Mary the Mother of Jesus
May 16 St John Nepomucene
 Tuesday  Saints of this Day May 16 Decimo septimo Kaléndas Junii.  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
  RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

There are over 10,000 named saints beati from history and Roman
Martyology Orthodox sources


The fortieth day is the Feast of the Lord's Ascension, which marks the end of the Lord's physical presence on earth. He does not abandon us, however. He has promised to be with us always, even until the end of the age (MT 20:28). As we sing in the Kontakion for Ascension, "Thou didst ascend in glory, O Christ our God, not being parted from those who love Thee, but remaining with them and crying: I am with you and no one will be against you."
There is a similar thought expressed in the Troparion for the Dormition:
"In falling asleep, you did not forsake the world, O Theotokos."



Morning Prayer and Hymn   Meditation of the Day

1247 St Margaret of Cortona established a hospital and founded a congregation of tertiary sisters
devoted to the Eucharist and the passion of Jesus 

"He who dies clothed with this habit shall be preserved from eternal fire"
Simon Stock, an English Carmelite, was born in 1164. The name Stock, meaning "tree trunk," derives from the fact that Simon lived as a hermit in the hollow trunk of an oak tree since he was 12 years old. According to tradition, he was an itinerant preacher until he entered the Carmelite Order.

The lasting fame of Simon Stock came from an apparition he had in Cambridge, England, on July 16, 1251, at a time when the Carmelite Order was being oppressed.  In this vision, the Virgin Mary gave him a brown scapular for all the members of his Order. She said,
"Receive, my beloved son, this scapular of thy Order, it is the special sign of my favor, which I have obtained for thee and for thy children of Mount Carmel. He who dies clothed with this habit shall be preserved from eternal fire."
The scapular is not only for consecrated persons; any Catholic can ask to receive it.

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

The Cross
Monsignor James Michael. Reardon: Basilica of Saint Mary Minneapolis, MN

May 16 - Our Lady of Miracles (1925) - Saint Simon Stock (Brown Scapular) d. 1265
   The Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Saint Simon Stock was born to a very illustrious family in Kent County, England (c. 1165), of which his father was governor. His mother was devoted to the Virgin Mary, and Simon was not yet one year old when he was heard clearly articulating the Angelic salutation several times. When he was twelve, Simon began to live as a hermit in the hollow of a trunk of an oak, where he got the nickname "stock" or "trunk". Within this wilderness retreat, his continual prayers ascended to heaven and he spent twenty years in the most complete solitude, feeding his soul with the celestial delights of contemplation.

Having voluntarily chosen to deprive himself of human conversation, he was favored with that of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the angels who urged him to persevere in his life of sacrifice and love. The Queen of Heaven told him that some hermits from Palestine would soon land in England, adding that he should join those men who she considered as her servants.

Indeed, Lord John Vesoy and Lord Richard Gray of Codnor returned from the Holy Land, bringing with them several hermits from Mount Carmel. Simon Stock joined them in 1212 and was elected Vicar General of the Carmelite Order in 1215. He begged the Virgin Mary by fervent prayers and tears to defend this Order, which was devoted to her, and she appeared in a dream to Pope Honorius III, so the pope finally confirmed the Rule of Carmelites in 1226.

Another time the Mother of God appeared to Simon, surrounded by a dazzling light and accompanied by a large number of blessed spirits, with the scapular of the order in her hand. This scapular she gave him with the words: "Hoc erit tibi et cunctis Carmelitis privilegium, in hoc habitu moriens salvabitur" This shall be the privilege for you and for all the Carmelites, that anyone wearing this habit shall be saved.

Through Saint Simon Stock the devotion of the scapular spread throughout the world, not only among the people, but also among kings and princes who found themselves very honored to wear the sign of the servants of the Blessed Virgin. Stock breathed his last in the city of Bordeaux while visiting monasteries, in the 20th year of his office as Vicar General. The Church added his last words to the Angelic salutation: "Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death."
From Bishop Paul Guerin, 1863 Ed., p. 229-233 
1st v. Fort of Bordeaux  Believed to have been the first bishop of Bordeaux BM (AC)
       Aquilinus and Victorian this pair was martyred in Isauria Asia Minor MM (RM)
       Leavetaking of the Feast On Wednesday of the sixth week of Pascha, we celebrate
 138 St Peregrinus Bishop of Terni, Italy 
3rd v. St. Peregrinus 1st bishop of Auxerre  evangelization of Gaul martyred  intervention in the dedication of a temple of Jupiter
251 Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem,
 325 On the seventh Sunday of Pascha, we commemorate the holy God-bearing Fathers of the First Ecumenical Council.
 376 Hilary of Pavia Bishop prelate of N. Italy fought Arianism B (AC)
 420 St Abdas Persian Bishop martyred w/ 28 members of his flock their deaths marked beginning of a long reign of terror for Christians throughout that empire
437 St. Possidius, bishop of Calamae, and disciple of St. Augustine, of whose glorious life he wrote a history.
 450 Primael of Quimper Hermit crossed the Channel to Brittany, where he became a hermit (AC) 
       Saint Maxima of Fréjus several French villages are named in her honor V (RM)
5th v. St Carantoc Welsh confessor abbot and monastic founder aided St. Patrick in evangelizing Ireland venerated in
Brittany, France 

5th v. Saint Musa The Most Holy Theotokos appeared to her in a dream
 540 St Fidouls (Phal)  of Aumont abbey named for him Slave who became abbot of Aurnont, near Troyes 
 560 St Germerius Bishop of Toulouse France for half a century founded 2 churches a monastery aided by King Clovis caring for the poor 
 581 St Domnolus Bishop of Le Mans, France abbot of a monastery 24 yrs in Paris built churches monasteries hospice
 583 St Brendan the Voyager monk founder "Navagation" in which he is described as searching for the Isles of the Blessed, touching the Canaries, and even discovering America. possible visits to Scotland and Wales 
       St Felix & Gennadius 2  Benedictine martyrs of Uzalis North Africa where relics were venerated 
 600 St Honoratus of Amiens Bishop of Amiens, France Many miracles were reported at his shrine
614 Forty-four monks of the St Sava Lavra received unfading crown martyrdom attacked by Arabs search of plunder
 689 St Annobert Bishop Benedictine monk in Almeneches he became bishop in 685 of Séez France
842 St George the Bishop of Mitylene

1210 St Adam Hermit and abbot  maintained his prayer life and rigorous self-discipline
1247 St Margaret of Cortona established a hospital and founded a congregation of tertiary sisters devoted to the Eucharist and the passion of Jesus 
1265 St Simon Stock Scapular of Mount Carmel the Virgin Mary appeared to him holding the brown scapular in one hand. Her words were: "Receive, my beloved son, this scapular of thy Order; it is the special sign of my favor, which I have obtained for thee and for thy children of Mount Carmel 
1537 St Cassian of Komel and Vologda disciple of St Cornelius of Komel (May 19)
1393 St John Nepomucene a retiring disposition Father John repeatedly refused bishoprics M (RM)
1545 St Ephraim of Perekomsk Transfer of the Relics of occurred on May 16 reposed on September 26, 1492
1547 Saint Laurence of Komel disciple of St Cornelius of Komel
1657 St Andrew Bobola 1608 Jesuit missionary preached distinguished himself by work of mercy during plague martyred by Cossacks 
1834 Andrew Hubert Fournet early life was devoted to frivolity Inspired by his uncle he became protector of the poor studied theology ordained became his assistant changed for one of austerity and simplicity Founder Prayers to Saint Andrew miraculously increased food supplies for the nuns when they were in need (RM)
WW II Martyr Vukasin from the Village of Klepci in the notorious concentration camp of Jasenovac

Leavetaking of the Feast On Wednesday of the sixth week of Pascha, we celebrate
While most Feasts have their Leavetaking on the eighth day, Pascha, the Feast of Feasts, has its Leavetaking on the thirty-ninth day. The fortieth day is the Feast of the Lord's Ascension, which marks the end of the Lord's physical presence on earth. He does not abandon us, however. He has promised to be with us always, even until the end of the age (MT 20:28). As we sing in the Kontakion for Ascension, "Thou didst ascend in glory, O Christ our God, not being parted from those who love Thee, but remaining with them and crying: I am with you and no one will be against you." There is a similar thought expressed in the Troparion for the Dormition: "In falling asleep, you did not forsake the world, O Theotokos."

The services today are celebrated just as on the day of Pascha itself. The daily readings from Holy Scripture, of course, will differ. After the Dismissal at Liturgy, the paschal hymns are no longer sung. The prayer "O Heavenly King" is not said or sung until Pentecost.The Winding Sheet (Plaschanitsa) is taken from the altar and is put in its proper place. Even though today is a Wednesday, fish, wine, and oil are permitted.

Today we also commemorate the Finding of the Icon of the Mother of God "Of the Meeting" in Kalamata in the Peloponnesus.

1st v. Fort of Bordeaux Believed to have been the first bishop of Bordeaux BM (AC)
Aquilinus and Victorian this pair was martyred in Isauria Asia Minor MM (RM)
In Isáuria natális sanctórum Mártyrum Aquilíni et Victoriáni.
    In Isauria, the birthday of the holy martyrs Aquilinus and Victorian.
This is all that is recorded of them (Benedictines).
138  St. Peregrinus Bishop of Terni, Italy
He is credited as being the founder of that city’s cathedral.
251 Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem, divine revelation established the first library of Christian theological works at Jerusalem Hieromartyr disciple of the great teacher and writer of the Church, Clement of Alexandria
At the beginning of the third century he was chosen bishop of Flavia, Cappadocia. He was arrested during the reign of the emperor Septimus Severus (193-211) and spent three years in prison.
After his release from prison he went to Jerusalem to venerate the holy places, and was told to remain there through a divine revelation. In 212 he was chosen as coadministrator with the elderly Patriarch Narcissus, an unusually rare occurrence in the ancient Church.
Following the death of St Narcissus (August 7), St Alexander succeeded him and governed the Church of Jerusalem for thirty-eight years, working for the enlightenment of Christians. He also established the first library of Christian theological works at Jerusalem.
St Alexander was arrested during the persecution of the Church under the emperor Decius (249-251). The holy martyr was sent to Cappadocia, where he suffered many tortures. He was condemned to be eaten by wild beasts, but they did not harm him. St Alexander was cast into prison, where he surrendered his soul to God in the year 251.
The hieromartyr Alexander is also commemorated on December 12.
3rd v. St. Peregrinus 1st bishop of Auxerre evangelization of Gaul martyred intervention in the dedication of a temple of Jupiter
Antisiodóri pássio sancti Peregríni, qui fuit primus ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus.  Hic, a beáto Xysto Papa Secúndo in Gállias, una cum áliis Cléricis, missus, ibi, Evangélicæ prædicatiónis múnere expléto, capitáli senténtia damnátus corónam méruit sempitérnam.
    At Auxerre, the passion of St. Peregrinus, first bishop of that city.  He was sent into France with other clerics by the blessed Pope Sixtus II, and having accomplished his work of preaching the Gospel, he was condemned to capital punishment, and merited for himself an everlasting crown.
AN accepted legend states that the first bishop of Auxerre, St Peregrine, was consecrated by Pope Sixtus II and was sent from Rome at the request of the Christians resident in that part of Gaul. Landing at Marseilles, he preached the gospel in that city, as well as in Lyons on his way. During his episcopate the greater part of the inhabitants of Auxerre are said to have been converted to Christianity. He built a church on the banks of the Yonne and evangelized all the surrounding country. In the mountainous district of the Puisaye, some ten leagues or more south-west of Auxerre, stood the town of Intaranum—the present Entrains—at a point where several roads met. The Roman prefect had a palace there and the place had become a great centre for the worship of Roman deities. On the occasion of the dedication of a new temple to Jupiter, St Peregrine went to the town and appealed to the populace to abandon idolatry. He was seized, brought before the governor and condemned to death. After being cruelly tortured he was beheaded.
This account is based upon two texts, one of which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, while the other may most conveniently be consulted in Migne, PL., vol. 138, cc. 219—221. There is no reason to doubt the fact of the martyrdom, for the Hieronymianum commemorates it on this day and informs us that it took place at the “vicus Baiacus” (Bouhy), where Peregrine was buried. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p. 431

Peregrinus was supposedly a Roman who received consecration as bishop from Pope Sixtus II in Rome and was sent to assist the evangelization of Gaul. He met with great success in the area around Massilia and Lyons, France. Most of what is known about him is legend, although there is no question that he was martyred under Emperor Diocletian in the late third century or early fourth century for interrupting a pagan ritual honoring Jupiter.

304 Saint  Peregrine (Peregrinus) first bishop of Auxerre BM (RM) Born in Rome, Italy; died c. 261 or c. 304. Saint Peregrine is said to have been appointed as the first bishop of Auxerre by Pope Saint Sixtus (f.d. August 7). That he was martyred at Bouhy under Diocletian is testified in the Martyrology of Saint Jerome. His legend says that his death was the result of his intervention in the dedication of a temple of Jupiter in the town (Benedictines, Farmer).

303 The Holy Martyrs Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia suffered for Christ an angel entered the boat with them heal the sick the Lord Jesus Christ appeared
During the reign of Emperor Diocletian (284-305).  St Vitus was the son of an illustrious Sicilian dignitary, the pagan Gelas. Gelas tried to turn his son from Christianity, but failed. Paternal love then turned to hatred, and he decided to kill Vitus. In order to save the boy, his tutor St Modestus and his governess St Crescentia, who were Christians, secretly took him from his parental home. They saw a boat at the river, and an angel entered the boat with them. They reached the Italian district of Lucanium, where the saints lived quietly, hiding from those who would persecute them. The holy youth continued to heal the sick and convert pagans to Christianity. His fame soon spread throughout the region.

Sts Vitus and Modestus went to present themselves before Diocletian, and were thrown into prison. Then the Lord Jesus Christ appeared to the prisoners, strengthening them for their contest. He helped them, and the fetters fell from their hands. Ascribing the miracle to magic, Diocletian ordered that St Vitus be thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil. The saint stood in it as if in cool water, and remained unharmed. Then a fierce lion was set loose. The young man made the Sign of the Cross, and the beast laid at his feet and began to lick them. They tied the holy martyrs to pillars and began to scrape them with iron claws.
St Crescentia came out of the crowd of spectators, confessed herself a Christian and reproached the emperor for his cruelty. He also sentenced her to torture.

St Vitus called out to God, "O God, save us by Thy power and deliver us." Then an earthquake struck, and many pagans perished beneath the collapsed buildings. Diocletian fled to his chambers in fear. An angel released the martyrs from the pillars and took them to Lucanium.

St Vitus prayed that God would accept their souls in peace and not deprive those who kept their memory of His benefaction. A Voice came from Heaven, "Thy prayer is heard." Then the saints joyfully surrendered their souls to God.
The holy martyrs Vitus, Modestus and Crescentia suffered for Christ in the year 303. These saints are also commemorated on June 15.
The relics of Saint Vitus were transferred to Prague. The Holy Prince Vyacheslav (Wenceslaus) of the Czechs (September 28) built a church in honor of St Vitus, in which he was afterwards buried.
325 On the seventh Sunday of Pascha, we commemorate the holy God-bearing Fathers of the First Ecumenical Council.
The First Ecumenical Council is also commemorated on May 29.
The Commemoration of the First Ecumenical Council has been celebrated by the Church of Christ from ancient times. The Lord Jesus Christ left the Church a great promise, "I will build My Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" (Mt. 16:18). Although the Church of Christ on earth will pass through difficult struggles with the Enemy of salvation, it will emerge victorious. The holy martyrs bore witness to the truth of the Savior's words, enduring suffering and death for confessing Christ, but the persecutor's sword is shattered by the Cross of Christ.

Persecution of Christians ceased during the fourth century, but heresies arose within the Church itself. One of the most pernicious of these heresies was Arianism. Arius, a priest of Alexandria, was a man of immense pride and ambition. In denying the divine nature of Jesus Christ and His equality with God the Father, Arius falsely taught that the Savior is not consubstantial with the Father, but is only a created being.

A local Council, convened with Patriarch Alexander of Alexandria presiding, condemned the false teachings of Arius. However, Arius would not submit to the authority of the Church. He wrote to many bishops, denouncing the decrees of the local Council. He spread his false teaching throughout the East, receiving support from certain Eastern bishops.

Investigating these dissentions, the holy emperor Constantine (May 21) consulted Bishop Hosius of Cordova (Aug. 27), who assured him that the heresy of Arius was directed against the most fundamental dogma of Christ's Church, and so he decided to convene an Ecumenical Council. In 325, 318 bishops representing Christian Churches from various lands gathered together at Nicea.

Among the assembled bishops were many confessors who had suffered during the persecutions, and who bore the marks of torture upon their bodies. Also participating in the Council were several great luminaries of the Church: St Nicholas, Archbishop of Myra in Lycia (December 6 and May 9), St Spyridon, Bishop of Tremithos (December 12), and others venerated by the Church as holy Fathers.

With Patriarch Alexander of Alexandria came his deacon, Athanasius (who later became Patriarch of Alexandria (May 2 and January 18). He is called "the Great," for he was a zealous champion for the purity of Orthodoxy. In the Sixth Ode of the Canon for today's Feast, he is referred to as "the thirteenth Apostle."

The emperor Constantine presided over the sessions of the Council. In his speech, responding to the welcome by Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, he said, "God has helped me cast down the impious might of the persecutors, but more distressful for me than any blood spilled in battle is for a soldier, is the internal strife in the Church of God, for it is more ruinous."

Arius, with seventeen bishops among his supporters, remained arrogant, but his teaching was repudiated and he was excommunicated from the Church. In his speech, the holy deacon Athanasius conclusively refuted the blasphemous opinions of Arius. The heresiarch Arius is depicted in iconography sitting on Satan's knees, or in the mouth of the Beast of the Deep (Rev. 13).

The Fathers of the Council declined to accept a Symbol of Faith (Creed) proposed by the Arians. Instead, they affirmed the Orthodox Symbol of Faith. St Constantine asked the Council to insert into the text of the Symbol of Faith the word "consubstantial," which he had heard in the speeches of the bishops. The Fathers of the Council unanimously accepted this suggestion.

In the Nicean Creed, the holy Fathers set forth and confirmed the Apostolic teachings about Christ's divine nature. The heresy of Arius was exposed and repudiated as an error of haughty reason. After resolving this chief dogmatic question, the Council also issued Twelve Canons on questions of churchly administration and discipline. Also decided was the date for the celebration of Holy Pascha. By decision of the Council, Holy Pascha should not be celebrated by Christians on the same day with the Jewish Passover, but on the first Sunday after the first full moon of the vernal equinox (which occured on March 22 in 325).
368 Saint Theodore called "Sanctified" because he was the first in his monastery ordained to the priesthood head of all the Thebaid monasteries
St Theodore came from Egypt and was the son of rich and illustrious Christian parents. The yearning for monastic life appeared early in him. Once there was a large party at the house of his parents during the feast of Theophany. The boy did not want to take part in the festivities, grieving that because of earthly joys he might be deprived of joys in the life to come.

He secretly left home when he was fourteen and entered one of the monasteries.

Hearing about Pachomius the Great, he burned with the desire to see the ascetic. St Pachomius received the young man with love, having been informed by God beforehand about his coming. Remaining at the monastery, St Theodore quickly succeeded in all his monastic tasks, particularly in the full obedience to his guide, and in his compassion towards the other brethren. Theodore's mother, learning that he was at the Tabennisi monastery, came to St Pachomius with a letter from the bishop, asking to see her son. St Theodore did not wish to break his vow to renounce the world, so he refused to meet with his mother.

Seeing St Theodore's strength of mind and ability, St Pachomius once told him to instruct the brethren on Holy Scripture. St Theodore was then only twenty years old. He obeyed and began to speak, but some of the older brethren took offense that a new monk should teach them, and they departed. St Pachomius said to them, "You have given in to the devil and because of your conceit, your efforts will come to naught. You have not rejected Theodore, but rather the Word of God, and have deprived yourselves of the Holy Spirit."

St Pachomius appointed St Theodore as overseer of the Tabennisi monastery, and withdrew to a more solitary monastery. St Theodore with filial love continued to concern himself over his instructor, and he looked after St Pachomius in his final illness, and when the great abba reposed in the Lord, he closed his eyes. After the death of St Pachomius, St Theodore directed the Tabennisi monastery, and later on he was at the head of all the Thebaid monasteries. St Theodore the Sanctified was famed for his holiness of life and a great gift of wonderworking, and he was well known to St Athanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria. St Theodore reposed in his old age in the year 368.

376 Hilary of Pavia Bishop prelate of N. Italy fought Arianism B (AC)
Bishop Hilary of Pavia is one of the prelates of northern Italy who fought Arianism (Benedictines).

Saint Maxima of Fréjus several French villages are named in her honor V (RM)
Apud Forum Júlii, in Gállia, sanctæ Máximæ Vírginis, quæ, multis clara virtútibus, in pace quiévit.
    At Fréjus in France, St. Maxima, virgin, who died in peace with a reputation for many virtues.
Saint Maxima is widely venerated in Fréjus, France, where several villages are named in her honor; however, nothing definitive is known about her life (Benedictines).
420 St. Abdas also called Audas. Persian Bishop martyred w/ 28 members of his flock their deaths marked beginning of a long reign of terror for Christians throughout that empire
In Pérside sanctórum Mártyrum Audæ Epíscopi, septem Presbyterórum, novem Diaconórum, et septem Vírginum; qui sub Isdegérde Rege, variis tormentórum genéribus cruciáti, gloriósum martyrium complevérunt.
    In Persia, the holy martyrs Audas, a bishop, seven priests, nine deacons and seven virgins, who endured various kins of torments under King Isdegerdes, and thus gloriously completed their martyrdom.

bishop, Abdas was arrested with seven priests, nine deacons, and seven consecrated virgins. These arrests initiated the persecution of Christians in Persia in that era. Abdas and his companions went to their deaths professing Christ.

Audas (Abdas) of Persia BM (RM). The Persian bishop Audas was martyred on a Friday in May during the reign of Sapor with 28 members of his flock, including seven priests, nine deacons, and seven virgins. Their deaths marked the beginning of a long reign of terror for Christians throughout the empire (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

437 St. Possidius, bishop of Calamae, and disciple of St. Augustine, of whose glorious life he wrote a history.
Mirándulæ, in Æmília, sancti Possídii, Calaménsis in Numídia Epíscopi, qui fuit sancti Augustíni discípulus, ejúsque præcláram vitam scripsit.
    At Mirandola in Aemilia, St. Possidius, bishop of Calamae, and disciple of St. Augustine, of whose glorious life he wrote a history.
Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or list of St. Augustine's writings. The dates of his birth and death are unknown; he was alive and in exile in 437 according to Prosper, who, in his "Chronicle", records that Possidius and two other bishops were persecuted and expelled from their sees by the Vandal king, Genseric, who was an Arian. Possidius (Vita S. Augustini, xxxi), after describing the death of St. Augustine, speaks of his unbroken friendship with him for forty years. He also, speaking of himself in the third person, lets it be known that he was one of the clergy of St. Augustine's monastery (ibid., xii). The date of his promotion to the episcopate was, according to Tillemont, about 397. He followed St. Augustine's example and established a monastery at Calama. At a council, held at Carthage, Possidius challenged Crispinus, the Donatist Bishop of Calama, to a public discussion which the latter declined. Shortly afterwards one of Crispinus's clergy, bearing the same name as his bishop, attempted to assassinate Possidius. Legal proceedings were instituted against Crispinus, the bishop, who refused to punish his presbyter. He was proved to be a heretic and was heavily fined, but at the intercession of Possidius the fine was not exacted ("Vita", xii; St. Augustine, "Ep.", cv, 4; "Contra Crescon.", III, xlvi). In 407, Possidius served, with St. Augustine and five other bishops, on a committee appointed to adjudicate upon some ecclesiastical matter, the particulars of which are not known. In 408 he nearly lost his life in a riot stirred up by the pagans at Callama (St. Augustine, "Epp.", xc, xci, xciii). In 409 he was one of four bishops deputed to go to Italy to obtain the protection of the emperor against the Donatists. He was one of the seven bishops chosen to represent the Catholic party at the "Collatio" of 411. In 416 he assisted at the Council of Milevum, where fifty-nine Numidian bishops addressed a synodal letter to Innocent I, asking him to take action against Pelagianism. He joined with St. Augustine and three other bishops in a further letter to Innocent on the same subject, and was at the conference between St. Augustine and the Donatist Emeritus. When the Vandals invaded Africa, he fled to Hippo and was present at the death of St. Augustine (430). His "Vita S. Augustini", composed before the capture of Carthage (439), is included in all editions of the works of St. Augustine, and also printed in Hurter's "Opusc. SS. Patr.". His indiculus will be found in the last volume of Migne's edition of the works of .htm-->St. Augustine and in the tenth volume of the Benedictine edition.

450 Primael of Quimper Hermit crossed the Channel to Brittany, where he became a hermit (AC)
Born in Britain; died in Quimper, c. 450. Saint Primael crossed the Channel to Brittany, where he became a hermit in Quimper. There one finds churches dedicated to his memory (Benedictines).

5th v. St. Carantoc Welsh confessor abbot and monastic founder aided St. Patrick in evangelizing Ireland
He was a prince of the local aristocracy of Wales.

5th v. Saint Musa The Most Holy Theotokos appeared to her in a dream

She was distinguished for her pure life. St Gregory Dialogus included her story in his DIALOGUES, saying that he had heard these things from Musa's brother Probus.

The Most Holy Theotokos once appeared to Musa in a dream, surrounded by girls dressed in white. She asked her, "Do you wish to live together with these maidens in my court?"
"Yes, I do," the girl replied.
"Do not do anything silly, as little girls often do. Avoid frivolity and joking. In thirty days I shall come for you and you will be with us."
From that moment, Musa's character was changed. She began to pray earnestly and lived a strict life. In answer to the questions of her astonished parents, St Musa told them about the vision.
On the twenty-fifth day the maiden developed a fever, and on the thirtieth day she again saw the Mother of God coming to her with the same girls as before. The blessed child reposed with the words, "I am coming, I am coming to you, my Lady!"
St Musa departed this earthly life and was gathered into the heavenly Kingdom, where she glorifies the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit unto ages of ages.

6th v. St. Carantac Welsh abbot and monastic founder Wales Ireland England venerated in Brittany, France
ST Carantoc was a Welsh abbot, formerly venerated in Cardiganshire where he founded the church of Llangrannog. He lived for some time in Ireland, but returned to Britain and made a religious settlement at a place called Cernach, which may have been either Carhampton in Somerset or the Cornish village of Crantock, which still has the saint's well and celebrates Crantock Feast on May 16; but the Welsh story puts Cernach in Ireland, deriving its name from an Irish version of the saint's name. It also associates Carantoc with Arthur. At a later date he is said to have passed over to Brittany. This is confirmed by a statement in the Life of St Guenael to the effect that when that holy man returned to Brittany from Britain, after collecting a number of disciples and books, he proceeded at once to pay a visit to St Carantoc. Moreover there is in Brittany a widespread cultus of Carantoc, sometimes in association with St Tenenan. Eventually, however, he died, we are told, "in his renowned monastery, the best of all his monasteries, which is called the monastery of Cernach".
For the least unreliable information available about St Carantoc see the brochure of Canon Doble and C. G. Henderson in the Cornish Saints series (1928). The text printed with interpolations from an early twelfth-century vita originating in Cardigan in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. in, is of very doubtful historical value a better text is that given in an appendix to J. T. Evans's volume on the church plate of Cardiganshire; cf. too,  A. W. Wade-Evans, Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae (1944). See also Armitage Robinson in the Downside Review, vol. xlvi (1928), pp. 234-243 he shows that the saint was closely connected with Carhampton in west Somerset.

also called Carannog. Carantac founded a church at Llangrannog, Wales, spent time in Ireland, and upon returning to Wales founded a monastery at Cernach. He is associated with Crantock in Cornwall, and Carhampton in Somerset, England. He is also venerated in Brittany, France. He is sometimes identified with a Welsh prince, Carantac, an aide to St. Patrick.

540 St. Fidouls (Phal)  of Aumont abbey named for him; Slave who became abbot of Aurnont, near Troyes
Trecis, in Gállia, sancti Fídoli Confessóris.      At Treves in France, St. Fidolus, confessor

France. He was the son of a Roman official taken prisoner by King Clovis I’s army and sold into slavery. Ransomed by Aventinus, the abbot of Aumont Abbey, he became a monk there and then abbot. Fidolus is also called Fal or Phal, and the abbey was renamed for him.
560 St. Germerius Bishop of Toulouse France for half a century founded 2 churches a monastery aided by King Clovis caring for the poor
ST GERMERIUS (Germier) was only thirty years old when he is said to have become bishop of Toulouse, and to have occupied the see for fifty years. Although a native of Angouléme, he had been educated at Toulouse, whither he had migrated in early boyhood. Very shortly after his consecration, he was summoned to the court of Clovis, the first Christian king of France, and was treated with great respect by the monarch, who entertained him for three weeks and loaded him with gifts for his churches. He also bestowed upon him the district of Dux (?) near Toulouse and as much land for a cemetery as seven yoke of oxen could till in a day.
At Dux, Germerius built a church with three altars which he placed under the patronage of St Saturninus, the first bishop of Toulouse. We read that, on the day of its dedication, it was lighted by three hundred wax candles and that a number of sick persons were restored to health. At a later period the holy bishop founded a monastery at Dux, besides a second church, of St Martin. A great lover of the poor, he appointed almoners whose special work it was to assist the needy. In all his good works St Germerius was ably seconded by his two favourite disciples, Dulcidius and Pretiosus. He died and was buried in his monastery at Dux. The cultus of St Germerius goes back to a very early date.

There is every reason to be distrustful of the life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii. No Germerius can be found in the episcopal lists of Toulouse. As against C. Douais, Memoires Soc. Antig. France, 1890, pp. 1—134, see L. Saltet in Annales du Midi, vol. xiii (1901), pp. 145—175.
b. 480, also called Germier. He was born in Angouleme and became the bishop of Toulouse at the age of thirty, destined to govern the see for half a century. He founded two churches and a monastery and was aided by King Clovis in caring for the poor. He died at Dux, France.

Germerius of Toulouse B (AC). Saint Germerius, whose cultus is ancient, governed the church of Toulouse, France, for fifty years (Benedictines).
581 St. Domnolus Bishop of Le Mans, France abbot of a monastery 24 yrs in Paris built churches monasteries hospice
Apud Cenómanos, in Gállia, sancti Dómnoli Epíscopi.
    At Le Mans in France, St. Domnolus, bishop
THE various accounts we have of the career of St Domnolus are somewhat conflicting, and it seems clear that our sources of information are unreliable. He was probably abbot of a monastery in Paris when he attracted the favourable notice of King Clotaire I, who offered him the see of Avignon. This he refused, but the king afterwards bestowed upon him the bishopric of Le Mans, which he held for twenty-one years. He built several churches and a hospice on the Sarthe for poor pilgrims. Attached to it was a monastery with a church, to the dedication of which he invited his special friend, St Germanus of Paris. We find him taking part in the Council of Tours in 566. St Gregory of Tours speaks of Domnolus as having reached a high pitch of sanctity and working many miracles, and we have also two apparently authentic charters of his.

The biographical materials supplied by the vita (printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii), and by the Anus Pont. Cenom. (ibid.), are altogether untrustworthy and are almost certainly compilations fabricated by the chorepiscopus David more than two centuries later, though they profess to be written by a contemporary. See on all this, Havet, in the Bibl. de L’École des Chartes, vol. liv, pp. 688—692; Celier, in Revue Historique et archéol. du Maine, vol. lv (1904), pp. 375—391; A. Poncelet, in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxiv (1905), pp. 515—516; and Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p. 337.

Domnolus declined the bishopric of Avignon from King Clotaire I of the Franks, accepting Le Mans eventually and serving there for twenty-one years. Domnolus attended the Council of Tours in 566 and built churches, monasteries, and a hospice.
583 St. Brendan the Voyager monk founder "Navagation" in which he is described as searching for the Isles of the Blessed, touching the Canaries, and even discovering America. It is possible that he actually made visits to Scotland and Wales
In monastério Enachduinénsi, in Hibérnia, tránsitus sancti Brendáni Presbyteri et Clonferténsis Abbátis.
    In the monastery of Enachduin in Ireland, the death of St. Brendan, abbot of Clonfert.
THERE is hardly any Irish saint whose name is more widely known than that of St Brendan, though it is to be feared that this exceptional prominence is due rather to the popularity of the saga, called his Navigatio (sea-voyage), admittedly a fiction, than to the tradition of his saintliness. His life is preserved to us in several varying texts, Latin and Irish, but even when we eliminate the extravagances of the Navigatio which have been incorporated in some of these accounts, the residue is far from producing the impression of a sober historical record. The early Bollandists who, like other scholars of that generation, were indulgent in their attitude towards the marvellous, decided against printing the full biography in their Acta Sanctorum, on the ground that it was "fabulous". On the other hand, it is certain that St Brendan was a real personage, and that he exercised great influence amongst his contemporaries in the sixth century. He was probably born near Tralee on the west coast of Ireland, and Findlugh is given as his father's name. For five years as a tiny child he was committed to the care of St Ita, and after that he was watched over by Bishop Erc who had already baptized him as an infant and who was in due time to ordain him priest. St Jarlath of Tuam is also named as one of the holy men whom he visited with the view of obtaining edification and counsel.
To determine the chronological sequence of events is quite impossible, but we should be led to infer that shortly after being raised to the priesthood, St Brendan assumed the habit of a monk and gathered followers around him in a settled community. How he could have left these behind to start off with sixty chosen companions in skin-covered coracles to discover the Isles of the Blessed is a difficulty which does not seem to have troubled his biographers. One or other of these speaks of two separate voyages, though the first expedition is said to have lasted for five or seven years, as a sort of floating monastery. At the same time, while it is ridiculous to suppose, as some fervent advocates of the legend have done, that the abbot sailed to the Canaries or travelled north-west to the coast of Greenland, so competent an authority as Dr J. F. Kenney states: "It is reasonably certain that Brendan himself made a voyage to the Scottish isles and perhaps to the Strathclyde, Cumbria or Wales". We know at any rate that Adamnan, writing little more than a century after St Brendan's death, describes him as visiting St Columba in the little island of Himba, or Hinba, in Argyll; this island has not been identified, and on the point of this visit Adamnan has the Old Life against him. The biographers, whose narratives are probably later in date, discourse at considerable length of a visit he paid to St Gildas in Britain and of the marvels which happened on that occasion.
The most reliable fact which we can connect with the life of St Brendan is his foundation of a monastic community at Clonfert in 559 (?). His biographers speak of his governing a community of three thousand monks. He is also said to have had a rule of life dictated to him by an angel. We know nothing of its nature, but we are told that the rule was followed "down to the present day" by those who succeeded him in the office of abbot. There seems, again, no sufficient reason for questioning the statement that he did not die at Clonfert, but that God called him to his reward when he was paying a visit to his sister, Brig, who governed a community at Enach Duin. After offering Mass, he said, "Commend my departure in your prayers"; and Brig replied, "What do you fear?" "I fear", he said, "if I go alone, if the journey be dark, the unknown region, the presence of the King, and the sentence of the Judge." Foreseeing that attempts would be made to detain his body, he directed that his death should be kept secret for a time, while his remains were taken back to Clonfert in a cart, disguised as luggage he was sending on in advance of his own return. St Brendan's feast is observed throughout Ireland.

The biographical materials, which are relatively abundant, consist principally of two Latin lives, edited by C. Plummer in his VSH., vol. i, pp. 90—151, and vol. ii, pp. 272—292 that edited by P. Grosjean, in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlviii (1930), pp. 99—121; an Irish life edited by Whitley Stokes in the Lismore Lives, pp. 99—115, and a second Irish life edited by Charles Plummer in his Bethada Náem n-Érenn, vol. i, pp. 44—95; Plummer has also provided a valuable discussion of the problems arising from these texts: see the prefaces of the two works mentioned and also the Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie, vol. (1905), pp. 124—141. The literature occasioned by the story of St Brendan, and especially by the Navigatio, which in the middle ages was translated into almost all European languages and has points of contact with the sagas current in Arabic, is very extensive. Consult further J. F. Kenney, Sources for the Early History of Ireland, i, pp. 408—412; Nutt and Meyer, The Voyage of Bran (1897); Schirmer, Zur Brendanus Legende (1888); and L. Gougaud, Les Saints irlandais hors d’Irlande (1936), pp. 6—15. An attractive little illustrated volume is that of J. Wilkie, S. Brendan the Voyager and his Mystic Quest (1916), and G. A. Little’s Brendan the Navigator (1~45) is an interesting “interpretation” by a maritime scholar, but is insufficiently critical, (See review in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxiv, pp. 290—293).

St. Brendan died in 583. Born possibly in Tralee, Ireland, educated by St. Ita and ordained by Bishop Erc, he became a monk and founded a large monastery at Clonfert. Many fantastic details have been added to this brief knowledge usually based on the fictional "Navagation" in which he is described as searching for the Isles of the Blessed, touching the Canaries, and even discovering america. It is possible that he actually made visits to Scotland and Wales.

Brendan the Voyager, Abbot (RM) Born c. 484-489; died at Annaghdown, Ireland, c. 577-583.
"I fear that I shall journey alone, that the way will be dark; I fear the unknown land, the presence of my King and the sentence of my judge."--The dying words of Saint Brendan to his sister Abbess Brig.

Like the wanderings of Ulysses, the story of Saint Brendan voyaging over perilous waters was a popular story in the Middle Ages. We see him as only a shadow in the old Celtic world, and who he was or where he came from is uncertain, though it is supposed that he was born the son of Findlugh on Fenit Peninsula in Kerry, Ireland, of an ancient and noble line. It is said that he studied theology under Saint Ita (f.d. January 15) at Killeedy, that he was a contemporary and disciple of Saint Finian (f.d. December 12) and later Saint Gildas at Llancarfan in Wales, and that later he founded a monastery at Saint Malo.

Another version of his early life says that the infant Saint Brendan was given into the care of Saint Ita, who taught him three things that God really loves: "the true faith of a pure heart; the simple religious life; and bountifulness inspired by Christian charity." She would have added the three things God hates are "a scowling face; obstinate wrong-doing; and too much confidence in money." When he was six he was sent to Saint Jarlath's monastery school at Tuam for his education, and was ordained by Bishop Saint Erc in 512.

Though Brendan was a real person, fabulous stories are told how his wanderings in search of an unknown land, perhaps the Faroes, the Canaries, or the Azores. For seven years he voyaged to find the Promised Land of the saints.
On the Kerry coast, with 14 chosen monks, he built a coracle of wattle, covered it with hides tanned in oak bark softened with butter, and set up a mast and a sail, and after a prayer upon the shore, he embarked in the name of the Trinity. After strange wanderings he returned to Ireland and, about 559, founded a great monastery at Clonfert in Galway of 3,000 monks and a convent under his sister Briga (f.d. January 21).
He gave his monks a rule of remarkable austerity.

Later he visited the holy island of Iona, which was the center of much missionary activity. He founded numerous other monasteries in Ireland and several sees. And he himself made missionary journeys into England and Scotland.
Brendan  From Ireland's Eye

It is said that Columbus, to whom Brendan's story would have been familiar, may have been inspired by the saint's epic saga Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis. Long before Columbus, the Irish monks were renowned as travellers and explorers. Tradition says that they reached Iceland and explored even farther afield in the Atlantic--perhaps as far as America.

Scholars long doubted the voyage to the Promised Land described by Brendan could have been to North America, but some modern scholars now believe that he may have done just that. In 1976-77, Tim Severin, an expert on exploration, following the instructions in the Navigatio built a hide-covered curragh and then sailed it from Ireland to Newfoundland via Iceland and Greenland, demonstrating the accuracy of its directions and descriptions of the places Brendan mentioned in his epic.

Brendan himself stands out in a dark age as the captain of a Christian crew. Like the Greeks and the Vikings, he had a craving for the sea, but he built his boat, and launched it in the name of the Lord and sailed it under the ensign of the Cross. It is a thrilling saga, for all its strangeness, and set many a sailor later to search in vain for Saint Brendan's Island; but none ever found it, though it was said at times to be seen, like an Isle of Paradise, riding above the surface of the sea.

Now the great mountain that juts out into the Atlantic in County Kerry is called Mount Brandon, because he had a little chapel atop it, and the bay at the foot of the mountain is Brandon Bay. Brendan probably died while visiting his sister Briga, abbess of a convent at Enach Duin (Annaghdown) (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Gill, Little, Severin, Webb).

Below I've recounted some of the many legends surrounding Saint Brendan:

There is a graphic description of one of their expeditions: "Three Scots came to King Alfred, in a boat without oars, from Ireland, whence they had stolen away, because for the love of God they desired to be on pilgrimage, they recked not whither. The boat in which they came was made of two hides and a half; and they took with them provisions for seven days; and about the seventh day they came on shore in Cornwall, and soon after went to King Alfred" (Gill).

Saint Brendan was chanting the office for the Feast of Saint Paul the Apostle, when his brethren asked him to do so quietly for fear of disturbing the sea monsters. He laughed, "What has driven out your faith? Fear naught but the Lord our God, and love Him in fear. Many perils have tried you, but the Lord brought you safely out of them all. There is no danger here. What are you afraid of?"
And he celebrated Mass more solemnly than before.
"Thereupon the monsters of the deep began to rise on all sides, and making merry for joy of the Feast, followed after the ship. Yet when the office of the day was ended, they straightway turned back and went their way" (Plummer).

They sailed to another small, lovely island, in which there was a whirlpool.
"They went across the island, and found a church built of stone, and in it a venerable old man at his prayers. . . . And the old man said to them, 'O holy men of God, make haste to flee from this island. For there is a sea-cat here, of old time, inveterate in wiles, that hath grown huge through eating excessively of fish.' Thereupon they turned back in haste to their ship, and abandoned the island.
"But lo, behind them they saw that beast swimming through the sea, and it had great eyes like vessels of glass. Thereupon they all fell to prayer, and Brendan said, 'Lord Jesus Christ, hinder Thy beast.' And straightway arose another beast from the depths of the sea, and approaching fell to battle with the first; and both went down to the depth of the sea, nor were they further seen. Then they gave thanks to God, and turned back to the old man, to question him as to his way of living and whence he had come.
"And he said to them, 'We were twelve men from the island of Ireland that came to this place, seeking the place of our resurrection. Eleven be dead; and I alone remain, awaiting, O Saint of God, the Host from thy hands. We brought with us in the ship a cat, a most amiable cat and greatly loved by us; but he grew to great bulk through eating of fish, as I said; yet our Lord Jesus Christ did not suffer him to harm us.'
"And then he showed them the way to the land which they sought; and receiving the Host at the hands of Brendan, he fell joyfully asleep in the Lord; and he was buried beside his companions" (Plummer).

Then they came to an island filled with flowers and fruit trees and found harbor. "The Brendan said to his brethren, 'Behold, our Lord Jesus Christ, the good, the merciful, hath given us this place wherein to abide His holy resurrection. My brothers, if we had naught else to restore our bodies, this spring alone would suffice us for meat and drink.'
"Now there was above the spring a tree of strange height, covered with birds of dazzling white, so crowded on the tree that scarcely could it be seen by human eyes. And looking upon it the man of God began to ponder within himself what cause had brought so great a multitude of birds together on one tree."
[He prayed with tears that God might reveal the mystery of the birds to him.]
"And the bird spoke to him. 'We are,' it said, 'of that great ruin of the ancient foe, who did not consent to him wholly. Yet because we consented in part to his sin, our ruin also befell. For God is just, and keeps truth and mercy. And so by His judgment He sent us to this place, where we know no other pain than that we cannot see the presence of God, and so hath He estranged us from the fellowship of those who stood firm. On the solemn feasts and on the Sabbaths we take such bodies as you see, and abide here, praising our Maker. And as other spirits who are sent through the divers regions of the air and the earth, so may we speed also.
"'Now hast thou with thy brethren been one year upon thy journey; and six years yet remain. Where this day thou dost keep the Easter Feast, there shalt thou keep it throughout every year of thy pilgrimage, and thereafter shalt thou find the thing that thou hast set in thy heart, the land that was promised to the saints.' And when the bird had spoken thus, it raised itself up from the prow, and took its flight to the rest.
"And when the hour of evening drew on, then began all the birds that were on the tree to sing as with one voice, beating their wings and saying, 'Praise waiteth for Thee, O Lord, in Sion: and unto Thee shall the vow be performed.' And they continued repeating that verse, for the space of one hour.
"It seemed to the brethren that the melody and the sound of the wings was like a lament that is sweetly sung. Then said Saint Brendan to the brethren, 'Do ye refresh your bodies, for this day have your souls been filled with the heavenly bread.'
And when the Feast was ended, the brethren began to sing the office; and thereafter they rested in quiet until the third watch of the night.
"Then the man of God awaking, began to rouse the brethren for the Vigils of the Holy Night. And when he had begun the verse, 'Lord, open Thou my lips, and my heart shall show forth Thy praise,' all the birds rang out with voice and wing, singing, 'Praise the Lord, all ye His angels; praise ye Him, all His hosts.'
And even as at Vespers, they sang for the space of one hour.
"Then, when dawn brought the ending of the night, they all began to sing, 'And let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us,' with equal melody and length of chanting, as had been at Matins.
"At Tierce they sang this verse: 'Sing praises to God, sing praises; sing ye praises with understanding.' And at Sext they sang, 'Lord, lift up the light of Thy countenance upon us, and have mercy upon us.'
At Nones they said, 'Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity.' And so day and night the birds sang praises to God.
And throughout the octaves of the Feast they continued in the praises of God. . . .
"Here then the brethren remained until the Whitsun Feast; for the sweet singing of the birds was their delight and their reviving. . . . But when the octave of the feast was ended, the Saint bade his brethren to make ready the ship, and fill their vessels with water from the spring. And when all was made ready, came the aforesaid bird in swift flight, and rested on the prow of the ship, and said, as if to comfort them against the perils of the sea: 'Know that where ye held the Lord's Supper, in the year that is past, there in like fashion shall ye be on that same night this year. . . . After eight months ye shall find an island . . . whereon ye shall celebrate the Lord's Nativity.' And when the bird had foretold these things, it returned to its own place.
"Then the brethren began to spread their sails and go out to sea. And the birds were singing as with one voice, saying, 'Hear us, O God of our salvation, Who art the confidence of all the ends of the earth, and of them that are afar off upon the sea.' And so for three months they were borne on the breadth of ocean, and saw nothing beyond the sea and sky" (Plummer; these stories are also told in Curtayne).

In art, Saint Brendan is shown saying Mass on ship as the fish crowd round to listen to him. He may also be shown holding a candle. Just inside the main doors of Saint Patrick's, across from Saint Brigid (f.d. February 1), stands a statue of Saint Brendan holding his ship.
Brendan is the patron of seafarers and travellers, and is venerated in Ireland (Roeder).

Interested in learning more about Saint Brendan? Visit The Voyage of Brendan the Navigator and La Isla Fantasma: San Borondon (in Spanish but some great pictures).
The first discusses the possibility that Brendan reached the New World.
The second speaks of the legend of Brendan's visit to the Canary Islands. Enjoy!
St. Felix & Gennadius two Benedictine martyrs of Uzalis in North Africa where their relics were venerated.
Uzali, in Africa, sanctórum Mártyrum Felícis et Gennádii.
    At Uzalis in Africa, the holy martyrs Felix and Gennadius.
600 St. Honoratus of Amiens Bishop of Amiens, France Many miracles were reported at his shrine
Ambiáni, in Gállia, sancti Honoráti Epíscopi.
    At Amiens in France, St. Honoratus, bishop.
THE famous Faubourg and Rue Saint-Honoré in Paris derive their name from St Honoratus who was bishop of Amiens at the close of the sixth century. History has little to tell us about him except that he was born at Port-le-Grand in the diocese of Amiens where he also died, and that he elevated the relics of SS. Fuscianus, Victoricus and Gentianus, which a priest called Lupicinus had discovered after they had been forgotten for three hundred years. The cultus of St Honoratus received a great impetus and became widespread in France in consequence of a number of remarkable cures which followed the elevation of his own body in 1060, and which were attributed to his agency. In 1204 Reynold Cherez and his wife Sybil placed under his patronage the church they built in Paris. Nearly a hundred years later another bishop of Amiens, William of Macon, dedicated in honour of his saintly predecessor the charterhouse he was building at Abbeville. St Honoratus is generally regarded in France as the patron of bakers, confectioners, corn chandlers and of all trades that deal with flour, and his appropriate emblem in art is a baker’s peel.

The materials for this history, printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, are altogether late and unreliable. See, however, Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. iii, p. 125 and H. Josse, La Légende de S. Honoré (1879
patron of bakers of holy wafers and others, confectioners, candle-makers, florists, flour merchants, oil refiners, and pastry chefs
also called Honore The Rue Saint Honore in Paris was named after him. Honoratus was born in Port le Grand.

Honoratus (Honorius) of Amiens B (RM) Born at Port-le-Grand (Porthieu) near Amiens, France; died there c. 600. Saint Honoratus was bishop of Amiens. He had a widespread cultus in France following reports of numerous miracles when his body was exhumed in 1060. The Faubourg church, built by a gentleman named Renaud Cherins, and rue Saint-Honoré in Paris are named after Saint Honoratus.
He is also the patron of a chartreuse at Abbeville, which was founded in 1306 (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Husenbeth). In art, Saint Honoratus is a bishop with three Hosts on a baker's shovel. Sometimes he may be shown with a large Host or with a hand reaching down from heaven to give him bread for the Mass (Roeder). He is the patron of bakers of holy wafers and others, confectioners, candle-makers, florists, flour merchants, oil refiners, and pastry chefs (Delaney, Roeder).

614 Forty-four monks of the St Sava Lavra received the unfading crown of martyrdom attacked by Arabs in search of plunder
In Palæstína pássio sanctórum Monachórum, a Saracénis in laura sancti Sabbæ interfectórum.
    In Palestine, the martyrdom of the holy monks massacred by the Saracens in the monastery of St. Sabbas.
during the reign of the emperor Heraclius.

The monastery was
attacked by Arabs in search of plunder. When they were unable to find the treasure they expected, they became angry and murdered the defenseless Fathers. Some were beheaded, while others were hacked to pieces.

St Antiochus (December 24) has preserved an account of the martyrs in his "107th Homily." Dositheus also mentions them in his DODEKABIBLOS.

The saints commemorated today should not be confused with other martyrs of the St Sava Lavra, who suffered in 796 (March 20). The two dates reflect separate attacks on the monastery at different times. History tells us that barbarians raided the St Sava Lavra on several occasions.

689 St. Annobert Bishop Benedictine monk in Almeneches he became bishop in 685 of Séez France
Annobert (Alnobert) of Séez, OSB B (AC) Annobert, monk of Almenèches, was appointed to the see of Séez about 685 (Benedictines).

842 St George the Bishop of Mitylene
Saint George was made Bishop of Mytilene in the years 820-829, during the Iconoclast controversy. He died in 842 at Mytilene. In the twelfth century his holy relics were seen by the Russian igumen Daniel, who was journeying through the East and recording what he saw on his journey.

1128 Saint Ubald Baldassini Bishop of Gubbio ordained cathedral deacon returned to Gubbio Dissuaded from the eremitical life by Peter of Rimini
Eugúbii sancti Ubáldi, Epíscopi et Confessóris, miráculis clari.
    At Gubbio, St. Ubaldus, bishop and confessor renowned for his miracles.
WE are fortunate in possessing an excellent and reliable biography of Ubald Baldassini, bishop of Gubbio, compiled by Theobald, his immediate successor. The saint, descended from a noble family in Gubbio, became an orphan at an early age and was educated by his uncle, also bishop of the same see, in the cathedral school. Having completed his studies, he was ordained priest and appointed dean of the cathedral, young though he was, that he might reform the canons amongst whom grave irregularities were rampant. The task was no easy one, but he succeeded before long in persuading three of the canons to join him in a common life. Then, that he might obtain experience in the management of a well-conducted household, he resided for three months with a community of regular canons which had been established by Peter de Honestis in the territory of Ravenna. The rule which they followed he brought back to Gubbio, and within a short time it was accepted by the whole chapter. A few years later, after their house and cloisters had been burnt down, Ubald thought it a favourable moment to retire from his post into some solitude. With this object in view he made his way to Fonte Avellano where he communicated his intention to Peter of Rimini. That great servant of God, however, regarded the plan as a dangerous temptation and exhorted him to return to the post in which God had placed him for the benefit of others. The saint accordingly returned to Gubbio, and rendered his chapter more flourishing than it had ever been before. In 1126 St Ubald was chosen bishop of Perugia; but he hid himself so that the deputies from that city could not find him; then he went to Rome, threw himself at the feet of Pope Honorius II and begged that he might be excused. His request was granted but when, two years later, the see of Gubbio fell vacant, the pope himself directed that the clergy should elect Ubald.
In his new office the saint displayed all the virtues of a true successor to the apostles, but perhaps his most distinguishing characteristic was a mildness and patience which made him appear insensible to injuries and affronts. On one occasion workmen repairing the city wall encroached upon his vineyard and were injuring his vines. He gently drew their attention to this. Thereupon the foreman, who probably did not recognize him, became abusive and pushed him so roughly that he fell into a pool of liquid mortar, he rose up, splashed all over with lime and dirt, and without a word of expostulation returned to his house. Eyewitnesses, however, reported the incident and the citizens clamoured loudly that the foreman should be punished. So great was the popular indignation that a severe sentence seemed a foregone conclusion, when St Ubald appeared in court and claimed that, since the offence had been committed against an ecclesiastic, it came under his jurisdiction as bishop. Then, turning to the culprit, he bade him give him the kiss of peace in token of reconciliation, and, after a prayer that God would forgive him that and all his other trespasses, he directed that the man should beset at liberty.
The saint often defended his people in public dangers. The Emperor Frederick Barbarossa during his wars in Italy had sacked the city of Spoleto and threatened to subject Gubbio to a similar fate. Ubald met the emperor on the road and diverted the tyrant from his purpose. During the last two years of his life, the holy bishop suffered from a complication of painful diseases which he bore with heroic patience. On Easter day 1160, although very ill, he rose to celebrate Mass, and, that he might not disappoint his people, preached and gave them his blessing. He was carried back to bed, from which he never rose again. At Pentecost, as he lay dying, the whole population of Gubbio filed past his couch, anxious to take a last farewell of one whom each individual regarded as his dear father in God. Ubald died on May 16, 1160, and the people who flocked to his funeral from far and wide were eye-witnesses of the many miracles God performed at his tomb.

The life by Bishop Theobald is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, and there is a further collection of miracles in vol. vii. A modern Italian biography was published by Gianpaoli in 1885. On the curious confusion between St Ubald and the “St Theobald” who is honoured as the patron of Thann, in Alsace, see H. Lempfrid in Mittheilungen d. Gesellschaft f. Erhalt. d. gesch. Denkmäler im Elms,, vol. xxi (1903), pp. 1—128.

Born of a noble family in Gubbio Italy, was orphaned in his youth, and was educated by his uncle, the Bishop of Gubbio. Ubald was ordained, was named deacon of the cathedral, reformed the canons, and then left a few years later to become a hermit. Dissuaded from the eremitical life by Peter of Rimini, he returned to Gubbio and in 1126, was named Bishop of Perugia but refused the honor.
He became Bishop of Gubbio in 1128 and persuaded Emperor Frederick II not to sack Gubbio, as he had Spoleto during one of his forays into Italy. Ill the last two years of his life, Ubald died at Gubbio on May 16, and was canonized in 1192.

Ubaldus Baldassini B (RM) Born in Gubbio near Ancona, Umbria, Italy; died there in 1160; canonized in 1192. While dean of the cathedral in his home town, Ubaldus induced the canons of the chapter to live a common life together, under the rule given by Peter degli Onesti to his community at Ravenna. Ubaldus himself wanted to be a hermit, but was advised otherwise, and, in 1128, he had to accept the bishopric of Gubbio. He was an admirable bishop, noted for his patience and forbearance. His character was remarkable for its combination of gentleness and courage with which he succeeded in disarming the tyrannical Frederick Barbarossa. His shrine is still a place of pilgrimage (Benedictines, Delaney).

In art, Saint Ubaldus is depicted as a bishop giving a blessing as angels carry his crozier. On his book is written Sacerdos et Pontifex et virtutum opifex pastor bone, etc. The devil may be shown fleeing the blessing (Roeder). Ubaldus is invoked against demoniac possession, migraine, neuralgia, and for sick children (Roeder).

1210 St. Adam Hermit and abbot  maintained his prayer life and rigorous self-discipline

native of Fermo, Italy, where he began a severe life of recollection in a cave on the slopes of Mount Vissiano. Attracting many followers, Adam was invited to join the Benedictine Order and entered San Sabine Monastery. Within the monastery he maintained his prayer life and rigorous self-discipline. His example led to his election as abbot.
1212 Adam of Fermo hermit then monk and abbot of San Sabino on Mount Vissiano OSB Abbot (AC)

Born at Fermo, Italy. Saint Adam was a hermit, then a monk and an abbot of San Sabino on Mount Vissiano near Fermo. His relics are enshrined in the cathedral of Fermo, where his feast is kept (Benedictines).

1247 St. Margaret of Cortona established a hospital and founded a congregation of tertiary sisters devoted to the Eucharist and the passion of Jesus

b. 1297 Some people have called Margaret the Mary Magdalene of the Franciscan movement.
Margaret was born of farming parents in Laviano, Tuscany. Her mother died when Margaret was seven; life with her stepmother was so difficult that Margaret moved out. For nine years she lived with Arsenio, though they were not married, and she bore him a son. In those years, she had doubts about her situation.
Somewhat like St. Augustine she prayed for purity—but not just yet.

One day she was waiting for Arsenio and was instead met by his dog. The animal led Margaret into the forest where she found Arsenio murdered. This crime shocked Margaret into a life of penance. She and her son returned to Laviano, where she was not well received by her stepmother.
They then went to Cortona, where her son eventually became a friar.

There she established a hospital and founded a congregation of tertiary sisters. The poor and humble Margaret was, like Francis, devoted to the Eucharist and to the passion of Jesus. These devotions fueled her great charity and drew sinners to her for advice and inspiration. She was canonized in 1728.

Comment Seeking forgiveness is sometimes difficult work. It is made easier by meeting people who, without trivializing our sins, assure us that God rejoices over our repentance. Being forgiven lifts a weight and prompts us to Quote: "Let us raise ourselves from our fall and not give up hope as long as we free ourselves from sin.
Jesus Christ came into this world to save sinners. ‘O come, let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the LORD, our Maker!’ (Psalm 95:6). The Word calls us to repentance, crying out: ‘Come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens and I will give you rest’ (Matthew 11:28). There is, then, a way to salvation if we are willing to follow it" (Letter of Saint Basil the Great).acts of charity. In 1277, three years after her conversion, Margaret became a Franciscan tertiary. Under the direction of her confessor, who sometimes had to order her to moderate her self-denial, she pursued a life of prayer and penance at Cortona.
1265 St. Simon Stock Scapular of Mount Carmel the Virgin Mary appeared to him holding the brown scapular in one hand. Her words were: "Receive, my beloved son, this scapular of thy Order; it is the special sign of my favor, which I have obtained for thee and for thy children of Mount Carmel.

ALTHOUGH St Simon Stock was undoubtedly a very active member of the Carmelite Order at a critical period of its history, and although his alleged connection with the brown scapular revelation (or promise) has made his name familiar to Catholics, we know very little in detail of his life and character. When he died at Bordeaux on May 16, 1265, he is said to have been a hundred years old, but this statement of a Carmelite catalogue of saints compiled upwards of a century and a half after the event is hardly sufficient to establish a longevity so unusual. It is hard to believe that he could have been elected prior general of the order at the age of eighty-two travelling afterwards not only to many different parts of England, but to Sicily, Bologna and Gascony. In the same authority we read that St Simon, being a strict vegetarian, when a cooked fish was on one occasion set before him, he told them to throw it into the river again, whereupon it swam away fully restored to life. Neither can we attach much more importance to another statement in the same context that Simon was called Stock because as a boy he had adopted the life of an anchoret, making his home in the hollow trunk of a tree. All that has to do with the saint before the year 1247 is conjectural.
It is probable enough, as Father Benedict Zimmerman supposes, that after a short period spent as a hermit in England, he made his way to the Holy Land, and having there come into contact with some of the primitive Carmelites whose original profession was eremitical, he joined their organization as a religious. When the hostility of the Saracens made life impossible for the brethren, we know that their settlements in the East were broken up and that nearly all returned to Europe. In these circumstances St Simon seems to have come back to his native Kent, and being evidently a man of vigour as well as of exceptional holiness, he was elected superior-general, in succession to Alan, when a chapter was held at Aylesford in 1247.
His period of rule was marked by wonderful developments of the Carmelite Order. As Father Benedict notes: "St Simon established houses in four University towns, Cambridge, Oxford, Paris and Bologna, with the result that a very large number of young, and probably immature, men joined the order. A considerable number of foundations were made in England, Ireland, perhaps also in Scotland, in Spain, and in various countries on the continent" We have every reason to believe that about the same time the rule, which was originally drafted for hermits primarily intent upon their own individual perfection, had to be substantially modified now that the members of the order were becoming mendicant friars, busied with preaching and the work of the ministry. This revision was carried through and a preliminary approval was granted by Pope Innocent IV in the year 1247 itself. In 1252 a letter of protection was obtained from the same pontiff to secure them from the molestations of certain of the clergy, for the success of the White Friars had provoked jealousy and hostility in many quarters.
It was also at this time of stress and trial that our Lady is believed to have honoured St Simon with the declaration of an extraordinary privilege. We are told that she appeared to him holding the scapular of the order in her hand, and that she said: "This shall be a privilege unto thee and all Carmelites; he who dies in this habit shall be saved". This is not the place to embark upon the discussion of a controversy which has lasted for centuries. It must be admitted that the evidence adduced in favour of this celebrated vision is not entirely satisfactory. There is no contemporary or quasi-contemporary document which attests or refers to it. On the other hand the wearing of the brown scapular of the Carmelites has become a widespread devotion in the Church and has been enriched with indulgences by many different popes. St Simon's devotion to our Lady is exemplified by two antiphons, the bios Carmeli and the Ave stella matutina, which are unhesitatingly attributed to his authorship and which are employed liturgically by the Calced Carmelites. The saint has never been formally canonized, and his name is not in the Roman Martyrology, but his feast by permission of the Holy See is kept in the Carmelite Order and the dioceses of Birmingham, Northampton and Southwark. We are told that after his death many miracles were wrought beside his grave at Bordeaux, from which city what remained of his relics were solemnly translated to the restored Carmelite friary at Aylesford in Kent in 1951.
Almost everything which is evidential in connection with the life of St Simon will be found cited in the Monumenta Historica Carmelitana (1907) of Fr Benedict Zimmerman, O.D.C. ; see also his article in The Month for October 1927 and his "De sacro Scapulari Carmelitano" "in Analecta O.C.LX, vol. (1927-28), pp. 70-89. The conservative Carmelite position in the scapular controversy is best presented by Fr B. M. Xiberta in De visione sti Simonis Stock (1950). On the other side, see Fr H. Thurston in The Month, June and July 1927. For documentation, Etudes carmelitaines, t. xiii (1928), pp. i seq.
Although little is known about Simon Stock's early life, legend has it that the name Stock, meaning "tree trunk," derives from the fact that, beginning at age twelve, he lived as a hermit in a hollow tree trunk of an oak tree. It is also believed that, as a young man, he went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land where he joined a group of Carmelites with whom he later returned to Europe.
Simon Stock founded many Carmelite Communities, especially in University towns such as Cambridge, Oxford, Paris, and Bologna, and he helped to change the Carmelites from a hermit Order to one of mendicant friars.

In 1254 he was elected Superior-General of his Order at London. Simon Stock's lasting fame came from an apparition he had in Cambridge, England, on July 16, 1251, at a time when the Carmelite Order was being oppressed. In it the Virgin Mary appeared to him holding the brown scapular in one hand. Her words were: "Receive, my beloved son, this scapular of thy Order; it is the special sign of my favor, which I have obtained for thee and for thy children of Mount Carmel. He who dies clothed with this habit shall be preserved from eternal fire. It is the badge of salvation, a shield in time of danger, and a pledge of special peace and protection."

The scapular (from the Latin, scapula, meaning "shoulder blade") consists of two pieces of cloth, one worn on the chest, and the other on the back, which were connected by straps or strings passing over the shoulders. In certain Orders, monks and nuns wear scapulars that reach from the shoulders almost to the ground as outer garments. Lay persons usually wear scapulars underneath their clothing; these consist of two pieces of material only a few inches square. There are elaborate rules governing the wearing of the scapular: although it may be worn by any Catholic, even an infant, the investiture must be done by a priest. And the scapular must be worn in the proper manner; if an individual neglects to wear it for a time, the benefits are forfeited. The Catholic Church has approved eighteen different kinds of scapulars of which the best known is the woolen brown scapular, or the Scapular of Mount Carmel, that the Virgin Mary bestowed on Simon Stock.

Simon Stock, OC (PC) Simon Stock From Los Santos Carmelitas (Spanish) also found on Saints of Carmel
Born at Aylesford, Kent, England, 1165; died in Bordeaux, France, on May 16, 1265. A late tradition tells us of Simon's birthplace but nothing much is known of him until c. 1247, when he was elected the sixth prior general of the Carmelite order. He is said to have been a hermit and then went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, where he joined the Carmelites. He returned to Kent when the Islamics drove the Carmelites out.

Simon became prior general at a time of difficulty for the order, and was the English leader who consolidated its position. He laid the groundwork for new foundations in four university cities (Cambridge (1248), Oxford (1253), Paris (1260), and Bologna (1260)) and expanded the order into Ireland and Scotland as well.
He also revised the rule to make the Carmelites an order of mendicant friars rather than hermits, which was approved by Pope Innocent IV in 1237.

According to another late tradition, in 1251, Saint Simon experienced a vision of the Virgin Mary, as a consequence of which there arose the widespread "Scapular devotion." In this controversial vision the Blessed Mother promised salvation to all Carmelites who wore in her honor the brown scapular that she showed him. The authenticity of the occurrence is seriously contested by scholars. Two well-known hymns to Mary are usually attributed to his authorship.
In 1951, what remained of Saint Simon's relics were removed from Bordeaux to the old friary, now renewed, at Aylesford. The surname Stock is not found attributed to Simon until a century after his death; it may have come from a legend that he lived inside a tree trunk in his youth. Simon Stock has never formally been canonized, though he has long been venerated, and the celebration of his feast was permitted by the Holy See (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).

In art, Saint Simon Stock is a Carmelite holding a scapular in his hand. He might also be shown receiving the scapular from the Blessed Virgin or interceding for the souls in purgatory who surround him (Roeder).
1393 Saint John Nepomucene a retiring disposition Father John repeatedly refused bishoprics M (RM)
Pragæ, in Bohémia, sancti Joánnis Nepomucéni, Metropolitánæ Ecclésiæ Canónici; qui, frustra tentátus ut sigílli sacramentális fidem próderet, martyrii palmam, in flumen Moldávam dejéctus, eméruit.
    At Prague in Bohemia, St. John Nepomucene, a canon of the cathedral church, who, being tempted in vain to betray the secret of confession, was cast into the River Moldau, and thus won the palm of martyrdom.
ST JOHN NEPOMUCEN was born in Bohemia, probably between the years 1340 and 1350. The appellation by which he is distinguished is derived from his native town of Nepomuk, or Pomuk, but his family name was actually Wölflein or Welflin. He studied in the University of Prague which had recently been founded by the Emperor Charles IV, king of Bohemia. Later on we find him occupying various ecclesiastical posts, and eventually he was appointed vicar general to the archbishop of Prague, John of Genzenstein (Jenstein).
The Emperor Charles IV had died at Prague in 1378, and had been succeeded by his son Wenceslaus IV, a vicious young man who gave way unrestrainedly to fits of rage or caprice in which he would perpetrate acts of savage cruelty. It is said that John of Pomuk received from Wenceslaus the offer of the bishopric of Litomerice, which he refused. There seems no evidence for this, or for the statement that he was appointed almoner and confessor to the king's wife. Shamelessly unfaithful himself, Wenceslaus was intensely jealous, and harboured suspicions of his young wife, whose conduct was irreproachable. A tradition, widely credited in Bohemia to this day, attributes the martyrdom of St John Nepomucen to the resentment aroused in the king by the holy man's uncompromising refusal to reveal to him the substance of the queen's confessions. On the other hand, no mention of this appears in the contemporary documents, or indeed for forty years after John's violent death. Thereafter, history and legend became so entangled that a theory (now abandoned) was evolved whereby there were two canons of Prague, both named John, who at ten years' interval both suffered death in the same way, in consequence of differing circumstances.
The only contemporary evidence about the circumstances of St John's murder comes from a report sent to Rome by Archbishop John of Genzenstein relating to his own difficulties with his sovereign, King Wenceslaus. It is an ex parte statement, but even so it appears that these grave difficulties arose principally from matters of material interests about which the archbishop was willing to concede but little. It appears further that St John Nepomucen's cruel death was no more than an incident in this rather disedifying series of quarrels. He was obedient to his ecclesiastical superior, and fell a victim to the king's anger in consequence.
In 1393 Wenceslaus resolved to found a new diocese at Kladrau, in order to give a bishopric to one of his favourites. To furnish a cathedral and endowment he proposed to confiscate the church and revenues of the ancient Benedictine abbey of Kladrau as soon as the abbot, who was very old, should die. This proposal was strenuously opposed by Archbishop John of Genzenstein and by St John Nepomucen as his vicar general. Acting under instructions from them, the monks, immediately after the abbot's death, proceeded to the election of a new superior. The archbishop and his two vicars general ratified the appointment so promptly that the king was informed at the same moment of the death of the one abbot and the institution of the new. Wenceslaus sent envoys to the archbishop, who came to an agreement with them, but then, for reasons unknown, the king had one of his tempests of rage. He confronted the two vicars general and other dignitaries of the chapter and, after striking the aged dean, Boheslaus, on the head with the hilt of his sword, ordered them to be tortured: it is likely that he suspected some conspiracy against himself and wanted to get information about it. He with his own hand wreaked his fury on St John and his coadjutor Nicholas Puchnik, by applying a burning torch to their sides.
Then Wenceslaus came to himself, and he released his victims on condition they should say nothing of his mishandling of them. But John Nepomucen was already dying of the injuries he had received, and so, to get rid of the evidence, he was made away with. His body was trussed up, "like a wheel", his heels tied to his head; lest he should cry out a gag was forced into his mouth, and he was then borne secretly through the streets to the Karlsbrücke and cast into the river Moldau. This was on March 20, 1393. In the morning the body was washed ashore, and it was immediately recognized. It was later buried in the cathedral of St Vitus, where it still is. On the old bridge the place from which he was thrown is marked by a metal plate adorned with seven stars, in reference to the story that on the night of his murder seven stars hovered over the water. St John Nepomucen is principal patron of Bohemia, where he is invoked against floods and against slander, as well as for help to make a good confession.

The account which the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, furnishes of St John Nepomucen is not altogether trustworthy. The Bollandists were not permitted to have access to the archives at Prague, and they have followed Fr B. Balbinus and the materials which, from unsatisfactory sources, were first presented for the confirmation of cultus. Even in the bull of canonization (1729) the death of this martyr is alleged to have taken place in 1383, whereas it certainly occurred in 1393. On the other hand, there is no solid reason for suspecting that there were two different Johns, canons of the cathedral, who have been confused. But the controversy, which has been conducted with much acrimony, is too intricate to be discussed here at length. A convenient statement of the whole question is available in the little volume of J. Weisskopf, S. Johannes von Nepomuk (1931) and also in W. A. Frind, Der hl. Johannes von Nepomuk (1929); but the most recent and weighty contribution is that of P. de Vooght, “Jean de Pomuk”, in Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique, vol. xlviii (1953), nos. 3—4, pp. 777—795. John of Jenstein’s report to Rome was found in the Vatican archives in 1752 and printed as an appendix to M. PeIzel’s Lebensgeschichte des Römischen und Bôhmischen Königs Wenceslaus, vol. (1788), pp. 145—164. A good bibliography and discussion of the earlier writers on the question will be found in the Kirchenlexikon, vol. vi, pp. 1725—1742. See also J. P. Kirsch in the Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol. viii, pp. 467—468.

Patron of confessors and bridges Born at Nepomuk, Bohemia, 1340; died in Prague, March 20, 1393; canonized in 1729.
Saint John used the name of his native town for his surname instead of his family name of Woelflein or Welflin. He studied at the University of Prague, was ordained, and became a canon. In time, he became vicar general of Archbishop John of Genzenstein at Prague and according to tradition incurred the enmity of dissolute King Wenceslaus IV when he refused to reveal what Queen Sophie, Wenceslaus' second wife, had told him in confession. Of a retiring disposition, Father John repeatedly refused bishoprics which were offered to him.

In 1393 (or 1383 according to some), he became involved in a dispute between Wenceslaus and the archbishop when the king sought to convert a Benedictine abbey into a cathedral for a new diocese he proposed to create for a favorite when the aged abbot died. The archbishop and John thwarted him by approving the election of a new abbot immediately on the death of the old abbot. At a meeting with John and other clerics, Wenceslaus flew into a rage, tortured them so that John was seriously injured, and then had him murdered and thrown into the Moldau River at Prague (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney)

Saint John is portrayed in art as an Augustinian canon with a fur almuce and a bridge near him. He may hold his finger to his lips and have seven stars around his head, or wear a padlock on his lips (in Austria and Bohemia). John, patron of confessors and bridges, is venerated in Austria and Spain (Roeder).

1537 St Cassian of Komel and Vologda disciple of St Cornelius of Komel (May 19)
He guided the Komel monastery after St Cornelius went to Lake Sura. Chosen by the brethren with the blessing of St Cornelius, he strove to imitate his teacher in everything, and he strictly observed his monastic Rule.
St Cassian instructed the monks in the fear of God to spend their time at prayer, to be concerned about inner activity, and to banish all worldly thoughts, to be sober in thought, to be vigilant in soul and contrite in heart (Chapter 1 of the Rule "On Church Decorum and Communal Prayer").
Upon the return of St Cornelius to the monastery, St Cassian joyfully met his teacher, and resigned as igumen, wanting to remain in obedience to the holy Elder as before. St Cassian reposed in the year 1537.

1545 St Ephraim of Perekomsk Transfer of the Relics of occurred on May 16 reposed on September 26, 1492.
This celebration was established at a Moscow Council of the year 1549.
St Ephraim of Perekomsk reposed on September 26, 1492. The Life of the saint is found under September 26 .

1547 Saint Laurence of Komel disciple of St Cornelius of Komel
In the year 1538, on the recommendation of St Cornelius, he was unanimously chosen by the brethren as igumen of the monastery, and he made use of the spiritual counsels and instructions of his teacher.
Learning of the approach of Tatars towards the monastery, and on the advice of St Cornelius, igumen Laurence led all the brethren away to a safe place. Later, when the danger had passed, the monks returned to the monastery.
Upon the repose of his teacher, St Laurence guided the holy monastery for ten years, devoting himself to its welfare. Seeing the zeal and the love for the Lord in St Laurence as head of the Korniliev monastery, the Elder Alexius placed the Koptevo monastery, which he directed, under the Korniliev monastery in 1547

1657 St. Andrew Bobola:  See May 21; 1608 Jesuit missionary preached distinguished himself by work of mercy during plague martyred by Cossacks
Janóviæ, apud Pinsk, in Polésia, sancti Andréæ Bobóla, Sacerdótis e Societáte Jesu, qui, a schismáticis innumerabília tormentórum génera perpéssus, illústri martyrio coronátus est.
    At Janow, near Pinsk in Lithuania, St. Andrew Bobola, priest of the Society of Jesus, who having suffered many kinds of torments at the hands of the schismatics, was crowned with an illustrious martyrdom.

He was born a member of a noble Polish family in 1590. Entering the Society of Jesus at Vilna in 1622, he preached in the church of St. Casimir there. He took solemn vows in 1630 and was made superior of the Jesuits in Brobuisk. There he preached and distinguished himself by his work of mercy during a plague. In 1636, Andrew was sent to the Lithuanian missions. A house was provided for him in Pinsk, Belarus, by Prince Radziwell, and he worked there despite attacks by Protestants and schismatics.
On May 10, 1657, Andrew was kidnapped by two Cossacks who beat him and tied him to the saddles of their horses so they could drag him to a place of torture. He was partially flayed alive and finally decapitated. His remains were buried in Pinsk and then moved to Polosk

1834 Andrew Hubert Fournet early life was devoted to frivolity Inspired by his uncle he became protector of the poor studied theology ordained became his assistant changed for one of austerity and simplicity Founder Prayers to Saint Andrew miraculously increased food supplies for the nuns when they were in need (RM)

Born in Maillé (near Poitiers), France, on December 6, 1752; died at La Puye, France, on May 13, 1834; beatified in 1926; canonized in 1933; feast day formerly on May 13.

Instead of honoring his mother's desire for him to be a priest, Andrew's early life was devoted to frivolity. He was bored by religion, and apparently by life in general. As a student of law and philosophy at the university at Poitiers, he was idle and simply enjoyed himself. He did not even learn to write properly. After failing at several jobs, his parents sent him to live with an uncle who was a priest in a very poor parish.

Inspired by his uncle's work, he became a protector of the poor, returned to his native town, studied theology, was ordained, and became his uncle's assistant. Then he was appointed as parish priest to his home town church at Maillé. He completely changed his comfortable lifestyle and exchanged it for one of austerity and simplicity.

During the French Revolution he refused to take the oath of civil constitution of the clergy and was asked by his bishop to go to Spain for his own safety. He lived there five years but, ashamed by his lack of courage, he clandestinely returned to his flock in 1797 and remained at the risk of his life.

On one occasion he was forced to evade the bailiffs by impersonating a corpse. He leapt onto a bed, the lady of the house covered him with a sheet, surrounded him by mourning women and candles, and they deceived the authorities. Another time he was saved by a canny woman, who, when bailiffs came into the room, boxed him on the ears, chided him for not rising at their entrance, and angrily sent him out the back door. He commented later that she hit him so hard that he saw stars.

Once Andrew was in fact captured by the authorities on Good Friday, 1792. They put him in a carriage to take him to prison. The saint, insisting on walking, for he observed: "From the day that Jesus Christ carried his cross it has behooved his followers to travel on foot."

When Napoleon allowed the church back openly into France after the revolution (1807), Andrew was once again officially the parish priest at Maillé. He labored as a missionary, preacher, and confessor, and with Saint Elizabeth (Agnes) Bichier (f.d. August 26) founded the congregation of the Daughters of the Cross, dedicated to nursing and teaching. Andrew retired from his parish in 1820, but continued to direct the sisters until his death, at which time the order had over sixty convents in Poitou. Prayers to Saint Andrew were said to have miraculously increased food supplies for the nuns and their charges when they were in need (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, White).

WW II Martyr Vukasin from the Village of Klepci in the notorious concentration camp of Jasenovac

Little is known about Vukasin, the Serb from Herzegovina. He was born in the village of Klepci, in Herzegovina, at the end of the last or at the beginning of this century. At the beginning of World War II, the Ustase arrested him and transported him, together with other Serbs of that region, into the notorious concentration camp of Jasenovac. After horrible days full of torturing, he was brought in front of an Ustasa who was supposed to execute him, but who said he would spare Vukasin's life if Vukasin cried loudly: "Long live our Head Ante Pavelic!". Vukasin replied calmly: "Child, you just do your job". Ustasa cut off his ear and repeated his request. Vukasin repeated his answer. Ustasa then cut off Vukasin's other ear and nose and scarred his face. The next body part was tongue. After repeating the request to Vukasin to utter the vicious words and hail the Head of Ustase, Vukasin once again calmly replied: "Child, just do your job!". Distracted Ustasa killed him, and afterwards went mad.

At the regular session of the Holy Assembly of Bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church in 1998, Vukasin from the Klepci village was entered into the List of Names of the Serbian Orthodox Church as the Confessor.

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Christians in Africa.
That Christians in Africa, in imitation of the Merciful Jesus,
may give prophetic witness to reconciliation, justice, and peace.

Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
  RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest
and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.

Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas

                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 01
600 BC Jeremiah,The Holy Prophet  one of the four great Old Testament prophets     In Egypt, St. Jeremias, prophet, who was stoned to death by the people at Taphnas, where he was buried.  St. Epiphanius tells that the faithful were accustomed to pray at his grave, and to take away from it dust to heal those who were stung by serpents.
Son of the priest Helkiah from the city of Anathoth near Jerusalem.  He lived 600 years before the Birth of Christ, under the Israelite king Josiah and four of his successors. He was called to prophetic service at the age of fifteen, when the Lord revealed to him that even before his birth the Lord had chosen him to be a prophet. Jeremiah refused, citing his youth and lack of skill at speaking, but the Lord promised to be always with him and to watch over him.
He touched the mouth of the chosen one and said, "Behold, I have put My words into your mouth. Behold, I have appointed you this day over nations and kingdoms, to root out and to pull down, to destroy and to rebuild, and to plant" (Jer. 1:9-10).
When Jeremiah prophesied that the King of Babylon would invade Egypt and annihilate the Jews living there, the Jews murdered him.  In that very same year the saint's prophecy was fulfilled.
There is a tradition that 250 years later, Alexander the Great transported the relics of the holy Prophet Jeremiah to Alexandria.

The Prophet Jeremiah wrote his Book of Prophecies and also the Book of Lamentations about the desolation of Jerusalem and the Exile.  The times in which he lived and prophesied are described in 4/2 Kings (Ch. 23-25) and in the Second Book of Chronicles (36:12) and in 2 Maccabbees (Ch. 2).

In the Gospel of Matthew it is said that the betrayal of Judas was foretold by the Prophet Jeremiah, "And they took thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom the sons of Israel had set a price, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed me" (Mt. 27:9-10). Perhaps Jeremiah 32:6-15 is meant.
The birthday of the blessed apostles Philip and James.  Philip, after having converted nearly all of Scythia to the faith of Christ, went to Hieropolis, a city in Asia, where he was fastened to a cross and stoned, and thus ended his life gloriously.  James, who is also called the brother of our Lord, was the first bishop of Jerusalem.  Being hurled down from a pinnacle of the temple, his legs were broken, and being struck on the head with a dyer's staff, he expired and was buried near the temple. 
St. Joseph Feastday: March 19, May 1 Patron of the Universal Church.
We know he was a carpenter, a working man, for the skeptical Nazarenes ask about Jesus, "Is this not the carpenter's son?" (Matthew 13:55). He wasn't rich for when he took Jesus to the Temple to be circumcised and Mary to be purified he offered the sacrifice of two turtledoves or a pair of pigeons, allowed only for those who could not afford a lamb (Luke 2:24).
Despite his humble work and means, Joseph came from a royal lineage. Luke and Matthew disagree some about the details of Joseph's genealogy but they both mark his descent from David, the greatest king of Israel (Matthew 1:1-16 and Luke 3:23-38). Indeed the angel who first tells Joseph about Jesus greets him as "son of David," a royal title used also for Jesus.
We know Joseph was a compassionate, caring man. When he discovered Mary was pregnant after they had been betrothed, he knew the child was not his but was as yet unaware that she was carrying the Son of God. He planned to divorce Mary according to the law but he was concerned for her suffering and safety. He knew that women accused to adultery could be stoned to death, so he decided to divorce her quietly and not expose her to shame or cruelty (Matthew 1:19-25).
We know Joseph was man of faith, obedient to whatever God asked of him without knowing the outcome. When the angel came to Joseph in a dream and told him the truth about the child Mary was carrying, Joseph immediately and without question or concern for gossip, took Mary as his wife. When the angel came again to tell him that his family was in danger, he immediately left everything he owned, all his family and friends, and fled to a strange country with his young wife and the baby.
He waited in Egypt without question until the angel told him it was safe to go back (Matthew 2:13-23).
We know Joseph loved Jesus. His one concern was for the safety of this child entrusted to him. Not only did he leave his home to protect Jesus, but upon his return settled in the obscure town of Nazareth out of fear for his life. When Jesus stayed in the Temple we are told Joseph (along with Mary) searched with great anxiety for three days for him (Luke 2:48). We also know that Joseph treated Jesus as his own son for over and over the people of Nazareth say of Jesus, "Is this not the son of Joseph?" (Luke 4:22)
We know Joseph respected God. He followed God's commands in handling the situation with Mary and going to Jerusalem to have Jesus circumcised and Mary purified after Jesus' birth. We are told that he took his family to Jerusalem every year for Passover, something that could not have been easy for a working man.
Since Joseph does not appear in Jesus' public life, at his death, or resurrection, many historians believe Joseph probably had died before Jesus entered public ministry.
Joseph is the patron of the dying because, assuming he died before Jesus' public life, he died with Jesus and Mary close to him, the way we all would like to leave this earth.
208 St Andeolus Martyr sent to France by St Polycarp,     In France, in the Province of Vivarias, blessed Andeol, subdeacon, who was sent from the East into Gaul with others by St. Polycarp to preach the word of God.  Under Emperor Severus he was scourged with thorny sticks, and having his head split with a wooden sword into four parts, in the shape of a cross, he completed his martyrdom.
Martyr and companion of St. Polycarp. Originally from Smyrna, Andeolus was sent to France by Polycarp. There he labored until arrested and martyred at Viviers.
  604 St. Arigius Bishop 20 yrs greatest priest pastor of his era of Gap, France. He served as bishop for twenty years after earning a reputation as one of the greatest priest pastors of his era. His cult was confirmed by Pope St. Pius X.
  893 St Theodard Benedictine bishop rebuilt churches ransom captives selling treasures spending his own money to
feed poor suffering practiced severe austerities
.  The Montauban breviary describes him as “an eye to the blind, feet to the lame, a father of the poor, and the consoler of the afflicted”. Greatly beloved by all, he was unanimously chosen archbishop of Narbonne at the death of Sigebold, who had nominated him as his successor. The perils which then beset travellers did not deter the newly-elected prelate from undertaking a visit to Rome, where he received the pallium.  Born at Montauban (Monlauriol), France, he studied law at the University of Toulouse and then at the Benedictine abbey of Montauban before becoming a lawyer.
Appointed secretary to Archbishop Sigebold of Narbonne, he soon was named an archdeacon and finally succeeded Sigebold as archbishop. He devoted much of his effort to repairing the damage, physical and spiritual, caused by the raids of Saracens, including rebuilding churches, ransoming captives, selling off treasures, and spending his own money to feed the poor and suffering. His death at St. Martin's Abbey (where he received the Benedictine habit) was probably hastened by the severe austerities he practiced
1012 St Benedict of Szkalka hermit martyr gifted mystic of Hungary.   Benedict was a recluse on Mount Zabor, near a Benedictine monastery, trained by St. Andrew Zorard.
A gifted mystic, Benedict was murdered by a mob in 1012. He was canonized in 1083
Gregory VII 1073-1085.
1200 Tamar In 1166 a daughter, Tamar, was born to King George III (1155–1184) and Queen Burdukhan of Georgia.
The king proclaimed that he would share the throne with his daughter from the day she turned twelve years of age. The royal court unanimously vowed its allegiance and service to Tamar, and father and daughter ruled the country together for five years. After