of canons and a commentary on the Psalms which he began at the request of the Countess Matilda, but which he did not live to complete. The holy bishop died in his native town of Mantua, and the city has since adopted him as its principal patron saint.

The main source of information is the life of the saint, formerly attributed to Bardo, primicerius of the cathedral of Lucca, though Mgr Guidi has shown that the true author must have been a priest belonging to the suite of the Countess Matilda (see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlviii, p. 203). This “Bardo” life has been many times printed, e.g. by Mabillon, the Bollandists, and in MGH., Scriptores, vol. xii. But there is also a long poem by Ranierius (7300 lines), first printed by La Fuente (1870), on which cf. Overmann in the Neues Archiv, vol. xxi (1897). See also the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii, and P. Schmeidler in the Neues Archiv., vol. xliii. Anselm’s Collectio Canonum has been critically edited in recent times by Thaner.

Nephew of Pope Alexander II called Anselm the Younger by his contemporaries. He was born in Mantua, Italy, in 1036, and was named bishop of Lucca by his uncle. He accepted the symbols of office from Emperor Henry IV, repenting immediately because of the Church's stand against allowing secular rulers to perform such acts. Anselm resigned his office and became a Benedictine monk. Pope Gregory VII, Alexander II's successor, placed him back in Lucca, but a quarrel with the priests of that city forced him to leave. Anselm went to Canossa, Italy, where he became the spiritual advisor to Countess Matilda. He was also named a papal legate, with wide-ranging jurisdictions over the local religious institutions. Pope Victor III made him papal legate of all Lombardy, Italy. Anselm was well versed in Scripture and wrote some important treatises. He died in Mantua on March 18, 1086.

Anselm of Lucca, OSB B (RM) Born in Mantua, Italy, 1036; died there in 1086. St. Anselm was named bishop of Lucca in 1073 by his uncle Pope Alexander II, who had just vacated the see. Anselm immediately became embroiled in a dispute about imperial investiture and refused to accept the symbols of his office from Emperor Henry IV. Later counselled by Gregory VII, Anselm accepted investiture, took possession of his see, but then had scruples and retired to the Cluniac monastery at Polirone, where he became a Benedictine monk.
Recalled by Pope Gregory VII, of whom Anselm was a faithful supporter, he soon became involved with his canons over their lack of observance of an austere life. When they were placed under an interdict by the pope and excommunicated, they revolted, were supported by the emperor, and, in 1079, drove Anselm from his see.
He retired to Canossa, became spiritual director of Countess Matilda and reformed the monks and canons in the territory she controlled. A man of great learning, Anselm excelled as a canonist and was a firm supporter of Pope Gregory's struggle to end lay investiture. After Gregory's death, Pope Victor III appointed him apostolic visitor to administer several dioceses in Lombardy, Italy, which were vacant because of the investiture struggle.

St. Anselm was held in high regard for his holiness, austerity,
Biblical knowledge, and learning (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).

1186 Bl. Christian Abbot of the first Cistercian monastery ever established in Ireland
1186 BD CHRISTIAN, ABBOT OF MELLIFONT
BEYOND the fact that he was abbot of the first Cistercian monastery ever established in Ireland, practically nothing at all can be stated with certainty about Bd Christian, otherwise called Christian O’Conarchy or Giolla Criost Ua Condoirche. The various traditions and legends are confused and conflicting. According to. some accounts, he was born at Bangor in Ulster, and Colgan says that he was the disciple and afterwards the archdeacon of St Malachy of Armagh, and that he probably accompanied that prelate on a visit to Rome, staying at Clairvaux on his way there. He would appear to -have been one of the four disciples who remained behind at Clairvaux on the homeward journey and who received the habit from St Bernard himself. Upon his return to Ireland, St Malachy was anxious to introduce the Cistercian Order into his country, and at his prompting Donough O’Carroll set about building Mellifont. Malachy applied to the founder for a superior and some monks to start the new foundation, and St Bernard sent Christian and several French brothers in 1142.

Abbot Christian is said by some writers to have become bishop of Lismore and papal legate for Ireland. An ancient anonymous Irish annalist notes the year 1186 as the date of the death of Christian, the illustrious prelate of Lismore, “formerly legate of Ireland, emulator of the virtues which he saw and heard from his holy father St Bernard and from the Supreme Pontiff, the venerable man Eugenius, with whom he was in the novitiate at Clairvaux.”

See Colgan, Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae, and LIS., vol. iii, p. 839.

Beyond the fact that he was Abbot of the first Cistercian monastery ever established in Ireland, practically nothing at all can be stated with certainty about Blessed Christian, otherwise called Christian O'Conarchy or Giolla Criost Ua Condoirche. The various traditions and legends are confused and conflicting. According to some accounts, he was born at Bangor in Ulster, and Colgan says that he was the disciple and afterwards the archdeacon of St. Malachy of Armagh, and that he probably accompanied the prelate on a visit to Rome, staying at Clairvaux on his way there. He would appear to have been one of the four disciples who remained behind at Clairvaux on the homeward journey and who received the habit from St. Bernard himself. Upon his return to Ireland, St. Malachy was anxious to introduce the Cistercian Order into his country, and at his prompting Donouth O'Carroll set about building Mellifont. Malachy applied to the founder for a superior and some monks to start the new foundation, and St. Bernard sent Christian and several French brothers in 1142. Abbot Christian is said by some writers to have become bishop of Lismore and papal legate for Ireland. An ancient anonymous Irish analyst notes the year 1186 as the date of the death of Christian, the illustrious prelate of Lismore, "formally legate of Ireland, emulator of the virtues which he saw and heard from his holy father St. Bernard and from the supreme pontiff, the venerable man Eugenius, with whom he was in the novitiate at Clairvaux".

St. Narcissus bishop and Felix, his deacon Martyrs
While it is certain that Narcissus, a bishop, and Felix, his deacon, were martyred in Spain, little else is known. Legends are associated with them, including their supposed escape to Germany or Switzerland.

1455 Blessed Fra Angelico priest artist frescoes unfaded loveliness after 400 years " nothing--painting, statue, sermon, poem, or building--should obstruct one's view of God" , OP (PC)
Born in Mugello near Florence, Italy, in 1386 or 1387; died in Rome, Italy, in 1455.
Guido da Vicchio's innate talent for art was supplemented by the natural beauty of his native Tuscany. He studied under several master artists when Italy was most conscious of the spirit of Giotto and Cimabue, and their influence was always to give a certain unearthly aspect to his paintings.

When he was still quite young, and already a recognized artist, he entered the Dominican monastery at Fiesole with his brother Benedetto in 1407. It is a tribute to the ability and sanctity of both brothers that their names stand out in such distinguished company, for some of the greatest men of the order were housed in the same priory: Blesseds John Dominici, Peter Capucci, and Lawrence of Ripafratta (f.d. September 28), and St. Antoninus of Florence. The latter, when he was appointed archbishop, was to commission some of the two artists' finest work.

Few personal details are known about Brother John of the Angels, who is known as Fra Angelico in secular history. He was a priest. His painting in Florence was sufficiently well-known and admired to merit his being called to Rome to decorate the Chapel of Nicholas V at the Vatican. In 1449, he was appointed prior of San Marco, which he decorated with his wonderful paintings, and held that office for three years.

He may have been recalled to Rome in 1454; he died there in 1455 at the Dominican friary of La Minerva. In much the same way as St. Thomas Aquinas was obscured by his writings for centuries, Fra Angelico seems to have disappeared behind his art. We know that he was the painter par excellence of the Queen of Angels and of her court.

St. Antoninus, who must have known him well, said: "No one could paint like that without first having been to heaven." The sincerity of his paintings and the depth of their theological and devotional teaching makes this statement believable.

Fra Angelico and Fra Benedetto were both artists of skill and originality. Perhaps God wished them to work together to make Fiesole and San Marco treasure houses of art, where some innocence and beauty might remain untouched by the storm of Renaissance humanism loomed on the horizon. Benedetto painted and illuminated an exquisite set of choir books, reputed to be the loveliest in the world. If he had lived out his career, he might have rivalled his famous brother, but he was accidentally killed in a street battle during one of the frequent political upheavals in Florence, and his work was left unfinished.

Fra Angelico himself did some illumination; in fact, he probably began his career as an illuminator. There is in his altarpieces a definite touch of the illuminator's talent for extracting the gist of the matter and leaving out extraneous details. His work is never cluttered, which might, of course, be the result of a mind trained in theology, as well as of a hand trained in illuminating.

His frescoes were done on wet plaster, with clay colors, which means that he could not see any exact color relationship until the wall had dried, and it was too late to touch it up. This makes it all the more remarkable that his colors are so exquisitely blended, and that they still glow with such unfaded loveliness after 400 years. Some of his best works are in the convent of San Marco, which is now a state museum.

Here in Washington, D.C., we have a wonderful wood panel enamelled by Fra Angelico, "The Madonna of Humility," which shows, much better than the prints we are accustomed to seeing, the almost heavenly radiance that glowed through his paintings. The figures of the Madonna and Child have a quaint, awkward attitude; yet no one looking at them can possibly mistake that fact that he is depicting the Queen of Heaven.

Part of the ethereal look of his Madonna comes from the fact that Fra Angelico did not use models for his pictures. This alone was remarkable in a time when painters were flinging themselves into the study of anatomy, sometimes at the cost of other qualities. Perhaps he was revolted by the practice of some of his contemporary painters who chose beautiful women with bad reputations to pose for their Madonnas. Perhaps it was simply that he saw, with the clear vision of a theologian, that nothing--painting, statue, sermon, poem, or building--should obstruct one's view of God, drawing the attention away from that vision.

Fra Angelico's greatest complete work was his "Life of Christ," a series of 35 paintings in Fiesole. They began with the vision of the Prophet Ezekiel and ended with the lovely Coronation of the Virgin, which we sometimes see reproduced in print. These pictures tell us what the records leave unsaid: that Brother John of the Angels was a capable theologian and a splendid Scripture scholar. He was also a devoted son of St. Dominic, whom he dearly loved and never tired of painting.

In America, we are most familiar with his paintings of the Annunciation, which was obviously one of his favorite subjects, since he painted it dozens of times. Most of his subjects were chosen from the life of Our Lord; the famous "angels," which one so often sees, are parts of much larger altarpieces, having much more serious subjects than the colorful and joyful angels decorating them.

Some have said that Fra Angelico in art, Dante in poetry, and St. Thomas in the Summa Theologica, have each presented the same truth in three different ways. Whether or not this is completely true, it is an indication of the veneration in which history has held this man. His motto was: "To paint Christ, one must live Christ." He is the best example we have of one who preaches with a brush as eloquently as his brothers do with voice or pen. Today he still preaches, in places where no other would be heard. Perhaps his mission is still alive, to help bring into the fold those who love art but know nothing of God.

The cause of Fra Angelico was resumed on the 500th anniversary of his death and has been active since then. Although he is usually called il Beato Angelico, he has never officially been beatified (Benedictines, Dorcy).

Click here for a look at Thebaid at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy; St. Anthony the Abbot Tempted by a Lump of Gold; and St. Benedict. From the San Marco altarpiece: The Healing of Palladia by Saints Cosmas and Damian; Sts. Cosmas and Damian Before Lisius; Sts. Cosmas and Damian Being Saved; Sts. Cosmas and Damian Being Condemned; Sts. Cosmas and Damian Crucified and Stoned; Sts. Cosmas and Damian Being Beheaded; Burial of Sts. Cosmas and Damian; and Healing of Justinian by Sts. Cosmas and Damian. Other works include Glorification of St. Dominic; St. Dominic Adoring the Crucifixion; The Naming of St. John the Baptist; St. Lawrence Distributing Food to the Poor; St. Lawrence Receiving the Treasures of the Church; The Ordination of St. Lawrence; St. Lawrence before Valerianus (Detail of St. Lawrence in Justice and his Martyrdom); St. Lawrence in Justice and his Martyrdom; Noli Me Tangere; The Adoration of the Magi; The Adoration of the Magi; and St. Romuald. From the Perugia Triptych: Birth of St. Nicholas; St. Nicholas meets the king's messengers; St. Nicholas saves the ship; Vocation of St. Nicholas; and Death of St. Nicholas
1567 St. Salvatore Franciscan of the Observance specially devoted to our Lady and to St. Paul who appeared to him on several occasions many and severe austerities given by God the gift of performing outstanding miracles
 Cárali, in Sardínia, sancti Salvatóris ab Horta Confessóris, ex Ordine Fratrum Minórum, qui virtútibus et singulári miraculórum dono cláruit, et a Pio Papa Undécimo inter sanctos Cǽlites adnumerátus est.
      At Cagliari in Sardinia, St. Salvatore of Orte, confessor, a member of the Order of Friars Minor, who was numbered among the heavenly saints by Pope Pius XI (
1922-1939 ), because he was graced with every virtue and had been given by God the gift of performing outstanding miracles.

Saint Salvator of Horta (Salvador d'Horta, Salvatore da Horta) (1520—March 18, 1567) is a Catalan saint. His feast day is celebrated on March 18. He was born in Santa Coloma de Farners, near Girona (Catalonia), and worked as a shepherd and shoemaker. Franciscan lay brother at Barcelona and worked as a cook, beggar, and porter at the friary of Horta.  Salvator acquired a reputation as a healer, and his cell became a destination for sick pilgrims.
1567 ST SALVATOR OF HORTA
ST SALVATOR is usually described as “of Horta” because he spent many years in the Franciscan friary of that place, although he was born at Santa Columba in the diocese of Gerona in Spain. He came of a poor family, and lost both his parents while still a child, Migrating to the town, he worked as a shoemaker in Barcelona, but at the age of twenty, as his heart was set on the religious life, he became a Franciscan of the Observance. Employed the kitchen, his virtue quickly matured in these humble surroundings, but he thirsted for greater austerity, and passed on, first to the convent of St Mary of Jesus at Tortosa, and then to the solitude of St Mary of the Angels at Horta in the same diocese. In that house of very strict observance. He made a protracted stay, but eventually he returned to Barcelona, where his supernatural gifts attracted much notice, and where the blind, lame and deaf came to him to be healed. He always walked barefoot, scourged himself daily, and kept long and rigorous fasts. He was specially de­voted to our Lady and to St Paul, who appeared to him on several occasions, notably on his death-bed. St Salvator had gone to Sardinia in compliance with the orders of his superiors when he was seized with an illness which proved fatal. He died at Cagliari, being forty-seven years of age, in 1567 . He was venerated as a saint during his lifetime, and was eventually canonized in 1938.
A full biography by Father Serpi, who was the promoter of the cause of St Salvator in the process of beatification, is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. ii. See also Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. i, pp. 470—483.
1956  Saint Nicholas of Zhicha Ph.D "the Serbian Chrysostom," renowned for his sermons fearless critic of the Nazis survived Dachau establishing orphanages and helping the poor in Serbia taught philosophy, logic, history, foreign languages at the seminary spoke 7 languages
Born in Lelich in western Serbia on January 4, 1881 (December 23, 1880 O.S.). His parents were Dragomir and Katherine Velimirovich, who lived on a farm where they raised a large family. His pious mother was a major influence on his spiritual development, teaching him by word and especially by example. As a small child, Nicholas often walked three miles to the Chelije Monastery with his mother to attend services there.
Sickly as a child, Nicholas was not physically strong as an adult. He failed his physical requirements when he applied to the military academy, but his excellent academic qualifications allowed him to enter the St Sava Seminary in Belgrade, even before he finished preparatory school.  After graduating from the seminary in 1905, he earned doctoral degrees from the University of Berne in 1908, and from King's College, Oxford in 1909. When he returned home, he fell ill with dysentery.
Vowing to serve God for the rest of his life if he recovered, tonsured at the Rakovica Monastery on December 20, 1909 also ordained to the holy priesthood.
In 1910 he went to study in Russia to prepare himself for a teaching position at the seminary in Belgrade. At the Theological Academy in St Petersburg, the Provost asked him why he had come. He replied, "I wanted to be a shepherd. As a child, I tended my father's sheep. Now that I am a man, I wish to tend the rational flock of my heavenly Father. I believe that is the way that has been shown to me."
The Provost smiled, pleased by this response, then showed the young man to his quarters.

After completing his studies, he returned to Belgrade and taught philosophy, logic, history, and foreign languages at the seminary. He spoke seven languages, and this ability proved very useful to him throughout his life.  St Nicholas was renowned for his sermons, which never lasted more than twenty minutes, and focused on just three main points.
He taught people the theology of the Church in a language they could understand, and inspired them to repentance.

At the start of World War I, Archimandrite Nicholas was sent to England on a diplomatic mission to seek help in the struggle of the Serbs against Austria. His doctorate from Oxford gained him an invitation to speak at Westminster Abbey. He remained in England for three short months, but St Nicholas left a lasting impression on those who heard him. His writings "The Lord's Commandments," and "Meditations on the Lord's Prayer" impressed many in the Church of England.
Archimandrite Nicholas left England and went to America, where he proved to be a good ambassador for his nation and his Church.

The future saint returned to Serbia in 1919, where he was consecrated as Bishop of Zhicha, and was later transferred to Ochrid. The new hierarch assisted those who were suffering from the ravages of war by establishing orphanages and helping the poor.
Bishop Nicholas took over as leader of Bogomljcki Pokret, a popular movement for spiritual revival which encouraged people to pray and read the Bible. Under the bishop's direction, it also contributed to a renewal of monasticisml. Monasteries were restored and reopened, and this in turn revitalized the spiritual life of the Serbian people.
In 1921, Bishop Nicholas was invited to visit America again and spent two years as a missionary bishop. He gave more than a hundred talks in less than six months, raising funds for his orphanages. Over the next twenty years, he lectured in various churches and universities.
When Germany invaded Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941, Bishop Nicholas, a fearless critic of the Nazis, was arrested and confined in Ljubostir Vojlovici Monastery. In 1944, he and Patriarch Gavrilo were sent to the death camp at Dachau. There he witnessed many atrocities and was tortured himself. When American troops liberated the prisoners in May 1945, the patriarch returned to Yugoslavia, but Bishop Nicholas went to England.
The Communist leader Tito was just coming to power in Yugoslavia, where he persecuted the Church and crushed those who opposed him. Therefore, Bishop Nicholas believed he could serve the Serbian people more effectively by remaining abroad. He went to America in 1946, following a hectic schedule in spite of his health problems which were exacerbated by his time in Dachau. He taught for three years at St Sava's Seminary in Libertyville, IL before he settled at St Tikhon's Monastery in South Canaan, PA in 1951.  He taught at St Tikhon's and also served as the seminary's Dean and Rector. He was also a guest lecturer at St Vladimir's Seminary in NY, and at Holy Trinity Monastery in Jordanville, NY.

On Saturday March 17, 1956 Bishop Nicholas served his last Liturgy. After the service he went to the trapeza and gave a short talk. As he was leaving, he bowed low and said, "Forgive me, brothers." This was something unusual which he had not done before.

On March 18, 1956 St Nicholas fell asleep in the Lord Whom he had served throughout his life. He was found in his room kneeling in an attitude of prayer. Though he was buried at St Sava's Monastery in Libertyville, IL, he had always expressed a desire to be buried in his homeland. In April of 1991 his relics were transferred to the Chetinje Monastery in Lelich. There he was buried next to his friend and disciple Fr Justin Popovich (+ 1979).

English readers are familiar with St Nicholas's PROLOGUE FROM OCHRID, THE LIFE OF ST SAVA, A TREASURY OF SERBIAN SPIRITUALITY, and other writings which are of great benefit for the whole Church. He thought of his writings as silent sermons addressed to people who would never hear him preach. In his life and writings, the grace of the Holy Spirit shone forth for all to see, but in his humility he considered himself the least of men.
Though he was a native of Serbia, St Nicholas has a universal significance for Orthodox Christians in all countries. He was like a candle set upon a candlestick giving light to all (MT 5:15). A spiritual guide and teacher with a magnetic personality, he attracted many people to himself. He also loved them, seeing the image of God in each person he met. He had a special love for children, who hastened to receive his blessing whenever they saw him in the street.
He was a man of compunctionate prayer, and possessesed the gift of tears which purify the soul (St John Climacus, LADDER, Step 7). He was a true pastor to his flock protecting them from spiritual wolves, and guiding them on the path to salvation. He has left behind many soul-profiting writings which proclaim the truth of Christ to modern man. In them he exhorts people to love God, and to live a life of virtue and holiness.
May we also be found worthy of the Kingdom of Heaven through the prayers of St Nicholas,
 and by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory forever. Amen.



On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

              40 days for Life
                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 01
492 ST. FELIX III Pope helped to get the Church in Africa on its feet.  492 ST FELIX II (III), POPE  483 - 492
ACCORDING to the Roman Martyrology this Pope Felix was an ancestor (great-great-grandfather) of Pope St Gregory the Great it recalls Gregory’s statement that when his aunt, St Tharsilla, lay dying, Felix appeared in vision and summoned her to Heaven. The martyrology Calls him Felix III, through the long-standing but erroneous numeration of the antipope Felix as Pope St Felix II (see July 29).

549 St. Herculanus Bishop of Perugia, Italy marthred by Ostrogoths.        At Perugia, the transferral of the body of St. Herculanus, bishop and martyr, who was beheaded by order of Totila, king of the Goths.  Forty days after the decapitation, Pope St. Gregory relates that the head had been rejoined to the body as if it had never been touched by the sword:  beheaded by King Totila of the Ostrogoths. He is probably the same Herculanus sent to Perugia from Syria to evangelize the region.
 589 ?  St. David of Wales missionary priest monk dove lift him high above the people David is the patron saint of Wales and perhaps the most famous of British saints. Ironically, we have little reliable information about him. It is known that he became a priest, engaged in 589 ?  St. David of Wales David, cousin of Cadoc and pupil of Illtyd. David is the patron saint of Wales and perhaps the most famous of British saints. Many stories and legends sprang up about David and his Welsh monks. Their austerity was extreme. They worked in silence without the help of animals to till the soil. Their food was limited to bread, vegetables and water.
 713 St Swithbert (Suidbert) 1 of band 12 missionaries headed by St Willibrord, started in 690 evangelize Friesland. At Kaiserswerdt, Bishop St. Swidbert, who, in the time of Pope Sergius, preached the Gospel among the Frisians, Batavians, and other Germanic peoples.
ST SWITHBERT (Suidbert) was one of a band of twelve missionaries who, headed by St Willibrord, started in 690 to evangelize the pagans of Friesland. A Northumbrian by birth, and brought up as a monk near the Scottish border, Swithbert, like so many other Englishmen of his period, had crossed over to Ireland in search of higher perfection. Here he had come under the direction and influence of St Egbert, who, though long consumed with zeal for the conversion of Lower Germany, had been restrained by divine command when he prepared a ship and was on the point of embarking in person. His place had then been taken by his disciple and devoted friend St Wigbert, but the mission was a complete failure, and after labouring for two years Wigbert returned home. Egbert, however, refused to be discouraged and never slackened in his appeal for volunteers, until he succeeded in collecting and training this second mission which he despatched. By this time the conditions had become much more favourable. The missionaries landed at the mouth of the Rhine and, according to Alcuin, made their way as far as Utrecht, where they set to work to preach and to teach.


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 02
6th century Martyrs of Campania Christians martyred by the Lombards in Italy.  ST GREGORY THE GREAT in one of his Dialogues has preserved for us the record of those martyrs under the Lombards whom we commemorate on this day, who were in fact contemporaries of his own. It was about the middle of the sixth century that the Lombards from Scandinavia and Pomerania, who had already descended upon Austria and Bavaria, penetrated yet further south into Italy, bringing ruin and desolation in their train.
Not content with material destruction, they attempted in many cases to pervert the Christian population, forcing their pagan rites upon them. In one place they endeavoured to induce forty peasants to eat meat offered to idols when they refused to a man, the invaders killed them all with the sword. In the case of another, party of prisoners, their captors sought to make them join in the worship of their favourite deity, a goat’s head, which they carried in procession and to which they bowed the knee, singing obscene songs in its honour. The greater part of the Christians—about 400 in number—chose rather to die than to flout God thus.

1127 Bl. Charles the Good martyred by black marketeers hording food.  Son of King Saint Canute of Denmark. Raised in the court of his maternal grandfather, Robert de Frison, Count of Flanders. Fought in the second Crusade. Succeeded Robert II as count of Flanders. Married into the family of the Duke of Clermont. His rule was a continuous defense of the poor against profiteers of his time, both clerical and lay. Called "the Good" by popular acclamation. Reformed laws to make them more fair, supported the poor, fed the hungry, walked barefoot to Mass each day. Martyred in the church of Saint Donatian at Bruges by Borchard, part of a conspiracy of the rich whom he had offended. He is venerated at Bruges.
Born:  1083 Died:  beheaded on 2 March 1127; relics at the Cathedral of Bruges  Beatified:  1883 by Pope Leo XIII (cultus confirmed)  Name Meaning:  strong; manly  Patronage:  counts, Crusaders
.

1201 BD FULCO OF NEUILLY after a serious conversion he set about his priestly duties at Neuilly-sur-Marne with fervour and success; reputed to have a strange knowledge of men’s thoughts and worked innumerable cures upon those who had recourse to him in their infirmities.  All the chroniclers, however, are agreed that Fulco never flattered and was no respecter of persons. According to Roger Hoveden it was he who told King Richard Coeur-de-Lion that unless he married off his three disreputable daughters, he would certainly come to a bad end. When Richard exclaimed in a fury that the words proved his censor to be a hypocrite and an impostor, for he had no daughters, the holy man answered, “Yes, but indeed you have three daughters, and I will tell you their names. The first is called Pride, the second Avarice and the third Lust.” The fame of the French priest’s missionary labours attracted the notice of Pope Innocent III, and in the year 1198 he commissioned Fulco to preach the new Crusade, accounted the Fourth, throughout the northern part of France. His eloquence had already produced marvellous effects, and if we may credit his own statement, as reported by Coggeshall, 200,000 people in the course of three years had taken the cross at his hands. Fulco was himself to have joined in the expedi­tion, but before starting he fell ill and died on March 2, 1201. His tomb was still venerated at Neuilly-sur-Marne in the eighteenth century. The cultus formerly paid to him seems never to have been authoritatively confirmed.

1282 St. Agnes of Bohemia thaumaturgist or miracle worker. She was twenty-eight years old and a beautiful woman when, in 1235, the emperor sent an ambassador to Prague to escort her to Germany that the marriage might take place. Wenceslaus would listen to no remonstrances; but Agnes found means to delay her departure and wrote to Pope Gregory IX, entreating him to prevent the marriage because she had never con­sented to it and had long desired to be the spouse of Christ. Gregory, although for the moment he had made peace with Frederick, knew him well enough to be able to sympathize with the unwilling victim. He sent his legate to Prague to undertake her defence and to Agnes herself he wrote letters which she showed to her brother. Wenceslaus was greatly alarmed. On the one hand he feared to anger the emperor, but on the other he did not wish to alienate the pope or to force his sister to marry against her will. Eventually he decided to tell Frederick and to let him deal with the matter. The emperor on this occasion showed one of those flashes of magnanimity which have made his complex character so fascinating a study to historians. As soon as he had satisfied himself that the objection came, not from the King of Bohemia, but from Agnes herself, he released her, saying, “If she had left me for a mortal man, I should have made my vengeance felt; but I cannot take offence if she prefers the King of Heaven to myself.”
Now that she was free, Agnes set about consecrating herself and her possessions wholly to God. Her father had brought the Friars Minor to Prague, probably at her suggestion, and she built or completed a convent for them. With the help of her brother she endowed a great hospital for the poor and brought to it the Knights Hospitallers of the Cross and Star, whose church and monastery still remain in the same place, and the two also built a convent for Poor Clares. The citizens would fain have shared in the work, but the king and his sister preferred to complete it alone. Nevertheless it is said that the workmen, determined to do their part, would often slip away unperceived in the evening in order to avoid being paid. As soon as the convent was ready, St Clare sent five of her religious to start it, and on Whitsunday 1236 Bd Agnes herself received the veil. Her profession made a great impression: she was joined by a hundred girls of good family, and throughout Europe princesses and noble women followed her example and founded or entered convents of Poor Clares. Agnes showed the true spirit of St Francis, ever seeking the lowliest place and the most menial work, and it was with difficulty that she was induced, when nominated by Pope Gregory IX, to accept the dignity of abbess—at least for a time. After much entreaty she obtained for the Poor Ladies of Prague the concession obtained in 1238 by St Clare at San Damiano, namely, permission to resign all revenues and property held in common. The four letters from St Clare to Bd Agnes which have come down to us express her tender affection for her devoted disciple, to whom she also sent, in response to her request for a souvenir, a wooden cross, a flaxen veil and the earthen bowl out of which she drank. Agnes lived to the age of seventy-seven and died on March 2, 1282. Her cultus was confirmed by Pope Pius X; the Friars Minor now keep her feast on June 8, with Bd. Isabel of France and Baptista Varani. She was canonized in 1989 by Pope John Paul II.
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 03
803 St. Anselm of Nonantola Benedictine abbot duke.   WHEN the Langobard King Aistulf was reigning in Italy, he was greatly assisted in his military campaigns by his brother-in-law, Anselm, Duke of Friuli. The duke was not only a valiant soldier but also an ardent Christian, and founded first a monastery with a hospital at Fanano in the province of Modena and then a larger abbey twenty miles further south at Nonantola. Desirous of consecrating himself entirely to God, he then went to Rome, where he was clothed with the habit of St Benedict and appointed abbot over the new community. St. Anselm also received from Pope Stephen III permission to remove to Nonantola the body of Pope St Silvester; and Langobard King Aistulf enriched the abbey with gifts and granted it many privileges it became very celebrated throughout all Italy.
1075 ST GERVINUS, ABBOT.  Pilgrims used to throng the church, and the abbot sometimes spent nearly the whole day in hearing confessions. Nor was his zeal confined to his abbey, for he made excursions through Picardy, Normandy, Aquitaine and as far as Thuringia, preaching and hearing confessions. When Pope St Leo IX in 1050 came in person to Rheims to consecrate the church of St Remigius and to preside over a council, the abbot of Saint-Riquier accompanied him on his journey back to Rome.So great was the veneration in which he was held that he was called “the holy abbot” even during his lifetime. Although, for the last four years of his life, he suffered from a terrible form of leprosy, he continued to carry on all his customary duties as before, and he would often bless God for sending him the trial. On March 3, 1075, when he offered his last Mass in the little underground church of Notre-Dame de Ia Voute which he had built, he was so ill that he could scarcely finish, and had to be carried back to his cell as soon as it was over.
To his monks who stood round him in consternation he said, “Children, to-day our Blessed Lady has given me my discharge from this life”, and he insisted upon making a public confession of his sins. He then had himself taken back to the church and laid before the altar of St John Baptist, where he died. When his body was then washed, it was noticed that no trace of the leprosy remained.

1167 ST AELRED, ABBOT OF Rievaulx "He who loves thee, possesses thee and he possesses thee in proportion as he loves, because thou art love. This is that abundance with which thy beloved are inebriated, melting away from themselves, that they may pass into thee by loving thee.”
Of those last days, Aelred’s patience and trust in God, the love and grief of his monks, Walter Daniel has left us a most moving account. It must be admitted that Alban Butler is not at his best in his treatment of St Aelred, who is one of the most attractive of English saints, a great teacher of friendship, divine and human, and a man who, quite apart from his writings, must have exercised a great influence through the monasteries he founded from Rievaulx. He was himself, “One whom I might fitly call friendship’s child: for his whole occupation is to love and to be loved.”
(De spirituali amicitia).
 It seems that St Aelred was canonized in 1191 (Celestine III 1191-1198) his feast is kept on March 3 in the dioceses of Liverpool, Hexham and Middlesbrough, and by the Cistercians.

Besides the admirable study of St Aelred by Father Dalgairns (in Newman’s series of Lives of the English Saints), which may be truly described as one of the classics of hagiography, a very complete and up-to-date account of the saint is provided by F. M. Powicke’s Ailrad of Rievaulx and his Biographer Walter Daniel (1922). This writer shows that the life by Walter Daniel, a contemporary monk of Rievaulx, is the source from which both the two biographies previously known have been condensed. In 1950 Professor Powicke published Daniel’s biography in Latin and English, with notes and a long introduction. We also obtain a good many sidelights upon Aelred’s character from his own treatises and sermons. All these, with the exception of his book on the Hexham miracles, will be found printed in Migne, PL., vol. cxcv. There is a great devotional glow in many of his ascetical writings, notably in his Speculum charitatis. He was the author also of several short biographies— e.g. that of St Ninian—and of historical and theological tractates. There is a translation of De spirituali amicitia by Fr Hugh Talbot, called Christian Friendship. T. E. Harvey’s St Aelred of Rievaulx (1932) is an excellent short book by a Quaker. See also D. Knowles, The Monastic Order in England (1949), pp. 240—245, 257—266 and passim. Aelred’s name is variously spelt. In the DNB., for example, he appears as “Ethelred”, in Powicke and others as “Ailred”. See, further, the Acta Sanctorum for January 12 and the Dictionnaire de Spiritualité, vol. i, cc. 225--234.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 04
  254 St. Lucius I a Roman elected Pope to succeed Pope St. Cornelius
At Rome, on the Appian Way, during the persecution of Valerian, the birthday of St. Lucius, pope and martyr, who was first exiled for the faith of Christ, but being permitted by divine Providence to return to his church, after labouring long against the Novatians, he suffered martyrdom by beheading.  His praises have been published by St. Cyprian.
1123 St. Peter of Pappacarbone Benedictine bishop leadership, care, and wisdom.  PETER PAPPACARBONE was a native of Salerno in Italy, a nephew of St Alferius, founder of the monastery of Cava, and entered upon the religious life at a very early age under St Leo, the second abbot. He distinguished himself at once by his piety, abstemiousness and love of solitude. At this time the fame of the abbey of Cluny had spread far and wide, and the young monk was so attracted by what he had heard that about 1062 he obtained permission to leave Cava and go to France. When the older monks at Cluny would have sent him to the school to be trained, their abbot, St Hugh, disagreed, saying that Peter might be young in years but that he was a full-grown man in devotion. The abbot’s opinion was abundantly justified, for Peter proved himself well among that household of holy men and he remained there for some six years. He was then recalled to Italy, having been released by St Hugh apparently at the request of the archdeacon of Rome, Hilde­brand (who was afterwards Pope St Gregory VII).  Under the government of Abbot Peter the monastery flourished amazingly. Not only did numbers of aspirants to the religious life flock to him from all sides, but men and women in the world showered money and lands upon the community, which was enabled to minister far and wide to the sick and the poor. The abbey itself had to be enlarged to admit the new members, and a new church was built, to the dedication of which came Pope Urban II, who had been with St Peter at Cluny and had remained his close friend. The description of this occasion was preserved in the chronicles of Cava, where it is stated that Bd Urban talked freely with the abbot and monks, as though “forgetting that he was pope”. St Peter lived to a great age and died in 1123.
1188 BD HUMBERT III OF SAVOY.   Called to rule at his father’s death, he sacrificed a desire for solitude to the task imposed upon him, and though a mere boy when he took up the reins of government he showed himself fully equal to his position, finding it quite possible to reconcile the duty of a secular ruler with that of self-sanctification. When his wife died childless, the count sought in the monastery of Aulps the consolation he needed, and would fain have remained there, but his vassals came to entreat him not to abandon them and to take steps to ensure the succession in his family. Yielding to these representations he again took up the burden and contracted two, if not three, more marriages. By his second wife, Germana of Zahringen, he had a child, Agnes, who was betrothed to John Lackland, afterwards king of England, but both mother and daughter died before the marriage could take place. The time came at last when Count Humbert felt that he was justified in retiring from the world to prepare himself for death. He accordingly withdrew to the Cistercian abbey of Hautecombe, where he gave himself up to the humblest and most austere practices of the religious life. There is good reason to believe that Bd Humbert died peacefully in his Cistercian retreat, where also was buried nearly a century later Bd Boniface of Savoy, who had been archbishop of Canterbury. The cultus of Bd Humbert was approved in 1838 (Gregory XVI 1831-46)
1877 St. Placide Viel Nun and mother general relief during Franco Prussian War.   b.1815 in Normandy, France, she joined the Sisters of the Christian Schools in 1833 after meeting St. Marie Madeleine Postel, mother general of the congregation. In 1841 she was appointed assistant general of the sisters, a promotion which earned much resentment from other sisters. Nevertheless, after proving herself, she became mother general of the congregation in 1846 after Marie Madeleine’s passing. With much effort, in 1859 she won final approval of the institute from Pope Pius IX.
She was quite active in organizing relief during the Franco Prussian War.
.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 05
423 Eusebius of Cremona build hostel for poor pilgrims, Abbot (AC).  ST EUSEBIUS of Cremona paid a visit as a young man to Rome and during his stay made the acquaintance of St Jerome. There sprang up between the two an intimacy which proved lifelong, and when Jerome proposed to journey to the Holy Land Eusebius determined to accompany him. Arrived at Antioch, they were joined by the widow St Paula and her daughter. St Eustochium, who accompanied them in their pilgrimages to the Holy Places and Egypt, before they all settled at Bethlehem. In view of the large number of poor pilgrims who flocked to Bethlehem, St Jerome proposed to build a hostel for them; and it was apparently to collect funds for that purpose that he sent Eusebius and Paulinian first to Dalmnatia and then to Italy, where they seem to have sold the property St Eusebius owned at Cremona as well as that of St Paula in Rome.   Later on, we find St Jerome accusing Rufinus of hiring a monk to get possession of a letter from St Epiphanius to John of Jerusalem—the monk having undertaken to make a Latin translation of it for Eusebius who, though an excellent Latin scholar, knew no Greek. The details of these protracted controversies are obscure and not very edifying. It seems that Eusebius was largely responsible for having eventually induced Pope St Anastasius to condemn the writings of Origen.
610 St. Virgilius of Arles Archbishop many miracle worker.  A native of Gascony, France, he studied on the island of Lerins, off the French coast near Cannes, eventually serving as abbot of the monastery there. He Iater was abbot of St. Symphorien in Autun and archbishop of Arles, also serving as apostolic vicar to King Childebert II (r. 575-595). He probably consecrated St. Augustine as archbishop of Canterbury and was responsible for founding churches in Arles. Virgilius was also rebuked by St. Gregory I the Great (r. 590-604) for permitting the forced conversion of Jews.
1734 St. John Joseph of the Cross very ascetic prophesy miracles humility religious discipline.  It had been the wish of St John Joseph to remain a deacon in imitation of the Seraphic Father St Francis, but his superiors decided that he should be raised to the priesthood, and on Michaelmas day 1677 he celebrated his first Mass. A month later, when at an unusually early age he was entrusted to hear confessions, it was found that the young priest, who from his purity of heart had grown up ignorant of evil, was endowed with an extraordinary insight and wisdom in the tribunal of penance.
About this time he formed the plan of building in the wood near the convent some little hermitages, like those of the early Franciscans, where he and his brethren could spend periods of retirement in even stricter austerity than was possible in the house. He easily obtained the permission of his superiors, and these hermitages became the means of great spiritual advancement.
Besides miracles and the gift of prophecy John Joseph was endowed with other supernatural gifts, such as ecstasies, levitation and heavenly visions moreover, during a great part of his life he could read the thoughts of those who came to consult him as clearly as though they had been writtten words.  He was canonized in 1839 (Gregory XVI 1831-46).

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 06
  203 Sts. Perpetua and Felicity she "couldn't call herself any other name but Christian".    Saints Perpetua and Felicity, who, on the day following this, received from the Lord the glorious crown of martyrdom.
With the lives of so many early martyrs shrouded in legend, we are fortunate to have the record of the courage of Perpetua and Felicity from the hand of Perpetua herself, her teacher Saturus, and others who knew them. This account, known as "The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity," was so popular in the early centuries that it was read during liturgies.
203 SS. PERPETUA, FELICITY AND THEIR COMPANIONS, MARTYRS
THE record of the passion of St Perpetua, St Felicity and their companions is one of the greatest hagiological treasures that have come down to us.

In the fourth century these acts were publicly read in the churches of Africa, and were in fact so highly esteemed that St Augustine found it necessary to issue a protest against their being placed on a level with the Holy Scriptures. In them we have a human document of singularly vivid interest preserved for us in the actual words of two of the martyrs themselves.

335 St. Basil Bishop of Bologna, Italy Pope who was ordained by Pope St. Sylvester.
At Bologna, St. Basil, bishop, who was ordained by Pope 
who was ordained by Pope St. Sylvester, , and who governed the church entrusted to his care with great holiness, both by word and example.   Basil served his diocese until his death.

776 Chrodegang of Metz B (AC) many of the poor depended entirely upon his charity Chrodegang himself safely brought the pope over the Alps.  St CHRODEGANG was born near Liege, and was probably educated at the abbey of St. Trond. We are told that he spoke his own tongue and Latin with equal fluency; in appearance he was singularly prepossessing, and his kindness and gracious manners endeared him to all. Charles Martel recognized his exceptional qualities, and chose him as his secretary and referendary. After the death of Charles, Chrodegang, though still a layman, was in 742 invested with the bishopric of Metz; he combined in such an eminent degree sanctity with sagacity that nothing but good could result from such an appointment, and everywhere the holy man used his influence for the furtherance of justice and for the public weal. His biographers extol his almost boundless charity and his special solicitude for widows and orphans. As ambassador from Pepin, mayor of the palace, to Pope Stephen III, Chrodegang was concerned closely with Pepin’s coronation as king in 754, his defeat of the Lombards in Italy, and the handing over of the exarchate of Ravenna and other territory to the Holy See.
1137 St. Ollegarius Augustinian bishop miracles.  In 1123 Ollegarius went to Rome to attend the first Council of the Lateran, where he asked Pope Callistus II and the assembly to enact that the privileges which were being offered to those who would take part in the crusades in Palestine should be extended to those who would fight the Moslems in Spain. His petition was granted, and he returned home as apostolic delegate charged to preach a crusade against Moors. Success crowned his efforts, and Count Raymond succeeded in obtaining sufficient reinforcements to inflict severe losses on the Moors and to drive them from some of their strongholds. Ollegarius also did much to encourage and extend in his diocese the newly formed Order of Knights Templars. His metro­politan city of Tarragona had been almost entirely destroyed by the Moors, and he set to work to rebuild and restore it. Ollegarius also made the care of the sick poor, and in particular the mentally afflicted, the, object of his special solicitude. Al­though he was closely bound to the ruling family, he did not hesitate to denounce Count Raymond III when the count sought to reimpose an unjust tribute which his father, Raymond Berengarius, had remitted. At a synod in 1137 the archbishop, who was old and in failing health, was suddenly taken ill. He was carried from the council-chamber to his bed, from which he never rose again.

1235 Cyril of Constantinople Carmelite priest teacher of true sanctity.  The unsatisfactory character of this notice is revealed at once by the fact that while the Emperors Philip of Swabia and Otto IV must unquestionably be here referred to, Otto was not the colleague but the opponent and successor of Philip. Moreover Otto IV died in 1218, while Brocard, the predecessor of Cyril in the office of prior general of the Carmelites, was still living at that date. It would serve no good purpose to enter into any detail regarding the fanciful biography which at a later period was invented for St Cyril and which still holds its place in the lessons of the Carmelite Breviary. According to this; Cyril was a gifted priest of Constantinople who had rendered marvellous services to the Church in controversy with the Greek Orthodox over the question of the Filioque, and who had been sent by the Emperor Manuel Comnenus on an embassy to Pope Alexander III. In point of fact we know no more about St Cyril than the circumstance that about the year 1232 he succeeded and secondly that, owing in part to a most extravagant confusion of his name with that of St Cyril of Alexandria and St Cyril of Jerusalem, there were attributed to him long after his death a supposed treatise on the procession of the Holy Ghost, a dissertation upon the development cf the Carmelite Order, and a much-controverted Oracle or Prognostic, “solemnly transmitted from Heaven by angelic hands to St Cyril of Constantinople, the Carmelite”.

1447 St. Colette distributed her inheritance to poor holiness spiritual wisdom Superior of all Poor Clare convents sanctity, ecstacies visions of the Passion, prophesied.  At Ghent in Flanders, St. Collette, virgin, who at first professed the rule of the Third Order of St. Francis, and afterwards, by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, restored the pristine discipline to a great number of monasteries of Nuns of the Second Order.   Because she was graced with heavenly virtues, and performed innumerable miracles, she was inscribed on the roll of saints by Pope Pius VII.

1728 Blessed Rose Venerini organize schools in many parts of Italy a number of miracles were attributed to her.  Bd Rose had the gift of ready and persuasive speech, and a real ability to teach and to teach others to teach, and was not daunted by any difficulty when the service of God was in question. Her reputation spread, and in 1692 she was invited by Cardinal Barbarigo to advise and help in the training of teachers and organizing of schools in his diocese of Montefiascone. Here she was the mentor and friend of Lucy Filippini, who became foundress of an institute of maestre pie and was canonized in 1930. Rose organized a number of schools in various places, sometimes in the face of opposition that resorted to force in unbelievable fashion—the teachers were shot at with bows and their house fired. Her patience and trust overcame all obstacles, and in 1713 she made a foundation in Rome that received the praise of Pope Clement XI himself.
It was in Rome that she died, on May 7, 1728; her reputation of holiness was confirmed by miracles, and in 1952 she was beatified. It was not till some time after her death that Bd Rose’s lay school-teachers were organized as a religious congregation: they are found in America as well as in Italy, for the Venerini Sisters have worked among Italian immigrants since early in the twentieth century.
           There is a short account of Bd Rose in the decree of beatification, printed in the Acta
         Apostolicae Sedis
, voi. xliv (1952), pp. 405—409.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 07
Floréntiæ, in Etrúria, sanctæ Terésiæ Margarítæ Redi, Vírginis.  At Florence in Etruria, St. Teresa Margaret Redi, virgin, a member of the Order of Discalced Carmelites, of such admirable purity and simplicity that Pope Pius XI solemnly enrolled her on the scroll of holy virgins.
843 St. Ardo Benedictine abbot from Languedoc accompanied St. Benedict originally baptized Smaragdus. He became a Benedictine, took the name Ardo, and served under St. Benedict of Aniane. Ardo directed the monastery school at Aniane and accompanied St. Benedict on his journeys. In 814, Ardo became St. Benedict's successor when the abbot was named superior of the Aachen monastery in Germany. Ardo wrote the biography of St. Benedict of Aniane.
Although the Bollandists reject the claims of Ardo to be included in the register of saints, Mabillon seeks to prove that he must have been the subject of a definite cultus, because he has his own office in the Aniane Breviary and his relics were publicly venerated. See his Acta Sanctorum O.S.B., vol. iv, pt i, p. 550 where we learn also that Ardo’s head was preserved in a casket of silver-gilt, and his body in a wooden chest “wonderfully carved”.

Born at Rocca Secca in the Kingdom of Naples, 1225 or 1227; died at Fossa NuovaPope Leo XIII declared him the heavenly patron of all Catholic schools.

1274 St. Thomas Aquinas Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church (Angelicus Doctor), patron of Catholic universities, colleges, and schools.  1274 ST THOMAS AQUINAS, DOCTOR OF THE Church
THE family of the counts of Aquino was of noble lineage, tracing its descent back for several centuries to the Lombards. St Thomas’s father was a knight, Landulf, and his mother Theodora was of Norman descent. There seems something more northern than southern about Thomas’s physique, his imposing stature, massive build and fresh complexion.  

He was ill when he was bidden by Pope Gregory X to attend the general council at Lyons for the reunion of the Greek and Latin churches and to bring with him his treatise “Against the Errors of the Greeks”. He became so much worse on the journey that he was taken to the Cistercian abbey of Fossa Nuova near Terracina, where he was lodged in the abbot’s room and waited on by the monks. In com­pliance with their entreaties he began to expound to them the Canticle of Canticles, but he did not live to finish his exposition. It soon became evident to all that he was dying. After he had made his last confession to Father Reginald of Priverno and received viaticum from the abbot he gave utterance to the famous words, “I am receiving thee, Price of my soul’s redemption all my studies, my vigils and my labours have been for love of thee. I have taught much and written much of the most sacred body of Jesus Christ I have taught and written in the faith of Jesus Christ and of the holy Roman Church, to whose judgement I offer and submit everything.” Two days later his soul passed to God, in the early hours of March 7, 1274, being only about fifty years of age. That same day St Albert, who was then in Cologne, burst into tears in the presence of the community, and exclaimed, “Brother Thomas Aquinas, my son in Christ, the light of the Church, is dead. God has revealed it to me.”

St Thomas was canonized in 1323 ( Pope Urban V 1310; died at Avignon, 19 Dec., 1370 )

 Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 08
 871 Humphrey of Pruem source of strength comfort to people during Norman invasion. Bishop Humphrey of Thérouanne, who would have preferred to remain a monk of the Benedictine abbey of Pruem in the Ardennes, was persuaded by Pope Nicholas I who thought differently. At the same time he ruled the abbey of Saint Bertin. He was a source of strength and comfort to the people during the Norman invasion.
He had the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady kept with special splendor in his diocese (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1223 St. Vincent Kadlubek Cistercian bishop 1 of earliest Polish chroniclers, also called Vincent of Cracow Born in Carnow, Poland, circa 1150, he studied in France and Italy before receiving appointment as provost of the cathedral of Sandomir (modern Poland). In 1208 he was appointed bishop of Cracow and worked to promote the reforms then being decreed by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) and to improve the monastic and religious conditions of the diocese. Resigning in 1128, he entered the Cistercians at Jedrzejow Abbey, where he established himself as one of Poland's first chroniclers through his authorship of the Chronicles of the Kings and Princes of Poland. His cult was confirmed in 1764, and he is venerated in Poland as a saint.
1550 St. John of God impulsive love embraced anyone in need. At Granada in Spain, St. John of God, founder of the Order of Brothers Hospitallers, famed for his mercy to the poor, and his contempt of self.  Pope Leo XIII appointed him as heavenly patron of the sick and of all hospitals.  John of God is the patron of the sick, of hospitals, and of nurses, printers, and booksellers.  
From the time he was eight to the day he died, John followed every impulse of his heart. The challenge for him was to rush to follow the promptings of the Holy Spirit gave him, not his own human temptations. But unlike many who act impulsively, when John made a decision, no matter how quickly, he stuck with it, no matter what the hardship.  

1550 ST JOHN OF GOD, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS HOSPITALLERS
THIS St John was born in Portugal and spent part of his youth in the service of the bailiff of the count of Oroprusa in Castile. In 1522 he enlisted in a company of soldiers raised by the count, and served in the wars between the French and the Spaniards and afterwards in Hungary against the Turks.

From contact with licentious companions in the army, he gradually lost the practice of religion and fell into grievous excesses. The troop having been disbanded, he went to Andalusia, where he entered the service of a woman near Seville as a shepherd.
     At the age of about forty, stung with remorse for his past misconduct, he resolved to amend his life, and began to consider how he could best dedicate the rest of his life to God’s service.
Compassion for the distressed led him to leave his situation in the hope that by crossing to Africa he might succour the Christian slaves there and perhaps win the crown of martyrdom.
At Gibraltar he met a Portuguese gentleman who had been condemned to banishment. This exile and his wife and children were bound for Ceuta in Barbary, and John was so full of pity for them that he attached himself to the family and served them without wages. At Ceuta the man fell ill, and John hired himself out as a day labourer to earn a little money for their benefit. However, he sustained a great shock owing to the apostasy of one of his companions, and as his confessor assured him that his going in quest of martyrdom was an illusion, he resolved to return to Spain.  
St John of God was canonized in 1690, and in 1886 Pope Leo XIII, as the Roman Martyrology records, “declared him the heavenly patron of all hospitals and sick folk”, with St Camillus of Lellis, to whom Pope Pius XI in 1930 added nurses of both sexes. Because of his early venture in hawking books and pictures he is also sometimes specially honoured by book and print sellers.  After hearing Blessed John of Ávila preach on Saint Sebastian's Day (January 20), he was so touched that he cried aloud and beat his breast, begging for mercy. He ran about the streets behaving like a lunatic, and the townspeople threw sticks and stones at him. He returned to his shop, gave away his stock, and began wandering the streets in distraction.
Some people took him to Blessed John of Ávila, who advised him and offered his support. John was calm for a while but fell into wild behavior again and was taken to an insane asylum, where the customary brutal treatments were applied to bring him to sanity. John of Ávila heard of his fate and visited him, telling him that he had practiced his penance long enough and that he should address himself to doing something more useful for himself and his neighbor. John was calmed by this, remained in the hospital, and attended the sick until 1539. While there he determined to spend the rest of his life working for the poor.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 09
 400 St. Gregory of Nyssa mystic among the three great Cappadocians.   At Nyssa, the death of St. Gregory, the son of Saints Basil and Emmelia, and the brother of Saints Basil the Great, bishop, and Peter, bishop of Sebaste, and Macrina, virgin.  His life and his great learning brought him fame.  He was driven from his own city for having defended the Catholic faith during the reign of the Arian emperor Valens.
Born at Caesarea, Cappadocia, c. 330-335; died c. 395-400. 
1440 St. Frances of Rome renowned for her noble family, holy life, and the gift of miracles.
THE gentle saint who was known first to her fellow-citizens and then to the Church at large as Santa Francesca Romana, St Frances the Roman, possessed to an extraordinary degree the power of attracting the love and admiration of those who came in contact with her. Nor has her charm ended with her death, for she is still honoured by countless souls who seek her intercession and pray before her tomb in Santa Maria Nuova. On her feast day and within its octave, crowds flock to visit Tor de’ Specchi and the Casa degli Esercizi Pu (the successor of the old Palazzo Ponziano), the rooms of which are annually thrown open to the public and every memorial and relic of the saint exhibited.
She was born in the Trastevere district of Rome in 1384, at the beginning of the Great Schism of the West, which was to cause het much grief as well as adversely to affect the fortunes of her family. She did not live to see harmony completely restored. Her parents, Paul Busso and Jacobella dei Roffredeschi, were of noble birth and ample means, and the child was brought up in the midst of luxury but in a pious household. Frances was a precocious little girl, and when she was eleven she asked her parents to allow her to become a nun, only to be met by a point-blank refusal. She died as she finished her vespers. Her last words were: "The Angel has finished his task; he calls me to follow him." The cause for her canonization was introduced almost immediately, but it was not much advanced until the accession of Clement VIII, who had a great devotion to the saint, but he and his successor died before this was accomplished. Paul V (Borghese) decreed her canonisation.  Her husband and children are entombed beneath the pavement of the Ponziani family chapel (now the sacristy) of the Church of Saint Cecilia. The walls have scenes from her life. Her skeletal remains, clad in the habit of the Oblates of the Congregation of Mount Olivet, which she founded, lie exposed in a glass casket in the church with her name, coupled with its original designation of Santa Maria Nuovo. Once every hundred years it is opened to reclothe her body in a fresh habit. This is her father Paolo di Bussi's church.
1463 St. Catherine of Bologna  experience visions of Christ and Satan, incorrupt healing miracles.   At Bologna, St. Catherine, virgin, of the Second Order of St. Francis, illustrious for the holiness of her life.  Her body is greatly honoured in that city.  Already some years earlier the little community governed by Lucy Mascaroni had embraced the strict Rule of St Clare and had removed to a more suitable building, but it was felt by St Catherine and the more austere sisters that the full regularity of the convent could not be obtained until it should become enclosed. The inhabitants of Ferrara, however, long resisted this innovation, and it was mainly through the prayers and efforts of St Catherine that enclosure was conceded, and finally sanctioned by Pope Nicholas V. Catherine was then appointed superioress of a new convent of strict observance at Bologna, and although she shrank from the office and would have preferred to remain in Ferrara, she received a divine intimation that she was to go and made no further protest. She and the religious who accompanied her were received at Bologna by two cardinals, by the senate and magistrates, and by the entire population, and there they established the convent of Corpus Christi. Despite the strictness of the enclosure, the fame of the sanctity and healing powers of St Catherine, as well as her gifts of prophecy, attracted so many would-be postulants that room could not be found for them all.
1857 Dominic Savio; Bosco wrote Dominic's biography  cheerfulness, friendliness, careful observation, & good advice. THE year 1950 saw the canonization of a twelve-year-old girl, Mary Goretti, as a martyr and the beatification of a fifteen-year-old boy, Dominic Savio, as a confessor.  The Church has raised several child martyrs to her altars, but the case of Dominic Savio seems to be unique. He was canonized in 1954.  He was born at Riva in Piedmont in 1842, the son .of a peasant, and grew up with the desire to be a priest. When St John Bosco began to make provision for training youths as clergy to help him in his work for neglected boys at Turin, Dominic’s parish-priest recommended him. An interview took place, at which Don Bosco was most deeply impressed by the evidence of grace in the boy’s soul, and in October 1854, when he was twelve, Dominic became a student at the Oratory of St Francis de Sales in Turin.
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 10

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 11
 646 Saint Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem From his youth he was distinguished for his piety and his love for classical studies proficient in philosophy of monasticism. Born in Damascus around 560. From his youth he was distinguished for his piety and his love for classical studies. He was especially proficient in philosophy, and so he was known as Sophronius the Wise.
The future hierarch, however, sought the true philosophy of monasticism, and conversations with the desert-dwellers. No sooner was he established in his see than he assembled all the bishops of his patriarchate to condemn monothelite teaching, and composed a synodal letter to explain and state the Catholic doctrine on the subject contested. This letter, which was afterwards confirmed in the sixth general council, was sent by St Sophronius to Pope Honorius and to Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had persuaded Honorius to write evasively on this question as to one or two wills in Christ. It seems evident that Honorius never professed to pronounce upon the matter in dispute, but his silence was ill-timed, as it gave the appearance of con­niving at heresy. Sophronius, seeing that the emperor and many Eastern prelates were fighting against the truth, felt that it was his duty to defend it with greater zeal than ever. He took his suffragan Stephen, Bishop of Dor, to Mount Calvary, and there adjured him by Christ who was crucified on that spot, and by the account he would have to render at the last day, “to go to the Apostolic See, where are the foundations of holy doctrine, and not to cease to pray till those in authority there should examine and condemn the novelty”. Stephen obeyed and remained in Rome for ten years, until he saw the monothelite heresy condemned by Pope St Martin I at the Council of the Lateran in 649.
THIS Bd Christopher of Milan must not be confused with a Dominican of the same name and place who is commemorated on March 1.
1485 BD CHRISTOPHER MACASSOLI.   Christopher Macassoli entered the Franciscan Order at an early age. Love of poverty, great purity of heart and complete trust in God were his distinguishing characteristics. As a priest he converted many by his preaching and example. At Vigevano he helped to enlarge the friary in which he lived, and thousands of people flocked to receive his counsel and to ask his intercession with God. He died in 1485 and Pope Leo XIII in 1890 confirmed the local cultus which had been unbroken since his death. We are told that the little chapel of St Bernardino at Vigevano, where his remains repose in a tomb built into the wall, is covered with votive offerings made by the faithful in acknowledgment of miraculous answers to prayer.
1770 St. Teresa Margaret Redi discalced Carmelite nun remarkable prayer life and a deeply penitential demeanor.  The devotion paid to her, especially in the city of Florence, has been attended with many miracles.
Anna Maria Redi was a native of Florence, Italy. She entered the Carmelites in 1765 and took the name Sister Teresa Margaret. She died at the age of twenty-three, but in the very brief time of her life in the cloister, she displayed a remarkable prayer life and a deeply penitential demeanor. She was canonized in 1934 by Pope Pius XI (r. 1922-1939).


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 12
1500 B.C. The Righteous Phineas, grandson of the High Priest Aaron (also commemorated today) son of High Priest Eleazar also a priest and zealous in his service.  When the Israelites, after the holy Prophet Moses (September 4) led them out of Egypt, were already near the Promised Land, their neighbors the Moabites and Midianites were overcome by fear and envy. Not trusting in their own strength, they summoned the magician Balaam to put a curse on the Israelites.  The Lord revealed His will to Balaam, and Balaam refused to curse the People of God, seeing that God was pleased to bless them (Num. 24:1).
Then the Moabites drew the Israelites into the worship of Baal-Peor. God punished the Jews for their apostasy, and they died by the thousands from a plague.  Many, beholding the wrath of God, came to their senses and repented.

At this time a certain man named Zimri, of the tribe of the Simeon, "brought his brother a Midianite woman in the sight of Moses and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they wept at the door of the tabernacle of witness" (Num. 25:6).
Phineas, filled with wrath, went into Zimri's tent and killed both him and the Midianite woman with a spear.
"And the Lord said to Moses, 'Phineas... has caused My wrath against the children of Israel to cease, when I was exceedingly jealous among them.... Behold, I give him a covenant of peace, and he and his descendants shall have a perpetual covenant of priesthood, because he was zealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel'" (Num. 25:10-13).
After this, at the command of God, Phineas went at the head of the Israelite army against the Moabites and brought chastisement upon them for their impiety and treachery. After the death of the High Priest Eleazar, St Phineas was unanimously chosen as High Priest.
The high priesthood, in accord with God's promise, continued also with his posterity. St Phineas died at an advanced age around 1500 B.C.

Mentioned in the service for the Kazan Icon (July 8 & October 22) in the third Ode of the Canon.
According to Tradition, the Apostles Peter and John were preaching in Lydda (later called Diospolis) near Jerusalem. There they built a church dedicated to the Most Holy Theotokos, then went to Jerusalem and asked her to come and sanctify the church by her presence. She sent them back to Lydda and said, "Go in peace, and I shall be there with you."

Arriving at Lydda, they found an icon of the Virgin imprinted in color on the wall of the church (some sources say the image was on a pillar). Then the Mother of God appeared and rejoiced at the number of people who had gathered there. She blessed the icon and gave it the power to work miracles. This icon was not made by the hand of man, but by a divine power.

Julian the Apostate (reigned 361-363) heard about the icon and tried to eradicate it. Masons with sharp tools chipped away at the image, but the paint and lines just seemed to penetrate deeper into the stone. Those whom the emperor had sent were unable to destroy the icon. As word of this miracle spread, millions of people came to venerate the icon.

 604 Saint Gregory Dialogus granted a vision of the Lord Himself; Pope of Rome; inheritance - establish 6 monasteries. At Rome, St. Gregory, pope and eminent doctor of the Church, who on account of his illustrious deeds and the conversion of the English to the faith of Christ, was surnamed the Great, and called the Apostle of England.
Born in Rome around the year 540. His grandfather was Pope Felix, and his mother Sylvia (November 4) and aunts Tarsilla and Emiliana were also numbered among the saints by the Roman Church. Having received a most excellent secular education, he attained high government positions.  
Ibídem deposítio sancti Innocéntii Primi, Papæ et Confessóris.  Ipsíus autem festum quinto Kaléndas Augústi.  In the same place, the death of St. Innocent I, pope and confessor.  His feast is celebrated on the 28th of July.
1022 Simeon the New Theologian abbot successor to Saint John the Evangelist and Saint Gregory of Nazianzus. St Simeon the Pious recommended to the young man the writings of St Mark the Ascetic (March 5) and other spiritual writers. He read these books attentively and tried to put into practice what he read. Three points made by St Mark in his work "On the Spiritual Law" (see Vol. I of the English PHILOKALIA) particularly impressed him. First, you should listen to your conscience and do what it tells you if you wish your soul to be healed (PHILOKALIA, p. 115). Second, only by fulfilling the commandments can one obtain the activity of the Holy Spirit. Thirdly, one who prays only with the body and without spiritual knowledge is like the blind man who cried out, "Son of David, have mercy upon me (Luke 18:38) (PHILOKALIA, p. 111). When the blind man received his sight, however, he called Christ the Son of God (John 9:38).
1109 ST BERNARD OF CAPUA, BISHOP OF CALENO.  ST BERNARD OF CAPUA, of whose antecedents and early life no records are available, became chaplain and adviser to Duke Richard II, son of Prince Jordan of Capua. He gained the confidence of his patron so entirely that it was said that Richard would undertake nothing without first consulting his confessor. When the see of Foro-Claudio was vacant he was appointed by Pope Victor III, and he soon began to consider removing his episcopal seat. Foro-Claudio was in an exposed place— not easily defended—on the high-road between Rome and Naples, whereas at a short distance off, in a far better position, stood Caleno. The change was accordingly made. On Monte Massico hard [probably “nearby”] by lay the body of the hermit St Marcius (Martin), mention of whom is made in the Dialogues of St Gregory; and Arachis, Duke of Benevento, came with a great retinue intending to remove the body and to take it to Benevento. Mass was celebrated for them in the presence of the relics, but suddenly there came an earthquake, and the duke, interpreting this as a warning that it was not God’s will that the body should leave the neighbourhood, returned home. Then St Bernard and his priests went up to the mountain, and having brought the precious treasure to their new cathedral enclosed it in the altar.
1253 St. Fina "Seraphina"Virgin many miracles through her intercession Gregory appeared to her and said, "Dear child on my festival God will give you rest" 1253 St. Fina "Seraphina"Virgin many miracles through her intercession Gregory appeared to her and said, "Dear child on my festival God will give you rest" She was known for her self denial and acts of penance as a young girl. A mysterious illness left this beautiful girl unattractive; her eyes, feet, and hands became deformed and eventually Seraphina was paralyzed. Her mother and father both died while she was young. She was devoted to St. Gregory the Great. She died on the feast of St. Gregory, exactly as she had been warned by Gregory in a dream. Seraphina was a very helpful child around the family home. She did many of the chores and helped her mother spin and sew.
1319 Blessed Justina Bezzoli Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death.   JUSTINA OF Arezzo, whose name in the world appears to have been Francuccia Bizzoli, was only thirteen years old when she entered the Benedictine convent of St Mark in Arezzo. When the nuns overflowed into the convent of All Saints she accompanied them and continued to live there for many years, ever advancing in the paths of holiness. Then she left the convent with the permission of her superiors and made her way to a cell near Civitella, where she joined a holy anchoress called Lucia. This cell was so narrow and low that they could not both stand upright in it. When Lucia fell ill, Justina nursed her day and night for over a year without giving up any of her devotions and austerities. After Lucia’s death Justina remained all alone in the cell, in spite of the wolves that howled around and leaped on to the roof, until she developed a painful affection of the eyes which ended in total blindness. She was then taken from the hermitage back to Arezzo, where she and several other sisters lived in great self-abnegation and from midnight to midday served God in unbroken prayer. Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death. She died in 1319 and her cultus was approved in 1890 (Leo XIII 1878-1903).
1922 Blessed Angela Salawa served Christ and Christ’s little ones with all her strength ; b. 1881 Angela  Born in Siepraw, near Kraków, Poland, she was the 11th child of Bartlomiej and Ewa Salawa. In 1897, she moved to Kraków where her older sister Therese lived. Angela immediately began to gather together and instruct young women domestic workers. During World War I, she helped prisoners of war without regard for their nationality or religion. The writings of Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross were a great comfort to her.
Angela gave great service in caring for soldiers wounded in World War I. After 1918 her health did not permit her to exercise her customary apostolate. Addressing herself to Christ, she wrote in her diary, "I want you to be adored as much as you were destroyed." In another place, she wrote, "Lord, I live by your will. I shall die when you desire; save me because you can."
At her 1991 beatification in Kraków, Pope John Paul II said: "It is in this city that she worked, that she suffered and that her holiness came to maturity. While connected to the spirituality of St. Francis, she showed an extraordinary responsiveness to the action of the Holy Spirit" (L'Osservatore Romano, volume 34, number 4, 1991).

1940 Bl. Luigi Orine apostle of Mercy servant of poor founder  He founded the Sons of Divine Providence, the Little Missionary Sisters of Charity, the Blind Sacramentive Sisters, and the Hermits of St.Albert. In 1936, Don Orione, as he was called, opened a House of Providence in Cardiff. Wales. He died at San Remo, Italy, on March 12, and was beatified in 1980.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 13
600 St. Leander of Seville bishop introduced the Nicene Creed at Mass succeeded in persuading many Arian bishops to change .  The next time you recite the Nicene Creed at Mass, think of today’s saint. For it was Leander of Seville who, as bishop, introduced the practice in the sixth century. He saw it as a way to help reinforce the faith of his people and as an antidote against the heresy of Arianism, which denied the divinity of Christ.
By the end of his life, Leander had helped Christianity flourish in Spain at a time of political and religious upheaval.   He was instrumental in converting the two sons Hermenegild and Reccared of the Arian Visigothic King Leovigild. This action earned him the kings's wrath and exile to Constantinople, where he met and became close friends of the Papal Legate, the future Pope Gregory the Great. It was Leander who suggested that Gregory write the famous commentary on the Book of Job called the Moralia. In 583 St Leander went to Constantinople on an embassy to the emperor, and there he became acquainted with St Gregory the Great, who had been sent there as legate by Pope Pelagius II. The two men formed a close and lasting friendship, and it was at the suggestion of Leander that Gregory wrote his Morals on the Book of Job.
 828 St. Nicephorus Patriarch of Constantinople martyr.   At Constantinople, the transferral of the body of St. Nicephorus, bishop of that city, and confessor.  The body was returned from the island of Propontis in the Proconnesus, where his death occurred on the 5th of June while in exile for his reverence of sacred images. 
He was buried with honour by Bishop Methodius in the Church of the Holy Apostles on this the anniversary day of his exile.  THE father of St Nicephorus was secretary and commissioner to the Emperor Constantine Copronymus, but when that tyrant declared himself a persecutor of the orthodox faith, his minister maintained the honour due to holy images with so much zeal that he was stripped of his dignities, scourged, tortured and banished. Young Nicephorus grew up with his father’s example before him to encourage him in boldly confessing his faith, while an excellent education developed his exceptional abilities. After Constantine VI and Irene had restored the use of sacred pictures and images, Nicephorus was introduced to their notice and by his sterling qualities obtained their favour. He distinguished himself by his opposition to the Icono­clasts and was secretary to the Second Council of Nicaea, as well as imperial commissioner.  The new patriarch ere long still further antagonized the hostile rigorists. At the request of the emperor, Nicephorus, with the consent of a small synod of bishops, pardoned and reinstated in office a priest called Joseph, who had been deposed and exiled for celebrating a marriage between the Emperor Constantine VI and Theodota during the lifetime of the lawful Empress Mary. No doubt he acted in this way to avoid worse evils, but the party which was headed by St Theodore Studites refused to have any dealings or even to be in communion with the patriarch and with those who supported what they called the “Adulterine Heresy”: they went so far as to appeal to the pope. St Leo III sent them an encouraging reply but, being imperfectly informed about the whole matter and having received no communications from Archbishop Nicephorus, he took no further action. After a time, however, a reconciliation was brought about between the patriarch and St Theodore (who meanwhile had been imprisoned and his monks dispersed). It was not until then that Nicephorus sent to the pope a letter announcing his appointment to the see of Constantinople, with an apology and a rather lame excuse for his delay in making the customary notification. At the same time, in view of attacks that had been made upon his orthodoxy, he added a lengthy confession of faith and promised that in future he would give due notice at Rome of any important questions that might arise.
1236 Bl. Agnello of Pisa admitted into Order by St. Francis himself.  It was the winter of 1224, and they must have suffered great discomfort, especially as their ordinary fare was bread and a little beer, which was so thick that it had to be diluted before they could swallow it. Nothing, however, damped their spirits, and their simple piety, cheerfulness and enthusiasm soon won them many friends. They were able to produce a commendatory letter from Pope Honorius III, so that the archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Langton, in announcing their arrival, said, “Some religious have come to me calling themselves Penitents of the Order of Assisi, but I call them of the Order of the Apostles”: By this name they were at first known in England, and when some of them were to be ordained acolytes at Canterbury four months after landing, the archdeacon, in bidding the candidates come forward, said, “Draw near, ye brothers of the Order of the Apostles”.
The founder of the English Franciscan province, Blessed Agnello, was admitted into the Order by St. Francis himself on the occasion of his sojourn in Pisa. He was sent to the Friary in Paris, of which he became the guardian, and in 1224, St. Francis appointed him to found an English province; at the time he was only a deacon. Eight others were selected to accompany him.
True to the precepts of St. Francis, they had no money, and the monks of Fecamp paid their passage over to Dover. They made Canterbury their first stopping place, while Richard of Ingworth, Richard of Devon and two of the Italians went on to London to see where they could settle.  It was the winter of 1224, and they must have suffered great discomfort, especially as their ordinary fare was bread and a little beer, which was so thick that it had to be diluted before they could swallow it. Nothing, however, dampened their spirits, and their simple piety, cheerfulness and enthusiasm soon won them many friends. They were able to produce a commendatory letter from Pope Honorius III, so that the Archbishop of Canterbury, Steven Langton, in announcing their arrival, said, "Some religious have come to me calling themselves penitents of the Order of Assisi, but I called them of the Order of the Apostles." Pope Leo XIII declared Agnellus' beatification in 1882.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 14
   67 Forty-Seven Roman Martyrs baptized by Saint Peter (RM).  Also at Rome, the birthday of forty-seven holy martyrs who were baptized by the apostle St. Peter while in the Mamertine Prison with St. Paul his fellow apostle.  After an imprisonment of nine months, they all fell by the sword of Nero for their generous confession of faith.
According to an unreliable account, these 47 martyrs were baptized by Saint Peter and suffered under Nero that same day. The details entered into the Roman Martyrology are from the Acts of Saints Processus and Martinian (Benedictines).
 legend makes them the keepers of the prison of Sts. Peter and Paul.
VI v  St. Diaconus Martyred deacon in Marsi by the Lombards for the faith.  Martyrs of Valeria (RM) 6th century. The entry in the Roman Martyrology reads: "In the province of Valeria, the birthday of two holy monks, whom the Lombards slew by hanging them on a tree: and there, although dead, they were heard even by their enemies singing psalms." The story is taken from the Dialogues (IV, 21) of Saint Gregory the Great (Benedictines).
1254 Blessed Arnold of Padua martyr bound in chains patiently for eight years.  It is recorded of him that he solemnly expressed his conviction that God had sent into the world three teachers to enlighten the Universal Church—first Paul the Apostle, then later on Augustine, and now in these last days Brother Thomas. In 1302 Bd James was appointed archbishop of Benevento by Pope Boniface VIII, but only a few months later the same pontiff translated him to the archiepiscopal see of Naples, in which office he won the veneration of all by his virtue and his learning. His death in 1308 was followed by many spontaneous manifestations of the ardour with which his memory was cherished by his flock, and the cultus then begun was confirmed in 1911.
1308 Blessed James of Capocci Augustinian friar.  VITERBO was the birthplace of James Capocci, who entered the Augustinian Order at an early age. Giving great promise of eminence both in piety and learning he was sent to make his higher studies at the University of Paris, where he attended the lectures of his illustrious fellow Augustinian, Aegidius Romanus, who had been the pupil of St Thomas Aquinas and was an enthusiastic upholder of the teaching of the Angelic Doctor. After returning for a while to Italy and acting as theological instructor to his own brethren, Capocci was sent to make a second stay in Paris, where he took his doctor’s degree, and thereupon lectured in that city and subsequently at Naples.
It is recorded of him that he solemnly expressed his conviction that God had sent into the world three teachers to enlighten the Universal Church—first Paul the Apostle, then later on Augustine, and now in these last days Brother Thomas. In 1302 Bd James was appointed archbishop of Benevento by Pope Boniface VIII, but only a few months later the same pontiff translated him to the archiepiscopal see of Naples, in which office he won the veneration of all by his virtue and his learning. His death in 1308 was followed by many spontaneous manifestations of the ardour with which his memory was cherished by his flock, and the cultus then begun was confirmed in 1911.

1619 Blessed Dominic Jorjes soldier martyred for providing refuge to Blessed Charles Spinola . Born at Aguilar de Sousa, Portugal; died at Nagasaki, Japan, on November 18, 1619; beatified in 1819 (Pius IX 1846--1878 ). Dominic began life as a soldier and settled in Japan. There he provided refuge to Blessed Charles Spinola. For this reason he was burnt alive at Nagasaki (Benedictines).
1620 Bl. Ambrose Fernandez Portuguese Jesuit Martyr of Japan.  Blessed Ambrose Fernandez, SJ M (AC) Born at Sisto, Portugal, 1551; died in Omura, Japan, 1620; beatified in 1867 Pius IX 1846--1878. Ambrose went to Japan to seek his fortune, but soon found that God was his portion and cup. He entered the Jesuits as a lay-brother in 1577, and died in the horrible prison of Suzota (Omura) of apoplexy at the age of 69 (Benedictines).

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 15
 571 Probus of Rieti Saints Juvenal and Eleutherius appeared to him in a vision.  At Rieti, the bishop St. Probus, at whose death the martyrs Juvenal and Eleutherius were present.
Saint Gregory the Great describes the deathbed scene of Saint Probus, bishop of Rieti, Italy, during which Saints Juvenal and Eleutherius appeared to him in a vision (Benedictines).
 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM). DETAILS of the early life of St Zachary are lacking, but he is known to have been born at San Severino of a Greek family settled in Calabria, and he is believed to have been one of the deacons of the Roman church. Upon the death of St Gregory III, he was unanimously elected pope. No better selection could have been made:  a man of learning and of great personal holiness, he joined a conciliatory spirit to far-sighted wisdom, and was able to cope with the grave problems which confronted him upon his accession. The position of Rome was one of much peril. The Lombards were again preparing to invade Roman territory, when the new pope decided to treat directly with their ruler, and went himself to Terni to visit him. He was received with respect, and his personality produced such an impression that Liutprand returned all the territory that had been taken from the Romans in the preceding thirty years. Moreover he made a twenty years’ treaty and released all his prisoners.
1583 Bl. William Hart Martyr of England ministered to Catholic prisoners in York Prison  Blessed William Hart M (AC) Born in Wells, England; died at York, 1583; beatified in 1886. William, a Protestant, was educated at Lincoln College, Oxford. After his conversion to Catholicism, he studied for the priesthood at Douai, Rheims, and Rome. THIS martyr, born at Wells in Somerset, went to Lincoln College, Oxford, and there came under the influence of D Bridgewater, who, on account of his Catholic principles, soon after resigned the rectorship and took refuge in Douai. Hart followed his example, and though a delicate man, ‘suffering at times paroxysms of pain from the stone, he faced with “marvellous cheerfulness” the many hardships entailed by his life as a refugee. After teaching at Rheims he passed on to Rome, and being there ordained priest, returned to the English mission and laboured in Yorkshire. He was particularly remarkable for his joyous spirit and for his courage and charity in visiting those Catholics who were imprisoned in York Castle.  He returned to England following his ordination in 1581. Betrayed by an apostate in the house of Saint Margaret Clitherow (Benedictines).
1660 St. Louise de Marillac Sisters of Charity caring for sick poor neglected patron saint of social workers.  Not long before the death of her husband, Louisa made a vow not to marry again but to devote herself wholly to the service of God, and this was followed a little later by a strange spiritual illumination in which she felt her misgivings dispelled and was given to understand that there was a great work which she was called to do in the future under the guidance of a director to whom she had never yet spoken. Her husband’s state of health had long been hopeless. He died in 1625, but before this she had already made the acquaintance of “M. Vincent”, as the holy priest known to us now as St Vincent de Paul was then called, and he, though showing reluctance at first, consented eventually to act as her confessor. St Vincent was at this time organizing his “Confraternities of Charity”, with the object of remedying the appalling misery and ignorance which he had found existing among the peasantry in country districts. With his wonderful tact and zeal he was soon able to count upon the assistance of a number of ladies (whom he styled Dames de Charité), and associations were formed in many centres which undoubtedly effected a great deal of good. .  St Vincent himself kept an eye on Michael, and was satisfied that the young man was a thoroughly good fellow, but with not much stability of character. He had no vocation for the priesthood, as his mother had hoped, but he married and seems to have led a good and edifying life to the end. He came,with his wife and child to visit his mother on her deathbed and she blessed them tenderly. It was the year i66o, and St Vincent was himself eighty years old and very infirm. She would have given much to see this beloved father once more, but that consolation was denied her. Nevertheless her soul was at peace, her life’s work had been marvellously blessed, and she uncomplainingly made the sacrifice, telling those around her that she was happy to have still this one deprivation left which she could offer to God. The burden of what, in those last days, she said to her grieving sisters was always this: “Be diligent in serving the poor . . . love the poor, honour them, my children, as you would honour Christ Himself.” St Louisa de Marillac died on March 15, 1660, and St Vincent followed her only six months later. She was canonized in 1934.
1830 St. Clement Maria Hofbauer Redemptorist preacher reformer devoted to Jesus.  At Vienna in Austria, St. Clement Mary Hofbauer, a priest of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, renowned for his great devotion in promoting the glory of God and the salvation of souls, and in extending that order.  He was canonized by Pope Pius X. Even as a child the boy longed to become a priest, but poverty stood in the way, and, at the age of fifteen, he was apprenticed to a baker. Later he was employed in the bakery of the Premonstratensian monastery at Bruck, where his self-sacrifice during a time of famine won him the favour of the abbot, who allowed him to follow the classes of the Latin school attached to the abbey. After the abbot’s death, the young man lived as a solitary, until the Emperor Joseph’s edict against hermitages obliged him to take up his old trade again, this time in Vienna. From that city he twice made pilgrimages to Rome, in company with his friend Peter Kunzmann, and on the second occasion they obtained per­mission from Bishop Chiaramonti of Tivoli (Pope Pius VII) to settle as hermits in his diocese.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 16
305  Cyriacus erlitt vermutlich das Martyrium um 305 unter Diokletian. At Rome the martyrdom of the deacon St. Cyriacus, who, after a long imprisonment, had melted pitch poured over him, was stretched on the rack, had his limbs pulled with ropes, was beaten with clubs, and finally was beheaded by order of Maximian, together with Largus, Smaragdus, and twenty others.  Their feast, however, is kept on the 8th of August, the day on which these twenty-three martyrs were exhumed by blessed Pope Marcellus and reverently entombed.  On August 8 Pope St Marcellus I ( 308-309) translated the bodies to a burial-place, which received the name of Cyriacus, on the road to Ostia.
1022 Heribert of Cologne a devoted chief pastor of his flock performed miracles, one of which caused a heavy rainfall.  The one dissentient was Heribert himself, who declared and honestly believed that he was quite unfitted for the high dignity. From Benevento, whither he was summoned by Otto, he passed on to Rome, and there received the pallium from Pope Silvester II. He then returned to Cologne, which he entered humbly with bare feet on a cold December day, having sent the pallium on before him. It was on Christmas eve that he was consecrated archbishop in the cathedral of St Peter, and from that moment he devoted himself indefatigably to the duties of his high calling. State affairs were never allowed to hinder him from preaching, from relieving the sick and needy, and from acting as peacemaker throughout his diocese. He did not despise the outward splendour which his position required, but under his gold-embroidered vesture he always wore a hair-shirt. The more the business of the world pressed upon him, the more strenuously did he strive to nourish the spiritual life within.
1177 Blessed John Sordi, OSB BM (AC) (also known as John Cacciafronte).  JOHN was a native of Cremona and a member of the family of Sordi or Surdi; the name of Cacciafronte, by which he was generally known, was that of his stepfather, who wished the boy to adopt it. At the age of fifteen John was made a canon of Cremona, but the following year he entered the Benedictine abbey of St Laurence. Eight years later he became prior of St Victor and in 1155 he was recalled to be abbot of St Laurence. It was said by the monks that obedience was no hardship under his rule, for he was the first to practise what he enforced, and he made the spiritual and temporal welfare of the community his constant care. Bd John espoused the cause of Pope Alexander III against Octavian, Cardinal of St Cecilia, who, under the title of Victor IV, claimed to occupy the chair of St Peter. For his zeal in organizing penitential processions and urging the people of Cremona to remain loyal to Alexander, the good abbot was banished by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa, who favoured the antipope. He lived for several years the life of a solitary in Mantuan territory and was then called upon to fill the bishopric of Mantua. He continued to practise great austerity, his food, clothing and furniture being of the plainest, and he daily fed the poor at his own table. He did much to remedy abuses and kept a strict watch over church property, although he was so indifferent to his own possessions and position that he wrote to urge the pope to reinstate Bishop Graziodorus, his predecessor, who had abandoned Mantua to follow the antipope, but who had afterwards repented. The Holy See acceded to his request and John resigned Mantua, but was soon given the see of Vicenza, where he became as popular as he had been in Mantua.
1281 Blessed Torello of Poppi, OSB Vall. Hermit (AC).   Born in Poppi, Tuscany, Italy, in 1201; cultus confirmed by Benedict XIV (1740-1758). Although Saint Torello led a dissolute life in bad company, he experienced a sudden conversion. After repenting he received the habit of a recluse from the Vallumbrosan abbot of San Fedele. He lived as an austere recluse, walled up in his cell near Poppi, for 60 years. Both Vallumbrosans and Franciscans claim him. It seems certain that he was, at any rate, a Vallumbrosan oblate (Attwater2, Benedictines).
1642-49 North American Martyrs (RM) All born in France.  In the territory of Canada, Saints John de Brébeuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Anthony Daniel, Charles Garnier, and Noel Chabanel, priests of the Society of Jesus, who in the mission of the Hurons, on this and other days, after many labours and most cruel torments, bravely underwent death for Christ.
 died 1642-49; canonized in 1930. The main feast day on the Roman calendar is September 26; however, the Jesuits commemorate six priests (Antony Daniel, Charles Garnier, Gabriel Lalemant, Isaac Jogues, John de Brébeuf, and Noel Chabanel) and two laybrothers (John Lalande and René Goupil) on March 16.
They were working among the Hurons when they met their deaths at the hands of the Iroquois, the mortal enemies of the Hurons. The Iroquois were animated by bitter hatred of the missionaries, whom they subjected to indescribable tortures before putting them to death. Further information and biographies of each are presented for their main feast (Attwater, Benedictines, Parkman, Wynne).

1830 St. Clement Maria Hofbauer Redemptorist preacher reformer devoted to Jesus.   died 1642-49; canonized in 1930. The main feast day on the Roman calendar is September 26; however, the Jesuits commemorate six priests (Antony Daniel, Charles Garnier, Gabriel Lalemant, Isaac Jogues, John de Brébeuf, and Noel Chabanel) and two laybrothers (John Lalande and René Goupil) on March 16.
They were working among the Hurons when they met their deaths at the hands of the Iroquois, the mortal enemies of the Hurons. The Iroquois were animated by bitter hatred of the missionaries, whom they subjected to indescribable tortures before putting them to death. Further information and biographies of each are presented for their main feast (Attwater, Benedictines, Parkman, Wynne).


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 17


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 18
    251 St. Alexander Bishop Martyr an individual of great mildness, especially in his sermons.      At Caesarea in Palestine, the birthday of the blessed Bishop Alexander, who, from his own city in Cappadocia, where he was bishop, coming to Jerusalem to visit the holy places, took upon himself, by divine revelation, the government of that church in place of the aged Narcissus.  Sometime afterwards, when he had become venerable by his age and gray hair, he was led to Caesarea and shut up in prison, where he completed his martyrdom for the confession of Christ during the persecution of Decius.
St. Irenaeus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the fifth pope in succession from the Apostles, though he says nothing of his martyrdom. His pontificate is variously dated by critics, e. g. 106-115 (Duchesne) or 109-116 (Lightfoot). In Christian antiquity he was credited with a pontificate of about ten years (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. IV, i,) and there is no reason to doubt that he was on the "catalogue of bishops" drawn up at Rome by Hegesippus (Eusebius, IV, xxii, 3) before the death of Pope Eleutherius (c. 189). According to a tradition extant in the Roman Church at the end of the fifth century, and recorded in the Liber Pontificalis he suffered a martyr's death by decapitation on the Via Nomentana in Rome, 3 May. The same tradition declares him to have been a Roman by birth and to have ruled the Church in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It likewise attributes to him, but scarcely with accuracy, the insertion in the canon of the Qui Pridie, or words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist, such being certainly primitive and original in the Mass. He is also said to have introduced the use of blessing water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences (constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedici in habitaculis hominum). Duchesne (Lib. Pont., I, 127) calls attention to the persistence of this early Roman custom by way of a blessing in the Gelasian Sacramentary that recalls very forcibly the actual Asperges prayer at the beginning of Mass. In 1855, a semi-subterranean cemetery of the holy martyrs Sts. Alexander, Eventulus, and Theodulus was discovered near Rome, at the spot where the above mentioned tradition declares the Pope to have been martyred. According to some archaeologists, this Alexander is identical with the Pope, and this ancient and important tomb marks the actual site of the Pope's martyrdom. Duchesne, however (op. cit., I, xci-ii) denies the identity of the martyr and the pope, while admitting that the confusion of both personages is of ancient date, probably anterior to the beginning of the sixth century when the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled [Dufourcq, Gesta Martyrum Romains (Paris, 1900), 210-211]. The difficulties raised in recent times by Richard Lipsius (Chronologie der römischen Bischofe, Kiel, 1869) and Adolph Harnack (Die Zeit des Ignatius u. die Chronologie der antiochenischen Bischofe, 1878) concerning the earliest successors of St. Peter are ably discussed and answered by F. S. (Cardinal Francesco Segna) in his "De successione priorum Romanorum Pontificum" (Rome 1897); with moderation and learning by Bishop Lightfoot, in his "Apostolic Fathers: St. Clement ' (London, 1890) I, 201-345- especially by Duchesne in the introduction to his edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" (Paris, 1886) I, i-xlviii and lxviii-lxxiii. The letters ascribed to Alexander I by PseudoIsidore may be seen in P. G., V, 1057 sq., and in Hinschius, "Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae" (Leipzig, 1863) 94-105. His remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria in 834 (Dummler, Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini, Berlin, 1884, II, 120). His so-called "Acts" are not genuine, and were compiled at a much later date (Tillemont, Mem. II, 590 sqq; Dufourcq, op. cit., 210-211).

  386 St. Cyril of Jerusalem Bishop Doctor of the Church seeing poor starving he sold goods of the churches.    At Jerusalem, St. Cyril, bishop, {Confessor and Doctor of the Church} who suffered many injuries from the Arians for the faith.  Often exiled from his church, he at length rested in peace with a great reputation for sanctity.  A magnificent testimony of the purity of his faith is given by the first ecumenical Council of Constantinople in a letter to Pope Damasus.
588 St. Frediano Irish bishop founded a group of eremetical canons  Miraculously a river followed him.  At Lucca in Tuscany, the birthday of the holy bishop Fridian, who was illustrious by the power of working miracles.
also called Frigidanus and Frigidian. He was reportedly a prince of Ireland who went on a pilgrimage to Rome and settled into a hermitage on Mount Pisano, near Lucca. The pope (Pelagius II 520-590) made him bishop of Lucca, but his see was attacked by Lombards. Frediano is believed to have founded a group of eremetical canons who merged with those of St. John Lateran in 1507.  ST FRIGIDIAN, or Frediano as he is called in Italy, was an Irishman by birth or by extraction. He is said to have been the son of a king of Ulster and to have been educated in Ireland, where he was raised to the priesthood. Irish writers have tried to identify him with St Finnian of Moville, but St Frediano lived for over twenty-eight years in Lucca and died there, whereas Finnian ended his days in Ireland, where he had spent the greater part of his life. On a pilgrimage to Italy Frediano visited Lucca, and was so greatly attracted by the hermitages on Monte Pisano that he decided to settle there himself as an anchorite. His repute for sanctity caused him to be chosen for the bishopric of Lucca; it required, however, the intervention of Pope John II ( 533-535 )to induce Frediano to give up his life of solitude.
1086 St. Anselm of Lucca Bishop held in high regard for his holiness austerity Biblical knowledge learning.    IT was in 1036 that St Anselm was born in Mantua, and in 1073 his uncle, Pope Alexander II ( 1061-1073 ), nominated him to the bishopric of Lucca, left vacant by his own elevation to the chair of St Peter, and sent him to Germany to receive from the Emperor Henry IV the crozier and the ring— in accordance with the regrettable custom of the time. Anselm, however, was so strongly convinced that the secular power had no authority to confer ecclesiastical dignities that he could not bring himself to accept investiture from the emperor and returned to Italy without it. Only after he had been consecrated by Alexander’s successor, Pope St Gregory VII (1073-1085), did he consent to accept from Henry the crozier and the ring, and even then he felt scruples of conscience on the subject. These doubts led him to leave his diocese and to withdraw to a congregation of Cluniac monks at Polirone. A dignitary of such high-minded views could ill be spared, and Pope Gregory recalled him from his retirement and sent him back to Lucca to resume the government of his diocese. Zealous with regard to discipline, he strove to enforce among his canons the common life enjoined by the decree of Pope St Leo IX (1049-1054). In acute discordance with the edifying example accredited to them above in our notice of St Frediano, the canons refused to obey, although they were placed under an interdict by the pope and afterwards excommunicated. Countess Matilda of Tuscany undertook to expel them, but they raised a revolt and, being supported by the Emperor Henry, drove the bishop out of the city in 1079.
We read that he was a man of great learning, and had made a special study of the Bible and of its commentators if questioned on the meaning of any passage of Holy Scripture—a great part of which he knew by heart—he could cite at once the explanations given by all the great fathers of the Church. Amongst his writings may be mentioned an important collection of canons and a commentary on the Psalms which he began at the request of the Countess Matilda, but which he did not live to complete. The holy bishop died in his native town of Mantua, and the city has since adopted him as its principal patron saint.
1567 St. Salvatore Franciscan of the Observance specially devoted to our Lady and to St. Paul who appeared to him on several occasions many and severe austerities. At Cagliari in Sardinia, St. Salvatore of Orte, confessor, a member of the Order of Friars Minor, who was numbered among the heavenly saints by Pope Pius XI (1922-1939 ), because he was graced with every virtue and had been given by God the gift of performing outstanding miracles.
Saint Salvator of Horta (Salvador d'Horta, Salvatore da Horta) (1520—March 18, 1567) is a Catalan saint. His feast day is celebrated on March 18. He was born in Santa Coloma de Farners, near Girona (Catalonia), and worked as a shepherd and shoemaker. Franciscan lay brother at Barcelona and worked as a cook, beggar, and porter at the friary of Horta.  Salvator acquired a reputation as a healer, and his cell became a destination for sick pilgrims.



Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 19


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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion