Tuesday Saints of this Day March 22 Undécimo Kaléndas Aprílis  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

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It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

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Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

 Albert Einstein is known in popular culture for his famous E = mc2 formula. Scientists know him for revolutionizing physics with his general theory of relativity. But is it possible to know the man behind the big ideas? Yes, thanks to the massive body of written work and correspondence he left behind, which the Einstein Papers Project, currently housed at the California Institute of Technology, is dedicated to collecting, editing, translating and publishing.
March 22, 2015

1st v. St.  Epaphroditus Apostle sent by St. Paul to the Phillipians
 264 Departure of Abba Dionysius the Fourteenth Pope of Alexandria.
 362 St. Basil of Ancyra priest in Galatia (Ankara) Martyr for the faith Arianism opponent; God
       Healed him after torture

5th v. St. Darerca sister of St. Patrick sons became bishops throughout Ireland
 484 St. Octavian Martyr of the Vandals under Hunneric
 752 Pope St. Zachary 741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
1487 Nicholas of Flüe, Hermit fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!" often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer for 21.5 yrs, he took no food for the body patron saint of Switzerland. (RM)
1606 St. Nicholas Owen "Little John," 20 yrs build secret hiding places for priests as a lay person
1929 Blessed Dina Bélanger Sisters of Jesus-Marie Rome accomplished pianist woman of infectious joy despite illness

The Time of the Resurrection (I) March 22 - Madonna Addolorata (Italy, 1889) - Holy Saturday
The Virgin was absolutely certain of the Resurrection of her Son because He had so openly predicted it. However, she did not know the hour, which is, in fact, determined nowhere. Therefore, the night of Holy Saturday seemed very long indeed and she spent the time reflecting on the possible time of the Resurrection.
   She was aware that David, more than the other prophets, had spoken of the Passion of Christ and she skimmed through the psalms, but found no indication of the hour. However, in Psalm 57, David, speaking in the person of the Father to His Son, said: "Awake, my glory, awake my lyre and harp..." And the Son answered: "I will awake at dawn ..." When the Virgin Mary realized the hour of the Resurrection, I will let you imagine how quickly she must have got up to see if the dawn had risen. When she found that it had not, she continued reading the psalms. She wanted to find out if any of the other prophets had mentioned the time of the Resurrection and she found this text in chapter 6: 2-3 of Hosea:
"After two days he will revive us, on the third day he will raise us up and we will live in his presence.
Let us strive to know the Lord, for his coming is a sure as the dawn."
Saint Vincent Ferrer Spanish Dominican (d. 1419)

Perfection does not consist in consolation, but rather in the submission of our wills to God
-- above all in trials and suffering. -- St. Henry Suso

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

March 22 - Paul VI's Marialis Cultus (1974) - Birth of Lucia of Fatima (1907)
The Church is always reflecting deeper on her understanding of Mary's role
The Church's reflection today on the mystery of Christ and on her own nature has led her to find at the root of the former and is a culmination of the latter the same figure of a woman: the Virgin Mary,
the Mother of Christ and the Mother of the Church.
And the increased knowledge of Mary's mission has become joyful veneration of her and adoring respect for the wise plan of God, who has placed within his family (the Church), as in every home, the figure of a Woman, who in a hidden manner and in a spirit of service watches over that family
“and carefully looks after it until the glorious day of the Lord.”
 Pope Paul VI  Apostolic exhortation Marialis Cultus on the devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary 

1st v. St.  Epaphroditus Apostle sent by St. Paul to the Phillipians
 250 St. Callinica & Basilissa Martyrs of Galatia bringing aid to the imprisoned Christians
 264 Departure of Abba Dionysius the Fourteenth Pope of Alexandria.
 264 Return of Great Sts. Anba Macarius the Great and Anba Macarius of Alexandria, from Exile.
Forty Martyrs of Sebastia
       St. Saturninus martyrs put to death during the Roman persecutions in Africa 250 - 290
 270 St. Paul of Narbonne priest notable missionary to Gaul with Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius; performed miracles
 250 - 290 St. Paul of Narbonne priest notable missionary to Gaul with Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius; performed miracles
 362 St. Basil of Ancyra priest in Galatia (Ankara) Martyr for the faith Arianism opponent; God Healed him after torture
 383 Isaak vom Dalmatus-Kloster stammte aus Syrien Athanasianer verfolgt Saturninus und Viktor
 384 St. Lea devout widow nun Superior community of Saint Marcella exchanged rich attire for sackcloth
5th v. St. Trien disciple of St. Patrick missionary abbot
5th v. St. Darerca sister of St. Patrick sons became bishops throughout Ireland
 457 St. Deogratius Bishop of Carthage; ransomed captives, fed them gave them room in church
 484 St. Octavian Martyr of the Vandals under Hunneric
 680 St. Failbhe of Iona brother of Saint Finan of Rath Abbot (AC)
 752 Pope St. Zachary
741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
1282 St. Benvenutus Scotivoli Franciscan archdeacon bishop
1244 Blessed Isnard(o) de Chiampo distinguished preacher miracles OP (AC)
1470 Blessed Hugolinus Zefferini Augustinian hermit OSA (AC)
1487 Nicholas of Flüe, Hermit fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!" often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer for 21.5 yrs, he took no food for the body patron saint of Switzerland. (RM)
1606 St. Nicholas Owen "Little John," 20 yrs build secret hiding places for priests as a lay person
1929 Blessed Dina Bélanger Sisters of Jesus-Marie Rome accomplished pianist woman of infectious joy despite illness

Pope Zacharias_Zachary Pope Zachary was a peace-maker and judged no man without a hearing.
Zachary was also responsible for restoring Montecassino under Saint Petronax and himself consecrated its abbey church in 748. The saint was known for aiding the poor, provided refuge to nuns driven from Constantinople by the iconoclasts, ransomed slaves from the Venetians, forbade the selling of Christian slaves to the Moors of Africa, and translated Saint Gregory the Great's Dialogues into Greek. Since "Zacharias embraced and cherished all people like a father and a good shepherd, and never allowed even the smallest injustice to happen to anyone," he was venerated as a saint immediately after his death (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Schamoni).
March 22 – Madonna Addolorata (Italy, 1889) –
Paul VI’s Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus (1974) – Birth of Lucia of Fatima (1907)
“Do you want to offer yourselves to God?”
We would be mistaken to think that Fatima’s prophetic mission is complete. Here there takes on new life the plan of God which asks humanity from the beginning: “Where is your brother Abel… Your brother’s blood is crying out to me from the ground!” (Gen 4:9). Mankind has succeeded in unleashing a cycle of death and terror, but failed in bringing it to an end…

In sacred Scripture we often find that God seeks righteous men and women in order to save the city of man and he does the same here, in Fatima, when Our Lady asks:
“Do you want to offer yourselves to God, to endure all the sufferings which he will send you, in an act of reparation for the sins by which he is offended and of supplication for the conversion of sinners?” (Memoirs of Sister Lúcia, I, p.162).

At a time when the human family was ready to sacrifice all that was most sacred on the altar of the petty and selfish interests of nations, races, ideologies, groups and individuals, our Blessed Mother came from heaven, offering to implant in the hearts of all those who trust in her the Love of God burning in her own heart.
Homily of His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, Esplanade of the Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima
May 13, 2010  vatican.va

1st v. St. Epaphroditus Apostle sent by St. Paul to the Phillipians
 Tarracínæ, in Campánia, sancti Epaphrodíti, Apostolórum discípuli, qui a beáto Petro Apóstolo Epíscopus illíus civitátis ordinátus fuit.
       At Terracina, St. Epaphroditus, a disciple of the apostles, who was consecrated bishop of that city by the blessed apostle Peter.
He is believed to be the first bishop of Philippi, Macedonia, Andriacia, in Lycia, and Terracina, Italy.
Three saints of that name are recorded in the earliest lists, all among the seventy-two disciples of Christ.
Blessed Epaphroditus B (RM)
Epaphroditus is mentioned with affection and esteem by Saint Paul (Phil. 2:25-30):  "With regard to Epaphroditus, my brother and co-worker and fellow soldier, your messenger and minister in my need, I consider it necessary to send him to you. For he has been longing for all of you and was distressed because you heard that he was ill. He was indeed ill, close to death; but God had mercy on him, not just on him but also on me, so that I might not have sorrow upon sorrow. I send him therefore with the greater eagerness, so that, on seeing him, you may rejoice again, and I may have less anxiety. Welcome him then in the Lord with all joy and hold such people in esteem, because for the sake of the work of Christ he came close to death, risking his life to make up for those services to me that you could not perform (NAB)."
He is traditionally considered the first bishop of Philippi, Macedonia. Both Andriacia in Lycia and Terracina in Italy also list an Epaphroditus as their first bishop. These three are said to have been among the 72 disciples commissioned by Christ (Luke 10).
More likely, there is one saint named Epaphroditus venerated in 3 different locations (Benedictines, Delaney).
250 St. Callinica & Basilissa Martyrs of Galatia bringing aid to the imprisoned Christians
In Galátia natális sanctárum Mártyrum Callinícæ et Basilíssæ. In Galatia, birthday of holy martyrs Callinica and Basilissa.
Wealthy matrons, Callinica and Basilissa spent their fortunes bringing aid to the imprisoned Christians in their area.
hey were arrested for their generosity and slain.
Callinica and Basilissa MM (RM). Rich ladies of Galatia (Turkey), Asia Minor, who comforted imprisoned Christians and were martyred for doing so (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
St. Saturninus mattyrs put to death during the Roman persecutions in Africa
 In Africa sanctórum Mártyrum Saturníni et aliórum novem.       In Africa, the holy martyrs Saturninus and nine others.

One of a group of mattyrs put to death during the Roman persecutions in Africa.
Saturninus and Companions MM (RM) Date unknown. A group of ten martyred in northwest Africa (Benedictines).
264 Departure of Abba Dionysius the Fourteenth Pope of Alexandria.
On this day (March 8th, 264 A.D.) the great father Abba Dionysius, the fourteenth Pope of Alexandria, departed. His parents were stare worshippers of the Sun (Sabians) and they put emphasis on teaching him all the knowledge of that sect.

One day a Christian old woman passed by him, who had with her some pages of a book containing an Epistle of St. Paul the apostle and offered it to him to buy it. When he read it he found in it strange sayings and unusual knowledge. He asked her: "For how much will you sell it?" She said: "For one dinar of gold." He gave her three dinars and asked her to find the rest of the pages of the book and he was willing to pay her double. She went and brought him more pages. Having read them through he found the book to be still incomplete, he asked her to search for the rest of the book. She told him: "I found these quires among my father's books. If you want to acquire the complete book, go to the church and there you can find it."

He went and asked one of the priests to show him what is called the Epistles of Paul. He gave it to him, read it, and memorized it. Then he went to St. Demetrius the twelfth Pope, who taught and instructed him in the facts of the Christian faith then baptized him. He became well rehearsed in the doctrine and knowledge of the church, and Anba Demetrius appointed him a teacher for the people.

When Anba Demetrius departed and Anba Heraclas (Yaroklas) was enthroned, he appointed him as a deputy to judge among the believers and entrusted him to administer the affairs of the patriarchate.

When St. Heraclas departed, all the people agreed to appoint this father Patriarch. He was enthroned on the first of Tubah (December 28th, 246 A.D.) during the reign of Emperor Philip who was a lover of the Christians, and he shepherded his flock with the best of care, nevertheless, he suffered much tribulations. When Decius rose up against Philip and killed him, and reigned in his place, he incited persecution against the Christians. Decius slew many of the patriarchs, bishops, and believers. This father endured much suffering during that time. Decius died and Gallus reigned after him, and persecution quieted down during his reign.

When Gallus died and Valerian reigned in his place, he renewed the persecution severely against the Christians, and his men seized Abba Dionysius and imprisoned him. They asked him to worship the idols but he refused saying: "We worship God the Father, and His Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit the One God." They threatened him, killed few men in front of him to terrify him but he was not afraid. They banished him and shortly after, they brought him back and told him: "We have been informed that you consecrate the offering secretly by yourself." He replied: "We do not forsake our prayers day or night" then he turned to the people present around him and told them: "Go and pray and if I am away from you in the body, I shall be with you in spirit." The governor became raged and returned him to exile.

When Sapor king of Persia overcame Emperor Valerian and seized him, his son Gallienus, who was wise and gentle, took over the empire. He released all the believers who were in prison and brought back those who were in exile. He wrote to the Patriarch and the bishops a letter to assure their safety in opening the churches.

In the days of this father, certain people arose in the Arabian countries saying: "That the soul dies with the body, and on the day of Resurrection, it shall be raised up with it." He gathered against them a council and anathematized them. When Paul of Samosata denied the Son, a Council assembled against him in Antioch, this Saint was not able to attend for his age. He wrote a letter to the council, rich with wisdom, explained in it the corruptive opinion of this heretic, and stated the true Orthodox belief. He finished his good strife, and departed in a good old age on (March 8th, 264 A.D.), having sat on the Apostolic Throne seventeen years, two month and ten days.

May his prayers be with us. Amen.
264 Return of the Great Sts. Anba Macarius the Great and Anba Macarius of Alexandria, from Exile.
On this day also is the commemoration of the return of the Great Sts. Anba Macarius the Great and Anba Macarius of Alexandria, from exile on an island in Upper Egypt. Emperor Valens the arian had exiled them to this island.

The natives of this island worshipped idols, and according to the orders of Valens the two Saints were tortured severely for three years. It came to pass one day that satan entered the daughter of the pagan priest of this island and tortured her. St. Macarius the great came forward and prayed over her and the Lord healed her and subsequently the priest and the people of the island believed on the Lord Christ. The Saints taught them the facts of the Christian faith and baptized them on the eve of the feast of Epiphany, 11th. of Tubah, changed the temple into a church, and with a revelation from the Lord Christ they ordained priests and deacons for them.

When they wished to return they did not know the way, so the angel of the Lord appeared to them, guided them walking, until they reached Alexandria. From there they went to the wilderness of Sheahat (Scetis). The monks of the wilderness came out to meat them, and they were at that time about fifty thousand monks among them were Anba John the short and Anba Bishoy, and they all rejoiced to meat their fathers.

The prayers of these Saints be with us. Amen.

Martyrdom of the Forty Martyrs of Sebastia.

On this day also the holy forty martyrs of the city of Sebastia were martyred. Emperor Constantine the great had appointed his friend Lecius ruler for the east and commanded him to treat the Christians well. When he arrived to his headquarter, he ordered his subordinate to worship the idols but they refused and cursed his idols. That night some of the soldiers and their children, from the city of Sebastia, made an agreement among themselves to go to the governor confessing their faith. While they were sleeping the angel of the Lord appeared to them, strengthened them and comforted their hearts.

In the morning they stood before the Governor and confessed their faith in the Lord christ, he threatened them but they were not afraid. He commanded his men to stone them, but the stones came back upon those who stoned them. He ordered to throw them in a nearby lake, which was icy. Their organs were severed because of the excessive cold. One of them whose strength was weakened, went out of the icy water and entered the bath house nearby the lake. The heat in the bath house melted the ice that was on him but he died quickly, and lost his reward.

One of the guards saw angels descending from the heaven and in their hands crowns, they placed them over the heads of the thirty nine martyrs and remained one crown in the hand of the angel. The guard went down into the lake shouting "I am christian...I am christian." He took the crown that was in the hand of the angel and was counted among the martyrs.

Among the martyrs, were young men, whose mothers encouraged and strengthened them. Because they remained in the lake for a long time and they did not die, the Governor wished to break their legs, but the Lord took their souls and reposed them. He ordered to burn their bodies and to cast them after that into the sea. As they were carrying them out of the lake, they found a young man alive, so they left him. His mother took him and tried to threw him on the wagon with his mates but they put him off the wagon again for he was still alive. His mother took him and he died in her bosom so she put him back on the wagon. They took them outside the city and cast them into the fire which did not harm them, then they casted them into the river.

On the third day those holy martyrs appeared to the Bishop of Sebastia in a vision and told him: "Go to the river and take our bodies." He went with the priests, deacons and the people to the river and found the bodies. They carried the bodies with great honor and placed them in a beautiful shrine, and their strife was heard in all the countries.

May their prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen

250 - 290 St. Paul of Narbonne priest notable missionary to Gaul with Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius; performed miracles
 Narbóne, in Gállia, natális sancti Pauli Epíscopi, Apostolórum discípuli, quem tradunt fuísse Sérgium Paulum Procónsulem.  Hic, a beáto Apóstolo Paulo baptizátus, et ab eo, cum in Hispániam pérgeret, apud Narbónem relíctus, ibídem Episcopáli dignitáte donátus est; ibíque, prædicatiónis offício non ségniter expléto, clarus miráculis migrávit in cælum.
       At Narbonne in France, the birthday of the bishop St. Paul, a disciple of the apostles.  He is said to have been the proconsul Sergius Paulus, who was baptized by the blessed apostle Paul, and left at Narbonne, where he was raised to the episcopal dignity when the apostle went to Spain.  Having zealously discharged the office of preaching and having performed miracles, he departed to heaven.
who is known principally because of reports made of him by St. Gregory of Tours. According to Gregory, Paul was ordained at Rome and, with other missionaries including Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius, he was assigned to Gaul to preach the Gospel. He enjoyed considerable success in the region around Narbonne, founding several churches there.
He is also mentioned in various legends.

WE learn from St Gregory of Tours that St Paul of Narbonne was sent from Rome with several other missionaries to plant the faith in Gaul. Two of the band, St Saturninus of Toulouse and St Dionysius of Paris, received the crown of martyrdom, but St Paul of Narbonne, St Trophimus of Aries, St Martial of Limoges and St Gatian of Tours, after passing through many dangers and founding churches in the places now connected with their names, finally died in peace. Prudentius says that the name of Paul shed lustre on the city of Narbonne. No attention need be paid to an extravagant legend which has identified St Paul of Narbonne with the Sergius Paulus who was proconsul at Cyprus when the apostle St Paul withstood the magician Elymas.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and Duchesse, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. i, p. 303.

Paul of Narbonne and Companions MM (RM) Died after 250 (c. 290?). Saint Gregory of Tours informs us (Hist. Franc. I, 30), that Saint Paul was consecrated priest at Rome from where he was sent with other preachers to plant the faith in Gaul. There Saints Saturninus of Toulouse and Dionysius of Paris were crowned with martyrdom.
Saints Paul of Narbonne, Trophimus of Arles, Martial of Limoges, and Gatian of Tours survived, established churches in their respective sees amidst many dangers, and died in peace. Prudentius says, that Paul's association with the city of Narbonne had made it famous. A much later legend identifies Paul with the Roman proconsul Sergius Paulus, who was converted by Saint Paul the Apostle (Acts 13) (Attwater2, Benedictines, Husenbeth).
362 St. Basil of Ancyra priest in Galatia (now Ankara) Martyr for the faith opponent of Arianism God Healed him after torture
 Ancyræ, in Galátia, sancti Basilíi, Presbyteri et Mártyris, qui sub Juliáno Apóstata, gravíssimis cruciátibus afféctus, ánimam Deo réddidit.

       At Ancyra, under Julian the Apostate, St. Basil, priest and martyr, who gave up his soul to God after having endured grievous torments.
Basilius von Ankyra Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 22. März
Basilius war im 4. Jahrhundert Presbyter in Ankyra in Galatien (Ankara). Er galt als gemäßigter Arianer, wandte sich dann aber gegen die Ultra-Arianer um Valens, die auf einer Synode in Mailand 355 das "eines Wesens" (homousios) aus dem nicänischen Glaubensbekenntnis gestrichen und durch ein "im Wesen ähnlich" ersetzt hatten. Basilius wurde von einem arianisch bestimmten Konzil in Ankyra abgesetzt. Er wurde dann aber von einem Bischofskonzil wieder in sein Amt eingesetzt und Athanasius wollte ihn in seinen Kampf gegen die Arianer einspannen. Dann kam aber Julian (361-363) auf den Kaiserthron, der dem Arianismus anhing. Basilius wurde gefangengesetzt vor Julian gebracht und in Caesarea mehrere Tage gefoltert. Er starb an den schweren Folterungen am 29. Juni 362. Weil sein Sterbetag auf das Fest der Apostel Peter und Paul fällt, wurde sein Festtag auf den 22. März verschoben.

Basil, a priest of Ancyra, in Galatia defended Bishop Marcellus there when the prelate was deposed by the Arians. Basil was then caught up in the persecution of Emperor Julian the Apostate. He was tortured and slain for preaching to the people.

Basil of Ancyra M (RM) Died June 29, 362. Saint Basil suffered and died for his confession of the true faith in opposition to the Arians, who denied the divinity of Jesus. He was a priest of Ancyra, Galatia (now Ankara, Turkey), who loyally supported his Catholic bishop, Marcellus, against the heretics, even after the latter's banishment in 336 by Emperor Constantius.

In 360, the Arians tried to stop Saint Basil even from leading Christian worship; but he despised the unjust order; and boldly defended the Catholic faith before Constantius himself. Basil's refusal to give way to the Arians (and the fact that he was running through the streets urging Christians to remain steadfast), under severe threats, led the authorities to claim that he was unfaithful to the emperor Julian the Apostate. He was captured, tried, and tortured at Ancyra. At Caesarea in Palestine he was hung up, first by the wrists, and then upside down from his ankles. His body was torn with rakes and finally he was slaughtered. His acta appear to be authentic.

This is the longer version of what they say: Julian the Apostate was travelling from Constantinople to Antioch in preparation for his Persian expedition. He stopped en route at the famous temple of Cibele in Galatia to offer sacrifice.
"When Julian arrived at Ancyra, Basil was presented before him, and the crafty emperor, putting on an air of compassion, said to him: 'I myself am well skilled in your mysteries; and I can inform you, that Christ, in whom you place your trust, died under Pilate, and remains among the dead.'
"The martyr answered: 'You are deceived; you have renounced Christ at a time when he conferred on you the empire. But he will deprive you of it, together with your life. As you have thrown down his altars, so will he overturn your throne: and as you have violated his holy law, which you had so often announced to the people [Julian had been a reader in the church], and have trodden it under your feet, your body shall be cast forth without the honor of a burial, and shall be trampled upon by men.'
"Julian replied: 'I intended to let you go, but your impudent manner of rejecting my advice...force me to do you ill. It is therefore my command, that every day your skin be torn off in seven different places, till you have no more left,..."
Julian went on his way; Basil endured the torture several days then asked to speak to the emperor. Julian ordered that the two should meet in the temple of Esculapius. Julian "pressed him to join him sacrifices. But the martyr replied that he could never adore blind and deaf idols. And taking a piece of his flesh which had been cut out of his body that day, and still hung to it by a bit of skin, he threw it upon Julian. The emperor went out in great indignation: and count Frumentinus, fearing his displeasure, studied how to revenge an insult...He therefore mounted his tribunal, and ordered the torments of the martyr to be redoubled; and so deep were the incisions made in his flesh, that his bowels were exposed to view, and the spectators wept for compassion. The martyr prayed aloud all the time, and at evening was carried back to prison.
"Next morning Julian set out for Antioch, and would not see Frumentinus. The count resolved to repair his disgrace, or at least to discharge his resentment by exerting his rage upon the servant of Christ. But to his thundering threats Basil answered: 'You know how many pieces of flesh have been torn from my body: yet look on my shoulders and sides; see if any wounds appear? Now that Jesus Christ this night hath healed me. Send this news to your master Julian, that he may know the power of God whom he has forsaken. He has overturned his altars, who was himself concealed under them when he was sought by Constantius to be put to death. But God hath discovered me that his tyranny shall be shortly extinguished with his life.'

"Frumentinus seemed no longer able to contain his rage, and Frumentinus commanded the saint to be laid upon his belly, and his back to be pierced with red-hot iron spikes. The martyr expired under these torments" (Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth). Saint Basil is depicted in art with a lioness by his side, sometimes he is torn by the lioness (Roeder). Julian the Apostate {Julian was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire and it was his desire to bring the empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to save it from "dissolution".  He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the cost of Christianity. His rejection of Christianity in favour of Neoplatonic paganism caused him to be called Julian the Apostate by the church, as Edward Gibbon wrote: " The triumph of the party which he deserted and opposed has fixed a stain of infamy on the name of Julian; and the unsuccessful apostate has been overwhelmed with a torrent of pious invectives, of which the signal was given by the sonorous trumpet of Gregory Nazianzen."– Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

In 363, after a reign of only 19 months as absolute ruler of the Roman Empire, Julian was killed in Persia during a campaign against the Sassanid Empire.

IN the middle of the fourth century when Arians and semi-Arians were propagating their heresies, Basil was a priest of Ancyra, a holy man who had been trained by the saintly Bishop Marcellus in the full doctrine of the Catholic Church. After Marcellus had been banished by the Emperor Constantius, and a semi-Arian, another Basil, intruded into his see, the priest Basil never ceased exhorting his people to remain staunch to the orthodox faith. In 360 the extreme Arians obtained the upper hand, and not only deposed the semi-Arian bishop, but ordered the degradation of St Basil, whom they forbade to hold religious assemblies. He, however, disregarding their orders, supported his own flock, won over many who had been led astray, and boldly defended the faith in the presence of Constantius himself.

When Julian came to the throne, open persecution of Christians almost ceased for a time, as the emperor trusted to subtler means of undermining their faith. In some cases, however, he grew impatient, and per­mitted—if he did not actually urge—the punishment of well-known Christian leaders. Basil, who had continued to do his utmost to thwart the imperial policy in Ancyra, was arrested and accused of sedition, of overturning altars, of inciting the people against the gods and of speaking irreverently against the emperor and his religion. He made a bold confession, and after being suspended by his wrists and ankles and having his flesh torn with rakes, he was cast into prison, and even­tually put to death. This martyred presbyter must not be confused with his opponent, the better-known Bishop Basil of Ancyra.

There is a fantastic account, upon which no reliance can be placed, of the torments endured by St Basil. See his so-called acts, a short Greek romance which appears to have been written in the tenth century by John, a monk of the monastery of St Elias. This was critically edited by M. Krascheninnikov in 1907, and it will be found also in the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii. But there can be no reasonable doubt that Basil did suffer martyrdom, for Sozomen speaks of him in his Eccles. His., v, 11.
383 Isaak vom Dalmatus-Kloster stammte aus Syrien Athanasianer verfolgt Saturninus und Viktor
Orthodoxe Kirche: 30. Mai (auch 22. März und 3. August)
Katholische Kirche: 27. März (auch 30. Mai und 3. August)

Isaak stammte aus Syrien und lebte im 4. Jahrhundert als Einsiedler. Unter Kaiser Valentius (364-378), der den Arianern anhing, wurden die Athanasianer verfolgt und ihre Kirchen geschlossen oder zerstört. Als Isaak von der Verfolgung erfuhr, verließ er seine Einsiedelei und ging nach Konstantinopel, um hier die Gemeinden zu unterstützen. Als die Goten Thrakien eroberten und auf Konstantinopel vorrückten, beschwor Isaak dreimal den Kaiser, die Kirchen der Athanasianer wieder zu öffnen, sonst würde er keine Hilfe von Gott erhalten. Der Kaiser ließ Isaak daraufhin in einen Sumpf werfen, aber Isaak kam unversehrt wieder aus dem Sumpf hervor und prophezeite dem Kaiser, er werde im Feuer umkommen, wenn er nicht die Kirchen öffne. Valentius übergab Isaak den Gefängnisaufsehern Saturninus und Viktor und zog gegen die Goten. Er wurde mit seinen Generälen von den Goten in einer Scheune, in die er sich geflüchtet hatte, verbrannt. Isaak wurde daraufhin freigelassen und als Prophet verehrt. Der neue Kaiser Theodosius (379-395) öffnete die Kirchen der Athanasianer und verbannte die Arianer aus Konstantinopel. Isaak ließ sich auf Wunsch von Saturninus und Viktor nahe Konstantinopel nieder. Aus seiner Einsiedelei entstand ein Kloster, in dem er 383 starb. Das Kloster wurde später nach seinem Gefährten und Nachfolger Dalmatus benannt.

Das Gedächtnis Isaaks wird auch am 22. März und am 3. August (mit Dalmatus und Faustus) begangen.
384 St. Lea devout widow nun Superior community of Saint Marcella exchanged her rich attire for sackcloth
 Romæ sanctæ Leæ Víduæ, cujus virtútes et tránsitum ad Deum sanctus Hierónymus scribit.
       At Rome, the widow St. Lea, whose virtues and happy death are related by St. Jerome.
A letter which St. Jerome wrote to St. Marcella provides the only information we have about St. Lea, a devout fourth century widow.
Upon death of her husband, she retired to a Roman monastery and ultimately became its Superior. Since his correspondence was acquainted with the details of St. Lea's life, St. Jerome omitted these in his letter. He concentrated instead on the fate of St. Lea in comparison with that of a consul who had recently died.
"Who will praise the blessed Lea as she deserves? She renounced painting her face and adorning her head with shining pearls. She exchanged her rich attire for sackcloth, and ceased to command others in order to obey all. She dwelt in a corner with a few bits of furniture; she spent her nights in prayer, and instructed her companions through her example rather than through protests and speeches. And she looked forward to her arrival in heaven in order to receive her recompense for the virtues which she practiced on earth.
"So it is that thence forth she enjoyed perfect happiness. From Abraham's bosom, where she resides with Lazarus, she sees our consul who was once decked out in purple, now vested in a shameful robe, vainly begging for a drop of water to quench his thirst. Although he went up to the capital to the plaudits of the people, and his death occasioned widespread grief, it is futile for the wife to assert that he has gone to heaven and possesses a great mansion there. The fact is that he is plunged into the darkness outside, whereas Lea who was willing to be considered a fool on earth, has been received into the house of the Father, at the wedding feast of the Lamb.
"Hence, I tearfully beg you to refrain from seeking the favors of the world and to renounce all that is carnal. It is impossible to follow both the world and Jesus. Let us live a life of renunciation, for our bodies will soon be dust and nothing else will last any longer."

Lea of Rome, Widow (RM). Roman lady who on becoming a widow entered the community of Saint Marcella, of which she later became the superior. She was noted for the austerity of her life and her extreme penances. Saint Jerome (Ep. 20 to Marcella) wrote a panegyric in her honor (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

5th v. St. Trien disciple of St. Patrick missionary abbot.
He served as a missionary and then as abbot of Killelga Monastery, Ireland.

Trien of Killelga, Abbot (AC) (also known as Trienan). Saint Trien, abbot of Killelga monastery, was on of Saint Patrick's disciples (Benedictines)

5th v. St. Darerca sister of St. Patrick sons became bishops throughout Ireland.
She was reported to have borne fifteen sons, ten of whom became bishops throughout Ireland.

Darerca, Widow (AC) Her name is derived from the Irish Diar-Sheare, which means constant and firm love. Alleged sister of Saint Patrick of Ireland and the mother of fifteen sons, some of which became saints.  (Benedictines, Montague).

457 St. Deogratius Bishop of Carthage ransomed captives fed them gave them room in church
 Carthágine sancti Deográtias, Epíscopi Carthaginénsis, qui plúrimos, a Wándalis captívos ex Urbe ductos, redémit, aliísque sanctis opéribus célebris quiévit in Dómino.
       At Carthage, St. Deogratias, bishop of Carthage, who ransomed many captives taken from that city by the Vandals, and who performed many other good works, after which he went to rest in the Lord.

WHEN Carthage was seized by the Vandals in 439, the Arian barbarians expelled Bishop Quodvultdeus and set him adrift with most of his clergy in a water-logged hulk, which, however, managed eventually to reach Naples. After fourteen years, during which Carthage remained without a chief pastor, Genseric, at the request of Valentinian, allowed the consecration of another bishop. He was a priest of the name of Deogratias, who by his example and teaching strengthened the faith of his people and succeeded in winning the respect of pagans and Arians alike.

Two years after the bishop’s consecration, Genseric sacked Rome and returned to Africa with a multitude of captives. These unfortunate people were distributed between the Vandals and the Moors, regardless of natural ties, husbands being separated from wives and parents from their children. To buy them back, Deogratias sold the gold and silver vessels and ornaments of the altar, and thus redeemed a great number of families. As there were not enough houses in Carthage available for their accommodation, the bishop gave over two of the largest churches which he filled with bedding, and organized a daily distribution of food. Some of the baser spirits among the Arians, resenting his activity, lay in wait to kill him, but the project failed. Worn out by his efforts, however, Deogratias died after an epis­copate of little over three years, and was deeply mourned by his own flock and by the exiles who had found in him their great protector. The Carthaginians would have torn his body to pieces to obtain relics, but his corpse was secretly buried while the public prayers were being chanted, and was thus preserved from dismember­ment.

Victor, Bishop of Vita, in his Historia Persecutionis Vandalicae, is the principal authority for what we know of St Deogratias. See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii.

Bishop of Carthage in 454, succeeding
St. Quodvultdeus. The Vandal king, Geiseric, brought many Italian captives to Carthage, and Deogratius ransomed them. He was reportedly slain by Arian heretics.
Deogratias of Carthage B (RM); the ancient calendar of Carthage places his feast on January 5.

In 439, Arian Vandals seized Carthage and threw out its bishop, Saint Quodvultdeus.

For 14 years the city was without a chief pastor. Then the Arian leader Genseric relented and allowed the Christians there to make a priest named Deogratias their bishop in 456. Two years later Genseric took Rome and removed from the city hundreds of captives.
Genseric and his dejected captives returned to Africa, where whole Christian families were split up and given to Vandals and Moors as slaves.
Deogratias determined to free them. The only possible method was to ransom them. For this purpose the bishop sold everything he possibly could, including the rich gold and silver plate of the church and many precious ornaments. He managed to ransom so many families that there were not enough rooms in Carthage to house them. Undeterred, Bishop Deogratias gave them rooms inside his churches. Each day he made sure that they were properly fed, until they could once again look after themselves.
And, although he was decrepit with age, each day he visited the sick to comfort them.
Many Arians resented the saint's work and a number tried--and failed--to kill him. Nonetheless he died, worn out by his enormous labors, after only one year as a bishop (Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
484 St. Octavian Martyr of the Vandals under Hunneric.
 Carthágine sancti Octaviáni Archidiáconi, et multórum míllium Mártyrum, qui, ob fidem cathólicam, a Wándalis cæsi sunt.
       At Carthage, the archdeacon St. Octavian, and many thousands of martyrs, who were slain by the Vandals for the Catholic faith.
He was an archdeacon in the Church in Carthage who was executed, along with supposedly thousands of other Christians, by the Arian Vandals at the command of King Hunneric.

Octavianus and Companions MM (RM). Octavian archdeacon of Carthage who, with his companions, said to number several thousand, were martyred by the Arian king Hunneric (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
680 Failbhe of Iona brother of Saint Finan of Rath Abbot (AC).
Born in Ireland; Saint Failbhe, abbot of Iona and brother of Saint Finan of Rath, is one of about 20 saints of the same name commemorated in Irish and Scottish menologies (Benedictines).
752 Pope St. Zachary At Rome, the birthday of Pope St. Zachary, who governed the Church of God with vigilance, and at last, renowned for miracles, rested in peace.
 Romæ sancti Zacharíæ Papæ, qui Dei Ecclésiam summa vigilántia gubernávit, et clarus méritis quiévit in pace.

Reigned 741-52. Year of birth unknown; died in March, 752. Zachary sprang from a Greek family living in Calabria; his father, according to the "Liber Pontificalis", was called Polichronius. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732. After the burial of his predecessor Gregory III on 29 November, 741, he was immediately and unanimously elected pope and consecrated and enthroned on 5 December. His biographer in the "Liber Pontificalis" describes him as a man of gentle and conciliatory character who was charitable towards the clergy and people. As a fact the new pope always showed himself to be shrewd and conciliatory in his actions and thus his undertakings were very successful.
Soon after his elevation he notified Constantinople of his election; it is noticeable that his synodica (letter) was not addressed to the iconoclastic Patriarch Anastasius but to the Church of Constantinople. The envoys of the pope also brought a letter for the emperor.

After the death of Leo III (18 June, 741) his successor was his son Constantine V, Copronymus. However, in 742 Constantine's brother-in-law Artabasdus raised a revolt against the new emperor and established himself in Constantinople; thus when the papal envoys reached Constantinople they found Artabasdus the ruler there. As late as 743 the papal letters were dated from the year of the reign of Constantine V; in 744, however, they are dated form the year of the reign of Artabasdus. Still the papal envoys do not seem to have come into close relations with the usurper at Constantinople, although the latter re-established the worship of images.
After Constantine V had overthrown his rival, the envoys of the pope presented to him the papal letter in which Zachary exhorted the emperor to restore the doctrine and practice of the Church in respect to the worship of images. The emperor received the envoys in a friendly manner and presented the Roman Church with the villages of Nympha and Normia (Norba) in Italy, which with their territories extended to the sea.

When Zachary ascended the throne the position of the city and Duchy of Rome was a very serious one. Luitprand, King of the Lomabards, was preparing a new incursion into Roman territory. Duke Trasamund of Spoleto, with whom Pope Gregory III had formed an alliance against Luitprand, did not keep his promise to aid the Romans in regaining the cities taken by the Lombards. Consequently Zachary abandoned the alliance with Trasamund and sought to protect the interests of Rome and Roman territory by personal influence over Luitprand. The pope went to Terni to see the Lombard king who received him with every mark of honour. Zachary was able to obtain from Luitprand that the four cities of Ameria, Horta, Polimartium, and Blera should be returned to the Romans, and that all the patrimonies of the Roman Church that the Lombards had taken from it within the last thirty years, should be given back; he was also able to conclude a truce for twenty years between the Roman Duchy and the Lombards. A chapel to the Saviour was built in the Church of St. Peter at Rome in the name of Luitprand, in which the deeds respecting this return of property were placed. After the pope's return, the Roman people went in solemn procession to St. Peter's to thank God for the fortunate result of the pope's efforts. Throughout the entire affair the pope appears as the secular ruler of Rome and the Roman territory. In the next year Luitprand made ready to attack the territory of Ravenna. The Byzantine exarch of Ravenna and the archbishop begged Pope Zachary to intervene. The latter first sent envoys to the Lombard king, and when these were unsuccessful he went himself to Ravenna and from there to Pavia to see Luitprand. The pope reached Pavia on the eve of the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul. He celebrated the vigil and the feast of the princes of the Apostles at Pavia, and was able to induce the king to abandon the attack on Ravenna and to restore the territory belonging to the city itself. Luitprand died shortly after than and after his first successor Hildebrand was overthrown, Ratchis became King of the Lombards. The pope was on the best of terms with him. In 749 the new king confirmed the treaty of peace with the Roman Duchy. The same year Ratchis abdicated, with his wife and daughter took the monastic vows before the pope, and all three entered the monastic life.

In 743 Pope Zachary held a synod at Rome which was attended by sixty bishops. This synod issued fourteen canons on various matters of church discipline. On this occasion the pope took up the question of the impediments to marriage of relationship in the fourth degree, in regard to which the Germans claimed to have obtained a dispensation from Pope Gregory II. The year previous Zachary had written on this point to the bishops and kings of that province. An active correspondence was kept up between Zachary and St. Boniface. The latter in his zealous labours had organized the Church in the German territories, and while doing this had kept in close connection with the Papal See. Early in 742, soon after his elevation, Zachary received a letter from Boniface in which the saint expressed his full submission to the possessor of the Chair of Peter and requested then confirmation of the three newly established Bishoprics of Wurzburg, Buraburg, and Erfurt; Boniface also sought authority to hold a synod in France and to suppress abuses in the lives of the clergy. The pope confirmed the three dioceses and commissioned Boniface to attend, as papal legate, the Frankish synod which Karlmann wished to hold. In a later letter Zachary confirmed the metropolitans of Rouen, Reims, and Sens appointed by Boniface, and also confirmed the condemnation of the two heretics Adelbert and Clement. Various questions in which the pope and Boniface disagreed were discussed in letters. In 745 was held the general synod for the Frankish kingdom called by Pepin and Carloman. Here decrees were passed against unworthy ecclesiastics, and the two heretics, Adelbert and Clement, were again condemned. Boniface sent a Frankish priest to Rome to make a report to the pope, and the latter held on 25 October, 745, a synod at the Lateran at which, after exhaustive investigation, an anathema was pronounced against the two heretics. Zachary forwarded the acts of the synod with a letter to Boniface. Pepin and the Frankish bishops sent a list of questions respecting the discipline of the clergy and of the Christian population to Pope Zachary, and the latter answered in a letter of 746 in which decisions respecting the various points are given. These decisions were communicated to Boniface so that he might make them generally known at a Frankish synod. The following year, 747, Carloman resigned his authority and the world, went to Rome, and was received by Pope Zachary into a monastic order. At first he lived in the monastery on the Soracte, later at Monte Cassino. Thanks to the efforts of St. Boniface all the Frankish bishops were now agreed in submission to the See of St. Peter. Zachary sent still other letters to the bishops of Gaul and Germany, and also to Boniface as the papal legate for the Church of this region.

Boniface was constantly in intercourse with Rome both by letters and envoys and sent important questions to the pope for decision. An important proof of the recognition by the Franks of the high moral power of the papacy is shown by the appeal to papal authority on the occasion of the overthrow of the Merovingian dynasty. Pepin's ambassadors, Bishop Burkard of Wurzburg and Chaplain Folrad of St. Denis, laid the question before Zachary: whether it seemed right to him that one should be king who did not really possess the royal power. The pope declared that this did not appear good to him, and on the authority of the pope Pepin considered himself justified in having himself proclaimed King of the Franks (cf. SAINT BONIFACE; and PEPIN THE SHORT). The ecclesiastical activity of the pope also extended to England. Through his efforts the Synod of Cloveshove was held in 747 for the reform of church discipline in accordance with the advice given by the pope and in imitation of the Roman Church.

Zachary was very zealous in the restoration of the churches of Rome to which he made costly gifts. He also restored the Lateran palace and established several large domains as the settled landed possessions (domus cultoe) of the Roman Church. The pope translated to the Church of St. George in Velabro the head of the martyr St. George which was found during the repairs of the decayed Lateran Palace. He was very benevolent to the poor, to whom alms were given regularly from the papal palace. When merchants from Venice bought slaves at Rome in order to sell them again to the Saracens in Africa, the pope bought all the slaves, so that Christians should not become the property of heathens. Thus in a troubled era Zachary proved himself to be an excellent, capable, vigorous, and charitable successor of Peter. He also carried on theological studies and made a translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great into Greek, which was largely circulated in the East. After his death Zachary was buried in St. Peters.
1244 Blessed Isnard(o) de Chiampo distinguished preacher miracles OP (AC)
Born in Chiampo (near Vicenza), Italy; cultus confirmed in 1919. From the springtime of the Dominicans in Bologna, Italy, comes the story of Blessed Isnard. He was born into a wealthy family but little else is known of his boyhood. In 1219, as a student at the University of Bologna, he met Saint Dominic and decided to join his new order. Soon after completing his novitiate in Bologna, Isnard distinguished himself as a preacher. His first assignment was in Pavia, where his work of founding and ruling the priory was complicated by the war between the pope and the emperor.
Blessed Isnard plunged courageously into the work. He knew that he was risking death in doing so, and a less stout-hearted man might have found some excuse for going to a more peaceful place. Blessed Isnard insisted on meeting the situation head-on.

One of his first encounters was with the forces of evil, quite undisguised. A possessed man had become the mouthpiece of the devil and was being used by heretics to discredit the preaching of the friar who had so recently come to Pavia to preach the faith. The devil, speaking through the lips of the possessed man, issued a challenge to the friar: "If you are from God, cast me out and cure this man."

Isnard realized that one does not lightly take up open battle with the powers of wickedness. The condition of the poor man, whose name was Martin, was enough to strike terror into any heart. The challenge came when Isnard was in the pulpit preaching. The possessed man was brought into the church, screaming, and in convulsions. The preacher realized that he must cure him or lose the interest of his audience in the cause of Christ.

Stepping down from the pulpit, he approached the possessed man, put his arms around him and, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, demanded that the evil spirits depart. Martin was freed from his tormentor, and he ended his days, according to legend, as a lay brother in the local monastery.

At another time when Isnard was preaching, a hardened heretic refused to listen to him and called out loudly, "I shall believe in the sanctity of this man only if he makes that barrel on the corner of the square come loose and strike me." Immediately, the barrel jumped from its place and struck the scoffer, breaking his leg.

Isnard spent his life preaching and working in Pavia, regardless of the fact that in spite of his life of self-mortification "he was excessively fat and people used to ridicule him about it when he was preaching." At his death, it presented a quite different appearance from the godless and strife-ridden city it was when he had arrived (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Dorcy).

CHIAMPO, where Bd Isnardo was born, is a village near Vicenza. As a youth he seems to have fallen under the spell of St Dominic’s eloquence, and joining the Order of Preachers he received the habit from the holy founder himself about the year 1219, along with Bd Guala Romanoni. Isnardo, we are told, in spite of the fact that he led an extremely ascetic life, was very stout, and physical exertion of any kind was a matter of much difficulty to him. Nevertheless nothing could daunt his energy as a preacher, and his persuasiveness and learning were such that he made many conversions. On one occasion a scoffer ridiculing the speaker’s corpulence shouted out, “I could no more believe in the holiness of an old porpoise like Brother Isnardo than I could believe that that barrel there would jump up of itself and break my leg”. Whereupon, we are told, the barrel did fall upon his leg and crush it. Isnardo was one of the first Dominicans to preach in Pavia, and when a house of the Order was founded there he was elected prior in 1240. In this house he passed away in 1244, being credited with many miracles both before and after his death. His cultus was confirmed in 1919.
See C. M. Pio, Delle vite degli huomini illustri di S. Domenico (1607), pp. 205—206 the decree confirming the cultus in Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xi (1919), pp. 184—186 and K. Majocchi, B. Isnardo da Vicenza (191 o). On this last cf. Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxiii (1914), pp. 100—101.

1282 St. Benvenutus Scotivoli Franciscan archdeacon bishop
 Auximi, in Picéno, sancti Benvenúti Epíscopi.
       At Osimo, in Piceno, the bishop St. Benvenuto.


ST BENVENUTO Scotivoli was born at Ancona and intended for the law, which he studied at Bologna, but feeling that God called him to labour for souls he was ordained to the priesthood. By Pope Alexander IV he was appointed archdeacon of Ancona, besides being made administrator of the diocese of Osimo.
   The seat of the bishopric had been removed from that town to Recanati, because the people of Osimo had espoused the cause of the Emperor Frederick II against the Holy See, but Benvenuto succeeded in the difficult task of reconciling the city with the papacy. The episcopal chair was then restored to Osimo, of which in 1264 he was nominated bishop by Alexander’s successor, Urban, and he was also appointed governor of the Marches of Ancona.
Before his consecration Benvenuto was admitted into the Franciscan Order, and during the remaining eighteen years of his life he con­tinued to wear his Minorite habit, which was long preserved at Osimo with his relics. It had ever been his earnest desire to imitate St Francis,. and as he felt
death approaching, he asked to be carried into the church and laid on the bare ground that he might die like the Seraphic Father. Whilst the psalms were being intoned by the clergy round him, he passed away to his eternal rest.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. i, pp. 517—519. It is stated that Benvenuto was canonized by Pope Martin IV, and consequently less than four years after his death.

He was born in Ancona,
Italy, and studied law in Bologna, a fellow student of St. Sylvester. Appointed archdeacon of Ancona, he went on to become the bishop of Osimo, Italy. Before his episcopal ordination, Benvenutus became a Franciscan. He was canonized by Pope Martin IV.

Benvenuto Scotivoli, OFM B (RM) (also known as Benvenutus of Osimo)
Born at Ancona, Italy; died 1282; canonized by Martin IV. Benevenuto studied law at Bologna, where he was a fellow-student of Saint Sylvester Gozzolini. He joined the Franciscans at Ancona. He was appointed archdeacon of Ancona, and finally bishop of Osimo in 1264 (Attwater2, Benedictines).

1470 Blessed Hugolinus Zefferini Augustinian hermit OSA (AC)
(also known as Blessed Hugolinus of Cortona); cultus confirmed in 1804. The little available information on this Augustinian hermit, indicates that he lived either at Cortona or Mantua, Italy (Attwater2, Benedictines).
VERY little seems to be known of the Augustinian hermit Hugolino Zefferini of Cortona. When Father Papebroch the Bollandist wrote to a high authority of the Augustinian Order to obtain information, a courteous reply was returned to the effect that the archives of their house in Cortona had unfortunately perished in a conflagration, and that a manuscript life of the holy man which they had once possessed had either been lost or stolen. All they could send was a seventeenth-century engraving which contained representations of a certain number of miracles alleged to have been wrought in connection with the relics of the beatus. One of the most surprising of these had reference to a lily which, growing out of the corpse of the deceased thirty years after his burial, effected the cure of a woman who was blind. Other traditions stated that when the first lily had been thoughtlessly plucked, two other lilies grew out of the wounds of the hermit’s incorrupt body. From the conflicting accounts given it is not even clear whether Bd Hugolino belonged to Cortona or to Mantua, and whether he lived in the fourteenth century or in the fifteenth. It seems, however, to be certain that his relics were preserved and venerated at Cortona, and the cultus  paid to him there was approved by Pope Pius VII in 1804.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii. Two short Italian biographies are also cited, one by F. Baldelli (1704), the other by N. Fabbrini (1891).
1487 Nicholas of Flüe, Hermit fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!" often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer for 21.5 yrs, he took no food for the body patron saint of Switzerland. (RM)
<NICHOLAS VON FLUE (“Bruder Klaus”) occupies a unique place in the estimation of his countrymen. Ecclesiastics, patriots, politicians, historians and poets of all creeds have sung his praises, and it may safely be asserted that no religious figure in the history of Switzerland has given rise to so varied and voluminous a body of literature.

The holy man, who was born near Sachseln in Unterwalden in 1417, belonged to a much respected family of small farmers, owners of the Kluster Alp or pasture in the Melchthal and of the estate of Flüeli on the Sachsterberg, from which they derived their surname. His father Henry also held a civil post in the cantonal service, whilst his mother, Emma Robert, was a native of Wolfenschiessen. She was a deeply religious woman who brought up her two sons, Nicholas and Peter, to belong as she did to the brotherhood of the Friends of God (Gottesfreunde). The members of this society were scattered over Germany, Switzerland and the Nether­lands, and were drawn from both sexes and all classes. Adhering loyally to the Catholic Church, they sought by strictness of life as well as by constant meditation on the passion of our Lord and similar devotions, to enter, as their name implied, into specially close relationship with God. Some of them lived in their own families, others formed small communities, and a few retired from the world altogether to lead an eremitic life. Nicholas was specially responsive to the training he received, and was remarkable from childhood for his piety, his love of peace and his sound judgement.

At the age of twenty-two, and in spite of his peace-loving disposition, Nicholas fought in the ranks in the war with Zurich. Fourteen years later, on the occasion of the occupation of the Thurgau, he again took up arms, but this time he was captain of a company. The high esteem in which he was held caused him to be appointed magistrate and judge and to be sent on various occasions as deputy for Obwalden to councils and meetings, where his clear-sighted wisdom carried great weight. He was repeatedly offered the highest post of all, that of landamman, or governor, but he could never be induced to accept it. He had married a religious-minded girl called Dorothea Wissling, and their union had been a happy one. Of their ten children, John, the eldest son, became landamman during his father’s lifetime, and the youngest studied at the University of Bale, and was afterwards for many years parish-priest of Sachseln.

Throughout the years of his married life, Nicholas had continued the devout practices of his youth. To quote the testimony of his eldest son: “My father always retired to rest at the same time as his children and servants; but every night I saw him get up again, and heard him praying in his room until morning. Often too he would go in the silence of the night to the old church of St Nicholas or to other holy places.” In obedience to what seemed to him a supernatural call to contemplation, for he had many visions and revelations, he used at times to withdraw into solitude in the valley of the Melch, but when he was about fifty he felt irresistibly drawn to abandon the world altogether and to spend the rest of his days far from home as a hermit. His wife did not oppose him, for the Friends of God recognized such vocations as sent from on high. Nicholas resigned his offices, took leave of his wife, his father and his children in the early autumn of 1467 and set forth barefoot and bareheaded, clad in a grey-brown habit and carrying his rosary and his staff.

His destination appears to have been Strasbourg, in the neighbourhood of which was a settlement of the brethren, Alsace having been their headquarters. Before crossing the frontier, however, he received hospitality from a peasant whom he discovered to be also a Friend of God, and in the course of conversation his host sought to deter him from leaving the country, assuring him that the Swiss were unpopular in Alsace and elsewhere abroad on account of their rough manners, and that he might fail to find the peaceful retreat he sought. That night there was a terrific thunderstorm, and as Nicholas looked at the little town of Liechstall beyond the frontier, the flashes of lightning made it appear to be in flames. He took this to be a sign which confirmed the advice he had received, and immediately retraced his steps. One evening during the homeward journey, as he lay under a tree, he was seized with such violent gastric spasms that he thought his last hour had come:  the pain passed off, but from that time he lost all desire for ordinary food or drink, and became in fact incapable of taking either. Later that autumn, hunters who had been looking for game in the Melchthal brought home news that they had come across Nicholas on his pasture land of the Klüster, where he had made himself a shelter of boughs under a larch tree. His brother Peter and other friends went to beseech him not to remain there to die of exposure, and he was persuaded to move to Ranft, another part of the valley, where the people of Obwalden soon built him a little cell with a chapel attached.

In this spot, which was situated above a narrow gorge, the loneliness of which was emphasized by the roar of the mountain torrent in the valley below, St Nicholas spent nineteen peaceful years. The hours from midnight to midday were passed in prayer and contemplation, but in the afternoon he would interview those who found their way to his hermitage to seek his advice on spiritual or even on temporal matters. God had given him the spirit of counsel, as he one admitted to his friend Henry Imgrund, and he continued to exercise it as he had done in the past. Strangers also were attracted by the fame of this remarkable man, who was reported to live without eating and drinking. Never very talkative, he was particularly sparing of his words to those who came out of mere curiosity. So also, when questioned as to his abstention from food, he would only reply, “God knows”. That no one brought him provisions the cantonal magistrates proved by having all approaches to his cell watched for a month, and unprejudiced foreigners, such as Archduke Sigismund’s physician and envoys from the Emperor Frederick III, satisfied themselves of the truth of the report and were profoundly impressed by the hermit’s sincerity.

Once a year Nicholas took part in the great Musegger procession in Lucerne, but otherwise he only left his retreat to attend divine service and occasionally to visit Einsiedeln. The gifts of the faithful enabled him in his later years to found a chantry for a priest in connection with his own little chapel, and he was thus able to assist at Mass daily and to communicate often.

At this epoch the Swiss Confederation had just passed through the most glorious phase in its history. Within six years, in the three battles of Grandson, Morat and Nancy, the sturdy mountain folk had vindicated their independence and had routed the hitherto unconquered Charles the Bold, master of the two Burgundies and nearly the whole of Belgium: their reputation was so great that every prince in Europe sought their alliance. The hour of their most signal triumph proved nevertheless to be the hour of their greatest danger, for internal dissensions threatened to undo the success which their arms had won. Quarrels arose over the division of booty and between the country party and the towns. Another source of contention was, the proposal to include Fribourg and Soleure (or Solothurn) in the confederation. At length agreement was reached on most points and was embodied in a document known as the Edict of Stans.

On the subject of the inclusion of Fribourg and Soleure, however, no accommodation could be reached, and feeling ran so high that it seemed that the question would have to be settled by arms. The meeting was breaking up in disorder when the parish-priest of Stans suggested seeking a final opinion from Nicholas von Flue. The deputies gave their consent and he set out to seek the hermit. His suggestion was no casual or sudden inspiration. As we know from the protocols of the Council of Lucerne, that city, which occupied an ambiguous position between the two parties, had, at an early stage of the strife, sent delegates to Brother Nicholas to obtain his advice, and it is quite possible that other districts had done the same. It has been even suggested that the Edict of Stans, a most statesmanlike charter, may have been drafted in the hermit’s cell. In any case, it is greatly to the credit of the deputies that, in the heat of their quarrel, they should have been willing to refer the matter to him. The chronicler Diebold Schilling, who represented his father at the council, tells us that the priest Imgrund arrived back in Stans streaming with perspiration, and that, seeking out the deputies in their lodgings, he besought them with tears to reassemble immediately to hear the message which he must impart to them alone. Schilling does not record the words of that message, but he informs us that within an hour the council had arrived at a unanimous agreement. Fribourg and Soleure were to be admitted into the Swiss Confederation, but upon certain conditions, which were accepted for them by Hans von Stall, the delegate of Soleure. The date was December 22, 1481.

That Christmas was a specially joyful one throughout Switzerland, and the Stans Council expressed in laudatory terms its gratitude to Nicholas for his services. Letters of thanks from Berne and Soleure to the holy man are still extant, as well as a letter written on his behalf by his son John, thanking Berne for a gift which would be expended upon the Church. (He himself could neither read nor write, but used a special seal by way of a signature.) Several of the hermit’s visitors have left accounts of their interviews with him, and that written by Albert von Bon­stetten, dean of the monastery of Einsiedeln, is particularly interesting. He describes the recluse as tall, brown and wrinkled, with thin grizzled locks and a short beard. His eyes were bright, his teeth white and well preserved, and his nose shapely. He adds, “He praises and recommends obedience and peace. As he exhorted the Confederates to maintain peace, so does he exhort all who come to him to do the same.” The dean held him in great veneration, but with regard to the prophetical gifts ascribed to Nicholas in some quarters, he says cautiously that he had received no evidence of them from trustworthy sources. Six years after the Council of Stans, Nicholas was seized with his last illness, which lasted only eight days, but caused him intense suffering. He bore it with perfect resigna­tion and died peacefully in his cell, on his birthday, having attained the age of seventy. Immediately his death became known he was honoured in all Switzerland both as a patriot and as a saint, though it was only in 1669 that his cultus was formally sanctioned: he was canonized in 1947. His skeleton lies in a shrine under a black marble canopied altar which stands close to the entrance to the choir of the present church of Sachseln, and the habit in which he died is preserved in a cupboard in the south apse. The two “Flue houses” at Flüeli date back to the days of St Nicholas, and although they have been greatly modernized one room in his dwelling-house remains intact.

In 1917 the fifth centenary of the birth of “ Bruder Klaus” was celebrated throughout Switzerland with quite remarkable enthusiasm. Perhaps the most valuable result of the interest thus awakened was the publication of a great historical monograph by Robert Durrer, a scholar with an unrivalled knowledge of the archives of his country. In these two quarto volumes, entitled Bruder Klaus, which together total some 1350 pages, will be found all the available material bearing on the life of Nicholas von Flue. The collection includes two early sketches of the career of Bruder Klaus, one by Albrecht von Bonstetten, the other by Heinrich von Gundelfingen, but these are supplemented by a mass of documentary evidence derived from ancient records and other sources. A comprehensive nineteenth century biography is that of J. Ming, Der selige Bruder Nikolaus von Flue, and others have since been written by A. Baumberger, F. X. Wetzel and J. T. de Belloc, in Italian by F. Andina (1945), and in French by A. Andrey (1941) and C. Journet (1947). See also the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and the Kirchenlexikon, vol. ix, pp. 316-319.

 (also known as Bruder Klaus)
Born at Flüeli near Sachseln, Obwalden (Unterwalden), Switzerland, March 21, 1417; died at Ranft, Switzerland, March 21, 1487; cultus  approved in 1669; canonized 1947; feast day formerly March 21; feast day in Switzerland is September 25.

"My Lord and my God, remove from me all that may keep me from you. My Lord and my God, give me all that I need to bring me to you. My Lord and my God, take me from myself and give me to yourself." --Nicholas von Flüe.
Nicholas was born into a family of prosperous farmers, who owned the Kluster Alp and the estate of Flüeli on the Sachsterberg (near Lucerne), from which their surname derives. At various times Saint Nicholas was a soldier, peasant, patriot, and judge in Switzerland. His father held a civil post; his mother was very devout and raised her sons to belong to the brotherhood of the Friends of God (Gottesfreunde). The society sought to live a strict life, to meditate on the passion of the Lord, and to seek a close relationship with God. They lived with their families in small communities or as hermits. Thus, Nicholas was pious from childhood. He was also illiterate.
In his youth Nicholas fought in defense of Swiss Confederation liberties, especially against the Hapsburgs. After the siege of Zurich in 1439, he was commissioned in the army. He defended women and children and the Church, fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!"

He loved solitude and prayer, but, by 1447, he married pious and comely Dorothea Wysling, daughter of one of the chief families of Sachseln. In the 30 years of their marriage, he had 10 children: John, Rudolph, Walter, Henry, Nicholas, Dorothea, Marguerite, Katherine, Veronica, and another girl who died in infancy. John was elected Landmann of Unterwald. Nicholas (the youngest) studied at the University of Basle and became a priest; another became a governor of the province. Dorothea's piety led her to be called "the consolation of the Church."

Nicholas would rise at dawn to tend the flocks, eat at 9:00 a.m. with his family and servants at the same table, and again at the end of the day they would gather for Vesperbrod and end the evening with family prayers. While working in the fields, he was often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations. He continued the devout practices of his youth, fasted frequently, and often spent the night in prayer.

In 1460, Thurgau was invaded by Austria and Nicholas commanded 100 men. During this campaign at Katharinental the Swiss troops were faced with a situation that anticipated in miniature that at Monte Cassino in 1944: When the Swiss succeeded in capturing the village of Diesenhofer, many Austrian soldiers sought refuge in the church of the Dominican Convent of Saint Catherine. The Swiss command was going to burn the church, but Nicholas prayed for divine guidance before the crucifix in the cloister, then he asked the command to revoke its order stressing the moral gravity of the act. The order was canceled. Nicholas was awarded a gold medal when peace was declared, in thanks for his services.

Fellow-citizens wanted him to accept the office of Landmann (governor), but he twice refused. He was appointed magistrate, served as judge for the canton, and was sent as a deputy for Obwalden to councils. When, in 1465, a powerful family appealed his fair decision and was rendered an unjust one against a humble peasant, he resigned. "Later he testified that he could see and feel flames of fire, of a disgusting odor, issuing from the mouths of the judges as they pronounced their unjust sentence; and he knew that they already had a foretaste of hell within themselves." Though the elite turned against him and spoke calumnies of him, Nicholas was still sought out by his neighbors and people from the adjoining cantons to settle disputes.

In 1467 (age 50), fourteen months after the birth of the tenth child, Nicholas heard God's command to live as a hermit and told his wife immediately. He resigned his offices and, with his devout wife's permission, left his family to live for the next 20 years as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer. Dorothea was overcome by the news but put no obstacles in his way because she recognized the call. "She wept as she made the supreme sacrifice" of allowing her husband to leave. His relatives and neighbors, however, were full of indignation, which he disregarded. Nicholas and his wife drew up an agreement and told the family and servants that Dorothea was thenceforth head of the family.

He left barefoot and bareheaded, wearing a drab habit and carrying a rosary and a staff. Thus clad as a pilgrim, Nicholas became known as Brother Klaus. He appears to have been headed for Strasbourg, France, where the headquarters of the Gottesfreunde lay, looking for a hermitage in which to spend his final years. On his way, however, he wandered toward Basle, where he was put up by a peasant who was a Friend of God, who told him that the Swiss were unpopular in Alsace and that he might not find there the life that he sought.

That night during a violent thunderstorm, Nicholas looked at a little town beyond the frontier and saw that lightning made it appear to be in flames. He took this as a divine confirmation of the peasant's advice and turned back. When Brother Klaus decided to follow the peasant's suggestion, he felt a violent pain in his intestines and was surrounded by light. Thereafter, he "never felt the need of human food or drink, and have never used them." Hunters brought back to his family the news that they had seen him living on his pastureland in a shelter of boughs. Family members went to beg him not to stay there and fall prey to exposure.

So, he finally moved to Ranft, where the people of Obwalden built him a cell and a small chapel. He lived many years in this lonely place above a narrow gorge within earshot of the mountain stream spending most of his time in prayer. He prayed and meditated from midnight to midday, attended Mass in Sachseln every Sunday, and paid an annual visit to Lucerne for the Musegger procession. He never ate or drank anything except the Blessed Sacrament.

Abbot Oswald Isner wrote:  "When Nicholas had abstained for 11 days from taking natural food, he sent for me and asked me secretly whether he should take some food or continue to fast. He had always desired to live without eating, the better to separate himself from the world. I touched the parts of his body where little flesh was left; all was dried up; his cheeks were hollow and his lips were very thin.
"When I had seen and understood that it could come only from divine love, I advised brother Nicholas to continue to this test as long as he could stand it without the danger of death. That is what brother Nicholas did; from that moment until his death, that is for about twenty-one and a half years, he continued to take no food for the body.

"Since the holy brother was more familiar with me than with anyone else, I asked him many times how he managed to do it. One day in his cell he told me, in great secrecy, that when the priest celebrated communion he received the strength which alone permitted him to live without eating or drinking."

When those seeking his counsel asked him about eating nothing, Nicholas would reply, "God knows." Cantonal magistrates had his cell watched for a month to ensure themselves of the fact that no one brought him food.
Nevertheless, Nicholas held that "holy obedience is the highest virtue." When Bishop Thomas visited him and commanded him to eat bread and a little wine after 18 months of nothing, Nicholas hesitated to obey. When he did try to eat a tiny fragment of a morsel, he almost choked to death and the bishop finally believed.

Until he had a chaplain, he attended Sunday Mass and Holy Days at the parish church of Sachseln. Nicholas founded a chantry for a priest with donations and thus was enabled to assist at Mass daily. In 1470, Pope Paul II granted the first indulgence to the sanctuary at Ranft and it became a place of pilgrimage. Occasionally Klaus would make a pilgrimage to Engleburg or Einsiedeln.

He received the great (including Emperor Frederick III), the humble, and children. Many pilgrims came for counsel. He could speak with authority to married people and children. His wife and children also attended Mass in his chapel and listened to his spiritual counsel.

In 1481, the Swiss Confederation had gained its independence from Charles the Bold of Burgundy, the rulers of Europe sought its alliance, and it was on the verge of breaking apart over how to divide the spoils gained during the conquests. Internal disputes threatened its solidarity, but an agreement was reached and put forth in the Compromise of Stans. Still unresolved, however, was the issue of the inclusion of Fribourg and Soleure, and it caused such controversy that in 1481 civil war was feared. A parish priest of Stans recommended seeking a final opinion from the 64- year-old Nicholas. This was agreed to, and he went to Nicholas, whose counsel had been sought at various stages of the drafting of the edict, and it has even been said that it was drawn up in his cell. After the priest's return to Stans, the council arrived at a unanimous decision within an hour and maintained the unity of the land.

Despite his lack of education and experience with the world, his mediation led to permanent national unity for Switzerland. He could not even write; he used a special seal as a signature. Letters of thanks to him from Berne and Soleure still survive.

Six years later, he became ill for the last time. He suffered greatly for eight days, received Holy Viaticum, then died peacefully in his cell with his wife and children by his bed. Nicholas was buried at Sachseln and the Flüe family still survives in Switzerland.

His wife and children were probably none the worse for his becoming a hermit. It may be that his prayers and spiritual counsel did more for his family than his remaining with them would have. We do not blame explorers and soldiers for leaving their families, why blame a saint?

His canonization was delayed because a fire destroyed the documents relating to it. Nevertheless, he is the patron saint of Switzerland.

Several accounts survive of visitors' memories of Bruder Klaus: one described him as tall, brown, and wrinkled with then grizzled locks and a short beard, bright eyes, white teeth, and a shapely nose. This corresponds well with a Fribourg portrait of him done in 1492 (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, J. Delaney, S. Delany, Encyclopedia, Farmer, White).

Saint Nicholas is portrayed as a hermit being thrown into a thorn bush by the devil. At other times he may be shown praying in a mountainous landscape or entering a house while carrying a staff tipped with a cross. Nicholas is greatly venerated in Switzerland (Roeder).

1606 St. Nicholas Owen "Little John," 20 yrs build secret hiding places for priests as a lay person
Nicholas, familiarly known as "Little John," was small in stature but big in the esteem of his fellow Jesuits.
Born at Oxford, this humble artisan saved the lives of many priests and laypersons in England during the penal times (1559-1829), when a series of statutes punished Catholics for the practice of their faith.
Over a period of about 20 years he used his skills to build secret hiding places for priests throughout the country. His work, which he did completely by himself as both architect and builder, was so good that time and time again priests in hiding were undetected by raiding parties. He was a genius at finding, and creating, places of safety: subterranean passages, small spaces between walls, impenetrable recesses. At one point he was even able to mastermind the escape of two Jesuits from the Tower of London.

Whenever Nicholas set out to design such hiding places, he began by receiving the Holy Eucharist, and he would turn to God in prayer throughout the long, dangerous construction process.

After many years at his unusual task, he entered the Society of Jesus and served as a lay brother, although—for very good reasons—his connection with the Jesuits was kept secret.

After a number of narrow escapes, he himself was finally caught in 1594. Despite protracted torture, he refused to disclose the names of other Catholics. After being released following the payment of a ransom, "Little John" went back to his work. He was arrested again in 1606. This time he was subjected to horrible tortures, suffering an agonizing death. The jailers tried suggesting that he had confessed and committed suicide, but his heroism and sufferings soon were widely known.

He was canonized in 1970 as one of the 40 Martyrs of England and Wales.

Comment:  Nicholas was a clever builder and architect who used his skills to protect endangered priests. Without his help, hundreds of English Catholics would have been deprived of the sacraments. His gift for spotting unlikely places to hide priests was impressive, but more impressive was his habit of seeking support for his work in prayer and the Eucharist. If we follow his example, we may also discover surprising ways to put our skills to God’s service.

Nicholas Owen M (RM) Born in Oxford, England; died in the Tower of London, 1606; beatified in 1929; canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales; feast day formerly March 12.
Saint Nicholas was probably the most important person in the preservation of Catholicism in England during the period of the penal laws against the faith. He was a carpenter or builder, who saved the lives of countless Jesuit priests in England for two decades by constructing hiding places for them in mansions throughout the country. He became a Jesuit lay brother in 1580, was arrested in 1594 with Father John Gerard, and despite prolonged torture would not give the names of any of his Catholic colleagues; he was released on the payment of a ransom by a wealthy Catholic.

Brother Nicholas is believed to have been responsible for Father Gerard's dramatic escape from the Tower of London in 1597.
Nicholas was arrested a third time in 1606 with Father Henry Garnet, whom he had served 18 years, Father Edward Oldcorne, and Father Oldcorne's servant, Brother Ralph Ashley. He refused to give any information concerning the Gunpowder Plot. They were imprisoned in the Tower of London. Nicholas was subjected to such vicious torture, which literally tore his body to pieces, that he died of it.
Nicholas was also known as Little John and Little Michael and used the aliases of Andrewes and Draper (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney).
1929 Blessed Dina Bélanger Sisters of Jesus-Marie in Rome accomplished pianist woman of infectious joy despite illness (AC)
(also known as Marie Sainte-Cecile of Rome)  Born in Québec, Canada, 1897; beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1993. When Dina joined the Sisters of Jesus-Marie in Rome (founded by Saint Claudine Thevenet), she took the name Marie Sainte-Cecile of Rome to honor the patron of musicians because she was herself an accomplished pianist. During the course of her life as a sister, her devotion to the Blessed Sacrament transformed her into a woman of infectious joy despite illness. Her autobiography was published in Québec in 1984 (Catholic World News, May 1, 1997).

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Month by Month of Saintly Dedications

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr

Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas

We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:


The Five Reasons
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
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India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798
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Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005
 Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) Francis (2013

Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.
During his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis made this strong statement while continuing his catechesis on the family, with this and next week focusing on the elderly.  Confining this week’s address to their problematic current condition, the Holy Father said the elderly are ignored and that a society that does this is perverse.
While noting that life has been lengthened thanks to advances in medicine, he lamented that while the number of older people has multiplied, "our societies are not organized enough to make room for them, with proper respect and concrete consideration for their fragility and their dignity.”

“As long as we are young, we are led to ignore old age, as if it were a disease to be taken away. Then when we become older, especially if we are poor, sick and alone, we experience the shortcomings of a society planned on efficiency, which consequently ignores the elderly.”

He went on to quote his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI, who, when visiting a nursing home in November 2012, “used clear and prophetic words: ‘The quality of a society, I would say of a civilization, is judged also on how the elderly are treated and the place reserved for them in the common life.’"  Without a space for them, Francis highlighted, society dies.

Cultures, he decried, see the elderly as a burden who do not produce and should be discarded.
“You do not say it openly, but you do it!” he exclaimed. "Out of our fear of weakness and vulnerability, we do not tolerate and abandon the elderly," he said. “It’s sickening to see the elderly discarded. It is ugly. It’s a sin. Abandoning the elderly is a mortal sin.”
“Children who do not visit their elderly and ill parents have mortally sinned. Understand?”

The Pope expressed his dismay at children who go months without seeing a parent, or how elderly are confined to little tables in their kitchens alone, without anyone caring for them.  He noted that he observed this reality during his ministry in Buenos Aires.  Unwilling to accept limits, society, he noted, doesn’t allow elderly to participate and gives into the mentality that only the young can be useful and enjoy life.
The whole society must realize, the Pope said, the elderly contain the wisdom of the people.
The tradition of the Church, Pope Francis reaffirmed, has always supported a culture of closeness to the elderly, involving affectionately and supportively accompanying them in this final part of life.  The Church cannot, and does not want to, Francis underscored, comply with a mentality of impatience, and even less of indifference and contempt towards old age.
Sooner or later, we will all be old, he said. If we do not treat the elderly well, he stressed we will not be treated well either.
“We must awaken the collective sense of gratitude, of appreciation, of hospitality, which make them feel the elderly living part of his community.”

Concluding his address, Pope Francis noted how old age will come to all one day and reminded the faithful how much they have received from their elders. He also challenged them to not take a step back and abandon them to their fate.

The Church without Mary is an orphanage
Pope Francis:
Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (Zenit.org).-
Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
The Pope said this today before reciting the midday Angelus with several thousand people gathered in the courtyard of the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
Referring to the Gospel reading for today's Mass, the Holy Father reflected on the faith of Peter, which is shown to be "still immature and too much influenced by the 'mentality of this world.'”  He explained that when Christ spoke openly about how he was to "suffer much, be killed and rise again, Peter protests, saying: 'God forbid, Lord! No such thing shall ever happen to you.'"
"It is evident that the Master and the disciple follow two opposed ways of thinking," continued the Pontiff. "Peter, according to a human logic, is convinced that God would never allow his Son to end his mission dying on the cross.  "Jesus, on the contrary, knows that the Father, in his great love for men, sent him to give his life for them, and if this means the passion and the cross, it is right that such should happen."
Christ also knew that "the resurrection would be the last word," Benedict XVI added.
Serious illness
The Pope continued, "If to save us the Son of God had to suffer and die crucified, it certainly was not because of a cruel design of the heavenly Father.  "The cause of it is the gravity of the sickness of which he must cure us: an evil so serious and deadly that it will require all of his blood. 
"In fact, it is with his death and resurrection that Jesus defeated sin and death, reestablishing the lordship of God."
Popes Html link here: 
 “Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.” Pope Francis:
It Is a Mortal Sin When Children Don't Visit Their Elderly Parents.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today
 752 Pope St. Zachary 741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
Pope Zacharias_Zachary Pope Zachary was a peace-maker and judged no man without a hearing.
Zachary was also responsible for restoring Montecassino under Saint Petronax and himself consecrated its abbey church in 748. The saint was known for aiding the poor, provided refuge to nuns driven from Constantinople by the iconoclasts, ransomed slaves from the Venetians, forbade the selling of Christian slaves to the Moors of Africa, and translated Saint Gregory the Great's Dialogues into Greek. Since "Zacharias embraced and cherished all people like a father and a good shepherd, and never allowed even the smallest injustice to happen to anyone," he was venerated as a saint immediately after his death (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Schamoni).

March 21 – Our Lady of Nowy Swierjan (Russia)
Hail, Holy Mother of God --
Pope Francis
Jesus Christ is the blessing for every man and woman ... The Church, in giving us Jesus, offers us the fullness of the Lord’s blessing. This is precisely the mission of the people of God: to spread to all peoples God’s blessing made flesh in Jesus Christ. And Mary, the first and most perfect disciple of Jesus, the first and most perfect believer, the model of the pilgrim Church, is the one who opens the way to the Church’s motherhood and constantly sustains her maternal mission to all mankind. Mary’s tactful maternal witness has accompanied the Church from the beginning. She, the Mother of God, is also the Mother of the Church, and through the Church, the mother of all men and women, and of every people. …

Let us look to Mary, let us contemplate the Holy Mother of God. I suggest that you all greet her together, just like those courageous people of Ephesus, who cried out before their pastors when they entered Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!” What a beautiful greeting for our Mother. There is a story – I do not know if it is true – that some among those people had clubs in their hands, perhaps to make the Bishops understand what would happen if they did not have the courage to proclaim Mary “Mother of God”! I invite all of you, without clubs, to stand up and to greet her three times with this greeting of the early Church: “Hail, Holy Mother of God!”  Pope Francis; Homily, Holy Mass on the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God
Vatican Basilica, January 1, 2015
Pope’s Prayer in Pompeii
Saturday, March 21, 2015
Virgin of the Holy Rosary, Mother of the Redeemer, our earthly Lady raised above the heavens, humble servant of the Lord, proclaimed Queen of the world, from the depth of our miseries we turn to you. With the faithfulness of children we look to your sweet gaze.

Crowned with twelve stars, you bring us to the mystery of the Father, you shine the splendor of the Holy Spirit, you give us our Divine Child, Jesus, our hope, our only salvation in the world. Comforted by your Rosary, you invite us to be fixed to his gaze. You open to us His heart, abyss of joy and sorry, of light and glory, mystery of the son of God, made man for us. At your feet in the footsteps of the saints, we feel as God’s family.

Mother and model of the Church, you are our guide and secure support. Make us one heart and one mind, a strong people on the way towards the heavenly homeland. We entrust our miseries, the many streets of hate and blood, the thousands of ancient and new poverties and above all, our sins. To you we entrust ourselves, Mother of Mercy: grant us the forgiveness of God, help us to build a world according to your heart.

O Blessed Rosary of Mary, sweet chain that ties us to God, chain of love that makes us brothers, we will not leave you again. You will be in our hands a weapon of peace and forgiveness, star that guides our path. And the kiss to you with our last breath, we plunge into a wave of light, in the vision of the beloved Mother and the Son of God, the desire and joy of our heart, with the Father and the Holy Spirit.

IT was in 1036 that St Anselm was born in Mantua, and in 1073 his uncle, Pope Alexander II, nominated him to the bishopric of Lucca, left vacant by his own elevation to the chair of St Peter, and sent him to Germany to receive from the Emperor Henry IV the crozier and the ring— in accordance with the regrettable custom of the time. Anselm, however, was so strongly convinced that the secular power had no authority to confer ecclesiastical dignities that he could not bring himself to accept investiture from the emperor and returned to Italy without it. Only after he had been consecrated by Alexander’s successor, Pope St Gregory VII, did he consent to accept from Henry the crozier and the ring, and even then he felt scruples of conscience on the subject. These doubts led him to leave his diocese and to withdraw to a congregation of Cluniac monks at Polirone. A dignitary of such high-minded views could ill be spared, and Pope Gregory recalled him from his retirement and sent him back to Lucca to resume the government of his diocese. Zealous with regard to discipline, he strove to enforce among his canons the common life enjoined by the decree of Pope St Leo IX. In acute discordance with the edifying example accredited to them above in our notice of St Frediano, the canons refused to obey, although they were placed under an interdict by the pope and afterwards excommunicated. Countess Matilda of Tuscany undertook to expel them, but they raised a revolt and, being supported by the Emperor Henry, drove the bishop out of the city in 1079.
752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
(also known as Zacharias) Born at San Severino, Calabria, Italy; died 752; feast day formerly on March 22; feast day in the East is September 5.

St. Irenaeus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the fifth pope in succession from the Apostles, though he says nothing of his martyrdom. His pontificate is variously dated by critics, e. g. 106-115 (Duchesne) or 109-116 (Lightfoot). In Christian antiquity he was credited with a pontificate of about ten years (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. IV, i,) and there is no reason to doubt that he was on the "catalogue of bishops" drawn up at Rome by Hegesippus (Eusebius, IV, xxii, 3) before the death of Pope Eleutherius (c. 189). According to a tradition extant in the Roman Church at the end of the fifth century, and recorded in the Liber Pontificalis he suffered a martyr's death by decapitation on the Via Nomentana in Rome, 3 May. The same tradition declares him to have been a Roman by birth and to have ruled the Church in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It likewise attributes to him, but scarcely with accuracy, the insertion in the canon of the Qui Pridie, or words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist, such being certainly primitive and original in the Mass. He is also said to have introduced the use of blessing water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences (constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedici in habitaculis hominum). Duchesne (Lib. Pont., I, 127) calls attention to the persistence of this early Roman custom by way of a blessing in the Gelasian Sacramentary that recalls very forcibly the actual Asperges prayer at the beginning of Mass. In 1855, a semi-subterranean cemetery of the holy martyrs Sts. Alexander, Eventulus, and Theodulus was discovered near Rome, at the spot where the above mentioned tradition declares the Pope to have been martyred. According to some archaeologists, this Alexander is identical with the Pope, and this ancient and important tomb marks the actual site of the Pope's martyrdom. Duchesne, however (op. cit., I, xci-ii) denies the identity of the martyr and the pope, while admitting that the confusion of both personages is of ancient date, probably anterior to the beginning of the sixth century when the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled [Dufourcq, Gesta Martyrum Romains (Paris, 1900), 210-211]. The difficulties raised in recent times by Richard Lipsius (Chronologie der römischen Bischofe, Kiel, 1869) and Adolph Harnack (Die Zeit des Ignatius u. die Chronologie der antiochenischen Bischofe, 1878) concerning the earliest successors of St. Peter are ably discussed and answered by F. S. (Cardinal Francesco Segna) in his "De successione priorum Romanorum Pontificum" (Rome 1897); with moderation and learning by Bishop Lightfoot, in his "Apostolic Fathers: St. Clement ' (London, 1890) I, 201-345- especially by Duchesne in the introduction to his edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" (Paris, 1886) I, i-xlviii and lxviii-lxxiii. The letters ascribed to Alexander I by PseudoIsidore may be seen in P. G., V, 1057 sq., and in Hinschius, "Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae" (Leipzig, 1863) 94-105. His remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria in 834 (Dummler, Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini, Berlin, 1884, II, 120). His so-called "Acts" are not genuine, and were compiled at a much later date (Tillemont, Mem. II, 590 sqq; Dufourcq, op. cit., 210-211).

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints

the monothelite heresy condemned by Pope St Martin I at the Council of the Lateran in 649.
604 Saint Gregory Dialogus granted a vision of the Lord Himself Pope of Rome used inheritance to establish 6 monasteries
 Romæ sancti Gregórii Primi, Papæ, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris exímii; qui, ob res præcláræ gestas atque Anglos ad Christi fidem convérsos, Magnus est dictus et Ang