Wednesday Saints of this Day March 22 Undécimo Kaléndas Aprílis  
Day 22 of 40 Days For Life
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)



 40 days for Life Campaign saves lives
Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com

Save Children from painful deaths at the hands of abortionists

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

 
The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

 Albert Einstein is known in popular culture for his famous E = mc2 formula. Scientists know him for revolutionizing physics with his general theory of relativity. But is it possible to know the man behind the big ideas? Yes, thanks to the massive body of written work and correspondence he left behind, which the Einstein Papers Project, currently housed at the California Institute of Technology, is dedicated to collecting, editing, translating and publishing.
http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=134537&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click
March 22, 2015

1st v. St.  Epaphroditus Apostle sent by St. Paul to the Phillipians
 264 Departure of Abba Dionysius the Fourteenth Pope of Alexandria.
 362 St. Basil of Ancyra priest in Galatia (Ankara) Martyr for the faith Arianism opponent; God
       Healed him after torture

5th v. St. Darerca sister of St. Patrick sons became bishops throughout Ireland
 484 St. Octavian Martyr of the Vandals under Hunneric
 752 Pope St. Zachary 741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
1487 Nicholas of Flüe, Hermit fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!" often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer for 21.5 yrs, he took no food for the body patron saint of Switzerland. (RM)
1606 St. Nicholas Owen "Little John," 20 yrs build secret hiding places for priests as a lay person
1929 Blessed Dina Bélanger Sisters of Jesus-Marie Rome accomplished pianist woman of infectious joy despite illness


The Time of the Resurrection (I) March 22 - Madonna Addolorata (Italy, 1889) - Holy Saturday
The Virgin was absolutely certain of the Resurrection of her Son because He had so openly predicted it. However, she did not know the hour, which is, in fact, determined nowhere. Therefore, the night of Holy Saturday seemed very long indeed and she spent the time reflecting on the possible time of the Resurrection.
   She was aware that David, more than the other prophets, had spoken of the Passion of Christ and she skimmed through the psalms, but found no indication of the hour. However, in Psalm 57, David, speaking in the person of the Father to His Son, said: "Awake, my glory, awake my lyre and harp..." And the Son answered: "I will awake at dawn ..." When the Virgin Mary realized the hour of the Resurrection, I will let you imagine how quickly she must have got up to see if the dawn had risen. When she found that it had not, she continued reading the psalms. She wanted to find out if any of the other prophets had mentioned the time of the Resurrection and she found this text in chapter 6: 2-3 of Hosea:
"After two days he will revive us, on the third day he will raise us up and we will live in his presence.
Let us strive to know the Lord, for his coming is a sure as the dawn."
Saint Vincent Ferrer Spanish Dominican (d. 1419)

Perfection does not consist in consolation, but rather in the submission of our wills to God
-- above all in trials and suffering. -- St. Henry Suso



Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

March 22 - Paul VI's Marialis Cultus (1974) - Birth of Lucia of Fatima (1907)
 
The Church is always reflecting deeper on her understanding of Mary's role
The Church's reflection today on the mystery of Christ and on her own nature has led her to find at the root of the former and is a culmination of the latter the same figure of a woman: the Virgin Mary,
the Mother of Christ and the Mother of the Church.
And the increased knowledge of Mary's mission has become joyful veneration of her and adoring respect for the wise plan of God, who has placed within his family (the Church), as in every home, the figure of a Woman, who in a hidden manner and in a spirit of service watches over that family
“and carefully looks after it until the glorious day of the Lord.”
 Pope Paul VI  Apostolic exhortation Marialis Cultus on the devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary 

 
1st v. St.  Epaphroditus Apostle sent by St. Paul to the Phillipians
 250 St. Callinica & Basilissa Martyrs of Galatia bringing aid to the imprisoned Christians
 264 Departure of Abba Dionysius the Fourteenth Pope of Alexandria.
 264 Return of Great Sts. Anba Macarius the Great and Anba Macarius of Alexandria, from Exile.
      
Forty Martyrs of Sebastia
       St. Saturninus martyrs put to death during the Roman persecutions in Africa 250 - 290
 270 St. Paul of Narbonne priest notable missionary to Gaul with Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius; performed miracles
 250 - 290 St. Paul of Narbonne priest notable missionary to Gaul with Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius; performed miracles
 362 St. Basil of Ancyra priest in Galatia (Ankara) Martyr for the faith Arianism opponent; God Healed him after torture
 383 Isaak vom Dalmatus-Kloster stammte aus Syrien Athanasianer verfolgt Saturninus und Viktor
 384 St. Lea devout widow nun Superior community of Saint Marcella exchanged rich attire for sackcloth
5th v. St. Trien disciple of St. Patrick missionary abbot
5th v. St. Darerca sister of St. Patrick sons became bishops throughout Ireland
 457 St. Deogratius Bishop of Carthage; ransomed captives, fed them gave them room in church
 484 St. Octavian Martyr of the Vandals under Hunneric
 680 St. Failbhe of Iona brother of Saint Finan of Rath Abbot (AC)
 752 Pope St. Zachary
741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM)
1244 Blessed Isnard(o) de Chiampo distinguished preacher miracles OP (AC)
1470 Blessed Hugolinus Zefferini Augustinian hermit OSA (AC)
1282 St. Benvenutus Scotivoli Franciscan archdeacon bishop
1487 Nicholas of Flüe, Hermit fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!" often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer for 21.5 yrs, he took no food for the body patron saint of Switzerland. (RM)
1606 St. Nicholas Owen "Little John," 20 yrs build secret hiding places for priests as a lay person
1929 Blessed Dina Bélanger Sisters of Jesus-Marie Rome accomplished pianist woman of infectious joy despite illness

Pope Zacharias_Zachary Pope Zachary was a peace-maker and judged no man without a hearing.
Zachary was also responsible for restoring Montecassino under Saint Petronax and himself consecrated its abbey church in 748. The saint was known for aiding the poor, provided refuge to nuns driven from Constantinople by the iconoclasts, ransomed slaves from the Venetians, forbade the selling of Christian slaves to the Moors of Africa, and translated Saint Gregory the Great's Dialogues into Greek. Since "Zacharias embraced and cherished all people like a father and a good shepherd, and never allowed even the smallest injustice to happen to anyone," he was venerated as a saint immediately after his death (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Schamoni).
March 22 – Madonna Addolorata (Italy, 1889) –
Paul VI’s Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus (1974) – Birth of Lucia of Fatima (1907)
 
“Do you want to offer yourselves to God?”
We would be mistaken to think that Fatima’s prophetic mission is complete. Here there takes on new life the plan of God which asks humanity from the beginning: “Where is your brother Abel… Your brother’s blood is crying out to me from the ground!” (Gen 4:9). Mankind has succeeded in unleashing a cycle of death and terror, but failed in bringing it to an end…

In sacred Scripture we often find that God seeks righteous men and women in order to save the city of man and he does the same here, in Fatima, when Our Lady asks:
“Do you want to offer yourselves to God, to endure all the sufferings which he will send you, in an act of reparation for the sins by which he is offended and of supplication for the conversion of sinners?” (Memoirs of Sister Lúcia, I, p.162).

At a time when the human family was ready to sacrifice all that was most sacred on the altar of the petty and selfish interests of nations, races, ideologies, groups and individuals, our Blessed Mother came from heaven, offering to implant in the hearts of all those who trust in her the Love of God burning in her own heart.
 
Homily of His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, Esplanade of the Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima
May 13, 2010  vatican.va


1st v. St. Epaphroditus Apostle sent by St. Paul to the Phillipians
 Tarracínæ, in Campánia, sancti Epaphrodíti, Apostolórum discípuli, qui a beáto Petro Apóstolo Epíscopus illíus civitátis ordinátus fuit.
At Terracina, St. Epaphroditus, a disciple of the apostles, who was consecrated bishop of that city by the blessed apostle Peter.

He is believed to be the first bishop of Philippi, Macedonia, Andriacia, in Lycia, and Terracina, Italy.
Three saints of that name are recorded in the earliest lists, all among the seventy-two disciples of Christ.
Blessed Epaphroditus B (RM)
Epaphroditus is mentioned with affection and esteem by Saint Paul (Phil. 2:25-30):  "With regard to Epaphroditus, my brother and co-worker and fellow soldier, your messenger and minister in my need, I consider it necessary to send him to you. For he has been longing for all of you and was distressed because you heard that he was ill. He was indeed ill, close to death; but God had mercy on him, not just on him but also on me, so that I might not have sorrow upon sorrow. I send him therefore with the greater eagerness, so that, on seeing him, you may rejoice again, and I may have less anxiety. Welcome him then in the Lord with all joy and hold such people in esteem, because for the sake of the work of Christ he came close to death, risking his life to make up for those services to me that you could not perform (NAB)."
He is traditionally considered the first bishop of Philippi, Macedonia. Both Andriacia in Lycia and Terracina in Italy also list an Epaphroditus as their first bishop. These three are said to have been among the 72 disciples commissioned by Christ (Luke 10).
More likely, there is one saint named Epaphroditus venerated in 3 different locations (Benedictines, Delaney).
250 St. Callinica & Basilissa Martyrs of Galatia bringing aid to the imprisoned Christians
In Galátia natális sanctárum Mártyrum Callinícæ et Basilíssæ. In Galatia, birthday of holy martyrs Callinica and Basilissa.
Wealthy matrons, Callinica and Basilissa spent their fortunes bringing aid to the imprisoned Christians in their area.
hey were arrested for their generosity and slain.
Callinica and Basilissa MM (RM). Rich ladies of Galatia (Turkey), Asia Minor, who comforted imprisoned Christians and were martyred for doing so (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
St. Saturninus mattyrs put to death during the Roman persecutions in Africa
 In Africa sanctórum Mártyrum Saturníni et aliórum novem.       In Africa, the holy martyrs Saturninus and nine others.

One of a group of mattyrs put to death during the Roman persecutions in Africa.
Saturninus and Companions MM (RM) Date unknown. A group of ten martyred in northwest Africa (Benedictines).
264 Departure of Abba Dionysius the Fourteenth Pope of Alexandria.
On this day (March 8th, 264 A.D.) the great father Abba Dionysius, the fourteenth Pope of Alexandria, departed. His parents were stare worshippers of the Sun (Sabians) and they put emphasis on teaching him all the knowledge of that sect.

One day a Christian old woman passed by him, who had with her some pages of a book containing an Epistle of St. Paul the apostle and offered it to him to buy it. When he read it he found in it strange sayings and unusual knowledge. He asked her: "For how much will you sell it?" She said: "For one dinar of gold." He gave her three dinars and asked her to find the rest of the pages of the book and he was willing to pay her double. She went and brought him more pages. Having read them through he found the book to be still incomplete, he asked her to search for the rest of the book. She told him: "I found these quires among my father's books. If you want to acquire the complete book, go to the church and there you can find it."

He went and asked one of the priests to show him what is called the Epistles of Paul. He gave it to him, read it, and memorized it. Then he went to St. Demetrius the twelfth Pope, who taught and instructed him in the facts of the Christian faith then baptized him. He became well rehearsed in the doctrine and knowledge of the church, and Anba Demetrius appointed him a teacher for the people.

When Anba Demetrius departed and Anba Heraclas (Yaroklas) was enthroned, he appointed him as a deputy to judge among the believers and entrusted him to administer the affairs of the patriarchate.


When St. Heraclas departed, all the people agreed to appoint this father Patriarch. He was enthroned on the first of Tubah (December 28th, 246 A.D.) during the reign of Emperor Philip who was a lover of the Christians, and he shepherded his flock with the best of care, nevertheless, he suffered much tribulations. When Decius rose up against Philip and killed him, and reigned in his place, he incited persecution against the Christians. Decius slew many of the patriarchs, bishops, and believers. This father endured much suffering during that time. Decius died and Gallus reigned after him, and persecution quieted down during his reign.

When Gallus died and Valerian reigned in his place, he renewed the persecution severely against the Christians, and his men seized Abba Dionysius and imprisoned him. They asked him to worship the idols but he refused saying: "We worship God the Father, and His Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit the One God." They threatened him, killed few men in front of him to terrify him but he was not afraid. They banished him and shortly after, they brought him back and told him: "We have been informed that you consecrate the offering secretly by yourself." He replied: "We do not forsake our prayers day or night" then he turned to the people present around him and told them: "Go and pray and if I am away from you in the body, I shall be with you in spirit." The governor became raged and returned him to exile.

When Sapor king of Persia overcame Emperor Valerian and seized him, his son Gallienus, who was wise and gentle, took over the empire. He released all the believers who were in prison and brought back those who were in exile. He wrote to the Patriarch and the bishops a letter to assure their safety in opening the churches.

In the days of this father, certain people arose in the Arabian countries saying: "That the soul dies with the body, and on the day of Resurrection, it shall be raised up with it." He gathered against them a council and anathematized them. When Paul of Samosata denied the Son, a Council assembled against him in Antioch, this Saint was not able to attend for his age. He wrote a letter to the council, rich with wisdom, explained in it the corruptive opinion of this heretic, and stated the true Orthodox belief. He finished his good strife, and departed in a good old age on (March 8th, 264 A.D.), having sat on the Apostolic Throne seventeen years, two month and ten days.

May his prayers be with us. Amen.
264 Return of the Great Sts. Anba Macarius the Great and Anba Macarius of Alexandria, from Exile.  
On this day also is the commemoration of the return of the Great Sts. Anba Macarius the Great and Anba Macarius of Alexandria, from exile on an island in Upper Egypt. Emperor Valens the arian had exiled them to this island.

The natives of this island worshipped idols, and according to the orders of Valens the two Saints were tortured severely for three years. It came to pass one day that satan entered the daughter of the pagan priest of this island and tortured her. St. Macarius the great came forward and prayed over her and the Lord healed her and subsequently the priest and the people of the island believed on the Lord Christ. The Saints taught them the facts of the Christian faith and baptized them on the eve of the feast of Epiphany, 11th. of Tubah, changed the temple into a church, and with a revelation from the Lord Christ they ordained priests and deacons for them.

When they wished to return they did not know the way, so the angel of the Lord appeared to them, guided them walking, until they reached Alexandria. From there they went to the wilderness of Sheahat (Scetis). The monks of the wilderness came out to meat them, and they were at that time about fifty thousand monks among them were Anba John the short and Anba Bishoy, and they all rejoiced to meat their fathers.

The prayers of these Saints be with us. Amen.

Martyrdom of the Forty Martyrs of Sebastia.

On this day also the holy forty martyrs of the city of Sebastia were martyred. Emperor Constantine the great had appointed his friend Lecius ruler for the east and commanded him to treat the Christians well. When he arrived to his headquarter, he ordered his subordinate to worship the idols but they refused and cursed his idols. That night some of the soldiers and their children, from the city of Sebastia, made an agreement among themselves to go to the governor confessing their faith. While they were sleeping the angel of the Lord appeared to them, strengthened them and comforted their hearts.

In the morning they stood before the Governor and confessed their faith in the Lord christ, he threatened them but they were not afraid. He commanded his men to stone them, but the stones came back upon those who stoned them. He ordered to throw them in a nearby lake, which was icy. Their organs were severed because of the excessive cold. One of them whose strength was weakened, went out of the icy water and entered the bath house nearby the lake. The heat in the bath house melted the ice that was on him but he died quickly, and lost his reward.

One of the guards saw angels descending from the heaven and in their hands crowns, they placed them over the heads of the thirty nine martyrs and remained one crown in the hand of the angel. The guard went down into the lake shouting "I am christian...I am christian." He took the crown that was in the hand of the angel and was counted among the martyrs.


Among the martyrs, were young men, whose mothers encouraged and strengthened them. Because they remained in the lake for a long time and they did not die, the Governor wished to break their legs, but the Lord took their souls and reposed them. He ordered to burn their bodies and to cast them after that into the sea. As they were carrying them out of the lake, they found a young man alive, so they left him. His mother took him and tried to threw him on the wagon with his mates but they put him off the wagon again for he was still alive. His mother took him and he died in her bosom so she put him back on the wagon. They took them outside the city and cast them into the fire which did not harm them, then they casted them into the river.

On the third day those holy martyrs appeared to the Bishop of Sebastia in a vision and told him: "Go to the river and take our bodies." He went with the priests, deacons and the people to the river and found the bodies. They carried the bodies with great honor and placed them in a beautiful shrine, and their strife was heard in all the countries.

May their prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen

250 - 290 St. Paul of Narbonne priest notable missionary to Gaul with Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius; performed miracles
 Narbóne, in Gállia, natális sancti Pauli Epíscopi, Apostolórum discípuli, quem tradunt fuísse Sérgium Paulum Procónsulem.  Hic, a beáto Apóstolo Paulo baptizátus, et ab eo, cum in Hispániam pérgeret, apud Narbónem relíctus, ibídem Episcopáli dignitáte donátus est; ibíque, prædicatiónis offício non ségniter expléto, clarus miráculis migrávit in cælum.
       At Narbonne in France, the birthday of the bishop St. Paul, a disciple of the apostles.  He is said to have been the proconsul Sergius Paulus, who was baptized by the blessed apostle Paul, and left at Narbonne, where he was raised to the episcopal dignity when the apostle went to Spain.  Having zealously discharged the office of preaching and having performed miracles, he departed to heaven.
who is known principally because of reports made of him by St. Gregory of Tours. According to Gregory, Paul was ordained at Rome and, with other missionaries including Sts. Saturninus and Dionysius, he was assigned to Gaul to preach the Gospel. He enjoyed considerable success in the region around Narbonne, founding several churches there.
He is also mentioned in various legends.

290 ST PAUL OF NARBONNE
WE learn from St Gregory of Tours that St Paul of Narbonne was sent from Rome with several other missionaries to plant the faith in Gaul. Two of the band, St Saturninus of Toulouse and St Dionysius of Paris, received the crown of martyrdom, but St Paul of Narbonne, St Trophimus of Aries, St Martial of Limoges and St Gatian of Tours, after passing through many dangers and founding churches in the places now connected with their names, finally died in peace. Prudentius says that the name of Paul shed lustre on the city of Narbonne. No attention need be paid to an extravagant legend which has identified St Paul of Narbonne with the Sergius Paulus who was proconsul at Cyprus when the apostle St Paul withstood the magician Elymas.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and Duchesse, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. i, p. 303.

Paul of Narbonne and Companions MM (RM) Died after 250 (c. 290?). Saint Gregory of Tours informs us (Hist. Franc. I, 30), that Saint Paul was consecrated priest at Rome from where he was sent with other preachers to plant the faith in Gaul. There Saints Saturninus of Toulouse and Dionysius of Paris were crowned with martyrdom.
Saints Paul of Narbonne, Trophimus of Arles, Martial of Limoges, and Gatian of Tours survived, established churches in their respective sees amidst many dangers, and died in peace. Prudentius says, that Paul's association with the city of Narbonne had made it famous. A much later legend identifies Paul with the Roman proconsul Sergius Paulus, who was converted by Saint Paul the Apostle (Acts 13) (Attwater2, Benedictines, Husenbeth).
362 St. Basil of Ancyra priest in Galatia (now Ankara) Martyr for the faith opponent of Arianism God Healed him after torture
 Ancyræ, in Galátia, sancti Basilíi, Presbyteri et Mártyris, qui sub Juliáno Apóstata, gravíssimis cruciátibus afféctus, ánimam Deo réddidit.

       At Ancyra, under Julian the Apostate, St. Basil, priest and martyr, who gave up his soul to God after having endured grievous torments.
Basilius von Ankyra Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 22. März
Basilius war im 4. Jahrhundert Presbyter in Ankyra in Galatien (Ankara). Er galt als gemäßigter Arianer, wandte sich dann aber gegen die Ultra-Arianer um Valens, die auf einer Synode in Mailand 355 das "eines Wesens" (homousios) aus dem nicänischen Glaubensbekenntnis gestrichen und durch ein "im Wesen ähnlich" ersetzt hatten. Basilius wurde von einem arianisch bestimmten Konzil in Ankyra abgesetzt. Er wurde dann aber von einem Bischofskonzil wieder in sein Amt eingesetzt und Athanasius wollte ihn in seinen Kampf gegen die Arianer einspannen. Dann kam aber Julian (361-363) auf den Kaiserthron, der dem Arianismus anhing. Basilius wurde gefangengesetzt vor Julian gebracht und in Caesarea mehrere Tage gefoltert. Er starb an den schweren Folterungen am 29. Juni 362. Weil sein Sterbetag auf das Fest der Apostel Peter und Paul fällt, wurde sein Festtag auf den 22. März verschoben.

Basil, a priest of Ancyra, in Galatia defended Bishop Marcellus there when the prelate was deposed by the Arians. Basil was then caught up in the persecution of Emperor Julian the Apostate. He was tortured and slain for preaching to the people.

Basil of Ancyra M (RM) Died June 29, 362. Saint Basil suffered and died for his confession of the true faith in opposition to the Arians, who denied the divinity of Jesus. He was a priest of Ancyra, Galatia (now Ankara, Turkey), who loyally supported his Catholic bishop, Marcellus, against the heretics, even after the latter's banishment in 336 by Emperor Constantius.

In 360, the Arians tried to stop Saint Basil even from leading Christian worship; but he despised the unjust order; and boldly defended the Catholic faith before Constantius himself. Basil's refusal to give way to the Arians (and the fact that he was running through the streets urging Christians to remain steadfast), under severe threats, led the authorities to claim that he was unfaithful to the emperor Julian the Apostate. He was captured, tried, and tortured at Ancyra. At Caesarea in Palestine he was hung up, first by the wrists, and then upside down from his ankles. His body was torn with rakes and finally he was slaughtered. His acta appear to be authentic.

This is the longer version of what they say: Julian the Apostate was travelling from Constantinople to Antioch in preparation for his Persian expedition. He stopped en route at the famous temple of Cibele in Galatia to offer sacrifice.
"When Julian arrived at Ancyra, Basil was presented before him, and the crafty emperor, putting on an air of compassion, said to him: 'I myself am well skilled in your mysteries; and I can inform you, that Christ, in whom you place your trust, died under Pilate, and remains among the dead.'
"The martyr answered: 'You are deceived; you have renounced Christ at a time when he conferred on you the empire. But he will deprive you of it, together with your life. As you have thrown down his altars, so will he overturn your throne: and as you have violated his holy law, which you had so often announced to the people [Julian had been a reader in the church], and have trodden it under your feet, your body shall be cast forth without the honor of a burial, and shall be trampled upon by men.'
"Julian replied: 'I intended to let you go, but your impudent manner of rejecting my advice...force me to do you ill. It is therefore my command, that every day your skin be torn off in seven different places, till you have no more left,..."
Julian went on his way; Basil endured the torture several days then asked to speak to the emperor. Julian ordered that the two should meet in the temple of Esculapius. Julian "pressed him to join him sacrifices. But the martyr replied that he could never adore blind and deaf idols. And taking a piece of his flesh which had been cut out of his body that day, and still hung to it by a bit of skin, he threw it upon Julian. The emperor went out in great indignation: and count Frumentinus, fearing his displeasure, studied how to revenge an insult...He therefore mounted his tribunal, and ordered the torments of the martyr to be redoubled; and so deep were the incisions made in his flesh, that his bowels were exposed to view, and the spectators wept for compassion. The martyr prayed aloud all the time, and at evening was carried back to prison.
"Next morning Julian set out for Antioch, and would not see Frumentinus. The count resolved to repair his disgrace, or at least to discharge his resentment by exerting his rage upon the servant of Christ. But to his thundering threats Basil answered: 'You know how many pieces of flesh have been torn from my body: yet look on my shoulders and sides; see if any wounds appear? Now that Jesus Christ this night hath healed me. Send this news to your master Julian, that he may know the power of God whom he has forsaken. He has overturned his altars, who was himself concealed under them when he was sought by Constantius to be put to death. But God hath discovered me that his tyranny shall be shortly extinguished with his life.'

"Frumentinus seemed no longer able to contain his rage, and Frumentinus commanded the saint to be laid upon his belly, and his back to be pierced with red-hot iron spikes. The martyr expired under these torments" (Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth). Saint Basil is depicted in art with a lioness by his side, sometimes he is torn by the lioness (Roeder). Julian the Apostate {Julian was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire and it was his desire to bring the empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to save it from "dissolution".  He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the cost of Christianity. His rejection of Christianity in favour of Neoplatonic paganism caused him to be called Julian the Apostate by the church, as Edward Gibbon wrote: " The triumph of the party which he deserted and opposed has fixed a stain of infamy on the name of Julian; and the unsuccessful apostate has been overwhelmed with a torrent of pious invectives, of which the signal was given by the sonorous trumpet of Gregory Nazianzen."– Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

In 363, after a reign of only 19 months as absolute ruler of the Roman Empire, Julian was killed in Persia during a campaign against the Sassanid Empire.


362 ST BASIL OF ANCYRA, MARTYR
IN the middle of the fourth century when Arians and semi-Arians were propagating their heresies, Basil was a priest of Ancyra, a holy man who had been trained by the saintly Bishop Marcellus in the full doctrine of the Catholic Church. After Marcellus had been banished by the Emperor Constantius, and a semi-Arian, another Basil, intruded into his see, the priest Basil never ceased exhorting his people to remain staunch to the orthodox faith. In 360 the extreme Arians obtained the upper hand, and not only deposed the semi-Arian bishop, but ordered the degradation of St Basil, whom they forbade to hold religious assemblies. He, however, disregarding their orders, supported his own flock, won over many who had been led astray, and boldly defended the faith in the presence of Constantius himself.

When Julian came to the throne, open persecution of Christians almost ceased for a time, as the emperor trusted to subtler means of undermining their faith. In some cases, however, he grew impatient, and per­mitted—if he did not actually urge—the punishment of well-known Christian leaders. Basil, who had continued to do his utmost to thwart the imperial policy in Ancyra, was arrested and accused of sedition, of overturning altars, of inciting the people against the gods and of speaking irreverently against the emperor and his religion. He made a bold confession, and after being suspended by his wrists and ankles and having his flesh torn with rakes, he was cast into prison, and even­tually put to death. This martyred presbyter must not be confused with his opponent, the better-known Bishop Basil of Ancyra.

There is a fantastic account, upon which no reliance can be placed, of the torments endured by St Basil. See his so-called acts, a short Greek romance which appears to have been written in the tenth century by John, a monk of the monastery of St Elias. This was critically edited by M. Krascheninnikov in 1907, and it will be found also in the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii. But there can be no reasonable doubt that Basil did suffer martyrdom, for Sozomen speaks of him in his Eccles. His., v, 11.
383 Isaak vom Dalmatus-Kloster stammte aus Syrien Athanasianer verfolgt Saturninus und Viktor
Orthodoxe Kirche: 30. Mai (auch 22. März und 3. August)
Katholische Kirche: 27. März (auch 30. Mai und 3. August)

Isaak stammte aus Syrien und lebte im 4. Jahrhundert als Einsiedler. Unter Kaiser Valentius (364-378), der den Arianern anhing, wurden die Athanasianer verfolgt und ihre Kirchen geschlossen oder zerstört. Als Isaak von der Verfolgung erfuhr, verließ er seine Einsiedelei und ging nach Konstantinopel, um hier die Gemeinden zu unterstützen. Als die Goten Thrakien eroberten und auf Konstantinopel vorrückten, beschwor Isaak dreimal den Kaiser, die Kirchen der Athanasianer wieder zu öffnen, sonst würde er keine Hilfe von Gott erhalten. Der Kaiser ließ Isaak daraufhin in einen Sumpf werfen, aber Isaak kam unversehrt wieder aus dem Sumpf hervor und prophezeite dem Kaiser, er werde im Feuer umkommen, wenn er nicht die Kirchen öffne. Valentius übergab Isaak den Gefängnisaufsehern Saturninus und Viktor und zog gegen die Goten. Er wurde mit seinen Generälen von den Goten in einer Scheune, in die er sich geflüchtet hatte, verbrannt. Isaak wurde daraufhin freigelassen und als Prophet verehrt. Der neue Kaiser Theodosius (379-395) öffnete die Kirchen der Athanasianer und verbannte die Arianer aus Konstantinopel. Isaak ließ sich auf Wunsch von Saturninus und Viktor nahe Konstantinopel nieder. Aus seiner Einsiedelei entstand ein Kloster, in dem er 383 starb. Das Kloster wurde später nach seinem Gefährten und Nachfolger Dalmatus benannt.

Das Gedächtnis Isaaks wird auch am 22. März und am 3. August (mit Dalmatus und Faustus) begangen.
384 St. Lea devout widow nun Superior community of Saint Marcella exchanged her rich attire for sackcloth
 Romæ sanctæ Leæ Víduæ, cujus virtútes et tránsitum ad Deum sanctus Hierónymus scribit.
       At Rome, the widow St. Lea, whose virtues and happy death are related by St. Jerome.
A letter which St. Jerome wrote to St. Marcella provides the only information we have about St. Lea, a devout fourth century widow.
Upon death of her husband, she retired to a Roman monastery and ultimately became its Superior. Since his correspondence was acquainted with the details of St. Lea's life, St. Jerome omitted these in his letter. He concentrated instead on the fate of St. Lea in comparison with that of a consul who had recently died.
"Who will praise the blessed Lea as she deserves? She renounced painting her face and adorning her head with shining pearls. She exchanged her rich attire for sackcloth, and ceased to command others in order to obey all. She dwelt in a corner with a few bits of furniture; she spent her nights in prayer, and instructed her companions through her example rather than through protests and speeches. And she looked forward to her arrival in heaven in order to receive her recompense for the virtues which she practiced on earth.
"So it is that thence forth she enjoyed perfect happiness. From Abraham's bosom, where she resides with Lazarus, she sees our consul who was once decked out in purple, now vested in a shameful robe, vainly begging for a drop of water to quench his thirst. Although he went up to the capital to the plaudits of the people, and his death occasioned widespread grief, it is futile for the wife to assert that he has gone to heaven and possesses a great mansion there. The fact is that he is plunged into the darkness outside, whereas Lea who was willing to be considered a fool on earth, has been received into the house of the Father, at the wedding feast of the Lamb.
"Hence, I tearfully beg you to refrain from seeking the favors of the world and to renounce all that is carnal. It is impossible to follow both the world and Jesus. Let us live a life of renunciation, for our bodies will soon be dust and nothing else will last any longer."

Lea of Rome, Widow (RM). Roman lady who on becoming a widow entered the community of Saint Marcella, of which she later became the superior. She was noted for the austerity of her life and her extreme penances. Saint Jerome (Ep. 20 to Marcella) wrote a panegyric in her honor (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

5th v. St. Trien disciple of St. Patrick missionary abbot.
He served as a missionary and then as abbot of Killelga Monastery, Ireland.

Trien of Killelga, Abbot (AC) (also known as Trienan). Saint Trien, abbot of Killelga monastery, was on of Saint Patrick's disciples (Benedictines)

5th v. St. Darerca sister of St. Patrick sons became bishops throughout Ireland.
She was reported to have borne fifteen sons, ten of whom became bishops throughout Ireland.

Darerca, Widow (AC) Her name is derived from the Irish Diar-Sheare, which means constant and firm love. Alleged sister of Saint Patrick of Ireland and the mother of fifteen sons, some of which became saints.  (Benedictines, Montague).

457 St. Deogratius Bishop of Carthage ransomed captives fed them gave them room in church
 Carthágine sancti Deográtias, Epíscopi Carthaginénsis, qui plúrimos, a Wándalis captívos ex Urbe ductos, redémit, aliísque sanctis opéribus célebris quiévit in Dómino.
       At Carthage, St. Deogratias, bishop of Carthage, who ransomed many captives taken from that city by the Vandals, and who performed many other good works, after which he went to rest in the Lord.

457 ST DEOGRATIAS, Bishop OF CARTHAGE
WHEN Carthage was seized by the Vandals in 439, the Arian barbarians expelled Bishop Quodvultdeus and set him adrift with most of his clergy in a water-logged hulk, which, however, managed eventually to reach Naples. After fourteen years, during which Carthage remained without a chief pastor, Genseric, at the request of Valentinian, allowed the consecration of another bishop. He was a priest of the name of Deogratias, who by his example and teaching strengthened the faith of his people and succeeded in winning the respect of pagans and Arians alike.

Two years after the bishop’s consecration, Genseric sacked Rome and returned to Africa with a multitude of captives. These unfortunate people were distributed between the Vandals and the Moors, regardless of natural ties, husbands being separated from wives and parents from their children. To buy them back, Deogratias sold the gold and silver vessels and ornaments of the altar, and thus redeemed a great number of families. As there were not enough houses in Carthage available for their accommodation, the bishop gave over two of the largest churches which he filled with bedding, and organized a daily distribution of food. Some of the baser spirits among the Arians, resenting his activity, lay in wait to kill him, but the project failed. Worn out by his efforts, however, Deogratias died after an epis­copate of little over three years, and was deeply mourned by his own flock and by the exiles who had found in him their great protector. The Carthaginians would have torn his body to pieces to obtain relics, but his corpse was secretly buried while the public prayers were being chanted, and was thus preserved from dismember­ment.

Victor, Bishop of Vita, in his Historia Persecutionis Vandalicae, is the principal authority for what we know of St Deogratias. See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii.

Bishop of Carthage in 454, succeeding
St. Quodvultdeus. The Vandal king, Geiseric, brought many Italian captives to Carthage, and Deogratius ransomed them. He was reportedly slain by Arian heretics.
Deogratias of Carthage B (RM); the ancient calendar of Carthage places his feast on January 5.

In 439, Arian Vandals seized Carthage and threw out its bishop, Saint Quodvultdeus.

For 14 years the city was without a chief pastor. Then the Arian leader Genseric relented and allowed the Christians there to make a priest named Deogratias their bishop in 456. Two years later Genseric took Rome and removed from the city hundreds of captives.
Genseric and his dejected captives returned to Africa, where whole Christian families were split up and given to Vandals and Moors as slaves.
Deogratias determined to free them. The only possible method was to ransom them. For this purpose the bishop sold everything he possibly could, including the rich gold and silver plate of the church and many precious ornaments. He managed to ransom so many families that there were not enough rooms in Carthage to house them. Undeterred, Bishop Deogratias gave them rooms inside his churches. Each day he made sure that they were properly fed, until they could once again look after themselves.
And, although he was decrepit with age, each day he visited the sick to comfort them.
Many Arians resented the saint's work and a number tried--and failed--to kill him. Nonetheless he died, worn out by his enormous labors, after only one year as a bishop (Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
484 St. Octavian Martyr of the Vandals under Hunneric.  
 Carthágine sancti Octaviáni Archidiáconi, et multórum míllium Mártyrum, qui, ob fidem cathólicam, a Wándalis cæsi sunt.
       At Carthage, the archdeacon St. Octavian, and many thousands of martyrs, who were slain by the Vandals for the Catholic faith.
He was an archdeacon in the Church in Carthage who was executed, along with supposedly thousands of other Christians, by the Arian Vandals at the command of King Hunneric.

Octavianus and Companions MM (RM). Octavian archdeacon of Carthage who, with his companions, said to number several thousand, were martyred by the Arian king Hunneric (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
680 Failbhe of Iona brother of Saint Finan of Rath Abbot (AC).
Born in Ireland; Saint Failbhe, abbot of Iona and brother of Saint Finan of Rath, is one of about 20 saints of the same name commemorated in Irish and Scottish menologies (Benedictines).
752 Pope St. Zachary At Rome, the birthday of Pope St. Zachary, who governed the Church of God with vigilance, and at last, renowned for miracles, rested in peace.
 Romæ sancti Zacharíæ Papæ, qui Dei Ecclésiam summa vigilántia gubernávit, et clarus méritis quiévit in pace.
(ZACHARIAS.)

Reigned 741-52. Year of birth unknown; died in March, 752. Zachary sprang from a Greek family living in Calabria; his father, according to the "Liber Pontificalis", was called Polichronius. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732. After the burial of his predecessor Pope Gregory III on 29 November, 741, he was immediately and unanimously elected pope and consecrated and enthroned on 5 December. His biographer in the "Liber Pontificalis" describes him as a man of gentle and conciliatory character who was charitable towards the clergy and people. As a fact the new pope always showed himself to be shrewd and conciliatory in his actions and thus his undertakings were very successful.
Soon after his elevation he notified Constantinople of his election; it is noticeable that his synodica (letter) was not addressed to the iconoclastic Patriarch Anastasius but to the Church of Constantinople. The envoys of the pope also brought a letter for the emperor.

After the death of Leo III (18 June, 741) his successor was his son Constantine V, Copronymus. However, in 742 Constantine's brother-in-law Artabasdus raised a revolt against the new emperor and established himself in Constantinople; thus when the papal envoys reached Constantinople they found Artabasdus the ruler there. As late as 743 the papal letters were dated from the year of the reign of Constantine V; in 744, however, they are dated form the year of the reign of Artabasdus. Still the papal envoys do not seem to have come into close relations with the usurper at Constantinople, although the latter re-established the worship of images.
After Constantine V had overthrown his rival, the envoys of the pope presented to him the papal letter in which Zachary exhorted the emperor to restore the doctrine and practice of the Church in respect to the worship of images. The emperor received the envoys in a friendly manner and presented the Roman Church with the villages of Nympha and Normia (Norba) in Italy, which with their territories extended to the sea.

When Zachary ascended the throne the position of the city and Duchy of Rome was a very serious one. Luitprand, King of the Lomabards, was preparing a new incursion into Roman territory. Duke Trasamund of Spoleto, with whom Pope Gregory III had formed an alliance against Luitprand, did not keep his promise to aid the Romans in regaining the cities taken by the Lombards. Consequently Zachary abandoned the alliance with Trasamund and sought to protect the interests of Rome and Roman territory by personal influence over Luitprand. The pope went to Terni to see the Lombard king who received him with every mark of honour. Zachary was able to obtain from Luitprand that the four cities of Ameria, Horta, Polimartium, and Blera should be returned to the Romans, and that all the patrimonies of the Roman Church that the Lombards had taken from it within the last thirty years, should be given back; he was also able to conclude a truce for twenty years between the Roman Duchy and the Lombards. A chapel to the Saviour was built in the Church of St. Peter at Rome in the name of Luitprand, in which the deeds respecting this return of property were placed. After the pope's return, the Roman people went in solemn procession to St. Peter's to thank God for the fortunate result of the pope's efforts. Throughout the entire affair the pope appears as the secular ruler of Rome and the Roman territory. In the next year Luitprand made ready to attack the territory of Ravenna. The Byzantine exarch of Ravenna and the archbishop begged Pope Zachary to intervene. The latter first sent envoys to the Lombard king, and when these were unsuccessful he went himself to Ravenna and from there to Pavia to see Luitprand. The pope reached Pavia on the eve of the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul. He celebrated the vigil and the feast of the princes of the Apostles at Pavia, and was able to induce the king to abandon the attack on Ravenna and to restore the territory belonging to the city itself. Luitprand died shortly after than and after his first successor Hildebrand was overthrown, Ratchis became King of the Lombards. The pope was on the best of terms with him. In 749 the new king confirmed the treaty of peace with the Roman Duchy. The same year Ratchis abdicated, with his wife and daughter took the monastic vows before the pope, and all three entered the monastic life.

In 743 Pope Zachary held a synod at Rome which was attended by sixty bishops. This synod issued fourteen canons on various matters of church discipline. On this occasion the pope took up the question of the impediments to marriage of relationship in the fourth degree, in regard to which the Germans claimed to have obtained a dispensation from Pope Gregory II. The year previous Zachary had written on this point to the bishops and kings of that province. An active correspondence was kept up between Zachary and St. Boniface. The latter in his zealous labours had organized the Church in the German territories, and while doing this had kept in close connection with the Papal See. Early in 742, soon after his elevation, Zachary received a letter from Boniface in which the saint expressed his full submission to the possessor of the Chair of Peter and requested then confirmation of the three newly established Bishoprics of Wurzburg, Buraburg, and Erfurt; Boniface also sought authority to hold a synod in France and to suppress abuses in the lives of the clergy. The pope confirmed the three dioceses and commissioned Boniface to attend, as papal legate, the Frankish synod which Karlmann wished to hold. In a later letter Zachary confirmed the metropolitans of Rouen, Reims, and Sens appointed by Boniface, and also confirmed the condemnation of the two heretics Adelbert and Clement. Various questions in which the pope and Boniface disagreed were discussed in letters. In 745 was held the general synod for the Frankish kingdom called by Pepin and Carloman. Here decrees were passed against unworthy ecclesiastics, and the two heretics, Adelbert and Clement, were again condemned. Boniface sent a Frankish priest to Rome to make a report to the pope, and the latter held on 25 October, 745, a synod at the Lateran at which, after exhaustive investigation, an anathema was pronounced against the two heretics. Zachary forwarded the acts of the synod with a letter to Boniface. Pepin and the Frankish bishops sent a list of questions respecting the discipline of the clergy and of the Christian population to Pope Zachary, and the latter answered in a letter of 746 in which decisions respecting the various points are given. These decisions were communicated to Boniface so that he might make them generally known at a Frankish synod. The following year, 747, Carloman resigned his authority and the world, went to Rome, and was received by Pope Zachary into a monastic order. At first he lived in the monastery on the Soracte, later at Monte Cassino. Thanks to the efforts of St. Boniface all the Frankish bishops were now agreed in submission to the See of St. Peter. Zachary sent still other letters to the bishops of Gaul and Germany, and also to Boniface as the papal legate for the Church of this region.

Boniface was constantly in intercourse with Rome both by letters and envoys and sent important questions to the pope for decision. An important proof of the recognition by the Franks of the high moral power of the papacy is shown by the appeal to papal authority on the occasion of the overthrow of the Merovingian dynasty. Pepin's ambassadors, Bishop Burkard of Wurzburg and Chaplain Folrad of St. Denis, laid the question before Zachary: whether it seemed right to him that one should be king who did not really possess the royal power. The pope declared that this did not appear good to him, and on the authority of the pope Pepin considered himself justified in having himself proclaimed King of the Franks (cf. SAINT BONIFACE; and PEPIN THE SHORT). The ecclesiastical activity of the pope also extended to England. Through his efforts the Synod of Cloveshove was held in 747 for the reform of church discipline in accordance with the advice given by the pope and in imitation of the Roman Church.

Zachary was very zealous in the restoration of the churches of Rome to which he made costly gifts. He also restored the Lateran palace and established several large domains as the settled landed possessions (domus cultoe) of the Roman Church. The pope translated to the Church of St. George in Velabro the head of the martyr St. George which was found during the repairs of the decayed Lateran Palace. He was very benevolent to the poor, to whom alms were given regularly from the papal palace.
When merchants from Venice bought slaves at Rome in order to sell them again to the Saracens in Africa, the pope bought all the slaves, so that Christians should not become the property of heathens. Thus in a troubled era Zachary proved himself to be an excellent, capable, vigorous, and charitable successor of Peter. He also carried on theological studies and made a translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great into Greek, which was largely circulated in the East. After his death Zachary was buried in St. Peters.

1244 Blessed Isnard(o) de Chiampo distinguished preacher miracles OP (AC)
Born in Chiampo (near Vicenza), Italy; cultus confirmed in 1919. From the springtime of the Dominicans in Bologna, Italy, comes the story of Blessed Isnard. He was born into a wealthy family but little else is known of his boyhood. In 1219, as a student at the University of Bologna, he met Saint Dominic and decided to join his new order. Soon after completing his novitiate in Bologna, Isnard distinguished himself as a preacher. His first assignment was in Pavia, where his work of founding and ruling the priory was complicated by the war between the pope and the emperor.
Blessed Isnard plunged courageously into the work. He knew that he was risking death in doing so, and a less stout-hearted man might have found some excuse for going to a more peaceful place. Blessed Isnard insisted on meeting the situation head-on.

One of his first encounters was with the forces of evil, quite undisguised. A possessed man had become the mouthpiece of the devil and was being used by heretics to discredit the preaching of the friar who had so recently come to Pavia to preach the faith. The devil, speaking through the lips of the possessed man, issued a challenge to the friar: "If you are from God, cast me out and cure this man."

Isnard realized that one does not lightly take up open battle with the powers of wickedness. The condition of the poor man, whose name was Martin, was enough to strike terror into any heart. The challenge came when Isnard was in the pulpit preaching. The possessed man was brought into the church, screaming, and in convulsions. The preacher realized that he must cure him or lose the interest of his audience in the cause of Christ.

Stepping down from the pulpit, he approached the possessed man, put his arms around him and, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, demanded that the evil spirits depart. Martin was freed from his tormentor, and he ended his days, according to legend, as a lay brother in the local monastery.

At another time when Isnard was preaching, a hardened heretic refused to listen to him and called out loudly, "I shall believe in the sanctity of this man only if he makes that barrel on the corner of the square come loose and strike me." Immediately, the barrel jumped from its place and struck the scoffer, breaking his leg.

Isnard spent his life preaching and working in Pavia, regardless of the fact that in spite of his life of self-mortification "he was excessively fat and people used to ridicule him about it when he was preaching." At his death, it presented a quite different appearance from the godless and strife-ridden city it was when he had arrived (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Dorcy).

1244 BD ISNARDO OF CHIAMPO
CHIAMPO, where Bd Isnardo was born, is a village near Vicenza. As a youth he seems to have fallen under the spell of St Dominic’s eloquence, and joining the Order of Preachers he received the habit from the holy founder himself about the year 1219, along with Bd Guala Romanoni. Isnardo, we are told, in spite of the fact that he led an extremely ascetic life, was very stout, and physical exertion of any kind was a matter of much difficulty to him. Nevertheless nothing could daunt his energy as a preacher, and his persuasiveness and learning were such that he made many conversions. On one occasion a scoffer ridiculing the speaker’s corpulence shouted out, “I could no more believe in the holiness of an old porpoise like Brother Isnardo than I could believe that that barrel there would jump up of itself and break my leg”. Whereupon, we are told, the barrel did fall upon his leg and crush it. Isnardo was one of the first Dominicans to preach in Pavia, and when a house of the Order was founded there he was elected prior in 1240. In this house he passed away in 1244, being credited with many miracles both before and after his death. His cultus was confirmed in 1919.
See C. M. Pio, Delle vite degli huomini illustri di S. Domenico (1607), pp. 205—206 the decree confirming the cultus in Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xi (1919), pp. 184—186 and K. Majocchi, B. Isnardo da Vicenza (191 o). On this last cf. Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxiii (1914), pp. 100—101.

1282 St. Benvenutus Scotivoli Franciscan archdeacon bishop
 Auximi, in Picéno, sancti Benvenúti Epíscopi.
       At Osimo, in Piceno, the bishop St. Benvenuto.

1282 ST BENVENUTO, BISHOP OF Osimo

ST BENVENUTO Scotivoli was born at Ancona and intended for the law, which he studied at Bologna, but feeling that God called him to labour for souls he was ordained to the priesthood. By Pope Alexander IV he was appointed archdeacon of Ancona, besides being made administrator of the diocese of Osimo.
   The seat of the bishopric had been removed from that town to Recanati, because the people of Osimo had espoused the cause of the Emperor Frederick II against the Holy See, but Benvenuto succeeded in the difficult task of reconciling the city with the papacy. The episcopal chair was then restored to Osimo, of which in 1264 he was nominated bishop by Alexander’s successor, Urban, and he was also appointed governor of the Marches of Ancona.
Before his consecration Benvenuto was admitted into the Franciscan Order, and during the remaining eighteen years of his life he con­tinued to wear his Minorite habit, which was long preserved at Osimo with his relics. It had ever been his earnest desire to imitate St Francis,. and as he felt
death approaching, he asked to be carried into the church and laid on the bare ground that he might die like the Seraphic Father. Whilst the psalms were being intoned by the clergy round him, he passed away to his eternal rest.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. i, pp. 517—519. It is stated that Benvenuto was canonized by Pope Martin IV, and consequently less than four years after his death.

He was born in Ancona,
Italy, and studied law in Bologna, a fellow student of St. Sylvester. Appointed archdeacon of Ancona, he went on to become the bishop of Osimo, Italy. Before his episcopal ordination, Benvenutus became a Franciscan. He was canonized by Pope Martin IV.

Benvenuto Scotivoli, OFM B (RM) (also known as Benvenutus of Osimo)
Born at Ancona, Italy; died 1282; canonized by Martin IV. Benevenuto studied law at Bologna, where he was a fellow-student of Saint Sylvester Gozzolini. He joined the Franciscans at Ancona. He was appointed archdeacon of Ancona, and finally bishop of Osimo in 1264 (Attwater2, Benedictines).

1470 Blessed Hugolinus Zefferini Augustinian hermit OSA (AC)
(also known as Blessed Hugolinus of Cortona); cultus confirmed in 1804. The little available information on this Augustinian hermit, indicates that he lived either at Cortona or Mantua, Italy (Attwater2, Benedictines).
1470 BD HUGOLINO OF CORTONA
VERY little seems to be known of the Augustinian hermit Hugolino Zefferini of Cortona. When Father Papebroch the Bollandist wrote to a high authority of the Augustinian Order to obtain information, a courteous reply was returned to the effect that the archives of their house in Cortona had unfortunately perished in a conflagration, and that a manuscript life of the holy man which they had once possessed had either been lost or stolen. All they could send was a seventeenth-century engraving which contained representations of a certain number of miracles alleged to have been wrought in connection with the relics of the beatus. One of the most surprising of these had reference to a lily which, growing out of the corpse of the deceased thirty years after his burial, effected the cure of a woman who was blind. Other traditions stated that when the first lily had been thoughtlessly plucked, two other lilies grew out of the wounds of the hermit’s incorrupt body. From the conflicting accounts given it is not even clear whether Bd Hugolino belonged to Cortona or to Mantua, and whether he lived in the fourteenth century or in the fifteenth. It seems, however, to be certain that his relics were preserved and venerated at Cortona, and the cultus  paid to him there was approved by Pope Pius VII in 1804.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii. Two short Italian biographies are also cited, one by F. Baldelli (1704), the other by N. Fabbrini (1891).
1487 Nicholas of Flüe, Hermit fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!" often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer for 21.5 yrs, he took no food for the body patron saint of Switzerland. (RM)
<NICHOLAS VON FLUE (“Bruder Klaus”) occupies a unique place in the estimation of his countrymen. Ecclesiastics, patriots, politicians, historians and poets of all creeds have sung his praises, and it may safely be asserted that no religious figure in the history of Switzerland has given rise to so varied and voluminous a body of literature.

The holy man, who was born near Sachseln in Unterwalden in 1417, belonged to a much respected family of small farmers, owners of the Kluster Alp or pasture in the Melchthal and of the estate of Flüeli on the Sachsterberg, from which they derived their surname. His father Henry also held a civil post in the cantonal service, whilst his mother, Emma Robert, was a native of Wolfenschiessen. She was a deeply religious woman who brought up her two sons, Nicholas and Peter, to belong as she did to the brotherhood of the Friends of God (Gottesfreunde). The members of this society were scattered over Germany, Switzerland and the Nether­lands, and were drawn from both sexes and all classes. Adhering loyally to the Catholic Church, they sought by strictness of life as well as by constant meditation on the passion of our Lord and similar devotions, to enter, as their name implied, into specially close relationship with God. Some of them lived in their own families, others formed small communities, and a few retired from the world altogether to lead an eremitic life. Nicholas was specially responsive to the training he received, and was remarkable from childhood for his piety, his love of peace and his sound judgement.

At the age of twenty-two, and in spite of his peace-loving disposition, Nicholas fought in the ranks in the war with Zurich. Fourteen years later, on the occasion of the occupation of the Thurgau, he again took up arms, but this time he was captain of a company. The high esteem in which he was held caused him to be appointed magistrate and judge and to be sent on various occasions as deputy for Obwalden to councils and meetings, where his clear-sighted wisdom carried great weight. He was repeatedly offered the highest post of all, that of landamman, or governor, but he could never be induced to accept it. He had married a religious-minded girl called Dorothea Wissling, and their union had been a happy one. Of their ten children, John, the eldest son, became landamman during his father’s lifetime, and the youngest studied at the University of Bale, and was afterwards for many years parish-priest of Sachseln.

Throughout the years of his married life, Nicholas had continued the devout practices of his youth. To quote the testimony of his eldest son: “My father always retired to rest at the same time as his children and servants; but every night I saw him get up again, and heard him praying in his room until morning. Often too he would go in the silence of the night to the old church of St Nicholas or to other holy places.” In obedience to what seemed to him a supernatural call to contemplation, for he had many visions and revelations, he used at times to withdraw into solitude in the valley of the Melch, but when he was about fifty he felt irresistibly drawn to abandon the world altogether and to spend the rest of his days far from home as a hermit. His wife did not oppose him, for the Friends of God recognized such vocations as sent from on high. Nicholas resigned his offices, took leave of his wife, his father and his children in the early autumn of 1467 and set forth barefoot and bareheaded, clad in a grey-brown habit and carrying his rosary and his staff.

His destination appears to have been Strasbourg, in the neighbourhood of which was a settlement of the brethren, Alsace having been their headquarters. Before crossing the frontier, however, he received hospitality from a peasant whom he discovered to be also a Friend of God, and in the course of conversation his host sought to deter him from leaving the country, assuring him that the Swiss were unpopular in Alsace and elsewhere abroad on account of their rough manners, and that he might fail to find the peaceful retreat he sought. That night there was a terrific thunderstorm, and as Nicholas looked at the little town of Liechstall beyond the frontier, the flashes of lightning made it appear to be in flames. He took this to be a sign which confirmed the advice he had received, and immediately retraced his steps. One evening during the homeward journey, as he lay under a tree, he was seized with such violent gastric spasms that he thought his last hour had come:  the pain passed off, but from that time he lost all desire for ordinary food or drink, and became in fact incapable of taking either. Later that autumn, hunters who had been looking for game in the Melchthal brought home news that they had come across Nicholas on his pasture land of the Klüster, where he had made himself a shelter of boughs under a larch tree. His brother Peter and other friends went to beseech him not to remain there to die of exposure, and he was persuaded to move to Ranft, another part of the valley, where the people of Obwalden soon built him a little cell with a chapel attached.

In this spot, which was situated above a narrow gorge, the loneliness of which was emphasized by the roar of the mountain torrent in the valley below, St Nicholas spent nineteen peaceful years. The hours from midnight to midday were passed in prayer and contemplation, but in the afternoon he would interview those who found their way to his hermitage to seek his advice on spiritual or even on temporal matters. God had given him the spirit of counsel, as he one admitted to his friend Henry Imgrund, and he continued to exercise it as he had done in the past. Strangers also were attracted by the fame of this remarkable man, who was reported to live without eating and drinking. Never very talkative, he was particularly sparing of his words to those who came out of mere curiosity. So also, when questioned as to his abstention from food, he would only reply, “God knows”. That no one brought him provisions the cantonal magistrates proved by having all approaches to his cell watched for a month, and unprejudiced foreigners, such as Archduke Sigismund’s physician and envoys from the Emperor Frederick III, satisfied themselves of the truth of the report and were profoundly impressed by the hermit’s sincerity.

Once a year Nicholas took part in the great Musegger procession in Lucerne, but otherwise he only left his retreat to attend divine service and occasionally to visit Einsiedeln. The gifts of the faithful enabled him in his later years to found a chantry for a priest in connection with his own little chapel, and he was thus able to assist at Mass daily and to communicate often.

At this epoch the Swiss Confederation had just passed through the most glorious phase in its history. Within six years, in the three battles of Grandson, Morat and Nancy, the sturdy mountain folk had vindicated their independence and had routed the hitherto unconquered Charles the Bold, master of the two Burgundies and nearly the whole of Belgium: their reputation was so great that every prince in Europe sought their alliance. The hour of their most signal triumph proved nevertheless to be the hour of their greatest danger, for internal dissensions threatened to undo the success which their arms had won. Quarrels arose over the division of booty and between the country party and the towns. Another source of contention was, the proposal to include Fribourg and Soleure (or Solothurn) in the confederation. At length agreement was reached on most points and was embodied in a document known as the Edict of Stans.

On the subject of the inclusion of Fribourg and Soleure, however, no accommodation could be reached, and feeling ran so high that it seemed that the question would have to be settled by arms. The meeting was breaking up in disorder when the parish-priest of Stans suggested seeking a final opinion from Nicholas von Flue. The deputies gave their consent and he set out to seek the hermit. His suggestion was no casual or sudden inspiration. As we know from the protocols of the Council of Lucerne, that city, which occupied an ambiguous position between the two parties, had, at an early stage of the strife, sent delegates to Brother Nicholas to obtain his advice, and it is quite possible that other districts had done the same. It has been even suggested that the Edict of Stans, a most statesmanlike charter, may have been drafted in the hermit’s cell.
    In any case, it is greatly to the credit of the deputies that, in the heat of their quarrel, they should have been willing to refer the matter to him. The chronicler Diebold Schilling, who represented his father at the council, tells us that the priest Imgrund arrived back in Stans streaming with perspiration, and that, seeking out the deputies in their lodgings, he besought them with tears to reassemble immediately to hear the message which he must impart to them alone. Schilling does not record the words of that message, but he informs us that within an hour the council had arrived at a unanimous agreement. Fribourg and Soleure were to be admitted into the Swiss Confederation, but upon certain conditions, which were accepted for them by Hans von Stall, the delegate of Soleure. The date was December 22, 1481.

That Christmas was a specially joyful one throughout Switzerland, and the Stans Council expressed in laudatory terms its gratitude to Nicholas for his services. Letters of thanks from Berne and Soleure to the holy man are still extant, as well as a letter written on his behalf by his son John, thanking Berne for a gift which would be expended upon the Church. (He himself could neither read nor write, but used a special seal by way of a signature.) Several of the hermit’s visitors have left accounts of their interviews with him, and that written by Albert von Bon­stetten, dean of the monastery of Einsiedeln, is particularly interesting. He describes the recluse as tall, brown and wrinkled, with thin grizzled locks and a short beard. His eyes were bright, his teeth white and well preserved, and his nose shapely. He adds, “He praises and recommends obedience and peace. As he exhorted the Confederates to maintain peace, so does he exhort all who come to him to do the same.” The dean held him in great veneration, but with regard to the prophetical gifts ascribed to Nicholas in some quarters, he says cautiously that he had received no evidence of them from trustworthy sources. Six years after the Council of Stans, Nicholas was seized with his last illness, which lasted only eight days, but caused him intense suffering. He bore it with perfect resigna­tion and died peacefully in his cell, on his birthday, having attained the age of seventy. Immediately his death became known he was honoured in all Switzerland both as a patriot and as a saint, though it was only in 1669 that his cultus was formally sanctioned: he was canonized in 1947. His skeleton lies in a shrine under a black marble canopied altar which stands close to the entrance to the choir of the present church of Sachseln, and the habit in which he died is preserved in a cupboard in the south apse. The two “Flue houses” at Flüeli date back to the days of St Nicholas, and although they have been greatly modernized one room in his dwelling-house remains intact.

In 1917 the fifth centenary of the birth of “ Bruder Klaus” was celebrated throughout Switzerland with quite remarkable enthusiasm. Perhaps the most valuable result of the interest thus awakened was the publication of a great historical monograph by Robert Durrer, a scholar with an unrivalled knowledge of the archives of his country. In these two quarto volumes, entitled Bruder Klaus, which together total some 1350 pages, will be found all the available material bearing on the life of Nicholas von Flue. The collection includes two early sketches of the career of Bruder Klaus, one by Albrecht von Bonstetten, the other by Heinrich von Gundelfingen, but these are supplemented by a mass of documentary evidence derived from ancient records and other sources. A comprehensive nineteenth century biography is that of J. Ming, Der selige Bruder Nikolaus von Flue, and others have since been written by A. Baumberger, F. X. Wetzel and J. T. de Belloc, in Italian by F. Andina (1945), and in French by A. Andrey (1941) and C. Journet (1947). See also the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and the Kirchenlexikon, vol. ix, pp. 316-319.

 (also known as Bruder Klaus)
Born at Flüeli near Sachseln, Obwalden (Unterwalden), Switzerland, March 21, 1417; died at Ranft, Switzerland, March 21, 1487; cultus  approved in 1669; canonized 1947; feast day formerly March 21; feast day in Switzerland is September 25.

"My Lord and my God, remove from me all that may keep me from you. My Lord and my God, give me all that I need to bring me to you. My Lord and my God, take me from myself and give me to yourself." --Nicholas von Flüe.
Nicholas was born into a family of prosperous farmers, who owned the Kluster Alp and the estate of Flüeli on the Sachsterberg (near Lucerne), from which their surname derives. At various times Saint Nicholas was a soldier, peasant, patriot, and judge in Switzerland. His father held a civil post; his mother was very devout and raised her sons to belong to the brotherhood of the Friends of God (Gottesfreunde). The society sought to live a strict life, to meditate on the passion of the Lord, and to seek a close relationship with God. They lived with their families in small communities or as hermits. Thus, Nicholas was pious from childhood. He was also illiterate.
In his youth Nicholas fought in defense of Swiss Confederation liberties, especially against the Hapsburgs. After the siege of Zurich in 1439, he was commissioned in the army. He defended women and children and the Church, fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!"

He loved solitude and prayer, but, by 1447, he married pious and comely Dorothea Wysling, daughter of one of the chief families of Sachseln. In the 30 years of their marriage, he had 10 children: John, Rudolph, Walter, Henry, Nicholas, Dorothea, Marguerite, Katherine, Veronica, and another girl who died in infancy. John was elected Landmann of Unterwald. Nicholas (the youngest) studied at the University of Basle and became a priest; another became a governor of the province. Dorothea's piety led her to be called "the consolation of the Church."

Nicholas would rise at dawn to tend the flocks, eat at 9:00 a.m. with his family and servants at the same table, and again at the end of the day they would gather for Vesperbrod and end the evening with family prayers. While working in the fields, he was often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations. He continued the devout practices of his youth, fasted frequently, and often spent the night in prayer.

In 1460, Thurgau was invaded by Austria and Nicholas commanded 100 men. During this campaign at Katharinental the Swiss troops were faced with a situation that anticipated in miniature that at Monte Cassino in 1944: When the Swiss succeeded in capturing the village of Diesenhofer, many Austrian soldiers sought refuge in the church of the Dominican Convent of Saint Catherine. The Swiss command was going to burn the church, but Nicholas prayed for divine guidance before the crucifix in the cloister, then he asked the command to revoke its order stressing the moral gravity of the act. The order was canceled. Nicholas was awarded a gold medal when peace was declared, in thanks for his services.

Fellow-citizens wanted him to accept the office of Landmann (governor), but he twice refused. He was appointed magistrate, served as judge for the canton, and was sent as a deputy for Obwalden to councils. When, in 1465, a powerful family appealed his fair decision and was rendered an unjust one against a humble peasant, he resigned. "Later he testified that he could see and feel flames of fire, of a disgusting odor, issuing from the mouths of the judges as they pronounced their unjust sentence; and he knew that they already had a foretaste of hell within themselves." Though the elite turned against him and spoke calumnies of him, Nicholas was still sought out by his neighbors and people from the adjoining cantons to settle disputes.

In 1467 (age 50), fourteen months after the birth of the tenth child, Nicholas heard God's command to live as a hermit and told his wife immediately. He resigned his offices and, with his devout wife's permission, left his family to live for the next 20 years as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer. Dorothea was overcome by the news but put no obstacles in his way because she recognized the call. "She wept as she made the supreme sacrifice" of allowing her husband to leave. His relatives and neighbors, however, were full of indignation, which he disregarded. Nicholas and his wife drew up an agreement and told the family and servants that Dorothea was thenceforth head of the family.

He left barefoot and bareheaded, wearing a drab habit and carrying a rosary and a staff. Thus clad as a pilgrim, Nicholas became known as Brother Klaus. He appears to have been headed for Strasbourg, France, where the headquarters of the Gottesfreunde lay, looking for a hermitage in which to spend his final years. On his way, however, he wandered toward Basle, where he was put up by a peasant who was a Friend of God, who told him that the Swiss were unpopular in Alsace and that he might not find there the life that he sought.

That night during a violent thunderstorm, Nicholas looked at a little town beyond the frontier and saw that lightning made it appear to be in flames. He took this as a divine confirmation of the peasant's advice and turned back. When Brother Klaus decided to follow the peasant's suggestion, he felt a violent pain in his intestines and was surrounded by light. Thereafter, he "never felt the need of human food or drink, and have never used them." Hunters brought back to his family the news that they had seen him living on his pastureland in a shelter of boughs. Family members went to beg him not to stay there and fall prey to exposure.

So, he finally moved to Ranft, where the people of Obwalden built him a cell and a small chapel. He lived many years in this lonely place above a narrow gorge within earshot of the mountain stream spending most of his time in prayer. He prayed and meditated from midnight to midday, attended Mass in Sachseln every Sunday, and paid an annual visit to Lucerne for the Musegger procession. He never ate or drank anything except the Blessed Sacrament.

Abbot Oswald Isner wrote:  "When Nicholas had abstained for 11 days from taking natural food, he sent for me and asked me secretly whether he should take some food or continue to fast. He had always desired to live without eating, the better to separate himself from the world. I touched the parts of his body where little flesh was left; all was dried up; his cheeks were hollow and his lips were very thin.
"When I had seen and understood that it could come only from divine love, I advised brother Nicholas to continue to this test as long as he could stand it without the danger of death. That is what brother Nicholas did; from that moment until his death, that is for about twenty-one and a half years, he continued to take no food for the body.

"Since the holy brother was more familiar with me than with anyone else, I asked him many times how he managed to do it. One day in his cell he told me, in great secrecy, that when the priest celebrated communion he received the strength which alone permitted him to live without eating or drinking."

When those seeking his counsel asked him about eating nothing, Nicholas would reply, "God knows." Cantonal magistrates had his cell watched for a month to ensure themselves of the fact that no one brought him food.
Nevertheless, Nicholas held that "holy obedience is the highest virtue." When Bishop Thomas visited him and commanded him to eat bread and a little wine after 18 months of nothing, Nicholas hesitated to obey. When he did try to eat a tiny fragment of a morsel, he almost choked to death and the bishop finally believed.

Until he had a chaplain, he attended Sunday Mass and Holy Days at the parish church of Sachseln. Nicholas founded a chantry for a priest with donations and thus was enabled to assist at Mass daily. In 1470, Pope Paul II granted the first indulgence to the sanctuary at Ranft and it became a place of pilgrimage. Occasionally Klaus would make a pilgrimage to Engleburg or Einsiedeln.

He received the great (including Emperor Frederick III), the humble, and children. Many pilgrims came for counsel. He could speak with authority to married people and children. His wife and children also attended Mass in his chapel and listened to his spiritual counsel.

In 1481, the Swiss Confederation had gained its independence from Charles the Bold of Burgundy, the rulers of Europe sought its alliance, and it was on the verge of breaking apart over how to divide the spoils gained during the conquests. Internal disputes threatened its solidarity, but an agreement was reached and put forth in the Compromise of Stans. Still unresolved, however, was the issue of the inclusion of Fribourg and Soleure, and it caused such controversy that in 1481 civil war was feared. A parish priest of Stans recommended seeking a final opinion from the 64- year-old Nicholas. This was agreed to, and he went to Nicholas, whose counsel had been sought at various stages of the drafting of the edict, and it has even been said that it was drawn up in his cell. After the priest's return to Stans, the council arrived at a unanimous decision within an hour and maintained the unity of the land.

Despite his lack of education and experience with the world, his mediation led to permanent national unity for Switzerland. He could not even write; he used a special seal as a signature. Letters of thanks to him from Berne and Soleure still survive.

Six years later, he became ill for the last time. He suffered greatly for eight days, received Holy Viaticum, then died peacefully in his cell with his wife and children by his bed. Nicholas was buried at Sachseln and the Flüe family still survives in Switzerland.

His wife and children were probably none the worse for his becoming a hermit. It may be that his prayers and spiritual counsel did more for his family than his remaining with them would have. We do not blame explorers and soldiers for leaving their families, why blame a saint?

His canonization was delayed because a fire destroyed the documents relating to it. Nevertheless, he is the patron saint of Switzerland.

Several accounts survive of visitors' memories of Bruder Klaus: one described him as tall, brown, and wrinkled with then grizzled locks and a short beard, bright eyes, white teeth, and a shapely nose. This corresponds well with a Fribourg portrait of him done in 1492 (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, J. Delaney, S. Delany, Encyclopedia, Farmer, White).

Saint Nicholas is portrayed as a hermit being thrown into a thorn bush by the devil. At other times he may be shown praying in a mountainous landscape or entering a house while carrying a staff tipped with a cross. Nicholas is greatly venerated in Switzerland (Roeder).

1606 St. Nicholas Owen "Little John," 20 yrs build secret hiding places for priests as a lay person
Nicholas, familiarly known as "Little John," was small in stature but big in the esteem of his fellow Jesuits.
Born at Oxford, this humble artisan saved the lives of many priests and laypersons in England during the penal times (1559-1829), when a series of statutes punished Catholics for the practice of their faith.
Over a period of about 20 years he used his skills to build secret hiding places for priests throughout the country. His work, which he did completely by himself as both architect and builder, was so good that time and time again priests in hiding were undetected by raiding parties. He was a genius at finding, and creating, places of safety: subterranean passages, small spaces between walls, impenetrable recesses. At one point he was even able to mastermind the escape of two Jesuits from the Tower of London.

Whenever Nicholas set out to design such hiding places, he began by receiving the Holy Eucharist, and he would turn to God in prayer throughout the long, dangerous construction process.

After many years at his unusual task, he entered the Society of Jesus and served as a lay brother, although—for very good reasons—his connection with the Jesuits was kept secret.

After a number of narrow escapes, he himself was finally caught in 1594. Despite protracted torture, he refused to disclose the names of other Catholics. After being released following the payment of a ransom, "Little John" went back to his work. He was arrested again in 1606. This time he was subjected to horrible tortures, suffering an agonizing death. The jailers tried suggesting that he had confessed and committed suicide, but his heroism and sufferings soon were widely known.

He was canonized in 1970 as one of the 40 Martyrs of England and Wales.

Comment:  Nicholas was a clever builder and architect who used his skills to protect endangered priests. Without his help, hundreds of English Catholics would have been deprived of the sacraments. His gift for spotting unlikely places to hide priests was impressive, but more impressive was his habit of seeking support for his work in prayer and the Eucharist. If we follow his example, we may also discover surprising ways to put our skills to God’s service.

Nicholas Owen M (RM) Born in Oxford, England; died in the Tower of London, 1606; beatified in 1929; canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales; feast day formerly March 12.
Saint Nicholas was probably the most important person in the preservation of Catholicism in England during the period of the penal laws against the faith. He was a carpenter or builder, who saved the lives of countless Jesuit priests in England for two decades by constructing hiding places for them in mansions throughout the country. He became a Jesuit lay brother in 1580, was arrested in 1594 with Father John Gerard, and despite prolonged torture would not give the names of any of his Catholic colleagues; he was released on the payment of a ransom by a wealthy Catholic.

Brother Nicholas is believed to have been responsible for Father Gerard's dramatic escape from the Tower of London in 1597.
Nicholas was arrested a third time in 1606 with Father Henry Garnet, whom he had served 18 years, Father Edward Oldcorne, and Father Oldcorne's servant, Brother Ralph Ashley. He refused to give any information concerning the Gunpowder Plot. They were imprisoned in the Tower of London. Nicholas was subjected to such vicious torture, which literally tore his body to pieces, that he died of it.
Nicholas was also known as Little John and Little Michael and used the aliases of Andrewes and Draper (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney).
1929 Blessed Dina Bélanger Sisters of Jesus-Marie in Rome accomplished pianist woman of infectious joy despite illness (AC)
(also known as Marie Sainte-Cecile of Rome)  Born in Québec, Canada, 1897; beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1993. When Dina joined the Sisters of Jesus-Marie in Rome (founded by Saint Claudine Thevenet), she took the name Marie Sainte-Cecile of Rome to honor the patron of musicians because she was herself an accomplished pianist. During the course of her life as a sister, her devotion to the Blessed Sacrament transformed her into a woman of infectious joy despite illness. Her autobiography was published in Québec in 1984 (Catholic World News, May 1, 1997).



On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

              40 days for Life
                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 01
492 ST. FELIX III Pope helped to get the Church in Africa on its feet.  492 ST FELIX II (III), POPE  483 - 492
ACCORDING to the Roman Martyrology this Pope Felix was an ancestor (great-great-grandfather) of Pope St Gregory the Great it recalls Gregory’s statement that when his aunt, St Tharsilla, lay dying, Felix appeared in vision and summoned her to Heaven. The martyrology Calls him Felix III, through the long-standing but erroneous numeration of the antipope Felix as Pope St Felix II (see July 29).

549 St. Herculanus Bishop of Perugia, Italy marthred by Ostrogoths.        At Perugia, the transferral of the body of St. Herculanus, bishop and martyr, who was beheaded by order of Totila, king of the Goths.  Forty days after the decapitation, Pope St. Gregory relates that the head had been rejoined to the body as if it had never been touched by the sword:  beheaded by King Totila of the Ostrogoths. He is probably the same Herculanus sent to Perugia from Syria to evangelize the region.
 589 ?  St. David of Wales missionary priest monk dove lift him high above the people David is the patron saint of Wales and perhaps the most famous of British saints. Ironically, we have little reliable information about him. It is known that he became a priest, engaged in 589 ?  St. David of Wales David, cousin of Cadoc and pupil of Illtyd. David is the patron saint of Wales and perhaps the most famous of British saints. Many stories and legends sprang up about David and his Welsh monks. Their austerity was extreme. They worked in silence without the help of animals to till the soil. Their food was limited to bread, vegetables and water.
 713 St Swithbert (Suidbert) 1 of band 12 missionaries headed by St Willibrord, started in 690 evangelize Friesland. At Kaiserswerdt, Bishop St. Swidbert, who, in the time of Pope Sergius, preached the Gospel among the Frisians, Batavians, and other Germanic peoples.
ST SWITHBERT (Suidbert) was one of a band of twelve missionaries who, headed by St Willibrord, started in 690 to evangelize the pagans of Friesland. A Northumbrian by birth, and brought up as a monk near the Scottish border, Swithbert, like so many other Englishmen of his period, had crossed over to Ireland in search of higher perfection. Here he had come under the direction and influence of St Egbert, who, though long consumed with zeal for the conversion of Lower Germany, had been restrained by divine command when he prepared a ship and was on the point of embarking in person. His place had then been taken by his disciple and devoted friend St Wigbert, but the mission was a complete failure, and after labouring for two years Wigbert returned home. Egbert, however, refused to be discouraged and never slackened in his appeal for volunteers, until he succeeded in collecting and training this second mission which he despatched. By this time the conditions had become much more favourable. The missionaries landed at the mouth of the Rhine and, according to Alcuin, made their way as far as Utrecht, where they set to work to preach and to teach.


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 02
6th century Martyrs of Campania Christians martyred by the Lombards in Italy.  ST GREGORY THE GREAT in one of his Dialogues has preserved for us the record of those martyrs under the Lombards whom we commemorate on this day, who were in fact contemporaries of his own. It was about the middle of the sixth century that the Lombards from Scandinavia and Pomerania, who had already descended upon Austria and Bavaria, penetrated yet further south into Italy, bringing ruin and desolation in their train.
Not content with material destruction, they attempted in many cases to pervert the Christian population, forcing their pagan rites upon them. In one place they endeavoured to induce forty peasants to eat meat offered to idols when they refused to a man, the invaders killed them all with the sword. In the case of another, party of prisoners, their captors sought to make them join in the worship of their favourite deity, a goat’s head, which they carried in procession and to which they bowed the knee, singing obscene songs in its honour. The greater part of the Christians—about 400 in number—chose rather to die than to flout God thus.

1127 Bl. Charles the Good martyred by black marketeers hording food.  Son of King Saint Canute of Denmark. Raised in the court of his maternal grandfather, Robert de Frison, Count of Flanders. Fought in the second Crusade. Succeeded Robert II as count of Flanders. Married into the family of the Duke of Clermont. His rule was a continuous defense of the poor against profiteers of his time, both clerical and lay. Called "the Good" by popular acclamation. Reformed laws to make them more fair, supported the poor, fed the hungry, walked barefoot to Mass each day. Martyred in the church of Saint Donatian at Bruges by Borchard, part of a conspiracy of the rich whom he had offended. He is venerated at Bruges.
Born:  1083 Died:  beheaded on 2 March 1127; relics at the Cathedral of Bruges  Beatified:  1883 by Pope Leo XIII (cultus confirmed)  Name Meaning:  strong; manly  Patronage:  counts, Crusaders
.

1201 BD FULCO OF NEUILLY after a serious conversion he set about his priestly duties at Neuilly-sur-Marne with fervour and success; reputed to have a strange knowledge of men’s thoughts and worked innumerable cures upon those who had recourse to him in their infirmities.  All the chroniclers, however, are agreed that Fulco never flattered and was no respecter of persons. According to Roger Hoveden it was he who told King Richard Coeur-de-Lion that unless he married off his three disreputable daughters, he would certainly come to a bad end. When Richard exclaimed in a fury that the words proved his censor to be a hypocrite and an impostor, for he had no daughters, the holy man answered, “Yes, but indeed you have three daughters, and I will tell you their names. The first is called Pride, the second Avarice and the third Lust.” The fame of the French priest’s missionary labours attracted the notice of Pope Innocent III, and in the year 1198 he commissioned Fulco to preach the new Crusade, accounted the Fourth, throughout the northern part of France. His eloquence had already produced marvellous effects, and if we may credit his own statement, as reported by Coggeshall, 200,000 people in the course of three years had taken the cross at his hands. Fulco was himself to have joined in the expedi­tion, but before starting he fell ill and died on March 2, 1201. His tomb was still venerated at Neuilly-sur-Marne in the eighteenth century. The cultus formerly paid to him seems never to have been authoritatively confirmed.

1282 St. Agnes of Bohemia thaumaturgist or miracle worker. She was twenty-eight years old and a beautiful woman when, in 1235, the emperor sent an ambassador to Prague to escort her to Germany that the marriage might take place. Wenceslaus would listen to no remonstrances; but Agnes found means to delay her departure and wrote to Pope Gregory IX, entreating him to prevent the marriage because she had never con­sented to it and had long desired to be the spouse of Christ. Gregory, although for the moment he had made peace with Frederick, knew him well enough to be able to sympathize with the unwilling victim. He sent his legate to Prague to undertake her defence and to Agnes herself he wrote letters which she showed to her brother. Wenceslaus was greatly alarmed. On the one hand he feared to anger the emperor, but on the other he did not wish to alienate the pope or to force his sister to marry against her will. Eventually he decided to tell Frederick and to let him deal with the matter. The emperor on this occasion showed one of those flashes of magnanimity which have made his complex character so fascinating a study to historians. As soon as he had satisfied himself that the objection came, not from the King of Bohemia, but from Agnes herself, he released her, saying, “If she had left me for a mortal man, I should have made my vengeance felt; but I cannot take offence if she prefers the King of Heaven to myself.”
Now that she was free, Agnes set about consecrating herself and her possessions wholly to God. Her father had brought the Friars Minor to Prague, probably at her suggestion, and she built or completed a convent for them. With the help of her brother she endowed a great hospital for the poor and brought to it the Knights Hospitallers of the Cross and Star, whose church and monastery still remain in the same place, and the two also built a convent for Poor Clares. The citizens would fain have shared in the work, but the king and his sister preferred to complete it alone. Nevertheless it is said that the workmen, determined to do their part, would often slip away unperceived in the evening in order to avoid being paid. As soon as the convent was ready, St Clare sent five of her religious to start it, and on Whitsunday 1236 Bd Agnes herself received the veil. Her profession made a great impression: she was joined by a hundred girls of good family, and throughout Europe princesses and noble women followed her example and founded or entered convents of Poor Clares. Agnes showed the true spirit of St Francis, ever seeking the lowliest place and the most menial work, and it was with difficulty that she was induced, when nominated by Pope Gregory IX, to accept the dignity of abbess—at least for a time. After much entreaty she obtained for the Poor Ladies of Prague the concession obtained in 1238 by St Clare at San Damiano, namely, permission to resign all revenues and property held in common. The four letters from St Clare to Bd Agnes which have come down to us express her tender affection for her devoted disciple, to whom she also sent, in response to her request for a souvenir, a wooden cross, a flaxen veil and the earthen bowl out of which she drank. Agnes lived to the age of seventy-seven and died on March 2, 1282. Her cultus was confirmed by Pope Pius X; the Friars Minor now keep her feast on June 8, with Bd. Isabel of France and Baptista Varani. She was canonized in 1989 by Pope John Paul II.
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 03
803 St. Anselm of Nonantola Benedictine abbot duke.   WHEN the Langobard King Aistulf was reigning in Italy, he was greatly assisted in his military campaigns by his brother-in-law, Anselm, Duke of Friuli. The duke was not only a valiant soldier but also an ardent Christian, and founded first a monastery with a hospital at Fanano in the province of Modena and then a larger abbey twenty miles further south at Nonantola. Desirous of consecrating himself entirely to God, he then went to Rome, where he was clothed with the habit of St Benedict and appointed abbot over the new community. St. Anselm also received from Pope Stephen III permission to remove to Nonantola the body of Pope St Silvester; and Langobard King Aistulf enriched the abbey with gifts and granted it many privileges it became very celebrated throughout all Italy.
1075 ST GERVINUS, ABBOT.  Pilgrims used to throng the church, and the abbot sometimes spent nearly the whole day in hearing confessions. Nor was his zeal confined to his abbey, for he made excursions through Picardy, Normandy, Aquitaine and as far as Thuringia, preaching and hearing confessions. When Pope St Leo IX in 1050 came in person to Rheims to consecrate the church of St Remigius and to preside over a council, the abbot of Saint-Riquier accompanied him on his journey back to Rome.So great was the veneration in which he was held that he was called “the holy abbot” even during his lifetime. Although, for the last four years of his life, he suffered from a terrible form of leprosy, he continued to carry on all his customary duties as before, and he would often bless God for sending him the trial. On March 3, 1075, when he offered his last Mass in the little underground church of Notre-Dame de Ia Voute which he had built, he was so ill that he could scarcely finish, and had to be carried back to his cell as soon as it was over.
To his monks who stood round him in consternation he said, “Children, to-day our Blessed Lady has given me my discharge from this life”, and he insisted upon making a public confession of his sins. He then had himself taken back to the church and laid before the altar of St John Baptist, where he died. When his body was then washed, it was noticed that no trace of the leprosy remained.

1167 ST AELRED, ABBOT OF Rievaulx "He who loves thee, possesses thee and he possesses thee in proportion as he loves, because thou art love. This is that abundance with which thy beloved are inebriated, melting away from themselves, that they may pass into thee by loving thee.”
Of those last days, Aelred’s patience and trust in God, the love and grief of his monks, Walter Daniel has left us a most moving account. It must be admitted that Alban Butler is not at his best in his treatment of St Aelred, who is one of the most attractive of English saints, a great teacher of friendship, divine and human, and a man who, quite apart from his writings, must have exercised a great influence through the monasteries he founded from Rievaulx. He was himself, “One whom I might fitly call friendship’s child: for his whole occupation is to love and to be loved.”
(De spirituali amicitia).
 It seems that St Aelred was canonized in 1191 (Celestine III 1191-1198) his feast is kept on March 3 in the dioceses of Liverpool, Hexham and Middlesbrough, and by the Cistercians.

Besides the admirable study of St Aelred by Father Dalgairns (in Newman’s series of Lives of the English Saints), which may be truly described as one of the classics of hagiography, a very complete and up-to-date account of the saint is provided by F. M. Powicke’s Ailrad of Rievaulx and his Biographer Walter Daniel (1922). This writer shows that the life by Walter Daniel, a contemporary monk of Rievaulx, is the source from which both the two biographies previously known have been condensed. In 1950 Professor Powicke published Daniel’s biography in Latin and English, with notes and a long introduction. We also obtain a good many sidelights upon Aelred’s character from his own treatises and sermons. All these, with the exception of his book on the Hexham miracles, will be found printed in Migne, PL., vol. cxcv. There is a great devotional glow in many of his ascetical writings, notably in his Speculum charitatis. He was the author also of several short biographies— e.g. that of St Ninian—and of historical and theological tractates. There is a translation of De spirituali amicitia by Fr Hugh Talbot, called Christian Friendship. T. E. Harvey’s St Aelred of Rievaulx (1932) is an excellent short book by a Quaker. See also D. Knowles, The Monastic Order in England (1949), pp. 240—245, 257—266 and passim. Aelred’s name is variously spelt. In the DNB., for example, he appears as “Ethelred”, in Powicke and others as “Ailred”. See, further, the Acta Sanctorum for January 12 and the Dictionnaire de Spiritualité, vol. i, cc. 225--234.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 04
  254 St. Lucius I a Roman elected Pope to succeed Pope St. Cornelius
At Rome, on the Appian Way, during the persecution of Valerian, the birthday of St. Lucius, pope and martyr, who was first exiled for the faith of Christ, but being permitted by divine Providence to return to his church, after labouring long against the Novatians, he suffered martyrdom by beheading.  His praises have been published by St. Cyprian.
1123 St. Peter of Pappacarbone Benedictine bishop leadership, care, and wisdom.  PETER PAPPACARBONE was a native of Salerno in Italy, a nephew of St Alferius, founder of the monastery of Cava, and entered upon the religious life at a very early age under St Leo, the second abbot. He distinguished himself at once by his piety, abstemiousness and love of solitude. At this time the fame of the abbey of Cluny had spread far and wide, and the young monk was so attracted by what he had heard that about 1062 he obtained permission to leave Cava and go to France. When the older monks at Cluny would have sent him to the school to be trained, their abbot, St Hugh, disagreed, saying that Peter might be young in years but that he was a full-grown man in devotion. The abbot’s opinion was abundantly justified, for Peter proved himself well among that household of holy men and he remained there for some six years. He was then recalled to Italy, having been released by St Hugh apparently at the request of the archdeacon of Rome, Hilde­brand (who was afterwards Pope St Gregory VII).  Under the government of Abbot Peter the monastery flourished amazingly. Not only did numbers of aspirants to the religious life flock to him from all sides, but men and women in the world showered money and lands upon the community, which was enabled to minister far and wide to the sick and the poor. The abbey itself had to be enlarged to admit the new members, and a new church was built, to the dedication of which came Pope Urban II, who had been with St Peter at Cluny and had remained his close friend. The description of this occasion was preserved in the chronicles of Cava, where it is stated that Bd Urban talked freely with the abbot and monks, as though “forgetting that he was pope”. St Peter lived to a great age and died in 1123.
1188 BD HUMBERT III OF SAVOY.   Called to rule at his father’s death, he sacrificed a desire for solitude to the task imposed upon him, and though a mere boy when he took up the reins of government he showed himself fully equal to his position, finding it quite possible to reconcile the duty of a secular ruler with that of self-sanctification. When his wife died childless, the count sought in the monastery of Aulps the consolation he needed, and would fain have remained there, but his vassals came to entreat him not to abandon them and to take steps to ensure the succession in his family. Yielding to these representations he again took up the burden and contracted two, if not three, more marriages. By his second wife, Germana of Zahringen, he had a child, Agnes, who was betrothed to John Lackland, afterwards king of England, but both mother and daughter died before the marriage could take place. The time came at last when Count Humbert felt that he was justified in retiring from the world to prepare himself for death. He accordingly withdrew to the Cistercian abbey of Hautecombe, where he gave himself up to the humblest and most austere practices of the religious life. There is good reason to believe that Bd Humbert died peacefully in his Cistercian retreat, where also was buried nearly a century later Bd Boniface of Savoy, who had been archbishop of Canterbury. The cultus of Bd Humbert was approved in 1838 (Gregory XVI 1831-46)
1877 St. Placide Viel Nun and mother general relief during Franco Prussian War.   b.1815 in Normandy, France, she joined the Sisters of the Christian Schools in 1833 after meeting St. Marie Madeleine Postel, mother general of the congregation. In 1841 she was appointed assistant general of the sisters, a promotion which earned much resentment from other sisters. Nevertheless, after proving herself, she became mother general of the congregation in 1846 after Marie Madeleine’s passing. With much effort, in 1859 she won final approval of the institute from Pope Pius IX.
She was quite active in organizing relief during the Franco Prussian War.
.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 05
423 Eusebius of Cremona build hostel for poor pilgrims, Abbot (AC).  ST EUSEBIUS of Cremona paid a visit as a young man to Rome and during his stay made the acquaintance of St Jerome. There sprang up between the two an intimacy which proved lifelong, and when Jerome proposed to journey to the Holy Land Eusebius determined to accompany him. Arrived at Antioch, they were joined by the widow St Paula and her daughter. St Eustochium, who accompanied them in their pilgrimages to the Holy Places and Egypt, before they all settled at Bethlehem. In view of the large number of poor pilgrims who flocked to Bethlehem, St Jerome proposed to build a hostel for them; and it was apparently to collect funds for that purpose that he sent Eusebius and Paulinian first to Dalmnatia and then to Italy, where they seem to have sold the property St Eusebius owned at Cremona as well as that of St Paula in Rome.   Later on, we find St Jerome accusing Rufinus of hiring a monk to get possession of a letter from St Epiphanius to John of Jerusalem—the monk having undertaken to make a Latin translation of it for Eusebius who, though an excellent Latin scholar, knew no Greek. The details of these protracted controversies are obscure and not very edifying. It seems that Eusebius was largely responsible for having eventually induced Pope St Anastasius to condemn the writings of Origen.
610 St. Virgilius of Arles Archbishop many miracle worker.  A native of Gascony, France, he studied on the island of Lerins, off the French coast near Cannes, eventually serving as abbot of the monastery there. He Iater was abbot of St. Symphorien in Autun and archbishop of Arles, also serving as apostolic vicar to King Childebert II (r. 575-595). He probably consecrated St. Augustine as archbishop of Canterbury and was responsible for founding churches in Arles. Virgilius was also rebuked by St. Gregory I the Great (r. 590-604) for permitting the forced conversion of Jews.
1734 St. John Joseph of the Cross very ascetic prophesy miracles humility religious discipline.  It had been the wish of St John Joseph to remain a deacon in imitation of the Seraphic Father St Francis, but his superiors decided that he should be raised to the priesthood, and on Michaelmas day 1677 he celebrated his first Mass. A month later, when at an unusually early age he was entrusted to hear confessions, it was found that the young priest, who from his purity of heart had grown up ignorant of evil, was endowed with an extraordinary insight and wisdom in the tribunal of penance.
About this time he formed the plan of building in the wood near the convent some little hermitages, like those of the early Franciscans, where he and his brethren could spend periods of retirement in even stricter austerity than was possible in the house. He easily obtained the permission of his superiors, and these hermitages became the means of great spiritual advancement.
Besides miracles and the gift of prophecy John Joseph was endowed with other supernatural gifts, such as ecstasies, levitation and heavenly visions moreover, during a great part of his life he could read the thoughts of those who came to consult him as clearly as though they had been writtten words.  He was canonized in 1839 (Gregory XVI 1831-46).

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 06
  203 Sts. Perpetua and Felicity she "couldn't call herself any other name but Christian".    Saints Perpetua and Felicity, who, on the day following this, received from the Lord the glorious crown of martyrdom.
With the lives of so many early martyrs shrouded in legend, we are fortunate to have the record of the courage of Perpetua and Felicity from the hand of Perpetua herself, her teacher Saturus, and others who knew them. This account, known as "The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity," was so popular in the early centuries that it was read during liturgies.
203 SS. PERPETUA, FELICITY AND THEIR COMPANIONS, MARTYRS
THE record of the passion of St Perpetua, St Felicity and their companions is one of the greatest hagiological treasures that have come down to us.

In the fourth century these acts were publicly read in the churches of Africa, and were in fact so highly esteemed that St Augustine found it necessary to issue a protest against their being placed on a level with the Holy Scriptures. In them we have a human document of singularly vivid interest preserved for us in the actual words of two of the martyrs themselves.

335 St. Basil Bishop of Bologna, Italy Pope who was ordained by Pope St. Sylvester.
At Bologna, St. Basil, bishop, who was ordained by Pope 
who was ordained by Pope St. Sylvester, , and who governed the church entrusted to his care with great holiness, both by word and example.   Basil served his diocese until his death.

776 Chrodegang of Metz B (AC) many of the poor depended entirely upon his charity Chrodegang himself safely brought the pope over the Alps.  St CHRODEGANG was born near Liege, and was probably educated at the abbey of St. Trond. We are told that he spoke his own tongue and Latin with equal fluency; in appearance he was singularly prepossessing, and his kindness and gracious manners endeared him to all. Charles Martel recognized his exceptional qualities, and chose him as his secretary and referendary. After the death of Charles, Chrodegang, though still a layman, was in 742 invested with the bishopric of Metz; he combined in such an eminent degree sanctity with sagacity that nothing but good could result from such an appointment, and everywhere the holy man used his influence for the furtherance of justice and for the public weal. His biographers extol his almost boundless charity and his special solicitude for widows and orphans. As ambassador from Pepin, mayor of the palace, to Pope Stephen III, Chrodegang was concerned closely with Pepin’s coronation as king in 754, his defeat of the Lombards in Italy, and the handing over of the exarchate of Ravenna and other territory to the Holy See.
1137 St. Ollegarius Augustinian bishop miracles.  In 1123 Ollegarius went to Rome to attend the first Council of the Lateran, where he asked Pope Callistus II and the assembly to enact that the privileges which were being offered to those who would take part in the crusades in Palestine should be extended to those who would fight the Moslems in Spain. His petition was granted, and he returned home as apostolic delegate charged to preach a crusade against Moors. Success crowned his efforts, and Count Raymond succeeded in obtaining sufficient reinforcements to inflict severe losses on the Moors and to drive them from some of their strongholds. Ollegarius also did much to encourage and extend in his diocese the newly formed Order of Knights Templars. His metro­politan city of Tarragona had been almost entirely destroyed by the Moors, and he set to work to rebuild and restore it. Ollegarius also made the care of the sick poor, and in particular the mentally afflicted, the, object of his special solicitude. Al­though he was closely bound to the ruling family, he did not hesitate to denounce Count Raymond III when the count sought to reimpose an unjust tribute which his father, Raymond Berengarius, had remitted. At a synod in 1137 the archbishop, who was old and in failing health, was suddenly taken ill. He was carried from the council-chamber to his bed, from which he never rose again.

1235 Cyril of Constantinople Carmelite priest teacher of true sanctity.  The unsatisfactory character of this notice is revealed at once by the fact that while the Emperors Philip of Swabia and Otto IV must unquestionably be here referred to, Otto was not the colleague but the opponent and successor of Philip. Moreover Otto IV died in 1218, while Brocard, the predecessor of Cyril in the office of prior general of the Carmelites, was still living at that date. It would serve no good purpose to enter into any detail regarding the fanciful biography which at a later period was invented for St Cyril and which still holds its place in the lessons of the Carmelite Breviary. According to this; Cyril was a gifted priest of Constantinople who had rendered marvellous services to the Church in controversy with the Greek Orthodox over the question of the Filioque, and who had been sent by the Emperor Manuel Comnenus on an embassy to Pope Alexander III. In point of fact we know no more about St Cyril than the circumstance that about the year 1232 he succeeded and secondly that, owing in part to a most extravagant confusion of his name with that of St Cyril of Alexandria and St Cyril of Jerusalem, there were attributed to him long after his death a supposed treatise on the procession of the Holy Ghost, a dissertation upon the development cf the Carmelite Order, and a much-controverted Oracle or Prognostic, “solemnly transmitted from Heaven by angelic hands to St Cyril of Constantinople, the Carmelite”.

1447 St. Colette distributed her inheritance to poor holiness spiritual wisdom Superior of all Poor Clare convents sanctity, ecstacies visions of the Passion, prophesied.  At Ghent in Flanders, St. Collette, virgin, who at first professed the rule of the Third Order of St. Francis, and afterwards, by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, restored the pristine discipline to a great number of monasteries of Nuns of the Second Order.   Because she was graced with heavenly virtues, and performed innumerable miracles, she was inscribed on the roll of saints by Pope Pius VII.

1728 Blessed Rose Venerini organize schools in many parts of Italy a number of miracles were attributed to her.  Bd Rose had the gift of ready and persuasive speech, and a real ability to teach and to teach others to teach, and was not daunted by any difficulty when the service of God was in question. Her reputation spread, and in 1692 she was invited by Cardinal Barbarigo to advise and help in the training of teachers and organizing of schools in his diocese of Montefiascone. Here she was the mentor and friend of Lucy Filippini, who became foundress of an institute of maestre pie and was canonized in 1930. Rose organized a number of schools in various places, sometimes in the face of opposition that resorted to force in unbelievable fashion—the teachers were shot at with bows and their house fired. Her patience and trust overcame all obstacles, and in 1713 she made a foundation in Rome that received the praise of Pope Clement XI himself.
It was in Rome that she died, on May 7, 1728; her reputation of holiness was confirmed by miracles, and in 1952 she was beatified. It was not till some time after her death that Bd Rose’s lay school-teachers were organized as a religious congregation: they are found in America as well as in Italy, for the Venerini Sisters have worked among Italian immigrants since early in the twentieth century.
           There is a short account of Bd Rose in the decree of beatification, printed in the Acta
         Apostolicae Sedis
, voi. xliv (1952), pp. 405—409.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 07
Floréntiæ, in Etrúria, sanctæ Terésiæ Margarítæ Redi, Vírginis.  At Florence in Etruria, St. Teresa Margaret Redi, virgin, a member of the Order of Discalced Carmelites, of such admirable purity and simplicity that Pope Pius XI solemnly enrolled her on the scroll of holy virgins.
843 St. Ardo Benedictine abbot from Languedoc accompanied St. Benedict originally baptized Smaragdus. He became a Benedictine, took the name Ardo, and served under St. Benedict of Aniane. Ardo directed the monastery school at Aniane and accompanied St. Benedict on his journeys. In 814, Ardo became St. Benedict's successor when the abbot was named superior of the Aachen monastery in Germany. Ardo wrote the biography of St. Benedict of Aniane.
Although the Bollandists reject the claims of Ardo to be included in the register of saints, Mabillon seeks to prove that he must have been the subject of a definite cultus, because he has his own office in the Aniane Breviary and his relics were publicly venerated. See his Acta Sanctorum O.S.B., vol. iv, pt i, p. 550 where we learn also that Ardo’s head was preserved in a casket of silver-gilt, and his body in a wooden chest “wonderfully carved”.

Born at Rocca Secca in the Kingdom of Naples, 1225 or 1227; died at Fossa NuovaPope Leo XIII declared him the heavenly patron of all Catholic schools.

1274 St. Thomas Aquinas Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church (Angelicus Doctor), patron of Catholic universities, colleges, and schools.  1274 ST THOMAS AQUINAS, DOCTOR OF THE Church
THE family of the counts of Aquino was of noble lineage, tracing its descent back for several centuries to the Lombards. St Thomas’s father was a knight, Landulf, and his mother Theodora was of Norman descent. There seems something more northern than southern about Thomas’s physique, his imposing stature, massive build and fresh complexion.  

He was ill when he was bidden by Pope Gregory X to attend the general council at Lyons for the reunion of the Greek and Latin churches and to bring with him his treatise “Against the Errors of the Greeks”. He became so much worse on the journey that he was taken to the Cistercian abbey of Fossa Nuova near Terracina, where he was lodged in the abbot’s room and waited on by the monks. In com­pliance with their entreaties he began to expound to them the Canticle of Canticles, but he did not live to finish his exposition. It soon became evident to all that he was dying. After he had made his last confession to Father Reginald of Priverno and received viaticum from the abbot he gave utterance to the famous words, “I am receiving thee, Price of my soul’s redemption all my studies, my vigils and my labours have been for love of thee. I have taught much and written much of the most sacred body of Jesus Christ I have taught and written in the faith of Jesus Christ and of the holy Roman Church, to whose judgement I offer and submit everything.” Two days later his soul passed to God, in the early hours of March 7, 1274, being only about fifty years of age. That same day St Albert, who was then in Cologne, burst into tears in the presence of the community, and exclaimed, “Brother Thomas Aquinas, my son in Christ, the light of the Church, is dead. God has revealed it to me.”

St Thomas was canonized in 1323 ( Pope Urban V 1310; died at Avignon, 19 Dec., 1370 )

 Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 08
 871 Humphrey of Pruem source of strength comfort to people during Norman invasion. Bishop Humphrey of Thérouanne, who would have preferred to remain a monk of the Benedictine abbey of Pruem in the Ardennes, was persuaded by Pope Nicholas I who thought differently. At the same time he ruled the abbey of Saint Bertin. He was a source of strength and comfort to the people during the Norman invasion.
He had the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady kept with special splendor in his diocese (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1223 St. Vincent Kadlubek Cistercian bishop 1 of earliest Polish chroniclers, also called Vincent of Cracow Born in Carnow, Poland, circa 1150, he studied in France and Italy before receiving appointment as provost of the cathedral of Sandomir (modern Poland). In 1208 he was appointed bishop of Cracow and worked to promote the reforms then being decreed by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) and to improve the monastic and religious conditions of the diocese. Resigning in 1128, he entered the Cistercians at Jedrzejow Abbey, where he established himself as one of Poland's first chroniclers through his authorship of the Chronicles of the Kings and Princes of Poland. His cult was confirmed in 1764, and he is venerated in Poland as a saint.
1550 St. John of God impulsive love embraced anyone in need. At Granada in Spain, St. John of God, founder of the Order of Brothers Hospitallers, famed for his mercy to the poor, and his contempt of self.  Pope Leo XIII appointed him as heavenly patron of the sick and of all hospitals.  John of God is the patron of the sick, of hospitals, and of nurses, printers, and booksellers.  
From the time he was eight to the day he died, John followed every impulse of his heart. The challenge for him was to rush to follow the promptings of the Holy Spirit gave him, not his own human temptations. But unlike many who act impulsively, when John made a decision, no matter how quickly, he stuck with it, no matter what the hardship.  

1550 ST JOHN OF GOD, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS HOSPITALLERS
THIS St John was born in Portugal and spent part of his youth in the service of the bailiff of the count of Oroprusa in Castile. In 1522 he enlisted in a company of soldiers raised by the count, and served in the wars between the French and the Spaniards and afterwards in Hungary against the Turks.

From contact with licentious companions in the army, he gradually lost the practice of religion and fell into grievous excesses. The troop having been disbanded, he went to Andalusia, where he entered the service of a woman near Seville as a shepherd.
     At the age of about forty, stung with remorse for his past misconduct, he resolved to amend his life, and began to consider how he could best dedicate the rest of his life to God’s service.
Compassion for the distressed led him to leave his situation in the hope that by crossing to Africa he might succour the Christian slaves there and perhaps win the crown of martyrdom.
At Gibraltar he met a Portuguese gentleman who had been condemned to banishment. This exile and his wife and children were bound for Ceuta in Barbary, and John was so full of pity for them that he attached himself to the family and served them without wages. At Ceuta the man fell ill, and John hired himself out as a day labourer to earn a little money for their benefit. However, he sustained a great shock owing to the apostasy of one of his companions, and as his confessor assured him that his going in quest of martyrdom was an illusion, he resolved to return to Spain.  
St John of God was canonized in 1690, and in 1886 Pope Leo XIII, as the Roman Martyrology records, “declared him the heavenly patron of all hospitals and sick folk”, with St Camillus of Lellis, to whom Pope Pius XI in 1930 added nurses of both sexes. Because of his early venture in hawking books and pictures he is also sometimes specially honoured by book and print sellers.  After hearing Blessed John of Ávila preach on Saint Sebastian's Day (January 20), he was so touched that he cried aloud and beat his breast, begging for mercy. He ran about the streets behaving like a lunatic, and the townspeople threw sticks and stones at him. He returned to his shop, gave away his stock, and began wandering the streets in distraction.
Some people took him to Blessed John of Ávila, who advised him and offered his support. John was calm for a while but fell into wild behavior again and was taken to an insane asylum, where the customary brutal treatments were applied to bring him to sanity. John of Ávila heard of his fate and visited him, telling him that he had practiced his penance long enough and that he should address himself to doing something more useful for himself and his neighbor. John was calmed by this, remained in the hospital, and attended the sick until 1539. While there he determined to spend the rest of his life working for the poor.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 09
 400 St. Gregory of Nyssa mystic among the three great Cappadocians.   At Nyssa, the death of St. Gregory, the son of Saints Basil and Emmelia, and the brother of Saints Basil the Great, bishop, and Peter, bishop of Sebaste, and Macrina, virgin.  His life and his great learning brought him fame.  He was driven from his own city for having defended the Catholic faith during the reign of the Arian emperor Valens.
Born at Caesarea, Cappadocia, c. 330-335; died c. 395-400. 
1440 St. Frances of Rome renowned for her noble family, holy life, and the gift of miracles.
THE gentle saint who was known first to her fellow-citizens and then to the Church at large as Santa Francesca Romana, St Frances the Roman, possessed to an extraordinary degree the power of attracting the love and admiration of those who came in contact with her. Nor has her charm ended with her death, for she is still honoured by countless souls who seek her intercession and pray before her tomb in Santa Maria Nuova. On her feast day and within its octave, crowds flock to visit Tor de’ Specchi and the Casa degli Esercizi Pu (the successor of the old Palazzo Ponziano), the rooms of which are annually thrown open to the public and every memorial and relic of the saint exhibited.
She was born in the Trastevere district of Rome in 1384, at the beginning of the Great Schism of the West, which was to cause het much grief as well as adversely to affect the fortunes of her family. She did not live to see harmony completely restored. Her parents, Paul Busso and Jacobella dei Roffredeschi, were of noble birth and ample means, and the child was brought up in the midst of luxury but in a pious household. Frances was a precocious little girl, and when she was eleven she asked her parents to allow her to become a nun, only to be met by a point-blank refusal. She died as she finished her vespers. Her last words were: "The Angel has finished his task; he calls me to follow him." The cause for her canonization was introduced almost immediately, but it was not much advanced until the accession of Clement VIII, who had a great devotion to the saint, but he and his successor died before this was accomplished. Paul V (Borghese) decreed her canonisation.  Her husband and children are entombed beneath the pavement of the Ponziani family chapel (now the sacristy) of the Church of Saint Cecilia. The walls have scenes from her life. Her skeletal remains, clad in the habit of the Oblates of the Congregation of Mount Olivet, which she founded, lie exposed in a glass casket in the church with her name, coupled with its original designation of Santa Maria Nuovo. Once every hundred years it is opened to reclothe her body in a fresh habit. This is her father Paolo di Bussi's church.
1463 St. Catherine of Bologna  experience visions of Christ and Satan, incorrupt healing miracles.   At Bologna, St. Catherine, virgin, of the Second Order of St. Francis, illustrious for the holiness of her life.  Her body is greatly honoured in that city.  Already some years earlier the little community governed by Lucy Mascaroni had embraced the strict Rule of St Clare and had removed to a more suitable building, but it was felt by St Catherine and the more austere sisters that the full regularity of the convent could not be obtained until it should become enclosed. The inhabitants of Ferrara, however, long resisted this innovation, and it was mainly through the prayers and efforts of St Catherine that enclosure was conceded, and finally sanctioned by Pope Nicholas V. Catherine was then appointed superioress of a new convent of strict observance at Bologna, and although she shrank from the office and would have preferred to remain in Ferrara, she received a divine intimation that she was to go and made no further protest. She and the religious who accompanied her were received at Bologna by two cardinals, by the senate and magistrates, and by the entire population, and there they established the convent of Corpus Christi. Despite the strictness of the enclosure, the fame of the sanctity and healing powers of St Catherine, as well as her gifts of prophecy, attracted so many would-be postulants that room could not be found for them all.
1857 Dominic Savio; Bosco wrote Dominic's biography  cheerfulness, friendliness, careful observation, & good advice. THE year 1950 saw the canonization of a twelve-year-old girl, Mary Goretti, as a martyr and the beatification of a fifteen-year-old boy, Dominic Savio, as a confessor.  The Church has raised several child martyrs to her altars, but the case of Dominic Savio seems to be unique. He was canonized in 1954.  He was born at Riva in Piedmont in 1842, the son .of a peasant, and grew up with the desire to be a priest. When St John Bosco began to make provision for training youths as clergy to help him in his work for neglected boys at Turin, Dominic’s parish-priest recommended him. An interview took place, at which Don Bosco was most deeply impressed by the evidence of grace in the boy’s soul, and in October 1854, when he was twelve, Dominic became a student at the Oratory of St Francis de Sales in Turin.
Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 10

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 11
 646 Saint Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem From his youth he was distinguished for his piety and his love for classical studies proficient in philosophy of monasticism. Born in Damascus around 560. From his youth he was distinguished for his piety and his love for classical studies. He was especially proficient in philosophy, and so he was known as Sophronius the Wise.
The future hierarch, however, sought the true philosophy of monasticism, and conversations with the desert-dwellers. No sooner was he established in his see than he assembled all the bishops of his patriarchate to condemn monothelite teaching, and composed a synodal letter to explain and state the Catholic doctrine on the subject contested. This letter, which was afterwards confirmed in the sixth general council, was sent by St Sophronius to Pope Honorius and to Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had persuaded Honorius to write evasively on this question as to one or two wills in Christ. It seems evident that Honorius never professed to pronounce upon the matter in dispute, but his silence was ill-timed, as it gave the appearance of con­niving at heresy. Sophronius, seeing that the emperor and many Eastern prelates were fighting against the truth, felt that it was his duty to defend it with greater zeal than ever. He took his suffragan Stephen, Bishop of Dor, to Mount Calvary, and there adjured him by Christ who was crucified on that spot, and by the account he would have to render at the last day, “to go to the Apostolic See, where are the foundations of holy doctrine, and not to cease to pray till those in authority there should examine and condemn the novelty”. Stephen obeyed and remained in Rome for ten years, until he saw the monothelite heresy condemned by Pope St Martin I at the Council of the Lateran in 649.
THIS Bd Christopher of Milan must not be confused with a Dominican of the same name and place who is commemorated on March 1.
1485 BD CHRISTOPHER MACASSOLI.   Christopher Macassoli entered the Franciscan Order at an early age. Love of poverty, great purity of heart and complete trust in God were his distinguishing characteristics. As a priest he converted many by his preaching and example. At Vigevano he helped to enlarge the friary in which he lived, and thousands of people flocked to receive his counsel and to ask his intercession with God. He died in 1485 and Pope Leo XIII in 1890 confirmed the local cultus which had been unbroken since his death. We are told that the little chapel of St Bernardino at Vigevano, where his remains repose in a tomb built into the wall, is covered with votive offerings made by the faithful in acknowledgment of miraculous answers to prayer.
1770 St. Teresa Margaret Redi discalced Carmelite nun remarkable prayer life and a deeply penitential demeanor.  The devotion paid to her, especially in the city of Florence, has been attended with many miracles.
Anna Maria Redi was a native of Florence, Italy. She entered the Carmelites in 1765 and took the name Sister Teresa Margaret. She died at the age of twenty-three, but in the very brief time of her life in the cloister, she displayed a remarkable prayer life and a deeply penitential demeanor. She was canonized in 1934 by Pope Pius XI (r. 1922-1939).


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 12
1500 B.C. The Righteous Phineas, grandson of the High Priest Aaron (also commemorated today) son of High Priest Eleazar also a priest and zealous in his service.  When the Israelites, after the holy Prophet Moses (September 4) led them out of Egypt, were already near the Promised Land, their neighbors the Moabites and Midianites were overcome by fear and envy. Not trusting in their own strength, they summoned the magician Balaam to put a curse on the Israelites.  The Lord revealed His will to Balaam, and Balaam refused to curse the People of God, seeing that God was pleased to bless them (Num. 24:1).
Then the Moabites drew the Israelites into the worship of Baal-Peor. God punished the Jews for their apostasy, and they died by the thousands from a plague.  Many, beholding the wrath of God, came to their senses and repented.

At this time a certain man named Zimri, of the tribe of the Simeon, "brought his brother a Midianite woman in the sight of Moses and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they wept at the door of the tabernacle of witness" (Num. 25:6).
Phineas, filled with wrath, went into Zimri's tent and killed both him and the Midianite woman with a spear.
"And the Lord said to Moses, 'Phineas... has caused My wrath against the children of Israel to cease, when I was exceedingly jealous among them.... Behold, I give him a covenant of peace, and he and his descendants shall have a perpetual covenant of priesthood, because he was zealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel'" (Num. 25:10-13).
After this, at the command of God, Phineas went at the head of the Israelite army against the Moabites and brought chastisement upon them for their impiety and treachery. After the death of the High Priest Eleazar, St Phineas was unanimously chosen as High Priest.
The high priesthood, in accord with God's promise, continued also with his posterity. St Phineas died at an advanced age around 1500 B.C.

Mentioned in the service for the Kazan Icon (July 8 & October 22) in the third Ode of the Canon.
According to Tradition, the Apostles Peter and John were preaching in Lydda (later called Diospolis) near Jerusalem. There they built a church dedicated to the Most Holy Theotokos, then went to Jerusalem and asked her to come and sanctify the church by her presence. She sent them back to Lydda and said, "Go in peace, and I shall be there with you."

Arriving at Lydda, they found an icon of the Virgin imprinted in color on the wall of the church (some sources say the image was on a pillar). Then the Mother of God appeared and rejoiced at the number of people who had gathered there. She blessed the icon and gave it the power to work miracles. This icon was not made by the hand of man, but by a divine power.

Julian the Apostate (reigned 361-363) heard about the icon and tried to eradicate it. Masons with sharp tools chipped away at the image, but the paint and lines just seemed to penetrate deeper into the stone. Those whom the emperor had sent were unable to destroy the icon. As word of this miracle spread, millions of people came to venerate the icon.

 604 Saint Gregory Dialogus granted a vision of the Lord Himself; Pope of Rome; inheritance - establish 6 monasteries. At Rome, St. Gregory, pope and eminent doctor of the Church, who on account of his illustrious deeds and the conversion of the English to the faith of Christ, was surnamed the Great, and called the Apostle of England.
Born in Rome around the year 540. His grandfather was Pope Felix, and his mother Sylvia (November 4) and aunts Tarsilla and Emiliana were also numbered among the saints by the Roman Church. Having received a most excellent secular education, he attained high government positions.  
Ibídem deposítio sancti Innocéntii Primi, Papæ et Confessóris.  Ipsíus autem festum quinto Kaléndas Augústi.  In the same place, the death of St. Innocent I, pope and confessor.  His feast is celebrated on the 28th of July.
1022 Simeon the New Theologian abbot successor to Saint John the Evangelist and Saint Gregory of Nazianzus. St Simeon the Pious recommended to the young man the writings of St Mark the Ascetic (March 5) and other spiritual writers. He read these books attentively and tried to put into practice what he read. Three points made by St Mark in his work "On the Spiritual Law" (see Vol. I of the English PHILOKALIA) particularly impressed him. First, you should listen to your conscience and do what it tells you if you wish your soul to be healed (PHILOKALIA, p. 115). Second, only by fulfilling the commandments can one obtain the activity of the Holy Spirit. Thirdly, one who prays only with the body and without spiritual knowledge is like the blind man who cried out, "Son of David, have mercy upon me (Luke 18:38) (PHILOKALIA, p. 111). When the blind man received his sight, however, he called Christ the Son of God (John 9:38).
1109 ST BERNARD OF CAPUA, BISHOP OF CALENO.  ST BERNARD OF CAPUA, of whose antecedents and early life no records are available, became chaplain and adviser to Duke Richard II, son of Prince Jordan of Capua. He gained the confidence of his patron so entirely that it was said that Richard would undertake nothing without first consulting his confessor. When the see of Foro-Claudio was vacant he was appointed by Pope Victor III, and he soon began to consider removing his episcopal seat. Foro-Claudio was in an exposed place— not easily defended—on the high-road between Rome and Naples, whereas at a short distance off, in a far better position, stood Caleno. The change was accordingly made. On Monte Massico hard [probably “nearby”] by lay the body of the hermit St Marcius (Martin), mention of whom is made in the Dialogues of St Gregory; and Arachis, Duke of Benevento, came with a great retinue intending to remove the body and to take it to Benevento. Mass was celebrated for them in the presence of the relics, but suddenly there came an earthquake, and the duke, interpreting this as a warning that it was not God’s will that the body should leave the neighbourhood, returned home. Then St Bernard and his priests went up to the mountain, and having brought the precious treasure to their new cathedral enclosed it in the altar.
1253 St. Fina "Seraphina"Virgin many miracles through her intercession Gregory appeared to her and said, "Dear child on my festival God will give you rest" 1253 St. Fina "Seraphina"Virgin many miracles through her intercession Gregory appeared to her and said, "Dear child on my festival God will give you rest" She was known for her self denial and acts of penance as a young girl. A mysterious illness left this beautiful girl unattractive; her eyes, feet, and hands became deformed and eventually Seraphina was paralyzed. Her mother and father both died while she was young. She was devoted to St. Gregory the Great. She died on the feast of St. Gregory, exactly as she had been warned by Gregory in a dream. Seraphina was a very helpful child around the family home. She did many of the chores and helped her mother spin and sew.
1319 Blessed Justina Bezzoli Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death.   JUSTINA OF Arezzo, whose name in the world appears to have been Francuccia Bizzoli, was only thirteen years old when she entered the Benedictine convent of St Mark in Arezzo. When the nuns overflowed into the convent of All Saints she accompanied them and continued to live there for many years, ever advancing in the paths of holiness. Then she left the convent with the permission of her superiors and made her way to a cell near Civitella, where she joined a holy anchoress called Lucia. This cell was so narrow and low that they could not both stand upright in it. When Lucia fell ill, Justina nursed her day and night for over a year without giving up any of her devotions and austerities. After Lucia’s death Justina remained all alone in the cell, in spite of the wolves that howled around and leaped on to the roof, until she developed a painful affection of the eyes which ended in total blindness. She was then taken from the hermitage back to Arezzo, where she and several other sisters lived in great self-abnegation and from midnight to midday served God in unbroken prayer. Diseases and sufferings of many kinds were cured through the prayers of Bd Justina, and still more wonderful miracles of healing were wrought after her death. She died in 1319 and her cultus was approved in 1890 (Leo XIII 1878-1903).
1922 Blessed Angela Salawa served Christ and Christ’s little ones with all her strength ; b. 1881 Angela  Born in Siepraw, near Kraków, Poland, she was the 11th child of Bartlomiej and Ewa Salawa. In 1897, she moved to Kraków where her older sister Therese lived. Angela immediately began to gather together and instruct young women domestic workers. During World War I, she helped prisoners of war without regard for their nationality or religion. The writings of Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross were a great comfort to her.
Angela gave great service in caring for soldiers wounded in World War I. After 1918 her health did not permit her to exercise her customary apostolate. Addressing herself to Christ, she wrote in her diary, "I want you to be adored as much as you were destroyed." In another place, she wrote, "Lord, I live by your will. I shall die when you desire; save me because you can."
At her 1991 beatification in Kraków, Pope John Paul II said: "It is in this city that she worked, that she suffered and that her holiness came to maturity. While connected to the spirituality of St. Francis, she showed an extraordinary responsiveness to the action of the Holy Spirit" (L'Osservatore Romano, volume 34, number 4, 1991).

1940 Bl. Luigi Orine apostle of Mercy servant of poor founder  He founded the Sons of Divine Providence, the Little Missionary Sisters of Charity, the Blind Sacramentive Sisters, and the Hermits of St.Albert. In 1936, Don Orione, as he was called, opened a House of Providence in Cardiff. Wales. He died at San Remo, Italy, on March 12, and was beatified in 1980.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 13
600 St. Leander of Seville bishop introduced the Nicene Creed at Mass succeeded in persuading many Arian bishops to change .  The next time you recite the Nicene Creed at Mass, think of today’s saint. For it was Leander of Seville who, as bishop, introduced the practice in the sixth century. He saw it as a way to help reinforce the faith of his people and as an antidote against the heresy of Arianism, which denied the divinity of Christ.
By the end of his life, Leander had helped Christianity flourish in Spain at a time of political and religious upheaval.   He was instrumental in converting the two sons Hermenegild and Reccared of the Arian Visigothic King Leovigild. This action earned him the kings's wrath and exile to Constantinople, where he met and became close friends of the Papal Legate, the future Pope Gregory the Great. It was Leander who suggested that Gregory write the famous commentary on the Book of Job called the Moralia. In 583 St Leander went to Constantinople on an embassy to the emperor, and there he became acquainted with St Gregory the Great, who had been sent there as legate by Pope Pelagius II. The two men formed a close and lasting friendship, and it was at the suggestion of Leander that Gregory wrote his Morals on the Book of Job.
 828 St. Nicephorus Patriarch of Constantinople martyr.   At Constantinople, the transferral of the body of St. Nicephorus, bishop of that city, and confessor.  The body was returned from the island of Propontis in the Proconnesus, where his death occurred on the 5th of June while in exile for his reverence of sacred images. 
He was buried with honour by Bishop Methodius in the Church of the Holy Apostles on this the anniversary day of his exile.  THE father of St Nicephorus was secretary and commissioner to the Emperor Constantine Copronymus, but when that tyrant declared himself a persecutor of the orthodox faith, his minister maintained the honour due to holy images with so much zeal that he was stripped of his dignities, scourged, tortured and banished. Young Nicephorus grew up with his father’s example before him to encourage him in boldly confessing his faith, while an excellent education developed his exceptional abilities. After Constantine VI and Irene had restored the use of sacred pictures and images, Nicephorus was introduced to their notice and by his sterling qualities obtained their favour. He distinguished himself by his opposition to the Icono­clasts and was secretary to the Second Council of Nicaea, as well as imperial commissioner.  The new patriarch ere long still further antagonized the hostile rigorists. At the request of the emperor, Nicephorus, with the consent of a small synod of bishops, pardoned and reinstated in office a priest called Joseph, who had been deposed and exiled for celebrating a marriage between the Emperor Constantine VI and Theodota during the lifetime of the lawful Empress Mary. No doubt he acted in this way to avoid worse evils, but the party which was headed by St Theodore Studites refused to have any dealings or even to be in communion with the patriarch and with those who supported what they called the “Adulterine Heresy”: they went so far as to appeal to the pope. St Leo III sent them an encouraging reply but, being imperfectly informed about the whole matter and having received no communications from Archbishop Nicephorus, he took no further action. After a time, however, a reconciliation was brought about between the patriarch and St Theodore (who meanwhile had been imprisoned and his monks dispersed). It was not until then that Nicephorus sent to the pope a letter announcing his appointment to the see of Constantinople, with an apology and a rather lame excuse for his delay in making the customary notification. At the same time, in view of attacks that had been made upon his orthodoxy, he added a lengthy confession of faith and promised that in future he would give due notice at Rome of any important questions that might arise.
1236 Bl. Agnello of Pisa admitted into Order by St. Francis himself.  It was the winter of 1224, and they must have suffered great discomfort, especially as their ordinary fare was bread and a little beer, which was so thick that it had to be diluted before they could swallow it. Nothing, however, damped their spirits, and their simple piety, cheerfulness and enthusiasm soon won them many friends. They were able to produce a commendatory letter from Pope Honorius III, so that the archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Langton, in announcing their arrival, said, “Some religious have come to me calling themselves Penitents of the Order of Assisi, but I call them of the Order of the Apostles”: By this name they were at first known in England, and when some of them were to be ordained acolytes at Canterbury four months after landing, the archdeacon, in bidding the candidates come forward, said, “Draw near, ye brothers of the Order of the Apostles”.
The founder of the English Franciscan province, Blessed Agnello, was admitted into the Order by St. Francis himself on the occasion of his sojourn in Pisa. He was sent to the Friary in Paris, of which he became the guardian, and in 1224, St. Francis appointed him to found an English province; at the time he was only a deacon. Eight others were selected to accompany him.
True to the precepts of St. Francis, they had no money, and the monks of Fecamp paid their passage over to Dover. They made Canterbury their first stopping place, while Richard of Ingworth, Richard of Devon and two of the Italians went on to London to see where they could settle.  It was the winter of 1224, and they must have suffered great discomfort, especially as their ordinary fare was bread and a little beer, which was so thick that it had to be diluted before they could swallow it. Nothing, however, dampened their spirits, and their simple piety, cheerfulness and enthusiasm soon won them many friends. They were able to produce a commendatory letter from Pope Honorius III, so that the Archbishop of Canterbury, Steven Langton, in announcing their arrival, said, "Some religious have come to me calling themselves penitents of the Order of Assisi, but I called them of the Order of the Apostles." Pope Leo XIII declared Agnellus' beatification in 1882.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 14
   67 Forty-Seven Roman Martyrs baptized by Saint Peter (RM).  Also at Rome, the birthday of forty-seven holy martyrs who were baptized by the apostle St. Peter while in the Mamertine Prison with St. Paul his fellow apostle.  After an imprisonment of nine months, they all fell by the sword of Nero for their generous confession of faith.
According to an unreliable account, these 47 martyrs were baptized by Saint Peter and suffered under Nero that same day. The details entered into the Roman Martyrology are from the Acts of Saints Processus and Martinian (Benedictines).
 legend makes them the keepers of the prison of Sts. Peter and Paul.
VI v  St. Diaconus Martyred deacon in Marsi by the Lombards for the faith.  Martyrs of Valeria (RM) 6th century. The entry in the Roman Martyrology reads: "In the province of Valeria, the birthday of two holy monks, whom the Lombards slew by hanging them on a tree: and there, although dead, they were heard even by their enemies singing psalms." The story is taken from the Dialogues (IV, 21) of Saint Gregory the Great (Benedictines).
1254 Blessed Arnold of Padua martyr bound in chains patiently for eight years.  It is recorded of him that he solemnly expressed his conviction that God had sent into the world three teachers to enlighten the Universal Church—first Paul the Apostle, then later on Augustine, and now in these last days Brother Thomas. In 1302 Bd James was appointed archbishop of Benevento by Pope Boniface VIII, but only a few months later the same pontiff translated him to the archiepiscopal see of Naples, in which office he won the veneration of all by his virtue and his learning. His death in 1308 was followed by many spontaneous manifestations of the ardour with which his memory was cherished by his flock, and the cultus then begun was confirmed in 1911.
1308 Blessed James of Capocci Augustinian friar.  VITERBO was the birthplace of James Capocci, who entered the Augustinian Order at an early age. Giving great promise of eminence both in piety and learning he was sent to make his higher studies at the University of Paris, where he attended the lectures of his illustrious fellow Augustinian, Aegidius Romanus, who had been the pupil of St Thomas Aquinas and was an enthusiastic upholder of the teaching of the Angelic Doctor. After returning for a while to Italy and acting as theological instructor to his own brethren, Capocci was sent to make a second stay in Paris, where he took his doctor’s degree, and thereupon lectured in that city and subsequently at Naples.
It is recorded of him that he solemnly expressed his conviction that God had sent into the world three teachers to enlighten the Universal Church—first Paul the Apostle, then later on Augustine, and now in these last days Brother Thomas. In 1302 Bd James was appointed archbishop of Benevento by Pope Boniface VIII, but only a few months later the same pontiff translated him to the archiepiscopal see of Naples, in which office he won the veneration of all by his virtue and his learning. His death in 1308 was followed by many spontaneous manifestations of the ardour with which his memory was cherished by his flock, and the cultus then begun was confirmed in 1911.

1619 Blessed Dominic Jorjes soldier martyred for providing refuge to Blessed Charles Spinola . Born at Aguilar de Sousa, Portugal; died at Nagasaki, Japan, on November 18, 1619; beatified in 1819 (Pius IX 1846--1878 ). Dominic began life as a soldier and settled in Japan. There he provided refuge to Blessed Charles Spinola. For this reason he was burnt alive at Nagasaki (Benedictines).
1620 Bl. Ambrose Fernandez Portuguese Jesuit Martyr of Japan.  Blessed Ambrose Fernandez, SJ M (AC) Born at Sisto, Portugal, 1551; died in Omura, Japan, 1620; beatified in 1867 Pius IX 1846--1878. Ambrose went to Japan to seek his fortune, but soon found that God was his portion and cup. He entered the Jesuits as a lay-brother in 1577, and died in the horrible prison of Suzota (Omura) of apoplexy at the age of 69 (Benedictines).

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 15
 571 Probus of Rieti Saints Juvenal and Eleutherius appeared to him in a vision.  At Rieti, the bishop St. Probus, at whose death the martyrs Juvenal and Eleutherius were present.
Saint Gregory the Great describes the deathbed scene of Saint Probus, bishop of Rieti, Italy, during which Saints Juvenal and Eleutherius appeared to him in a vision (Benedictines).
 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM). DETAILS of the early life of St Zachary are lacking, but he is known to have been born at San Severino of a Greek family settled in Calabria, and he is believed to have been one of the deacons of the Roman church. Upon the death of St Gregory III, he was unanimously elected pope. No better selection could have been made:  a man of learning and of great personal holiness, he joined a conciliatory spirit to far-sighted wisdom, and was able to cope with the grave problems which confronted him upon his accession. The position of Rome was one of much peril. The Lombards were again preparing to invade Roman territory, when the new pope decided to treat directly with their ruler, and went himself to Terni to visit him. He was received with respect, and his personality produced such an impression that Liutprand returned all the territory that had been taken from the Romans in the preceding thirty years. Moreover he made a twenty years’ treaty and released all his prisoners.
1583 Bl. William Hart Martyr of England ministered to Catholic prisoners in York Prison  Blessed William Hart M (AC) Born in Wells, England; died at York, 1583; beatified in 1886. William, a Protestant, was educated at Lincoln College, Oxford. After his conversion to Catholicism, he studied for the priesthood at Douai, Rheims, and Rome. THIS martyr, born at Wells in Somerset, went to Lincoln College, Oxford, and there came under the influence of D Bridgewater, who, on account of his Catholic principles, soon after resigned the rectorship and took refuge in Douai. Hart followed his example, and though a delicate man, ‘suffering at times paroxysms of pain from the stone, he faced with “marvellous cheerfulness” the many hardships entailed by his life as a refugee. After teaching at Rheims he passed on to Rome, and being there ordained priest, returned to the English mission and laboured in Yorkshire. He was particularly remarkable for his joyous spirit and for his courage and charity in visiting those Catholics who were imprisoned in York Castle.  He returned to England following his ordination in 1581. Betrayed by an apostate in the house of Saint Margaret Clitherow (Benedictines).
1660 St. Louise de Marillac Sisters of Charity caring for sick poor neglected patron saint of social workers.  Not long before the death of her husband, Louisa made a vow not to marry again but to devote herself wholly to the service of God, and this was followed a little later by a strange spiritual illumination in which she felt her misgivings dispelled and was given to understand that there was a great work which she was called to do in the future under the guidance of a director to whom she had never yet spoken. Her husband’s state of health had long been hopeless. He died in 1625, but before this she had already made the acquaintance of “M. Vincent”, as the holy priest known to us now as St Vincent de Paul was then called, and he, though showing reluctance at first, consented eventually to act as her confessor. St Vincent was at this time organizing his “Confraternities of Charity”, with the object of remedying the appalling misery and ignorance which he had found existing among the peasantry in country districts. With his wonderful tact and zeal he was soon able to count upon the assistance of a number of ladies (whom he styled Dames de Charité), and associations were formed in many centres which undoubtedly effected a great deal of good. .  St Vincent himself kept an eye on Michael, and was satisfied that the young man was a thoroughly good fellow, but with not much stability of character. He had no vocation for the priesthood, as his mother had hoped, but he married and seems to have led a good and edifying life to the end. He came,with his wife and child to visit his mother on her deathbed and she blessed them tenderly. It was the year i66o, and St Vincent was himself eighty years old and very infirm. She would have given much to see this beloved father once more, but that consolation was denied her. Nevertheless her soul was at peace, her life’s work had been marvellously blessed, and she uncomplainingly made the sacrifice, telling those around her that she was happy to have still this one deprivation left which she could offer to God. The burden of what, in those last days, she said to her grieving sisters was always this: “Be diligent in serving the poor . . . love the poor, honour them, my children, as you would honour Christ Himself.” St Louisa de Marillac died on March 15, 1660, and St Vincent followed her only six months later. She was canonized in 1934.
1830 St. Clement Maria Hofbauer Redemptorist preacher reformer devoted to Jesus.  At Vienna in Austria, St. Clement Mary Hofbauer, a priest of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, renowned for his great devotion in promoting the glory of God and the salvation of souls, and in extending that order.  He was canonized by Pope Pius X. Even as a child the boy longed to become a priest, but poverty stood in the way, and, at the age of fifteen, he was apprenticed to a baker. Later he was employed in the bakery of the Premonstratensian monastery at Bruck, where his self-sacrifice during a time of famine won him the favour of the abbot, who allowed him to follow the classes of the Latin school attached to the abbey. After the abbot’s death, the young man lived as a solitary, until the Emperor Joseph’s edict against hermitages obliged him to take up his old trade again, this time in Vienna. From that city he twice made pilgrimages to Rome, in company with his friend Peter Kunzmann, and on the second occasion they obtained per­mission from Bishop Chiaramonti of Tivoli (Pope Pius VII) to settle as hermits in his diocese.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 16
305  Cyriacus erlitt vermutlich das Martyrium um 305 unter Diokletian. At Rome the martyrdom of the deacon St. Cyriacus, who, after a long imprisonment, had melted pitch poured over him, was stretched on the rack, had his limbs pulled with ropes, was beaten with clubs, and finally was beheaded by order of Maximian, together with Largus, Smaragdus, and twenty others.  Their feast, however, is kept on the 8th of August, the day on which these twenty-three martyrs were exhumed by blessed Pope Marcellus and reverently entombed.  On August 8 Pope St Marcellus I ( 308-309) translated the bodies to a burial-place, which received the name of Cyriacus, on the road to Ostia.
1022 Heribert of Cologne a devoted chief pastor of his flock performed miracles, one of which caused a heavy rainfall.  The one dissentient was Heribert himself, who declared and honestly believed that he was quite unfitted for the high dignity. From Benevento, whither he was summoned by Otto, he passed on to Rome, and there received the pallium from Pope Silvester II. He then returned to Cologne, which he entered humbly with bare feet on a cold December day, having sent the pallium on before him. It was on Christmas eve that he was consecrated archbishop in the cathedral of St Peter, and from that moment he devoted himself indefatigably to the duties of his high calling. State affairs were never allowed to hinder him from preaching, from relieving the sick and needy, and from acting as peacemaker throughout his diocese. He did not despise the outward splendour which his position required, but under his gold-embroidered vesture he always wore a hair-shirt. The more the business of the world pressed upon him, the more strenuously did he strive to nourish the spiritual life within.
1177 Blessed John Sordi, OSB BM (AC) (also known as John Cacciafronte).  JOHN was a native of Cremona and a member of the family of Sordi or Surdi; the name of Cacciafronte, by which he was generally known, was that of his stepfather, who wished the boy to adopt it. At the age of fifteen John was made a canon of Cremona, but the following year he entered the Benedictine abbey of St Laurence. Eight years later he became prior of St Victor and in 1155 he was recalled to be abbot of St Laurence. It was said by the monks that obedience was no hardship under his rule, for he was the first to practise what he enforced, and he made the spiritual and temporal welfare of the community his constant care. Bd John espoused the cause of Pope Alexander III against Octavian, Cardinal of St Cecilia, who, under the title of Victor IV, claimed to occupy the chair of St Peter. For his zeal in organizing penitential processions and urging the people of Cremona to remain loyal to Alexander, the good abbot was banished by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa, who favoured the antipope. He lived for several years the life of a solitary in Mantuan territory and was then called upon to fill the bishopric of Mantua. He continued to practise great austerity, his food, clothing and furniture being of the plainest, and he daily fed the poor at his own table. He did much to remedy abuses and kept a strict watch over church property, although he was so indifferent to his own possessions and position that he wrote to urge the pope to reinstate Bishop Graziodorus, his predecessor, who had abandoned Mantua to follow the antipope, but who had afterwards repented. The Holy See acceded to his request and John resigned Mantua, but was soon given the see of Vicenza, where he became as popular as he had been in Mantua.
1281 Blessed Torello of Poppi, OSB Vall. Hermit (AC).   Born in Poppi, Tuscany, Italy, in 1201; cultus confirmed by Benedict XIV (1740-1758). Although Saint Torello led a dissolute life in bad company, he experienced a sudden conversion. After repenting he received the habit of a recluse from the Vallumbrosan abbot of San Fedele. He lived as an austere recluse, walled up in his cell near Poppi, for 60 years. Both Vallumbrosans and Franciscans claim him. It seems certain that he was, at any rate, a Vallumbrosan oblate (Attwater2, Benedictines).
1642-49 North American Martyrs (RM) All born in France.  In the territory of Canada, Saints John de Brébeuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Anthony Daniel, Charles Garnier, and Noel Chabanel, priests of the Society of Jesus, who in the mission of the Hurons, on this and other days, after many labours and most cruel torments, bravely underwent death for Christ.
 died 1642-49; canonized in 1930. The main feast day on the Roman calendar is September 26; however, the Jesuits commemorate six priests (Antony Daniel, Charles Garnier, Gabriel Lalemant, Isaac Jogues, John de Brébeuf, and Noel Chabanel) and two laybrothers (John Lalande and René Goupil) on March 16.
They were working among the Hurons when they met their deaths at the hands of the Iroquois, the mortal enemies of the Hurons. The Iroquois were animated by bitter hatred of the missionaries, whom they subjected to indescribable tortures before putting them to death. Further information and biographies of each are presented for their main feast (Attwater, Benedictines, Parkman, Wynne).

1830 St. Clement Maria Hofbauer Redemptorist preacher reformer devoted to Jesus.   died 1642-49; canonized in 1930. The main feast day on the Roman calendar is September 26; however, the Jesuits commemorate six priests (Antony Daniel, Charles Garnier, Gabriel Lalemant, Isaac Jogues, John de Brébeuf, and Noel Chabanel) and two laybrothers (John Lalande and René Goupil) on March 16.
They were working among the Hurons when they met their deaths at the hands of the Iroquois, the mortal enemies of the Hurons. The Iroquois were animated by bitter hatred of the missionaries, whom they subjected to indescribable tortures before putting them to death. Further information and biographies of each are presented for their main feast (Attwater, Benedictines, Parkman, Wynne).


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 17


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 18
    251 St. Alexander Bishop Martyr an individual of great mildness, especially in his sermons.      At Caesarea in Palestine, the birthday of the blessed Bishop Alexander, who, from his own city in Cappadocia, where he was bishop, coming to Jerusalem to visit the holy places, took upon himself, by divine revelation, the government of that church in place of the aged Narcissus.  Sometime afterwards, when he had become venerable by his age and gray hair, he was led to Caesarea and shut up in prison, where he completed his martyrdom for the confession of Christ during the persecution of Decius.
St. Irenaeus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the fifth pope in succession from the Apostles, though he says nothing of his martyrdom. His pontificate is variously dated by critics, e. g. 106-115 (Duchesne) or 109-116 (Lightfoot). In Christian antiquity he was credited with a pontificate of about ten years (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. IV, i,) and there is no reason to doubt that he was on the "catalogue of bishops" drawn up at Rome by Hegesippus (Eusebius, IV, xxii, 3) before the death of Pope Eleutherius (c. 189). According to a tradition extant in the Roman Church at the end of the fifth century, and recorded in the Liber Pontificalis he suffered a martyr's death by decapitation on the Via Nomentana in Rome, 3 May. The same tradition declares him to have been a Roman by birth and to have ruled the Church in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It likewise attributes to him, but scarcely with accuracy, the insertion in the canon of the Qui Pridie, or words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist, such being certainly primitive and original in the Mass. He is also said to have introduced the use of blessing water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences (constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedici in habitaculis hominum). Duchesne (Lib. Pont., I, 127) calls attention to the persistence of this early Roman custom by way of a blessing in the Gelasian Sacramentary that recalls very forcibly the actual Asperges prayer at the beginning of Mass. In 1855, a semi-subterranean cemetery of the holy martyrs Sts. Alexander, Eventulus, and Theodulus was discovered near Rome, at the spot where the above mentioned tradition declares the Pope to have been martyred. According to some archaeologists, this Alexander is identical with the Pope, and this ancient and important tomb marks the actual site of the Pope's martyrdom. Duchesne, however (op. cit., I, xci-ii) denies the identity of the martyr and the pope, while admitting that the confusion of both personages is of ancient date, probably anterior to the beginning of the sixth century when the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled [Dufourcq, Gesta Martyrum Romains (Paris, 1900), 210-211]. The difficulties raised in recent times by Richard Lipsius (Chronologie der römischen Bischofe, Kiel, 1869) and Adolph Harnack (Die Zeit des Ignatius u. die Chronologie der antiochenischen Bischofe, 1878) concerning the earliest successors of St. Peter are ably discussed and answered by F. S. (Cardinal Francesco Segna) in his "De successione priorum Romanorum Pontificum" (Rome 1897); with moderation and learning by Bishop Lightfoot, in his "Apostolic Fathers: St. Clement ' (London, 1890) I, 201-345- especially by Duchesne in the introduction to his edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" (Paris, 1886) I, i-xlviii and lxviii-lxxiii. The letters ascribed to Alexander I by PseudoIsidore may be seen in P. G., V, 1057 sq., and in Hinschius, "Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae" (Leipzig, 1863) 94-105. His remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria in 834 (Dummler, Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini, Berlin, 1884, II, 120). His so-called "Acts" are not genuine, and were compiled at a much later date (Tillemont, Mem. II, 590 sqq; Dufourcq, op. cit., 210-211).

  386 St. Cyril of Jerusalem Bishop Doctor of the Church seeing poor starving he sold goods of the churches.    At Jerusalem, St. Cyril, bishop, {Confessor and Doctor of the Church} who suffered many injuries from the Arians for the faith.  Often exiled from his church, he at length rested in peace with a great reputation for sanctity.  A magnificent testimony of the purity of his faith is given by the first ecumenical Council of Constantinople in a letter to Pope Damasus.
588 St. Frediano Irish bishop founded a group of eremetical canons  Miraculously a river followed him.  At Lucca in Tuscany, the birthday of the holy bishop Fridian, who was illustrious by the power of working miracles.
also called Frigidanus and Frigidian. He was reportedly a prince of Ireland who went on a pilgrimage to Rome and settled into a hermitage on Mount Pisano, near Lucca. The pope (Pelagius II 520-590) made him bishop of Lucca, but his see was attacked by Lombards. Frediano is believed to have founded a group of eremetical canons who merged with those of St. John Lateran in 1507.  ST FRIGIDIAN, or Frediano as he is called in Italy, was an Irishman by birth or by extraction. He is said to have been the son of a king of Ulster and to have been educated in Ireland, where he was raised to the priesthood. Irish writers have tried to identify him with St Finnian of Moville, but St Frediano lived for over twenty-eight years in Lucca and died there, whereas Finnian ended his days in Ireland, where he had spent the greater part of his life. On a pilgrimage to Italy Frediano visited Lucca, and was so greatly attracted by the hermitages on Monte Pisano that he decided to settle there himself as an anchorite. His repute for sanctity caused him to be chosen for the bishopric of Lucca; it required, however, the intervention of Pope John II ( 533-535 )to induce Frediano to give up his life of solitude.
1086 St. Anselm of Lucca Bishop held in high regard for his holiness austerity Biblical knowledge learning.    IT was in 1036 that St Anselm was born in Mantua, and in 1073 his uncle, Pope Alexander II ( 1061-1073 ), nominated him to the bishopric of Lucca, left vacant by his own elevation to the chair of St Peter, and sent him to Germany to receive from the Emperor Henry IV the crozier and the ring— in accordance with the regrettable custom of the time. Anselm, however, was so strongly convinced that the secular power had no authority to confer ecclesiastical dignities that he could not bring himself to accept investiture from the emperor and returned to Italy without it. Only after he had been consecrated by Alexander’s successor, Pope St Gregory VII (1073-1085), did he consent to accept from Henry the crozier and the ring, and even then he felt scruples of conscience on the subject. These doubts led him to leave his diocese and to withdraw to a congregation of Cluniac monks at Polirone. A dignitary of such high-minded views could ill be spared, and Pope Gregory recalled him from his retirement and sent him back to Lucca to resume the government of his diocese. Zealous with regard to discipline, he strove to enforce among his canons the common life enjoined by the decree of Pope St Leo IX (1049-1054). In acute discordance with the edifying example accredited to them above in our notice of St Frediano, the canons refused to obey, although they were placed under an interdict by the pope and afterwards excommunicated. Countess Matilda of Tuscany undertook to expel them, but they raised a revolt and, being supported by the Emperor Henry, drove the bishop out of the city in 1079.
We read that he was a man of great learning, and had made a special study of the Bible and of its commentators if questioned on the meaning of any passage of Holy Scripture—a great part of which he knew by heart—he could cite at once the explanations given by all the great fathers of the Church. Amongst his writings may be mentioned an important collection of canons and a commentary on the Psalms which he began at the request of the Countess Matilda, but which he did not live to complete. The holy bishop died in his native town of Mantua, and the city has since adopted him as its principal patron saint.
1567 St. Salvatore Franciscan of the Observance specially devoted to our Lady and to St. Paul who appeared to him on several occasions many and severe austerities. At Cagliari in Sardinia, St. Salvatore of Orte, confessor, a member of the Order of Friars Minor, who was numbered among the heavenly saints by Pope Pius XI (1922-1939 ), because he was graced with every virtue and had been given by God the gift of performing outstanding miracles.
Saint Salvator of Horta (Salvador d'Horta, Salvatore da Horta) (1520—March 18, 1567) is a Catalan saint. His feast day is celebrated on March 18. He was born in Santa Coloma de Farners, near Girona (Catalonia), and worked as a shepherd and shoemaker. Franciscan lay brother at Barcelona and worked as a cook, beggar, and porter at the friary of Horta.  Salvator acquired a reputation as a healer, and his cell became a destination for sick pilgrims.



Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 19
March 19 - Feast of Saint Joseph, Husband of the Virgin Mary   Blessings on Saint Joseph!
Blessings on you, loving heart of Mary, for all the affection that you have for great Saint Joseph!
Blessings on your noble heart forever, Saint Joseph, for all the love that it held and will hold eternally for Jesus and Mary, for all the care that it provided for the needs of the Son and the Mother and for all the pains and anguish that it suffered for their sufferings, contempt and ill treatment, which it saw them receiving on behalf of ungrateful people!
Great Saint Joseph, we offer our hearts to you; bind them to yours, and to Jesus’ and Mary’s.
Beg them to make this union inviolable and eternal.   Saint John Eudes

All that is known about Joseph is found in the Gospels (primarily Matthew 1-2, but also in Luke 1-2). Matthew broadly represents Joseph's viewpoint, while the Infancy narratives in Luke seem to come from Mary's. 
Descended from the royal line of David, Saint Joseph was the husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who defended her good name, and foster father and protector of the God Who made him, yet Who wished to be known throughout His life as the son of Joseph. He saw to Jesus's education and taught him his trade of carpentry or building. Joseph's disappointment upon learning of Mary's pregnancy was said to be assuaged by an angelic vision, and he was the recipient of two more visions: one telling him to seek refuge in Egypt to escape Herod's persecution, and the second, to return to Palestine.
  Saint Joseph bore the responsibilities of a father perfectly. A dream told him that King Herod planned to kill the infant Jesus.

Joseph took Mary and Jesus away by night to Egypt and thus saved the life of the Savior. He kept the child hidden from Herod's son in case he, too, would have harmed Jesus.
Joseph was with Mary in the stable at Bethlehem when Jesus was born. He was looking after the mother and child when the shepherds and the Magi came to worship him. He took Mary and Jesus to Jerusalem to present him to God in the Temple.
He shared Mary's anxieties for her son when Jesus was presumed lost, after their visit to the Temple when he was 12.

After this no more is heard of Joseph in the New Testament except in Luke 4:22, where he is named as the father of Jesus. He is not mentioned as being present at the crucifixion, a fact that persuaded many artists to portray him as an old man who had presumably died by the time Jesus was in his early thirties. The few Biblical particulars give an impression of a just, kind, dignified and level-headed man, prompt in action but self-effacing. The apocryphal Protoevangelium of James holds that he was an old man when Jesus was born, but this appears unlikely when one considers the fact that he reared Jesus and fulfilled the family duties.
Pauly Fongemie
Special veneration to Joseph began in the East, where the apocryphal History of Joseph the Carpenter enjoyed great popularity in the fifth to seventh centuries. It led to devotion from the 17th century to Joseph by all those desiring a happy death because the History tells that Joseph was afraid of death and filled with self-reproach, but was comforted by the words of Mary and Jesus, who promised protection and life to all who do good in the name of Joseph.
Martyrology entries in the West date from the 8th century (Rheinau) and slightly later Irish martyrologies. The 9th-century Irish metrical hymn Félire of Saint Aengus mentions a commemoration, but it was not until the 15th century that veneration of Saint Joseph became widespread in the West, when his feast was introduced into the Roman Calendar in 1479.
  Carmelite breviaries from 1480 commemorate his feast, as does the Roman breviary of 1482 and the Roman Missal of 1505.
The notion of Joseph as the foster-father of Jesus fired the imagination of the medieval Church. Saint John Chrysostom pointed to the anxieties of Joseph as a pattern of the trials of all Christians--relieved as they are by God's intervention. Saints Vincent Ferrer (d. 1419), Bridget of Sweden (d. 1373), and Bernardino of Siena (d. 1444) all propagated his devotion, partially in reaction against Medieval mystery plays, in which he is the channel for comic relief.
In the 15th century the French churchman Jean Gerson wrote twelve poems in his honor.

Saint Teresa of Ávila chose him as the practical saint who should be patron of the Discalced Carmelite friars and nuns [see her paean, Go to Joseph].
Pope Gregory XV made his feast a day of obligation, but this is not widely observed today.
In Quanquam pluries (1889), Pope Leo XIII declared Joseph a model for fathers of families and confirmed that his sanctity was second only the that of the Blessed Virgin.
In 1989, Pope John Paul II issued Redemptoris custos (Guardian of the Redeemer) (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Filas, Rondet, White).
  Saint Joseph is generally pictured as an elderly man holding a flowering rod with the Christ Child in his arms or led my his hand (this emblem is also associated with Saint Joseph of Arimathea).
 640 St. Leontius Bishop of Saintes, France, and a friend of St. Malo.  At Ghent in Flanders, Saints Landoald, a Roman priest, and the deacon Amantius, who were sent to preach the Gospel by Pope St. Martin.  They faithfully fulfilled this apostolic appointment, and after their deaths became renowned for their miracles.
 668 St. Landoald Roman priest Missionary to Belgium ne France with deacon  Amantius after deaths miracles.  FOR the life of St Landoald and his companions we have only a very untrustworthy biography written in 981, three hundred years after their death, to replace their original acts said to have been lost in 954. When St Amand decided to resign the see of Maestricht, in order to resume work as a missionary bishop in the provinces which are now Holland and Belgium, he went to Rome to obtain the pope’s sanc­tion. St Martin I not only signified his warm approval, but selected several companions to assist him in his labours. Of these the principal was Landoald, a priest of the Roman church who came of a Lombard family and was filled with missionary zeal. A deacon, St Amantius, and nine other persons completed the party, which included St Adeltrudis, St Bavo’s daughter, and St Vindiciana, Landoald’s sister. They reached the territory between the Meuse and the Scheldt, and here Landoald remained, at the request of St Remaclus. He found a wide scope for his energies in the huge diocese of Maestricht, the country having been only partly evangelized and the people still addicted to gross superstitions and vices.
1256 Blessed Clement of Dunblane founded monasteries "labored with zeal to uproot superstition and destroy vice.  Clement was Scottish by birth, and having met Saint Dominic at the University of Paris and being received into the order, he was vocal and active in bringing the friars to his homeland. Tradition holds that the Scottish king, Alexander II, in Paris on a diplomatic mission, made a personal appeal to Saint Dominic for missionaries. It is an historical fact that this monarch was their first benefactor when the mission band at last arrived, shortly after Dominic's death.
The priory in the lovely, seaside town of Ayr was founded in 1230, and seven other large houses soon followed. There is record of transactions with the rulers of the region at this time, and, a few years later, King Robert Bruce granted the Dominicans the privilege of grinding their grain at his mill.
Clement was appointed bishop of Dunblane in 1233, by Pope Gregory IX, a devoted friend of Saint Dominic.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 20
In Judǽa natális sancti Jóachim, patris immaculátæ Vírginis Genitrícis Dei Maríæ, Confessóris.  In Judea, St. Joachim, the father of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God.  His feast day is on the 16th of August.
1st v. St. Archippus Bishop and companion of St. Paul.  In Asia, the birthday of St. Archippus, fellow-labourer of the apostle St. Paul, who is mentioned by him in his epistles to Philemon and the Colossians.
who called him "my fellow soldier." Archippus is believed to have been the first bishop of Colossne. Archippus of Colossi (RM) 1st century. Traditionally, Saint Archippus is considered the first bishop of Colossae. Saint Paul calls Archippus 'my fellow- soldier' (Philem. 2) and admonished him, "Remember the service that the Lord wants you to do and try to carry it out" (Col. 4:17) (Benedictines, Delaney).

66 The Holy Martyr Photina (Svetlana) the Samaritan Woman, her sons Victor (named Photinus) and Joses; and her sisters Anatola, Phota, Photis, Paraskeva, Kyriake; Nero's daughter Domnina; and the Martyr Sebastian.  On the same day, the Saints Photina, a Samaritan, and her sons Joseph and Victor; also, Sebastian, a military officer, Anatolius, and Photius; Photides, Parasceves, and Cyriaca, sisters, all of whom were put to death for the confession of the faith.
ACCORDING to the Roman Martyrology, “Photina the Samaritan woman, Joseph and Victor her sons, the army officer Sebastian, Anatolius, Photius, the sisters Photis, Parasceve and Cyriaca, all confessed Christ and attained martyrdom”. The story which is preserved by the Greeks is purely legendary. It asserts that Photina was the Samaritan woman whom our Lord talked with at the well. After preaching the gospel in various places she went to Carthage, where she died after suffering three years’ imprisonment for the faith. St Victor, an officer in the imperial army, was made governor in Gaul and converted St Sebastian. The martyrs were brought to Rome, where some of them were burned over a slow fire and then flayed, whilst the rest were beheaded after being horribly tortured. A Spanish legend states that St Photina converted and baptized Domnina (who was Nero’s daughter) with one hundred of her servants.

See the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and Delehaye, Synax. Constant., cc. 549—552. It is difficult to understand how Baronius could have included this entry in the Roman Martyrology. He seems in his notes to suggest that this commemoration had come to Rome by way of the monks of Monte Cassino. The story, however, in its divergent forms had wide currency in the East, and there was a Syrian convent of St Photina on Mount Sion at Jerusalem. Cf. the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxviii, pp. 197 and 406.
 783 Blessed Remigius of Strasburg bishop OSB B (AC).  Sometimes styled either a saint or a beatae, Remigius was a son of Duke Hugh of Alsace and a nephew of Saint Ottilien. He was educated at Münster Abbey near Colmar, and later was its abbot. In 776, Remigius was consecrated bishop of Strasburg. Pope Leo IX authorized his feast for the abbey of Münster (Benedictines).

1287 Blessed Ambrose Sansedoni a miracle when a baby and reported at his tomb; humble; levitated; OP (RM).  Like many other Italian saints, men and women, the eloquent friar did not confine his energies to spiritual exhortations, but was called upon to take part in important public affairs. By his persuasive words he managed to reconcile the prince electors, who in their private quarrels were on the eve of kindling civil war. He arrested a new heresy in Bohemia which was causing strange disorder, and when charged by Bd Pope Gregory X to preach the crusade he obtained a generous response to his appeals. Twice did he reconcile with the Holy See the people of Siena, who, having taken the part of Manfred, the bastard son of Frederic II, had been placed under an interdict. Several writers assert that when Ambrose entered the con­sistory to plead for his fellow-townsmen, his face was illuminated with so super­natural a light that the pope exclaimed, “Father Ambrose, you need not explain your mission; I grant whatever you wish”.  In spite of all the important missions with which he was entrusted, and of the, success which attended his efforts, Ambrose ever remained singularly humble.
1289 Bl. John of Parma many miracles were soon reported at his tomb; 7th minister general of the Franciscans.   JOHN BURALLI, the seventh minister general of the Franciscans, was born at Parma in 1209, and he was already teaching logic there when at the age of twenty-five he joined the Franciscans. He was sent to Paris to prosecute his studies and, after he had been ordained, to teach and to preach in Bologna, Naples and Rome. His eloquence drew crowds to his sermons, and great personages flocked to listen to him. It has been stated that in 1245, when Pope Innocent IV convoked the first general council of Lyons, John was deputed to represent Crescentius, the minister general, who owing to his infirmities was unable to attend, but this is incorrect; the friar who went to the council was Bonaventure of Isco. John, however, that same year journeyed to Paris to lecture on the “Sentences” in the university, and in 1247 he was chosen minister general of the order.

1516 Blessed John Baptist Spagnuolo profound counsel Latin verse lines eminent representatives of Christian Humanism in Italy; on the day of his burial, and a number of miracles, ascribed to his intercession, established his cultus immediately after his death. He was beatified in 1885.   BD BAPTIST came of a Spanish family on his father’s side, but his mother was a native of Brescia in northern Italy, and he himself was born at Mantua. Because of his ancestry he, like his father, was known by the nickname, or possibly the surname, of Spagnuolo—the Spaniard. As a child he displayed great ability, and while still young he received a good grounding in philosophy and rhetoric. There were irregularities in his youth which led to trouble at home; but in the end Baptist felt himself called to the religious life, and he joined the Carmelite com­munity at Ferrara. From the outset he sought to follow the path of perfection, but he also devoted himself to literature and sacred science with such success that in his Latin composition and verse he was accounted the equal of the most famous humanists of the age. God bestowed on him in a remarkable degree the gift of counsel, which was widely recognized, especially among the Carmelites of Mantua, by whom he was six times re-elected vicar general of the Reform. It was not only in the cloister that he gave inspiration and help, but he endeared himself to many people living in the world, and to the poor and destitute to whom he was a father.

Princes and popes held him in the utmost esteem, partly for his scholarship and partly for the tact he displayed in dealing with delicate negotiations. When away from his convent and in secular surroundings never did he abate any of the rules of his order or depart from that poverty to which he had pledged himself; on several occasions he was visited with illness when a little relaxation would have been permissible, yet he continued all his customary mortifications and practices of devotion in spite of ill-health.

1619 Blessed Hippolytus Galantini From age 12 assisted priests in teaching children catechism (AC).   HIPPOLYTUS GALANTINI was one of those who have attained to great holiness amid the cares of a secular life. The son of a worthy Florentine silk-weaver, he learnt and followed his father’s trade, by which he earned his living. He was only twelve years old when he attracted the notice of Archbishop Alexander de’ Medici— afterwards Pope Leo XI—who allowed him to help the priests in instructing children. He would fain have entered a religious order, but was debarred by ill-health, and adopted in his father’s house a rule of life which was a counterpart of that of the cloister. By fasts, scourgings and long night-watches he obtained complete mastery over rebellious nature, and acquired a spiritual discernment which more than compensated for his lack of secular education. Without influence, without money and without book-learning Hippolytus succeeded in founding a secular institute devoted to teaching the main principles of religion and Christian duty to ignorant children of both sexes and even to uninstructed adults. For his associates he composed a rule about the year 1602, and his example inspired others all over Italy to imitate his work. The Institute of Christian Doctrine was the name given to the congregation thus founded, but they were popularly known as the “Vanchetoni”. Hippolytus had only reached the age of fifty-five when he was seized with a painful and serious illness which proved fatal. His sufferings were alleviated by celestial visions, and he passed away whilst kissing a picture of his crucified Lord. His name is still greatly venerated in Tuscany and among the Franciscans, who reckon him as one of their tertiaries. He was beatified in 1824.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 21

  90 St. Birillus Bishop ordained by St. Peter the Apostle   At Catania, St. Birillus, who was consecrated bishop by St. Peter.  After converting many gentiles to the faith, he died in extreme old age.  He became the bishop of Catania, Sicily, remaining in his see for many years. Brillus of Catania accompanied from Antioch Saint Peter B (RM) (also known as Birillus) Saint Brillus is reputed to have accompanied from Antioch Saint Peter, who consecrated him bishop of Catania, Sicily. He died in extreme old age (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
     Saint Cyril Bishop of Catania disciple of Saint Peter wonderworker
He was born in Antioch and a disciple of the Apostle Peter (June 29, January 16), who installed him as Bishop of Catania in Sicily. St Cyril wisely guided his flock; he was pious, and the Lord granted him the gift of wonderworking. By his prayer the bitter water in a certain spring lost its bitterness and became drinkable.
This miracle converted many pagans to Christianity. St Cyril died in old age and was buried in Sicily.
188 St. Demetrius the Twelfth Pope of Alexandria The Commemoration of the revealing of the virginity of Philemon & Domninus preached the Good News in various parts of Italy MM  On this day also the church celebrates the commemoration of the revealing of the virginity of St. Demetrius the Twelfth Pope of Alexandria. The angel of the Lord appeared to St. Julian, the Eleventh Pope, before his departure and said: "You are going to the Lord Christ, the one who will bring you tomorrow a cluster of grapes, is the one fit to be a Patriarch after you." On the morrow, this saint came with a cluster of grapes, Abba Julian held him and told the people: "This is your Patriarch after me," and told them what the angel told him. After the departure of Abba Julian they took him and ordained him Patriarch on the 9th day of Baramhat (March 4th., 188 A.D.) and he was married.  Since no married Patriarch ever before this father been enthroned over the See of Alexandria, satan entered the hearts of the laity and made them talk and grumble against the Patriarch and the one who recommended him. The angel of God appeared to St. Demetrius and told him about that and ordered him to remove the doubt from their hearts by revealing to them his relation with his wife. When St. Demetrius refused, the angel told him: "It is not meet that you save your self alone and let others be perished because of you. But because you are a shepherd you should fight to save your people also".
 547 ST BENEDICT, ABBOT, PATRIARCH OF WESTERN MONKS Upon the site of the Appolo temple he built two chapels, and round about these sanctuaries there rose little by little the great pile which was destined to become the most famous abbey the world has ever known, the foundation of which is likely to have been laid by St Benedict in the year 530 or thereabouts.  At Monte Cassino, the birthday of the holy abbot St. Benedict, who restored and wonderfully extended the monastic discipline in the West, where it had almost been destroyed.  His life, brilliant in virtues and miracles, was written by Pope St. Gregory.
1289 Blessed John of Parma 1st attempt won back schismatic Greeks died on 2nd attempt 7th general minister Franciscan Order b. 1209 The seventh general minister of the Franciscan Order, John was known for his attempts to bring back the earlier spirit of the Order after the death of St. Francis of Assisi. He was born in Parma, Italy, in 1209. It was when he was a young philosophy professor known for his piety and learning that God called him to bid good-bye to the world he was used to and enter the new world of the Franciscan Order. After his profession John was sent to Paris to complete his theological studies. Ordained to the priesthood, he was appointed to teach theology at Bologna, then Naples and finally Rome.
In 1245, Pope Innocent IV called a general council in the city of Lyons, France. Crescentius, the Franciscan minister general at the time, was ailing and unable to attend. In his place he sent Father John, who made a deep impression on the Church leaders gathered there. Two years later, when the same pope presided at the election of a minister general of the Franciscans, he remembered Father John well and held him up as the man best qualified for the office.
And so, in 1247, John of Parma was elected to be minister general. The surviving disciples of St. Francis rejoiced in his election, expecting a return to the spirit of poverty and humility of the early days of the Order. And they were not disappointed. As general of the Order John traveled on foot, accompanied by one or two companions, to practically all of the Franciscan convents in existence. Sometimes he would arrive and not be recognized, remaining there for a number of days to test the true spirit of the brothers.

1481 St. Nicholas von Flüe Hermit Swiss political figure Renowned for his holiness and wisdom;  “Bruder Klaus,” he often had the good fortune of contemplating Our Lady and of receiving frequent visits from her.        In the village of Ranft, near Sachseln in Switzerland, St. Nicholas of Flue, a family man who became an anchoret, famed for his most ardent penitence and contempt for the world, and known by the Swiss as the father of the fatherland.  He was numbered among the saints by Pope Pius XII.
Born near Sachseln, Canton Obwalden, Switzerland, he took his name from the Flueli river which flowed near his birthplace. The son of a peasant couple, he married and had ten children by his wife, Dorothea Wissling, and fought heroically in the forces of the canton against Zurich in 1439. After serving as magistrate and highly respected councilor, he refused the office of governor several times and, in 1467, at the age of fifty and with the consent of his wife and family, he embraced the life of a hermit, giving up all thought of political activity. Nicholas took up residence in a small cell at Ranft, supposedly surviving for his final nineteen years entirely without food except for the Holy Eucharist. Renowned for his holiness and wisdom, he was regularly visited by civic leaders, powerful personages, and simple men and women with a variety of needs.
 Through Nicholas’ labors, he helped bring about the inclusion of Fribourg and Soleure in the Swiss Confederation in 1481, thus preventing the eruption of a potentially bloody civil war. One of the most famous religious figures in Swiss history, he was known affectionately as “Bruder Klaus,” and was much venerated in Switzerland. He was formally canonized in 1947. He is considered the patron saint of Switzerland.

Saint Nicholas of Flüe (Switzerland, 1417-1487) who received several visions of the Virgin Mary 
  You are my refuge—why would you push me away?
 One day the tempter pressured Nicholas of Flue more strongly than usual while he was in deep torment.
Nicolas turned to Mary in prayer:
"Hail, O Mother of all purity, virgin undefiled, Mother of all mercy and Mother of our Savior; I come to beg you to intercede for a poor sinner with your Divine Son, that he would grant me his holy grace. The enemy relentlessly pursues me and attacks me. You once crushed the serpent's head by giving birth to our Savior—help me to overcome his wiles and deceptions. You are my refuge—why would you push me away? ...
No, O gracious Virgin! You will come to my rescue and the enemy will be defeated."
After this outpouring of his heart, full of confidence in the powerful protection of the queen of heaven, the fervent hermit stood up, energized with new courage, and his temptation was overcome. Afterwards, he related that he never invoked Mary in vain, and that he always visibly felt the effects of her protection. It is even said that he often had the good fortune of contemplating Our Lady and of receiving frequent visits from her. ...www.medaille-miraculeuse.fr
1858 Saint Benedicta Cambiagio Frassinello profound mystical experience that left her devoted to prayer miraculously cured by St Jerome Emiliani Also known as Benedetta Cambiagio Frassinello; Benedikta Frassinello; Benedetta Cambiagio Canonized 19 May 2002 by Pope John Paul II.  
Daughter of Giuseppe and Francesca Cambiagio, she grew up in Pavia, Italy. At the age of 20 she had a profound mystical experience that left her devoted to prayer and desiring a religious life. However, to go along with her family's wishes, she married Giovanni Battista Frassinella on 7 February 1816. The couple had a normal married life for two years, but Giovanni, impressed with Benedicta's holiness and desire for religious life, agreed to live continently. The two took care of Benedicta's little sister Maria until the girl's death from intestinal cancer in 1825.
Giovanni then joined the Somaschan Fathers, Benedicta became an Ursuline nun.

In 1826 ill health forced Benedicta to return home to Pavia. There she began to work with young women in the area. The work sent so well that her husband Giovanni was assigned to help. The schools continued to grow and prosper, and Benedicta was appointed Promoter of Public Instruction in Pavia. However, no matter how chastely they lived, Benedicta and Giovanni's unusual relationship drew gossip and criticism from civil and Church authorities. To insure that she did not get in the way of the work, in 1838 Benedicta turned her work over to the bishop of Pavia, and withdrew to live as a nun at Ronco Scrivia.
Not content to withdraw from the world, Benedicta began all over.
With five companions, she founded the Congregation of the Benedictine Sisters of Providence dedicated to teaching, and opened another school. Living alone, the local authorities found no causes for gossip, and Benedicta spent her remaining years in prayer and service.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 22
1st v. St.  Epaphroditus Apostle sent by St. Paul to the Phillipians.  St Terracina, St. Epaphroditus, a disciple of the apostles, who was consecrated bishop of that city by the blessed apostle Peter.  He is believed to be the first bishop of Philippi, Macedonia, Andriacia, in Lycia, and Terracina, Italy.
Three saints of that name are recorded in the earliest lists, all among the seventy-two disciples of Christ.
Blessed Epaphroditus B (RM)
Epaphroditus is mentioned with affection and esteem by Saint Paul (Phil. 2:25-30):  "With regard to Epaphroditus, my brother and co-worker and fellow soldier, your messenger and minister in my need, I consider it necessary to send him to you. For he has been longing for all of you and was distressed because you heard that he was ill. He was indeed ill, close to death; but God had mercy on him, not just on him but also on me, so that I might not have sorrow upon sorrow. I send him therefore with the greater eagerness, so that, on seeing him, you may rejoice again, and I may have less anxiety. Welcome him then in the Lord with all joy and hold such people in esteem, because for the sake of the work of Christ he came close to death, risking his life to make up for those services to me that you could not perform (NAB)."
He is traditionally considered the first bishop of Philippi, Macedonia. Both Andriacia in Lycia and Terracina in Italy also list an Epaphroditus as their first bishop. These three are said to have been among the 72 disciples commissioned by Christ (Luke 10).
More likely, there is one saint named Epaphroditus venerated in 3 different locations (Benedictines, Delaney).
On this day (March 8th, 264 A.D.) the great father Abba Dionysius, the fourteenth Pope of Alexandria, departed. His parents were stare worshippers of the Sun (Sabians) and they put emphasis on teaching him all the knowledge of that sect.

One day a Christian old woman passed by him, who had with her some pages of a book containing an Epistle of St. Paul the apostle and offered it to him to buy it. When he read it he found in it strange sayings and unusual knowledge. He asked her: "For how much will you sell it?" She said: "For one dinar of gold." He gave her three dinars and asked her to find the rest of the pages of the book and he was willing to pay her double. She went and brought him more pages. Having read them through he found the book to be still incomplete, he asked her to search for the rest of the book. She told him: "I found these quires among my father's books. If you want to acquire the complete book, go to the church and there you can find it."

He went and asked one of the priests to show him what is called the Epistles of Paul. He gave it to him, read it, and memorized it. Then he went to St. Demetrius the twelfth Pope, who taught and instructed him in the facts of the Christian faith then baptized him. He became well rehearsed in the doctrine and knowledge of the church, and Anba Demetrius appointed him a teacher for the people.

When Anba Demetrius departed and Anba Heraclas (Yaroklas) was enthroned, he appointed him as a deputy to judge among the believers and entrusted him to administer the affairs of the patriarchate.


When St. Heraclas departed, all the people agreed to appoint this father Patriarch. He was enthroned on the first of Tubah (December 28th, 246 A.D.) during the reign of Emperor Philip who was a lover of the Christians, and he shepherded his flock with the best of care, nevertheless, he suffered much tribulations. When Decius rose up against Philip and killed him, and reigned in his place, he incited persecution against the Christians. Decius slew many of the patriarchs, bishops, and believers. This father endured much suffering during that time. Decius died and Gallus reigned after him, and persecution quieted down during his reign.

When Gallus died and Valerian reigned in his place, he renewed the persecution severely against the Christians, and his men seized Abba Dionysius and imprisoned him. They asked him to worship the idols but he refused saying: "We worship God the Father, and His Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit the One God." They threatened him, killed few men in front of him to terrify him but he was not afraid. They banished him and shortly after, they brought him back and told him: "We have been informed that you consecrate the offering secretly by yourself." He replied: "We do not forsake our prayers day or night" then he turned to the people present around him and told them: "Go and pray and if I am away from you in the body, I shall be with you in spirit." The governor became raged and returned him to exile.

When Sapor king of Persia overcame Emperor Valerian and seized him, his son Gallienus, who was wise and gentle, took over the empire. He released all the believers who were in prison and brought back those who were in exile. He wrote to the Patriarch and the bishops a letter to assure their safety in opening the churches.

In the days of this father, certain people arose in the Arabian countries saying: "That the soul dies with the body, and on the day of Resurrection, it shall be raised up with it." He gathered against them a council and anathematized them. When Paul of Samosata denied the Son, a Council assembled against him in Antioch, this Saint was not able to attend for his age. He wrote a letter to the council, rich with wisdom, explained in it the corruptive opinion of this heretic, and stated the true Orthodox belief. He finished his good strife, and departed in a good old age on (March 8th, 264 A.D.), having sat on the Apostolic Throne seventeen years, two month and ten days.

May his prayers be with us. Amen.
752 Pope St. Zachary 741 - 752 Zachary I, Pope known for his learning & sanctity chosen pope in 741 to succeed Saint Gregory III (RM).   Reigned 741-52. Year of birth unknown; died in March, 752. Zachary sprang from a Greek family living in Calabria; his father, according to the "Liber Pontificalis", was called Polichronius. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732. After the burial of his predecessor Pope Gregory III on 29 November, 741, he was immediately and unanimously elected pope and consecrated and enthroned on 5 December. His biographer in the "Liber Pontificalis" describes him as a man of gentle and conciliatory character who was charitable towards the clergy and people. As a fact the new pope always showed himself to be shrewd and conciliatory in his actions and thus his undertakings were very successful.
Zachary was very zealous in the restoration of the churches of Rome to which he made costly gifts. He also restored the Lateran palace and established several large domains as the settled landed possessions (domus cultoe) of the Roman Church. The pope translated to the Church of St. George in Velabro the head of the martyr St. George which was found during the repairs of the decayed Lateran Palace. He was very benevolent to the poor, to whom alms were given regularly from the papal palace.
When merchants from Venice bought slaves at Rome in order to sell them again to the Saracens in Africa, the pope bought all the slaves, so that Christians should not become the property of heathens. Thus in a troubled era Zachary proved himself to be an excellent, capable, vigorous, and charitable successor of Peter. He also carried on theological studies and made a translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great into Greek, which was largely circulated in the East. After his death Zachary was buried in St. Peters.

1282 St. Benvenutus Scotivoli Franciscan archdeacon bishop.  ST BENVENUTO Scotivoli was born at Ancona and intended for the law, which he studied at Bologna, but feeling that God called him to labour for souls he was ordained to the priesthood. By Pope Alexander IV he was appointed archdeacon of Ancona, besides being made administrator of the diocese of Osimo.
   The seat of the bishopric had been removed from that town to Recanati, because the people of Osimo had espoused the cause of the Emperor Frederick II against the Holy See, but Benvenuto succeeded in the difficult task of reconciling the city with the papacy. The episcopal chair was then restored to Osimo, of which in 1264 he was nominated bishop by Alexander’s successor, Urban, and he was also appointed governor of the Marches of Ancona.
Before his consecration Benvenuto was admitted into the Franciscan Order, and during the remaining eighteen years of his life he con­tinued to wear his Minorite habit, which was long preserved at Osimo with his relics. It had ever been his earnest desire to imitate St Francis,. and as he felt
death approaching, he asked to be carried into the church and laid on the bare ground that he might die like the Seraphic Father. Whilst the psalms were being intoned by the clergy round him, he passed away to his eternal rest.

1282 St. Benvenutus Scotivoli Franciscan archdeacon bishop.  VERY little seems to be known of the Augustinian hermit Hugolino Zefferini of Cortona. When Father Papebroch the Bollandist wrote to a high authority of the Augustinian Order to obtain information, a courteous reply was returned to the effect that the archives of their house in Cortona had unfortunately perished in a conflagration, and that a manuscript life of the holy man which they had once possessed had either been lost or stolen. All they could send was a seventeenth-century engraving which contained representations of a certain number of miracles alleged to have been wrought in connection with the relics of the beatus. One of the most surprising of these had reference to a lily which, growing out of the corpse of the deceased thirty years after his burial, effected the cure of a woman who was blind. Other traditions stated that when the first lily had been thoughtlessly plucked, two other lilies grew out of the wounds of the hermit’s incorrupt body. From the conflicting accounts given it is not even clear whether Bd Hugolino belonged to Cortona or to Mantua, and whether he lived in the fourteenth century or in the fifteenth. It seems, however, to be certain that his relics were preserved and venerated at Cortona, and the cultus  paid to him there was approved by Pope Pius VII in 1804.
1487 Nicholas of Flüe, Hermit fighting "with a sword in one hand, and a rosary in the other!" often rapt in ecstatic prayer, experiencing visions and revelations as a hermit in almost perpetual prayer for 21.5 yrs, he took no food for the body patron saint of Switzerland. (RM) (also known as Bruder Klaus)
Born at Flüeli near Sachseln, Obwalden (Unterwalden), Switzerland, March 21, 1417; died at Ranft, Switzerland, March 21, 1487; cultus  approved in 1669; canonized 1947; feast day formerly March 21; feast day in Switzerland is September 25.
In 1917 the fifth centenary of the birth of “ Bruder Klaus” was celebrated throughout Switzerland with quite remarkable enthusiasm. Perhaps the most valuable result of the interest thus awakened was the publication of a great historical monograph by Robert Durrer, a scholar with an unrivalled knowledge of the archives of his country. In these two quarto volumes, entitled Bruder Klaus, which together total some 1350 pages, will be found all the available material bearing on the life of Nicholas von Flue. The collection includes two early sketches of the career of Bruder Klaus, one by Albrecht von Bonstetten, the other by Heinrich von Gundelfingen, but these are supplemented by a mass of documentary evidence derived from ancient records and other sources. A comprehensive nineteenth century biography is that of J. Ming, Der selige Bruder Nikolaus von Flue, and others have since been written by A. Baumberger, F. X. Wetzel and J. T. de Belloc, in Italian by F. Andina (1945), and in French by A. Andrey (1941) and C. Journet (1947). See also the Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii, and the Kirchenlexikon, vol. ix, pp. 316-319.
1606 St. Nicholas Owen "Little John," 20 yrs build secret hiding places for priests as a lay person.   Nicholas Owen M (RM) Born in Oxford, England; died in the Tower of London, 1606; beatified in 1929; canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales; feast day formerly March 12.
Saint Nicholas was probably the most important person in the preservation of Catholicism in England during the period of the penal laws against the faith. He was a carpenter or builder, who saved the lives of countless Jesuit priests in England for two decades by constructing hiding places for them in mansions throughout the country. He became a Jesuit lay brother in 1580, was arrested in 1594 with Father John Gerard, and despite prolonged torture would not give the names of any of his Catholic colleagues; he was released on the payment of a ransom by a wealthy Catholic.
1929 Blessed Dina Bélanger Sisters of Jesus-Marie Rome accomplished pianist woman of infectious joy despite illness.  (also known as Marie Sainte-Cecile of Rome)  Born in Québec, Canada, 1897; beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1993. When Dina joined the Sisters of Jesus-Marie in Rome (founded by Saint Claudine Thevenet), she took the name Marie Sainte-Cecile of Rome to honor the patron of musicians because she was herself an accomplished pianist. During the course of her life as a sister, her devotion to the Blessed Sacrament transformed her into a woman of infectious joy despite illness. Her autobiography was published in Québec in 1984 (Catholic World News, May 1, 1997).


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today March 23




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THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith