Saturday  Saints of this Day May 20  Tertiodécimo Kaléndas Júnii  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
  RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

CAUSES OF SAINTS May  2016



 We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life.

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.



Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

    
67 St. Plautilla baptized by St. Peter witnessed execution of St. Paul; wife of Emperor Vespasian
 284 St. Thalelaeus Physician called 'the Merciful' for his gratis services to the sick poor martyr with Alexander, Asterius, and companions; son of a Roman general

 300 St. Hilary Bishop of Toulouse, France 
610 St. Anastasius XIII converted the Lombards from the heresy of Arianism
 793 Ethelbert of East Anglia a man of prayer from his childhood miracles revealed at his hidden tomb M (AC)
1242 Blessed Orlando of Vallombrosa celebrated as an exorcist  OSB Vall. Hermit (AC)
1444 St. Bernardine of Siena He was called the "People's Preacher"
1501 Blessed Columba of Rieti pious mystics of the third order of Saint Dominic raising of a dead child to life especially devoted to Our Lady modeled after Saint Catherine of Siena to OP Tert. V (AC)


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Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 20 – Our Lady of Graces (Cuneo, Italy, 1537)
 - Saint Arcangelo Tadini, Founder of the Congregation of Worker Sisters of the Holy House of Nazareth (d. 1912) 
 
To find God's grace, one must find Mary 
As in the natural life a child must have a father and a mother, so in the supernatural life of grace a true child of the Church must have God for his Father and Mary for his mother. If he prides himself on having God for his Father but does not give to Mary the tender affection of a true child, he is an impostor and his father is the devil.
Since Mary produced the head of the elect, Jesus Christ, she must also produce the members of that head, that is, all true Christians. A mother does not conceive a head without members, nor members without a head.
If anyone, then, wishes to become a member of Jesus Christ, and consequently be filled with grace and truth, he must be formed in Mary through the grace of Jesus Christ, which she possesses with a fullness enabling her to communicate it abundantly to true members of Jesus Christ, her true children.

 Saint Louis de Montfort The Secret of Mary § 11-12

 1444 St. Bernardine of Siena He was called the "People's Preacher" because his sermons were filled with lively and realistic depictions of everything from a bachelor's household to women's fashions;  throughout his life he was noted for his unfailing affability, patience and courtesy; It is impossible to follow him on his missionary journeys, for in them he covered nearly the whole of Italy; His tomb at Aquila was honoured by many miracles


Our Lady of Graces (Italy, Cuneo, 1537) - Saint Germanus of Constantinople (d. ca. 733)
"Even Your Protection is Beyond our Understanding"
Who, after your Son, cares as you do for the human race? Who defends us unceasingly in our tribulations? Who delivers us before temptations can beset us? Who goes to so much trouble to beg for sinners? Who takes their defense to excuse them even in hopeless cases? By the familiarity and the power of persuasion you have gained with your Son for being His mother, even though we have been convicted of our crimes and no longer dare to look to the heights of heaven, you save us from eternal torments by your supplications and intercessions.
Therefore, the afflicted take refuge by your side. Those who have suffered injustice rush to you. Those who are filled with evil invoke your assistance. Everything that is yours, Mother of God, is wonderful. Everything is larger than life; everything is beyond our reason and power. Even your protection is beyond our understanding.
Saint Germanus of Constantinople

Saints
May
20
19
18
17
16
    67 St. Plautilla baptized by St. Peter witnessed execution of St. Paul; wife of Emperor Vespasian
 284 St. Thalelaeus Physician called 'the Merciful' for his gratis services to the sick poor martyr with Alexander, Asterius, and companions; son of a Roman general
 297 St. Baudelius married missionary; beheaded at Nimes for interrupting festival of Roman deity, Jupiter
 300 St. Hilary Bishop of Toulouse, France 
 304  St. Basilissa  beheaded for her faith
 311 St. Aquila Egyptian martyr prefect Arianus ordered torture subsequently became Christian and martyr
 
380? ST BAUDELIUS, MARTYR
 610 St. Anastasius XIII converted the Lombards from the heresy of Arianism
 624 St. Austregisilus knight priest Bishop and abbot
 778 St. Theodore of Pavia  Bishop several times he was banished from his diocese by Arian Lombard kings
 793 Ethelbert of East Anglia a man of prayer from his childhood miracles revealed at his hidden tomb M
1099 Blessed Guy de Gherardescha led a solitary life at Campo in the diocese of Massa Maritima Hermit
1242 Blessed Orlando of Vallombrosa celebrated as an exorcist  OSB Vall. Hermit (AC)
1245 Blessed Albert of Bologna, OSB Vall. Abbot (AC)
1444 St. Bernardine of Siena He was called the "People's Preacher" because his sermons were filled with lively and realistic depictions of everything from a bachelor's household to women's fashions;  throughout his life he was noted for his unfailing affability, patience and courtesy; It is impossible to follow him on his missionary journeys, for in them he covered nearly the whole of Italy; His tomb at Aquila was honoured by many miracles
1501 Blessed Columba of Rieti pious mystics of the third order of Saint Dominic raising of a dead child to life
especially devoted to Our Lady modeled after Saint Catherine of Siena to OP Tert. V (AC)

"Jesus, crucified for me, with the nails of Your love fasten my whole self to You."
Bernardine did very little preaching because voice that was weak and hoarse. For 12 years he remained in the background, his energies going to prayer or to his own spiritual conversion and preparation.
At the end of that time, he went to Milan on a mission. When he got up to preach his voice was strong and commanding and his words so convincing that the crowd would not let him leave unless he promised to come back. -- Benardino of Siena.

My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee. 
I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not
hope and do not love you.
O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended, and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. 
I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace


67 St. Plautilla baptized by St. Peter witnessed execution of St. Paul. wife of Emperor Vespasian
Romæ sanctæ Plautíllæ, féminæ Consuláris, quæ beatórum Mártyrum Flávii Cleméntis Cónsulis soror et Fláviæ Domitíllæ Vírginis mater éxstitit; atque, a sancto Petro Apóstolo baptizáta, ómnium virtútum laude refúlgens, quiévit in pace.
    At Rome, St. Plautilla, wife of a consul, sister of the consul Flavius Clemens, and mother of the holy virgin Flavia Domitilla, both martyrs.  She was baptized by the apostle St. Peter, and after giving an example of all the virtues, she rested in peace.

A Roman widow, reputedly the mother of St. Flavia Domitilla and the wife of Emperor Vespasian, who was exiled by Emperor Domitian for being a Christian. It is unlikely that Plautilla was Flavia’s mother, as history records her mother to be Flavia Domitilla, wife of Vespasian. In legend, Plautilla was also said to have been baptized by St. Peter and to have witnessed the execution of St. Paul. 
297 St. Baudelius married zealous missionary beheaded at Nimes for interrupting a festival in honor of the Roman deity, Jupiter
Nemáusi, in Gálliis, sancti Baudélii Mártyris, qui comprehénsus est a Pagánis, et cum sacrificáre nollet idólis et in Christi fide inter vérbera  et torménta immóbilis persísteret, martyrii palmam pretiósa morte suscépit.
    At Nimes in France, St. Baudelius, martyr.  Being arrested, but refusing to sacrifice to idols, and remaining immovable in the faith of Christ, despite blows and tortures, he gained the palm of martyrdom by his praiseworthy death.

Patron of Nimes, France, a missionary born in Orleans. Married, he preached throughout his region and was beheaded at Nimes for interrupting a festival in honor of the Roman deity, Jupiter. There are some four hundred churches in his honor in France and northern Spain.

Baudelius of Nîmes M (RM) 2nd or 3rd century. Born in Orléans, Baudelius married and worked zealously to spread Christianity. He was martyred at Nîmes. His cultus spread throughout France and northern Spain: there are some 400 churches dedicated to him (Benedictines).

284 St. Thalelaeus Physician called 'the Merciful' for his gratis services to the sick poor martyr with Alexander, Asterius, and companions son of a Roman general
Edéssæ, apud Ægas, in Cilícia, sanctórum Mártyrum Thalelǽi, Astérii, Alexándri et Sociórum, qui sub Numeriáno Imperatóre passi sunt.
    At Edessa near Aegea in Cilicia, the holy martyrs Thalalaeus, Asterius, Alexander, and their companions, who suffered under Emperor Numerian.
284 ST THALELAEUS, MARTYR
ON the ground that St Thalelaeus was a physician who gave his services gratis, the Greeks call him “the Merciful”, and reckon him amongst their so-called “Money-less” or disinterested saints. In the Roman Martyrology he is entered as having suffered at Edessa in Syria, but this is a mistake the actual scene of his martyrdom was Aegae in Cilicia. Said to have been a native of the Lebanon and the son of a Roman general, he practised at Anazarbus. When persecution broke out during the reign of the Emperor Numerian, he escaped to an olive grove where he was captured. After being conveyed to the coast town of Aegae, he was strung up on a rope and cast into the sea. He managed to swim to shore and was beheaded. This, at least, is the story told in his quite unreliable Greek “acts”. With him are associated a number of other martyrs, including Alexander and Asterius, who were either officials charged with his execution but converted by his fortitude, or else sympathizing bystanders.

Two Greek texts have been printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. v, and there is also an Armenian rendering, which F. C. Conybeare translated into English in his Apology and Acts of Apollonius… (1894). Delehaye (Origines du Guile des Martyrs, p. 165) shows that there is no reason to question the fact of the martyrdom of St Thalelaeus, and that there was a considerable cultus.
  
He earned the nickname "the merciful" owing to charitable service to the poor and sick in the town of Anazarbus, in Cilicia (Asia Minor). He was martyred at Aegae, in Cilicia, by beheading after drowning failed to kill him. Asterius and Alexander were two Roman executioners or perhaps bystanders who were put to death with him because of their display of compassion.

Thalelaeus and Companions MM (RM) Born in Lebanon;  The son of a Roman general, Thalelaeus became a physician at Anazarbus, Cilicia, where he was, and fled to escape the persecution of Christians under Emperor Numerian. Thalelaeus was captured, brought to Aegea, Cilicia (mistakenly called Edessa, Syria, in the Roman Martyrology), and then beheaded when an attempt to drown him failed. Also martyred with him were Alexander and Asterius, two bystanders, who may have been the officers in charge of his execution, because of their compassion for him, and other spectators who were converted by his constancy (Benedictines, Delaney).

300 St. Hilary Bishop of Toulouse, France.

Hilary of Toulouse B (AC) 4th century. All that is known is that he was bishop of Toulouse, France (Benedictines). In art, Hilary is a bearded bishop superintending the building of a chapel for the relics of Saint Saturninus (Roeder).

304 St. Basilissa  beheaded for her faith
Item Romæ, via Salária, natális sanctæ Basíllæ Vírginis, quæ, cum esset ex régio génere, et illustríssimum sponsum habéret illúmque dimisísset, accusáta fuit ab eo quod esset Christiána, et mox decrétum est a Galliéno Augústo ut aut sponsum recíperet, aut gládio interíret; cumque ipsa Virgo, convénta de hoc, respondísset se Regem regum habére sponsum, gládio transverberáta est.
    Also at Rome, on the Salarian Way, the birthday of St. Basilla, virgin, who was of a royal family and betrothed to a nobleman.  When she refused to marry him, he accused her of being a Christian.  Emperor Gallienus gave orders that she should accept the person to whom she had been engaged, or die by the sword.  Being informed of this, and answering that she had for her spouse the King of kings, she was pierced with a sword.

304 ST BASILLA, or BASILISSA, VIRGIN AND MARTYR
According to the Roman Martyrology St Basilla was a maiden related to the imperial family who suffered in Rome about the middle of the third century. Affianced in her childhood to a patrician named Pompeius, she refused after her conversion to Christianity to carry out the contract, because she had consecrated herself to our Lord at the time of her baptism. Pompeius denounced her to the Emperor Gallienus, who left her free to choose between marriage and death by the sword. She preferred the second, and was beheaded on the Salarian Way. These details, and in particular the mention of Gallienus in the third century, are probably wholly erroneous. In 1654 in the Catacomb of St Cyriacus a tomb was discovered which bore the inscription “Basilla”, together with a palm branch and a dove— the symbols of a virgin martyr. The bones found within were translated with great pomp to the Hôtel-Dieu at Bayeux in Normandy as being those of our third-century saint, but this identification is now generally discredited, and the Bayeux relics are regarded as being those of an unknown martyr.

Though we have no detailed “acts” of Basilla, but only a passing reference in the quite untrustworthy Passion of St Eugenia, there can be no question that Basilla was an authentic martyr. Her name is entered with a date (= Ad. 304) in the Roman Depositio Martyrum. Inscriptions invoking her have been found in the catacombs, and there is mention of her in the Hieronymianum on this day. The only difficulty is that the Depositio Martyrum assigns her martyrdom to September 22.

Basilla, also known as Basilissa, was a member of a noble Roman family. She refused to marry Pompeius, a Roman patrician, after her conversion to Christianity. She was beheaded for her faith when she was denounced to Emperor Galienus by Pompeius and remained steadfast in her refusal to marry him. The facts of the story are uncertain.


Basilla (Basilissa) of Rome VM (RM) 304. Basilla, a Roman maiden, was betrothed to a pagan patrician. When she became a Christian, she refused to marry him. Forced to choose between her bridegroom and death, she at once chose the latter and was accordingly martyred for Christ (Benedictines).
311 St. Aquila Egyptian martyr prefect Arianus had ordered torture subsequently became Christian and martyr
In Thebáide sancti Aquilæ Mártyris, qui pectínibus pro Christo dilaniátus fuit.
   In Thebais, St. Aquila, martyr to the faith, whose body was torn with iron combs.

An Egyptian martyr. In the persecution conducted by co-Emperor Maximin Daia, Aquila was torn to pieces with iron combs. His death was witnessed by the prefect Arianus, who became a Christian and a martyr.
Aquila of Nîmes M (RM)  An Egyptian, torn to pieces with iron combs under Maximinus Daza. The prefect Arianus, who had ordered this torture, subsequently became a Christian and a martyr in the same persecution (Benedictines).

380? ST BAUDELIUS, MARTYR
Nemáusi, in Gálliis, sancti Baudélii Mártyris, qui comprehénsus est a Pagánis, et cum sacrificáre nollet idólis et in Christi fide inter vérbera  et torménta immóbilis persísteret, martyrii palmam pretiósa morte suscépit.
    At Nimes in France, St. Baudelius, martyr.  Being arrested, but refusing to sacrifice to idols, and remaining immovable in the faith of Christ, despite blows and tortures, he gained the palm of martyrdom by his praiseworthy death.

IT is certain that a large number of churches in France and Spain have been dedicated in honour of St Baudelius, whose tomb was formerly one of the most venerated shrines in Provence, but little is actually known of his history except that he perished for the faith at Nimes. Even the date of his martyrdom is uncertain some authorities give it as 187, others as 297, and others place it as late as the close of the fourth century. If we may put any trust in his fabulous "acts", he was a married man who came with his wife from a foreign land to evangelize southern Gaul. He arrived at Nimes one day when a feast was being celebrated in honour of Jupiter, and was moved to harangue the people on the truths of Christianity and the errors of paganism. He was arrested, and his head was struck off with an axe. St Gregory of Tours, who wrote in the sixth century, mentions the numerous miracles wrought at the tomb of St Baudelius, adding that his cult had spread all over the Christian world. He is the principal patron of Nimes, where he is called Baudille.

See the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. v; there are other Latin texts enumerated in BHL., nn. 1043--1047. St Baudelius is commemorated on this day in the Hieronymianum and Delehaye’s commentary thereon furnishes references to the evidence for early cultus.
610 St. Anastasius XIII converted the Lombards from the heresy of Arianism
Bríxiæ sancti Anastásii Epíscopi.      At Brescia, St. Anastasius, bishop.
Bishop of Brescia, Lombardy Italy. Anastasius converted the Lombards from the heresy of Arianism. His relics were solemnly translated by St. Charles Borromeo in 1581.
Anastasius of Brescia B (RM) Bishop Anastasius of Brescia, Lombardy, greatly contributed to the conversion of the Lombards from Arianism. Saint Charles Borromeo solemnly translated his relics in 1581 (Benedictines).

624 St. Austregisilus knight priest Bishop and abbot
Apud Bitúrcias, in Aquitánia, sancti Austregísili, Epíscopi et Confessóris.
    At Bourges in France, St. Austregisil, bishop and confessor.

624 ST AUSTREGISILUS, OR OUTRIL, BISHOP OF BOURGES
AT the court of King Guntramnus at Chalon-sur-Saône, the youth Austregisilus, who was the son of an impoverished nobleman of Bourges, bore a high reputation. He did not, however, escape the tongue of calumny, and was sentenced to face his accuser in ordeal by battle in order to clear himself of a serious charge. The death of his opponent by a fall from his horse just before the fight was regarded as a special intervention of Providence. It confirmed Austregisilus in an intention which he had previously formed of retiring from the world; for when the king urged him to marry he had replied, "If I had a good wife I should be afraid of losing her; if a bad one, I should be better with none". Austregisilus was ordained priest by his friend St Aetherius, who also nominated him abbot of Saint-Nizier at Lyons. As a superior he gained a reputation for wisdom and miracles. In 612 he was elected bishop of Bourges and presided in this his native city until his death, twelve years later. Amongst his disciples was St Amandus, who as a young man came to Bourges and lived in a cell near the cathedral under the direction of the bishop.

The life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. v, has also been critically edited in MGH, Scriptores Merov., vol. iv, pp. 188—208. B. Krusch considers that the writer’s claim to be a contemporary is fictitious, and that the text was really compiled a couple of centuries later. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. i, p. 29.

Bishop and abbot, also called Outril. He was the son of a Bourges nobleman who faced an ordeal by battle at the court of King Guntramnus. When his opponent died just before the ordeal, Austregisilus turned from the world. He became a priest and was ordained by St. Aetherius. Entering Nazaire Abbey in Lyon, he became abbot, and in 612 was named bishop of Bourges, France.

Austregisilus of Bourges B (RM) (also known as Outril(le), Aoustrille) Born at Bourges; Saint Austregisilus was educated as a courtier, but preferred the life of a monk and entered the abbey of Saint-Nizier at Lyons, where he became abbot. In 612, he was elected bishop of Bourges (Benedictines). In art, Saint Austregisilus is portrayed as a knight on horseback, sometimes with a religious habit over his armor. A man falls from a horse in front of him (Roeder).

778 St. Theodore of Pavia Bishop several times banished from his diocese by the Arian Lombard kings B (RM)
Papíæ sancti Theodóri Epíscopi.      At Pavia, St. Theodore, bishop
Little is known of the early life of St. Theodore of Pavia. We are first introduced to him as Bishop of Pavia. Theodore headed the See of Pavia from 743 to 778. During his thiry-five year service in Pavia he was subject to great opposition. Several times he was banished from his diocese by the Arian Lombard kings. Undoubtedly Theodore preached against the Arian heresy and was thus punished. Nonetheless, he remained faithful to the end and was eventually canonized.

Theodore of Pavia B (RM) . Theodore was bishop of Pavia, Italy, from 743 to 778. He had to endure much, including repeated banishment, at the hands of the Arian Lombard kings (Benedictines).
793 Ethelbert of East Anglia a man of prayer from his childhood miracles revealed at his hidden tomb M (AC)

Died near Hereford, England, in 793. King Ethelbert had a considerable cultus during the middle ages, although some, such as William of Malmesbury, have misgivings about the continuance of his veneration. He was murdered at Sutton Walls in Herefordshire, apparently for dynastic reasons at the instigation of the wife of Offa of Mercia.

His pious vita, written by Giraldus Cambrensis, tells us that Ethelbert was a man of prayer from his childhood. While still very young, he succeeded his father Ethelred as king of East Anglia and ruled benevolently for 44 years. It is said that his usual maxim is that the higher the station of man, the humbler he ought to be. This was the rule for his own conduct.

Desiring to secure stability for his kingdom by an heir, he sought the hand of the virtuous Alfreda, daughter of the powerful King Offa. With this in mind, he visited Offa at Sutton-Wallis, four miles Hereford. He was courteously entertained, but after some days, treacherously murdered by Grimbert, an officer of king Offa, through the contrivance of queen Quendreda who wanted to add his kingdom to their own.

His body was secretly buried at Maurdine of Marden, but miracles revealed its hiding place. Soon it was moved to a church at Fernley (Heath of Fern), now called Hereford. The town grew around the church bearing Ethelbert's name after King Wilfrid of Mercia enlarged and enriched it.

Quendreda died miserably within three months after her crime. Her daughter Alfreda became a hermit at Croyland. Offa made atonement for the sin of his queen by a pilgrimage to Rome, where he founded a school for the English. Egfrid, the only son of Offa, died after a reign of some months, and the Mercian crown was translated into the family descended of Penda (Attwater, Benedictines).

1099 Blessed Guy de Gherardescha led a solitary life at Campo in the diocese of Massa Maritima Hermit (AC)
Born in Pisa, Italy; Guy led a solitary life at Campo in the diocese of Massa Maritima, Italy (Benedictines).

1242 Blessed Orlando of Vallombrosa celebrated as an exorcist  OSB Vall. Hermit (AC)
Orlando was a Vallombrosan lay-brother who was celebrated as an exorcist (Benedictines).

1245 Blessed Albert of Bologna, OSB Vall. Abbot (AC)
Born in Bologna, Italy; died there in 1245. Albert was a member of the Parisi family, who became a monk and later an abbot of the Vallombrosan abbey near Bologna, which after his death was renamed S. Alberto (Benedictines).

1444 St. Bernardine of Siena He was called the "People's Preacher" because his sermons were filled with lively and realistic depictions of everything from a bachelor's household to women's fashions  throughout his life he was noted for his unfailing affability, patience and courtesy; It is impossible to follow him on his missionary journeys, for in them he covered nearly the whole of Italy; His tomb at Aquila was honoured by many miracles
Aquilæ, in Vestínis, sancti Bernardíni Senénsis, Sacerdótis ex Ordine Minórum et Confessóris, qui verbo et exémplo Itáliam illustrávit.
    At Aquila in Abruzzi, St. Bernardin of Siena, priest of the Order of Friars Minor, who added to the glory of Italy by his preaching and his example.
1444 ST BERNARDINO OF SIENA ,

ST BERNARDINO was born in the Tuscan town of Massa Marittima, in which his father, a member of the noble Sienese family of the Albizeschi, occupied the post of governor. The little boy lost both his parents before he was seven and was entrusted to the care of a maternal aunt and her daughter— both excellent women, who gave him a religious training and loved him as though he had been their own child. Upon reaching the age of eleven or twelve he was placed by his uncles at school in Siena, where he passed with great credit through the course of studies deemed requisite for a boy of his rank. He grew up a good-looking lad, so merry and entertaining that it was impossible to be dull in his company; but a coarse or blasphemous remark would always bring a blush to his cheek and generally a remonstrance to his lips. Once when a man of position sought to lead him into vice, Bernardino struck him in the face with his fists, and on a second and similar occasion he incited his comrades to join him in pelting the tempter with mud and stones. Except when thus moved by righteous indignation, Bernardino was singularly sweet-tempered; indeed, throughout his life he was noted for his unfailing affability, patience and courtesy.
At the age of seventeen he enrolled himself in a confraternity of our Lady, the members of which pledged themselves to certain devotional practices as well as to the relief of the sick; and he at once embarked upon a course of severe bodily mortification. In 1400 Siena was visited by the plague in a virulent form, So serious was its toll that from twelve to twenty persons died daily in the famous hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, which found itself bereft of almost all who tended the sick. In this extremity Bernardino offered to take entire charge of the establishment, with the help of some other young men whom he had fired with the determination to sacrifice their lives if necessary to aid the sufferers. Their services were accepted, and for four months the noble band worked tirelessly, day and night, under the direction of Bernardino, who, besides nursing the patients and preparing them for death, saw to everything and brought order as well as cleanliness into the hospital. Though several of his companions died, Bernardino escaped the contagion and returned home after the epidemic was over, lhe was, however, so exhausted by his labours that he fell an easy prey to a fever which laid him low for several months.
Upon his recovery he found that his immediate duty lay close at hand. An aunt named Bartolomea, to whom he was much attached, had become blind as well as bedridden, and to her he devoted himself as he had done to the plague-stricken in the hospital. When, fourteen months later, God called the invalid to Himself, it was in the arms of her nephew that she breathed her last. Free now from all earthly ties, Bernardino set himself by prayer and fasting to learn God’s will as to his future. By this means he was led to enter the Franciscan Order, the habit of which he received shortly afterwards in Siena. The house, however, proved too accessible to the novice’s many friends and relations, and with the consent of his superiors he retired to the convent of Colombaio outside the city, where the rule of St Francis was strictly observed. Here in 1403 he was professed and here he was ordained priest—exactly a year later, on the feast of the Birthday of our Lady which was his birthday and the anniversary of his baptism and of his clothing.
History has little to tell us about the saint during the next twelve years: he preached occasionally, but his life was mainly spent in retirement. Gradually he was being prepared by God for the twofold mission of apostle and reformer. When at last his hour had come, the way was made clear in a singular manner. A novice in the convent at Fiesole in which the saint was staying startled the community on three consecutive nights after Matins by exclaiming, “Brother Bernardino! Hide no longer the gift that is in you. Go to Lombardy, for all are awaiting you there!” Reprimanded and questioned as to why he had thus spoken, he replied, “Because I could not help it!” To Bernardino and his superiors this seemed to be a call from on high, and he obeyed. He opened his apostolic career at Milan to which he went as a complete stranger towards the end of 1417, but soon his eloquence and zeal began to attract enormous congregations. At the close of a course of Lenten sermons, before he was allowed to leave the city to preach elsewhere in Lombardy, he was obliged to promise that he would return the following year. At first he was hampered in his delivery by hoarseness and inability to make himself heard, but afterwards, as the result, he firmly believed, of fervent prayer to our Lady, his voice became singularly clear and penetrating.
It is impossible to follow him on his missionary journeys, for in them he covered nearly the whole of Italy with the exception of the kingdom of Naples. He travelled always on foot, preached sometimes for three or four consecutive hours and often delivered several sermons on the same day. In large cities he frequently had to speak from an open-air pulpit because no church could contain the multitudes who crowded to hear him. Everywhere he preached penance, denounced the prevalent vices and kindled popular fervour by spreading devotion to the Holy Name. At the end of every sermon he would hold up for veneration a tablet upon which he had written the letters I.H.S., surrounded by rays, and after telling the people to implore God’s mercy and to live in peace he would give them a blessing with the Holy Name. In cities torn by faction he would heal deadly feuds and would persuade men to substitute the sacred monogram for the Guelf or Ghibelline emblems that too often surmounted their front doors. In Bologna, which was overmuch addicted to games of hazard, he preached with such effect that the citizens gave up gambling and brought their cards and dice to be burnt in a public bonfire. A card-manufacturer who complained that he was deprived of his only means of livelihood was told by St Bernardino to manufacture tablets inscribed with the I.H.S., and so great was the demand for them that they brought in more money than the playing-cards had ever done. All over Italy men spoke of the wonderful fruit of St Bernardino’s missions—the numerous conversions, the restoration of ill-gotten goods, the reparation of injuries and the reform of morals. Nevertheless there were some who took exception to his teaching and accused him of encouraging superstitious practices. They went so far as to denounce him to Pope Martin V, who for a time commanded him to keep silence. However, an examination of his doctrine and conduct led to a complete vindication and he received permission to preach wherever he liked. The same pope, in 1427, urged him to accept the bishopric of Siena, but he refused it, as he afterwards declined the sees of Ferrara and of Urbino. His excuse was that if he were confined to one diocese he could no longer minister to so many souls.
In 1430, nevertheless, he was obliged to give up missionary work to become vicar general of the friars of the Strict Observance. This movement within the Franciscan Order had originated about the middle of the fourteenth century in the convent of Brogliano between Camerino and Assisi and had only maintained a struggling existence until the coming of St Bernardino, who became its organizer and its second founder. When he received the habit there were only three hundred friars of the Observance in all Italy; when he died there were four thousand. Wherever he went on his missionary tours, fervent young men were drawn to the order with which he was identified, and pious persons desirous of founding convents offered to bestow them upon the Observants. It was therefore right and fitting that he should be officially empowered to consolidate and regulate the reform. He accomplished this task with so much wisdom and tact that many convents passed voluntarily and without friction from the Conventual to the Observant rule. The original Observants had shunned scholarship as they had shunned riches, but St Bernardino was aware of the danger of ignorance, especially in face of the ever-increasing demand for Observant friars to act as confessors. He therefore insisted upon instruction in theology and Canon law as part of the regular curriculum. He was himself a learned man, as may be judged from a series of Latin sermons which he wrote at Capriola and which are still extant, and also by the fact that at the Council of Florence, St Bernardino was able to address the Greek delegates in their own tongue.
Important as was the work with which he was now entrusted, the saint longed to return to his apostolic labours which he regarded as his only vocation, and in 1442 he obtained permission from the pope to resign his office as vicar general. He then resumed his missionary journeys, which led him through the Romagna, Ferrara and Lombardy. He was by this time in failing health, and so emaciated that he looked like a skeleton, but the only concession he would allow himself was the use of a donkey to convey him from one place to another. At Massa Marittima in iw he preached on fifty consecutive days a course of Lenten sermons, which he wound up by exhorting the inhabitants to preserve harmony among themselves and by bidding a pathetic farewell to his native town. Though obviously dying, he still continued his apostolic work and set out for Naples, preaching as he went. He succeeded in reaching Aquila, but there his strength gave out and he died on the eve of the Ascension, May 20, 1444, in the monastery of the Conventuals. He had almost reached the age of sixty-four years, forty-two of which he had spent as a religious. His tomb at Aquila was honoured by many miracles and he was canonized within six years of his death.

The number of early Latin biographies of St Bernardino is considerable, and it must suffice to note that a detailed enumeration is supplied in BHL, nn 188—201. Some are given in full and extracts made from others in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. v. Excellent modern studies of the life and apostolate of the saint are numerous. The first edition of that by P. Thureau-Dangin was published in 1896 (Eng. trans., 1911). Others which deserve special notice were written by Dr K. Hefele, in German (1912) by A. G. Ferrers Howell, in English (1913) by Father V. Facchinetti (1933) and by Piero Bargellini (1933) both in Italian, but the number of such works is great. A considerable amount of fresh material has been brought to light and printed in modem times, for most of which see the Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, more especially vols. vi, viii, xi, xii, xv, etc. For a fuller bibliography consult B. Stasiewski, Der hl. Bernardin von Elena (1931), and V. Facchinetti, Bollettino Bibliografico (1930). A very pleasant English sketch is that of M. Ward, St Ber­nardino, the People’s Preacher (1914)  The fifth centenary of the saint’s death (1944) produced a number of new books, mostly in Italian. See the life printed in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxxi (1953), pp. 282—322.

In the year 1400, a young man came to the door of the largest hospital in Siena. A plague was raging through the city so horrible that as many as twenty people died each day just in the hospital alone. And many of the people who died were those who were needed to tend the ill. It was a desperate situation -- more and more people were falling ill and fewer and fewer people were there to help them.

The twenty-year-old man who stood there had not come because he was ill but because he wanted to help. And he brought not new patients but young men like himself willing to tend the dying. For four months Bernardine and his companions worked day and night not only to comfort the patients but to organize and clean the hospital. Only at the end of the plague did Bernardine himself fall ill -- of exhaustion.

But that was Bernardine's way -- whatever he did, he put his whole self into it. Immediately after he recovered he was back caring for the sick -- but this time, he was responsible not for a whole hospital but one person -- an invalid aunt. Yet for fourteen months she got his full attention. Throughout his life, he put as much energy into caring for one person as for hundreds,  as much commitment into converting one citizen as to preaching to a whole city.

After his aunt died, Bernardine started to think about where his life should be going. The son of a noble family, he had been orphaned at seven and raised by an aunt. We are told as a young person that he hated indecent talk so much that he would blush when he heard it. Even his schoolmates hesitated to make him so uncomfortable but apparently one adult citizen thought it would be a great joke to needle Bernardine. In a public marketplace he stopped Bernardine and started to talk to him in a shameful way. But if he had thought to get away with his cruel trick, he was surprised when Bernardine slapped him in the face. The man slunk away, shamed in front of the very crowd he'd b een trying to impress.

Bernardine, who had come to Siena to study, threw himself into prayer and fasting to discover what God wanted him to do. One might have expected him to continue his work with the sick but in 1403 he joined the Franciscans and in 1404 he was ordained a priest.
The Franciscans were known as missionary preachers, but Bernardine did very little preaching with because of a voice that was weak and hoarse. For twelve years he remained in the background, his energies going to prayer or to his own spiritual conversion and preparation.
At the end of that time, he went to Milan on a mission. When he got up to preach his voice was strong and commanding and his words so convincing that the crowd would not let him leave unless he promised to come back.

Bernardino of Siena, OFM Priest (RM) Born in Massa Marittima (near Siena), Tuscany, Italy, on September 8, 1380; died in Aquila, Italy, May 20, 1444; canonized in 1450 by Pope Nicholas V.

    "Jesus, crucified for me, with the nails of Your love fasten my whole self to You."--Berardino of Siena.

Son of the governor of Massa Marittima (near Siena), Bernardino degli Albizzeschi was placed in the care of an aunt when he was seven after the death of his parents in 1386. She provided him with his religious education. At 17, he joined a confraternity of Our Lady.

When the plague came to Siena in 1400, Bernardino offered to take charge of the hospital, recalling the gentleness and virtue his pious aunt had taught him. He also gathered round him twelve young friends who were willing to risk their lives to share this duty. For the four months of the pestilence, they worked tirelessly. Bernardino also organized an effective service of welfare and relief. Although several of his companions died, he did not contract the disease (one source said he did and came close to death).

He then cared for his blind, bedridden 90-year-old aunt, Bartholomea. After her death, he set himself to prayer and fasting to learn God's will for his future. While praying before his crucifix, he was impressed and reproached, like Saint Francis, by the suffering of Our Lord, who seemed to step down from the Cross and appear before him in His nakedness and sorrow. He could not resist the pleading in his Savior's eyes and surrendered all he had.

He took the habit on September 8, 1402, entered the Franciscan monastery of strict observance at Colombaio outside Siena in 1403. He was ordained on September 8, 1404--the Feast of the Birth of Our Lady and his birthday as well. Later he moved to Fiesole near Florence.

Over the next 12 years he preached only occasionally, preferring to live as a solitary. He went to Milan and on September 8, 1417, he preached his first sermon as a missioner. Despite being a stranger to the city, his eloquence and fiery sermons soon attracted huge congregations. The people made him promise to return the following year before they allowed him to leave to preach in Lombardy. He covered nearly all of Italy, usually on foot, preaching for two and three hours at a time, and often giving several speeches in a day-- generally at a pulpit in the open air because the crowds were so huge.

He attacked usury relentlessly, and denounced the party strife of the Italian cities as a fundamental evil of the age and place. On the other hand, he did not rise above such contemporary characteristics as hostility toward Jews and belief in widespread witchcraft.

He would castigate vice and then hold up a placard with the sign of the name of Jesus, "IHS," written on it, urging the congregation to turn to the one symbolized by those letters. People became so enthused that they even had IHS painted on houses. Throughout Italy people spoke of the wonderful benefits of his preaching. Once a man whose livelihood came from making playing cards complained that Bernardino had so successfully fought against gambling that the trade was ruined. Bernardino gave him a new, even more profitable trade, printing cards with the sign IHS.

Some of his preaching was criticized by the University of Bologna, but this controversy, which troubled him for eight years, ended in his favor. His detractors accused him of encouraging superstitious practices. They said that he carried on his person a piece of paper on which the Name of Jesus was written, that when he pleaded with sinners he showed it to them and it gave out rays of light, and denounced him to Pope Martin V. He was cleared of the charges after an examination of his doctrine and conduct. It may well be that the light symbolized that which flowed from his devoted spirit and the grace and passion of his eager witness.

Pope Martin V offered him the bishopric in Siena in 1427, but he declined, as he later declined the bishoprics of Ferrara and Urbino. In 1430, the "Apostle of the Holy Name" became vicar general of the Friars of the Strict Observance. He reformed the rule to involve the friars more as preachers and teachers and many convents passed easily from the Conventual to the Observant rule. In fact, the number of friars under the rule grew from 300 to over 4,000. The original Observants had shunned scholarship (as riches), but Bernardino insisted upon instruction in theology and canon law as part of the regular curriculum.

From 1430, he wrote theological works in both Latin and Italian. These covered the principal doctrinal and moral elements of Christianity, as well as treatises on the Blessed Mother. He established theological schools at Perugia and Monteripido.

In 1442, he obtained permission from the pope to resign his office, although Bernardino assisted at the Council of Florence. His health was failing, but Bernardino was insistent upon a final missionary journey. He began it at Massa Marittima in 1444 where he preached on fifty consecutive days. Although dying, he continued his apostolic travels, setting out for Naples and preaching as he went. He got as far as Aquila in the Abruzzi, where he died.

His tomb at Aquila was said to be the site of miracles. He was the most prominent missioner of the 15th century, and he was canonized within six years of his death.

It has been said that the 'People's Preacher' inaugurated in Italy 'one of those rare periods in history when the rule of Jesus made visible progress in society.' He was called the "People's Preacher" because his sermons were filled with lively and realistic depictions of everything from a bachelor's household to women's fashions (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer, Gill, Origo, White).

Bernardino is represented in art as an old, toothless Franciscan holding up a sign bearing the legend "IHS," from which rays shine forth. Medieval and Renaissance painters depicted him as small and emaciated, with deep burning eyes. He may also be seen (1) preaching before the Palazzo Communale in Siena with IHS held before him; (2) with a banner bearing IHS and a star over his head; (3) with three mounds surmounted by a banner with a cross (possibly these mounds may really represent the three miters he refused-- Siena, Urbino, and Ferrara); with a trumpet as a sign of his power as a preacher, or (5) in a painting by El Greco, bearded and habited, or four mitres at his feet, IHS on his staff (Farmer, Gill, Roeder, White).

Bernardino was made the patron saint of advertisers and advertising in 1956 by Pope Pius XII because of his ability to illuminate the Catholic faith to audiences by the use of simple language and telling symbols. He is invoked against hoarseness, which he suffered in his early days of preaching, and is believed to have been cured by a prayer to the Blessed Virgin (White). He is also the patron of wool-weavers and invoked against diseases of the chest and lungs (Roeder).
1501 Blessed Columba of Rieti pious mystics of the third order of Saint Dominic raising of a dead child to life especially devoted to Our Lady modeled after Saint Catherine of Siena to OP Tert. V (AC)

1501 BD COLUMBA OF RIETI, VIRGIN
IN the chronicles of Perugia we find many references to Bd Columba, a Dominican tertiary who, by virtue of her sanctity and spiritual gifts, became whilst yet living so completely the city's patroness that her mediation was officially sought by the magistrates in times of danger and perplexity. She was a native, not of Perugia, but of Rieti, where her father and mother earned a modest livelihood as weavers and tailors. Although her angelic looks as a baby led her parents to choose for her the name of Angiolella, she was always called Columba, in allusion to a dove which made its appearance during her baptism and alighted on her head. As she grew in years so she grew in beauty of soul and body. From the Dominican nuns who taught her to read she acquired a great veneration for St Dominic and St Catherine of Siena, and during her life they often appeared in visions to encourage or direct her. At the age often she secretly dedicated herself to God, and when her parents urged that she should be betrothed to a wealthy young man, she cut off her hair, declaring that her whole heart belonged to Jesus Christ. She now gave herself up to austerities, hidden as far as possible from the eyes of men, and she strove to tread in the footsteps of St Catherine. On one occasion, after a cataleptic trance in which she had lain as though dead for five days, she described the holy places of Palestine which she had been visiting in spirit. But it was at the age of nineteen, when she had been invested with the Dominican tertiary habit which she had long desired, that she emerged from her retirement and entered upon what may almost be described as her public life.
A resident of Rieti lay under sentence of death for murder, and Columba's prayers were asked on his behalf. She visited him in prison, brought him to repentance and, after he had made a good confession, assured him that his execution would not take place. Her prophecy was fulfilled when at the eleventh hour a reprieve arrived. Her reputation was further enhanced by miracles and by her almost complete abstention from food. At Viterbo, where she cured a demoniac, and also at Narni, the inhabitants sought to detain her by force, but she eluded them. She was not, however, to remain long at Rieti. It was revealed to her that her mission lay elsewhere, and accordingly early one morning she slipped out of the house in secular clothes-bound she knew not whither. Upon her arrival at Foligno she was arrested on suspicion that she was a fugitive for whom the authorities were searching, and her relations were communicated with. Joined by her father, her brother, and an elderly matron, she was then able to pursue her mysterious journey which led finally to the gates of Perugia-perhaps the most turbulent city in Italy. She was received in a humble dwelling already occupied by several tertiaries, and immediately seems to have been made the object of a popular demonstration. Her fame, no doubt, had preceded her. Not only the poor, but many of the rich, including the ladies of the Baglioni family then in power, welcomed her with open arms. On the other hand, certain excellent persons-notably the Franciscan and Dominican friars-were openly suspicious of a young woman who was said to subsist on a few berries and who was constantly falling into ecstasies. Amongst them was Father Sebastian Angeli, afterwards her confessor and biographer.

In his book he confesses his early doubts and the incredulity with which he received the information that she had resuscitated a child. "Wait for ten years", he said to young Cesare Borgia, who suggested ringing the city bells, "and then if her conduct has not belied her reputation we can reckon her a saint." The citizens generally, however, had no such doubts, and they offered to provide her with a convent. On January 2, 1490, Columba with a few companions took the vows of a Dominican religious of the third order. A few years later, on the outbreak of plague, her position was so well established that the magistrates applied to her for advice and adopted her suggestion of penitential processions. Many of the sick were healed by her touch, some in her convent where they were tended by her nuns, some outside. She had offered herself to God as a victim; and when in answer to her prayers the plague abated, she contracted it in a virulent form. Her recovery she attributed to St Catherine, in whose honour the magistrates decreed an annual procession which was continued for a hundred years. In the bitter quarrels that rent the city Columba invariably acted as an angel of peace, and once she warned the rulers of a projected attack from outside which they were consequently able to frustrate.
Pope Alexander VI when he came to Perugia asked specially to see her, and was so impressed that at a later date he sent his treasurer to consult her on certain secret projects-only to receive reproaches and warnings the details of which were never made public. But if the pontiff himself was favourably disposed, it was otherwise with his daughter, Lucrezia Borgia, whom Columba had refused to meet and who, it is said, became her bitter enemy. Apparently as the result of her hostile influence, Bd Columba was subjected to a period of persecution, when a decree issued from Rome accused her of magic and deprived her of her confessor. She uttered no complaint and bore all in patience until the attack passed. Towards the end of her life she suffered much bodily pain, but her interest in Perugia continued to the end. To the city fathers who came to visit her in her last illness she gave an exhortation to observe Christian charity and to do justice to the poor. She died at the age of thirty-four, early in the morning on the feast of the Ascension, 1501. The magistrates contributed to provide for her a public funeral, which was attended by the whole city.

In the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. v, the Bollandists have published a Latin biography of Bd Columba which was written by her confessor, Father Sebastian degli Angeli, a Domini­can friar of Perugia. Very little other material seems to have been available from Dominican sources, and Father Leander Alberti, who produced an Italian life in 1521, did little more than translate the Latin text of Father Sebastian. It must be confessed that there are many points in his rather surprising narrative which one would have liked to see presented from another angle. Bd Columba has never been canonized, but her cult was formally confirmed in 1627. In view of this confirmation, or of the continuation of the cause, a summary statement with a brief catalogue of miracles was presented to the Congregation of Rites, and this also may be found in the same volume of the Bollandists. The Dominican Father D. Viretti, Using these sources, compiled in 1777 a Vita de la B. Colomba da Rieti, which was translated into English for the Oratorian Series and edited by Father Faber in 1847. The best modem biography of this interesting beata seems to be that of Ettore Ricci, Storia della A. Colomba da Rieti (1901) but see also M. C. de Ganay, Les Bienheureuses Dominicaines (1913), pp. 305—354. A short sketch in English will be found in Procter, Dominican Saints, pp. 133--136.

Born in Rieti, Umbria, Italy, in 1467; died in Perugia, Italy, in 1501; beatified in 1697 (or 1627). Columba of Rieti is one of many pious mystics of the third order of Saint Dominic. According to legend, angels sang around the house when Columba was born. She was originally to be called Angelica, but a white dove appeared over the baptismal font, and it was decided to change the name to Columba (another source says that her name was Angelella Guardagnoli). Her parents were too charitable to save any money, and the little girl learned to be hungry gracefully with them. Early in life, she learned to spin and sew, and she and her mother took upon themselves the task of doing the mending for the Dominican fathers in her Rieti.

Columba soon picked up the art of reading from the sisters at Rieti, and learned the Little Office from hearing it chanted. She was especially devoted to Our Lady, and, as soon as she had read a life of Saint Catherine of Siena, she began to model her life on that of the great Dominican tertiary. Columba's parents seem to have had a very casual attitude towards the goods of this world, and, apparently, she and they worked only at odd times, when it was absolutely necessary. They devoted the rest of their time to prayer and good works among the poor.

At 12, Columba was self-supporting and, furthermore, she had learned that charming truth: "It is better to need less than to have more." Earnestly praying to know her vocation, she was favored with a vision in which she saw Our Lord on a golden throne, attended by SS Dominic, Jerome, and Peter Martyr of Verona. Columba interpreted the vision to mean that she was to dedicate herself to God, and she pronounced a private vow of virginity and made plans to live a solitary life.

Unfortunately, she did not think to mention this to her parents, who were busy arranging a marriage for her. The night before the engagement was to be publicly announced, they suddenly told her that the young man they had arranged for her to marry was waiting in the parlor to see her. Forewarned by a vision, Columba had made up her mind what to do. She quickly cut off her hair and sent it in to him, which seems to be the accepted Dominican way of declining a suitor. He took the hint and departed, to the fury of Columba's brothers, who perhaps had felt that the family finances were about to be put on a solid basis.

Columba, following Saint Catherine's example, settled down to live the life of a recluse in her father's house. She worked skillfully at whatever her mother suggested, which softened the good lady's annoyance at her daughter's peculiar choice of life. An uncle and one of her brothers persecuted her continually, and one time her brother tried to kill her.

All in all, one would hardly say that these were comfortable surroundings for a mystic. In the midst of all this, Columba set sturdily about her program of spirituality: she kept five Lents a year, fasted on bread and water, and went to Mass and to Communion as often as she was allowed in those days of infrequent Communion.

Columba had a special devotion to the Holy Infancy, and she longed to visit the Holy Land and see the places sanctified by the Incarnate Christ. Never able to make the trip in actuality, she made it spiritually, and once, in an ecstasy that lasted five days, she was conducted to all the holy places in Palestine.

On one occasion, her confessor, who was something of an artist, had promised to make her a set of crib figures to use at Christmas time. He forgot to do so, and she was desolate until the Christ- Child himself appeared to her. Then she had no need of wooden figures. Once, when she was meditating on the Passion, she was so affected by what she saw that she begged our Lord never to let her see such suffering again, for fear she would die of its intensity.

At age 19, Columba was received into the third order of Saint Dominic. She had been favored with a vision telling her that she should join this group, and, as soon as she was clothed with the habit, she led a pilgrimage to the Dominican shrine of Our Lady of the Oak in Viterbo.

Her fame had already begun to spread; as they went along the road, people crowded to get close to her and hailed her as a saint. Columba was embarrassed by such attention, but she proceeded to Viterbo. Here she prayed that a devil might be cast out of a young woman who had been possessed for 18 years. When the woman was healed, the word spread all over the region that Columba was a real saint.

The citizens of Narni determined to trap her and keep her as she passed through that city on her return home. Warned of their intention, Columba and her little party crept out by night and fled from those overly enthusiastic citizens, who would one day wage a bloody battle to gain custody of another saintly Dominican--Lucy of Narni.

It is unknown why Columba moved to Foligno; perhaps the fame of her miracles--including the raising of a dead child to life--was beginning to press down upon her. In 1488, she moved to the convent of the Poor Clares.

The bishop soon heard about her, and, unexpectedly, Columba found herself in the role of foundress for a community of Dominican tertiaries that the bishop wished to establish in Perugia. The bishop sent word for her to go to Perugia, and at the same time the master general told her to return to Rieti.

The good people of Foligno blocked all the roads, and said quite plainly that Columba was going nowhere. When the master general's envoy came to get her, she was in ecstasy, and he had to shake her awake to give her the message. She went along very obediently. Eventually, however, the master general changed his mind, and she was sent to Perugia.

Columba took her solemn vows in the convent of Perugia on Pentecost in 1490. She lived there happily, frequently lost in prayer, until her death 11 years later. Bishops, priests, and magistrates came to consult her about their various problems, and to ask her prayers. When the plague was decimating the peninsula in 1494, she told the people to dedicate the city to Saint Dominic and Saint Catherine. Her request was executed and the plague immediately ceased. She is said to have been ruthlessly persecuted by Lucrezia Borgia, but no details are available.

Despite all this heavenly activity, Columba was a very kind superior, who never expected any of her charges to imitate her extreme penances. She claimed, "No sister dead to grace can remain in a convent; for either she will repent of her sins, or she will be cast out on the cold shores of the world, or, of her own free will, she will leave the blessed retreat of the cloister."

Columba of Rieti died on the eve of the Feast of the Ascension at the age of 34. At the moment of her death, her soul appeared radiant in glory, to her spiritual friend, Blessed Osanna of Mantua (Benedictines, Dorcy).

In art, Columba is a Dominican tertiary to whom an angel brings the Eucharist. At times a hand may reach down from heaven to give her the Host, with a wreath of roses, cross, lily, and rosary; or with a dove, lily, and book (Roeder).

Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR MAY
Christians in Africa.
That Christians in Africa, in imitation of the Merciful Jesus,
may give prophetic witness to reconciliation, justice, and peace.


ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
  RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

Fifth Week of Easter

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest
and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;

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On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
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It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
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It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
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wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 01
600 BC Jeremiah,The Holy Prophet  one of the four great Old Testament prophets     In Egypt, St. Jeremias, prophet, who was stoned to death by the people at Taphnas, where he was buried.  St. Epiphanius tells that the faithful were accustomed to pray at his grave, and to take away from it dust to heal those who were stung by serpents.
Son of the priest Helkiah from the city of Anathoth near Jerusalem.  He lived 600 years before the Birth of Christ, under the Israelite king Josiah and four of his successors. He was called to prophetic service at the age of fifteen, when the Lord revealed to him that even before his birth the Lord had chosen him to be a prophet. Jeremiah refused, citing his youth and lack of skill at speaking, but the Lord promised to be always with him and to watch over him.
He touched the mouth of the chosen one and said, "Behold, I have put My words into your mouth. Behold, I have appointed you this day over nations and kingdoms, to root out and to pull down, to destroy and to rebuild, and to plant" (Jer. 1:9-10).
When Jeremiah prophesied that the King of Babylon would invade Egypt and annihilate the Jews living there, the Jews murdered him.  In that very same year the saint's prophecy was fulfilled.
There is a tradition that 250 years later, Alexander the Great transported the relics of the holy Prophet Jeremiah to Alexandria.

The Prophet Jeremiah wrote his Book of Prophecies and also the Book of Lamentations about the desolation of Jerusalem and the Exile.  The times in which he lived and prophesied are described in 4/2 Kings (Ch. 23-25) and in the Second Book of Chronicles (36:12) and in 2 Maccabbees (Ch. 2).

In the Gospel of Matthew it is said that the betrayal of Judas was foretold by the Prophet Jeremiah, "And they took thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom the sons of Israel had set a price, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed me" (Mt. 27:9-10). Perhaps Jeremiah 32:6-15 is meant.
The birthday of the blessed apostles Philip and James.  Philip, after having converted nearly all of Scythia to the faith of Christ, went to Hieropolis, a city in Asia, where he was fastened to a cross and stoned, and thus ended his life gloriously.  James, who is also called the brother of our Lord, was the first bishop of Jerusalem.  Being hurled down from a pinnacle of the temple, his legs were broken, and being struck on the head with a dyer's staff, he expired and was buried near the temple. 
St. Joseph Feastday: March 19, May 1 Patron of the Universal Church.
We know he was a carpenter, a working man, for the skeptical Nazarenes ask about Jesus, "Is this not the carpenter's son?" (Matthew 13:55). He wasn't rich for when he took Jesus to the Temple to be circumcised and Mary to be purified he offered the sacrifice of two turtledoves or a pair of pigeons, allowed only for those who could not afford a lamb (Luke 2:24).
Despite his humble work and means, Joseph came from a royal lineage. Luke and Matthew disagree some about the details of Joseph's genealogy but they both mark his descent from David, the greatest king of Israel (Matthew 1:1-16 and Luke 3:23-38). Indeed the angel who first tells Joseph about Jesus greets him as "son of David," a royal title used also for Jesus.
We know Joseph was a compassionate, caring man. When he discovered Mary was pregnant after they had been betrothed, he knew the child was not his but was as yet unaware that she was carrying the Son of God. He planned to divorce Mary according to the law but he was concerned for her suffering and safety. He knew that women accused to adultery could be stoned to death, so he decided to divorce her quietly and not expose her to shame or cruelty (Matthew 1:19-25).
We know Joseph was man of faith, obedient to whatever God asked of him without knowing the outcome. When the angel came to Joseph in a dream and told him the truth about the child Mary was carrying, Joseph immediately and without question or concern for gossip, took Mary as his wife. When the angel came again to tell him that his family was in danger, he immediately left everything he owned, all his family and friends, and fled to a strange country with his young wife and the baby.
He waited in Egypt without question until the angel told him it was safe to go back (Matthew 2:13-23).
We know Joseph loved Jesus. His one concern was for the safety of this child entrusted to him. Not only did he leave his home to protect Jesus, but upon his return settled in the obscure town of Nazareth out of fear for his life. When Jesus stayed in the Temple we are told Joseph (along with Mary) searched with great anxiety for three days for him (Luke 2:48). We also know that Joseph treated Jesus as his own son for over and over the people of Nazareth say of Jesus, "Is this not the son of Joseph?" (Luke 4:22)
We know Joseph respected God. He followed God's commands in handling the situation with Mary and going to Jerusalem to have Jesus circumcised and Mary purified after Jesus' birth. We are told that he took his family to Jerusalem every year for Passover, something that could not have been easy for a working man.
Since Joseph does not appear in Jesus' public life, at his death, or resurrection, many historians believe Joseph probably had died before Jesus entered public ministry.
Joseph is the patron of the dying because, assuming he died before Jesus' public life, he died with Jesus and Mary close to him, the way we all would like to leave this earth.
208 St Andeolus Martyr sent to France by St Polycarp,     In France, in the Province of Vivarias, blessed Andeol, subdeacon, who was sent from the East into Gaul with others by St. Polycarp to preach the word of God.  Under Emperor Severus he was scourged with thorny sticks, and having his head split with a wooden sword into four parts, in the shape of a cross, he completed his martyrdom.
Martyr and companion of St. Polycarp. Originally from Smyrna, Andeolus was sent to France by Polycarp. There he labored until arrested and martyred at Viviers.
  604 St. Arigius Bishop 20 yrs greatest priest pastor of his era of Gap, France. He served as bishop for twenty years after earning a reputation as one of the greatest priest pastors of his era. His cult was confirmed by Pope St. Pius X.
  893 St Theodard Benedictine bishop rebuilt churches ransom captives selling treasures spending his own money to
feed poor suffering practiced severe austerities
.  The Montauban breviary describes him as “an eye to the blind, feet to the lame, a father of the poor, and the consoler of the afflicted”. Greatly beloved by all, he was unanimously chosen archbishop of Narbonne at the death of Sigebold, who had nominated him as his successor. The perils which then beset travellers did not deter the newly-elected prelate from undertaking a visit to Rome, where he received the pallium.  Born at Montauban (Monlauriol), France, he studied law at the University of Toulouse and then at the Benedictine abbey of Montauban before becoming a lawyer.
Appointed secretary to Archbishop Sigebold of Narbonne, he soon was named an archdeacon and finally succeeded Sigebold as archbishop. He devoted much of his effort to repairing the damage, physical and spiritual, caused by the raids of Saracens, including rebuilding churches, ransoming captives, selling off treasures, and spending his own money to feed the poor and suffering. His death at St. Martin's Abbey (where he received the Benedictine habit) was probably hastened by the severe austerities he practiced
.
1012 St Benedict of Szkalka hermit martyr gifted mystic of Hungary.   Benedict was a recluse on Mount Zabor, near a Benedictine monastery, trained by St. Andrew Zorard.
A gifted mystic, Benedict was murdered by a mob in 1012. He was canonized in 1083
Gregory VII 1073-1085.
1200 Tamar In 1166 a daughter, Tamar, was born to King George III (1155–1184) and Queen Burdukhan of Georgia.
The king proclaimed that he would share the throne with his daughter from the day she turned twelve years of age. The royal court unanimously vowed its allegiance and service to Tamar, and father and daughter ruled the country together for five years. After King George’s death in 1184, the nobility recognized the young Tamar as the sole ruler of all Georgia. Queen Tamar was enthroned as ruler of all Georgia at the age of eighteen. She is called “King” in the Georgian language because her father had no male heir and so she ruled as a monarch and not as a consort.
At the beginning of her reign, Tamar convened a Church council and addressed the clergy with wisdom and humility: “Judge according to righteousness, affirming good and condemning evil,” she advised. “Begin with me—if I sin I should be censured, for the royal crown is sent down from above as a sign of divine service. Allow neither the wealth of the nobles nor the poverty of the masses to hinder your work. You by word and I by deed, you by preaching and I by the law, you by upbringing and I by education will care for those souls whom God has entrusted to us, and together we will abide by the law of God, in order to escape eternal condemnation.… You as priests and I as ruler, you as stewards of good and I as the watchman of that good.”
Having encamped near Basiani, Rukn al-Din sent a messenger to Queen Tamar with an audacious demand: to surrender without a fight. In reward for her obedience, the sultan promised to marry her on the condition that she embrace Islam; if Tamar were to cleave to Christianity, he would number her among the other unfortunate concubines in his harem. When the messenger relayed the sultan’s demand, a certain nobleman, Zakaria Mkhargrdzelidze, was so outraged that he slapped him on the face, knocking him unconscious. At Queen Tamar’s command, the court generously bestowed gifts upon the ambassador and sent him away with a Georgian envoy and a letter of reply. “Your proposal takes into consideration your wealth and the vastness of your armies, but fails to account for divine judgment,” Tamar wrote, “while I place my trust not in any army or worldly thing but in the right hand of the Almighty God and the infinite aid of the Cross, which you curse. The will of God—and not your own—shall be fulfilled, and the judgment of God—and not your judgment—shall reign!”  The Georgian soldiers were summoned without delay. Queen Tamar prayed for victory before the Vardzia Icon of the Theotokos, then, barefoot, led her army to the gates of the city. Hoping in the Lord and the fervent prayers of Queen Tamar, the Georgian army marched toward Basiani. The enemy was routed. The victory at Basiani was an enormous event not only for Georgia, but for the entire Christian world.
1345 Peregrine Laziosi received a vision of Our Lady who told him to go to Siena, Italy, and there to join the Servites healed by Jesus incorrupt fervant preacher, excellent orator, and gentle confessor.  1345 St Peregrine Laziosi; he spent hours upon his knees in the chapel of our Lady in the cathedral. One day the Blessed Virgin herself appeared to him in that place, and addressed him, saying, “Go to Siena: there you will find the devout men who call themselves my servants: attach yourself to them”.  The only son of well-to-do parents, St Peregrine Laziosi was born in 1260 at Forli, in the Romagna.
After he had spent some years in Siena, his superiors sent him to Forli to found a new house for the order. By this time he had been ordained and had proved himself to be an ideal priest—fervent in the celebration of the holy mysteries, eloquent in preaching, untiring in reconciling sinners. A great affliction now befell him in the form of cancer of the foot, which, besides being excruciatingly painful, made him an object of repulsion to his neighbours. He bore this trial without a murmur. At last the surgeons decided that the only thing to do was to cut off the foot. St Peregrine spent the night before the operation in trustful prayer; he then sank into a light slumber, from which he awoke completely cured—to the amaze­ment of the doctors, who testified that they could no longer detect any trace of the disease. This miracle greatly enhanced the reputation which the holy man had already acquired by his exemplary life. He lived to the age of 80, and was canon­ized in
1726 Benedict XIV 1758.
1852 St John-Louis Bonnard priest Martyr of Vietnam.   Born at St. Christot-en-Jarret, France, he became a priest of the Paris Society of Foreign Missions and was ordained in 1850. Sent to western Vietnam, he was arrested in a persecution and beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988. 

Saints and Popes Mentioned on May 02
373 St. Athanasius Bishop and Doctor of the Church refusal to tolerate Arian heresy refuge among desert monks became ascetic renowned for sanctity beloved by followers volumes of writings extant.   At Alexandria, the birthday of St. Athanasius, bishop of that city, confessor and doctor of the Church, most celebrated for sanctity and learning.  Although almost all of the world had formed a conspiracy to persecute him, he courageously defended the Catholic faith, from the reign of Constantine to that of Valens, against emperors, governors, and a multitude of Arian bishops, whose underhanded attacks forced him to wander as an exile over the whole earth without finding a place of security.  At length, however, he was restored to his church, and after overcoming many trials, and winning many crowns by his patience, he departed for heaven in the forty-sixth year of his priesthood, in the time of the emperors Valentinian and Valens.
born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 January, 395), is still used in the liturgy of the Catholic Church.
Five times Athanasius had been banished; seventeen years he had spent in exile: but for the last seven years of his life he was left in the unchallenged occupation of his see. It was probably at this time that he wrote the Life of St Antony.
St Athanasius died in Alexandria on May 2, 373, and his body was subsequently translated first to Constantinople and then to Venice.
The greatest man of his age and one of the greatest religious leaders of any age, Athanasius of Alexandria rendered services to the Church the value of which can scarcely be exaggerated, for he defended the faith against almost overwhelming odds and emerged triumphant. Most aptly has he been described by Cardinal Newman as “a principal instrument after the Apostles by which the sacred truths of Christianity have been conveyed and secured to the world”. Although the writings of St Athanasius deal mainly with controversy, there is beneath this war of words a deep spiritual feeling which comes to the surface at every turn and reveals the high purpose of him who writes. Take, for example, his reply to the objections which the Arians raised from the texts: “Let this chalice pass from me”, or “Why hast thou forsaken me?”
Is it not extravagant to admire the courage of the servants of the Word, yet to say that that Word Himself was in tenor, through whom they despised death? For that most enduring purpose and courage of the holy martyrs demonstrates that the Godhead was not in terror but that the Saviour took away our terror. For as He abolished death by death, and by human means all human evils, so by this so-called terror did He remove our terror, and brought about for us that never more should men fear death. His word and deed go together. . . . For human were the sounds: “Let this chalice pass from me”, and “Why hast thou forsaken me?” and divine the action whereby He, the same being, did cause the sun to fail and the dead to rise. And so He said humanly: “Now is my soul troubled”; and He said divinely: “I have power to lay down my life and power to take it again”. For to be troubled was proper to the flesh, but to have power to lay down His life and take it again when He would, was no property of man, but of the Word’s power. For man dies not at his own arbitrament, but by necessity of nature and against his will; but the Lord being Himself immortal, not having a mortal flesh, had it at His own free will, as God, to become separate from the body and to take it again, when He would. . . . And He let His own body suffer, for therefore did He come, that in the flesh He might suffer, and thenceforth the flesh might be made impassible and immortal; and that contumely and the other troubles might fall upon Him, but come short of others after Him, being by Him annulled utterly; and that henceforth men might for ever abide incorruptible, as a temple of the Word.

The principal source of information for the life of St Athanasius is the collection of his own writings, but his activities were so interwoven with not only the religious, but the secular history of his times that the range of authorities to be consulted is very wide. For English readers Cardinal Newman in his Anglican days, both in his special work on St Athanasius and in his tract on the “Causes of the Rise and Successes of Arianism”, rendered the whole complicated situation intelligible. There is also a brilliantly written chapter on St Athanasius in Dr A. Fortescue’s volume, The Greek Fathers (1908). Two excellent little monographs have appeared in France, by F. Cavallera (1908) and by G. Bardy (1914) in the series “Les Saints”. Reference should also be made to four valuable papers by E. Schwartz in the Nachrichten of the Göttingen Akademie from 1904 to 1911. For a fuller bibliography, see Bardenhewer in the latest edition of his Patrologie, or in his larger work, Geschichte des altkirchlichen Literatur, and for a survey of more recent work, F. L. Cross, The Study of St Athanasius (1945).
Even in exile Athanasius managed to tend his flock. It was primarily for them that he wrote the most illuminating theological treatises on Catholic dogma. He authored Against the Heathen (c. 318), Contra Arianos (c. 358 ?), Apologia to Constantius, (primary historical source), History of the Arians Defense of His Flight, many letters, The Life of Antony (c. 357), and other pieces. In Against the Arians, Athanasius drew on the work of Saints Justin (Born in Flavia Neapolis, Samaria, c. 100; died 165) and St Irenaeus (115-125? 200?), who interpreted Scripture in an orthodox tradition, to insist that the Nicene term homoousios, although not Scriptural itself, was necessary to formulate correctly the truth of Christ's Scriptural revelation.
His Life of Saint Antony showed his friend as singularly devoted to combatting the powers of evil. It became a widely diffused classic. From the time of Saint Bede (Born in Northumbria, England, 673; died at Jarrow, England, on May 25, 735; named Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII in 1899), it inspired other monastic hagiographers.
An 8th-century monk wrote, "If you find a book by Athanasius and have no paper on which to copy it, write it on your shirts."

All his thinking was soteriologically determined, {the branch of Christian theology that deals with salvation as the effect of a divine agency --  The theological doctrine of salvation as effected by Jesus.} hence 'the Word could never have divinized us if He were merely divine by participation and were not himself the essential Godhead.'
Athanasius defended the oneness of God, yet the separateness of the three Divine Persons. He also went forward to add the Holy Spirit to the Godhead to counter Tropici. His theology of the Holy Spirit is found in his letters to Serapion. In his enlightening treatises on Catholic dogma, Athanasius showed that asceticism and virginity were effective ways to restore the divine image in man.
Several of his works were addressed to monks, to whom he also gave repeated practical help.
When he returned to Alexandria after his final exile, Athanasius spent the last seven years of his life helping to build the Nicene party.

Before the outbreak of the Arian controversy, which began