Mary Mother of GOD
 Saturday   Saints of May 28  Quinto Kaléndas Júnii  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!  (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


The Holy_Spirit_in the Holy Trinity


Liberality in alms moves God to be liberal to us in the dispensations of his spiritual graces; 
Who hardens his heart to injuries and wants of others, shuts against himself treasury of heaven.





CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2014

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

To know and love Mary      
 
"To keep me from betraying others, I severed my tongue"
Father Alfeo Emaldi,
November 10, 1951
an Italian priest of the Legion of Mary who worked as a missionary in China, was summoned by Mao’s police on November 10, 1951 to fill out a long questionnaire
about the members of the Legion of Mary...

The choice was clear—either deliver names or suffer torture—and torture at the hand of the Chinese!
Afraid of his physical weakness, he cried out from his heart: "My God... give me strength!"
 Then his wandering gaze stopped on his old razor and a thought crossed his mind.

Looking in the mirror, he held up the steel blade from a "Gilette" razor, and at first only sliced off the tip of his tongue. Blood streamed out, but he could still talk. So he picked up another blade and this time without looking, fiercely, he made a deep cut higher up.

His eyes fixed on his little wooden crucifix, he felt deep joy amidst the pain. On the blood-stained questionnaire, in big letters across the page, the martyr wrote these words: "To keep me from betraying others, I severed my tongue."

Stunned by this gesture, the Communist authorities released the priest.
After a few days in the hospital, the missionary was expelled from Tientsin.
But his heroic witness had profound repercussions throughout the Christian world.

 
  May 28 – Madonna del Carmine (Italy, 1663) - Beatification of Catherine Labouré by Pius XI (1933) 
 
Those who wear it trustingly will receive many graces
 The Virgin Mary asked Sister Catherine Labouré: “Have a medal made after this model: all who wear it around their neck will receive great graces. Graces will be abundant for those who wear it trustingly.”
Sister Catherine talked to Father Aladel, her confessor, who took a long time to believe her. But an inner voice kept insisting. Catherine went to see him again and finally convinced him to speak to Msgr Quélen, the Archbishop of Paris. The latter gave permission to strike the medal.
In February 1832, a cholera epidemic broke out in Paris and killed over 20,000 people. In June, the Daughters of Charity began to distribute the first 2,000 medals…and a wave of recoveries took place.
The people called it the “Miraculous Medal,” the name by which is it known around the world today.

 seigneurjesus.free.fr

May 28 - Our Lady of Carmine (Italy, 663)
Warn the People to Change Their Lives (I)
In 1686, a curious happening shook up the village of Celles in the region of Ariege, near Foix: four women violently beat a priest. The priest took the case to court and obtained justice. On May 28, 1686, between eight and nine o'clock in the morning, a young peasant boy named John Courdil was coming back from the fields reciting the rosary. He suddenly saw a white pigeon in front of him. As the bird got closer to the boy's farm, near a fountain, it changed into "a six or seven-year old girl dressed in white" (statement of July 21, 1686).
In his second statement (July 28, 1686), John said that he first saw the pigeon "three times in front of him," then the girl just "five or six feet from him." John was afraid and he tried to flee. "Do not be afraid, my child," he heard a voice say, "I am the Holy Virgin." He knelt down, the apparition did the same. "Warn the people to change their lives and make eight processions so that the people convert. Otherwise, all is lost . Continue to serve your father and your mother as you have always done."
According to Dictionnaire des Apparitions
Fr. Rene Laurentin, Fayard 2007

  softener_of_evil_hearts_icon
1. Jahrhundert Eutyches soll Mitarbeiter der Apostel und Bischof in Melitene (Armenien) gewesen sein. Er erlitt das Martyrium (vgl. Eutyches)
         Emilius Martyr with Felix, Priam, and Lucian, on Sardinia, Italy
 250 St. Heliconis Martyr of Thessalonica, Greece. She was beheaded. In some lists she is called Heliconides.
4th v. Item pássio sanctórum Crescéntis, Dioscóridis, Pauli et Helládii.    Also the martyrdom of the Saints Crescens, Dioscorides, Paul, and Helladius.
         Thécuæ, in Palæstína, sanctórum Monachórum Mártyrum, qui, témpore Theodósii junióris, a Saracénis occísi sunt
357 Departure Of St. Ammonius The Hermit Devil could not harm him {Coptic}
 480  St. Caraunus only eleven when brought from Perugia to Rome
 
480 St. Senator Archbishop of Milan, Italy, and papal legate  to the
        Council of Chalcedon 451

 527 St. Justus of Urgel  Bishop and writer, called by St. Isidore “among the illustrious.” He was the first recorded bishop of Urgel, Spain. He attended the Councils of Toledo in 527 and Larida in 546. Justus wrote a commentary on the Canticle of Canticles
 576  Saint Germanus, Bishop Of Paris ordained priest by St. Agrippinus abbot of St. Symphorian's continual fasts and austerities miraculous healings while alive and wrought at his tomb: sight was restored to the blind and speech to the dumb prophesied
 
605 St. Augustine of Canterbury respected monastery prior Monk and abbot of Saint Andrew's abbey in Rome
       Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons; Apostle to the English; called himself Austin
  800 St Nicetas, Bishop of Chalcedon distinguished himself by his charity always helped the poor he lodged travelers in his home cared for orphans widows, interceded for those wronged relics occurred many miracles of healing
  812 St. William of Gellone Knight Benedictine monk son of Count Thierry of Toulouse member of Charlemagn court defeated Islamic Saracens abbey named Saint Guilhem-du-Desert in his honor
1002 St. Podius Augustinian bishop of Florence from 990 son of the margrave of Tuscany so distinguished himself that he was given a bishopric.
1050 St. Bernard of Montjoux priest Vicar General of Aosta spent 40 yrs missionary work in the Alps built schools churches remembered for 2 Alpine hospices aid lost travelers in the  mountain passes named Great and Little Bernard after him.
1089   Lanfranc Le Bec Er studierte und wirkte als Lehrer in Südfrankreich wurde er Prior der Gemeinschaft Er starb in Canterbury
1288 Saint Ignatius Bishop of Rostov shepherdeding flock for twenty-six years Many miracles took place at his grave
1373  Birgitta von Schweden Ihre Visionen wurden auch in deutscher Sprache veröffentlicht und haben das Werk Nithards beeinflußt. Das Kloster wurde 1384 eingeweiht
1541 Bl. Margaret Pole Martyr of England opposed Henry’s mar­riage to Anne Boleyn, exiled her from cour he called   her “the holiest woman in England; severly  martyred
1577 BD MARY BARTHOLOMEA OF FLORENCE, VIRGIN From her bed she exercised a wonderful influence over the numerous persons who visited her. Enemies were reconciled, the sorrowful consoled, sinners converted and the sick healed by one who forgot her own sufferings in her sympathy for others.
1582 Bl. Robert Johnson servant study at Rome and Douai Priest English martyr
1582 Bl. John Shert Priest English martyr Convert studied at Douai and Rome
1582 Bl. Thomas Ford priest Martyr of England educated at Oxford converted and set out for Douai companion of St. Edmund Campion
1582 THE LONDON MARTYRS OF
1645 St. Mariana lily of Quito  practiced great austerities ate hardly anything slept 3 hours a night for years gift of prophesy performed miracles  offered herself as victim for sins of the people
1859 St. Paul Hanh  Vietnamese martyr convert to Catholicism martyred
1865 St. Madeleine Sophie Barat nun teacher founded Society of the Sacred Heart, focus on schools for poor and boarding schools for young women of means during the French Revolution


Today we honor the all-Holy, good, and life-creating Spirit
On the day after every Great Feast, the Orthodox Church honors the one through whom the Feast is made possible. On the day following the Nativity of the Lord, for example, we celebrate the Synaxis of the Most Holy Theotokos (December 26). On the day after Theophany, we commemorate St John the Baptist (January 7), and so on.

Today we honor the all-Holy, good, and life-creating Spirit, Who descended upon the Apostles at Pentecost in the form of fiery tongues in fulfillment of the Lord's promise to send the Comforter to His disciples (JN 14:16). That same Holy Spirit remains within the Church throughout the ages, guiding it "into all truth" (JN 16:13).

One of the hymns at Vespers on Saturday evening tells us that the Holy Spirit "provides all things. He gushes forth prophecy, He perfects the priesthood, ... He holds together the whole institution of the Church."

At Vespers on the day of Pentecost, we hear that the Holy Spirit is "the Fountain of goodness, through Whom the Father is known, and the Son is glorified." He is "the living Fountain of spiritual gifts" Who "purifies us from our sins." It is by the Holy Spirit that "the prophets, divine Apostles, and martyrs are crowned." He is the source of life and of sanctification.

In the services of this day, we sing the same hymns as on Pentecost, except the Canon of the Holy Spirit, which is sung at Compline. The Vigil is not prescribed for the eve of today's feast. We sing the Great Doxology at Matins, but not the Polyeleos. The Irmos of the Ninth Ode ("Hail, O Queen, glory of mothers and virgins…") is sung in place of the Song of the Theotokos ("My soul magnifies the Lord...").

At the Liturgy, the priest or deacon chants the Entrance Verse ("Be exalted in Thy strength, O Lord. We will sing and praise Thy power.") as on the day of Pentecost. "Holy God" replaces "As many as have been baptized…." The dismissal of Pentecost is also used.

This whole week is fast-free, and the Leave-taking of Pentecost occurs on Saturday.

1. Jahrhundert Eutyches soll Mitarbeiter der Apostel und Bischof in Melitene (Armenien) gewesen sein. Er erlitt das Martyrium (vgl. Eutyches)
Eutykhias_Bishop_of_Meletineia_Saint_Andrew_Martyr_Demetrios
Orthodoxe Kirche: 28. Mai
Eutychius, Bishop of Melitene, was a co-worker with the Holy Apostles, and he suffered for Christ in the city of Melitene during the first century.
 Emilius Martyr with Felix, Priam, and Lucian, on Sardinia, Italy
In Sardínia sanctórum Mártyrum Æmílii, Felícis, Priámi et Luciáni, qui, pro Christo certántes, ab eo glorióse coronáti sunt.
    In Sardinia, the holy martyrs Aemilius, Priamus, and Lucian, who gained their crowns after being in the combat for Christ.
250 St. Heliconis Martyr of Thessalonica, Greece. She was beheaded. In some lists she is called Heliconides Christ the Savior and the holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel appeared to the holy martyr in prison and healed her of her wounds.
Corínthi sanctæ Helicónidis Mártyris, témpore Gordiáni Imperatóris.  Hæc primum, sub Perénnio Prǽside, multis torméntis afflícta, deínde, sub ejus successóre Justíno, íterum cruciáta, sed ab Angelis liberáta est; demum, disséctis mammis, ferísque objécta atque igne probáta, cápitis obtruncatióne martyrium complévit.
    At Corinth, St. Helconides, martyr, who was first subjected to torments in the reign of Emperor Gordian, under the governor Perennius, and then again tortured under his successor Justin, but was delivered by an angel.  Her breasts were cut away, she was exposed to wild beasts and to fire, and finally her martyrdom was fulfilled by beheading.
The Holy Martyr Heliconis lived during the third century in the city of Thessalonica. St Heliconis arrived in the city of Corinth during a persecution of Christians, and urged the pagans to stop serving senseless idols and instead to worship the one true God, the Creator of the universe. She was arrested and brought before the governor Perinus, who vainly attempted to persuade the saint to offer sacrifice to idols, both by flattery and by threats. The holy martyr was subjected to tortures, but she bravely endured them. Then they threw her into a hot furnace, but she emerged from it unharmed, because an angel of the Lord had cooled the flames.

Thinking the saint was a sorceress, the governor invented new torments for her. They tore the skin from her head, and burned her breasts and head with fire. After halting the torture, the judge again attempted to urge St Heliconis to offer sacrifice to the idols, promising her honors and the title of priestess. The saint seemed to consent, and the pagan priests and the people led her to the pagan temple with the sounds of trumpet and drum.  At the saint's request, they left her there alone. St Heliconis, filled with heroic strength, cast down and smashed all the idols. When some time had passed, the pagan priests entered their temple. Seeing the destruction, they were even more enraged and cursed the holy virgin shouting, "Put the sorceress to death!" They beat the holy martyr, and then they threw her into prison, where she spent five days.

Christ the Savior and the holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel appeared to the holy martyr in prison and healed her of her wounds. Finally, they sent the saint to be torn apart by wild beasts. They set loose three hungry lions upon her, but the beasts came up to the martyr meekly and lay down at her feet. The pagan mob shouted and cried, "Death to the sorceress."

But at this point the lions jumped out of the arena and pounced on the people, who fled in terror. Not knowing what else to do, the governor ordered that St Heliconis be beheaded. The saint went to execution with joy and heard a Voice summoning her to the heavenly habitations.
She contested in the year 244, and her body was reverently buried by Christians.
She was born in Salonica and educated in Christian piety. She went to Corinth in the time of Gordian and Philip, where she outspokenly denounced all who sacrificed to idols. When the governor, Perinus, urged her to offer sacrifice to Aesculapius, Christ's martyr said to him: `Hear me, and know that I am a servant of Christ; as for Aesculapius, I do not know who he is. Do what you will.' She was brought to trial for these words and terribly tortured. She was thrown into the flames, but a great gush of blood poured from her body and extinguished it, and she remained alive. She was thrown to the lions, but they would not touch her and instead fawned round her. Thrust into a temple for at least the semblance of offering sacrifice to idols, she smashed the idols, thereby arousing still greater hatred in her tormentors. Lying in prison covered all over with wounds, she saw the Lord Himself with the Archangels Michael and Gabriel. He healed her wounds, comforting and encouraging her. Later, she was led out to the scaffold to be beheaded with the sword. Before her beheading, Heliconis raised her arms high and prayed that God accept her and bring her into the company of His flock in the heavenly fold. When she had finished her prayer, a voice was heard from heaven: `Come, make haste; a crown and a throne are prepared for thee.' She was finally beheaded and received a wreath of glory from the Lord, for whose love she was sacrificed like an innocent and pure lamb.
4th v. Item pássio sanctórum Crescéntis, Dioscóridis, Pauli et Helládii.
    Also the martyrdom of the Saints Crescens, Dioscorides, Paul, and Helladius.

The Hieromartyr Helladius the Bishop was thrown into fire because of his faith in Christ, but he remained unharmed. He died as a martyr from the terrible beating inflicted upon him.
In the Service to St Helladius it is said that the Lord Jesus Christ visited him in prison and healed him of his wounds. According to certain sources, St Helladius suffered under the Persians during their invasion into the Eastern part of the Roman Empire in the fourth century.
Thécuæ, in Palæstína, sanctórum Monachórum Mártyrum, qui, témpore Theodósii junióris, a Saracénis occísi sunt, quorum sacras relíquias collegérunt áccolæ, et summa veneratióne illas habuérunt.
    At Thecua in Palestine, the saintly monks who became martyrs by being killed by the Saracens, in the time of Theodosius the Younger.  Their venerable remains were gathered by the inhabitants and preserved with greatest reverence.
357 Departure Of St. Ammonius The Hermit Devil could not harm him {Coptic}
On this day, of the year 73 A.M. (357 A.D.), the holy father Abba Ammonius departed. He was born in 294 A.D., in a village near Mariot. He was, as St. Antony was, born to a righteous and rich Christian family. He lost his parents while he was young and became under the guardianship of his uncle. He longed for the life of purity, chastity, and holiness. Nevertheless, his uncle forced him to be engaged to a rich girl against his will. Since he could not disobey his uncle, he talked to his bride to be, with a spiritual dialogue and through his holy life, he was able to have a good influence on her. He made her long to the life of purity and planted in her heart the desire to consecrate her self a bride for the True Bridegroom Jesus Christ.
Thus they decided to accept the marriage but decided to live as a brother and sister.

They remained like this for seventeen years, keeping themselves pure and chaste, after which his wife departed to the eternal bliss. The Saint saw in a vision St. Antonios calling him to put on the monastic garb. When he woke from his sleep, he rose up and went to St. Isidore, who put on him the holy Eskeem. He dwelt with him for some time, after which he went to mount Tounah, where was St. Antonios.

St. Ammonius remained with St. Antonios for a while and became his disciple, and studied on his hands the cannons of the holy monasticism. He built for himself a cell in mount Tounah.

He fervently worshipped God there, and the devil envied him. He came to him in the form of a nun and knocked his door. When he opened and asked the devil to pray with him, the devil became like a flame of fire. Then the devil went and dwelt in a woman and moved her to entice the Saint to fall in sin with her. She wore the best of her clothing and came to him at dusk, and knocked the door of his cell, saying: "I am a traveling woman, and I had lost my way, and it is dark now. Please do not let me stay outside lest the wild beasts kill me, and you become responsible for my blood." When he opened the door and knew the snare of the devil who sent her, he started to preach her and put the fear in her heart of the tortures of hell which is awaiting the sinners, and indicated to her the delight and the bliss which is awaiting the righteous. God opened her heart, and she understood what he said to her. She knelt to his feet weeping and asked him to accept her and assist her in saving her soul. She took off her apparel and he put on her a sackcloth of hair. He cut off her hair and called her "The simple minded or the naive". He taught her the way to righteousness and she excelled through many prayers and fasting, and surpassed many saints by her fasting and perpetual prayers.
The devil tried to snare him again. This time in the form of a monk who went around in the monasteries weeping and saying: "Abba Ammonius the hermit had married and he kept the woman with him in his cell. He had put the monks to shame and disgraced the monastic garb." When Abba Apollo (Ebelo), who was like the angels, heard of that, he took with him Abba Yousab and Abba Nohi (Bohi), and came to mount Tounah to the cell of Abba Ammonius. They knocked on the door of the cell, and when she opened to them they realized the matter. They entered and prayed together as the custom and sat to talk about the greatness of God. At the end of the day, Abba Ammonius told them, let us go to see the "Naive" for she was baking some bread. When they went out to where she was, they saw her standing in the midst of a great fire, and her hands were stretched out towards heaven praying. They marvelled exceedingly and glorified God. After they had eaten the bread, everyone went separately to sleep and the angel of the Lord revealed the story of the "Naive" with St. Ammonius to Abba Apollo, and that God brought them there to be present at the time of her departure.

About the third hour of the night, she became sick with fever. She knelt down and delivered up her soul at the hand of the Lord. They swathed her, and after praying over her, they buried her. Then Abba Ammonius told them about her virtues, and that for the eighteen years that she stayed with him, she never raised her face to look at him, and that her food was bread and salt.

After this, St. Antonios sent him to El-Natroun valley to establish there new monasteries, and many believers followed him. He organized for them their livelihood and directed them with excellence. Soon after, this holy father departed in peace.  May his prayers be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.
 480  St. Caraunus  only eleven when he was brought from Perugia to Rome
Carnóti, in Gállia, sancti Caráuni Mártyris, qui sub Domitiáno Imperatóre, cápite amputátus, martyrium sumpsit.
    At Chartres in France, under Emperor Domitian, St. Caraunus, martyr, who was beheaded, and thus acquired the glory of martyrdom.
Roman preacher in Gaul of Roman descent. The son of St Euthymius, he was only eleven when he was brought from Perugia to Rome. He preached the Gospel in France, slain by robbers near Chartres. A church and monastery were erected over his tomb. He is also called Cheron or Ceraunnus.
480 St. Senator Archbishop of Milan, Italy, and papal legate  to the Council of Chalcedon 451
Medioláni sancti Senatóris Epíscopi, virtútibus et eruditióne claríssimi.
At Milan, St. Senator, bishop, who was very well known for his virtues and his learning.

475 ST SENATOR, BISHOP OF MILAN
WHEN the Church in the East was threatened with schism or lapse into heresy as the result of the vindication of the monophysite Eutyches and the condemnation of St Flavian by the so-called "Robber Synod", St Leo the Great decided to send legates to Constantinople to urge upon the Emperor Theodosius II the calling of a general council at which the true doctrine of our Lord's two natures should be definitely and decisively enunciated. For this mission men of learning, tact and integrity were required, and the pope chose St Abundius, bishop of Como, and a distinguished priest called Senator as being suitable representatives. By the time these envoys reached Constantinople, Theodosius was dead, but their mission resulted in the summoning of the Council of Chalcedon under the Emperor Marcian. The year after his return to Italy, St Senator attended a synod at Milan in the same capacity of papal legate. Upon the death of St Benignus he succeeded to the bishopric of Milan, which he ruled for three years, dying probably in 475.

The fragmentary materials for the history of St Senator have been brought together in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi. The laudatory reference to him in the verses of Ennodius or, the bishops of Milan will be found in MGH., Auctores Antiquissimi, vol. vii, p. 166. But see especially Father Savio, Gli antichi Vescovi d’Italia, Milano, vol. i, pp. 197—199.

While still a priest, he was sent by Pope St. Leo I the Great as a legate to the imperial court of Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey) to petition Emperor Theodosius II to summon a council to define Christs two natures in the wake of the heresies of the time.

Senator was subsequently sent as a papal representative to the Council of Chalcedon (451), which proved a triumph for orthodoxy and position of the pope. Appointed archbishop of Milan in 472 
527 St. Justus of Urgel  Bishop and writer, called by St. Isidore “among the illustrious.” He was the first recorded bishop of Urgel, Spain. He attended the Councils of Toledo in 527and Larida in 546. Justus wrote a commentary on the Canticle of Canticles
Urgéllæ, in Hispánia Tarraconénsi, sancti Justi Epíscopi.    At Urgel in Spain, Bishop St. Justus.
550 ST JUSTUS, BISHOP OF URCEL
THE Spanish bishopric of Urgel seems to have been founded in the first quarter of the sixth century, and its earliest recorded ruler is St Justus, whose three brothers were Justinian, bishop of Valencia, Nebridius, bishop of Egara, and Elpidius of Huesca, also a bishop. St Justus took part in the Councils of Toledo and Lerida in the years 527 and 546 respectively. He was the author of a short mystical exposition of the Canticle of Canticles which he dedicated to his metropolitan, Archbishop Sergius of Tarragona. The tone of this treatise and of its dedication leaves a very favourable impression of the writer’s intelligence and piety.
Almost all the little we know of St Justus is due to a paragraph in the De sins illustribus of St Isidore of Seville, quoted in the brief notice of the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi. See also Florez, España Sagrada, vol. xlii, pp. 75 and 187; but especially H. Quentin in the Revue Bénédictine, vol. xxiii (1906), pp. 257—260 and 487488.
576  Saint Germanus, Bishop Of Paris ordained priest by St. Agrippinus abbot of St. Symphorian's continual fasts and austerities miraculous healings while alive and wrought at his tomb: sight was restored to the blind and speech to the dumb prophesied
Lutétiæ Parisiórum sancti Germáni, Epíscopi et Confessóris; qui quantæ sanctitátis quantíque fúerit mériti, quibus étiam miráculis clarúerit, litterárum moniméntis Fortunátus Epíscopus consignávit.
    At Paris, St. Germanus, bishop and confessor, whose fame for holiness, merit, and miracles has been handed down to us by the writings of Bishop Fortunatus.

576 ST GERMANUS, BISHOP OF PARIS
ST GERMANUS (Germain), one of the chief glories of France in the sixth century, was born near Autun about the year 496. After a careful training he was ordained priest by St Agrippinus, and was subsequently chosen abbot of St Symphorian in one of the suburbs of Autun. Happening to be in Paris when that see became vacant, he was nominated by King Childebert I to fill the chair. His promotion made no change in the austerity of his life he retained his simplicity of dress and food, but his house was always crowded by a throng of beggars whom he entertained at his own table. Through his eloquence and example he brought many sinners and careless Christians to repentance, including the king himself who, from being entirely absorbed in worldly interests, became a generous benefactor to the poor and the founder of religious establishments. When Childebert fell ill at his palace of Celles, near Melun, the saint visited him, and we are told that on hearing that he had been given up by the physicians, he spent the whole night in prayer for his recovery. In the morning he cured the royal patient by the imposition of his hands. The king is said to have related this miracle himself in letters patent in which he declared that, out of gratitude to God, he bestowed upon the church of Paris and Bishop Germanus the land of Celles where he had received this favour. Unfortunately, however, the authenticity of this charter is more than doubtful.
Among Childebert’s foundations was a church in Paris which, with the adjoining monastery, was dedicated to God in honour of the Holy Cross and St Vincent; it was consecrated by St Germanus, who added to it the chapel of St Symphorian, which eventually contained his tomb. After his death the church was renamed Saint—Germain-des-Pres and became for several generations the burial-place of the royal family. Throughout his episcopate St Germanus strove to check the licentiousness of the nobles. He did not scruple to reprove and even to excommunicate King Charibert for his shameless wickedness. During the fratricidal wars in which the nephews of Childebert became involved, he made every effort to induce them to suspend their hostilities, even writing to Queen Brunhildis in the hope of enlisting her influence with her husband to that end. All his remonstrances and appeals, however, were ineffectual. The saint died on May 28, 576, at the age of eighty, mourned by all the people; King Chilperic himself is said to have composed his epitaph in which he extolled the holy bishop’s virtues, his miracles and his zeal for the salvation of souls.
The principal source for the history of St Germanus is the life by Venantius Fortunatus, a contemporary. From a biographical point of view it leaves much to be desired and it is mainly a record of rather dubious miracles. It has been printed many times (e.g. in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi), but the most critical text is that of B. Krusch in MGH, Scriptores Merov., vol. vii (1920), pp. 337—428, with a valuable preface, notes and supple­mentary matter. There are satisfactory articles on St Germanus in the Kirchenlexikon and DCB. For the letters on liturgy, see the convincing article of A. Wilmart in DAC., vol. vi, cc. 1049 to 1102. There follows in the same volume a very full discussion by H. Leclercq of the history of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.

See his life by Fortunatus of Poitiers, St. Gregory of Tours, Hist. 1. 4, c. 26. Mabillon, Annal Bened. 1. 5. p. 132 and Acta Ord. Bened. t. 1, p. 234.
Also Dom. Bouillart, Hist. de l'Abbaye de St. Germain des Prez, de Paris, 1723. Dom. Lobineau, Hist. de Paris, n. 25, 29, &c.

St. Germanus, the glory of the church of France in the sixth age, was born in the territory of Autun about the year 469.
Saint Germanus was born near Autun in 496. He was abbot of St Symphorian's monastery at Autun, and was made Bishop of Paris around 536. He was tireless and courageous in his efforts to end civil strife and to restrain the viciousness of the Frankish kings, though he was not very successful in this. St Radegund (August 13) appealed to him for protection from her cruel husband King Chlotar I.
St Germanus founded a monastery at Paris, and was buried in its church after his death in 576. This is the renowned monastery of Saint Germaine-des-Pres.
He was brought up in piety and learning under the care of Scapilion his cousin, a holy priest.
In his youth no weather could divert him from always going to Matins at midnight, though the church was above a mile from the place of his abode. Being ordained priest by St. Agrippinus bishop of Autun, he was made abbot of St. Symphorian's in the suburbs of that city, a house since converted into a priory of regular canons. Fortunatus, bishop of Poitiers, who was well acquainted with our saint, tells us that he was favored at that time with the gifts of miracles and prophecy. It was his custom to watch great part of the night in the church in prayer, while his monks slept. One night in a dream he thought a venerable old man presented him with the keys of the city of Paris and said to him, that God committed to his care the inhabitants of that city, that he should save them from perishing.

Four years after this divine admonition, in 554, happening to be at Paris when that see became vacant, on the demise of the bishop Eusebius, he was exalted to the episcopal chair, though he endeavored by many tears to decline the charge. His promotion made no alteration in his continual fasts and other austerities; and the same simplicity and frugality appeared in his dress, table, and furniture. In the evening at nine o'clock he went to the church, and staved there in prayer till after Matins, that is, in summer till about break of day

His house was perpetually crowded with the poor and the afflicted. and he had always many beggars at his own table, at which no dainty meats were ever served; he took care that the souls of his guests should be refreshed at the same time with their bodies, by the reading of some pious book. God gave to his sermons a wonderful influence over the minds of all ranks of people; so that the face of the whole city was in a very short time quite changed. Vanities were abolished, dances and profane amusements laid aside, enmities and discord extinguished, and sinners reclaimed.

King Childebert, who till then had been an ambitious worldly prince, by the sweetness and the powerful discourses of the saint, was entirely converted to piety, and by his advice reformed his whole court. So desirous did that prince become of exchanging the perishing goods of this world for eternal treasures, that, not content with making many religious foundations, to be nurseries of piety in all succeeding ages, and with sending incredible sums of money to the good bishop, to be distributed among the indigent after his coffers were drained he melted down his silver plate, and gave away the chains which he wore about his neck, begging the bishop, whom he made the steward of his charities, never to cease giving, assuring him that on his side he should never be tired with supplying all things for the relief and comfort of the distressed.
In the year 542, king Childebert, together with his brother Clotaire, making war in Spain, besieged Saragossa.

The inhabitants of that city reposed a particular confidence in the patronage of St. Vincent, whose relics they carried in procession within sight of the French camp. King Childebert was moved with their devotion, and desiring to speak with the bishop of the city, promised to withdraw his army, on condition he might obtain some portion of the relics of St. Vincent. The bishop gave him the stole which that holy deacon wore at the altar. Upon which the king raised the siege, and, at his return to Paris, built a church in honor of St. Vincent, and of the Holy Cross; which is now called St. Germain's in the meadows, and stands in the suburbs of Paris.
Childebert falling sick at his palace at Celles, near Melun, at the confluence of the Yon and Seine, St. Germanus paid him a visit; and when the physicians had in vain tried every thing, all human means failing, the saint spent the whole night in prayer for his recovery, and in the morning laid his hands on him; and at the same moment the king found himself perfectly healed. The king relates himself this miracle in his letters patent, in which, in gratitude to God for this benefit, he gave to the church of Paris and the bishop Germanus, the land of Celles, where he had received this favor. The good king did not long survive. As the king had chosen the church of St. Vincent for the place of his burial, the saint, assisted by six other bishops, performed the ceremony of the dedication on the 23d of December, 558, the very day on which that prince died. The king likewise had built a large monastery joining to this new church, which he endowed most liberally with the fief of Issy and other lands, on part of which a considerable suburb of Paris has been since built.
This magnificent edifice was called the Golden Church, the walls being covered on the outside with plates of brass gilt, and within adorned with paintings on a rich gilt ground. This church was plundered by the Normans, in 845, 857, 858, and set on fire by them in 861 and 881; but rebuilt in 1014, and dedicated by pope Alexander III. in 1163. The lower part of the great tower and its gate with the statues of Clovis, Clodomir, Thierri, Childebert and his wife Ultrogotta, Clotaire, and others, seem to be as old as the time of king Childebert.
This prince committed the monastery and church to the care of our saint, who placed there monks under the holy abbot Droctoveus, whom he had invited from Autun, where he had formed him to a religious life.
Clotaire, who succeeded his brother Childebert, was the last of the sons of the great Clovis; and united again the four kingdoms of France into one monarchy.

 On his removing from Soissons to Paris, he at first seemed to treat the holy bishop coldly; but falling ill soon after of a violent fever, was put in mind by some that were about him to send for St. Germanus. He did so, and full of confidence in the power of God and the sanctity of his servant, took hold of his clothes and applied them to the parts of his body where he felt pain, and recovered immediately. From that moment he always treated the saint even with greater honor than Childebert had done.
That prince dying shortly after, in 561, his four sons, Charibert, Gontran, Sigebert, and Chilperic, divided the French monarchy into four kingdoms, in the same manner as the sons of Clovis had done.

That of Paris was given to Charibert or Aribert, Gontran was king of Orleans and Burgundy, Sigebert of Austrasia, and Chilperic of Soissons. Charibert sunk into a vicious indolence, yet was obstinate and headstrong in his passions not being divested of all the prejudices of paganism, he divorced his wife Ingoberga, and took to wife Marcovesa her maid, who had worn a religious habit; and after her death, he married her sister Merofleda, Ingoberga being still living.
Our saint many ways endeavored to make him sensible of the enormity of his crimes; but finding all his remonstrances lost on him, he proceeded so far as to excommunicate him and the accomplice of his sin, to hinder at least the dangerous influence of his scandalous example. The sinners were hardened in their evil courses; but God revenged the contempt of his laws and of the holy pastor as he has often done, by visible judgments; for the criminal lady fell ill and died in a few days, and the adulterous king did not long survive her, leaving by his lawful wife only three daughters, two of whom became nuns, the third, called Bertha, was married to Ethelbert, king of Kent.

Upon the death of Charibert in 570, his three brothers divided his dominions; but not being able to agree who should be master of Paris, the capital, came to an accommodation that they should hold it jointly, on condition that none of them should go into the city without the leave of the other two
St. Germanus found his flock involved by this agreement in great difficulties, and the city divided into three different parties, always plotting and counterplotting against one another.

He did all that the most consummate charity, prudence, and vigilance could do, to preserve the public peace; yet Sigebert and Chilperic appeared in arms, being fired by ambition, and stirred up by their wicked queens Fredegonda, wife of the latter, and Brunehaut of the former, burning with the most implacable jealousy against each other.
The saint prevailed with them to suspend their hostilities for some time. At length Chilperic invaded the territories of Sigebert, but being worsted in battle, fled to Tournay. This victory left Sigebert free liberty of going to Paris with his wife Brunehaut and children, where he was received as conqueror.

St. Germanus wrote to the queen, conjuring her to employ her interest with her husband to restore the peace of France, and to spare the life and fortune of a brother, whose ruin and blood would cry to heaven for vengeance. But Brunehaut's passion rendered her deaf to all remonstrances, and Sigebert was determined by her furious counsels to besiege Tournay.
As he was setting out for this enterprise, he was met by St. Germanus, who told him that if he forgave his brother, he should return victorious; but if he was bent on his death, divine justice would overtake him, and his own death should prevent the execution of his unnatural design. Sigebert allowed this wholesome advice no weight; but the event showed that God had put these words in the mouth of the good bishop; for queen Fredegonda, enraged at the desperate posture of her husband's affairs, hired two assassins, who dispatched him with poisoned daggers, while he made a halt in his march at Vitri, in 575, after he had reigned fourteen years, with some reputation of humanity, as Fortunatus tells us.

Chilperic, by his tyranny and oppressions, deserved to be styled the French Nero, as St. Gregory of Tours calls him.

He sacrificed his own children by former wives to the fury of Fredegonda, but having discovered her infidelity to him, he was, by her contrivance, murdered by her gallant in 584. Fredegonda was regent of the kingdoms of Soissons and Paris for her son Clotaire III., and continued her practices and wars against Brunehaut and her son till she died, in 601. Brunehaut governed the kingdom of Austrasia for her son Childebert II., and after his death for her grandson Theodebert; but afterwards persuaded Theodoric, her second grandson, who reigned at Challons, to destroy him and his whole family in fill. The year following Theodoric died, and Clotaire II., surnamed the Great, son of Fredegonda, inheriting both their estates, accused Brunehaut before the states of putting to death ten kings and St. Desiderius, bishop of Vienne, because he had reproved her for her public scandalous lusts, and many other illustrious persons. She had at first appeared liberal, and built several churches; but afterwards became infamous for her cruelty, avarice, restless ambition, and insatiable lusts, to which she sacrificed all things, and employed both the sword and poison in perpetrating her wicked designs. Being condemned by the states, she was put to the rack during three days, and afterwards dragged to death, being tied to the tail of a wild mare; or, according to others, drawn betwixt four horses, in 613.

St. Germanus lived not to see the miserable ends of these two firebrands of their country.
In his old age he lost nothing of that zeal and activity with which he had filled the great duties of his station in the vigor of his life, nor did the weakness to which his corporal austerities had reduced him, make him abate any thing in the mortifications of his penitential life, in which he redoubled his fervor as he approached nearer to the end of his course. By his zeal the remains of idolatry were extirpated in France. In the third council of Paris, in 557, he had the principal share in drawing up the canons. By his advice, king Childebert issued an edict commanding all idols to be destroyed throughout his dominions, and forbidding all indecent dances and diversions on Sundays and festivals. The saint continued his labors for the conversion of sinners till he was called to receive the reward of them on the 28th of May, 576, being eighty years old. King Chilperic composed his epitaph, in which he extols his zeal for the salvation of his people, and their affection and veneration for his person.
He mentions the miracles which were wrought at his tomb, and says that sight was restored to the blind and speech to the dumb.2

He was, according to his own desire, buried in St. Symphorian's chapel, which he built at the bottom of the church of St. Vincent already mentioned. Many miracles manifested his sanctity, of which Fortunatus, then a priest, afterwards bishop of Poitiers, has left us a history, in which he gives two on his own evidence. Also two anonymous monks compiled relations of several miracles of St. Germanus, which Aimoinus, a monk of this monastery in 870, and a careful writer, digested into two books. The relics of St. Germanus remained in the aforesaid chapel till the year 754, when the abbot removed them into the body of the church. The ceremony of this translation was performed with great solemnity; and king Pepin thought himself honored by assisting at it.

Prince Charles, known afterwards by the title of Charlemagne, who was then but seven years old, attended his father on this occasion.  Charlemagne was so strongly affected with the miracles performed at that time, that when he came to the crown, he took a particular pleasure in relating them, with all their circumstances.
The greatest part of the relics of St. Germanus remain still in this church of St. Vincent, commonly called St. Germain-des-Prez. This abbey is possessed of the original privilege of its foundation and exemption, written on bark, and subscribed by St. Germanus, St. Nicetius, and several other bishops. The most valuable work of St. Germanus of Paris, is An Exposition of the Liturgy, published from an ancient manuscript by Dom. Martenne. The characteristical virtue of St. Germanus was his unbounded charity to the poor.

Liberality in alms moves God to be liberal to us in the dispensations of his spiritual graces; but he who hardens his heart to the injuries and wants of others, shuts against himself the treasury of heaven.

Endnotes
1 See the description of this church in the life of St. Droctoveus, written by Gislemar the monk.
2 Apud Aimoinum, 1. 2, c. 16.
3 Apud Mabil. saec. 4, Bened. t. 2, and Bolland. ad 28 Maij.
4 Anecdot. t. 5, p. 91.
(Taken from Vol. V of "The Lives or the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints" by the Rev. Alban Butler, the 1864 edition published by D. & J. Sadlier, & Company)
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605 St. Augustine of Canterbury respected monastery prior Monk and abbot of Saint Andrew's abbey in Rome Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons; Apostle to the English; called himself Austin
Sancti Augustíni, Epíscopi Cantuariénsis et Confessóris, cujus dies natális ágitur séptimo Kaléndas Júnii.
    St. Augustine, bishop of Canterbury and confessor, whose birthday is mentioned on the 26th of May.
At the end of the sixth century anyone would have said that Augustine had found his niche in life. Looking at this respected prior of a monastery, almost anyone would have predicted he would spend his last days there, instructing, governing, and settling even further into this sedentary life.
Also known as Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons; Apostle to the English; Austin Memorial  27 May; 28 May on some calendars, 26 May in England and Wales
Alle Kirchen: 26. Mai Katholische Kirche auch 27. Mai (gebotener Gedenktag)
605 St Augustine, or Austin, archbishop of Canterbury
WHEN Pope St Gregory the Great decided that the time had come for the evangelization of Anglo-Saxon England, he chose as missionaries some thirty or more monks from his monastery of St Andrew on the Coelian Hill. As their leader he gave them their own prior, Augustine, whom St Gregory must have esteemed highly to have made him responsible for a scheme so dear to his heart. The party set out from Rome in the year 596; but no sooner had they arrived in Provence than they were assailed with warnings about the ferocity of the Anglo-Saxons and the dangers of the Channel. Greatly discouraged, they persuaded Augustine to return to Rome and obtain leave to abandon the enterprise. St Gregory, however, had received definite assurance that the English were well disposed towards the Christian faith; he therefore sent Augustine back to his brethren with words of encouragement which gave them heart to proceed on their way. They landed in the Isle of Thanet in the territory of Ethelbert, king of Kent. How the missionaries sent messengers to Ethelbert, how he received them sitting under an oak and listened to their words, how he made over to them a dwelling-place in Canterbury with the use of the old church of St Martin, and how he gave them leave to preach among his subjects, has been already described on February 25, under the article on St. Ethelbert. 
[{616 Ethelbert of Kent, King Not since conversions of Constantine and Clovis
had
Christendom known an event so momentous}
The king was baptized at Pentecost 597, and almost immediately afterwards St Augustine paid a visit to France, where he was consecrated bishop of the English by St Virgilius, metropolitan of Arles. At Christmas of that same year, many of Ethelbert’s subjects were baptized in the Swale, as St Gregory joyfully related in a letter to Eulogius, patriarch of Alexandria. Augustine sent two of his monks, Laurence and Peter, to Rome to give a full report of his mission, to ask for more helpers and obtain advice on various points. They came back bringing the pallium for Augustine and accompanied by a fresh band of missionaries amongst whom were St Mellitus, St Justus and St Paulinus. With these “ministers of the word”, says Bede, “the pope sent all things needed in general for divine worship and the service of the Church, sacred vessels, altar cloths, furniture for churches, and vestments for clergy, relics, and also many books.”
   Gregory outlined for Augustine the course he should take to develop a hierarchy for the whole country, and both to him and to Mellitus gave very practical instructions on other points. Pagan temples were not to be destroyed, but were to be purified and consecrated for Christian worship. Local customs were as far as possible to be retained, days of dedication and feasts of martyrs being substituted for heathen festivals since, as St Gregory wrote, “he who would climb to a lofty height must go by steps, not leaps.”
In Canterbury itself St Augustine rebuilt an ancient church which, with an old wooden house, formed the nucleus for his metropolitan basilica and for the later monastery of Christ Church. These buildings stood on the site of the present cathedral begun by Lanfranc in 1070. Outside the walls of Canterbury he made a monastic foundation, which he dedicated in honour of St Peter and St Paul. After his death this abbey became known as St Augustine’s, and was the burial place of the early archbishops.
The evangelization of Kent was proceeding apace, and Augustine turned his attention to the bishops of the ancient British church which had been driven by the Saxon conquerors into the fastnesses of Wales and Cornwall. Cut off from much communication with the outside world, the British church, though sound in doctrine, clung to certain usages at variance with those of the Roman tradition. St Augustine invited the leading ecclesiastics to meet him at some place just on the confines of Wessex, still known in Bede’s day as Augustine’s Oak. There he urged them to comply with the practices of the rest of Western Christendom, and more especially to co-operate with him in evangelizing the Anglo-Saxons. Fidelity to their local traditions, however, and bitterness against their conquerors made them unwilling, even though he wrought a miracle of healing in their presence to demonstrate his authority. A second conference proved a sad failure. Because St Augustine failed to rise when they arrived, the British bishops decided that he was lacking in humility and would neither listen to him nor acknowledge him as their metropolitan. Whereupon it is said that Augustine, most unfortunately, threatened them that “if they would not accept peace with their brethren, they should have war with their enemies”. Some claimed that this prediction was fulfilled, about ten years after Augustine’s death, when King Ethelfrith of Northumbria attacked and defeated the Britons at Chester, after massacring the monks who had come from Bangor Iscoed to pray for victory.
The saint’s last years were spent in spreading and consolidating the faith throughout Ethelbert’s realm, and episcopal sees were established at London and Rochester. About seven years after his arrival in England, St Augustine passed to his reward, on May 26, C. 605. His feast is observed on this date in England and Wales, but elsewhere on May 28.
   St Augustine wrote frequently to Pope St Gregory, consulting him in the least difficulties which occurred in his ministry. This shows the tenderness of his conscience: for in many things which he might have decided by his own learning and prudence he desired to render his conscience more secure by the advice and decision of the chief pastor. On one occasion Gregory wrote exhorting Augustine to beware of pride and vainglory in the miracles God wrought through him: “You must needs rejoice with fear, and fear with joy concerning that heavenly gift. You will rejoice because the souls of the English are by outward miracles drawn to inward grace: but you will fear lest, amidst the wonders that are done, the weak mind may be puffed up by self-esteem; and so the thing whereby it is outwardly raised to honour cause it to fall through vainglory. . . All the elect do not work miracles, and yet the names of all are written in Heaven. Those who are the disciples of truth ought not to rejoice save for that good thing which all enjoy as well as they, in which their joy shall be without end.”
The text and notes of Plummer’s edition of Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica supply almost all that can be regarded as trustworthy material for the life of St Augustine. Such later biographers and chroniclers as Goscelin (in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi), William of Malmesbury, Thomas of Elmham and John Brompton add nothing of value. The Welsh sources are equally late and unreliable. There is an excellent account of St. Augustine of Canterbury and his Companions (Eng, trans., 1897), by Fr A. Brou. The longest contribution to Newman’s Lives of the English Saints, that devoted to St Augustine by Canon F. Oakeley, is thorough and sympathetic it was written, of course, in his Anglican days. See also F. A. Gasquet, The Mission of St Augustine (1925); F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1943), pp. 104—112; A. W. Wade-Evans, Welsh Christian Origins (1934), for a sensible discussion of the “British trouble”; and an important work by S. Brechter, Die Quellen zur Angelsachsenmission Gregors der Grossen (1941), reviewed in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lx (1942) cf. W. Levison, England and the Continent . . (1946), p. 17, and St. Nothelm herein, October, 17.
Augustin wurde um 546 in Italien geboren. Er war Benediktinermönch und dann Prior des Andreasklosters, das Gregor der Große auf seinem Grundbesitz errichten ließ. 596 sandte ihn Gregor mit 40 Mönchen zur Mission nach England. Britannien war zwar christlich gewesen. Nach dem Abzug der römischen Besatzer um 410 eroberten aber heidnische Angelsachsen das Land. In Frankreich hörte Augustin Geschichten über die wilden Inselbewohner und kehrte nach Rom zurück um das Unternehmen aufzugeben. Gregor ernannte ihn daraufhin zum Abt und sandte ihn erneut nach England. Er kam mit seinen Mönchen 597 nach Kent und landete in der Nähe von Canterbury. Ethelbert der König von Kent (Gedenktag 24.2.) nahm die Missionare freundlich auf und gab ihnen freie Hand. Die Missionstätigkeit Augustins war sehr erfolgreich, er wurde zum Bischof geweiht und baute in Canterbury die Christ Church. Weihnachten 597 taufte er 10.000 Engländer. 601 ernannte ihn Papst Gregor zum Erzbischof.
Gregor gab Augustin zur Errichtung der Kirche weitreichende Freiheiten. So durften heidnische Festbräuche übernommen werden und es war den Gemeinden freigestellt, nach welcher Liturgie sie Gottesdienste abhielten (neben der von Gregor erneuerten römischen Liturgie wurden die fränkische und die keltische Liturgie gefeiert). Die Geistlichen wurden aber der strengen römischen Disziplin unterstellt. In der Heidenmission war Augustin mit diesem Vorgehen erfolgreich, aber er scheiterte mit dem Versuch, die altbritische Kirche in die römische Kirche einzugliedern. Die alte Kirche, die vor allem aus Mönchen bestand, wollte die römischen Riten und Liturgien nicht übernehmen. Augustin prophezeite der altbritischen Kirche ihre Vernichtung durch die heidnischen Angelsachsen - und zehn Jahre später fielen 1200 Mönche in Bangor den Angeln zum Opfer. Augustin der 604 starb, gilt als der Apostel der Angelsachsen.

Sent by Pope Gregory the Great with 40 brother monks, including Saint Lawrence of Canterbury to evangelize the British Isles in 597. Before he reached the islands, terrifying tales of the Celts sent him back to Rome in fear, but Gregory told him he had no choice, and so he went. He established and spread the faith throughout England; one of his earliest converts was King AEthelberht who brought 10,000 of his people into the Church. Ordained a bishop in Gaul (modern France) by the archbishop of Arles. Bishop of Canterbury. First Archbishop of Canterbury. Helped re-establish contact between the Celtic and Latin churches, though he could not establish his desired uniformity of liturgy and practices between them. Worked with Saint Justus of Canterbury. Anglican Archbishops of Canterbury are still referred to as occupying the Chair of Augustine.
But Pope St. Gregory the Great had lived under Augustine's rule in that same monastery. Gregory, living in Rome, upon seeing English children being sold in the Roman Forum, he became a missionary to England.
When he decided it was time to send missionaries to Anglo-Saxon England, he didn't choose those with restless natures or the young looking for new worlds to conquer. He chose Augustine and thirty monks to make the unexpected, and dangerous, trip to England.  Missionaries had gone to Britain years before but the Saxon conquest of England had forced these Christians into hiding. Augustine and his monks were to bring these Christians back into the fold and convince the warlike conquerors to become Christians themselves.
Every step of the way they heard the horrid stories of the cruelty and barbarity of their future hosts. By the time they had reached France the stories became so frightening that the monks turned back to Rome. Gregory had heard encouraging news that England was far more ready for Christianity than the stories would indicate, including the marriage of King Ethelbert of Kent to a Christian princess, Bertha. He sent Augustine and the monks on their way again fortified with his belief that now was the time for evangelization.
King Ethelbert himself wasn't as sure, but he was a just king and curious. So he went to hear what the missionaries had to say after they landed in England. But he was just as afraid of them as they were of him! Fearful that they would use magic on them, he held the meeting in the open air. There he listened to what they had to say about Christianity. He did not convert then but was impressed enough to let them continue to preach -- as long as they didn't force anyone to convert.
They didn't have to -- the king was baptized in 597. Unlike other kings who forced all subjects to be baptized as soon as they were converted, Ethelbert left religious a free choice. Nonetheless the following year many of his subjects were baptized.
Augustine was consecrated bishop of the English and more missionaries arrived from Rome to help with the new task. Augustine had to be very careful because, although the English had embraced the new religion they still respected the old. Under the wise orders of Gregory the Great, Augustine aided the growth from the ancient traditions to the new life by consecrating pagan temples for Christian worship and turning pagan festivals into feast days of martyrs. Canterbury was built on the site of an ancient church.
Augustine was more successful with the pagans than with the Christians. He found the ancient British Church, which had been driven into Cornwall and Wales, had strayed a little in its practices from Rome. He met with them several times to try to bring them back to the Roman Church but the old Church could not forgive their conquerors and chose isolation and bitterness over community and reconciliation.
Augustine was only in England for eight years before he died in 605. His feast day is celebrated on May 26 in England and May 28 elsewhere. He is also known as Austin, a name that many locations have adopted.

May 27, 2010  St. Augustine of Canterbury  (d. 605?) 
In the year 596 a small party of some 40 monks set out from Rome to evangelize the Anglo-Saxons in England. Leading the group was Augustine, the prior of their monastery in Rome. Hardly had he and his men reached Gaul (France) when they heard stories of the ferocity of the Anglo-Saxons and of the treacherous waters of the English Channel. Augustine returned to Rome and to the pope who had sent them—St. Gregory the Great—only to be assured by him that their fears were groundless.

Augustine again set out and this time the group crossed the English Channel and landed in the territory of Kent, ruled by King Ethelbert, a pagan married to a Christian. Ethelbert received them kindly, set up a residence for them in Canterbury and within the year, on Pentecost Sunday, 597, was himself baptized. After being consecrated a bishop in France, Augustine returned to Canterbury, where he founded his see. He constructed a church and monastery near where the present cathedral , begun in 1070, now stands. As the faith spread, additional sees were established at London and Rochester.

Work was sometimes slow and Augustine did not always meet with success. Attempts to reconcile the Anglo-Saxon Christians with the original Briton Christians (who had been driven into western England by Anglo-Saxon invaders) ended in dismal failure. Augustine failed to convince the Britons to give up certain Celtic customs at variance with Rome and to forget their bitterness, helping him evangelize their Anglo-Saxon conquerors

Laboring patiently, Augustine wisely heeded the missionary principles—quite enlightened for the times—suggested by Pope Gregory the Great: purify rather than destroy pagan temples and customs; let pagan rites and festivals be taken over into Christian feasts; retain local customs as far as possible. The limited success Augustine achieved in England before his death in 605, a short eight years after he arrived in England, would eventu ally bear fruit long after in the conversion of England. Truly Augustine of Canterbury can be called the “Apostle of England.”
Comment:  Augustine of Canterbury comes across today as a very human saint, one who could suffer like many of us from a failure of nerve. For example, his first venture to England ended in a big U-turn back to Rome. He made mistakes and met failure in his peacemaking attempts with the Briton Christians. He often wrote to Rome for decisions on matters he could have decided on his own had he been more self-assured. He even received mild warnings against pride from Pope Gregory, who cautioned him to “fear lest, amidst the wonders that are done, the weak mind be puffed up by self-esteem.” Augustine’s perseverance amidst obstacles and only partial success teaches today’s apostles and pioneers to struggle on despite frustrations and be satisfied with gradual advances.  Quote:  In a letter to Augustine, Pope Gregory the Great wrote: "He who would climb to a lofty height must go by steps, not leaps."
          Nicetas_Bishop_of_Chalcedon
800 St Nicetas, Bishop of Chalcedon distinguished himself by his charity always helped the poor he lodged travelers in his home cared for orphans widows, and he interceded for those wronged relics occurred many miracles of healing
lived during the second half of the eighth century. For his God-pleasing life he was consecrated as Bishop of Chalcedon.   St Nicetas distinguished himself by his charity, he always helped the poor, he lodged travelers in his home, he cared for orphans and widows, and he interceded for those who had been wronged.
During the reign of the iconoclast Leo the Armenian (813-820), St Nicetas bravely denounced the Iconoclast heresy and urged his flock to venerate the holy icons of Christ, the Theotokos, and the saints. St Nicetas endured much suffering from the impious emperor and his like-minded cohorts. He was subjected to tortures and sent off to exile. The holy confessor Nicetas died at the beginning of the ninth century. From his relics occurred many miracles of healing. The Canon of the service, written by the priest Joseph of Constantinople, also includes St Nicetas's brother, St Ignatius, among the saints.

He renounced the world in his youth and withdrew to follow the path of monastic asceticism. He shone like the sun with virtue and came to the attention of the ecclesiastical authorities, being raised to the episcopal throne of Chalcedon. He was, as a hierarch, particularly compassionate to the poor and cared for many orphans, widows and beggars. When the wicked Emperor Leo the Armenian made his stand against the icons, St Nicetas came courageously to their defence, denouncing the Emperor and expounding their meaning. He was finally driven into exile for his confession of the Faith, and, after much hardship and suffering, went to the Lord to receive a wreath of glory in the Kingdom of God.
812 St. William of Gellone Knight Benedictine monk son of Count Thierry of Toulouse member of Charlemagne court defeated Islamic Saracens abbey named Saint Guilhem-du-Desert in his honor
812 ST WILLIAM OF GELLONE
IN the time of Pepin the Short, the wife of Thierry, count of Toulouse, gave birth to a son to whom they gave the name of William. Upon attaining manhood William went to court, where he soon became a favourite with Charlemagne, who by this time had succeeded to his father’s throne. He filled various offices to the monarch’s satisfaction and then was sent by him against the Saracens who were threatening France. At the same time he was created duke of Aquitaine. William vanquished the Saracens, and raised the prestige of Christianity amongst the Moslems by his bravery, justice and piety. Amongst those of his own faith also he came to be regarded as the ideal Christian knight, and he figures as the principal character in several chansons de gene, such as La price d’Orange and Aliscans. He could not, however, rest satisfied with serving his king; he desired to place himself at the disposal of the King of kings. With this object in view he sought for a suitable site on which to build a monastery, and discovered it at Gellone, at about an hour’s distance from the celebrated abbey of Aniane. There he founded his monastery, which he peopled with monks from the neighbouring religious houses, especially from Aniane. He also built in the vicinity a convent for women, in which his sisters took the veil.
For some time William continued to live in the world, attending the royal court, where he was regarded with great favour, but the call to abandon all came to him as it had done to his sisters. He obtained the requisite permission from Charlemagne, and then made his way to Brioude in the Auvergne, where he hung up his weapons in the church of St Julian after he had laid an offering on the altar. From thence he went to Gellone, where he received the habit from St Benedict of Aniane, who became from that time his director and spiritual guide. Perfect as had been St William’s conduct as a layman, it was equally perfect as a monk. He died on May 28, 812, and was buried in his own monastery, which was afterwards renamed St William in the Wilderness.

The life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi, cannot be the work of a contemporary, as it purports to be, but it is relatively sober. See “L. Clarus” (W. Volk), Herzog Wilhelm von Aquitanien (1865) G. Morin in the Revue Charlemagne, vol. ii (1913), pp. 116—126; A. Becker, Die alt-französische Wilhelm-sage (1896); Bédier, Les Légendes Épiques (1926), t.i.
William was a member of the famed court of Charlemagne (r. 768-814). He was named duke of Aquitaine and chosen to lead a campaign against the Saracens in southern France. He defeated the Islamic Saracens in this campaign.
Throughout his military career, he displayed exemplary chivalry and was honored as the ideal knight. However, he gave up the sword and became dedicated to the promotion of the faith. William founded a monastery at Gellone, near Aniane, and with Charlemagne's permission, entered the cornmunity as a monk. The abbey was later renamed Saint Guilhem-du-Desert in his honor. William was also the subject of several medieval romances, including La Prised Orange and Aliseans. He was canonized in 1066.

Wilhelm von Aquitanien Orthodoxe und Katholische Kirche: 28. Mai
Wilhelm, Enkel Karl Martells, wurde um 750 geboren. Karl der Große ernannte ihn zum Herzog von Aquitanien und beauftragte ihn, das Land gegen die spanischen Sarazenen zu verteidigen. Wilhelm konnte Barcelona und Nimes einnehmen, zog sich dann aber aus der Politik zurück, gründete das Kloster Gellone (St-Guilhem-du-Désert) und trat 806 als Mönch in sein Kloster ein. Bis zu seinem Tod am 28.5.812 war er Koch und Bäcker der Klostergemeinschaft. In der altfranzösischen Dichtung wird Wilhelm als Guillaume d'Orange besungen, nach seinem Kloster wird er auch Wilhelm von Gellone genannt.
1002 St. Podius Augustinian bishop of Florence from 990 son of the margrave of Tuscany so distinguished himself that he was given a bishopric
Floréntiæ sancti Pódii, Epíscopi et Confessóris.    At Florence, St. Podius, bishop and confessor.
1050 St. Bernard of Montjoux priest Vicar General of Aosta spent 40 yrs missionary work in the Alps built schools churches remembered for 2 Alpine hospices aid lost travelers in the mountain passes named Great and Little Bernard after him
Apud Nováriam sancti Bernárdi a Menthóne, Confessóris, qui in monte Jovis, super Alpes, in Valésia, celebérrimum cœnóbium et hospítium exstrúxit, atque a Pio Papa Undécimo, non modo Alpium íncolis vel viatóribus, sed iis étiam qui eárum juga ascendéndo se exércent, cæléstis Patrónus est attribútus.
    At Novara, St. Bernard of Mentone, confessor.  On Mount Jou in the Alps of Valais in Switzerland, he founded the famous monastery and hospice.  Pope Pius XI appointed him the heavenly patron not only of those who live in or travel across the Alps, but of all mountain climbers.

1081? ST BERNARD OF MONTJOUX
THE founder of the two celebrated hospices of the Great and Little St Bernard which have saved the lives of so many Alpine travellers has a claim to the grateful recognition of posterity and it is strange that until comparatively recent years no attempt was made to deal critically with the matter contained in the obviously highly coloured biographies of St Bernard. He is often referred to as Bernard of Menthon because of his alleged birth in Savoy, son of Count Richard of Menthon and his wife of the Duyn family. He was in fact probably of Italian birth, and his parentage is unknown; and the story of his projected marriage and flight therefrom seems to be pure invention.
   We are told that after his ordination Bernard eventually was appointed vicar general in the diocese of Aosta; and that for forty-two years he travelled up and down the country, visiting the most remote Alpine valleys where the remnants of heathen superstition still lingered, extending his missionary labours even beyond his own jurisdiction into the neighbouring dioceses of Novara, Tarantaise and Geneva. In the territory under his immediate control he founded schools, restored clerical discipline, and insisted that the churches should be well kept. His solicitude went out to all those in need, but especially to the travellers—often French or German pilgrims on their way to Rome—who attempted the crossing of the Alps by the two mountain passes which led into the territory of Aosta. Some lost their way and were frozen to death, some wandered into snow-drifts, whilst others who could face the severity of the climate were plundered or held to ransom by brigands. With the help of the bishop and other generous donors, St Bernard built hospices on the summit of the two passes which were renamed after him the Great and the Little St Bernard.
Actually, his was not the first venture of the kind in those regions. Some sort of hospice under clerical auspices is known to have existed in the ninth century on the Mons Jovis (Montjoux), as it was then called, but the enterprise had lapsed long before the days of St Bernard. The rest-houses which he constructed were new foundations. Provision was made in them for the reception of all travellers indiscriminately, and the hospices were placed under the care of clerics and laymen, who eventually became Augustinian canons regular, for whom a monastery was built close at hand. The same order has continued to direct them to the present day. The boon thus conferred on travellers soon made St Bernard’s name famous, and great men were eager to visit the hospices and contribute to their endowment. At some time St Bernard went to Rome, where he is said to have received from the then pope the formal approbation of the hospices together with the privilege of receiving novices to perpetuate his congregation. The saint lived to the age of eighty-five and died probably on May 28, 1081, in the monastery of St Laurence at Novara.

In the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. iii, a life is printed which purports to have been written by a contemporary, Richard, archdeacon of Aosta, as well as some other texts. All these documents are certainly of much later date, and no confidence at all can be placed in the legends which they recount; the pseudo-Richard in particular is a cento put together in the interest of the Savoyard as opposed to the Italian tradition. It seems to have been clearly demonstrated that St Bernard died, not in 1008, but in 1081. See the article of A. LütoIf in the Theologische Quartalschrift, vol. 61 (1879), pp. 179—207. This conclusion is supported by a text printed in the Biblioteca déjà Société Storica Subalpina, vol. xvii (1903), pp. 291—312, which is probably the oldest known account of the saint, and which records a meeting of Bernard with the Emperor Henry IV at Pavia in 1081. See also Mgr Duc in Miscellanea di Storia Italiana, vol. xxxi (1894), pp. 341—388. Other dates have also been suggested, as, for example, by Gonthier, Oeuvres historiques, vol. iii, who holds that the saint died in 1086. The legend of St Bernard in its older form, after having been presented in the middle ages as a mystery play, was revived by Henri Ghéon in his drama La merveilleuse histoire du jeune Bernard de Menthon (English trans. by Barry Jackson). In 1923 Pope Pius XI, in a Latin letter of singular eloquence, proclaimed St Bernard patron of all Alpinists and mountain climbers; the text is in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xv (1923), pp. 437—442. For more recent research, see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxvi (1907), pp. 135—136, and vol. lxiii (1945), pp. 269—270, with references therein, and DHG., t. viii, cc. 690—696.

Bernard of Montjoux was probably born in Italy. He became a priest, was made Vicar General of Aosta, and spent more than four decades doing missionary work in the Alps. He built schools and churches in the diocese but is especially remembered for two Alpine hospices he built to aid lost travelers in the mountain passes named Great and Little Bernard, after him.
The men who ran them in time became Augustinian canons regular and built a monastery. The Order continued into the twentieth century. He was proclaimed the patron saint of Alpinists and mountain climbers by Pope Pius XI in 1923. He is sometimes fallaciously referred to as Bernard of Menthon and the son of Count Richard of Menthon, which he was not.
Bernard became patron and protector of skiers because of his four decades spent in missionary work throughout the Alps.
1089 Lanfranc Le Bec Er studierte und wirkte als Lehrer in Südfrankreich wurde er Prior der Gemeinschaft Er starb in Canterbury
Katholische und Anglikanische Kirche: 28. Mai

Lanfranc wurde um 1010 in Pavia geboren. Er studierte und wirkte als Lehrer in Südfrankreich. 1042 trat er in die Einsiedlergemeinschaft von Le Bec (Normandie) ein. 1045 wurde er Prior der Gemeinschaft, außerdem leitete er die Klosterschule. In seinem Grammatik- und Rhetorik Unterricht wurde auch die Bibel bearbeitet - eine zu seiner Zeit noch völlig unbekannte Vorgehensweise. Lanfranc war mit Herzog Wilhelm von der Normandie befreundet und unterstützte den Einfall in England 1066. 1070 wurde er Erzbischof von Canterbury. Er baute die Vorrangstellung des Bischofs von Canterbury aus, hielt mehrere Synoden ab und ließ die verfallenen Kirchengebäude von Canterbury renovieren. Er starb am 28.5.1089 in Canterbury.
1288 Saint Ignatius Bishop of Rostov shepherdeding his flock for twenty-six years Many miracles took place at his grave
After his death on May 28, 1288, his body was brought to the church.
Some people saw him leave his coffin, and float in the air above the church. He blessed the people and the city, then went back to his coffin.
This hierarch guided the flock of Christ for twenty-six years with great love and compassion. When he died and his body was placed in the church, some of those present saw him leave his coffin and rise up in the air above the church. He blessed the people and the city from on high, and then returned to his coffin. Many other miracles were wrought at his grave. He went to the Lord on May 28th,1288.
1288 ST 1GNATIUS, BISHOP OF ROSTOV
FROM being archimandrite of the monastery of the Theophany at Rostov, this Ignatius was raised to the bishopric of that city in 1262. He was a most faithful shepherd of his flock at a time of great difficulty, for he had to defend his people against the oppression of the Tartars and mediate between the quarrelling nobles of Rostov. Moreover, false accusations were made against him to the metropolitan of Kiev, and he was for a time removed from office. It was during the episcopate of Ignatius, in 1274, that a synod of the Russian Church was held at Vladimir, at which he attended. Words used by this gathering show the sort of thing that the Russian clergy still, and for centuries after almost down to our own day, had sometimes to contend with “People still follow the customs of the thrice-accursed heathen they celebrate sacred feast-days with devilish observances, whistling, yelling and howling; low drunken fellows get together and beat one another with sticks, till some are killed, and these they strip of their clothes.”
St Ignatius was called to the better life on May 28, 1288, and his death was at once followed by reports of miracles, of which the most surprising was that when his body was borne to burial he rose in his coffin and blessed the crowds of bystanders. Unless they have been destroyed in the events of the past thirty years, the relics of St Ignatius are still in the church of the Assumption at Rostov.
From Martynov’s Annus ecclesiasticus Graeco-Slavicus in Acta Sanctorum, October, xi. Cf. St Sergius on September 25, and bibliography.
1373  Birgitta von Schweden Ihre Visionen wurden auch in deutscher Sprache veröffentlicht und haben das Werk Nithards beeinflußt. Das Kloster wurde 1384 eingeweiht
Katholische Kirche: 28. Mai (Übertragung der Gebeine) und 23. Juli Anglikanische und Evangelische Kirche: 23. Juli
Birgitta (Brigitte) wurde 1303 in der Nähe von Uppsala geboren. Sie war die Ehefrau des Fürsten Gudmarsson. Das Ehepaar hatte 8 Kinder und Birgitta führte auf Ulfasa ein gastfreies Haus. Auf einer Wallfahrt nach Santiago di Compostella erlebte sie in Flandern den Krieg und beschloß, sich künftig für Gerechtigkeit und Frieden einzusetzen. Nach der Wallfahrt zog sich ihr Ehemann in ein Kapuzinerkloster zurück, wo er 1344 starb. Birgitta hatte schon als Kind Visionen gehabt, nach dem Tode ihres Ehemannes nahmen die Visionen zu. Birgitta schrieb alle Visionen auf Schwedisch auf. Die ihr aufgetragenen Zurechtweisungen richtete sie furchtlos an den Papst, die Bischöfe und die weltlichen Herrscher. 1346 schenkte ihr der schwedische König ein Gut in Vadstena. Hier gründete sie ein Frauenkloster und erarbeitete eine auf Augustin beruhende Regel. Um ihre Gemeinschaft bestätigen zu lassen, reiste sie mit ihrer Tochter Katharina 1349 nach Rom. Hier fand sie leere Kirchen, der Papst aber war nach Avignon gegangen. Birgitta blieb in Italien und setzte sich für die Rückkehr des Papstes ein. 1370 (und 1378) wurde ihr Orden (als einziger nordeuropäischer Orden) bestätigt. Nach einer Pilgerreise in das Heilige Land starb Birgitta am 23.7.1373 in Rom.
Ihre Visionen wurden auch in deutscher Sprache veröffentlicht und haben das Werk Nithards beeinflußt. Das Kloster wurde 1384 eingeweiht. In der Folgezeit entstanden zahlreiche Klöster der Birgittiner in Europa. Der letzte Abt von Vadstena, Peter Magnus, wurde 1520 vom Papst zum Bischof von Vesternäs geweiht. Nach dem Übertritt der Schweden zum lutherischen Glauben erteilte Magnus den lutherischen Bischöfen die Weihe, so daß in der schwedischen Kirche die apostolische Sukzession nicht - wie in Deutschland - unterbrochen wurde. Das Kloster wurde 1595 geschlossen. Der Birgittenorden, der Mittelpunkt des geistlichen Lebens in Schweden war, besteht heute in Schweden als ökumenische Gemeinschaft. In der katholischen Kirche gibt es mehrere Klöster der Birgitten (z. B. in Altomünster; in Bremen soll ein Kloster neu errichtet werden). 1999 wurde Birgitta von Papst Johannes Paul II. zusammen mit Katharina von Siena und Edith Stein zur Patronin Europas ernannt.
1541 Bl. Margaret Pole Martyr of England opposed Henry’s mar­riage to Anne Boleyn, exiled her from court; he called her “the holiest woman in England", then martyred her
1541 BD MARGARET POLE, WIDOW AND MARTYR
Niece to two English kings, Edward IV and Richard III, Margaret Plantagenet was the child of their brother the duke of Clarence by Isabel, daughter of Warwick the Kingmaker. Henry VII, whose wife was her first cousin, gave her in marriage to Sir Reginald Pole, a Buckinghamshire gentleman who did him good service in the Scottish campaign and elsewhere.

At the time of Henry VIII’s accession, Margaret was a widow with five children, and the young monarch, who described her as the saintliest woman in England, gave her back her brother’s estates which had been forfeited by attainder in the previous reign, creating her also countess of Salisbury in her own right.

Upon the birth of Princess Mary she was appointed governess to the royal infant, but her disapproval of Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn led to her retirement from court with the consequent loss of her post and of the king’s favour.
A treatise which her fourth son, Reginald—afterwards Cardinal Pole—wrote against the royal claim to ecclesiastical supremacy still further incensed Henry, who told the French ambassador that he meant to get rid of the whole family.

After Sir Henry Neville’s rising in the north, emissaries were sent to examine Margaret in the hope of incriminating her as privy to the conspiracy; but though they questioned her from the forenoon till the evening they could obtain from her no damaging admission.
They had to own that the tall, dignified woman had the brains as well as the stature of a man. She was nevertheless taken into custody and was imprisoned, first in Lord Southampton’s house at Cowdray and afterwards in the Tower, where she suffered greatly during the winter from lack of firing and from insufficient clothing. She was never brought to trial it was thought that no jury would convict her; but a servile Parliament passed an act of attainder against her. On May 28, 1541, she was led out into the square to be beheaded. It is said by Lord Herbert that she refused to kneel down and lay her head on the block, saying she was no traitor, and that the executioner, who was a novice, struck at her several times unsteadily with the axe before he felled her. This, however, is contradicted by the French ambassador’s account, in which we are told that, the regular executioner being absent, his understudy, as she knelt, hacked at her neck very clumsily. The most weighty authorities reject Lord Herbert’s story as improbable. She was seventy years of age when she suffered. An interesting portrait of Bd Margaret Pole is in the National Portrait Gallery, and her feast is observed in several English dioceses.

A full and well documented account of Bd Margaret is given by Father E. S. Keogh in Camm, LEM., vol. i, pp. 502—540. The Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of Henry VIII are our principal source of information, and Bd Margaret’s fate is, of courses treated in some detail by Lingard, Gairdner and other historians of the reign.

She was born Margaret Plantagenet, the niece of Edward IV and Rich­ard III. She married Sir Reginald Pole about 1491 and bore five sons, including Reginald Cardinal Pole. Margaret was widowed, named countess of Salisbury, and appointed governess to Princess Mary, daughter of Hemy VIII and Queen Catherine of Aragon, Spain.
She opposed Henry’s mar­riage to Anne Boleyn, and the king exiled her from court, although he called her “the holiest woman in England.” When her son, Cardinal Pole, denied Henry’s Act of Supremacy, the king imprisoned Margaret in the Tower of London for two years and then beheaded her on May 28. In 1538, her other two sons were executed. She was never given a legal trial. She was seventy when she was martyred. Margaret was beatified in 1886.  
1577 BD MARY BARTHOLOMEA OF FLORENCE, VIRGIN From her bed she exercised a wonderful influence over the numerous persons who visited her. Enemies were reconciled, the sorrowful consoled, sinners converted and the sick healed by one who forgot her own sufferings in her sympathy for others.
THE history of Bd Mary Bartholomea de Bagnesiis is practically the record of a life of suffering heroically borne. Though she came of a noble and wealthy Florentine family, her health was so greatly undermined in infancy by the starvation to which she was subjected by a foster-mother in whose care she had been left, that she was never able in after life to eat a normal meal.
A pious child, she had decided even then to devote herself to the religious life as two of her elder sisters had already done, but the death of her mother when she was seventeen placed her in charge of her father’s household. It does not seem to have occurred to her that she would be expected to marry, and when her father told her that he had actually chosen a bridegroom for her the shock was so great that she had a complete breakdown, which not only precluded all possibility of marriage but even made her a bedridden invalid. Various grave complications supervened, all of which she bore with unfailing resignation, just as she submitted to the often revolting and most painful remedies prescribed for her by the charlatans her father called in. From her bed she exercised a wonderful influence over the numerous persons who visited her. Enemies were reconciled, the sorrowful consoled, sinners converted and the sick healed by one who forgot her own sufferings in her sympathy for others. When she was thirty-two she was clothed as a Dominican tertiary, and for a short time regained strength enough to get up and go to church, but the improvement was only temporary and she had to take to her bed once more. Her sufferings were intense, and we are told that on eight occasions she received extreme unction. She had the privilege granted her of having Mass said in her room and of receiving holy communion frequently. At times she was rapt in ecstasy, but humility made her loth to speak of her spiritual experiences on these occasions, even to her director. She died after being an invalid for forty-five years and was buried by her own wish in the Carmelite church of St Mary of the Angels.
A full account translated from the Italian life written by her domestic chaplain will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vi, Appendix.
1582 Bl. Thomas Ford priest Martyr of England educated at Oxford converted and set out for Douai companion of St. Edmund Campion
He was born in Devon and educated at Oxford. There he converted and set out for Douai, France. Ordained a priest in 1573, he was sent back to England three years later. Thomas labored in Oxfordshire and Berckshire until his arrest. He was martyred on May 28 at Tyburn by being hanged, drawn, and quartered.
He was a companion of St. Edmund Campion, and he died with Blesseds Robert Johnson and John Shert. Thomas was beatified in 1882.
1582 Bl. Robert Johnson servant study at Rome and Douai Priest English martyr
Born in Shropshire, England, he was a servant before he went to study at Rome and Douai, France, receiving ordination in 1576. Returning to the English mission, he served in the area of London for four years, until his arrest. Robert was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn with Blesseds Thomas Ford and John Short. Robert was beatified in 1886.
1582 Bl. John Shert Priest English martyr Convert studied at Douai and Rome
He was born at Shert Hall, near Macclesfield, Cheshire, and educated at Oxford. Converting to the Church, John studied at Douai and Rome. Ordained in 1576, he went to England three years later, working only two years before his arrest. John was martyred at Tyburn with Blessed Thomas Ford and Blessed Robert Johnstone by being hanged, drawn, and quartered. Pope Leo XIII beatified him in 1886.
1582 THE LONDON MARTYRS OF
ON May 28, 1582, three priests, THOMAS FORD, JOHN SHERT, and ROBERT JOHNSON, were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn—actually for exercising their sacerdotal functions and for denying that Elizabeth was head of the Church, but professedly for participation in a fictitious conspiracy against the queen, known as the plot of Rome and Rheims.
Thomas Ford was a Devonshire man who had taken his M.A. at Oxford and had become a fellow of Trinity. Religious scruples having compelled him to leave the university, he went to the English College at Douai where he was raised to the priesthood—being one of the first batch of its students to be presented for holy orders. About the year 1576 he was sent upon the English mission and laboured successfully until, in 1581, he was arrested with Bd Edmund Campion at the house of Mr. Yates at Lyford in Berkshire. He was committed to the Tower and was condemned to death on the evidence of informers, who had never seen him or his fellow martyrs before their imprisonment. In the cart, as he was being taken to execution, he declared “I am a Catholic and do die in that religion”. With regard to the queen, he stated on the scaffold that he acknowledged her for his sovereign and queen and had never in his life offended her.
John Shert was also an Oxford man, a student of Brasenose, and a native of Cheshire. For some time after he had left the university he was a schoolmaster in London. Like Ford, however, he became dissatisfied with the established religion, crossed over to Douai to study for the priesthood, and received ordination in Rome. In 1579 he was sent to England, where he worked for two years. He was arrested on July 14, 1581. Though no real evidence could be adduced against him, he was condemned to be hanged. On the scaffold at Tyburn he was made to watch the execution and disembowelling of Thomas Ford. Far from being dismayed, he cried out: “0 blessed soul, happy art thou: pray for me!” He could have saved himself at the last moment by asking pardon and by affirming that Elizabeth was the head of the Church in England, but he stoutly declared, “She is not, nor cannot be, nor any other but only the supreme pastor.”
Robert Johnson, sometimes confused with Laurence Richardson (below), came from Shropshire. After being a manservant in a private family, he went to Douai, became a priest in 1576, and was sent to the English mission. Some four years later he was committed to the Tower, where he was cruelly racked three times. In November 1581 he was sentenced to death on the same charge as his two brother martyrs and suffered in the same place on the same day. As the rope was placed about his neck he prayed aloud in Latin. Bidden rather to pray in English, he replied, “I pray that prayer which Christ taught in a tongue I well understand.” “Pray as Christ taught”, exclaimed one of the ministers present. To which the martyr spiritedly retorted, “What! Do you think Christ taught in English?” He was still praying in Latin when the cart was drawn away from under him.
Two days after the martyrdom of the above, four other Catholic priests were executed at Tyburn. Their names were WILLIAM FILBY, LUKE KIRBY, LAURENCE RICHARDSON, vere Johnson, and THOMAS COTTAM. All four had been educated at English universities before going abroad to be trained for the Catholic ministry, and all had been tried the previous November with Bd Edmund Campion and condemned—nominally for being concerned in the bogus plot of Rheims and Rome, but practically for coming as Catholic priests to minister to the queen’s subjects.
The six months between their condemnation and their execution they spent as prisoners in the Tower.
William Filby, a native of Oxford, had been a student at Lincoln College. Religions scruples led him to leave the university and he soon afterwards entered the English seminary at Rheims. Ordained priest in 1581, he was sent to England where he was promptly arrested with Bd Edmund Campion. From July 1581 he was imprisoned in the Tower and after his trial—for six whole months—he was loaded with manacles. Together with his three companions he was taken at seven in the morning of May 30, 1582, to Tyburn, where he was the first to suffer. He was only twenty-seven years of age.
Luke Kirby was from Durham or Yorkshire and a master of arts, he joined the Douai College in 1576 and was ordained the following year. After a short stay in England he went to the English College in Rome to pursue further studies. Returning to England he was soon arrested and imprisoned.
Laurence Richardson, who was born in Lancashire and whose true name was Johnson, quitted Brasenose College, Oxford, to embrace the Catholic faith. After studying at Douai and being raised to the priesthood he laboured with great zeal in his native county, but was apprehended in the early part of 1582. Offered mercy on the scaffold if he would confess his treason and renounce the pope, he answered, “I thank her Majesty for her mercy; but I must not confess an untruth or renounce my faith.”
Thomas Cottam was also a native of Lancashire and a graduate of Brasenose. On becoming a Catholic he went abroad, first to the Douai College and then to Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus. Persistent ill-health prevented his completing his noviceship, but he was ordained a priest at Rheims and, at his own earnest entreaty, was sent on the English mission. The authorities had been furnished with an exact description of him by a notorious informer called Sledd who had feigned to be his friend. By this means he was identified upon landing at Dover. One of his fellow-travellers, a Douai professor, Dr Ely, escaped detection and was actually instructed to deliver Mr Cottam up to Lord Cobham. He acquiesced, not intending to carry out the order. After their arrival in London he succeeded, though not without difficulty, in persuading his companion to proceed on his way. As soon, however, as the authorities began to press Dr Ely, Cottam voluntarily gave himself up. He was imprisoned first in the Marshalsea and afterwards in the Tower where he and Luke Kirby were subjected to the instrument of torture known as the Scavenger’s Daughter. He was the last of the four to be executed, and was compelled to watch the dismemberment of his fellow martyrs.

Full details of the history, capture and imprisonment of all seven martyrs will be found in Camm, LEM., vol. ii, pp. 443—563. The account in Challoner, MMP., pp. 44—66, is less complete.
1645 St. Mariana the lily of Quito  practiced great austerities ate hardly anything slept 3 hours a night for years gift of prophesy performed miracles   offered herself publicly as a victim for the sins of the people
Mariana was born at Quito, Ecuador (then part of Peru), of noble Spanish parents. She was orphaned as a child and raised by her elder sister and her husband. Mariana early was attracted to things religious and became a solitary in her sister's home under the direction of Mariana's Jesuit confessor. Mariana practiced the greatest austerities, ate hardly anything, slept for only three hours a night for years, had the gift of prophesy, and reputedly performed miracles. When an earthquake followed by an epidemic shook Quito in 1645, she offered herself publicly as a victim for the sins of the people. When the epidemic began to abate, she was stricken and died on May 26th. She is known as Mariana of Quito and is often called "the lily of Quito." She was canonized in 1950.

May 28, 2010 St. Mary Ann of Jesus of Paredes (1614-1645) 
Mary Ann grew close to God and his people during her short life.
The youngest of eight, Mary Ann was born in Quito, Ecuador, which had been brought under Spanish control in 1534.
She joined the Secular Franciscans and led a life of prayer and penance at home, leaving her parents’ house only to go to church and perform some work of charity. She established in Quito a clinic and school for Africans and indigenous Americans. When a plague broke out, she nursed the sick and died shortly thereafter.  She was canonized by Pope Pius XII in 1950.

Comment: Francis of Assisi overcame himself (and his upbringing) when he kissed the man afflicted with leprosy. If our self-denial does not lead to charity, the penance is being practiced for the wrong reason. The penances of Mary Ann made her more sensitive to the needs of others and more courageous in trying to serve those needs. 
Quote:  "At times when especially impelled by love for God and fellowmen, she afflicted herself severely to expiate the sins of others. Oblivious then to the world around her and wrapped in ecstasy, she had a foretaste of eternal happiness. Thus transformed and enriched by God's grace, she was filled with zeal to care not only for her own salvation, but also for that of others to the utmost of her ability. She generously relieved the miseries of the poor and soothed the pains of the sick. And when severe public disasters such as earthquakes and plagues terrified and afflicted her fellow citizens, she strove by prayer, expiation, and the offering of her own life to obtain from the Father of mercies what she could not accomplish by human effort" (Pope Pius XII).

1859 St. Paul Hanh  Vietnamese martyr convert to Catholicism martyred
Paul later fell away from the faith and became a member of an outlaw band. Captured by the government, he proclaimed his faith and was thus singled out for especially cruel treatment. After enduring tortures, he was beheaded near Saigon.
1865 St. Madeleine Sophie Barat life as a nun and teacher founded Society of the Sacred Heart, focus on schools for poor and boarding schools for young women of means during the French Revolution
 b. 1779 The legacy of Madeleine Sophie Barat can be found in the more than 100 schools operated by her Society of the Sacred Heart, institutions known for the quality of the education made available to the young.  Madeleine herself received an extensive education, thanks to her brother, Louis, 11 years older and her godfather at Baptism. Himself a seminarian, he decided that his younger sister would likewise learn Latin, Greek, history, physics and mathematics—always without interruption and with a minimum of companionship. By age 15, she had received a thorough exposure to the Bible, the teachings of the Fathers of the Church and theology. Despite the oppressive regime Louis imposed, young Madeleine thrived and developed a genuine love of learning.
Meanwhile, this was the time of the French Revolution and of the suppression of Christian schools. The education of the young, particularly young girls, was in a troubled state. At the same time, Madeleine, who had concluded that she was called to the religious life, was persuaded to begin her life as a nun and as a teacher. She founded the Society of the Sacred Heart, which would focus on schools for the poor as well as boarding schools for young women of means; today, co-ed Sacred Heart schools can be found as well as schools exclusively for boys.
In 1826, her Society of the Sacred Heart received formal papal approval. By then Madeleine had served as superior at a number of convents. In 1865, she was stricken with paralysis; she died that year on the feast of the Ascension.  Madeleine Sophie Barat was canonized in 1925.
Comment: Madeleine lived in turbulent times. She was only 10 when the Reign of Terror began. In the wake of the French Revolution, rich and poor both suffered before some semblance of normality returned to France. Born to some degree of privilege, she received a good education. It grieved her that the same opportunity was being denied to other young girls, and she devoted herself to educating them, whether poor or well- to-do. We who live in an affluent country can follow her example by helping to ensure to others the blessings we have enjoyed. 

Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  May 2016
Universal:   “That in every country in the world, women may be honoured and respected
and that their essential contribution to society may be highly esteemed”.

Evangelization:  “That families, communities and groups may pray the Holy Rosary for evangelisation and peace”.
God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798
 
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