Friday   Saints_of_this_Day May_13_Tértio Idus Maii  
CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2016

Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum. R.  Deo grátias.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.  R.  Thanks be to God.
Our Lady of Fatima May 13, October 13, 1917 2015

Basilica of Saint Mary Minneapolis
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not

O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,
 in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. 
I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary asked the children to pray the rosary
 for world peace, for end of World War I, for sinners and conversion of Russia.
At the beginning of 2003, the third visionary, Lucia dos Santos, was still living as a Carmelite nun.  Mary gave the children three secrets. Since Francisco died in 1919 and Jacinta the following year, Lucia revealed the first secret in 1927, concerning devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. The second secret was a vision of hell.  Pope John Paul II directed the Holy See's Secretary of State to reveal the third secret in 2000; it spoke of a 'bishop in white' who was shot by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows into him. Many people linked this to the assassination attempt against Pope John Paul II in St. Peter's Square on May 13, 1981.
St. Jeremiah the Prophet On this day, the prophet Jeremiah, one of the major prophets, the son of Hilkiah the priest, was martyred 
Sancti Robérti Bellarmíno, e Societáte Jesu, Cardinális atque olim Epíscopi Capuáni, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris
       Romæ Dedicátio Ecclésiæ sanctæ Maríæ ad Mártyres
  Sunday_of_the_Blind_Man He opened the eyes of a man "who was blind from his birth (John 9:1). the blind man St Celidonius who lacked both sight and eyes
177 Saint Glyceria {means Sweet} Martyred virgin of Trajanopolis, in Greece destroyed a statue of Jupiter protected by an angel

  372 Alexandrian Martyrs at the time of Saint Athanasius's fifth exile
  686 Erconwald of London founded Chertsey monastery in Surrey convent Barking Essex invoked against gout OSB
 850 George The Holy Confessor suffered for veneration of holy icons at Constantinople under emperor Theophilus
 1028 Euthymius the Illuminator performed many miracles translated from Greek into Iberian (Karthvelian)  Bible 60 writings of the Fathers (Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Ephrem, Gregory the Great, John Cassian), biblical  commentaries, lives of the saints, and liturgical books Abbot (RM)
1423  Bl. Juliana of Norwich Benedictine English mystic anchorite In 1373 experienced 16 revelations. Her book, Revelations of Divine Love - a work on the love of God, the Incarnation, redemption, and divine consolation. Among English mystics none is greater
1621 ST Robert Belarmine, Archbishop of Capua Cardinal, Doctor of the Church one of the greatest polemical theologians the Church has ever produced, and her foremost controversialist against the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation
1917 Our Lady of Fatima three Portuguese children received apparitions of Our Lady at Cova da Iria, near Fatima, a city 110 miles north of Lisbon Between May 13 and October 13


 The message of Fatima is simple: Pray
Sister Lucia has agreed that Pope John Paul II's public consecration in St. Peter's Square on March 25, 1984,
fulfilled Mary's request.
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith prepared a June 26, 2000, document explaining the “third secret” (available at www.vatican.va).


May 13 - First Apparition in Fatima: “I am from Heaven” (Portugal, 1917) -
Pope John Paul II assassination attempt (1981)
 
The assassination attempt and the secret
 Pope John Paul II had asked to read the third secret after the attempt on his life on May 13, 1981, and today the bullet that was extracted from his abdomen forms part of the crown of the statue of the Virgin, to whom he also offered the ring of Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński (former Primate of Poland).

Indeed, on May 13, 1981, at 5:17 pm, the hand of Ali Agca pulled the trigger but "someone else" diverted the bullet, in the opinion of John Paul II himself, who saw the intervention of the Virgin Mary: it was the feast of Our Lady of Fatima.

Blessed John Paul II also wished that the text of the secret be published on May 13, 2000, for the beatification of the two young shepherds Jacinta and Francisco. The message of the Virgin Mary was entrusted to the third visionary, Lucia, who became a Carmelite nun in Coïmbra and died not long before John Paul II, on February 13, 2005.

In this visit, John Paul II gave the ring that Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski had given him to the Virgin of Fatima,
on which the words Totus Tuus (totally yours) were inscribed.   May 13, 2013 (Zenit.org)

 
May 13 - First Apparition in Fatima (Portugal) - Our Lady of the Rosary (1917)
I Am from Heaven
Sister Lucia herself told us of the first apparition of Our Lady on May 13, 1917:
"...In the Cova da Iria....we saw what seemed to be a flash of lightning. (...) There before us on a small oak tree, we beheld a Lady all dressed in white. She was more brilliant than a crystal glass filled with sparkling water, when the rays of the burning sun shine through it.
... 'Do not be afraid. I will do you no harm. (...) I am from heaven. (...) I am here to ask you to come here for six months in succession, on the 13th day, at this same hour. Later on, I will tell you who I am and what I want. Afterwards, I will return here yet a seventh time.' (...) 'Will I go to heaven too?' 'Yes, you will.' 'And Jacinta?' 'She will go also.' 'And Francisco?' 'He will go there too, but he must say many Rosaries.' 'Are you willing to offer yourselves to God and bear all the sufferings He wills to send you, as an act of reparation for the sins by which He is offended, and as an act of supplication for the conversion of sinners?' (...)'Then you are going to have much to suffer, but the grace of God will be your comfort.'
We fell on our knees, repeating in our hearts:
'O Most Holy Trinity, I adore You! My God, my God, I love You in the most Blessed Sacrament!'
... Our Lady spoke again: 'Pray the Rosary every day, in order to obtain peace for the world, and the end of the war.'"


Tell the children about God and His Saints. During the holy time of Lent, speak to them of their suffering Savior. During Paschal time, of His glorious Resurrection. During Christmas time, of His Birth.
You will see what a profound impression it will make on the minds of your children. -- St. John Vianney



May 12 - Humility of Our Lady     

  Marian Apparitions in France Recognized Marian apparitions to Benôite (Benedicta) Rencurel --  Laus

On Sunday, May 4, 2008, during a Mass celebrated in the town of Laus in the French Alps, Bishop Jean-Michel de Falco of Gap, accompanied by numerous cardinals and archbishops from around the world, and announced the official approval of the Church of the Marian apparitions to Benôite (Benedicta) Rencurel between 1664 and 1718.

During the Mass, attended by Roman Curia officials including Cardinal Javier Lozano Barragan, Bishop de Falco noted these are the first Marian apparitions to be approved in the 21st century by the Vatican and the Church in France. He called it the most singular event to take place in France since the apparitions of Lourdes in 1862.

“I recognize the supernatural origin of the apparitions and the events and words experienced and narrated by Benedicta Rencurel. I encourage all of the faithful to come and pray and seek spiritual renewal at this shrine. Nobody is obliged to believe in apparitions,” he continued, “even in those officially recognized, but if they help us in our faith and our daily lives, why should we reject them?” the bishop asked.

The shrine of Our Lady of Laus attracts some 120,000 pilgrims each year. The Catholic philosopher Jean Guitton called it “one of the most hidden and powerful shrines of Europe.”
See http://www.mariedenazareth.com/8112.0.html?&L=1

St. Jeremiah the Prophet On this day, the prophet Jeremiah, one of the major prophets, the son of Hilkiah the priest, was martyred (?dies in Egypt).    
Sancti Robérti Bellarmíno, e Societáte Jesu, Cardinális atque olim
       Epíscopi Capuáni, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris
       Romæ Dedicátio Ecclésiæ sanctæ Maríæ ad Mártyres
  Sunday_of_the_Blind_Man He opened the eyes of a man "who was blind from his birth (John 9:1). the blind man St Celidonius who lacked both sight and eyes
177 Saint Glyceria {means Sweet} Martyred virgin of Trajanopolis, in Greece destroyed a statue of Jupiter protected by an angel
177 Martyr Laodicius martyred for the faith the Keeper of the Prison for
Saint Glyceria
2nd v. Saint Abban of Magheranoidhe, known as "Abbanstown," today, Adamstown founded an abbey at Rosmic-treoin, or New Ross came from Ireland to England where baptized about 165 AD
  304 Saint Quintus Mucius Priest martyr reportedly destroyed an altar of
the pagan god Bacchus at Amphipolis, Macedoniat miraculously escaped attempts at murdering him
  350 Valerian of Auxerre 3rd bishop championed the Catholic faith against error of Arianism B (AC)

  361 Saint Onesimus Fifth Bishop of Soissons, France
  372 Alexandrian Martyrs at the time of Saint Athanasius's fifth exile
  384 Saint Servatus Bishop of Tongres (in the modern Low Countries) host of Saint Athanasius during his exile prophesied the Hun invasion of France
  6th v. Saint Mael hermit of Wales disciple of Saint Cadfan
  558 Saint John the Silent Bishop of Colonia in Palestine  reputation for sanctity hermit  John saw a bright cross in
the air and heard a voice say, "If you want to be saved, follow this light."to the laura of Saint Sabas near Jerusalem
75 years a silent recluse

   586 Saint Agnes of Poitiers Abbess and model of the conventual life adopted the Rule of Saint Caesarius
  606 Saint Pausicacus, Bishop of Synada gift of healing sicknesses of both soul and body
  686 Erconwald of London founded
Chertsey monastery in Surrey convent Barking Essex invoked against gout OSB B
  751 Natalis of Milan bishop from about 740 governed in the strained period of Italian and Church history when Lombards were being converted to the orthodox faith
  780 Anno of Verona remembered chiefly with translation the relics of SS. Firmus and Rusticus  B (AC)
 850 George The Holy Confessor suffered for veneration of holy icons at Constantinople under emperor Theophilus
  970 Saint Merewenna first Abbess of Romsey in Hampshire monastery prospered and attracted princesses
 1028 Euthymius the Illuminator performed many miracles He translated from Greek into Iberian (Karthvelian) the
Bible 60 writings of the Fathers (Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Ephrem, Gregory the Great, John Cassian), biblical
commentaries, lives of the saints, and liturgical books Abbot (RM)
1040 Blessed Fortis Gabrielli OSB Hermit in the mountains near Scheggia (AC)
1242 Blessed Gerard of Villamagna esquire to crusader knight ransomed prisoner Franciscan tertiary OFM Tert.
1259 Persecution by crusaders  of the Georgian monks who settled Mt. Athos in mid 10th century
1333 Blessed Imelda Lambertini patron of first communicants died of love on her first Communion day Saint Agnes came in a vision she saw a brilliant light shining above Imelda's head, and Host suspended in the light OP V (AC)
1423  Bl. Juliana of Norwich Benedictine English mystic anchorite In 1373 experienced sixteen revelations. Her book,
Revelations of Divine Love - a work on the love of God, the Incarnation, redemption, and divine consolation. Among English mystics none is greater

1456 St Peter Regalatus began his efforts at reforming this and several other friaries--primarily through his own example  of austerity, penance, and prayer OFM (RM)
1522 Righteous Virgin Glyceria of Novgorod incorrupt relics During the interment, healings occurred at the relics.
1621 ST ROBERT BELLARMINE, ARCHBISHOP OF CAPUA AND CARDINAL, DOCTOR OF THF CHURCH ONE of the greatest polemical theologians the Church has ever produced, and her foremost controversialist against the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation
1688 Transfer of the Relics of the Hieromartyr Macarius, Archimandrite of Kanev
1834 ST ANDREW HUBERT FOURNET, CO-FOUNDER OF THE DAUGHTERS OF THE CROSS
1917 Our Lady of Fatima three Portuguese children received apparitions of Our Lady at Cova da Iria, near Fatima, a city 110 miles north of Lisbon Between May 13 and October 13
The Cross
It Makes No Sense  Not To Believe In GOD
Every Christian must be a living book wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

1917 Our Lady of Fatima three Portuguese children received apparitions of Our Lady at Cova da Iria, near Fatima, a city 110 miles north of Lisbon Between May 13 and October 13
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not trust and do not love Thee. 
O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,
 in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. 
I beg the conversion of poor sinners, 
Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace

  (See February 20 entry for Blessed Jacinta and Francisco Marto).
Mary asked the children to pray the rosary for world peace, for the end of World War I, for sinners and for the conversion of Russia. At the beginning of 2003, the third visionary, Lucia dos Santos, was still living as a Carmelite nun.  Mary gave the children three secrets. Since Francisco died in 1919 and Jacinta the following year, Lucia revealed the first secret in 1927, concerning devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.
The second secret was a vision of hell.
Pope John Paul II directed the Holy See's Secretary of State to reveal the third secret in 2000; it spoke of a 'bishop in white' who was shot by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows into him.
Many people linked this to the assassination attempt against Pope John Paul II in St. Peter's Square on May 13, 1981.
Comment:  The message of Fatima is simple: Pray.
Unfortunately, some people—not Sister Lucia—have distorted these revelations, making them into an apocalyptic event for which they are now the only reliable interpreters. They have claimed that Mary's request the world be consecrated is been ignored.
Sister Lucia has agreed that Pope John Paul II's public consecration in St. Peter's Square on March 25, 1984, fulfilled Mary's request. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith prepared a June 26, 2000, document explaining the “third secret” (available at www.vatican.va).
Quote:  “Throughout history there have been supernatural apparitions and signs which go to the heart of human events and which, to the surprise of believers and non-believers alike, play their part in the unfolding of history. These manifestations can never contradict the content of faith, and must therefore have their focus in the core of Christ's proclamation: the Father's love which leads men and women to conversion and bestows the grace required to abandon oneself to him with filial devotion. This too is the message of Fatima which, with its urgent call to conversion and penance, draws us to the heart of the Gospel” (The Message of Fatima, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, June 26, 2000).The feast of Our Lady of Fatima was approved by the local bishop in 1930; it was added to the Church's worldwide calendar in 2002.

Mary is perfectly honored when people generously imitate her response “Let it be done to me as you say” (Luke 1:38).
Mary can never be seen as a rival to Jesus or to the Church's teaching authority, as exercised by the college of bishops united with the bishop of Rome.

Sancti Robérti Bellarmíno, e Societáte Jesu, Cardinális atque olim Epíscopi Capuáni, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris, cujus dies natális décimo quinto Kaléndas Octóbris recensétur.
 St. Robert Bellarmine, of the Society of Jesus, cardinal and one time bishop of Capua, confessor and doctor of the Church, whose birthday is kept on the 17th of September.
Robert Bellarmin

Katholische Kirche: 17. September Robert Bellarmine
Robert wurde am 4.10.1542 in Montepulciano (Italien) geboren. Hier ging er in die Jesuitenschule und trat in den Jesuitenorden ein. Robert erwies sich als hochbegabter Theologe. Er studierte in Rom, Padua und Löwen, hielt hier auch bereits Vorlesungen, die auch bei Nichtkatholiken auf Interesse stießen. Nach der Priesterweihe 1570 wirkte Robert als Dozent in Löwen, bis er 1576 von Papst Gregor XIII. als Kontroverstheologe an die Gregoriana in Rom berufen wurde. Er war auch mit der Erziehung des Ordensnachwuchses betraut. Zu seinen Schülern gehörte Aloisius Gonzaga. 1586 erschien der erste Band seiner Disputationes de Controversiis Christianae Fidei (Gespräche über die Gegensätze des christlichen Glaubens), das Hauptwerk der Gegenreformation, das Jahrhunderte hinweg unverändert übernommen wurde und heute noch verwendet wird.
Robert hielt aber auch mit Kritik am Papst und der Kurie nicht zurück. 1588 wurden deshalb seine Bücher indiziert und er selber in die Provinz versetzt. Clemes VIII. wurde 1592 zum Papst gewählt, er holte Robert zurück nach Rom. Hier gab er 1593 den dritten Band seiner Controversii heraus; 1594 wurde er nach Neapel strafversetzt und mit der Leitung der Ordensprovinz der Jesuiten betraut. 1597 wurde er wieder nach Rom zurückberufen. Hier verfaßte er seinen Katechismus, der noch heute gültig ist. 1599 wurde er zum Kardinal ernannt, fiel dann aber erneut in Ungnade und wurde 1602 als Erzbischof nach Capua gesandt. Hier wirkte er bis 1605 segensreich in seiner Diözese. Der neue Papst Leo XI. holte Robert als seinen theologischen Berater nach Rom zurück. Hier starb er am 17.9.1621. Heiliggesprochen wurde Robert 1930. Er war mit Philippo Neri und Franz von Sales befreundet. Er soll auch ein Anhänger der Lehren von Galileo Galilei gewesen sein.
St. Jeremiah the Prophet On this day, the prophet Jeremiah, one of the major prophets, the son of Hilkiah the priest, was martyred
Jeremiah
   In about 646 B.C., just over a century after Isaiah, Jeremiah was born of a priestly family living in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. His life and character are better known to us than those of any other prophet, thanks to the biographical narratives in the third person scattered throughout his book, the chronological sequence of which is as follows: 19:2-20:6; 26; 36; 45; 28-29; 51:59-64; 34:8-22; 37-44; and the autobiographical passages, prose or verse, known as the ‘Confessions of Jeremiah’: 11:18-12:6; 15:10-21; 17:14-18; 18:18-23; 20:7-18.
Called by God as a young man in 626 B.C., the thirteenth year of Josiah, 1:2, he lived through the tragic years preceding and succeeding the ruin of the kingdom of Judah. Hopes had been raised by Josiah’s religious reforms and his rallying of the nation, but these were destroyed by the death of the king at Megiddo in 609 and the disruption of the balance of power in that ancient world by the fall of Nineveh in 612 and the expansion of the Chaldaean empire.
From 605 onwards Nebuchadnezzar imposed his will on Palestine; Judah rebelled, encouraged by the persistent intrigues of Egypt, and in 598 Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem and deported a number of its population. A second revolt recalled the Chaldaean armies and in 587 Jerusalem was captured, its Temple burnt and more of its inhabitants deported.
   Jeremiah lived throughout these catastrophic events, preaching, threatening, prophesying disaster, vainly admonishing the worthless Davidic kings one after the other; by the war party he was dubbed a defeatist, persecuted and imprisoned. When Jerusalem fell, Jeremiah remained in Palestine with his friend Gedaliah whom the Chaldaeans had appointed governor; the prophet could see, however, that all hopes for the future lay in those who had been exiled.

     When Gedaliah was assassinated, a party of Jews, fearing reprisals, fled to Egypt, taking Jeremiah with them. It is probable that he died there.
    The prophet’s own inner conflicts were as dramatic as the events in which he played a part. Of an affectionate and gentle disposition, he was nevertheless called ‘to tear up and to knock down, to destroy and to overthrow’, 1:10, and disaster was the keynote of his message, 20:8. This man of peace was for ever at war, with his own people, with kings, priests, false prophets, the nation itself, ‘a man of strife and of dissension for all the land’, 15:10: He was tortured by a duty he could not refuse, 20:9. In prayer he referred to his anguish repeatedly: ‘Why is my suffering continual?’, 15:18; and cf. the passage that anticipates Job’s ‘cursed be the day when I was born’, 20:14f.
  All this suffering purified his soul of everything unworthy and made it open to God. Before expressing it in his prophecy of the new covenant, 31:31-34, Jeremiah practised a really inward and heartfelt religion; this is what makes him near and dear to Christians. This personal religion led him to rethink traditional teaching: God examines the heart, 11:20, and rewards each according to his works, 31:29-30; friendship with God, 2:2, is broken by sin which is the consequence of a perverted will, 4:4; 17:9; 18:12. His warm religion makes Jeremiah not unlike Hosea, who influenced him; his conception of the Law as an ‘inward’ force, his respect for the function of love in true religion, his concern for the person as an individual, all make the Book of Jeremiah rather like Deuteronomy. They have some phrases in common because of a mutual influence at the time when the two books were edited; this borrowing is justified, since the spirit and doctrine of the books is the same; Jeremiah was familiar with the first edition of Deuteronomy and supported the religious reform inspired by deuteronomic principles.
   During his lifetime Jeremiah was a failure; after his death he grew steadily in stature. His doctrine of a new covenant written in the heart made him the father of all that was best in Judaism. His influence may be seen in Ezekiel,
         in the second part of Isaiah and in several of the Psalms. In the Maccabaean period he was considered a protector of the nation, 2 M 2:1-8; 15:12-16. By maintaining the primacy of the things of the spirit and by showing how intimate man’s contact with God must be, Jeremiah paved the way for the new covenant of Christian times; his life of renunciation and of suffering in the service of God, which may well have contributed to the portrait of the servant in Is 53, makes Jeremiah an antetype of Christ.

   That Jeremiah’s influence persisted shows that his words must often have been studied, meditated and interpreted. This contribution of the prophet’s spiritual children can be seen in the construction of the book. This clearly was not written at one sitting. The Greek translation represents an edition considerably shorter than the Hebrew text and puts the oracles against the nations after 25:13 (which must have been their original position), whereas the Hebrew relegates them to the end of the book, ch. 46-51. These prophecies against the nations do not seem to have all been written by Jeremiah himself; the oracles against Babylon, at least, date from the end of the Exile, ch. 50-51. Ch. 52 is included as an historical appendix; it is parallel to 2 K 24:18-25:30. Other, shorter, supplementary passages have also been inserted into the body of the book; they witness to the use made of it by the exiles in Babylon and the post-exilic community, and to the respect in which it was then held. The many duplicate passages are also proofs of editorial activity. Lastly, the numerous indications of time are not in sequence. The book as we have it now is in a state of disorder, the outcome of a protracted compilation, the stages of which are very hard to sort out.
 Ch. 36, however, gives some very useful data: in 605 Jeremiah dictated to Baruch the oracles he had made since the beginning of his ministry in 626, 36:2.
   This scroll, burnt by Jehoiakim, was rewritten and supplemented, 36:32. We can do no more than conjecture what this collection contained. It appears to have had 25:1-12 for introduction, and it assembled the pre-605 passages which are now in ch. 1-18; but, according to 36:2, it also contained certain ancicat oracles against the nations referred to in 25:13-18. In the same sections, the supplements later added are passages dating from after 605 and further oracles against the nations. Into those were inserted the pages of ‘Confessions’ (described in detail above). Two small booklets were added, one on the kings, 21:11-23:8, the other on the prophets, 23:9-40, which may originally have been distinct.
 In this way we are able to identify two sections of the book: one containing threats against Judah and Jerusalem, 1:1-25:13, the other containing prophecies against the nations, 25:13-18 and ch. 46-51. Ch. 26-35 make up a third section; this is a collection, out of order, of rather more cheerful passages. Nearly all of these are in prose and are mostly drawn from a biography of Jeremiah for which, it is supposed, Baruch was responsible. Exception must be made of ch. 30-31, a small book of consolation, written in verse form. The fourth section, ch. 36-44, is in prose; it continues the biography of Jeremiah and describes his sufferings during and after the siege of Jerusalem. It ends with 45:1-5 which may be considered as the signature of Baruch.


Lamentations
          The Hebrew Bible groups this short book with the Writings’ (Haglographa). The Greek Bible and the Vulgate put it immediately after Jeremiah entitling it ‘The Lamentations of Jeremiah’. This tradition of authorship is based on 2 Ch 35:25 and supported by the poems themselves, the subject-matter of which reflects the times of the prophet. Even so, it is difficult to credit Jeremiah with the book. The Jeremiah we know from his authentic oracles could never have said that the voice of prophecy was silenced, 2:9; nor could he have praised Zedekiah, 4:20, or put his trust in Egyptian help, 4:17. His spontaneity would have burst through the artificial literary curbs we find in these alphabetical poems: in the first four it is each strophe which begins with a different letter and in the fifth it is each of the twenty-two verses.
          Ch. 1,2 and 4 are written in the form of a dirge for the dead, ch,. 3 is an individual lament, ch. 5 (‘Prayer of Jeremiah’ in the Vulgate) a collective one.
         They were written in Palestine after the fall of Jerusalem in 587 and they were probably used in the liturgy which, according to Jr 41:5, was still performed on the site of the Temple. With great pathos, the author (or authors) describes the mourning of city and people; but from this darkness shines a ray of unconquerable trust in God and of wholehearted repentance, which makes the short book of lasting value. The Jews chant it on the great fast commemorating the events of 587; it is used by Christians in the Holy Week liturgy to recall what happened on Calvary.


He prophesied in the days of Josiah son of Amon, king of Judah and Jehoiakim son of Josiah. God had chosen him for He said: "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you; before you were born I sanctified you; I ordained you a prophet to the nations" (Jr 1:5). He rebuked the children of Israel for they left the worship of God and rejected His Commandments. He warned them of the anger of God if they did not return on their transgressions. When he saw their hard hearts and the fast approaching judgement of the Lord, he prayed fervently weeping so that God might forgive the sins of his people. God rejected his prayers with regard to those who did not obey him, and He moved Nebuchadnezzar to besiege Jerusalem. His soldiers conquered it under the leadership of Nebuzardan who killed many of them inside the city. After they had taken all the precious possessions of the temple, the king's palace, and the nobles of the people, they took with them all those who were left alive to Babylon. Among those who were driven to exile was the prophet Jeremiah. Nevertheless, when Nebuzardan saw him bound with the rest, he set him free. He then wrote his "Lamentations" for the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, the temple and the exile of his people for 70 years in babylon.
This Prophet prophesied about the coming of Our Lord and Savior, and His sufferings and passion. His life ended when the jews themselves stoned him in Egypt, and he died a martyr in prison.
May his prayers be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.
Romæ Dedicátio Ecclésiæ sanctæ Maríæ ad Mártyres, quam beátus Bonifátius Papa Quartus, expurgáto deórum ómnium véteri fano, quod Pántheon vocabátur, in honórem beátæ semper Vírginis Maríæ et ómnium Mártyrum dedicávit, témpore Phocæ Imperatóris.  Ipsíus vero Dedicatiónis ánnuam solemnitátem póstmodum Summus Póntifex Gregórius item Quartus ab univérsa Ecclésia, et in honórem quidem ómnium Sanctórum, Kaléndis Novémbris agéndam esse constítuit.
    At Rome, in the time of Emperor Phocas, the dedication of the church of St. Mary of the Martyrs, formerly a temple of all the gods, called the Pantheon, which was purified and dedicated by the blessed Pope Boniface IV to the honour of the Blessed Mary ever Virgin, and of all the martyrs.  The solemn anniversary of this dedication was later ordered to be kept by Pope Gregory IV as the Feast of All Saints on the 1st of November.

Sunday_of_the_Blind_Man He opened the eyes of a man "who was blind from his birth (John 9:1). the blind man St Celidonius who lacked both sight and eyes
After the Midfeast (John 7:14), the Lord Jesus Christ came to the Temple again and taught the people who came to Him (John 8:2).
After leaving the Temple, He opened the eyes of a man "who was blind from his birth (John 9:1).

The miracle described in today's Gospel (John 9:1-38) is even more remarkable than it might seem at first.  St Basil and other Fathers tell us that this was not just a case of giving sight to a blind man born with eyes that did not function, but to someone who had no eyes at all!
The second Exapostilarion for this Sunday says, "Along the way, our Savior found a man who lacked both sight and eyes…."
The Gospel says, "Since the world began, it was not heard that any man opened the eyes of one who was born blind" (John 9:32).
There are examples in the Old (Tobit 2:17) and New (Mark 8:22-26) Testaments of blind people receiving sight, this is something completely unprecedented.
The Savior placed clay in the man's empty sockets and told him to wash in the pool of Siloam. When he obeyed these instructions, the eyes of clay became living eyes!
In his MENAION, St Demetrius of Rostov calls the blind man St Celidonius (see his account of St Lazarus in the Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles on January 4).

2nd v. Saint Abban of Magheranoidhe, subsequently known as "Abbanstown," today, Adamstown founded an abbey at Rosmic-treoin, or New Ross came from Ireland to England where he was baptized about 165 AD

(Magheranoidhe is also rendered Murneave or Murnevin). Nephew of Saint Ibar, the apostle of Wexford (a predecessor and contemporary of Saint Patrick), flourished 570-620. He was the son of Cormac, King of Leinster, and he founded numerous churches in the district of Ui Cennselaigh, almost conterminous with the present County Wexford and Diocese of Ferns. His principal monastery was at Magheranoidhe, subsequently known as "Abbanstown," today, Adamstown; but he also founded an abbey at Rosmic-treoin, or New Ross, which afterwards became famous as a scholastic.

Abban of Abingdon (AC) (also known as Abben) 2nd century. This early saint gave his name to Abingdon, formerly Abbendun, in Berkshire England. The use of -dun (fortress or seat) indicates a Celtic origin, which, if true, would make Abban the earliest Irish saint. He is saint to have come from Ireland to England, where he was baptized about 165 AD. He preached effectively and received a generous land grant in Berroccense (Berkshire) on which he founded a monastery. Another monastery, funded by Prince Cissa and founded by Hean, replaced this one in 685 (D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick, Montague, O'Hanlon).

Saint Abban resided in Abingdon, England before the era of Saint Patrick  served as model for European monasticism and faith unknown.  Irish hermit whose life is largely undocumented. Born in Ireland,. Abban is part of the great panorama of early Irish Christians who served as models for European monasticism and faith. He is especially revered in Abingdon, England.
177 Saint Glyceria {means Sweet} Martyred virgin of Trajanopolis, in Greece destroyed a statue of Jupiter protected by an angel
Heracléæ, in Thrácia, sanctæ Glycériæ, Mártyris Románæ, quæ, sub Antoníno Imperatóre et Sabíno Prǽside, cum fuísset plúrimis ac diris tentáta supplíciis et ab his divína ope incólumis evasísset, tandem feris est objécta, earúmque una, morsum córpori ipsíus infigénte, spíritum Deo réddidit.
    At Heraclea in Thrace, St. Glyceria, a Roman martyr who suffered many severe torments under Emperor Antonius and the governor Sabinus.  By the help of God having escaped them all unharmed, she was finally thrown to the wild beasts, and when the first one had bitten her body, she rendered her soul to God.

177 ST GLYCERIA, VIRGIN AND MARTYR
THE Greek “acts” which are our sole authority for the life of St Glyceria, are unfortunately quite unreliable, and all that can be asserted definitely is that she was a Christian maiden who suffered martyrdom at Heraclea in the Propontis towards the close of the second century. The legend follows conventional lines: She is said to have been the daughter of a Roman official of senatorial rank living at Trajanopolis in Thrace. She openly avowed her faith, in the presence of Sabinus the prefect, who caused her to be led to the temple of Jupiter that she might sacrifice. Instead of doing so, she threw down the statue of the god and broke it. She was hung up by the hair and beaten with iron rods, but sustained no harm. Deprived of food by her jailers in prison, she was fed by an angel. When placed in a hot oven the fire was promptly extinguished. Her hair was then dragged out and she was exposed to wild beasts, but she died before they could reach her. A splendid church was set up to her honour at Heraclea.
In his Origines du Culte des Martyrs (pp. 244—245) Delehaye remarks that nothing could be more clearly demonstrated than the early cultus of St Glyceria at Heraclea. The Emperor Maurice visited the shrine in 591 and Heraclius in 610, while there is mention of St Glyceria’s tomb as a centre of devotion in the Passion of the Forty Martyrs of Heraclea. On the other hand the story printed with the Greek text in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, is, as stated above, no more than a pious fiction. Cf. also the Byzantinische Zeitschrift, vol. vi (1897), pp. 96—99.

Glykeria  Orthodoxe Kirche: 13. Mai
Saint Glyceria suffered as a martyr for her faith in Christ in the second century, during a persecution against Christians under the emperor Antoninus (138-161). She came from an illustrious family, and her father Macarius was a high-ranking Roman official. Later, the family moved to the Thracian city of Trajanopolis.  St Glyceria lost both her father and mother at an early age. Falling in with Christians, she converted to the true Faith, and she visited the church every day. Sabinus, the prefect of Trajanopolis, received the imperial edict ordering Christians to offer sacrifice to the idols, and so he designated a certain day for the inhabitants of the city to worship the idol Zeus.
St Glyceria firmly resolved to suffer for Christ. She told the Christians of her intention, and she begged them to pray that the Lord would give her the strength to undergo the sufferings. On the appointed day St Glyceria made the Sign of the Cross on her forehead, and went into the pagan temple.  The saint stood on a raised spot in the rays of the sun, and removed the veil from her head, showing the holy Cross traced on her forehead. She prayed fervently to God to bring the pagans to their senses and destroy the stone idol of Zeus.
Suddenly thunder was heard, and the statue of Zeus crashed to the floor and smashed into little pieces.

In a rage, the prefect Sabinus and the pagan priests commanded the people to pelt St Glyceria with stones, but the stones did not touch the saint. They locked St Glyceria in prison, where the Christian priest Philokrates came to her and encouraged the martyr in the struggle before her.  In the morning, when the tortures had started, suddenly an angel appeared in the midst of the torturers, and they fell to the ground, overcome with terror. When the vision vanished, Sabinus, who was hardly able to speak, ordered them to throw the saint into prison.
They shut the door securely and sealed it with the prefect's own ring, so that no one could get in to her. While she was in prison, angels of God brought St Glyceria food and drink. Many days afterwards, Sabinus came to the prison and he himself removed the seal. Going in to the saint, he was shaken when he saw her alive and well.
Setting off for the city of Heraclea in Thrace, Sabinus gave orders to bring St Glyceria there also. The Christians of Heraclea came out to meet her with Bishop Dometius at their head, and he prayed that the Lord would strengthen the saint to endure martyrdom.
At Heraclea they cast St Glyceria into a red-hot furnace, but the fire was extinguished at once. Then the prefect, in a mindless fury, gave orders to rip the skin from St Glyceria's head. Then they threw the martyr into prison onto sharp stones.
She prayed incessantly, and at midnight an angel appeared in the prison and healed her of her wounds.
When the jailer Laodicius came for the saint in the morning, he did not recognize her. Thinking that the martyr had been taken away, he feared he would be punished for letting her escape. He wanted to kill himself, but St Glyceria stopped him.
Shaken by the miracle, Laodicius believed in the true God, and he entreated the saint to pray that he might suffer and die for Christ with her.
"Follow Christ and you will be saved," the holy martyr replied. Laodicius placed upon himself the chains with which the saint was bound, and at the trial he told the prefect and everyone present about the miraculous healing of St Glyceria by an angel, then he confessed himself a Christian.  The newly chosen one of God was beheaded by the sword. Christians secretly took up his remains, and reverently buried them. St Glyceria was sentenced to be eaten by wild beasts.
She went to execution with great joy, but the lioness set loose upon the saint meekly crawled up to her and lay at her feet.

Finally, the saint prayed to the Lord, imploring that He take her unto Himself. In answer she heard a Voice from Heaven, summoning her to heavenly bliss. At that moment, another lioness was set loose upon the saint. It pounced upon the martyr and killed her, but did not tear her apart. Bishop Dometius and the Christians of Heraclea reverently buried the holy martyr Glyceria. She suffered for Christ around the year 177. Her holy relics were glorified with a flow of healing myrrh.
St Glyceria, whose name means "sweetness," now rejoices in the unending sweetness of the heavenly Kingdom.

Slain at Heraclea in the Propontis. Tradition states that she was the daughter of a Roman senator. Arrested as a Christian, Glyceria destroyed a statue of Jupiter. Tortured, she was thrown to the wild animals but died before they could harm her.
Glyceria of Trajanopolis VM (RM). The Roman maiden Glyceria lived with her father at Trajanopolis, Greece. She was martyred at Heraclea in the Propontis (Benedictines).

Glykeria  Orthodoxe Kirche: 13. Mai
Glykeria lebte im 2. Jahrhundert. Sie war eine Tochter des römischen Stadtpräfekten Macarius, der nach Trojanopolis in Thrakien gekommen war. Als ihre Eltern starben, schloß sich Glykeria der christlichen Gemeinde an. Unter Kaiser Antonius (138-161) wurden alle Menschen aufgefordert, den heidnischen Göttern zu opfern. Glykeria ging an dem festgesetzten Tag in den Zeustempel und bekannte sich dort zu Christus. Ihre Gebete sollen die Zeusstatue zerstört haben. Sie wurde ergriffen und gefoltert und in eine Zelle gesperrt, in der sie verhungern sollte. Von einem Engel gespeist blieb sie am Leben. Der Gefängniswärter Laodicius bekannte sich daraufhin zu Christus und wurde sofort hingerichtet. Glykeria aber wurde in einen glühenden Ofen geworfen. Auch diese Folterung überstand sie unbeschadet. Sie wurde dann nach Heraklia in Thrakien gebracht und dort (nach weiteren Folterungen) wilden Tieren vorgeworfen. Sie bat Gott um Erlösung von ihrem Leiden und ein Löwe tötete sie, ließ ihren Leichnam aber unversehrt. Die Christen von Heraklia unter Bischof Dometius bestatteten sie. Ihr Leichnam sonderte ein heilkräftiges Öl ab.
177 Martyr Laodicius the Keeper of the Prison martyred for the faith
At Heraclea they cast St Glyceria into a red-hot furnace, but the fire was extinguished at once. Then the prefect, in a mindless fury, gave orders to rip the skin from St Glyceria's head. Then they threw the martyr into prison onto sharp stones.
She prayed incessantly, and at midnight an angel appeared in the prison and healed her of her wounds.
When the jailer Laodicius came for the saint in the morning, he did not recognize her. Thinking that the martyr had been taken away, he feared he would be punished for letting her escape. He wanted to kill himself, but St Glyceria stopped him.
Shaken by the miracle, Laodicius believed in the true God, and he entreated the saint to pray that he might suffer and die for Christ with her.
"Follow Christ and you will be saved," the holy martyr replied. Laodicius placed upon himself the chains with which the saint was bound, and at the trial he told the prefect and everyone present about the miraculous healing of St Glyceria by an angel, then he confessed himself a Christian.  The newly chosen one of God was beheaded by the sword. Christians secretly took up his remains, and reverently buried them.
304 Saint Quintus Mucius Priest martyr reportedly destroyed an altar of the pagan god Bacchus at Amphipolis, Macedoniat miraculously escaped attempts at murdering him
Constantinópoli beáti Múcii, Presbyteri et Mártyris; qui, sub Diocletiáno Imperatóre et Laudício Procónsule, prius Amphípoli, in Macedónia, multis pœnis atque cruciátibus ob Christi confessiónem afflíctus, póstea, Byzántium usque perdúctus, capitáli senténtia occúbuit.
    At Constantinople, under Emperor Diocletian and the proconsul Laudicius, the blessed Mucius, priest and martyr, who endured many tribulations and torments for the confession of Christ at Amphipolis, and then being taken to Byzantium, suffered death.

304 ST. MUCIUS, MARTYR
ST Mucius, or Mocius, was a Christian priest who suffered at Constantinople during the persecution of Diocletian, and his cultus goes back to very early times. This is all we know for certain about the saint, for his so-called “acts” are undoubtedly spurious. In them we read that St Mucius was an eloquent Christian preacher at Amphipolis in Macedonia, and that, on the occasion of the feast of Bacchus, he overthrew the deity’s altar, casting the votive offerings on the ground. The crowd would have rent him to pieces had not the proconsul interfered to have him arrested. The tribunal which tried him condemned him to be burnt alive, but he walked unscathed in the flames accompanied by three strangers, whilst the prefect and his attendants were consumed by the fire. The martyr was then sent to Heraclea, where he was tortured on the wheel and afterwards exposed to the wild beasts, which refused to touch him. Eventually he was conveyed to Constantinople and there beheaded.

Delehaye, in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxi (1912), pp. 163—187 and 225—232, devotes considerable space to St Mucius. He first prints the best text of the “acts” together with the panegyric of a certain Michael, and then points out that the obviously fictitious acts do not detract from the historic character of the martyr himself. There undoubtedly was a church dedicated to Mucius in Constantinople at the end of the fourth century, and this may have been built by the Emperor Constantine. Further, it is pretty certain that the martyr is mentioned at about the same date in the ancient Syriac martyrology, though his name, one knows not how, has been transformed into “Maximus”. He is also men­tioned in the Hieronymianum.

Mokios  Orthodoxe Kirche: 11. Mai Katholische Kirche: 13. Mai

He was set on fire and exposed to wild beasts as a result but miraculously escaped both attempts at murdering him. He was beheaded at Constantinople, modern Istanbul.
Mucius of Byzantium M (RM) (also known as Mocius) Born in Byzantium; died there in 304. Mucius, a Roman citizen, became a priest and was martyred under Diocletian for having overturned a pagan altar (Benedictines).

Mokios  Orthodoxe Kirche: 11. Mai Katholische Kirche: 13. Mai
Mokios lebte unter Kaiser Diokletian (284-305) in Amphipolis (Mazedonien). Während eines Dionysosfestes rief er die Heiden auf, sich zu bekehren. Er wurde daraufhin gefangengenommen und gefoltert. Da er alle Folterungen unbeschadet überstand, sandte ihn der Gouverneur nach Konstantinopel. Hier wurde Mokios um 295 (oder 304) geköpft. Kaiser Konstantin ließ eine Kirche zu seiner Ehre erbauen und seine Gebeine dort beisetzen.

Alexander Holy Martyr suffered for Christ; soldier serving tribune Tiberian at Rome; By night a fearsome angel appeared to Tiberian with sword in hand; miracles; healings
at the beginning of the fourth century. He was a soldier serving in the regiment of the tribune Tiberian at Rome. When he was eighteen, the Roman emperor Maximian Hercules (284-305) issued an edict that all citizens were to go to the temple of Jupiter outside the city on a designated day to offer sacrifice. The tribune Tiberian assembled his soldiers and he ordered them to go to this festival, but Alexander, raised from childhood in the Christian Faith, refused and said that he would not offer sacrifice to devils.
Tiberian reported to the emperor Maximian that there was a soldier in his regiment who was a Christian. Soldiers were immediately sent to arrest Alexander.

Alexander was asleep, but an angel woke him and warned him of his impending martyrdom, saying that he would be with him during this time. When the soldiers arrived, Alexander came out to meet them. His face shone with a light so bright that the soldiers fell to the ground when they saw him. The saint upbraided them and told them to carry out their orders.
Standing before Maximian, St Alexander boldly confessed his faith in Christ and he refused to worship the idols. He said that he was not afraid of the emperor, nor of his threats. The emperor tried to persuade the young man with promises of honors, but Alexander remained steadfast in his confession, and denounced the emperor and all the pagans.
They tortured the holy martyr, but he bravely endured all the sufferings.

Maximian remanded St Alexander to the tribune Tiberian, who was being sent to Thrace to persecute Christians there. So they brought the martyr to Thrace, fettered in chains.
At this time an angel told St Alexander's mother, Pimenia, of her son's martyrdom. Pimenia found her son in Carthage, where he stood before Tiberian and again he steadfastly confessed himself a Christian.

They subjected him to torture before the eyes of his mother, and then they took the prisoner on his final journey, walking behind Tiberian's chariot. The brave Pimenia asked the soldiers to let her go to her son, and she encouraged him to undergo torments for Christ.
The soldiers were astonished at the stoic strength of the martyr and they said one to another, "Great is the God of the Christians!"

The angel appeared to the martyr several times, strengthening him.
By night a fearsome angel appeared to Tiberian with sword in hand, and commanded the tribune to hasten to Byzantium, since the martyr's end was drawing near. Tiberian hurried on his way.

In the city of Philippopolis, Tiberian retried St Alexander in the presence of the city dignitaries gathered for this event. At this trial St Alexander remained steadfast. During his grievous journey the holy martyr had been repeatedly subjected to cruel tortures. He was strengthened by God, however, and he endured all the torments.

He gave strength to the soldiers weakened by thirst, asking the Lord to provide a spring of water for them.
During the journey, the martyr prayed beneath a tree, asking for strength in his sufferings, and the fruit and leaves of this tree received a curative power.
At a place named Burtodexion, the saint again met his mother Pimenia, who fell weeping at his feet.
The holy martyr said to her, "Do not weep , my mother, for the day after tomorrow, the Lord shall help me finish matters."
In the city of Drizipera Tiberian imposed the death sentence on the saint. The holy martyr gave thanks to the Lord for giving him the strength to endure all the torments, and to accept martyrdom.

The soldier who was supposed to carry out the execution asked the saint's forgiveness, and for a long time he could not bring himself to raise his sword, for he saw angels waiting to take the soul of the martyr.
The saint prayed and asked God to remove the angels, since he wanted to go to the Lord.
Only then did he cut off the saint's holy head. The saint's body was cast into a river, but four dogs dragged it out of the water, and they would not let anyone near it, until St Alexander's mother Pimenia came. She took up the remains of her martyred son and reverently buried them near the River Ergina.
Healings began to take place at the grave of St Alexander.
Soon the holy martyr appeared to his mother in a dream, in which he comforted her and said that soon she too would be transported to the heavenly habitations.
350 Valerian of Auxerre third bishop championed the Catholic faith against error of Arianism B (AC)
Valerian, the of Auxerre, championed the Catholic faith against the error of Arianism (Benedictines).
361 Saint Onesimus Fifth Bishop of Soissons, France
Onesimus governed Soissons soon after its founding, and was the successor of Saints Crepinus and Crepinianus, patrons of the diocese.
Onesimus of Soissons B (AC). Fifth bishop of Soissons (Benedictines).
372 Alexandrian Martyrs at the time of Saint Athanasius's fifth exile (RM)
Alexandríæ commemorátio plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum, qui, ob fidem cathólicam, ab Ariánis in Ecclésia Theónæ occísi sunt.
    At Alexandria, the commemoration of many holy martyrs, who were put to death for the Catholic faith by the Arians in the church of St. Theonas.

The Roman Martyrology particularly mentions Catholics martyred in the church of Theonas, but includes many others of both sexes who were killed or exiled from Alexandria at the time of Saint Athanasius's fifth exile, under the Arian Emperor Valens (Benedictines).
384 Saint Servatus; Bishop of Tongres (in the modern Low Countries) host of Saint Athanasius during his exile; prophesied the Hun invasion of France
Apud Trajéctum sancti Servátii, Tungrénsis Ecclésiæ Epíscopi; ad cujus méritum ómnibus demonstrándum, dum témpore híemis ómnia in circúitu nix repléret, sepúlcrum ejus numquam opéruit, donec, ex indústria cívium, Basílica super illud ædificáta est.
    At Utrecht, St. Servatius, bishop of Tongres, whose grave, as a public sign of his merit, was free from snow during winter (although everything around was covered with it), until the inhabitants built a church over it.

384 ST SERVATIUS, OR SERVAIS, BISHOP OF TONGRES
IT is recorded of St Servatius, supposed to be an Armenian by birth, that he gave hospitality to St Athanasius during his banishment, and that he defended the great patriarch’s cause and the Catholic faith at the Council of Sardica. After the murder of Constans, the usurper Magnentius sent him and another bishop as envoys to Alexandria to plead his cause with the Emperor Constantius. Nothing came of the embassy, but Servatius was able, while in Egypt, to renew his inter­course with St Athanasius. In the year 359 we find him at the Council of Rimini, valiantly holding out, together with St Phoebadius, Bishop of Agen, against the Arian majority, and equally deceived by the formula there signed, until enlightened by St Hilary of Poitiers.

St Gregory of Tours relates that St Servatius foretold the invasion of Gaul by the Huns, and that he strove to avert the calamity by fasting and prayer and a pilgrimage to Rome. This penitential journey he undertook with the object of commending his flock to the care of the two great apostles. Almost immediately after his return to Tongres he contracted fever and died, either in his episcopal city or, according to some authorities, in Maestricht. That same year Tongres was plundered and partially destroyed in a raid; it was not, however, till seventy years later, when Attila with his Huns overran and ravaged the country, that the supposed prophecy was completely fulfilled.

The cultus of St Servatius was very considerable during the middle ages in the Low Countries, and many legends grew up about him. His relics are preserved in a beautiful ancient reliquary at Maestricht, where his staff, his drinking cup and his silver key are also treasured. According to tradition the key was given to him when in Rome by St Peter in a vision, but it is actually one of the “Claves Confes­sionis S. Petri”, which popes have from time to time bestowed on those they wished to honour; and which contained filings from the chains of St Peter. The drinking cup, on the other hand, was popularly supposed to have been the gift of an angel and to have the property of healing fever.

The “acts” of St Servatius, printed in part in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, are only a compilation of Herigerus, Abbot of Lobbes, in the tenth century. Several older texts, however, have since been discovered and have been edited in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. i (1882), pp. 88—112, and in G. Kurth, Deux Biographies de St Servais (1881). See also G. Kurth, Nouvelles Recherches sur S. Servais (1884) ; A. Proost, Saint Servais (1891) F. Wilhelm (1910), G. Gorris (1923) ; Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. iii, p. 188; and Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lv (1937), pp. 117—120. There has undoubtedly been a very widespread cultus of St Servais and the literature is considerable. On St Peter’s keys, cf. DAC., vol. iii, c. 1861.

Servatius  Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 13. Mai
Servatus of Tongres B (RM) (also known as Servais) Died in Tongres, Belgium, May 13, 384. Bishop Servatus of Tongres (Belgium) hosted Saint Athanasius, when the latter was an exile in the West because of the Arian persecutions. He strenuously defended his friend and the cause of orthodoxy, especially at the council of Sardica (Sofia  convoked by the Emperors Constans and Constantius at the urgent entreaty of Pope Julius  held most probably in 343). Saint Gregory of Tours (Born at Clermont-Ferrand, c. 538; died at Tours c. 596.) relates that Servatus foretold invasion of Gaul by the Huns and implored the divine mercy to avert that scourge by watching, fasting, prayers, many tears, and a pilgrimage to Saint Peter's tomb in Rome in 382. Regardless of his pleading with the Almighty, God revealed to him that punishment was necessary. Still weeping, he hastened back to Tongres, where he sickened and died soon after. Gregory testifies that many miracles occurred at his tomb, which caused a church to be built over the relics of the man who had governed the diocese for 37 years. Most of his relics are housed in the collegiate church in Maestricht. Shortly after his death, the city of Tongres was plundered by Attila. Some have claimed that Servatus moved his see to Maestricht, but the translation was made only after the destruction of Tongres (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

In art, Saint Servatus is generally a bishop with three wooden shoes. He may sometimes be portrayed (1) at a reading desk with a shield by him with three wooden shoes; (2) being met at the city gate by burghers as he holds the key and is attended by an angel; (3) with a key in one hand, placing his crozier on a dragon; (4) striking water; or (5) with an eagle fanning him as he sleeps in the sun dressed as a pilgrim (Roeder). Servatus is invoked against foot troubles, lameness, rheumatism, rats, and mice (Roeder).

Servatius  Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 13. Mai
Servatius (oder Servatus) ist vielleicht die latinisierte Form des Namens Saratios. Unter diesem Namen nahm Servatius an dem Konzil von Sardica teil. Kurz nach dem Konzil wurde er Bischof von Tongern (nahe Lüttich). Er war ein eifriger Gegner der Arianer. Gregor von Tours berichtet, Servatius habe den Einfall der Hunnen vorhergesagt und zu einem großen Fasten aufgerufen, um die drohende Invasion abzuwenden. Servatius starb am 13.5.384. An seinem Grab sollen sich viele Wunder ereignet haben, so daß eine Kirche über dem Grab gebaut wurde. Bei dem Einfall der Vandalen 406 wurde Tongern zerstört und die Reliquien von Servatius wurden nach Maastricht überführt. Die Servatiuskirche, in der sie sich auch heute befinden, wurde besonders nach den Einfällen der Hunnen unter Attila ein vielbesuchter Wallfahrtsort. Heute wird die Servatiuswallfahrt alle sieben Jahre durchgeführt, der nächste Termin ist im Juli 2004. Servatius ist einer der Eisheiligen.
586 Saint Agnes of Poitiers Abbess and model of the conventual life adopted the Rule of Saint Caesarius
Agnes was a friend of the poet Saint Venantius Fortunatus (Born near Treviso, Italy, c. 535; died c. 605.), who visited her in the Holy Cross convent in Poitiers, France. Recognized for her holiness and intelligence, she was named abbess of the convent by Saint Radegund, a princess who erected the convent in 557. Holy Cross was a double monastery, having men and women living in enclosed separate structures. It was also known as a place of learning. When Agnes assumed the role of abbess, she introduced a rule of life given to her by Saint Caesarius (Born at Châlons, Burgundy, France, c. 470; died at Arles, August 27 c. 542), the bishop of Arles and apostolic delegate. Agnes ruled Holy Cross until her death in 586.

Agnes of Poitiers, Abbess (AC) Died 588. Saint Radegund (d.587) chose Agnes to be abbess of Holy Cross Convent at Poitiers. Agnes adopted the Rule of Saint Caesarius given to her by the holy bishop of Arles himself. She is best known as the friend of the poet Saint Venantius Fortunatus
(Benedictines).
6th v. Saint Mael A hermit of Wales disciple of Saint Cadfan
sometimes called Mahel. He was a disciple of Saint Cadfan (Died probably at Bardsey in the early 6th century), whom he accompanied from Brittany, France, to Wales and then to the island of Bardsey.
Mael of Bardsey (AC) (also known as Mahel) 6th century. Saint Mael followed Saint Cadfan from Brittany into Wales, where he became one of the solitaries of the isle of Bardsey (Benedictines).
558 Saint John the Silent Bishop of Colonia in Palestine reputation for sanctity hermit  John saw a bright cross in the air and heard a voice say, "If you want to be saved, follow this light." to the laura of Saint Sabas near Jerusalem 75 years a silent recluse
In Palæstína sancti Joánnis Silentiárii, qui, Coloniénsi in Arménia Episcopátu dimísso, in sancti Sabbæ laura monásticam vitam duxit, et sancto fine quiévit.
    In Palestine, St. John the Silent, who resigned the see of Colonia in Armenia and retired to the monastery of St. Sabbas until his saintly death.

558 ST JOHN THE SILENT
ST JOHN derived the surname by which he is designated from his great love of silence and recollection. *[* At least by the first half of the seventh century this name, “Hesychast”, had become a technical term for those who followed a certain spiritual tradition in the East. John is sometimes called the Sabaite.]

He was born in the year 454, at Nicopolis in Armenia, of a family which had supplied generals and governors for that part of the empire. After the death of his parents he built a monastery in which, at the age of eighteen, he shut himself up with ten companions. Here, under the direction of their youthful superior, the little community led a most edifying life of devotion and hard work. The great reputation St John acquired for sanctity and leadership led the archbishop of Sebaste to consecrate him bishop of Colonia in Armenia, much against his will, when he was only twenty-eight. For nine years he exercised his episcopal functions, zealously instructing his flock, depriving himself of even the necessaries of life that he might relieve the poor, and continuing to practise as far as possible the austerities of his former life. Then his inability to remedy certain evils, combined with a strong desire for a secluded life, decided him to lay down his charge. Instead of returning to Armenia he quietly went to Jerusalem—uncertain as to his future vocation.

His biographer assures us that whilst John was watching one night in prayer he saw before him a bright cross in the air and heard a voice which said, “If thou desirest to be saved, follow this light”. The cross then moved before him, and at length directed him to the laura (monastery) of St Sabas. Convinced that he now knew God’s will, St John immediately betook himself to the laura, which contained one hundred and fifty monks. He was then thirty-eight years old. St Sabas at first placed him under the steward to fetch water, carry stone, and serve the workmen in building a new hospital. John came and went like a beast of burden, remaining ever recollected in God, always cheerful and silent. After this test, the experienced superior made him guestmaster; the holy man served every­one as though he were serving Christ Himself. By this time St Sabas recognized that his novice was on the road to perfection and, in order to give him oppor­tunities for uninterrupted contemplation, he allowed him to occupy a separate hermitage. During five consecutive days of the week, which he passed fasting, John never left his cell; but on Saturdays and Sundays he attended public worship in church. After three years spent in this eremitic life, he was made steward of the laura. The business which this office entailed was no distraction to him: so great was his love for God that his mind was fixed on Him continually and without effort.

Four years later St Sabas thought him worthy of the priesthood and decided to present him to the Patriarch Elias. Upon their arrival at the church of Mount Calvary, where the ordination was to take place, John said to the patriarch, “Holy father, I have something to impart to you in private: afterwards, if you judge me suitable, I will receive holy orders”. The patriarch granted him a private interview, and St John, when he had bound him to secrecy, said, “Father, I have been consecrated bishop: but on account of my many sins I have fled and have sought out this desert to await the coming of the Lord”. Elias was startled, and having summoned St Sabas, declared, “I cannot ordain this man, because of certain particulars he has communicated to me”. St Sabas returned home deeply grieved because he feared that John must have committed some terrible crime, but in answer to his earnest prayer the truth was made known to him by revelation. He was, however, directed not to divulge the secret to others.

In the year 503 the factious spirit of certain turbulent monks obliged St Sabas to leave his laura; St John at the same time withdrew into a neighbouring desert, where he spent six years. When St Sabas was recalled to his community, St John returned to the laura and there lived in his cell for forty years.

Experience had taught him that a soul accustomed to speak to God alone finds only bitterness and emptiness in worldly intercourse. Moreover his love of obscurity and his humility made him desire more than ever to live unknown. Nevertheless the fame of his sanctity made it impossible for him to realize his ambition, and he now no longer refused to see those who resorted to him for advice. Amongst these was Cyril of Scythopolis, who wrote the saint’s life when he had reached the great age of 104, whilst still preserving the vigour of mind which had always characterized him. Cyril relates that he himself in early manhood had consulted the hermit as to his choice of a career. St John advised him to enter the monastery of St Euthymius. Instead, Cyril went to a small monastery on the bank of the Jordan. There he at once contracted a fever of which he nearly died. But St John appeared to him in his sleep and, after a gentle reprimand, told him that if he repaired at once to St Euthymius he would regain his health and win God’s favour. The next morning, he set out for the aforesaid monastery, and found that he had entirely recovered. The same author also describes how, in his presence, St John exorcized an evil spirit from a child by making on its forehead the sign of the cross with oil.

Both by example and precept St John led many souls to God, and continued in his hermitage to emulate, as far as this mortal state will allow, the glorious employment of the heavenly spirits in an uninterrupted exercise of love and praise. He passed to their blessed company in A.D. 558—having lived in solitude for seventy-six years, interrupted only by the nine years of his episcopate.

Cyril of Scythopolis, the biographer from whom we derive all our knowledge of St John, seems to have entered the monastery of St Euthymius in 544 and to have passed on to the laura at Jerusalem in 554. Though credulous, like all men of his generation, and delighting in marvels, he was a conscientious reporter of what he believed to be the truth. The biography he wrote is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii. See also Ehrhard in the Römische Quartalschrift, vol. vii (1893), pp. 32 seq.; and the text of Cyril in E. Schwartz, Kyrillos von Skythopolis (1939).

Born in Nicopolis, Armenia, he established a monastery at the age of eighteen.  Appointed a bishop at the age of twenty-eight, he spent nine years in his office before retiring to Jerusalem to embrace the eremitical life. Through a vision, he found his way to the monastery, or laura, of Saint Sabas, asking to be walled up and living for 75 years a silent recluse.

John the Silent B (RM) Born at Nicopolis, Armenia, in 454; died near Jerusalem, 558. At the death of his prominent parents and he was 20, John founded a monastery and become a monk with ten companions in his native city. Despite their youth, the little community led a most edifying life of devotion and hard work. As their leader, John acquired a reputation for sanctity that led to the archbishop of Sebaste's choosing him, at age 28, as bishop of Colonia (Taxara), Armenia, against his will.  Nevertheless, for nine years he executed his episcopal functions with zeal, even to the point of depriving himself of the necessities of life in order to relieve the poor. As much as possible, he continued to lead the life of a monk. Then his inability to remedy certain evils combined with the pull of a secluded life. He resigned his position and headed quietly for Jerusalem.

His vita says that in prayer one night, John saw a bright cross in the air and heard a voice say, "If you want to be saved, follow this light."
At length he followed it to the laura of Saint Sabas near Jerusalem. Hiding his episcopal dignity, he entered the monastery of 150 monks, where he spent the rest of his life. At first Saint Sabas assigned him under the steward to fetch water, carry stone, and serve the workmen building a new hospital. Having obediently carried out his work in this position, Sabas made him guest-master.
When Sabas recognized that his novice was on the road to Christian perfection, he allowed John to occupy a separate hermitage. John left his cell only on Saturdays and Sundays to attend public worship in the church. After three years as a hermit, he was chosen to be steward of the laura.

Four years later, Saint Sabas thought John was worthy of ordination to the priesthood. Upon their arrival at the church of Mount Calvary, where John was to be presented to Patriarch Saint Elias for ordination, he turned to the patriarch and said, "Holy father, I have something to tell you in private: afterwards, if you judge me suitable, I will receive holy orders." During the private interview and after he bound the bishop to secrecy, John revealed: "Father, I have been consecrated bishop. But on account of my many sins I have fled and sought out this desert to await the coming of the Lord."

Elias reported to Sabas that he would be unable to ordain John because of what he had revealed. As they returned to the laura, Sabas was deeply grieved because he feared that John must have committed a terrible crime.
His fears were relieved when God revealed the situation to him during his earnest prayer--but he was not to divulge the secret.

In 503, both Sabas and John were forced to leave the laura for the nearby desert. Six years later, when Sabas was recalled, John also returned and lived in his hermitage for another forty years. Although his humility and love of obscurity would have made the hidden life preferable, John's sanctity and wisdom drew numerous people seeking his advice. He now saw it was God's will to lead others to God. When alone he occupied himself with uninterrupted exercises of love and praise until his death (Benedictines, Walsh).
In art, Saint John is portrayed as a bishop with his finger on his lips (Roeder).
606 Saint Pausicacus, Bishop of Synada gift of healing sicknesses of both soul and body
lived at the end of the sixth century in the Syrian city of Apamea. He had been raised in the Christian Faith by his pious parents, and he began to lead an ascetic life of prayer, vigil and fasting in his youth.
The Lord gave him the gift of healing sicknesses of both soul and body. Patriarch Cyriacus of Constantinople (591-606) consecrated St Pausicacus as Bishop of Synada. St Pausicacus wanted neither heretics nor dissolute people in his flock.

He constantly taught his flock about the virtuous life, and his discourse was always powerful and lively.

Having come to Constantinople on affairs of the Church, he healed the emperor Mauricius of sickness, and on his return journey he asked the Lord for water to quench the thirst of his companions. After the prayer of the saint, a spring of pure water sprang up from the ground. St Pausicacus died peacefully in the year 606.
686 Erconwald of London founded a monastery at Chertsey in Surrey convent at Barking in Essex invoked against gout OSB B (also known as Erkenwald) Born in East Anglia; died in London, c. 686; second feast day on April 30.

686 ST ERCONWALD, BISHOP OF LONDON
ST ERCONWALD is said to have been the son of the East Anglian prince Anna. He left his own country for the kingdom of the East Saxons, where he spent his fortune in founding two monasteries, the one for men at Chertsey in Surrey, and the other for women at Barking in Essex. Over the latter he set his sister St Ethelburga, and over the former he himself ruled as abbot until 675, when St Theodore consecrated him bishop of London. During the eleven years that he presided over the see, he did much to increase the buildings and repute of St Paul’s, his cathedral church.  Bede says that God honoured Erconwald with miracles, and that even in his own day healing properties were attributed to the litter in which the holy bishop had been carried when he was ill. His feast is still observed in the dioceses of West­minster, Brentwood and (on May 11) Southwark.

Our most reliable authority is Bede, Eccl. History, iv, 6 ; but some further information may be gleaned from charters and other sources. See DCB., vol. ii, pp. 177—179 ; DNB., vol. xvii, p. 390; and Stanton’s Menology, pp. 187 and 189, and supplement.

In 675, Saint Theodore of Canterbury (Theodore, 7th Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 September, 690) appointed Erconwald bishop of the East Saxons with his see in London. His shrine in Saint Paul's Cathedral was a much visited pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages, but little is known of his life except that he founded a monastery at Chertsey in Surrey and a convent at Barking in Essex.
He appointed his sister, Ethelburga (Died c. 647), abbess of the latter, while he governed the former.
Erconwald took some part int he reconciliation of Saint Theodore with Saint Wilfrid (Born in Ripon, Northumbria, 634; died at Oundle, in 709) (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Erconwald is portrayed in art as a bishop in a small 'chariot' (the Saxon equivalent of a bath chair) in which he travelled because of his gout. Sometimes there is a woman touching it or he may be shown with Saint Ethelburga of Barking (Roeder). Erconwald is invoked against gout (Roeder).
751 Natalis of Milan bishop from about 740 governed in the strained period of Italian and Church history when Lombards were being converted to the orthodox faith

Natalis was bishop of Milan from 740 to 751 (Benedictines). In art, Natalis is a bishop near a child who is holding a book. He can be confused with Saint Ambrose (Roeder).
Saint Natalis 740 Bishop of Milan from about 740 governed in the strained period of Italian and Church history when Lombards were being converted to the orthodox faith. B (AC)
780 Anno of Verona remembered chiefly with translation the relics of SS. Firmus and Rusticus  B (AC)
(also known as Annon, Hanno) Born in Verona. Bishop Anno of Verona is remembered chiefly in connection with the translation of the relics of SS. Firmus and Rusticus (Benedictines).
850 George The Holy Confessor suffered for the veneration of holy icons at Constantinople under emperor Theophilus
in the first half of the ninth century. The emperor Theophilus demanded that St George renounce the veneration of holy icons, but the brave confessor refused the order and told the impious emperor that in venerating holy icons, we offer worship to their eternal Prototype [i.e. Christ the Logos].
For his disobedience, the emperor ordered St George's property to be taken away and seized, and to drag him through the streets of Constantinople with a rope about his neck, and then cast him into prison. After this, St George was sent into exile with his wife Irene and their children.
St George died after suffering many afflictions in exile.
970 Saint Merewenna first Abbess of Romsey in Hampshire monastery prospered and attracted princesses

England. She is also called Merwenna and Merwinna. King Edgar the Peaceful of England restored Merewenna’s abbey. 

Merewenna of Rumsey, OSB Abbess (AC) (also known as Merwenna, Merwinna); original feast day was February 10, feast of translation is October 23. Merewenna was the first abbess of Rumsey convent in Hampshire, when it had been restored under King Edward the Peaceful (or Edgar?) refounded it in 967. Under her direction the monastery prospered and attracted princesses, including Saint Elfleda (Died 1134) by whom she lays in the abbey church (Benedictines, Farmer).
1028 Euthymius the Illuminator performed many miracles He translated from Greek into Iberian (Karthvelian) the Bible 60 writings of the Fathers (Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Ephrem, Gregory the Great, John Cassian), biblical commentaries, lives of the saints, and liturgical books Abbot (RM)
Euthymius_of_Athos_the_translator

The venerable Euthymius of Mt. Athos was the son of St. John of Mt. Athos, a military commander during the reign of King Davit Kuropalates, who abandoned the world to enter the monastic life. While St. John was laboring on Mt. Olympus, the Byzantine emperor returned a large portion of the conquered Georgian lands, but in exchange for this benefaction he ordered that the children of certain eminent aristocrats be taken to Constantinople as surety. Among his hostages was St. John’s young son, Euthymius. When John discovered that his son was being held captive in Constantinople, he departed immediately to appeal to the emperor for his release. Eventually John’s request was granted, and he took Euthymius back with him to the monastery. However, by this time the young Euthymius had already forgotten his native language.


1028 ST EUTHYMIUS THE ENLIGHTENER, ABBOT
This Euthymius was the son of that St John the Iberian who is noticed herein on July 12. As there narrated, Euthymius accompanied his father on his retirement to Mount Athos, and helped him in the foundation there of the famous monastery Iviron for monks from their native Iberia (Georgia).* [* The homeland of Joseph Stalin, vere Yugashvili, who was born near Tiflis.]

On the death of John about the year 1040, Euthymius succeeded him as abbot.

Under his care Iviron grew and prospered, attracting recruits from Palestine and Armenia as well as Iberia, and Euthymius had to weed out a considerable number of wealthy young men whose idea of the monastic life was that it was one of elegant retirement and repose. The biography of himself and his father, written by the hieromonk George the Hagiorite about 1040, devotes a good deal of space to common-form eulogy of the virtues of these holy men, but a reasonably living picture of St Euthymius nevertheless emerges.

He appears as a firm but not severe superior, who directed more by example than by precept and who knew the im­portance of keeping an eye on details. Remarkably enough for those days and a wine-drinking country, he was what is now called a teetotaller; but he was none the less careful that the wine ration, which each monk had with his dinner as a matter of course, should be of good quality and not unduly watered. Another practical point was that beardless youths should not be employed as workmen around the monastery: “I know that grown men must be paid higher wages, but it is better to spend more money than to expose our brethren to possible harm”.

The work of predilection of St Euthymius was the translation of sacred books from Greek into Iberian, and George the Hagiorite names over sixty for which the Iberian church was indebted to him. Among them were biblical commentaries, writings of St Basil, St Gregory of Nyssa, St Ephrem and St John Damascene, the Institutes of St John Cassian, and the Dialogues of Pope St Gregory the Great. One of his translations, from Iberian into Greek this time, has an interest for hagiology:  this was the so-called History of Saints Barlaam and Josaphat (Joasaph), im­aginary people whose names Cardinal Baronius unfortunately added to the Roman Martyrology (November 27). Naturally enough, St Euthymius found that his duties as abbot seriously interfered with his work of translation, and after he had directed Iviron for fourteen years he resigned his charge, on the plea that the church of his people was crying out for more books that only he could efficiently supply.

Unfortunately his successor in the abbacy precipitated disturbances between Iberians and Greeks among the monks, and St Euthymius was summoned to Constantinople by the Emperor Constantine VIII to explain the situation. While there he was thrown from his mule and sustained injuries from which he died, on May 13, 1028. His body was taken back to Mount Athos, and eventually enshrined in the church of the All-Holy Mother of God.

For bibliographical notes, see July 12, loc. cit. A French translation of the life by George the Hagiorite was published in Irénikon, vol. vi, no. 5, vol. vii, nos. 1, 2 and 4 (1929—30). “Hagiorite” (the epithet is also given to St Euthymius’s father, St John) means Athonite, Mount Athos being commonly called in Greek Hagion Oros, the Holy Mountain. Iviron still exists as a monastery of the Orthodox Church, but Iberian monks have been long ago displaced by Greeks.

Soon St. John’s name was known in every monastery on Mt. Olympus, so the holy father withdrew with his son and several disciples to Mt. Athos, to the Lavra of St. Athanasius the Great, to escape the homage and praise. From his youth Euthymius received great grace from the Holy Spirit. While still a child he fell deeply ill, and his father, losing hope in his recovery, sent for a priest to bring him Holy Communion. Then he went into a church, knelt before the icon of the Most Holy Theotokos, and began to pray for his son.
When he returned to his cell he was greeted by the pleasant scent of myrrh and the sight of his son, standing in perfect health.

Euthymius told his father that a magnificent Queen had appeared to him and asked him in Georgian, “What has happened to you? What has disturbed you so, Euthymius?”
“I am dying, my Queen,” he had said.
Then the Queen embraced him, saying, “Arise, do not be afraid, but speak freely in your native Georgian tongue!”
After this miraculous healing the Georgian language flowed from Euthymius’s mouth like water pouring forth from a clear spring, and the young man surpassed all others in eloquence.

Venerable John gave great thanks to God and explained to his son the meaning of the vision: “My son! Our country is suffering from a terrible shortage of books. But the Lord has bestowed upon you a gift, and now you must labor diligently in order to more abundantly recompence the Lord.”

St. Euthymius began his new task with great joy, and many people marveled at his success. St. Giorgi of Mt. Athos recorded the life of St. Euthymius, and his account mentions more than fifty works that he translated from the original Greek into Georgian. After St. John’s death, Euthymius succeeded him as abbot of the Iveron Monastery on Mt. Athos. (St. John had founded the Iveron Monastery with St. John-Tornike.) His leadership of the monastery brought with it many responsibilities, and Euthymius was obliged to continue his translations at night.

St. Euthymius performed many miracles. Once, while his father was still living, Byzantium was struck by a terrible drought. The earth became cracked, trees and vineyards withered, and all the vegetation dried up after four months without rain. St. John sent Euthymius and his brothers to the Church of the Prophet Elijah to celebrate an All-Night vigil.
 (During periods of drought Orthodox Christians have traditionally turned to the Prophet Elijah
 to bring rain as he did in the Old Testament
.)
During the Gospel reading a dark cloud formed in the sky, and at the moment Euthymius received Holy Communion it began to rain.
Once, during the Feast of the Transfiguration, the faithful of Mt. Athos saw Fr. Euthymius embraced by divine fire. The crowd of witnesses fell on their knees before him, but the saint calmed them, saying,
“Do not be afraid, my brothers; God has looked down on us, and Christ has glorified His feast!”
But the devil could not tolerate the godly labors of the venerable Euthymius and his brothers at the monastery, so he persuaded a certain beggar, who resembled a monk, to kill the holy father. When the killer approached Fr. Euthymius’s cell, two monks blocked his way. So the assassin slashed them with his sword. Upon hearing the noise, Father Euthymius came outside and served Holy Communion to his fallen brothers. The two monks were fatally wounded and crowned as martyrs of the Church, while the killer confessed his sin and died, greatly afflicted in spirit.
Later a monastery gardener attempted to murder St. Euthymius, but when he lifted his hand to strike the saint, it withered suddenly, and only the prayers of Fr. Euthymius could heal it.

St. Euthymius labored as abbot of the Iveron Monastery on Mt. Athos for fourteen years. His literary endeavors demanded much time and great effort, so, according to his father’s will, he appointed a certain George (later St. George of Mt. Athos, the Builder) his successor.  Then he locked himself in his cell and dedicated himself exclusively to his translations.

Once the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII (1027–1039) summoned Fr. Euthymius to his court. Before departing for Constantinople, the venerable father gathered his brothers, prepared for them a meal, and asked them for their prayers. Then, just before he left on his journey, he visited his childhood friend, the elder Theophan. When they were bidding each other farewell, Theophan embraced him tearfully, crying out, “What grief I am suffering, O holy Father, for I will not see you again in the flesh!” The elder’s prophecy was soon fulfilled.

The emperor received St. Euthymius with great honor. On May 8th, following the Liturgy for the feast of St. John the Theologian, St. Euthymius set off to visit a certain iconographer from whom he had earlier commissioned an icon. He was seated on a young mule and sent on his way. But along the road he was approached by a beggar, clad all in black, who asked alms of him. The venerable father reached into his pocket, but when the mule suddenly noticed the strange man by the roadside, he was frightened, lurched violently, and cast the holy father to the ground, killing him.
All of Byzantium mourned the death of St. Euthymius. His holy relics are buried in the Church of St. John the Baptist at the Iveron Monastery on Mt. Athos.

Born in Iberia (Georgia); died on May 13, 1028. Euthymius accompanied his father, Saint John the Iberian, to Mount Athos when his father brought him back from Constantinople, where he and other Iberian youths had been held hostage by the emperor. Euthymius helped his father build Iviron Monastery on Mount Athos for Iberian monks, and, about 1002, succeeded him as abbot.

After 14 years as abbot, Euthymius resigned to devote himself to his translations, which were of great service to the church. He translated from Greek into Iberian (Karthvelian) the Bible, some sixty writings of the Fathers (Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Ephrem, Gregory the Great, John Cassian), biblical commentaries, lives of the saints, and liturgical books. Summoned to Constantinople by Emperor Constantine VIII to explain the disturbances that were occurring between the Greek and Iberian monks, Euthymius met his death en route from injuries caused by a fall from his mule (Attwater, Delaney).
1259 Persecution by crusaders of the Georgian monks who settled Mt. Athos in mid 10th century and a Georgian monastery, Iveron, was founded there not long after.
At that time foreign armies were constantly invading Mt. Athos. In the 13th century the Crusaders stormed through the region, and between 1259 and 1306 the pope’s private army devastated Mt. Athos several times. Monks of Zographou and Vatopedi monasteries and the Protaton were martyred for the Orthodox Faith, and the monks of the Iveron Monastery eventually met the same fate.

During this period Georgian and Greek ascetics labored together at the Iveron Monastery, and many young ascetics of the new generation began to arrive from Georgia.
The Crusaders demanded that the Iveron monks convert to Catholicism and acknowledge the primacy of the Roman pope. But the monks condemned their fallacies and anathematized the doctrine of the Catholics.

According to the Patericon of Athos, the Iveron monks were forcibly expelled from their monastery. Nearly two hundred elderly monks were goaded like animals onto a ship that was subsequently sunk in the depths of the sea. The younger, healthier monks were deported to Italy and sold as slaves to the Jews.

Some sources claim this tragedy took place in the year 1259, while others record that the Georgian monks of the Holy Mountain were subject to the Latin persecutions over the course of four years, from 1276 to 1280.

1040 Blessed Fortis Gabrielli  OSB Hermit in the mountains near Scheggia (AC)

Born in Gubbio, Umbria, Italy; cultus approved in 1756. Fortis was a hermit in the mountains near Scheggia, under the guidance of Blessed Ludolph, founder of Fontavellana. Later he entered that monastery and was professed as a monk-hermit (Benedictines).
1242 Blessed Gerard of Villamagna esquire to crusader knight ransomed prisoner Franciscan tertiary OFM Tert. (AC)
(also known as Gerard of Monza) Born in Tuscany, Italy, 1174; cultus approved in 1833. As esquire to a knight, Gerard participated in the crusades and was taken prisoner. On being ransomed, he returned to Italy, joined the Franciscan tertiaries, and lived the rest of his life as a hermit (Benedictines).
In art, Gerard is normally depicted as an old Franciscan tertiary with a branch of cherries or cherry blossoms. Sometimes he may be shown (1) with a bowl and spoon at his feet; (2) distributing bread from a mule; (3) praying near a tree; (4) with a staff and rosary; (5) with a missioner's cross; or (6) with Saint Philip Ciardella. He is a patron of the sick (Roeder).
1333 Blessed Imelda Lambertini patron of first communicants died of love on her first Communion day Saint Agnes came in a vision she saw a brilliant light shining above Imelda's head, and a Host suspended in the light OP V (AC)

1333 BD IMELDA, VIRGIN
THE
patroness of fervent first communion, Bd Imelda, came of one of the oldest families in Bologna: her father was Count Egano Lambertini, and her mother was Castora Galuzzi. Even as a tiny child she showed unusual piety, taking delight in prayer and slipping off to a quiet corner of the house, which she adorned with flowers and pictures to make it into a little oratory. When she was nine she was placed, at her own wish, in the Dominican convent in Val di Pietra, to be trained there by the nuns. Her disposition soon endeared her to all, whilst the zeal with which she entered into all the religious life of the house greatly edified the sisters. Her special devotion was to the eucharistic presence of our Lord at Mass and in the tabernacle. To receive our Lord in holy communion became the consuming desire of her heart, but the custom of the place and time had fixed twelve as the earliest age for a first communion. She would sometimes exclaim: “Tell me, can anyone receive Jesus into his heart and not die?”

When she was eleven years old she was present with the rest of the community at the Ascension-day Mass. All the others had received their communion: only Imelda was left unsatisfied. The nuns were preparing to leave the church when some of them were startled to see what appeared to be a Sacred Host hovering in the air above Imelda, as she knelt before the closed tabernacle absorbed in prayer. Quickly they attracted the attention of the priest, who hurried forward with a paten on which to receive it. In the face of such a miracle he could not do otherwise than give to Imelda her first communion, which was also her last. For the rapture with which she received her Lord was so great that it broke her heart: she sank un­conscious to the ground, and when loving hands upraised her, it was found that she was dead.

The Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, inserted a notice of Bd Imelda on the ground of a long-established cultus, though the formal papal confirmation did not occur until 1826. Many devotional booklets—notably those by Lataste (1889), Corsini (1892), Wilms (1925), and T. Alfonsi (1927)—have been published concerning her; but see more especially M. C. de Ganay, Les Bienheureuses Dominicaines (1913), pp. 145—152. There is also a short account in Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints, pp. 259—262, and a devotional sketch, R. Zeller, Imelda Lambertini (1930).

Blessed Imelda, came from one of the oldest families in Bologna; her father was Count Igano Lambertini and her mother was Castora Galuzzi. Even as a tiny child she showed unusual piety, taking delight in prayer and slipping off to a quiet corner of the house, which she adorned with flowers and pictures to make it a little oratory. When she was nine, she was placed, at her own wish, in the Dominican convent in Val di Pietra, to be trained there by the nuns.
Her disposition soon endeared her to all, while the zeal with which she entered all the religious life of the house greatly edified the nuns. Her special devotion was to the Eucharistic presence of Our Lord at Mass and in the tabernacle.
To receive Our Lord in Holy Communion became the consuming desire of her heart, but the custom of the place and time had fixed twelve as the earliest age for a first communion. She would sometimes exclaim: "Tell me, can anyone receive Jesus into his heart and not die? " When she was eleven years old she was present with the rest of the community at the Ascension Day Mass. All the others had received their communion: only Imelda was left unsatisfied. The nuns were preparing to leave the church when some of them were startled to see what appeared to be a Sacred Host hovering in the air above Imelda, as she knelt before the closed tabernacle absorbed in prayer.
Quickly they attracted the attention of the priest who hurried forward with a paten on which to receive It. In the face of such a miracle he could not do otherwise than give to Imelda her first communion, which was also her last
For the rapture with which she received her Lord was so great that it broke her heart: she sank unconscious to the ground, and when loving hands upraised her, she was dead.
1423  Bl. Juliana of Norwich Benedictine English mystic anchorite In 1373 experienced sixteen revelations. Her book, Revelations of Divine Love - a work on the love of God, the Incarnation, redemption, and divine consolation Among English mystics none is greater sometimes called Julian.

1423 BD JULIAN OF NORWICH, VIRGIN
APART from the autobiographical details given in the Revelations of Divine Love, history has preserved few records of the holy woman known as Dame Julian of Norwich. She lived as a strict recluse in the anchoress-house attached to the old church of St Julian, and had even in her lifetime a reputation for great sanctity. She is said to have survived to an advanced age, having two maids to wait upon her when she was old, but the actual date of her death is unknown, as is also her parentage. That she was certainly living at the age of seventy appears from a notice prefixed to a manuscript of her book purporting to have been transcribed by a contemporary, and now in the British Museum. It runs: “Here es a vision schewed be the goodenes of God to a deuoute Woman and hir name es Julyan that es recluse atte Norwyche and yitt ys on lyfe. Anno dni millmo CCCCXIII0. In the whilke Vision er fulle many comfortabylle wordes and gretly styrrande to alle thaye that desyres to be crystes looverse.”

At the beginning of her book Julian states that before she received what she calls the “shewings”, she had desired three gifts from God—that He would grant her a greater realization of Christ’s sufferings, that He would send her a severe illness which would bring her to death’s door and detach her from earthly things, and that He would give her the three wounds of “very contrition”, of “kind compassion”, and of “wilful longing towards God”. The first two aspirations in course of time passed from her mind, but the third remained ever with her.

When she was thirty and a half years old she actually did contract a malady so serious that her life was despaired of. On the fourth day she received the last sacraments, and on the seventh she seemed to be sinking. All she had strength to do was to keep her eyes fixed on the crucifix. Then, quite suddenly, all her pains left her, and between four and nine o’clock in the morning of May 8, or the 13th, 1373, she had a succession of fifteen distinct visions or shewings, concluded by a sixteenth during the night after the following day. These visions for the most part presented different aspects of our Lord’s passion, which, while producing in her the compunction she had desired, brought her wonderful peace and joy, although their full significance did not unfold itself until long afterwards. “And from that time that it was shewed”, she writes, “I desired oftentimes to learn what was our Lord’s meaning. And fifteen years after, and more, I was answered in ghostly understanding, saying thus: ‘Wouldst thou learn thy Lord’s meaning in this thing? Learn it well: love was His meaning. Who shewed it thee? Love. What shewed He thee? Love. Wherefore shewed it He? For love. Hold thee therein and thou shalt learn and know more in the same. But thou shalt never know nor learn therein other thing without end.’ Thus was I learned that Love was our Lord’s meaning.”

Elsewhere she speaks of being inwardly instructed for twenty years all but three months. At the time when the visions came she was, according to her own account, “a simple creature that colde no letters”, in other words, illiterate, but in the years that elapsed before she wrote her book she must have acquired a considerable knowledge of the Christian mystics, for while her style and her message are her own she often uses their terminology and adopts their distinctions.

Professor Edmund Gardner has pointed out one passage which indicates familiarity with the letters of her great contemporary St Catherine of Siena, and there are several others which appear to have been suggested by the teaching of Eckhart. It would have been strange indeed if she had remained uninfluenced by the spiritual revival on the continent, for Norwich, as the second largest city in England and the centre of the woollen trade, was in close and constant communica­tion with the Low Countries. Anchoresses, although they never left their houses, could and did hold intercourse through a window with the outside world, and one who like Julian was famous as a saint and a visionary would undoubtedly receive many visits from strangers, ecclesiastics and layfolk. The book which she eventually produced remains perhaps the most beautiful and certainly the tenderest exposition of divine love that has ever been written in the English language. From beholding God’s charity as exhibited to mankind in the passion of our Incarnate Lord, she rises to the contemplation of His eternal, all-embracing, all-directing, all-creating love. Even what had been a sore perplexity to her—lapses into sin on the part of those called to be saints—she sees to be somehow “behovable” because God has permitted them, and because such failures can be translated through contrition into increased love and humility. To a distressful world Julian sought to pass on words of consolation with which our Lord had comforted her own soul: “I can make all thing well: I will make all thing well: I shall make all thing well:  and thou shalt see thyself that ill manner of thing shall be well”.

There has been no known public cultus of Dame Julian; the epithet Blessed sometimes given to her can only be justified as a title of affection.

Four manuscripts are known of Mother Julian’s Revelations of Divine Love. That dated 1413 is shorter than the others, which were all copies made at a much later period probably it represents a primitive text which was subsequently expanded by her. The first printed edition was by Dom Serenus Cressy in 1670, reprinted in 5902 with a preface by Fr G. Tyrrell. Miss G. Warrack (1905) and Dom Roger Hudleston (1927) have edited the text afresh, and there has been a French translation (59 so). The shorter text was edited by the Rev. Dundas Harford, The Shewings of Lady Julian (1925). See further Dom D. Knowles, English Mystics (1927). For a reference to Julian in The Book of Margery Kempe, see E.E.T.S. edition, pp. 42—43.

She was a recluse of Norwich, living outside the walls of Saint Julian’s Church., she is one of the most important writers of England. She wrote on sin, penance, and other aspects of the spiritual life, attracting people from all across Europe. She is called Blessed, although she was never formally beatified.

Blessed Juliana of Norwich, OSB Hermit (PC) Born c. 1342; died in Norwich, England, c. 1423; she has never actually been beatified.

Among the English mystics none is greater than the Lady Julian, who lived near Norwich, England, in a three-roomed hermitage in the churchyard of Conisford. Absolutely nothing is known of her life before becoming an anchorite. In fact, we do not even know her name; she has been given the name of the church where she had her cell. An old English historian writes: "In 1393, Lady Julian, the anchoress here was a strict recluse, and had two servants to attend her in her old age. This woman was in these days esteemed one of the greatest holiness."

She lived in an age of startling and confusing contrasts. It was the time of the Black Death, the Peasants' Revolt, Piers Plowman and Wat Tyler, when the old social patterns were breaking down. But none of this is reflected in her quiet and retired life or in the pages of her spiritual autobiography, Revelations of Divine Love, which is the most sublime of all expositions of its kind in English. Her masterpiece encompasses the love of God, the Incarnation, redemption, sin, penance, and divine consolation.

"These revelations," she writes, "were shown to a simple creature unlettered, the year of our Lord 1373, the eighth day of May." She desired above all to know the suffering of our Lord--what she called "the mind of His Passion"--and that nothing might stand between herself and God. She tells us that when at the age of 30 she was at the point of death and the curate was sent for to administer the last rites, "he set the Cross before my face and said: 'I have brought you the Image of thy Maker and Savior: Look thereupon and comfort yourself with it.'"

She spent the next 20 years meditating upon the 16 revelations that followed in a state of ecstasy, of Christ's Passion and the Trinity. She saw the red blood flow from under the Crown of Thorns; she saw the Virgin, a young and simple maid; she saw our Lord a 'homely loving.' Then God showed her a little thing--a hazel nut in the palm of her hand. She thought: what may this be? and was answered: "It is all that is made. God shaped it. God gave it life. God maintains it."

Thus, she learned the goodness of God, in which is our highest prayer and which "comes down to our lowest need." And still regarding the Crucifix, she saw the stream of God's mercy falling like showers of rain, and looked upon the tokens of His Passion. She saw our Lord dying and underwent the torments and agony of His suffering. "And thus I saw Him, and sought Him; I had Him and I wanted Him." It seemed, she said, as if He were seven nights dying, so outdrawn was His anguish, suffering the last pain, seven nights dead, continually dying, in a cold dry wind. "Thus was I taught to choose Jesus for my Heaven, whom I saw only in pain at that time . . . to choose only Jesus in good times and bad. . . . He shall make all well that is not well. . . . Prayer unites the soul to God."

In this way, this remarkable book pursues its course, full of deep insight and feeling: "In Christ our two natures are united." "Our soul can never have rest in things that are beneath itself." "God can do all that we need." "I knew well that while I beheld in the Cross I was surely safe." And its last word is: "Love was our Lord's meaning." At the time of her death she had a far-spread reputation for sanctity, which attracted visitors from all over England to her cell (Benedictines, Delaney, Gill).
1456 Peter Regalatus began his efforts at reforming this and several other friaries--primarily through his own example of austerity, penance, and prayer OFM (RM) (also known as Peter Regalado)

1456 ST PETER REGALATUS
ST PETER REGALATUS came of a noble family settled at Valladolid in Spain. He lost his father in infancy, and when he was in his thirteenth year he obtained, though with difficulty, his mother’s permission to enter the Franciscan convent of his native city. He soon became distinguished amongst his brethren for his fervour. When Peter Villacretios, after initiating a rigorous reform at Aguilar in the diocese of Osma, founded another convent at Tribulos on the Douro—which seemed to most people more like a prison than a monastery—our saint at his own earnest request was allowed to form one of the community. By the austerity of his penances, his assiduity in prayer, and his frequent ecstasies, in which he is said to have been often raised from the ground, he seems to have equalled the most eminent saints of his order, and he lived in constant union with God. Upon the death of Father Villacretios he succeeded him in the government of his reformed congregation, and died at Aguilar on March 30, 1456, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. He was called Regalatus on account of the zeal with which he enforced the rule.

The Bollandists (Acta Sanctorum, March, vol. iii) print only a Latin translation of the Spanish life by Antony Daza (1627), with some extracts from the process then instituted before the auditors of the Rota. Several Spanish biographies have since appeared, notably one by J. Infantes (1854). See also the bull of canonization issued by Benedict XIV, and many references in that pontiff’s great treatise De Beatificatione etc. Sanctorum; and Leon, Aureole Seraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 150—159. St Peter’s feast is now kept by the Friars Minor on March 30.

Born in Valladolid, Spain, 1390; died March 30, 1456; canonized by Benedict XIV in 1746; another feast day was March 30. The nobly born, 13-year-old Peter entered the Franciscan order in his hometown, after convincing his widowed mother that all would be well. He later migrated to Aguilar del Campo in New Castile, which had been established by Father Peter Villacretios. There today's saint began his efforts at reforming this and several other friaries--primarily through his own example of austerity, penance, and prayer. The feast of the translation of his relics is today (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
1522 Righteous Virgin Glyceria of Novgorod incorrupt relics During the interment, healings occurred at the relics of the saint.
The daughter of Panteleimon, a starosta of Legoscha Street in Novgorod. The saint died in the year 1522. Her incorrupt relics, according to the second Novgorod Chronicle, were uncovered on July 14, 1572 near the stone church of Sts Florus and Laurus.
Archbishop Leonid of Novgorod, assisted by his clergy, buried the holy relics in this church.
During the interment, healings occurred at the relics of the saint.

1621 ST ROBERT BELLARMINE, ARCHBISHOP OF CAPUA AND CARDINAL, DOCTOR OF THF CHURCH
ONE of the greatest polemical theologians the Church has ever produced, and her foremost controversialist against the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation, was Robert Francis Romulus Bellarmine, whose feast is kept upon this day. Born in 1542 at Montepulciano in Tuscany, of a noble but impoverished family, he was the son of Vincent Bellarmino and Cynthia Cervini, half-sister to Pope Marcellus II.
Even as a boy Robert showed great promise. He knew Virgil by heart, he wrote good Latin verses, he played the violin, and he could hold his own in public disputations, to the great admiration of his fellow-citizens. Moreover, he was so deeply devout that in 1559, when Robert was seventeen, the rector of the Jesuit college at Montepulciano described him in a letter as “the best of our school, and not far from the kingdom of Heaven”.
It was his ambition to enter the Society of Jesus, but he had to encounter strong opposition from his father, who had formed other plans for his son. Robert’s mother, however, was on his side, and eventually he obtained the permission he desired. In 1560 he went to Rome to present himself to the father general of the order, by whom his noviciate was curtailed to enable him to pass almost immediately into the Roman College to enter upon the customary studies.

Ill-health dogged his steps from the cradle to the grave, and his delicacy became so pronounced that, at the close of his three years of philosophy, his superiors sent him to Florence to recruit his strength in his native Tuscan air, whilst at the same time teaching boys and giving lectures on rhetoric and on the Latin poets. Twelve months afterwards he was transferred to Mondovi in Piedmont. There he discovered that he was expected to instruct his pupils in Cicero and Demosthenes.
    He knew no Greek except the letters of the alphabet, but with characteristic obedience and energy he set to work to study at night the grammar lesson he was expected to give the next day. Father Bellarmine strongly objected to the flogging of boys, and himself never did so. In addition to teaching he preached sermons which attracted crowds. Amongst the congregation on one occasion was his provincial superior, Father Adorno, who promptly transferred him to Padua that he might prepare himself in that famous university town to receive ordination. Again he studied and preached, but before the completion of his course he was bidden by the father general, St Francis Borgia, to proceed at once to Louvain in Belgium to finish his studies there and to preach to the undergraduates, with a view to counteracting the dangerous doctrines which were being propagated by Dr Michael Baius, the chancellor, and others.
   It is interesting to note that on his journey he had as companion for part of the way the Englishman William Allen, afterwards to become like himself a cardinal. From the time of his arrival at Louvain until his departure seven years later, Robert’s sermons were extraordinarily popular, although they were delivered in Latin, and although the preacher had no physical advantages to commend him, for he was small of stature and had to stand on a stool in the pulpit to make himself properly seen and heard. But men declared that his face shone with a strange light as he spoke and that his words seemed like those of one inspired.
After his ordination at Ghent in 1570, he was given a professorship in the University of Louvain—the first Jesuit to hold such a post—and began a course of lectures on the Summa of St Thomas Aquinas, which were at the same time brilliant expositions of doctrine and a vehicle through which he could, and did, controvert the teachings of Baius on such matters as grace, free will and papal authority. In contrast to the controversial brutality of the time he never made personal attacks on his enemies or mentioned them by name. Not content with the great labour entailed on him by his sermons and lectures, St Robert during his stay at Louvain taught himself Hebrew and embarked upon a thorough study of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers. To assist the studies of others he also made time to write a Hebrew grammar, which became extremely popular.
    A serious breakdown in health, however, necessitated his recall to Italy and there, in spite of the efforts of St Charles Borromeo to secure his services for Milan, he was appointed to the recently established chair of controversial theology at the
Roman College. For eleven years, from 1576, he laboured untiringly, giving lectures and preparing the four great volumes of his Disputations on the Contro­versies of the Christian faith which, even three hundred years later, the great ecclesiastical historian Hefele described as “the most complete defence of Catholic teaching yet published”. It showed such profound acquaintance with the Bible, the Fathers, and the heretical writers, that many of his opponents could never bring themselves to believe that it was the work of one man. They even suggested that his name was an anagram covering a syndicate of learned and wily Jesuits. The work was one urgently needed at that particular moment, because the leading Reformers had recently published a series of volumes purporting to show, by an appeal to history, that Protestantism truly represented the Church of the Apostles. As these were published at Magdeburg, and as each volume covered a century, the series became known as the “Centuries of Magdeburg”. The answer which Baronius set out to furnish in the field of history, St Robert Bellarmine supplied in the field of dogmatics. The success of his Controversies was instantaneous:  laymen and clergy, Catholics and Protestants, read the volumes with avidity, and even in Elizabethan England, where the work was prohibited, a London bookseller declared,
 “I have made more money out of this Jesuit than out of all the other divines put together”.

In 1589 he was separated for a while from his books to be sent with Cardinal Cajetanus on a diplomatic embassy to France, then in the throes of war between Henry of Navarre and the League. No tangible results came of the mission, but the party had the experience of being in Paris for eight months during the siege, when, to quote St Robert’s own words, they “did practically nothing though they suffered a very great deal”. As opposed to Cardinal Cajetanus, who had Spanish sympathies, St Robert was openly in favour of trying to make terms with the king of Navarre if he would become a Catholic, but within a very short time of the raising of the siege the members of the mission were recalled to Rome by the death of Pope Sixtus V.
     Soon afterwards we find St Robert taking the leading part on a papal commission appointed by Pope Clement VIII to edit and make ready for publication the new revision of the Vulgate Bible, which had been called for by the Council of Trent. An edition had indeed already been completed during the reign of Sixtus V and under that pope’s immediate supervision, but it contained many errors due to defective scholarship and to a fear of making important alterations in the current text. Moreover, it was never in general circulation. The revised version, as produced by the commission and issued with the imprimatur of Clement VIII, is the Latin Bible as we have it to-day, with a preface composed by St Robert himself. He was then living at the Roman College, where, as official spiritual director to the house, he had been brought into close contact with St Aloysius Gonzaga, whose death-bed he attended and to whom he was so deeply attached that in his will he asked to be buried at the feet of the youthful saint, “once my dear ghostly child”.

Recognition of Bellarmine’s great qualities followed quickly. In 1592 he was made rector of the Roman College; in 1594 he was made provincial of Naples; and three years later he returned to Rome in the capacity of theologian to Clement VIII, at whose express desire he wrote his two celebrated catechisms, one of which is still in general use throughout Italy. These catechisms are said to have been translated more frequently than any other literary work except the Bible and the Imitation of Christ.

In 1598, to his great dismay, he was nominated a cardinal by Clement VIII on the ground that “he had not his equal for learning”. Though obliged to occupy apartments in the Vatican and to keep up some sort of an estab­lishment, he relaxed none of his former austerities. Moreover, he limited his household and expenses to what was barely essential: he lived on bread and garlic—the food of the poor; and he denied himself a fire even in the depth of winter. Once he ransomed a soldier who had deserted from the army; and he used the hangings of his rooms to clothe poor people, remarking, “The walls won’t catch cold”.

In 1602 he was, somewhat unexpectedly, appointed archbishop of Capua, and within four days of his consecration he left Rome to take up his new charge. Ad­mirable as the holy man appears in every relation of life, it is perhaps as shepherd of his immense flock that he makes the greatest appeal to our sympathy. Laying aside his books, the great scholar, who had no pastoral experience, set about evangelizing his people with all the zeal of a young missionary, whilst initiating the reforms decreed by the Council of Trent. He preached constantly, he made visitations, he exhorted the clergy, he catechized the children, he sought out the necessitous, whose wants he supplied, and he won the love of all classes. He was not destined, however, to remain long away from Rome. Paul V, who was elected pope three years later, at once insisted upon retaining Cardinal Bellarmine by his side, and the archbishop accordingly resigned his see.

From that time onwards, as head of the Vatican Library and as a member of almost every congregation, he took a prominent part in all the affairs of the Holy See. When Venice ventured arbi­trarily to abrogate the rights of the Church, and was placed under an interdict, St Robert became the pope’s great champion in a pamphlet contest with the Republic’s theologian, the famous Servite, Fra Paolo Sarpi. A still more important adversary was James I of England. Cardinal Bellarmine had remonstrated with his friend, the Archpriest Blackwell, for taking the oath of allegiance to James—an oath purposely so worded as to deny to the pope all jurisdiction over temporals. King James, who fancied himself as a controversialist, rushed into the fray with two books in defence of the oath, both of which were answered by Cardinal Bellarmine. In the earlier rejoinder, St Robert, writing in the somewhat lighter vein that so became him, made humorous references to the monarch’s bad Latin; but his second treatise was a serious and crushing retort, covering every point in the controversy.

 Stand­ing out consistently and uncompromisingly as a champion of papal supremacy in all things spiritual, Bellarmine nevertheless held views on temporal authority which were displeasing to extremists of both parties. Because he maintained that the pope’s jurisdiction over foreign rulers was indirect, he lost favour with Sixtus V. and because, in opposition to the Scots jurist, Barclay, he denied the divine right of kings, his book, De potestate papae, was publicly burnt by the parlement of Paris.

The saint was on friendly terms with Galileo Galilei, who dedicated to him one of his books. He was called upon, indeed, to admonish the great astronomer in the year 1616, but his admonition, which was accepted with a good grace, amounted to a caution against putting forward, otherwise than as a hypothesis, theories not yet fully proved. Well would it have been for Galileo if he had continued to act in accordance with that advice.

It would be impossible in limited space even to enumerate the various activities of St Robert during these later years. He con­tinued to write, but his works were no longer controversial. He completed a commentary on the Psalms and wrote five spiritual books, all of which, including the last, on the Art of Dying, were soon translated into English. When it became clear that his days were drawing to a close, he was allowed to retire to the Jesuit novitiate of St Andrew. There he died, at the age of seventy-nine, on September 17, 1621—on the day which, at his special request, had been set aside as the feast of the Stigmata of St Francis of Assisi. St Robert Bellarmine was canonized in 1930, and declared a doctor of the Church in 1931.

It hardly needs saying that the sources of information for such a career are far too copious to be specified in detail. The mere fact that the beatification was opposed, and in this way retarded, by a certain school of theologians who did not find themselves in harmony with Bellarmine’s views, has had the result of multiplying to a quite unusual extent the printed documents connected with the process. Besides these quasi-official materials and the seventeenth century lives, notably those by Fuligatti (1624) and Daniel Bartoli (1678), it will be sufficient to call attention to the brief autobiography of the saint written in 1613 at the pressing instance of Father Mutius Vitelleschi. This may most conveniently be consulted in the valuable work of Father LeBachelet, Bellarmin avant son Cardinalat (1911); Le Bachelet supplemented this with another important collection of documents, entitled Auctarium Bellarminianum (1913). For English readers the work which supersedes all others and which is as exhaustive in its range as it is attractive in treatment, is the Life of Robert Bellarmine, by Father James Brodrick (2 vols. 1928). The Congregation of Sacred Rites issued an imposing volume, De S. Roberto Bellarmino Univ. Eccl. Doctore (1931), setting out the grounds on which Bellarmine was enrolled among the doctors of the Church; this includes (pp. xxi—xxxii) what is in effect a very full bibliography. St Bellarmine’s Tor in the parish of Cardinham, Cornwall, is a curious modern corruption of St Bartholomew, titular of a neighbouring church.

1688 Transfer of the Relics of the Hieromartyr Macarius, Archimandrite of Kanev
Transferred on May 13, 1688 from Kanev to the city of Pereslavl because of the threat of enemy invasion.
The main Feast commemorating St Macarius is on September 7.

1834 ST ANDREW HUBERT FOURNET, CO-FOUNDER OF THE DAUGHTERS OF THE CROSS
IN studying the lives of those who have been raised to the altars of the Church we find many instances of men and women who from childhood have felt drawn to the mode of life they afterwards adopted; but occasionally we come across individuals who began by experiencing a positive aversion from what subsequently proved to be their vocation. To this latter category belonged St Andrew Hubert Fournet.

He was born on December 6, 1752, at Maillé, near Poitiers, of well-to-do parents. Possibly his good mother rather overdid her pious instructions and her laudation of the priestly office, for little Andrew was frankly bored by religion: he wished neither to pray nor to learn: all he wanted to do was to amuse himself. In a book belonging to him when a lad, and preserved as a relic, may be read the following words written in his childish handwriting: “This book belongs to Andrew Hubert Fournet, a good boy, though he is not going to be a priest or a monk!”

At school his idleness and frivolity led him into many scrapes, and one day he ran away—only to be brought back in disgrace to receive a thrashing. Later on he went to Poitiers, ostensibly to study philosophy and law, but his main study was to get as much pleasure out of life as possible. Once he enlisted and was bought out. Then his mother tried to obtain some secretarial work for him: his handwriting, how­ever, was too bad.

Almost in despair his family sent him to an uncle, a parish priest in a lonely, poverty-stricken parish. This was the turning-point in his life.

The uncle was a holy man, who won his nephew’s confidence, and succeeded so well in drawing out the good that underlay his frivolity that before long Andrew appeared a changed character. He set himself to study theology, was ordained priest, and became his uncle’s curate. After serving a second and more strenuous cure he was nominated parish priest in his native town of Maillé in 1781. His liberality to the poor and his winning personality soon endeared him to the whole parish.

For a time he continued to entertain friends at a well-appointed table, but the casual criticism of a beggar led him to give away all his silver and every article of furniture that was not absolutely necessary. From that time forward he and his mother, his sister, and a curate led an almost conventual life in the presbytery. His simplicity soon extended itself from his manner of life to his speech. “Your Reverence used to preach so finely that no one understood you”, his sacristan remarked one day. “Nowadays we can all follow every word you say.”

This peaceful, happy existence came to an end with the French Revolution. St Andrew refused to take the oath which the new government required of the clergy, and was consequently outlawed. Only by stealth could he minister to his flock—now in the woods, now in a barn, now in a humble cottage—and always at the risk of his life. Towards the end of 1792, at the bidding of his bishop, he retired to Spain, but after an absence of five years he decided that he could no longer leave his flock unshepherded. Secretly he made his way back to his parish, which he entered at dead of night. The news of his return spread like wildfire and his ministrations were sought on all hands. The danger, however, was greater than ever; the pursuivants were constantly on his track: and on several occasions he only escaped by the skin of his teeth. Once, as he was sitting by a cottage fire, the bailiffs entered in search of him. The good woman of the house promptly boxed his ears for an idle churl, and bade him give his place to the gentlemen while he went off to mind the cattle. The ruse succeeded; but in telling the story St Andrew was wont to add: “She had a heavy hand: she made me see stars!” Another day he eluded capture by feigning to be a corpse. The officials sent in search of him drew back at the sight of a shrouded figure on a bed surrounded by candles and kneeling women.

The accession to power of Napoleon Bonaparte brought relief to the faithful, for the First Consul soon realized that it was politic to make terms with the Church. Fournet openly took control of his parish and presbytery, and set himself to rekindle the embers of religion. He gave many missions, and was untiring in the pulpit and confessional.

In all his efforts he was ably seconded by St Elizabeth Bichier des Ages, who under his guidance formed a congregation of women pledged to teach children and to look after the sick and poor. St Andrew directed the sisters and drew up their rule; they became known as the Daughters of the Cross, but the foundress liked to call them Sisters of St Andrew.

When Abbé Fournet had reached the age of sixty-eight, fatigue and increasing infirmities induced him to resign his parish work at Maillé and to retire to La Puye. Here he not only devoted himself to the new community but also gave assistance in the adjoining parishes, and became spiritual adviser to many souls, clergy as well as layfolk. In the process of beatification some remarkable evidence was given of the miraculous multiplication of food, and especially of grain, effected by the prayers of St Andrew when the nuns among whom he resided needed bread for themselves and their children. He died on May 13, 1834, and was canonized on June 4, 1933.

A biographical summary in some detail is included in the bull of canonization: it may be found in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xxv (1933), pp. 417—428. See also L. Rigaud, Vie de A. H. Fournet (1885); an anonymous Italian life, Il beato Andrea Uberto Fournet (1885); and the bibliography of St Elizabeth Bichier, on August 26.

Our Lady of Fatima May 13, October 13, 1917 2010
   
Between May 13 and October 13, 1917, three Portuguese children received apparitions of Our Lady at Cova da Iria, near Fatima, a city 110 miles north of Lisbon. (See February 20 entry for Blessed Jacinta and Francisco Marto). Mary asked the children to pray the rosary for world peace, for the end of World War I, for sinners and for the conversion of Russia.

Mary gave the children three secrets. Since Francisco died in 1919 and Jacinta the following year, Lucia, who later became a Carmelite nun, revealed the first secret in 1927, concerning devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. The second secret was a vision of hell.

Pope John Paul II directed the Holy See's Secretary of State to reveal the third secret in 2000; it spoke of a 'bishop in white' who was shot by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows into him. Many people linked this to the assassination attempt against Pope John Paul II in St. Peter's Square on May 13, 1981.

The feast of Our Lady of Fatima was approved by the local bishop in 1930; it was added to the Church's worldwide calendar in 2002. Sister Lucia died in 2005 at the age of 97.

Comment: The message of Fatima is simple: Pray. Unfortunately, some people—not Sister Lucia—have distorted these revelations, making them into an apocalyptic event for which they are now the only reliable interpreters. They have, for example, claimed that Mary's request that the world be consecrated to her has been ignored. Sister Lucia has agreed that Pope John Paul II's public consecration in St. Peter's Square on March 25, 1984, fulfilled Mary's request. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith prepared a June 26, 2000, document explaining the “third secret” (available at www.vatican.va).

Mary is perfectly honored when people generously imitate her response “Let it be done to me as you say” (Luke 1:38). Mary can never be seen as a rival to Jesus or to the Church's teaching authority, as exercised by the college of bishops united with the bishop of Rome.

Quote: Throughout history there have been supernatural apparitions and signs which go to the heart of human events and which, to the surprise of believers and non-believers alike, play their part in the unfolding of history. These manifestations can never contradict the content of faith, and must therefore have their focus in the core of Christ's proclamation: the Father's love which leads men and women to conversion and bestows the grace required to abandon oneself to him with filial devotion. This too is the message of Fatima which, with its urgent call to conversion and penance, draws us to the heart of the Gospel” (The Message of Fatima, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, June 26, 2000).


Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  May 2016
Universal:   “That in every country in the world, women may be honoured and respected
and that their essential contribution to society may be highly esteemed”.

Evangelization:  “That families, communities and groups may pray the Holy Rosary for evangelisation and peace”.
God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798