Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!

Fourth Sunday of Easter
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest
and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;


The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary  .

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Let us avoid evil companions, lest by their company
we may be drawn to a communion of vice. -- St. Augustine



The Angel of the Eucharist May 7
Our Lady of Haut (Hainaut, France, 1267)

One day in the autumn of 1916, the shepherds of Fatima took their herd out to graze.
After their meal, they went to pray precisely where the Angel appeared to them the first time.

While they recited the prayer that the Angel had taught them (My God, I believe, I adore, and I love You! I beg pardon of You for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not hope and do not love You!), their faces to the ground, a light appeared above their heads. The children saw the Angel again who this time held a chalice in his left hand; the Host rested above it with drops of Blood dripping down into the chalice. Leaving the chalice and the Host suspended in the air, the Angel prostrated himself on the ground next to the children and repeated this prayer three times: "Most Holy Trinity, Father, Son, Holy Spirit, I adore You profoundly and offer You the most Precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the tabernacles of the earth, in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges, and indifference with which He Himself is offended. And through the infinite merits of His Most Sacred Heart and of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, I beg of You the convers ion of poor sinners."
Then standing up, the Angel took the chalice and the Host into his hands and gave Holy Communion to Lucy, and the Blood of the chalice to Jacinta and Francisco, saying: "Take and drink the Body and the Blood of Jesus Christ, horribly outraged by ungrateful men. Make up for all their crimes and console your God."
He then prostrated himself one last time with the children and repeated the prayer to the Holy Trinity (above) 3 times.

The three small visionaries kept strict silence about the apparitions of the Angel. Why did they behave this way?
Sister Lucy stated later: "...because of the painful experience of the apparition of 1915."

MULTIMEDIA : Bogoroditse Dyevo Raduisya (Sergei Tolstokulakov)

May 7 - Feast of Our Lady of Monticino (Italy, 1776) Jesus Will Reign Through Mary (I)
Saints have said wonderful things about Mary, the Holy City of God. As they themselves have admitted, they were never more eloquent and more pleased than when they spoke of her.  However, they maintain that the height of her merits in God’s glory cannot be perceived; the breadth of her love, which is wider than the earth cannot be measured; the greatness of the power, which she wields over even God Himself cannot be conceived; and the depths of her profound humility and all her virtues and graces, which are like an abyss cannot be probed.  O incomprehensible height! O indescribable breadth! O immeasurable greatness! O impenetrable abyss! 
Saint Louis Grignion de Montfort Treatise on True Devotion to the Virgin Mary #7

A peasant farmer who followed his pious and industrious father's example. His father taught him many practices of penance and piety that later fructified in a saintly life. At seven, Albert was fasting three days a week, giving the foregone food to the poor. Working at the heavy labor of the fields, Albert learned to see God in all things, and to listen for His voice in all nature.
The beauty of the earth was to him a voice that spoke only of heaven.  He grew up pure of heart, discreet, and humble--to the edification of the entire village.  "You give too much time to prayer and to the poor!" she charged; Albert only replied that God will return all gifts made to the poor.  In testimony to this, God miraculously restored the meal Albert had given away over his wife's objections. Finally, softened by Albert's prayers, she ceased her nagging and became his rival in piety and charity. She died soon after her conversion, and Albert, being childless, he left his father's farm to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Rome.  Albert always received twice as much in wages as the other workers did. Though he gave this to the poor and kept nothing for himself, jealous companions determined to annoy him. Planting pieces of iron in the field where Albert would be working the next day, they watched to see him break or dull his scythe. Miraculously, the scythe cut through iron as it did through the grain, never suffering any harm.
Falling very ill, Albert sent a neighbor for the priest, but there was a long delay, a dove came bringing him Holy Viaticum. When he died, the bells of Cremona rang of themselves, and people of all classes hurried to view the precious remains. It was planned to bury him in the common cemetery, outside the cloister, as he was a secular tertiary, but no spade could be found to break the ground. An unused tomb was discovered in the church of Saint Matthias, where he had so often prayed, and he was buried there. Many miracles were attributed to him after his death, and the farmer - saint became legendary for his generosity to the poor.
Romæ Translátio córporis sancti Stéphani Protomártyris, quod, Pelágio Primo Summo Pontífice, e Constantinópoli
132 St. Juvenal of Benevento saint of Narni Italy His shrine is in Benevento
 
2nd v. Flavia Domitilla great-niece of emperors Domitian and Titus, and also of Saint Flavius Clemens, her foster sisters Euphrosyna, & Theodora VV MM (RM) 2nd century
 
257 St. Quadratus Martyr imprisoned several years in Nicomedia Nicaea & Apamea
 
300 St. Flavius Martyred bishop of Nicomedia with brothers Augustine and Augustus
 357      Cross over Jerusalem Commemoration of the Appearing of the Precious
 560 St. Domitian Bishop of Maastricht Nether­land, called “the Apostle of the Valley of the Meuse’ o Belgium and France known for goodness aided poor during severe famine refutation of heresies
 
6th v. Bl Michael Ulumbijski 1/12 companions of St. John Zedazneli evangelized Georgia Natives of Syria
John_Zedanzeni_12_disciples
  600 St Liudhard Bishop chaplain to Queen Bertha daughter of King Charibert of Paris
  669 St Serenidus & Serenus Benedictine hermits known for his miracles including ending plague and drought
  675 St. Placid Benedictine Abbot in Autun
 717 St. John of Beverly John known for holiness preference for the contemplative life possessed the gift of healing many miracles are recounted in Bede's Ecclesiastical History the author of which he had ordained It was not just miracles that led to John's canonization. He led a life of remarkable holiness
 735 St. Peter of Pavia Bishop during the reign of the Lombard king Liutprand
1070 Bl Frederick of Hirschau sent with twelve of his comrades to restore discipline OSB Abbot (AC)
1079 ST STANISLAUS, Bishop of Cracow, Martyr
1237 St. Villanus Benedictine bishop
1279  Bl Albert of Bergamo, OP Tert. (AC) peasant farmer who followed his pious and industrious father's example
         many practices of penance and piety
1728 Bl Rose
BD ROSE VENERINI gift of ready and persuasive speech real ability to teach and teach others to teach not daunted by any difficulty when in service of God reputation of holiness confirmed by miracles
1902 Bl Agostino Roscelli (AC) spent endless hours hearing confessions 1876, he founded the Institute of Sisters of the Immaculata served as prison chaplain caring particularly for those condemned to death

1909 Alexis Toth Priest defender of the Orthodox Faith miracle worker and zealous worker in the Lord's vineyard 1889 appointed pastor of a Uniate parish in Minneapolis MN Archbishop Ireland greeted him with open hostility refused to recognize him as a legitimate Catholic priest or grant permission to serve in his diocese. Miracle of finding a lost son for a man, and that occurred after Alexis's death.  In his last will and testament St Alexis commended his soul to God's mercy, asking forgiveness from everyone and forgiving everybody.
Sancti Stanislái, Epíscopi Cracoviénsis et Mártyris.
.

Romæ Translátio córporis sancti Stéphani Protomártyris, quod, Pelágio Primo Summo Pontífice, e Constantinópoli ad Urbem allátum atque in sepúlcro sancti Lauréntii Mártyris in agro Veráno pósitum, ibídem magna piórum religióne cólitur.

At Rome, the translation of the body of St. Stephen protomartyr, which was brought from Constantinople to Rome by Pope Pelagius I, and laid in the sepulchre of the martyr St. Lawrence in the Agro Verano, where it is honoured with great devotion by the pious faithful.

"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him" (Psalm 21:28)

Romæ Translátio córporis sancti Stéphani Protomártyris, quod, Pelágio Primo Summo Pontífice, e Constantinópoli ad Urbem allátum atque in sepúlcro sancti Lauréntii Mártyris in agro Veráno pósitum, ibídem magna piórum religióne cólitur.
     At Rome, the translation of the body of St. Stephen protomartyr, which was brought from Constantinople to Rome by Pope Pelagius I, and laid in the sepulchre of the martyr St. Lawrence in the Agro Verano, where it is honoured with great devotion by the pious faithful.
132 St. Juvenal of Benevento saint of Narni Italy His shrine is in Benevento.
Eódem die sancti Juvenális Mártyris.    On the same day, St. Juvenal, martyr.
Juvenal of Beneventum M (RM). Juvenal is a saint of Narni, whose reputed shrine is at Benevento (Benedictines).
2nd v. Flavia Domitilla great-niece of emperors Domitian and Titus, and also of Saint Flavius Clemens, her foster sisters Euphrosyna, & Theodora VV MM (RM).
Tarracínæ, in Campánia, natális beátæ Fláviæ Domitíllæ, Vírginis et Mártyris, quæ, cum esset fília sanctæ Plautíllæ, soróris sancti Mártyris Flávii Cleméntis Cónsulis, et sacro velámine fuísset a sancto Cleménte Pontífice consecráta, primum, in persecutióne Domitiáni, ob testimónium Christi, in ínsulam Póntiam, cum áliis plúrimis, exsílio deportáta, longum illic martyrium duxit.  Novíssime vero, Tarracínam dedúcta, ibi, cum plúrimos doctrína et miráculis ad Christi fidem convertísset.  Júdicis jussu incénso cubículo, in quo simul cum suis virgínibus Euphrósyna et Theodóra morabátur, cursum gloriósi martyrii consummávit.  Ipsa vero Domitílla, una cum sanctis Martyribus Néreo et Achílleo atque Pancrátio, festíva celebritáte quarto Idus mensis hujus recólitur.
          At Terracina in Campania, the birthday of blessed Flavia Domitilla, virgin and martyr, and niece of the holy martyr, the Consul Flavius Clemens.  She received the religious veil at the hands of St. Clement, and in the persecution of Domitian was exiled with many others to the island of Pontia, where endured a long martyrdom for Christ.  Taken afterwards to Terracina, she converted many to the faith of Christ by her teachings and miracles.  The judge ordered the room in which she was with the virgins Euphrosina and Theodora, to be set on fire, and she thus completed her glorious martyrdom.  She is also mentioned with the holy martyrs Nereus, Achilleus and Pancras, on the 12th day of this month.
 
There are two saints named Flavia Domitilla: one is celebrated on May 12; this one is her niece. The two are sometimes confused. Today's saint was a great-niece of emperors Domitian and Titus, and also of Saint Flavius Clemens. She became a Christian and on refusing to marry a pagan was banished from Rome. She was eventually martyred at Terracina with her foster sisters Euprosyna and Theodora (Benedictines).
In art, Flavia Domitilla is portrayed as a noblewoman with her two sisters, Euphrosyna and Theodora (Roeder).
257 St. Quadratus Martyr imprisoned several years in Nicomedia Nicaea & Apamea
Ibídem sancti Quadráti Mártyris, qui, in persecutióne Décii Imperatóris, sæpius ad torménta repetítus, demum, cápite truncátus, martyrium complévit.
 In the same city, St. Quadratus, martyr, who was frequently tortured in the persecution of Decius, and at last beheaded.
    
He was imprisoned for several years in Nicomedia, Nicaea, and Apamea before being put to death during the persecutions of the Church under Emperor Valerian.
   Quadratus of Herbipolis M (RM). Prior to his martyrdom at Herbipolis under Valerian, Saint Quadratus suffered in prison for years at Nicomedia, Nicaea, and Apamea
(Benedictines).
300 St. Flavius Martyred bishop of Nicomedia with brothers Augustine and Augustus
Nicomedíæ sanctórum Mártyrum fratrum Flávii, Augústi et Augustíni.
        At Nicomedia, the holy martyrs Flavius, Augustus and Augustine, all brothers.
Flavius was the bishop of that city. Augustine and Austus were his brothers.
Flavius, Augustus & Augustine MM (RM). Bishop Flavius of Nicomedia was martyred with his two brothers in his own see under Diocletian (Benedictines).
6th v. Bl. Michael Ulumbijski 1/12 companions of St. John Zedazneli evangelized  Georgia Natives of Syria Miracle worker.  
One of the twelve companions of St. John Zedazneli of Georgia. They evangelized Georgia in modern Russia. Natives of Syria, they were called “the Fathers of the Church” in the region.
David_Garej_ Monastery_Georgia

Our Holy Father John of Zedazeni and his twelve disciples, Abibus of Nekresi, Anthony of Martqopi, David of Gareji, Zenon of Iqalto, Thaddeus of Stepantsminda, Jesse of Tsilkani, Joseph of Mtskheta, Isidore of Samtavisi, Michael of Ulumbo, Pyrrhus of Breti, Stephen of Khirsa, and Shio of Mgvime, were Syrian ascetics and the founding fathers of Georgian monastic life.
St. John received his spiritual education in Antioch. Early in his youth he was tonsured a monk and withdrew to the wilderness. The Lord, recognizing his humility, diligence in fasting, and devout watchfulness, blessed His faithful servant with the gift of healing the sick and casting out demons. St. John was celebrated for his holy deeds and miracles. Curious crowds would swarm around him, and after some time he found it necessary to withdraw into even deeper seclusion.
Syrian ascetics
Taking with him several of his disciples, he chose a remote area, fashioned for himself a cell, and began to labor as a hermit.

Once the Most Holy Theotokos appeared to St. John and told him,
“Take twelve monks and go with them to Georgia, the nation enlightened by the Equal-to-the-Apostles Nino, and strengthen the Christian soul of its people.”
Saint John related the vision to his disciples, and after much fasting and prayer he chose twelve of them:
Abibus, Anthony, David, Zenon, Thaddeus, Isidore, Joseph, Jesse, Michael, Pyrrhus, Stephen, and Shio.
He left his remaining disciples in the Syrian wilderness in the care of the abbot, the blessed elder Euthymius, and set off for Georgia with the chosen twelve. 

By divine revelation the Georgian king Parsman and Catholicos Evlavios received the good news that the venerable fathers were in Mesopotamia, on their way to Georgia, and they hurried to greet them with the proper honors. King Parsman and Catholicos Evlavios met the holy fathers as they were approaching Mtskheta.
The holy fathers venerated the myrrh-streaming wood of the Living Pillar and the Robe of Christ at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral.

From there St. John and his disciples traveled throughout Georgia, visiting its many holy sites. With the blessing of Catholicos Evlavios, St. John and his disciples settled on Zedazeni Mountain, where a pagan temple to the idol Zadeni had previously stood. The monks lived in wretched cells, eating only plants and praying ceaselessly. Having heard of the spiritual endeavors of St. John and his disciples, Christian believers began to flock to Zedazeni Mountain. Many burned with longing for the monastic life, and some abandoned the world to join the holy fathers at Zedazeni. In such a way, Zedazeni Mountain was transformed into an abode of hermits.
One night the Most Holy Theotokos appeared again to St. John and instructed him to send his disciples throughout the country to preach the Word of God.

In the morning, having related the vision to his disciples, St. John advised them: “Our Lord Jesus Christ sent us to perform good deeds for this country and its people, for they are newly planted seeds in the Christian Faith. Therefore, let us go forth, each in his own direction, to preach the Word of God!”
MTSKHETA_Aragvi_Mtkvari_rivers
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral (Georgian: სვეტიცხოვლის საკათედრო ტაძარი, Svet'icxovlis Sak'atedro T'aʒari; literally, "the Living Pillar Cathedral") is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral located in the historical town of Mtskheta, Georgia, 20 km (12.5 miles) northwest of the nation's capital of Tbilisi.
St. John remained at Zedazeni and went about his usual labors in the company of the Deacon Ilia. Zedazeni Mountain was without water, but St. John prayed to God for a spring, and the Lord sent him a healing spring at the mountain’s peak. Through St. John’s holy prayers, a bear that often came to the spring to drink was tamed and became a guard and protector of Zedazeni Monastery.
(To this day, the beasts of Zedazeni forest have never disturbed a single soul). Through St. John’s intercessions, a man mute and paralyzed from his childhood began to speak and walk.

After earnestly serving God for many years, St. John received a sign that his death was approaching. He called his disciples, blessed them, bade them farewell, and left them to bury him in the cave where he had dwelt. After receiving Holy Communion, St. John beheld the heavens open and the incorporeal powers with the armies of saints shining forth.
The Lord called St. John to Himself, saying: “I am the Lord, the God of your father Abraham. Come and I will give you rest from your labors.”

The holy father prayed and gave up his soul to the Lord. After his repose St. John’s disciples reasoned among themselves that a dismal cave was unfit to serve as their holy father’s burial place, and with great reverence they buried his remains in a church at the foot of the mountain. But suddenly a violent earthquake shook the ground where they stood. The earth ceased to quake only after the frightened disciples remembered their shepherd’s will and realized that the tremors were a sign from God. So the disciples, a priest, and a deacon uncovered the holy relics and reburied St. John according to his will. While they were being translated, St. John’s holy relics healed many sick and demon-possessed people.
In the 10th century, during the time of Catholicos Clement (908–923), a church in honor of St. John the Baptist was built on the south side of St. John’s cave. The holy father’s grave is located near the altar of this church.

Abibus of Nekresi The Holy Martyr was consecrated bishop of Nekresi at the request of Parsman VI, King of Kartli, and Catholicos Evlavios. Filled with holy zeal, Bishop Abibus converted many pagans to the Christian Faith. In the 6th century the Persians forced many Georgians to deny Christ and worship fire in accordance with their own custom. When St. Abibus poured water on their altar of sacrifice to extinguish the “holy fire,” the enraged Persians beat him cruelly, then stoned him to death. By order of the marzban (Persian viceroy), the holy relics of Martyr Abibus remained for three days under the open sky. But to the marzban’s great amazement, neither beast nor bird would touch them. On the fourth night, monks from Rechi Monastery arrived and translated the holy relics to Samtavisi Monastery for proper burial. Later, by order of Stepanoz (600–619), the rightful ruler of Kartli, the holy relics of St. Abibus were translated again, to Samtavro Monastery in Mtskheta, and buried in the sanctuary under the altar table.
Svetitskhoveli_Cathedral
Anthony of Martqopi St. always carried with him an icon of the Savior “Not-Made-By-Hands” which he had brought from Edessa in Asia Minor. A lover of solitude, St. Anthony settled in Lonoati Gorge, but the many curious Christians, drawn by his prayers and miracles, disturbed his seclusion. So the holy father built a monastery for his faithful followers, withdrew in reclusion beyond the Alazani River, and later settled on Akriani Mountain. In his new hermitage, he ate mostly plants and the bark of trees, and God sent a bear to bring him food. Later St. Anthony erected a pillar at the top of the mountain and dwelt upon it for eighteen years. The venerable father received a sign from God when his death was imminent, and at the moment of his repose he was kneeling in prayer before the icon of the Savior. His disciples carried his holy relics down from the pillar and buried them in the monastery he had founded, in front of the icon of the Mother of God.

David of Gareji St.  first settled in the outskirts of Tbilisi, the new capital of Georgia.
 David_Gareji Monastery
Through his wondrous preaching, St. David converted many fire-worshippers and brought people of many creeds to the Christian Faith. One day the fire-worshippers took revenge: they bribed a pregnant woman to agree to their scheme and accuse St. David of adultery. But the wonder-worker St. David touched his staff to the woman’s womb and said, “In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, I command you, infant, tell us who your real father is!” The infant uttered the name of his true father from inside his mother’s womb. The crowd of bystanders was outraged and began to stone the pagan slanderers.
Deeply disturbed by the rioting and unable to stop the bloodshed, St. David departed with his disciple Lukiane.

Lukiane   Sts. David and Lukiane settled in the Gareji Wilderness in southeastern Georgia. The Lord provided them with food in abundance: every day, except Wednesdays and Fridays, a herd of deer came to visit them. Lukiane milked the animals, and when David made the sign of the Cross over the milk, it was miraculously transformed into cheese. News of the wonders performed by the holy fathers spread quickly, and soon the Gareji Wilderness became a refuge for the many Christians who hungered to lead a true ascetic life.

Dodo After some time a pious monk called Dodo came from Ninotsminda, a village in eastern Georgia, and, having received a blessing from his spiritual father, established the Monastery of the Most Holy Theotokos on the eastern side of the Gareji mountains. Since that time the eastern range has been called “Dodo’s Range.”

David St. went to Jerusalem on pilgrimage, but when he arrived there, he suddenly judged himself unworthy and dared not enter the gates of the city. He prayed fervently before the city gates, then, in his profound humility, chose three stones to take with him as treasures and departed. That same night an angel appeared to Patriarch Elias of Jerusalem and told him that a monk named David, who had arrived from Georgia, was taking away all the grace of the Holy Land. The patriarch’s messengers found St. David and seized from him two of the stones. The third stone he carried back to Gareji Monastery. Having served the Lord his whole life, through much suffering and many tribulations, the God-pleasing St. David reposed peacefully and was buried at David-Gareji Monastery.
Jesse of Tsilkani St. was consecrated bishop of Tsilkani by Catholicos Evlavios, at the suggestion of St. John of Zedazeni. The holy father preached to many crowds and converted many unbelievers. Before long, many followers had gathered around him. St. Jesse, like St. John’s other disciples, was endowed with the ability to work miracles.
St. Isidore Once St. John decided to test the faith of his disciples, and he required each of them to perform a miracle. When it was St. Isidore’s turn, he descended to the Ksani River, crossed over it, then touched his staff to the water and cried out, “In the name of the Lord, I command you to follow me!” Immediately the river began to flow in the opposite direction, and it followed every move of the venerable father’s staff. St. Isidore led the river to Tsilkani Monastery. Having witnessed this miracle, many people were converted to the true Faith. St. Isidore received a sign from heaven when his repose was near. He partook of the Holy Gifts and prayerfully gave up his soul to God. St. Isidore is buried in the Tsilkani Church of the Most Holy Theotokos.
Kartli_Alaverdi_Monastery
Joseph of Alaverdi St. always carried with him a cross that had been formed from the wood of the Life-giving Cross of our Savior. With the blessing of his teacher, St. Joseph preached the Gospel of Christ throughout the region of Kartli in eastern Georgia and later settled in the Alaverdi wilderness. Once St. Joseph encountered a pagan nobleman and preached to him the Word of God. Deeply inspired by Fr. Joseph’s grace-filled preaching, the nobleman founded a monastery in Alaverdi. Villagers from the surrounding region heard about the holy father’s great spiritual feats, and many of them left the world to labor with him. The number of ascetics in the region began to increase steadily from that time. When his long and labor-filled life was drawing to an end, St. Joseph appointed a new abbot for the monastery and reposed peacefully in the Lord. To this day many miracles have taken place over his grave at Alaverdi Monastery.

Shio_mgvime_Monastery
Shio of Mgvime (of the cave) From his youth St.  was a disciple of St. John of Zedazeni, and he followed him to Georgia. St. Shio settled in Sarkineti, a region northwest of Mtskheta. The Most Holy Theotokos blessed the monk, and he carried out his labors in accordance with her revelations. A dove would bring food to the blessed father, and St. Evagre (at that time the ruler of Tsikhedidi) witnessed this miracle one day while hunting in the area. Deeply inspired by his unceasing labors, the prince left the world to become St. Shio’s disciple. It was not long before St. Shio’s wilderness was filled with people who longed for the ascetic life. St. Shio founded a monastery in Sarkineti, gathered nearly two thousand monks to labor there with him, and instructed them in a strict ascetic life.
Having performed countless miracles, St. Shio finally vowed to God that he would spend the remainder of his life in a well that he had dug for himself. He appointed Evagre abbot of the monastery and went into reclusion at the bottom of the well. There he spent fifteen years and reposed peacefully in the Lord. St. Shio’s holy relics are buried in that well, and to this day many miracles have taken place over his grave.

Pyrrhus of Breti St. , called the “Divine Image of Repentance,” founded a monastery in Breti, on the bank of the Jvaristsqali River. His holy relics are buried in the church at that monastery.

Isidore of Samtavisi St. preached the Christian Faith in Kartli for many years, in accordance with his teacher’s instruction. On the eastern bank of the Rekhula River, he founded Samtavisi Monastery of the Icon of the Savior “Not-Made-By-Hands.” He reposed and was buried at that monastery.

Thaddeus of Stepantsminda St. first preached in Mtskheta, and later he founded a monastery at the foot of Zedazeni Mountain. After St. John’s repose, St. Thaddeus continued to preach throughout Kartli and erected many new churches. Among them, the Church of the Protomartyr Stephen in Urbnisi is a glorious example. Near the end of his life St. Thaddeus withdrew to a cave at Tsleva Mountain not far from the city of Kaspi. He reposed peacefully and is buried in that place.

Stephen of Khirsa St.  and his companions preached throughout the region of Kakheti in eastern Georgia. Later St. Stephen founded Khirsa Monastery near Kharnabuji Castle. He is buried in the sanctuary of the Church of the Protomartyr Stephen at Khirsa.

Zenon of Iqalto St. preached the Christian Faith in northern Kakheti and founded Iqalto Monastery. He reposed peacefully, after accomplishing many good works on behalf of the true Faith. St. Zenon is buried at Iqalto in the Church of the Icon of the Savior “Not-Made-By-Hands.”

Michael of Ulumbo St. preached the Christian Faith in northern Kartli and Ossetia. He founded a monastery in the Ulumbo (named after Mt. Olympus (in old Georgian Mt. Olympus is known as Mt. Ulumbo), a center of monasticism in Bythinia, Asia Minor.) area, where his wonder-working relics were later buried.
Many Georgian children have been raised at the monasteries founded by the Thirteen Syrian Fathers.
   For centuries the Divine grace of the holy ascetics has spread among the Georgian people and throughout their land. These monasteries and the holy fathers who founded them continue to protect the Georgian people against all manner of sin and unbelief.  Today most of the population of Georgia practices Orthodox Christianity of the Georgian Orthodox Church (83.9%). The religious minorities are: Muslim (9.9%); Armenian Apostolic (3.9%); Roman Catholic (0.8%). 0.8% of those recorded in the 2002 census declared themselves to be adherents of other religions and 0.7% declared no religion at all.

Georgia is one of the oldest Christian countries: it is considered to be an appendage of Holy Virgin. Here Christianity was first preached by the Apostles Andrew and Simon Canaanite.  According to the belief the tomb of Simon Canaanite is located in Western Georgia, by the Black Sea, in the ancient site of Nicopsia.

In the beginning of the 4th century AD, St. Nino of Capadoccia brought Christianity to Georgia. In the 30s (328) of the 4th century (337) during the reign of King Mirian the Christianity was declared as the official religion.
Georgian Orthodox Church gained its autocephaly in the 5th century during the reign of Vakhtang Gorgasali. The Bible was also translated in Georgian in the 5th century.
From around the 6th century the Church of Egrisi (Lasika) was headed by a metropolitan whose see was in Phases; he was a hierarch subordinated to the Patriarch of Constantinople.
In the latter half of the 9th century, the West Georgian Church broke away from the Constantinople and placed itself under the Catholicos with the see at Mtskheta.
The Catholicos of Kartli was proclaimed the head of the Georgian Church, ranking as the sixth patriarch in the world’s pentarchy.

The Georgian Church has always played an important role in strengthening the national consciousness of the people. But at the same time religious fanatism has always been alien to it. The church is tolerant to other confessions, and this has been attested by its peaceful coexistence with Catholic, Judean, Armenian-Gregorian, German-Lutheran and Muslim congregations.
However Georgian church has remained faithful to the Orthodox traditions.
357 Commemoration of the Appearing of the Precious Cross over Jerusalem
SerbianOrthodoxChurch.net

In the time of the Emperor Constantius, St Constantine's son, and Patriarch Cyril of Jerusalem, the Precious Cross appeared one day at nine o'clock in the morning above Golgotha, and spread as far as the Mount of Olives. This Cross was brighter than the sun and more beautiful than the loveliest rainbow. The whole people-believers and unbelievers - left their work and watched this heavenly sign in fear and wonder. Many unbelievers were converted to faith in Christ, and also many Arians abandoned their wicked heresy and returned to Orthodoxy. Patriarch Cyril wrote a letter to the Emperor Constantius about this sign, the Emperor himself being inclined towards Arianism. This took place on May 7th, 357. Thus was it demonstrated by this means that the Christian faith does not lie in the worldly theorising of the sensual understanding of men, but in the power of God, shown forth through wonders and signs without number
(See also Homily for March 19th).  
560 St. Domitian Bishop of Maastricht Nether­land, called “the Apostle of the Valley of the Meuse’ of Belgium and France known for goodness aided poor during severe famine refutation of heresies

560 ST DOMITIAN, BISHOP OF Maestricht

THE principal patron of Huy on the Meuse is St Domitian, whose relics still repose in a beautiful medieval reliquary in the church of our Lady. A native of France, the saint was elected bishop of Tongres, but his episcopal seat was afterwards removed to Maestricht. At the Synod of Orleans in 549 he distinguished himself for the skilful manner in which he refuted the doctrines of heretics. He evangelized the Meuse valley, converting numerous pagans, besides building churches and hospices in his diocese. When, towards the close of a severe famine, the well-to-do were ceasing to relieve their poorer neighbours lest they themselves should suffer from shortage, the holy bishop made an eloquent and successful appeal to their generosity, rebuking their lack of faith and prophesying a plentiful harvest. Tradi­tion attributes to St Domitian the slaying of a terrible monster, which was causing great distress by poisoning the drinking-water of Huy; a procession still takes place to the place beside a spring where the saint overcame this real or metaphorical dragon.
He attended the Synod of Orleans in France , and was known for his goodness. Domitian aided the poor during a severe famine. His relics are enshrined in Huy.
The formal biographies of St Domitian printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii, are all very late. A few notices in the Gesta Ep. Leodiensium (see Pertz, MGH., Scriptores, vol. vii, p. 178, and vol. xxv, pp. 26—27) are more reliable. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. iii, p. 189.

Domitian of Huy B (AC). Bishop Domitian of Maestricht (or Tongres), was the apostle of the Meuse Valley. At the synod of Orléans in 549, he distinguished himself by his refutation of heresies. His relics are venerated at Huy
(Benedictines, Coulson).
600 St. Liudhard Bishop chaplain to Queen Bertha daughter of King Charibert of Paris

602 ST LIUDHARD, BISHOP

WE know definitely from Bede that when King Ethelbert of Kent married the Frankish princess Bertha, who was the daughter of Charibert, King of Paris, a stipulation was made that she should be free to practise her own Christian religion, and that she should bring with her her chaplain, Liudhard, who is stated to have been a bishop. According to later traditions he died at Canterbury, and St Laurence, St Augustine’s immediate successor in the see, removed the body of Liudhard into the church of the monastery of SS. Peter and Paul, where it was placed with that of Bertha in the porticus of St Martin. This is practically all we know of Liudhard, though such writers as William of Malmesbury attributed to him a considerable influence in preparing the way for the Kentish king’s eventual acceptance of Christianity on the coming of St Augustine. In the martyrologies of the ninth century, however, we find on February 4 mention of “the passion of St Liphard, martyr, archbishop of Canterbury”, and this at a later date meets us in the form of a story that this Archbishop Liphard on his way back to England after a visit to Rome was waylaid and suffered a violent death in the neighbourhood of Cambrai. There certainly was no Liphard who was archbishop of Canterbury, and it is impossible to reach any definite conclusion as to the identity of this Liphard or the fact of the alleged martyrdom. The feast of “St Liphard, bishop and martyr”, has, however, for a long time past been kept in the diocese of Cambrai.
See C. Plummer’s note in his edition of Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica, vol. ii, p. 42 Stan­ton, Menology, pp. 51—52 and 200—201 C. J. Destombes, Vies des Saints des dioceses de Cambrai et d’Arras, vol. i, pp. 158 seq. St Liphard, under the name of Liefardus, was represented in the old paintings in the English College, Rome.
France. When Bertha went to England to marry King Ethelbert of Kent, Liudhard accompanied her. He played an important role in King Ethelbert’s conversion and Baptism by St. Augustine of Canterbury. Liudhard, also called Liphard and Letard, was buried at Canterbury.

Liudhard of Canterbury B (AC) (also known as Letard). Frankish Saint Liudhard was chaplain to Queen Bertha of Kent, daughter of King Charibert of Paris, who agreed to marry the pagan King Ethelbert on the condition that she be free to practice her religion and bring her bishop with her. Liudhard was that bishop. He is said to have played an important part in the conversion of the king to Christianity; however, there are no letters extant from the prolific writer Pope Saint Gregory to him. There is one (dated to 601) to Queen Bertha, which reproaches her for her failure to achieve her husband's conversion. Liudhard restored an ancient Romano-British church for her at Canterbury. He was buried in the abbey of SS. Peter and Paul (now Saint Augustine's) in Canterbury. In the 11th century, Goselin wrote a short vita of Liudhard, but seems to have confused him with Saint Liephard, whose feast is kept at Cambrai and who is called "archbishop of Canterbury and martyr." Liudhard was neither
(Benedictines, Coulson, Farmer).
669 St. Serenidus & Serenus Benedictine hermits known for his miracles, including ending a plague and a drought
 669 680 SS. SERENICUS, or Cerenicus, and his brother Serenus, or Seneridus.
Young patricians from Spoleto who abandoned their family and their possessions at the bidding, it is said, of an angel, and betook themselves to Rome. The tombs of the Apostles were at that time under the care of the Benedictines, with whom the two strangers were brought into contact and from whom they received the habit. For some time they lived the community life in Rome, edifying their brethren by their youthful piety, but before long they withdrew, still under angelic guidance, to seek a new home beyond the Alps in France.

On the site of the present town of Château Gontier, in the diocese of Angers, and subsequently in the forest of Charnie, near the village of Saulges in Maine, they led a life of extreme self-abnegation as soli­taries. But, desirous though they were of remaining lost to the world, the fame of their sanctity began to attract visitors, who disturbed their solitude. So strongly did Serenicus feel the call to greater seclusion that he bade farewell to his brother, from whom he had never previously been parted, and struck out into the unknown region of Hyesmes, accompanied by a child whom he had baptized and who would not leave him. On a spot surrounded by boulders, situated over the river Sarthe and approached only by a narrow path, he determined to make his abode.

He was soon to discover that solitude was not for him. Disciples gathered round, and he became the head of a large community of monks, whom he taught to recite the full psalmody, consisting of the complete Roman use in addition to all the Benedictine offices. He continued to rule over the monastery he had founded until his death which occurred when he was very old, about the year 669.

In the meantime his brother Serenus had remained in his hermitage at Saulges, his fasts and austerities winning for him many graces, including visions, ecstasies and miracles. When the countryside was stricken by pestilence, famine and drought, following on the horrors of the civil war, St Berarius, bishop of Le Mans, besought the intercession of the recluse. The cleansing rain which cleared away the infection and refreshed the earth was attributed by the grateful people to the prayers of St Serenus, whose reputation as a wonder-worker was greatly enhanced. Like St Serenicus, he lived to old age, and as he lay dying, sounds of celestial music are said to have been plainly heard by those who were near him at the time.
They were members of a noble family in Spoleto who entered the Benedictines and became hermits in France, in the Charnie Forest. Serenus remained a hermit until his death and was known for his miracles, including ending a plague and a drought. Serenicus eventually served as head of the community of followers who had gathered under his spiritual guidance near the Sarthe River, following the Benedictine rule.
The not very convincing narrative, compiled seemingly in the eighth century, which is here summarized, has been printed by the Bollandists and in Mabillon, Acta Sanctorum O.S.B., vol. ii, pp. 572—578.

Serenicus and Serenus, OSB (AC) Born in Spoleto, Italy; Serenicus and Serenus were brothers born into a patrician family. They received the Benedictine habit in Rome at the tomb of the apostles, which was then in Benedictine custody. Later they settled in France as hermits near the Sarthe River, where Serenus spent the rest of his life. Serenicus, however, became abbot of a community of over 140 disciples upon whom he imposed the Benedictine Rule and other Roman practices
(Benedictines, Coulson).
675 St. Placid Benedictine Abbot in Autun
Placid of Autun, OSB Abbot (AC) (also known as Placidus, Plait)
Died c. 675. Saint Placid was the abbot of the basilica monastery of Saint Symphorian (beheaded by sword on 22 August 178 Son of Senator Faustus and Blessed Augusta. Convert Christian) in Autun
(Benedictines).
717 St. John of Beverly John known for holiness preference for the contemplative life possessed the gift of healing many miracles are recounted in Bede's Ecclesiastical History the author of which he had ordained It was not just miracles that led to John's canonization. He led a life of remarkable holiness.
Eboráci, in Anglia, sancti Joánnis Epíscopi, vita et miráculis clari.
     At York in England, St. John, bishop, renowned for a saintly life and miracles.

   721 ST JOHN OF BEVERLEY, BISHOP OF YORK
FEW native saints enjoyed a greater reputation in Catholic England than St John of Beverley, whose shrine was one of the favourite places of pilgrimage until the Reformation. The learned Alcuin had an extraordinary devotion to him and celebrated his miracles in verse, whilst Athelstan ascribed to him his victory over the Scots and Henry V his defeat of the French at Agincourt. At the instance of the latter, a synod in 1416 ordered his feast to be kept throughout England. The saint was born at Harpham, a village in Yorkshire. As a young man, he was attracted to Kent by the famous school of St Theodore in which he became a dis­tinguished student under the holy abbot Adrian. Upon his return to his own county, he entered the double abbey of Whitby, then under the rule of the Abbess Hilda.

His exceptional abilities marked him out for preferment, and after the death of St Eata he was appointed bishop of Hexham. Whatever time he could spare from the duties of his office he devoted to heavenly contemplation, retiring for that purpose at stated periods to a cell beside the church of St Michael beyond the Tyne, near Hexham. Often he would be accompanied by some poor person, whom he would serve, and once he took with him a youth who seems to have suffered from a loathsome form of ringworm and who had never been able to speak. The bishop taught him to say “Géa”—the Anglo-Saxon equivalent for “Yes”. From this beginning he led him on to pronounce the letters of the alphabet and then to enunciate syllables and words. In this manner the youth gradually acquired the use of speech and was at the same time cured of the malady which disfigured him.

After the death of St Rosa, John was appointed bishop of York. The Venerable Bede, who received holy orders from St John when bishop of Hexham, refers to him at some length in his Ecclesiastical History, giving ample testimony to his sanctity, and recounting several miracles which had been described to him by such reliable eye-witnesses as the abbots of Beverley and of Tynemouth. After St John had been translated to York he continued his practice of a periodical retirement from the world for spiritual refreshment. He chose for his retreat an abbey which he had built at Beverley, then a forest. In 717, when he was much worn by age and fatigue, St John resigned his bishopric to his chaplain, St Wilfrid the Younger, and retired to Beverley, where he spent the four last years of his life in the faithful performance of all monastic duties. He died on May 7, 721. His feast is kept in the diocese of Hexham to-day, and in other northern dioceses on October 25, the date of the translation of his relics in 1037.
The Ecclesiastical History of Bede is our most reliable source of information. More than three centuries later Folcard, a monk of St Bertin then resident in England, wrote a life of John of Beverley, followed by a long series of miracles. This, together with other documents, has been edited by Canon Raine for the Rolls Series in The Historians of the Church of York, vol. i. See also Raine’s two volumes on Hexham in the Surtees Society publications. Entries in the calendars (for which consult Stanton’s Menology, p. 201) give evidence of a widespread cultus of St John of Beverley from an early date. Stanton (p. 676) speaks of the discovery of certain relics as late as the year 1664. There is a charming reference to the saint in Dame Julian’s Revelations, ch. 38.

John was born at Harpham, Yorkshire, England. He studied under Adrian at St. Theodore's School in Kent, and on his returen to his native land, became a monk at Whitby. He was named bishop of Hexham in 687 and then transferred to York as metropolitan in 705, succeeding St. Bosa.

John was known for his holiness, his preference for the contemplative life, and his miracles, many of which are recounted in Bede's Ecclesiastical History, the author of which he had ordained. In ill health, John resigned the bishopric of York in 717 and retired to Beverly Abbey, which he had founded, and remained there until his death on May 7. His shrine was for centuries one of the most popular pilgrim centers in England. He was canonized by Pope Benedict IX in 1037.

John of Beverley, OSB B (RM) Born in Harpham (Humberside), Yorkshire, England; died at Beverley, England, May 7, 721; canonized in 1037; feast of translation, October 25. Saint John trained for the priesthood and monastic life in Kent under the direction of SS. Adrian(Born in Africa; died at Canterbury, England, January 9, 710) and Theodore (b. in 759; d. on the Peninsula of Tryphon, near the promontory Akrita on 11 November, 826), but returned to Yorkshire upon completing his studies to become a monk at Whitby Abbey, which was then under the rule of Saint Hilda(Born in Northumbria in 614; died at Whitby in 680).

John founded a monastery in Humberside, England, on the site of a small church dedicated to Saint John the Evangelist, where he asked to be buried. In 687, after the death of Saint Eata (Died c. 686. It is impossible to write about Eata, the 7th century English saint, without going back to Saint Aidan ( Born in Ireland; died 651), and from Saint Aidan to Saint Paulinus of York ( Born c. 584; died at Rochester, England, 644. In 601), and from Saint Paulinus to Saint Augustine (Austin) of Canterbury ( Born probably in Italy, c. 996; died at Novara, Lombardy, Italy, c. 1081), and from Saint Augustine to Saint Gregory the Great(born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604) who began this chain reaction. Nor should we forget the Venerable Bede (Born in Northumbria, England, 673; died at Jarrow, England, on May 25, 735; named Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII in 1899). without whose Ecclesiastical History we would never have heard of Saint Eata, nor Saint Cuthbert (Born in Northumbria, England (?) or Ireland, c. 634; died on Inner Farne in March 20, 687), who was Eata's close friend), John he was consecrated bishop of Hexham.

He is said to have shown special care for the poor and the handicapped. Whatever time he could spare from his episcopal duties he spent in contemplation. At regular seasons, especially during Lent, he retired to pray in a cell by the church of Saint Michael beyond the Tyne, near Hexham. He would take with him some poor person, whom he would serve during his retirement.

He was transferred York as archbishop upon the death of Saint Bosa in 705,(Died 686. Saint Bosa Benedictine monk at Whitby, England, under Saint Hilda.) and Saint Wilfrid (Born in Ripon, Northumbria, 634; died at Oundle, in 709) succeeded him at Hexham as part of the final settlement of the latter's long dispute with the Northumbrian kings.

He continued his practice of periodic retirement for spiritual refreshment. His chosen retreat was an abbey that he had built at Beverley, then a forest. Not until old age had worn him out did he resign his office to Saint Wilfrid the Younger (Died at Ripon in 744. Saint Wilfrid was one of the five future bishops who were educated by Saint Hilda at Whitby) in order to spend the last four years of his life in the peace of his beloved abbey at Beverley.

According to the Venerable Bede in Ecclesiastical History, who was ordained both deacon and priest by John when he was bishop of Hexham, John of Beverley possessed the gift of healing. He cured a youth of dumbness, even though the boy had never utter a single word. (The boy was apparently bald from a terrible scalp disease also.) On the second Sunday of Lent, John made the sign of the cross upon the youth's tongue, and loosed it. Bede tells of how the saint patiently taught the boy the alphabet. He taught him to say "gea," which signifies in Saxon "Yea"; then the letters of the alphabet, and afterwards syllables. Thus the youth miraculously obtained his speech. Moreover, by the saint's blessing and the remedies prescribed by a physician whom he employed, his head was entirely healed, and became covered with hair.

Bede also records that John cured a noblewoman of a pain so grievous that she had been unable to move for three weeks. Several people who seemed in immediate danger of death were saved by his prayers. In addition to his own eye-witness accounts, Bede tells us of cures witnessed by Abbot Bercthun of Beverley and Abbot Herebald of Tinmouth.

After the saint's death, such miracles continued around his shrine, which became a famous pilgrimage site. The Bollandist Henschenius devoted four books to the miracles wrought at the holy bishop's shrine. So many were drawn there that the magnificent Beverley Minster was built, which rivals some of England's great cathedral churches. Alcuin also records miracles worked at John's intercession. (Alcuin Born in York, England, c. 735; died at Saint Martin's in Tours, France, May 19, 804. Alcuin studied under Saint Edbert at the York cathedral school, was ordained a deacon there, and, in 767, became its head. Under his direction it became a well-known center of learning.)

For example, King Athelstan invoked John's intercession for victory against the Scots. In 1307, his relics were translated -- the occasion of a vita written by Folcard. Some of the sweet-smelling relics were discovered in September 1664, when a grave was being dug, in a lead box within a vault of freestone. These relics had been hidden in the beginning of the reign of king Edward VI.

It was not just miracles that led to John's canonization. He led a life of remarkable holiness. Other devotees include Blessed Julian of Norwich(Born c. 1342; died in Norwich, England, c. 1423; she has never actually been beatified), King Henry V (who attributed the victory of Agincourt to his intercession), and Saint John Fisher(Born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1469; died on Tower Hill, London, on June 22, 1535;), who was born at Beverley (Benedictines, Bentley, Farmer, Gill, Husenbeth, Walsh).
735 St. Peter of Pavia Bishop during the reign of the Lombard king Liutprand
Papíæ sancti Petri Epíscopi.    At Pavia, Bishop St. Peter.
Little is known of Peter beyond the fact that he was a Lombard who served as bishop of Pavia during the reign of the Lombard king Liutprand. Peter was a relative of Liutprand.
Peter of Pavia B (RM). Bishop Peter briefly governed the see of Pavia during the reign of his kinsman, King Luitprand of the Lombards (Benedictines).
1070 Blessed Frederick of Hirschau sent with twelve of his comrades to restore discipline OSB Abbot (AC)
Born in Swabia, Germany; died at Ebersberg, c. 1070. Frederick, a monk of Einsiedeln, Switzerland, was sent with twelve of his comrades to restore discipline at Hirschau in 1066. Of course, their intervention was not appreciated by many. Frederick was calumniated leading to his deposition in 1069 by the count of Calw, who owned Hirschau
(Benedictines).
1079 ST STANISLAUS, Bishop of Cracow, Martyr
Sancti Stanislái, Epíscopi Cracoviénsis et Mártyris, qui sequénti die, corónam martyrii consecútus est.

St. Stanislas, bishop of Cracow and martyr, who received the crown of martyrdom on the day following this.

THE cultist of St Stanislaus is widespread in Poland—especially in his episcopal city of Cracow, which honours him as principal patron and preserves the greater part of his relics in the cathedral. His biography, written some four hundred years after his death, by St Casimir’s tutor, the historian John Dlugosz, seems to be an uncritical compilation from various earlier writings and from oral tradition, for it contains several conflicting statements, besides a certain amount of matter which is obviously purely legendary.

Stanislaus Szczepanowski was born on July 26, 1030, at Szczepanow. He came of noble parents, who bad been childless for many years until this son was vouch­safed to them in answer to prayer. They devoted him from his birth to the service of God, and encouraged in every way the piety which he evinced from early childhood. He was educated at Gnesen and afterwards, we are told, “at the University of Paris”, which at that time had not yet come into existence. Even­tually he was ordained priest by Lampert Zula, bishop of Cracow, who gave him a canonry in the cathedral and subsequently appointed him his preacher and archdeacon. The eloquence of the young priest and his saintly example brought about a great reformation of morals amongst his penitents—clergy as well as laity flocking to him from all quarters for spiritual advice. Bishop Lampert wished to resign the episcopal office in his favour, but Stanislaus refused to consider the suggestion. However, upon Lampert’s death, he could not resist the will of the people seconded by an order from Pope Alexander II, and he was consecrated bishop in 1072. He proved himself a zealous apostle, indefatigable in preaching, strict in maintaining discipline, and regular in his visitations. His house was always crowded with the poor, and he kept a list of widows and other distressed persons to whom he systematically distributed gifts.

Poland at that epoch was ruled by Boleslaus II, a prince whose finer qualities were completely eclipsed by his unbridled lust and savage cruelty. Stanislaus alone ventured to beard the tyrant and to remonstrate with him at the scandal his conduct was causing. At first the king endeavoured to vindicate his behaviour, but when pressed more closely he made some show of repentance. The good effects of the admonition, however, soon wore off: Boleslaus relapsed into his evil ways. There were acts of rapacity and political injustice which brought him into conflict with the bishop and at length he perpetrated an outrage which caused general indignation. A certain nobleman had a wife who was very beautiful.  Upon this lady Boleslaus cast lustful eyes, and when she repelled his advances he caused her to be carried off by force and lodged in his palace. The Polish nobles called upon the archbishop of Gnesen and the court prelates to expostulate with the monarch. Fear of offending the king closed their lips, and the people openly accused them of conniving at the crime. St Stanislaus, when appealed to, had no such hesitation; he went again to Boleslaus and rebuked him for his sin. He closed his exhortation by reminding the prince that if he persisted in his evil courses he would bring upon himself the censure of the Church, with the sentence of excommunication.

The threat roused the king to fury. He declared that a man who could address his sovereign in such terms was more fit to be a swineherd than a shepherd of souls, and cut short the interview with threats. He first had recourse to slander—if we may believe a story related by the saint’s later historians. St Stanislaus, we are told, had bought some land for the Church from a certain Peter, who died soon after the transaction. It was suggested to the deceased man’s nephews that they should claim back the land on pretence that it had not been paid for. The case came up before Boleslaus: no witnesses for the defence were allowed to be heard and the verdict seemed a foregone conclusion, when, in answer to a dramatic appeal from St Stanislaus, the dead man appeared before the court in his grave-clothes and vindicated the bishop. If we can credit this story we are further asked to believe that the marvel produced no permanent change of heart in Boleslaus, whose barbarity had only increased with time.

At last, finding all remonstrance useless, Stanislaus launched against him a formal sentence of excommunication. The tyrant professed to disregard the ban, but when he entered the cathedral of Cracow he found that the services were at once suspended by order of the bishop. Furious with rage, he pursued the saint to the little chapel of St Michael outside the city, where he was celebrating Mass, and ordered some of his guards to enter and slay him. The men, however, returned, saying that they could not kill the saint as he was surrounded by a heavenly light. Upbraiding them for cowardice, the king himself entered the building and dispatched the bishop with his own hand. The guards then cut the body into pieces and scattered them abroad to be devoured by beasts of prey. Protected, it is said, by eagles, the sacred relics were rescued three days later by the cathedral canons and privately buried at the door of the chapel in which Stanislaus had been slain.

The above summarizes the story of the martyrdom of St Stanislaus as it is commonly told, Considerable discussion was caused in Poland by the publication in 1904 of an historical work by Professor Wojchiechowski in the course of which he maintained that Stanislaus had been guilty of treason, had plotted to dethrone his sovereign, and had therefore rightly been put to death. To this charge Pro­fessor Miodonski and others replied with vigour. But there seems no doubt that there were some political considerations behind the murder of St Stanislaus, though the whole business is very uncertain and obscure. It is not true that the action of Boleslaus led to an immediate rising of the people which drove him from Poland; but it certainly hastened his fall from power. Pope St Gregory VII laid the country under an interdict, and nearly two centuries later, in 1253, St Stanislaus was canonized by Pope Innocent IV.

The long life of St Stanislaus by John Dlugosz is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii. Two shorter but earlier biographies have since been discovered and published. For details see Poncelet, BHL., nn. 7832—7842. The action of Pope St Gregory VII has been studied in the seventh volume of Gfrorer’s Kirchengeschichte, pp. 557 seq. Cf. also SS. SERENICUS AND SERENUS (c. A.D. 669 AND 680) the Cambridge History of Poland, vol. i (1950). Polish biographies of the saint are numerous, but little seems to have been written in other languages.
1237 St. Villanus Benedictine bishop
Born in Gubbio, Italy, Villanus entered the Benedictine monastery of Fonte-Avellana, receiving elevation in 1206 to the office of bishop of Gubbio.
Villanus of Gubbio, OSB B (AC) Born in Gubbio, Italy; Saint Villanus became a monk at Fontavellana and, in 1206, was consecrated bishop of Gubbio
(Benedictines).
1279 Blessed Albert of Bergamo, OP Tert. (AC) peasant farmer who followed his pious and industrious father's example many practices of penance and piety (also known as Albert d'Ogna or Albert the Farmer)
Born in Valle d'Ogna (near Bergamo), Italy, in 1214; died in Cremona, Italy, May 7, 1279; cultus approved 1748; feast day formerly May 11.
1279 Bl. Albert of Bergamo Dominican tertiary pious farmer miracle worker to benefit others
1279 BD ALBERT OF BERGAMO
BD ALBERT OF BERGAMO was a peasant farmer who lived an exemplary life amongst his neighbours in the Valle d’Ogna and became a Dominican tertiary. Though married he had no children, and he had much to bear from a shrewish wife, as well as from other relations who resented his liberality to the poor. In later life he went on pilgrimages to Rome and Jerusalem and is said to have visited Compostela eight times, always supporting himself on the way by the work of his hands. Eventually he settled in Cremona, where he became closely associated with another holy man, Bd Homobonus, and where he died in the year 1279. He was famous in Cremona for his miracles. Some of the wonders which he is said to have worked in his lifetime are certainly of a very remarkable and unusual character. For example, in the Short Lives of Dominican Saints, edited by Fr John Proctor, o.p., we read:
“One day he was carrying a barrel of wine to the house of a poor woman, when it accidentally slipped from his shoulder and broke to pieces on the road. ‘King of Glory, come to my assistance’, exclaimed the holy man, according to his wont in all difficulties. Then he gathered up the broken pieces of wood, adjusted them in
their proper places, and collected the spilt wine in his hands so that not a drop was lost.”
In the Prato edition of the Opera Omnia of Pope Benedict XIV, vol. vi (1842), pp. 35—36, will be found a summary of the evidence presented to establish the fact of the immemorial cultus paid to Bd Albert of Bergamo. The documents submitted at that time were printed for the Congregation of Rites, and the decree of confirmation is dated May 9, 1748. See also the Année Dominicaine (1891), pp. 375—385. A short notice of Bd Albert will also be found in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii.
Albert "the Farmer" was a peasant farmer who followed his pious and industrious father's example. His father taught him many practices of penance and piety that later fructified in a saintly life. At seven, Albert was fasting three days a week, giving the foregone food to the poor. Working at the heavy labor of the fields, Albert learned to see God in all things, and to listen for His voice in all nature. The beauty of the earth was to him a voice that spoke only of heaven. He grew up pure of heart, discreet, and humble--to the edification of the entire village.

Albert married while still quite young. At first his wife made no objection to the generosity and self-denial for which he was known. When his father died, however, she made haste to criticize his every act and word, and made his home almost unbearable with her shrewish scolding. "You give too much time to prayer and to the poor!" she charged; Albert only replied that God will return all gifts made to the poor.

In testimony to this, God miraculously restored the meal Albert had given away over his wife's objections. Finally, softened by Albert's prayers, she ceased her nagging and became his rival in piety and charity. She died soon after her conversion, and Albert, being childless, he left his father's farm to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Rome.

Stopping at Cremona, Italy, at harvest time, Albert went to work in the fields. He soon earned the name of "the diligent worker." His guardian angel worked beside him in the fields, and, therefore, twice the work was accomplished that might be expected of one man. Weighing in his grain at the end of the day, Albert always received twice as much in wages as the other workers did. Though he gave this to the poor and kept nothing for himself, jealous companions determined to annoy him. Planting pieces of iron in the field where Albert would be working the next day, they watched to see him break or dull his scythe. Miraculously, the scythe cut through iron as it did through the grain, never suffering any harm. In Cremona Albert's poverty was also a witness to a group of heretics there who boasted of their own poverty.

In all, Albert visited Rome nine times, Santiago de Compostela eight times, and Jerusalem once. He worked his way, giving to the poor every penny he could spare. His pilgrimages were almost unbroken prayer; he walked along singing hymns and chanting Psalms, or conversing on things of God with the people he met along the way.

Appalled at the suffering of pilgrims who fell ill far from home and the penniless, Albert determined to build a hospital for their use. This he actually accomplished by his prayers and diligent work.

In 1256, he met the Dominicans. Attracted by the life of Saint Dominic, Albert joined the Brothers of Penance, which later became the Order of Penance of Saint Dominic, and continued his works of charity in his new state. As a lay brother he was closely associated with the religious but lived in the world so that he was able to continue his pilgrimages. At home, he assisted the Dominican fathers in Cremona, working happily in their garden, cultivating the medicinal herbs so necessary at the time, and doing cheerfully all the work he could find that was both heavy and humble.
Falling very ill, Albert sent a neighbor for the priest, but there was a long delay, and a dove came bringing him Holy Viaticum. When he died, the bells of Cremona rang of themselves, and people of all classes hurried to view the precious remains. It was planned to bury him in the common cemetery, outside the cloister, as he was a secular tertiary, but no spade could be found to break the ground. An unused tomb was discovered in the church of Saint Matthias, where he had so often prayed, and he was buried there. Many miracles were attributed to him after his death, and the farmer- saint became legendary for his generosity to the poor (Benedictines, Bentley, Dominicans, Dorcy, Gill).

In art, Saint Albert is a farm laborer cutting through a stone with a scythe. He may shown be shown (1) when a dove brings him the viaticum, or (2) with a dove, Host, and censer near him (Roeder). Albert is the patron of bakers and day-laborers, and is venerated in Cremona, Bergamo, and Ogna (Roeder).
1728 Blessed Rose Venerini gift of ready and persuasive speech real ability to teach and teach others to teach not daunted by any difficulty when in service of God reputation of holiness confirmed by miracles

1728 BD ROSE VENERINI, VIRGIN

BD ROSE was born at Viterbo in 1656, the daughter of Godfrey Venerini, a physician. Upon the death of a young man who had been paying court to her, she entered a convent, but after a few months had to return home to look after her widowed mother. Rose used to gather the women and girls of the neighbourhood to say the rosary together in the evenings, and when she found how ignorant many of them were of their religion she began to instruct them. She was directed by Father Ignatius Martinelli, a Jesuit, who convinced her that her vocation was as a teacher “in the world” rather than as a contemplative in a convent; whereupon in 1685, with two helpers, Rose opened a free school for girls in Viterbo: it soon became a success.

Bd Rose had the gift of ready and persuasive speech, and a real ability to teach and to teach others to teach, and was not daunted by any difficulty when the service of God was in question. Her reputation spread, and in 1692 she was invited by Cardinal Barbarigo to advise and help in the training of teachers and organizing of schools in his diocese of Montefiascone. Here she was the mentor and friend of Lucy Filippini, who became foundress of an institute of maestre pie
Blessed Rose was born at Viterbo in 1656, the daughter of Godfrey Venerini, a physician. Upon the death of a young man who had been paying court to her, she entered a convent, but after a few months had to return home to look after her widowed mother. Rose use to gather the women and girls of the neighborhood to say the rosary together in the evenings, and when she found how ignorant many of them were of their religion, she began to instruct them.

She was directed by Father Ignatius Martinelli, a Jesuit, who convinced her that her vocation was as a teacher "in the world" rather than as a contemplative in a convent; whereupon in 1685, with two helpers, Rose opened a preschool for girls in Viterbo: it soon became a success. Blessed Rose had the gift of ready and persuasive speech, and a real ability to teach and to teach others to teach, and was not daunted by any difficulty when the service of God was in question. Her reputation spread, and in 1692, she was invited by Cardinal Barbarigo to advise and help in the training of teachers and organizing of schools in his diocese of Montefiascone. Here she was the mentor and friend of Lucy Filippini, who became foundress of an institute of maestre pie and was canonized in 1930.

Rose organized a number of schools in various places, sometimes in the face of opposition that resorted to force in unbelievable fashion - the teachers were shot at with bows and their house fired. Her patience and trust overcame all obstacles, and in 1713 she made a foundation in Rome that received the praise of Pope Clement XI himself. It was in Rome that she died, on May 7, 1728; her reputation of holiness was confirmed by miracles and in 1952, she was beatified. It was not until sometime after her death that Blessed Rose's lay school teachers were organized as a religious congregation: they are found in America as well as in Italy, for the Venerini Sisters have worked among Italian immigrants since early in the twentieth century.
There is a short account of Bd Rose in the decree of beatification, printed in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xliv (1952), pp. 405—409.

Blessed Rosa Venerini V (AC) Born at Viterbo, Italy, 1656; died at Rome, 1728; beatified 1952. Rosa Venerini, daughter of a physician, devoted her life to educating school mistresses. She was joined in this work by Saint Lucy Filippini(Born in Corneto or Tarquinia, Tuscany, Italy, January 13, 1672; died at Montefiascone, Italy, on March 25, 1732) at the request of Cardinal Barbarigo. She organized schools in many parts of Italy, and recruited and trained teachers who, after Rose's death, were formed into a religious congregation (Attwater2).

May 7, 2007 Blessed Rose Venerini (1656-1728) 
Rose was born at Viterbo in Italy, the daughter of a doctor. Following the death of her fiancé she entered a convent, but soon returned home to care for her newly widowed mother. Meanwhile, Rose invited the women of the neighborhood to recite the rosary in her home, forming a sort of sodality with them.
As she looked to her future, Rose, under the spiritual guidance of a Jesuit priest, became convinced that she was called to become a teacher in the world rather than a contemplative nun in a convent. Clearly, she made the right choice: She was a born teacher, and the free school for girls she opened in 1685 was well received.
S   oon the cardinal invited her to oversee the training of teachers and the administration of schools in his Diocese of Montefiascone. As Rose's reputation grew, she was called upon to organize schools in many parts of Italy, including Rome. Her disposition was right for the task as well, for Rose often met considerable opposition but was never deterred.
   She died in Rome in 1728, where a number of miracles were attributed to her.
She was beatified in 1952. The sodality, or group of women she had invited to prayer, was ultimately given the rank of a religious congregation. Today, the so-called Venerini Sisters can be found in the United States and elsewhere, working among Italian immigrants.

Comment:    Whatever state of life God calls us to, we bring with us an assortment of experiences, interests and gifts—however small they seem to us. Rose’s life stands as a reminder that all we are is meant to be put to service wherever we find ourselves.
1902 Blessed Agostino Roscelli (AC) spent endless hours hearing confessions 1876, he founded the Institute of Sisters of the Immaculata served as prison chaplain caring particularly for those condemned to death

Born at Casarza Ligure, Italy, July 27, 1818; died May 7, 1902; beatified May 7, 1995.
Agostino Roscelli was not blessed with worldly wealth or rank. Instead God gave him virtuous parents, intelligence, and supportive friends. Surrounded by the silence of the mountains as he watched his family's sheep, Agostino's soul was opened to prayer and his heart drew close to God. But it was not until a parish mission in May 1835 (age 16) that he recognized he was being called to the priesthood. Most peasants would have found it impossible to answer that call without divine and human intervention; however, Agostino's vocation was supported by his own prayer life and the financial aid of generous people.

Following his studies at Genoa, Roscelli was ordained in 1846. His first appointment was in the parish of Saint Martin d'Albaro. Eight years later he was given the care of the parish Church of Consolation, where he spent endless hours hearing confessions.

In Genoa he established a residential school to train young women without families, who were in danger of starvation or falling into prostitution because they had no support. In 1876, he founded the Institute of Sisters of the Immaculata to run this and other residential centers he had established.

In addition to this work of charity, in 1874, Father Agostino was appointed chaplain of the provincial orphanage. While continuing this work for 22 years, he also served as prison chaplain, wherein he cared particularly for those condemned to death (L'Osservatore Romano).
1909 Father Alexis Toth defender of the Orthodox Faith miracle worker and zealous worker in the Lord's vineyard 1889 appointed pastor of a Uniate parish in Minneapolis MN. Archbishop Ireland greeted him with open hostility refused to recognize him as a legitimate Catholic priest or grant permission to serve in his diocese. Miracle of finding a lost son for a man, and that occurred after Alexis's death

Our holy Father Alexis, the defender of the Orthodox Faith and zealous worker in the Lord's vineyard, was born in Austro-Hungary on March 18, 1854 into a poor Carpatho-Russian family. Like many others in the Austro-Hungarian empire, the Toths were Eastern Rite Catholics. Alexis' father and brother were priests and his uncle was a bishop in the Uniate church. He received an excellent education and knew several languages (Carpatho-Russian, Hungarian, Russian, German, Latin, and a reading knowledge of Greek). He married Rosalie Mihalich, a priest's daughter, and was ordained on April 18, 1878 to serve as second priest in a Uniate parish. His wife died soon afterwards, followed by their only child - losses which the saint endured with the patience of Job.

In May, 1879, Fr Alexis was appointed secretary to the Bishop of Presov and also Administrator of the Diocesan Administration. He was also entrusted with the directorship of an orphanage. At Presov Seminary, Father Toth taught Church History and Canon Law, which served him well in his later life in America. St Alexis did not serve long as a professor or an administrator, for the Lord had a different future planned for him. In October, 1889 he was appointed to serve as pastor of a Uniate parish in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Like another Abraham, he left his country and his relatives to fulfill the will of God (Gen 12:1).

Upon his arrival in America, Father Alexis presented himself to the local Roman Catholic diocesan authority, Archbishop John Ireland, since there was no Uniate bishop in America at that time. Archbishop Ireland belonged to the party of American Catholics who favored the "Americanization" of all Roman Catholics. His vision for the future was founded on a common faith, customs, and the use of the English language for everything except liturgical celebrations. Naturally, ethnic parishes and non-Latin rite clergy did not fit into this vision. Thus, when Father Toth came to present his credentials, Archbishop Ireland greeted him with open hostility. He refused to recognize him as a legitimate Catholic priest or to grant permission for him to serve in his diocese.

As a historian and professor of Canon Law, Father Toth knew his rights under the terms of the Unia and would not accept Archbishop Ireland's unjust decisions. In October of 1890, there was a meeting of eight of the ten Uniate priests in America at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania under the chairmanship of Father Toth. By this time the American bishops had written to Rome demanding the recall to Europe of all Uniate priests in America, fearing that Uniate priests and parishes would hinder the assimilation of immigrants into American culture. Uniate bishops in Europe refused to listen to the priests' pleas for help.

Archbishop Ireland sent a letter to his parishes ordering their members not to attend Father Toth's parish nor to accept any priestly ministrations from him. Expecting imminent deportation, Father Toth explained the situation to his parishioners and suggested it might be best for him to leave and return to Europe. "No," they said. "Let's go to the Russian bishop. Why should we always submit ourselves to foreigners?" It was decided to write to the Russian consul in San Francisco in order to ask for the name and address of the Russian bishop.
Ivan Mlinar went to San Francisco to make initial contact with Bishop Vladimir; then in February, 1891 Father Toth and his church warden, Paul Podany, also made the journey. Subsequently, Bishop Vladimir came to Minneapolis and on March 25, 1891 received Father Toth and 361 parishioners into the Orthodox Church of their ancestors. The parishioners regarded this event as a new Triumph of Orthodoxy, crying out with joy: "Glory to God for His great mercy!"

This initiative came from the people themselves, and was not the result of any coercion from outsiders. The Russian Orthodox Church was unaware of the existence of these Slavic Uniate immigrants to America, but responded positively to their petition to be reunited to the Orthodox Church.
The example of St Alexis and his parish in returning to Orthodoxy was an encouragement to hundreds of other Uniates.

The ever-memorable one was like a candle upon a candlestick giving light to others (Mt.5:15), and his flock may be likened to the leaven mixed with meal which leavened the whole (Mt.13:33). Through his fearless preaching he uprooted the tares which had sprung up in the wheat of true doctrine, and exposed the false teachings which had led his people astray. Although he did not hesitate to point out errors in the doctrines of other denominations, he was careful to warn his flock against intolerance.
His writings and sermons are filled with admonitions to respect other people and to refrain from attacking their faith.

While it is true that he made some strong comments, especially in his private correspondence with the church administration, it must be remembered that this was done while defending the Orthodox Church and the American Mission from unfounded accusations by people who used much harsher language than Father Toth. His opponents may be characterized by intolerance, rude behaviour, unethical methods and threats against him and his parishioners. Yet, when Father Alexis was offended or deceived by other people he forgave them, and he would often ask his bishop to forgive his omissions and mistakes.

In the midst of great hardships, this herald of godly theology and sound doctrine poured forth an inexhaustible stream of Orthodox writings for new converts, and gave practical advice on how to live in an Orthodox manner. For example, his article "How We should Live in America" stresses the importance of education, cleanliness, sobriety, and the presence of children in church on Sundays and Holy Days.

Although the Minneapolis parish was received into the Orthodox Church in March, 1891, it was not until July, 1892 that the Holy Synod of Russia recognized and accepted the parish into the Diocese of Alaska and the Aleutians. This resolution reached America only in October, 1892. During that time there was a climate of religious and ethnic hostility against the new converts. Father Alexis was accused of selling out his own Carpatho-Russian people and his religion to the "Muscovites" for financial gain.

In reality he did not receive any financial support for a long time, for his parish was very poor. Until his priestly salary began to arrive from Russia, the righteous one was obliged to work in a bakery in order to support himself. Even though his funds were meager, he did not neglect to give alms to the poor and needy. He shared his money with other clergy worse off than himself, and contributed to the building of churches and to the education of seminarians in Minneapolis. He was not anxious about his life (Mt.6:25), what he would eat or drink or wear. Trusting in God to take care of him, St Alexis followed the admonition of Our Savior to "seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you" (Mt.6:33).
So he bore the tribulation, slander, and physical attacks with patience and spiritual joy, reminding us that "godliness is stronger than all" (Wisdom of Solomon 10:12).

Bishops Vladimir, Nicholas, St Tikhon, and Platon recognized the special gifts of Father Toth, so they often sent him forth to preach and teach wherever there were people of Slavic background. Even though he was aware of his shortcomings and inadequacies, yet he was obedient to the instructions of the bishops. He did not hesitate or make excuses, but went immediately to fulfill his mission. St Alexis visited many Uniate parishes, explaining the differences between Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism and Uniatism, stressing that the true way to salvation is in Orthodoxy.

Like Josiah, "he behaved himself uprightly in the conversion of his people" (Sir 49:2). He was instrumental in the formation or return of seventeen parishes, planting a vineyard of Christ in America, and increasing its fruitful yield many times over. By 1909, the time of his blessed repose, many thousands of Carpatho-Russian and Galician Uniates had returned to Orthodoxy. This was a major event in the history of the North American Mission, which would continue to shape the future of Orthodoxy in this country for many generations to come.
Any future growth or success may truly be regarded as the result of Father Toth's apostolic labors.

Who can tell of the saint's spiritual struggles? Who can speak of the prayers which his pious soul poured forth unto God? He did not make a public display of his piety, but prayed to God in secret with all modesty, with contrition and inward tears. God, Who sees everything done in secret, openly rewarded the saint (Mt.6:6). It is inconceivable that St Alexis could have accomplished his apostolic labors unless God had blessed and strengthened him for such work. Today the Church continues to reap the fruits of his teaching and preaching.

Father Toth's efforts did not go unrecognized in his own lifetime.
He received a jeweled miter from the Holy Synod, as well as the Order of St Vladimir and the Order of St Anna from Czar Nicholas II for distinguished service and devotion to God and country. In 1907, he was considered as a candidate for the episcopal office.
He declined this honor, however, humbly pointing out that this responsibility should be given to a younger, healthier man.

At the end of 1908, St Alexis' health began to decline due to a complication of illneses. He went to the seashore in southern New Jersey in an attempt to regain his health, but soon returned to Wilkes-Barre, where he was confined to bed for two months. The righteous one reposed on Friday, May 7, 1909 (April 24 on the Old Calendar), the feast of Sts Sava and Alexius the Hermit of the Kiev Caves. St Alexis' love and concern for his spiritual children did not cease with his death. Before closing the account of his life, it would be most appropriate to reveal but one example of his heavenly intercession:

In January, 1993 a certain man prayed to St Alexis to help him obtain information about his son from whom he had been separated for twenty-eight years. Placing his confidence in the saint's boldness before God, he awaited an answer to his prayer. The very next day the man's son telephoned him. It seems the young man was in church when he was suddenly filled with an overwhelming desire to contact his father. He had been taken to another state by his mother, and she changed his name when he was a child. This is why his father was unable to locate him. Having learned from his mother that his father was an Orthodox Christian, he was able with the help of an Orthodox priest to obtain his father's phone number in a distant city. As a result of that telephone call, the young man later visited his father, who rejoiced to see what sort of man his son had become. The father gave thanks to God and to St Alexis for reuniting him with his son.

St Alexis was a true man of God who guided many Carpatho-Russian and Galician immigrants through the dark confusion of religious challenges in the New World and back to the unity of the Orthodox Church through his grace-filled words and by his holy example. In his last will and testament St Alexis commended his soul to God's mercy, asking forgiveness from everyone and forgiving everybody.
His holy relics now rest at St Tikhon Monastery in South Canaan, Pennsylvania where the faithful may come to venerate them and to entreat St Alexis' intercessions on their behalf.
Sancti Stanislái, Epíscopi Cracoviénsis et Mártyris, qui sequénti die, corónam martyrii consecútus est.
    St. Stanislas, bishop of Cracow and martyr, who received the crown of martyrdom on the day following this.
Cracóviæ, in Polónia, natális sancti Stanislái, Epíscopi et Mártyris, qui a Bolesláo, ímpio Rege, necátus est.  Ipsíus autem festum prídie hujus diéi celebrátur.
    At Cracow in Poland, the birthday of St. Stanislas, bishop and martyr, who was slain by the wicked King Boleslas.  His feast was celebrated on this previous day.


Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR MAY
Christians in Africa.
That Christians in Africa, in imitation of the Merciful Jesus,
may give prophetic witness to reconciliation, justice, and peace.


ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!

Fourth Sunday of Easter
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest
and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;

April Is Child Abuse Prevention Month

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
 
                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 01
600 BC Jeremiah,The Holy Prophet  one of the four great Old Testament prophets     In Egypt, St. Jeremias, prophet, who was stoned to death by the people at Taphnas, where he was buried.  St. Epiphanius tells that the faithful were accustomed to pray at his grave, and to take away from it dust to heal those who were stung by serpents.
Son of the priest Helkiah from the city of Anathoth near Jerusalem.  He lived 600 years before the Birth of Christ, under the Israelite king Josiah and four of his successors. He was called to prophetic service at the age of fifteen, when the Lord revealed to him that even before his birth the Lord had chosen him to be a prophet. Jeremiah refused, citing his youth and lack of skill at speaking, but the Lord promised to be always with him and to watch over him.
He touched the mouth of the chosen one and said, "Behold, I have put My words into your mouth. Behold, I have appointed you this day over nations and kingdoms, to root out and to pull down, to destroy and to rebuild, and to plant" (Jer. 1:9-10).
When Jeremiah prophesied that the King of Babylon would invade Egypt and annihilate the Jews living there, the Jews murdered him.  In that very same year the saint's prophecy was fulfilled.
There is a tradition that 250 years later, Alexander the Great transported the relics of the holy Prophet Jeremiah to Alexandria.

The Prophet Jeremiah wrote his Book of Prophecies and also the Book of Lamentations about the desolation of Jerusalem and the Exile.  The times in which he lived and prophesied are described in 4/2 Kings (Ch. 23-25) and in the Second Book of Chronicles (36:12) and in 2 Maccabbees (Ch. 2).

In the Gospel of Matthew it is said that the betrayal of Judas was foretold by the Prophet Jeremiah, "And they took thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom the sons of Israel had set a price, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed me" (Mt. 27:9-10). Perhaps Jeremiah 32:6-15 is meant.
The birthday of the blessed apostles Philip and James.  Philip, after having converted nearly all of Scythia to the faith of Christ, went to Hieropolis, a city in Asia, where he was fastened to a cross and stoned, and thus ended his life gloriously.  James, who is also called the brother of our Lord, was the first bishop of Jerusalem.  Being hurled down from a pinnacle of the temple, his legs were broken, and being struck on the head with a dyer's staff, he expired and was buried near the temple. 
St. Joseph Feastday: March 19, May 1 Patron of the Universal Church.
We know he was a carpenter, a working man, for the skeptical Nazarenes ask about Jesus, "Is this not the carpenter's son?" (Matthew 13:55). He wasn't rich for when he took Jesus to the Temple to be circumcised and Mary to be purified he offered the sacrifice of two turtledoves or a pair of pigeons, allowed only for those who could not afford a lamb (Luke 2:24).
Despite his humble work and means, Joseph came from a royal lineage. Luke and Matthew disagree some about the details of Joseph's genealogy but they both mark his descent from David, the greatest king of Israel (Matthew 1:1-16 and Luke 3:23-38). Indeed the angel who first tells Joseph about Jesus greets him as "son of David," a royal title used also for Jesus.
We know Joseph was a compassionate, caring man. When he discovered Mary was pregnant after they had been betrothed, he knew the child was not his but was as yet unaware that she was carrying the Son of God. He planned to divorce Mary according to the law but he was concerned for her suffering and safety. He knew that women accused to adultery could be stoned to death, so he decided to divorce her quietly and not expose her to shame or cruelty (Matthew 1:19-25).
We know Joseph was man of faith, obedient to whatever God asked of him without knowing the outcome. When the angel came to Joseph in a dream and told him the truth about the child Mary was carrying, Joseph immediately and without question or concern for gossip, took Mary as his wife. When the angel came again to tell him that his family was in danger, he immediately left everything he owned, all his family and friends, and fled to a strange country with his young wife and the baby.
He waited in Egypt without question until the angel told him it was safe to go back (Matthew 2:13-23).
We know Joseph loved Jesus. His one concern was for the safety of this child entrusted to him. Not only did he leave his home to protect Jesus, but upon his return settled in the obscure town of Nazareth out of fear for his life. When Jesus stayed in the Temple we are told Joseph (along with Mary) searched with great anxiety for three days for him (Luke 2:48). We also know that Joseph treated Jesus as his own son for over and over the people of Nazareth say of Jesus, "Is this not the son of Joseph?" (Luke 4:22)
We know Joseph respected God. He followed God's commands in handling the situation with Mary and going to Jerusalem to have Jesus circumcised and Mary purified after Jesus' birth. We are told that he took his family to Jerusalem every year for Passover, something that could not have been easy for a working man.
Since Joseph does not appear in Jesus' public life, at his death, or resurrection, many historians believe Joseph probably had died before Jesus entered public ministry.
Joseph is the patron of the dying because, assuming he died before Jesus' public life, he died with Jesus and Mary close to him, the way we all would like to leave this earth.
208 St Andeolus Martyr sent to France by St Polycarp,     In France, in the Province of Vivarias, blessed Andeol, subdeacon, who was sent from the East into Gaul with others by St. Polycarp to preach the word of God.  Under Emperor Severus he was scourged with thorny sticks, and having his head split with a wooden sword into four parts, in the shape of a cross, he completed his martyrdom.
Martyr and companion of St. Polycarp. Originally from Smyrna, Andeolus was sent to France by Polycarp. There he labored until arrested and martyred at Viviers.
  604 St. Arigius Bishop 20 yrs greatest priest pastor of his era of Gap, France. He served as bishop for twenty years after earning a reputation as one of the greatest priest pastors of his era. His cult was confirmed by Pope St. Pius X.
  893 St Theodard Benedictine bishop rebuilt churches ransom captives selling treasures spending his own money to
feed poor suffering practiced severe austerities
.  The Montauban breviary describes him as “an eye to the blind, feet to the lame, a father of the poor, and the consoler of the afflicted”. Greatly beloved by all, he was unanimously chosen archbishop of Narbonne at the death of Sigebold, who had nominated him as his successor. The perils which then beset travellers did not deter the newly-elected prelate from undertaking a visit to Rome, where he received the pallium.  Born at Montauban (Monlauriol), France, he studied law at the University of Toulouse and then at the Benedictine abbey of Montauban before becoming a lawyer.
Appointed secretary to Archbishop Sigebold of Narbonne, he soon was named an archdeacon and finally succeeded Sigebold as archbishop. He devoted much of his effort to repairing the damage, physical and spiritual, caused by the raids of Saracens, including rebuilding churches, ransoming captives, selling off treasures, and spending his own money to feed the poor and suffering. His death at St. Martin's Abbey (where he received the Benedictine habit) was probably hastened by the severe austerities he practiced
.
1012 St Benedict of Szkalka hermit martyr gifted mystic of Hungary.   Benedict was a recluse on Mount Zabor, near a Benedictine monastery, trained by St. Andrew Zorard.
A gifted mystic, Benedict was murdered by a mob in 1012. He was canonized in 1083
Gregory VII 1073-1085.
1200 Tamar In 1166 a daughter, Tamar, was born to King George III (1155–1184) and Queen Burdukhan of Georgia.
The king proclaimed that he would share the throne with his daughter from the day she turned twelve years of age. The royal court unanimously vowed its allegiance and service to Tamar, and father and daughter ruled the country together for five years. After King George’s death in 1184, the nobility recognized the young Tamar as the sole ruler of all Georgia. Queen Tamar was enthroned as ruler of all Georgia at the age of eighteen. She is called “King” in the Georgian language because her father had no male heir and so she ruled as a monarch and not as a consort.
At the beginning of her reign, Tamar convened a Church council and addressed the clergy with wisdom and humility: “Judge according to righteousness, affirming good and condemning evil,” she advised. “Begin with me—if I sin I should be censured, for the royal crown is sent down from above as a sign of divine service. Allow neither the wealth of the nobles nor the poverty of the masses to hinder your work. You by word and I by deed, you by preaching and I by the law, you by upbringing and I by education will care for those souls whom God has entrusted to us, and together we will abide by the law of God, in order to escape eternal condemnation.… You as priests and I as ruler, you as stewards of good and I as the watchman of that good.”
Having encamped near Basiani, Rukn al-Din sent a messenger to Queen Tamar with an audacious demand: to surrender without a fight. In reward for her obedience, the sultan promised to marry her on the condition that she embrace Islam; if Tamar were to cleave to Christianity, he would number her among the other unfortunate concubines in his harem. When the messenger relayed the sultan’s demand, a certain nobleman, Zakaria Mkhargrdzelidze, was so outraged that he slapped him on the face, knocking him unconscious. At Queen Tamar’s command, the court generously bestowed gifts upon the ambassador and sent him away with a Georgian envoy and a letter of reply. “Your proposal takes into consideration your wealth and the vastness of your armies, but fails to account for divine judgment,” Tamar wrote, “while I place my trust not in any army or worldly thing but in the right hand of the Almighty God and the infinite aid of the Cross, which you curse. The will of God—and not your own—shall be fulfilled, and the judgment of God—and not your judgment—shall reign!”  The Georgian soldiers were summoned without delay. Queen Tamar prayed for victory before the Vardzia Icon of the Theotokos, then, barefoot, led her army to the gates of the city. Hoping in the Lord and the fervent prayers of Queen Tamar, the Georgian army marched toward Basiani. The enemy was routed. The victory at Basiani was an enormous event not only for Georgia, but for the entire Christian world.
1345 Peregrine Laziosi received a vision of Our Lady who told him to go to Siena, Italy, and there to join the Servites healed by Jesus incorrupt fervant preacher, excellent orator, and gentle confessor.  1345 St Peregrine Laziosi; he spent hours upon his knees in the chapel of our Lady in the cathedral. One day the Blessed Virgin herself appeared to him in that place, and addressed him, saying, “Go to Siena: there you will find the devout men who call themselves my servants: attach yourself to them”.  The only son of well-to-do parents, St Peregrine Laziosi was born in 1260 at Forli, in the Romagna.
After he had spent some years in Siena, his superiors sent him to Forli to found a new house for the order. By this time he had been ordained and had proved himself to be an ideal priest—fervent in the celebration of the holy mysteries, eloquent in preaching, untiring in reconciling sinners. A great affliction now befell him in the form of cancer of the foot, which, besides being excruciatingly painful, made him an object of repulsion to his neighbours. He bore this trial without a murmur. At last the surgeons decided that the only thing to do was to cut off the foot. St Peregrine spent the night before the operation in trustful prayer; he then sank into a light slumber, from which he awoke completely cured—to the amaze­ment of the doctors, who testified that they could no longer detect any trace of the disease. This miracle greatly enhanced the reputation which the holy man had already acquired by his exemplary life. He lived to the age of 80, and was canon­ized in
1726 Benedict XIV 1758.
1852 St John-Louis Bonnard priest Martyr of Vietnam.   Born at St. Christot-en-Jarret, France, he became a priest of the Paris Society of Foreign Missions and was ordained in 1850. Sent to western Vietnam, he was arrested in a persecution and beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988. 

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 02
373 St. Athanasius Bishop and Doctor of the Church refusal to tolerate Arian heresy refuge among desert monks became ascetic renowned for sanctity beloved by followers volumes of writings extant.   At Alexandria, the birthday of St. Athanasius, bishop of that city, confessor and doctor of the Church, most celebrated for sanctity and learning.  Although almost all of the world had formed a conspiracy to persecute him, he courageously defended the Catholic faith, from the reign of Constantine to that of Valens, against emperors, governors, and a multitude of Arian bishops, whose underhanded attacks forced him to wander as an exile over the whole earth without finding a place of security.  At length, however, he was restored to his church, and after overcoming many trials, and winning many crowns by his patience, he departed for heaven in the forty-sixth year of his priesthood, in the time of the emperors Valentinian and Valens.
born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 January, 395), is still used in the liturgy of the Catholic Church.
Five times Athanasius had been banished; seventeen years he had spent in exile: but for the last seven years of his life he was left in the unchallenged occupation of his see. It was probably at this time that he wrote the Life of St Antony.
St Athanasius died in Alexandria on May 2, 373, and his body was subsequently translated first to Constantinople and then to Venice.
The greatest man of his age and one of the greatest religious leaders of any age, Athanasius of Alexandria rendered services to the Church the value of which can scarcely be exaggerated, for he defended the faith against almost overwhelming odds and emerged triumphant. Most aptly has he been described by Cardinal Newman as “a principal instrument after the Apostles by which the sacred truths of Christianity have been conveyed and secured to the world”. Although the writings of St Athanasius deal mainly with controversy, there is beneath this war of words a deep spiritual feeling which comes to the surface at every turn and reveals the high purpose of him who writes. Take, for example, his reply to the objections which the Arians raised from the texts: “Let this chalice pass from me”, or “Why hast thou forsaken me?”
Is it not extravagant to admire the courage of the servants of the Word, yet to say that that Word Himself was in tenor, through whom they despised death? For that most enduring purpose and courage of the holy martyrs demonstrates that the Godhead was not in terror but that the Saviour took away our terror. For as He abolished death by death, and by human means all human evils, so by this so-called terror did He remove our terror, and brought about for us that never more should men fear death. His word and deed go together. . . . For human were the sounds: “Let this chalice pass from me”, and “Why hast thou forsaken me?” and divine the action whereby He, the same being, did cause the sun to fail and the dead to rise. And so He said humanly: “Now is my soul troubled”; and He said divinely: “I have power to lay down my life and power to take it again”. For to be troubled was proper to the flesh, but to have power to lay down His life and take it again when He would, was no property of man, but of the Word’s power. For man dies not at his own arbitrament, but by necessity of nature and against his will; but the Lord being Himself immortal, not having a mortal flesh, had it at His own free will, as God, to become separate from the body and to take it again, when He would. . . . And He let His own body suffer, for therefore did He come, that in the flesh He might suffer, and thenceforth the flesh might be made impassible and immortal; and that contumely and the other troubles might fall upon Him, but come short of others after Him, being by Him annulled utterly; and that henceforth men might for ever abide incorruptible, as a temple of the Word.

The principal source of information for the life of St Athanasius is the collection of his own writings, but his activities were so interwoven with not only the religious, but the secular history of his times that the range of authorities to be consulted is very wide. For English readers Cardinal Newman in his Anglican days, both in his special work on St Athanasius and in his tract on the “Causes of the Rise and Successes of Arianism”, rendered the whole complicated situation intelligible. There is also a brilliantly written chapter on St Athanasius in Dr A. Fortescue’s volume, The Greek Fathers (1908). Two excellent little monographs have appeared in France, by F. Cavallera (1908) and by G. Bardy (1914) in the series “Les Saints”. Reference should also be made to four valuable papers by E. Schwartz in the Nachrichten of the Göttingen Akademie from 1904 to 1911. For a fuller bibliography, see Bardenhewer in the latest edition of his Patrologie, or in his larger work, Geschichte des altkirchlichen Literatur, and for a survey of more recent work, F. L. Cross, The Study of St Athanasius (1945).
Even in exile Athanasius managed to tend his flock. It was primarily for them that he wrote the most illuminating theological treatises on Catholic dogma. He authored Against the Heathen (c. 318), Contra Arianos (c. 358 ?), Apologia to Constantius, (primary historical source), History of the Arians Defense of His Flight, many letters, The Life of Antony (c. 357), and other pieces. In Against the Arians, Athanasius drew on the work of Saints Justin (Born in Flavia Neapolis, Samaria, c. 100; died 165) and St Irenaeus (115-125? 200?), who interpreted Scripture in an orthodox tradition, to insist that the Nicene term homoousios, although not Scriptural itself, was necessary to formulate correctly the truth of Christ's Scriptural revelation.
His Life of Saint Antony showed his friend as singularly devoted to combatting the powers of evil. It became a widely diffused classic. From the time of Saint Bede (Born in Northumbria, England, 673; died at Jarrow, England, on May 25, 735; named Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII in 1899), it inspired other monastic hagiographers.
An 8th-century monk wrote, "If you find a book by Athanasius and have no paper on which to copy it, write it on your shirts."

All his thinking was soteriologically determined, {the branch of Christian theology that deals with salvation as the effect of a divine agency --  The theological doctrine of salvation as effected by Jesus.} hence 'the Word could never have divinized us if He were merely divine by participation and were not himself the essential Godhead.'
Athanasius defended the oneness of God, yet the separateness of the three Divine Persons. He also went forward to add the Holy Spirit to the Godhead to counter Tropici. His theology of the Holy Spirit is found in his letters to Serapion. In his enlightening treatises on Catholic dogma, Athanasius showed that asceticism and virginity were effective ways to restore the divine image in man.
Several of his works were addressed to monks, to whom he also gave repeated practical help.
When he returned to Alexandria after his final exile, Athanasius spent the last seven years of his life helping to build the Nicene party.

Before the outbreak of the Arian controversy, which began in 319, Athanasius had made himself known as the author of two essays addressed to a convert from heathenism, one of them entitled Against the Gentiles, and the other On the Incarnation of the Word. Both are of the nature of apologetical treatises, arguing such questions as monotheism, and the necessity of divine interposition for the salvation of the world; and already in the second may be traced that tone of thought respecting the essential divinity of Christ as the "God-man" for which he afterwards became conspicuous. There is no distinct evidence of the connection of Athanasius with the first contentions of Arius and his bishop, which ended in the exile of the former, and his entrance into Palestine under the protection of Eusebius the historian, who was bishop of Caesarea and subsequently of his namesake the bishop of Nicomedia. It can hardly be doubted, however, that Athanasius would be a cordial assistant of his friend and patron Alexander, and that the latter was strengthened in his theological position by the young enthusiastic student who had already expounded the nature of the divine Incarnation, and who seems about this time to have become archdeacon of Alexandria. At the Council of Nicaea, in the year 325, he appears prominently in connection with the dispute. He attended the council, not as one of its members (who were properly only bishops or delegates of bishops), but merely as the attendant of Alexander. In this capacity, however, he was apparently allowed to take part in its discussions, for Theodoret (i. 26) states that "he contended earnestly for the apostolic doctrines, and was applauded by their champions, while he earned the hostility of their opponents".
   Within `five months' after the return of Alexander to the scene of his episcopal labours he expired, and his friend and archdeacon was chosen t