Tuesday  Saints of this Day November  01 Kaléndas Novémbris.  
Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
 Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!  (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
In Honor of mother Bernadette Loraine Elchlepp Bartholomew her birthday today

Make a N
ovena and pray the Rosary to Our Lady of Victory
between November 01 and Election Day
Mary Mother of GOD

The fall 40 Days for Life campaign

  Among those saints or candidates for canonization in our own day whose cause, where it has been introduced, was or is the interest of so many diverse people that it could almost be said to be proposed by the Church herself, and not by a particular country, order or diocese, a greater variety of “states of life” is exhibited: a pope, Pius X, and a country parson, St John Vianney; St Teresa of Lisieux, a simple nun; Frederic Ozanam, Bd Contardo Ferrini, Ludovic Necchi, Matt Talbot, laymen; Bd Anne Mary Taigi was the wife of an obscure man-servant, but her recognition is probably due, under God, to the interest of the Trinitarians, of which she was a tertiary.


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

  15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary


Six Canonized on Feast of Christ the King Nov 23 2014

CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2014

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here

Acts of the Apostles


Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  November 2016
Universal: Countries Receiving Refugees

That the countries which take in a great number of displaced persons and refugees may find support for their efforts which show solidarity.

Evangelization: Collaboration of Priests and Laity
That within parishes, priests and lay people may collaborate in service to the community without giving in to the temptation of discouragement.

 
Revelation 7:2-4, 9-14 Psalm 24:1-6 1 John 3:1-3 Matthew 5:1-12
Let the heart of them rejoice that seek the Lord:
seek ye the Lord, and be strengthened: seek His face evermore. -- Psalm civ. 3,4
November 1st – All Saints – Mary, Queen of All the Saints – First Apparition in Heede, Germany (1937 - 1940) 
 
Mary, Queen of the Universe
In looking at the analogy between Christ’s Ascension and Mary’s Assumption, we can conclude Mary, in dependence on Christ, is the Queen who possesses and exercises over the universe a sovereignty granted her by her Son…
The concern Mary Queen has for mankind can be fully effective precisely by virtue of her glorious state which derives from the Assumption. Saint Germanus I of Constantinople, highlights this very well. He holds that this state guarantees Mary’s intimate relationship with her Son and enables her to intercede in our favor. Addressing Mary he says that Christ wanted "to have, so to speak, the closeness of your lips and your heart. Thus he assents to all the desires you express to him, when you suffer for your children, with his divine power he does all that you ask of him."

One can conclude that the Assumption favors Mary’s full communion not only with Christ, but with each one of us: she is beside us, because her glorious state enables her to follow us in our daily earthly journey…Taken up into heavenly glory, Mary dedicates herself totally to the work of salvation...
She is a Queen who gives all that she possesses…
Saint John Paul II Catechesis on Mary, Queen of the Universe, General Audience of July 23, 1997 (excerpts)

 
November 1st - Queen of All Saints -November 1 - Queen of All Saints (608)
Our Lady of Folgoët
Salaün was such a simpleton that his contemporaries of the 15th century considered him a madman.
He could only say two words: “Ave Maria
(Hail Mary) and he repeated those two words over and over.
One year on November 1, Salaün was found dead near a tree trunk, by the edge of the woods, at the far end of the parish of Guic-Elleau in France and the townspeople buried him immediately on the spot. Later, a beautifully smelling lily grew up from his grave, with this inscription on it written in gold letters, the only two words he had pronounced all his life: Ave Maria.
In 1365, the first stone was laid for a church that is now the jewel of all the churches of Brittany: Notre-Dame de Folgoët (Our Lady of the Madman of the Woods).
The statue of Our Lady was crowned by the Church in 1888.

Eugenio Pacelli Proclaims the Dogma of the Assumption (1950)
A divinely revealed dogma
“After we have poured forth prayers of supplication again and again to God, and have invoked the light of the Spirit of Truth, for the glory of Almighty God who has lavished his special affection upon the Virgin Mary, for the honor of her Son, the immortal King of the Ages and the Victor over sin and death, for the increase of the glory of that same august Mother, and for the joy and exultation of the entire Church; by the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory. Hence if anyone, which God forbid, should dare wilfully to deny or to call into doubt that which we have defined, let him know that he has fallen away completely from the divine and Catholic Faith.”
After the Pope proclaimed this Dogma, a ray of sunlight shined forth on Saint Peter’s Basilica.
Pius XII - Munificentissimus Deus - Defining the Dogma of the Assumption, 1 November 1950

Festívitas ómnium Sanctórum, quam in honórem beátæ Dei Genitrícis Vírginis Maríæ et sanctórum Mártyrum Bonifátius Papa Quartus, cum templum Pántheon tértio Idus Maji dedicásset, célebrem et generálem instítuit agi quotánnis in urbe Roma.  Sed Gregórius item Quartus póstmodum decrévit, eándem festivitátem, quæ váriis modis jam in divérsis Ecclésiis celebrabátur, in honórem ómnium Sanctórum solémniter hac die ab univérsa Ecclésia perpétuo observári.
    The Festival of All Saints, which Pope Boniface IV, after the dedication of the Pantheon, ordained to be kept generally and solemnly every year on the 13th of May, in the city of Rome, in honour of the blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and of the holy martyrs.  It was afterwards decreed by Gregory IV that this feast, which was then celebrated in many dioceses, but at different times, should be on this day kept by the whole Church in honour of all the saints.
The air which we breathe, the bread which we eat, the heart which throbs in our bosoms, are not more necessary for man that he may live as a human being, than is prayer for the Christian that he may live as a Christian.-- St. John Eudes

Solemnity of All Saints 
“'Be holy as I am holy,' says the Lord. As Christians we are all called to holiness because we are His children. Every Christian should be a saint. Indeed, for a Christian to live in a state of sin is a monstrous contradiction”. --Curé d'Ars.

It has recently been claimed that the decline in the cult of saints and in pilgrimages to holy places is spiritually beneficial for Christians, so that their attention will be turned exclusively towards Jesus. There is, however, a danger to the faith in attempting to become too intellectual and sophisticated, and thereby becoming too cold, methodical, and rational.
In the face of the divine mysteries and matters that are beyond human comprehension our minds should be kept open.

“The saints are like so many little mirrors in which Jesus Christ sees Himself. In His apostles He sees His zeal and love for the salvation of souls; in the martyrs He sees His constancy, suffering, and painful death; in the hermits He sees His obscure and hidden life; in the virgins He sees His spotless purity; and in all the saints He sees His unbounded charity.
And when we honor the virtues of the saints, we are but worshipping the virtues of Jesus Christ...”
 --
John Baptiste Marie Vianney Curé d'Ars

We render God a worship of adoration and dependence with faith, hope, love, and a profound humbling of our souls before His supreme Majesty. We honor the saints with a feeling of respect and veneration for the favors God granted them, for the virtues they practiced, and for the glory with which God has crowned them in heaven. We commend ourselves to their prayers.
It is a most precious grace that God should have destined the saints to be our protectors and our friends. Saint Bernard said that the honor we give them is less a glory for them than a help to us, and that we may call upon them with full confidence because they know how greatly we are exposed to dangers on earth, for they remember the perils that they themselves had to face during their lifetimes. -- Curé d'Ars.

The friendship that binds us to all the saints, and which is encouraged and commemorated by the feast-days of the Church, is not the invention of a handful of bigots or a commercial stunt manufactured by merchants of religious medallions. The communion of saints answers a definite need, and insofar as we neglect any one of the forms of spiritual life we are cutting ourselves off from a source of divine grace and making ourselves just a little blinder than we are already.
We too can be saints and we must all strive to become so.
The saints were mortals like us, weak and subject to the passions, as we are. We have the same help, the same means of grace, the same sacraments, but we must be like them and renounce the pleasures of the world, shunning the evils of the world as much as we can and remaining faithful to grace. We must take the saints as our models or be damned, that we must live either for heaven or for hell. There is no middle way. --Saint John Vianney.

The Church has celebrated some feast in honor of the saints from the period of primitive Christianity. There is tentative evidence of the celebration to honor all the martyrs in the writings of Tertullian (died 223) and Gregory of Nyssa (died 395). It was definitely observed at the time of Saint Ephraem (died 373), who in the Nisibene Hymnus mentions a feast kept in honor of the martyrs of all the earth on May 13. It should be noted that on May 13, c. 609, Pope Saint Boniface IV dedicated the Pantheon of Rome in honor of our Lady and all martyrs--another instance of something pagan baptized by Christianity for a new purpose dedicated to God.
The Venerable Bede (673-735) says that the pope designed that the memory of all the saints might in future be honored in the place which had formerly been devoted to the worship, not of gods, but of demons.

By 411 as indicated in the Syriac Short Martyrology, throughout the Syrian Church the Friday in the Octave of Easter was celebrated as the feast of all the martyrs.
Chaldean Catholics still maintain Easter Friday in honor of the martyrs.

Since at least the time of Saint John Chrysostom (died 407 - - one of the Three Holy Hierarchs), the Byzantine churches have kept a feast of all the martyrs on the Sunday after Pentecost (Chrysostom, A panegyric of all the martyrs that have suffered throughout the world)
  Saint John Chrysostom.
We are not quite sure how November 1 came to be commemorated in honor of all the saints in the West. We do know that by AD 800, Blessed Alcuin of York  was in the habit of keeping the solemnitas sanctissima of All Saints on November 1, preceded by a three-day fast. His friend Bishop Arno of Salzburg had presided over a synod in Bavaria (Germany) which included that day in its list of holy days (Walsh).
Blessed Alcuin
Why has the Church included such a day in its calendar? To honor all the saints--known and unknown to us--reigning together in glory; to give thanks to God for the graces with which He crowns all the elect; to excite ourselves to humble imitation of their virtues; to implore the Divine Mercy through the help of these intercessors; and to repair any failures in not having properly honored God in His saints on their individual feast days.

Saint Bernard wrote:
  It is our interest to honor the memory of the saints, not theirs. Would you know how it is our interest? from the remembrance of them I feel, I confess, a triple vehement desire kindled in my breast--of their company, of their bliss, and of their intercession.
First, of their company. To think of the saints is in some measure to see them. Thus we are in part, and this the better part of ourselves, in the land of the living, provided our affection goes along with our thoughts or remembrance: yet not as they are. The saints are there present, and in their persons; we are there only in affection and desires. Ah! when shall we join our fathers? when shall we be made the fellow-citizens of the blessed spirits, of the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, and virgins? when shall we be mixed in the choir of the saints?
The remembrance of each one among the saints is, as it were, a new spark, or rather torch, which sets our souls more vehemently on fire, and makes us ardently sigh to behold and embrace them, so that we seem to ourselves even now to be amongst them. And from this distant place of banishment we dart our affections sometimes towards the whole assembly, sometimes towards this, and sometimes that happy spirit. What sloth is it that we do not launch our souls into the midst of those happy troops, and burst hence by continual sighs! The church of the first-born waits for us; yet we loiter. The saints earnestly long for our arrival; yet we despise them. Let us with all the ardor of our souls prevent those who are expecting us; let us hasten to those who are waiting for us.

Secondly, he mentions the desire of their bliss; and, lastly, the succor of their intercession, and adds:
 
Have pity on me, have pity on me, at least you, my friends. You know our danger, our frail mould, our ignorance, and the snares of our enemies; you know our weakness, and the fury of their assaults. For I speak to you who have been under the like temptation; who have overcome the like assaults; have escaped the like snares; and have learned compassion from what you yourselves have suffered.--We are members of the same Head.--Your glory is not to be consummated without us...
Bernard of Clairvaux, Serm. 5 de fest. omnium sanct., n. 5, 6.

In his sermon on the Vigil of Saints Peter and Paul, Bernard also writes: He who was powerful on earth is more powerful in heaven, where he stands before the face of his Lord. And if he had compassion on sinners, and prayed for them while he lived on earth, he now prays to the Father for us so much the more earnestly as he more truly knows our extreme necessities and miseries; his blessed country has not changed, but increased his charity. Though now impassible, he is not a stranger to compassion: by standing before the throne of mercy, he has put on the tender bowels of mercy...
     
November 1st - All Saints Day - OUR LADY OF THE PALM (1755, Cadiz, Spain)
Mary and the Souls in Purgatory (I): What is Purgatory?
The Holy Church of God, considered in its totality, is composed of three parts: the Church militant, the Church triumphant, and the Church suffering, or purgatory. This triple Church constitutes the mystical body of Jesus Christ, and the souls in purgatory are no less her members than the faithful on earth and the elect in heaven.
In the Gospel, the Church is ordinarily called the Kingdom of God; purgatory, just like heaven and the Church on earth, is a province of that vast Kingdom. The three sister-Churches have between them an incessant exchange, a continual communication, called the Communion of Saints. These relationships have no other object than to lead souls to glory, the final term toward which all the elect tend.
The word purgatory means sometimes a place, sometimes a state half-way between hell and heaven. It is, properly speaking, the situation of the souls who, at the time of death, find themselves in a state of grace, but haven't completely expiated their faults or attained the degree of purity necessary to enjoy the vision of God.
Purgatory is therefore a temporary state, which ends in the beatific life.
The Church teaches two things about purgatory, truths that are clearly defined as dogmas of faith: first, that there is a purgatory; secondly, that the souls in purgatory can be helped by the petitions of the faithful, especially by the holy sacrifice of the Mass.
Rev. Fr. François-Xavier Schouppe, s.j. The Dogma of Purgatory Illustrated by Facts and Private Revelations

Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.
Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.
God calls each one of us to be a saint.
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed not for the benefit of the recipients so much as for the benefit of others.

November 1, 2006 Feast of All Saints  
The earliest certain observance of a feast in honor of all the saints is an early fourth-century commemoration of “all the martyrs. In the early seventh century, after successive waves of invaders plundered the catacombs, Pope Boniface IV gathered up some 28 wagonloads of bones and reinterred them beneath the Pantheon, a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods. The pope rededicated the shrine as a Christian church. According to Venerable Bede, the pope intended that the memory of all the saints might in the future be honored in the place which had formerly been dedicated to the worship not of gods but of demons. (On the Calculation of Time).
But the rededication of the Pantheon, like the earlier commemoration of all the martyrs, occurred in May. Many Eastern Churches still honor all the saints in the spring, either during the Easter season or immediately after Pentecost.

How the Western Church came to celebrate this feast in November is a puzzle to historians. The Anglo-Saxon theologian Alcuin observed the feast on November 1 in 800, as did his friend Arno, Bishop of Salzburg. Rome finally adopted that date in the ninth century.
Comment: This feast first honored martyrs. Later, when Christians were free to worship according to their conscience, the Church acknowledged other paths to sanctity. In the early centuries the only criterion was popular acclaim, even when the bishop's approval became the final step in placing a commemoration on the calendar. The first papal canonization occurred in 993; the lengthy process now required to prove extraordinary sanctity took form in the last 500 years. Today's feast honors the obscure as well as the famous—the saints each of us have known.
Quote: “After this I had a vision of a great multitude, which no one could count, from every nation, race, people, and tongue. They stood before the throne and before the Lamb, wearing white robes and holding palm branches in their hands.... [One of the elders] said to me, ‘These are the ones who have survived the time of great distress; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb’” (Revelation 7:9,14).

November 1 - Queen of All Saints (608)
Our Lady of Folgoët

Salaün was such a simpleton that his contemporaries of the 15th century considered him a madman. He could only say two words: "Ave Maria" (Hail Mary) and he repeated those two words over and over.

One year on November 1, Salaün was found dead near a tree trunk, by the edge of the woods, at the far end of the parish of Guic-Elleau in France and the townspeople buried him immediately on the spot. Later, a beautifully smelling lily grew up from his grave, with this inscription on it written in gold letters, the only two words he had pronounced all his life: "Ave Maria."

In 1365, the first stone was laid for a church that is now the jewel of all the churches of Brittany: Notre-Dame de Folgoët (Our Lady of the Madman of the Woods). The statue of Our Lady was crowned by the Church in 1888?


November 1 - All Saints  As the world returns to the love of Mary…
The term ‘Woman’ indicated a wider relationship to all humanity than ‘Mother.’ It meant that she (Mary) was to be not only his mother, but that she was also to be the mother of all mankind, as he was the Savior of all mankind. She was now to have many children—not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit. Jesus was her firstborn in the flesh in joy; John was her second-born in the spirit of sorrow; and we are her millionth and millionth born.
(…)
Every objection against devotion to Mary grows in the soil of an imperfect belief in the Son. It is a historical fact that, as the world lost the Mother, it also lost the Son. It may be that, as the world returns to the love of Mary, it will also return to a belief in the divinity of Christ.  
Venerable Fulton J. Sheen  American Bishop.
His cause for sainthood was opened in 2002

          St. Caesarius & Julian Martyrs of Terracina, Italy
          St. Caesarius martyrs of Damascus & five other Companions
3rd v. Saint Benignus of Dijon sent by Saint Polycarp to preach the Gospel in Gaul
   300 St. Mary the Slave Martyr slave of a Roman patrician named Tertullus
   306 St. Cyrenia & Juliana Martyred women burned to death at Tarsus
   344 St. John & James Persian martyrs executed by King Shapur II
   388 Saint Maturinus of Sens sold everything he owned to possess the pearl of great price (RM)
   430 St. Marcellus of Paris From youth exhibited virtues of purity, modesty, meekness, charity miracle worker B
         St. Austremonius Bishop one of 7 missionaries  to evangelize Gaul
4th v. ST MATURINUS, OR MATHURIN
4th v.? St Mary, Virgin And Martyr
5th v. St. Cledwyn of Wales Patron saint of Llangledwyn in Carmarthenshire
5th or 6th century. Pabiali of Wales
   475 St. Amabilis reputation for holiness and Patron effectiveness against fire and snakes
5th century St. Dingad Reportedly the hermit son of Chieftain Brychan
6th v.  St. Ceitho of Wales One of five brothers, saints of the great Welsh family of Cunedda
     537 St. Vigor Bishop and missionary opposed paganism
           Saint Gwythian patron of a church in northern Cornwall
5th&6th v.  St. Pabiali Welsh patron saint
6th century St. Ceitho Welsh saint one of 5 brothers of Cunedda
6th century St. Cadfan Missionary to Wales
    609 St. Severinus Benedictine monk and hermit
    616 St. Licinius Bishop and Frankish nobleman
    627 St. Caesarius of Clermont B (AC)
    660 St. Floribert Benedictine abbot of Ghent
    679 Genesius of Fontenelle 658 raised to the see of Lyons OSB
    699 St. Severinus of Tivoli, OSB Hermit
1000 St. Germanus of Montfort relics were elevated by Saint Francis de Sales in 1621 OSB Monk
1358 St. Salaun Confessor poor man spiritual attainment was recognized
1429 Blessed Conradin of Brescia model Dominican model friar just as he was formerly a model student of purity and
         charity OP
1622 Bl. Paul Navarro Martyr of Japan  Bl 1622  Peter Onizuko  Japanese martyr native of Arima Japan
1836 Blessed Nunzio Sulprizio an Italian from Pescara who worked as an apprentice blacksmith.
1861 St. Valentine Berrio-Ochoa Dominican Bishop Vietnam martyr

 
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory.” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith
Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh,
was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly
Mother of God (Theotokos).


ALL SAINTS
IN those churches in which the Divine Office is recited in choir the hour of Prime is followed by the reading of the martyrology for the day, and this reading always ends with the words Et alibi aliorum plurimorum sanctorum martyrum et confessorum atque sanctarum virginum: “And in other places [the commemoration] of many other holy martyrs, confessors and virgins.”

On the feast of All Saints the Church celebrates in the most solemn fashion, as well as all those whom she has formally beatified and canonized and those whose names are entered in the various martyrologies or whose cultus is of local observance, these “many others” and not only the martyrs, confessors and virgins in the technical sense of those words, but all, known to manor known only to God, who, in whatever circumstances and whatever states of life, have contended manfully in this life and now enjoy the blissful vision of God for ever in Heaven.

   The Church thus honours all the saints reigning together in glory to give thanks to God for the graces and crowns of His servants to move ourselves to strive after their virtues by considering their example; to implore the divine mercy through this multitude of powerful intercessors; and to repair any failure or insufficiency in not having duly honoured God in His saints on their particular festivals, and to glorify Him in those saints who are unknown to us or for whom no particular festivals are appointed. Therefore our fervour on this day ought to be a reparation for our lukewarmness in all the other feasts of the year; they being all comprised in this one solemn commemoration, which is an image of that eternal great feast which God continually celebrates in Heaven with all the righteous, whom we humbly join in praising His goodness and mercies. In this, as in all other feasts of the saints, God is our only object of supreme worship, and the whole of that lesser and different veneration which is paid to them is directed to give sovereign honour to Him alone, whose gifts their graces are; and our prayers to them are only petitions to holy fellow-creatures for the assistance of their prayers to God for us. When therefore we honour the saints, in them and through them we honour God, and Christ, true God and true man, the redeemer and saviour of mankind, the king of all the saints, the source of their holiness and glory.
These glorious citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem God has chosen out of all peoples and nations without any distinction; persons of all ages, showing there is no age which is not ripe for Heaven, and out of all states and conditions: amidst the pomp of worldly grandeur, in the cottage, in the army, in trade, in the magistracy; clergy, monks, nuns, married persons and widows, slaves and freemen. There is no state that has not been honoured with its saints. And they were all made saints by the very occupations of their state and by the ordinary occurrences of life: prosperity and adversity, health and sickness, honour and contempt, riches and poverty—all these they made the means of their sanctification. God does not require, then, that men abandon their employments in the world, but that they hallow them by disengagement of heart and religious motive or intention. Thus has every station in the world been adorned with saints.
It is sometimes objected against the ideal of holiness held up by the Church before all men indiscriminately that it is incompatible with that secular life in which the overwhelming majority of men and women are, and are meant to be, engaged. And in support of this objection it is alleged that more clergy and members of religious orders of both sexes become saints than do lay people, more not only relatively but absolutely. This is not known to be so, and is impossible of proof. If it be a question of canonized and beatified saints, then it is true that there are far more religious than lay people, and also far more bishops than priests, and men than women. But canonization and beatification are exterior marks, “certificates” if the expression may be allowed, by which the Church honours certain individuals, a selection from among those many holy ones who contribute to her sanctity. And in the making of that selection some purely natural factors necessarily come into play. A religious order has the means and the motive for forwarding the “cause” of an individual who in other circumstances would have never been heard of outside his own circle; the episcopal office brings its holder into greater prominence, lends of itself a weight to his name, and carries with it the means and influence to prosecute his cause; and men, as distinct from women, have by their very sex greater opportunities of notable achievement and of the fame of their virtues becoming widespread in this world. But even so a modification is taking place.

   Among those saints or candidates for canonization in our own day whose cause, where it has been introduced, was or is the interest of so many diverse people that it could almost be said to be proposed by the Church herself, and not by a particular country, order or diocese, a greater variety of “states of life” is exhibited: a pope, Pius X, and a country parson, St John Vianney; St Teresa of Lisieux, a simple nun; Frederic Ozanam, Bd Contardo Ferrini, Ludovic Necchi, Matt Talbot, laymen; Bd Anne Mary Taigi was the wife of an obscure man-servant, but her recognition is probably due, under God, to the interest of the Trinitarians, of which she was a tertiary.

    In reading the full-length biographies of the many recently canonized or beatified foundresses of religious congregations it is noticeable how much space is taken up by accounts of the spiritual and corporal works of mercy which the subjects undertook or of which they were the cause. Full information about their “inner life” often seems to be lacking (Bd Mary Teresa de Soubiran is a notable exception) and is dealt with in general, or even common-form, terms. These people attained holiness in the course of lives which were full, “pressed down and running over”, with activities directed immediately to the good of others, lives that were in a sense as much “in the world” as those of lay people. This circumstance—no new one, of course—must be of encouragement to those who are tempted to think that “a really Christian life” can hardly be led outside a cloister, or at any rate outside some ecclesiastical state. There is but one Gospel, one Sacrifice, one, Redeemer, one Heaven and one way to Heaven. It has been traced out by Jesus Christ, the rule of salvation laid down by Him is invariable and the same for all. It is an entirely false idea that Christians in the world are not bound to aim at perfection, or that they may be saved in a different path from that of the saints.

The saints are far from having simply ethical significance only, as patterns of virtuous life they have also immense religious significance, not only as living and functioning members of the mystical Body of Christ who by intercession with Him are in vital contact with the Church militant and suffering, but also as fruits of the Redemption who have attained their last end in the vision of God “they who are come out of great tribulation and have washed their robes and have made them white with the blood of the Lamb. Therefore they are before the throne of God…”   
“The feast of All Saints”, said the holy J. J. Olier, founder of Saint-Sulpice, “seems to me to be in some sort a greater than that of Easter or the Ascension. Our Lord is perfected in this mystery, because, as our head, He is only perfectly fulfilled when He is united to all His members, the saints. [The feast] is glorious because it manifests exteriorly the hidden life of Jesus Christ. The greatness and perfection of the saints is entirely the work of His spirit dwelling in them.”

There are considerable indications of the celebration in quite early times of a collective feast of the martyrs—martyrs in those days being alone reckoned as saints. Although certain passages which have been appealed to in Tertullian and in St Gregory of Nyssa’s Life of St Gregory Thaumaturges are too vague to be of much service, we are on firmer ground when, in the Carmina Nisibena of St Ephraem (d. c 373), we find mention of a feast kept in honour of “the martyrs of all the earth”. This was apparently fixed for May 13, a fact which suggests the intervention of some oriental influence in the choice of precisely May 13 for the dedication of the Pantheon in Rome, mentioned below.
    Throughout the Syrian church in general, however, we know that already in 411, or earlier, a “feast of all the martyrs” was celebrated on the Friday of Easter week, for the Syriac Breviarium expressly records this. Easter Friday is still thus distinguished by the Catholics of the Chaldean rite and by the Nestorians.
    On the other hand the Byzantine churches kept and still keep a feast of all the saints on the Sunday after Pentecost, our Trinity Sunday; Chrysostom at Constantinople tells his hearers, in a sermon entitled “A Panegyric of all the Martyrs that have suffered throughout the world”, that seven days have hardly passed since the feast of Pentecost.
   How the celebration of All Saints began in the West still remains somewhat of a problem. In both the Félire of Oengus and the Martyrology of Tallaght we find on April 17 a commemoration of all the martyrs, and on April 20 a feast “of all the Saints of the whole of Europe”. As the Tallaght text phrases it, this day is the “communis sollemnitas omnium sanctorum et virginum Hiberniae et Britanniae et totius Europae”.
    Turning to England, we note that the primitive text of Bede’s Martyrology contained no mention of All Saints, but in copies dating from the close of the eighth century or the beginning of the ninth, we find on November 1 the entry
Natale sancti Caesarii et festivitas omnium sanctorum.” Dom Quentin has suggested that the idea that Pope St Boniface IV intended by the dedication of the Pantheon (in honour of our Lady and all martyrs, on May 13, c. 609; still commemorated in the Roman Martyrology) to establish something in the nature of a feast of All Saints may have been deduced by Ado and others from a phrase used by Bede, who has spoken of this dedication both in his Ecclesiastical History and in his De temporum ratione.

Bede says—what was not stated in the Liber Pontificalis which he had before him—that the pope designed that “the memory of all the saints might in future be honoured in the place which had formerly been devoted to the worship, not of gods, but of demons”.

In any case it is certain that Alcuin in the year 800 was in the habit of keeping the solemnitas sanctissima of All Saints on November 1, with a previous three days’ fast. He knew that his friend Arno, Bishop of Salzburg, shared his interest in the festival, since Arno had a short time before presided over a Bavarian council which included that day in its list of holy days. We also hear of a certain Cathwulf who about the year 775 besought Charlemagne to institute a feast, with a fasting vigil preceding, “in honour of the Trinity, the Unity, the angels and all the saints”.

In the calendar in Bodley MS. Digby 63, ninth century, northern English, All Saints is marked on November 1 as a principal feast. Rome seems finally to have adopted that date under Gallican influence.
In support of the above observations on the beginnings of this feast, see Tertullian, De corona, cap. 3; Gregory of Nyssa in Migne, PG., vol. xlvi, c. 953; Ephraem Syrus, Carmina Nisibena, ed. Bicknell, pp. 23, 84; Chrysostom in Migne PG., vol. 1, c. 705; D. Quentin, Martyrologes historiques, pp. 637-641; and the Revue Benedictine, 1910, p. 58, and 1913, p. 44. On the general question consult Abbot Cabrol in DAC., vol. v, cc. 1418—2419; and particularly the Acta Sanctorum, Propylaeum decembris, pp. 488—489, from which it appears that a supposed reference of Oengus to November 1 as All Saints’ day is a mistake. Cf. also Duchesne, Liber pontificalis, vol. i, pp. 417, 422—423; and, for the oriental tradition, Nilles, Calendarium utriusque ecclesiae, especially vol. i, p. 314, and vol. ii, pp. 334 and 424. The folklore aspects of the feast are discussed by Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. i, pp. 263 seq. A number of religious orders have the privilege of a feast of all the saints of their respective orders. Many dioceses, especially in France, formerly observed a collective feast of their local diocesan saints; such feasts have now been abolished, though All Saints of Ireland is kept in that country on November 6. In England the feast was formerly often called All Hallows.
St. Caesarius martyrs of Damascus & five other Companions
Damásci pássio sanctórum Cæsárii, Dácii et aliórum quinque.
    At Damascus, the martyrdom of the Saints Caesarius, Dacius, and five others.

SS. Caesarius and Julian, martyrs
THE “acts” of these martyrs are not authentic. Stripped of some common-form marvels they are summarized by Alban Butler as follows:  At Terracina in Italy it was a barbarous custom on certain solemn occasions for a young man to make himself a voluntary sacrifice to Apollo, the tutelar deity of the city. After having been pampered for some months by the citizens, he offered sacrifice to Apollo, and then threw himself headlong from a precipice into the sea. Caesarius, a deacon from Africa, happened once to be present at this impious scene and, not being able to contain his indignation, spoke openly against so abominable a superstition. The priest of the temple caused him to be apprehended, and accused him before the governor, by whose sentence the deacon was, after nearly two years’ imprisonment, put into a sack and cast into the sea, together with a Christian priest named Julian.

Whatever their true story, SS. Caesarius and Julian are mentioned in the early martyrologies; and in Rome there has been since the sixth century a church of San Cesareo, which is now a cardinalitial title.

See the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i, where four separate texts of the passio are printed, together with a paraphrase of one of them in Greek. The church of San Cesareo is on the Palatine and it has been suggested that the adoption of this dedication in the imperial quarter was due to the form of the saint’s name suggesting a connection with emperors. Consult Delehaye, Origines du culte des martyrs, pp. 308, 409; Lanzoni in Rivista di archeo­logia cristiana, vol. i, pp. 146—148; Duchesne in Nuovo bullettino di arch. crist., 1900, pp. 17 seq.; and J. P. Kirsch, Der stadtrömische Fest-Kalender, p. 208.

With Dacius and five other companions, Caesarius, Sabbas, Sabinian, Agrippa, Adrian and Thomas at Damascus,  martyrs of Damascus, Syria

Caesarius & Julian (Lucian) MM (RM). The names of both Caesarius, an African deacon, and Julian, a priest, appear in the earliest martyrologies. They were both martyred at Terracina, Italy, where it was the custom to periodically have a young man volunteer to jump off a cliff into the sea as a sacrifice to the titular deity of the city, Apollo. The citizens would treat the young man as a goose to be fattened-- he would be pampered, fed treats, and richly clothed before he gave himself up to the sea. Witnessing the sacrifice, Caesarius shouted against the abominable superstition. The priest of Apollo had him arrested and taken before the governor, who sentenced the deacon and his priest to be sewn into a sack and thrown into the sea.
The church of Saint Caesarius of the Appian Way in Rome, now a title of one of the cardinal deacons, is dedicated to Saint Caesarius the African. The church had fallen into ruins and was magnificently rebuilt by Clement VIII for his nephew Cardinal Deacon Sylvester Aldobrandini (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
St. Caesarius & Julian Martyrs of Terracina, Italy
Tarracínæ, in Campánia, natális sancti Cæsárii Diáconi, qui, diébus multis in custódia macerátus, póstea, cum sancto Juliáno Presbytero, in saccum missus et in mare præcipitátus est.
    At Terracina in Campania, the birthday of St. Caesarius, deacon, who was detained many days in prison, afterwards put into a sack with the priest St. Julian, and then thrown into the sea.
Caesarius was a deacon from Africa visiting Italy. Julian was a local priest. During a sacrificial rite of the pagan god Apollo. Caesarius protested the murder of a youth.
He was imprisoned and then drowned with Julian. The chinch of St. Caesarius the African is on the Appian Way in Rome.
Caesarius, Decius (Dacius) & Companions MM (RM)
A group of seven martyrs who suffered at Damascus, Syria (Benedictines).
3rd v. Saint Benignus of Dijon sent by Saint Polycarp to preach the Gospel in Gaul M (RM)  
In castro Divióne sancti Benígni Presbyteri, qui a beáto Polycárpo missus est in Gálliam ad prædicándum Evangélium; et, postquam, sub Marco Aurélio Imperatóre, a Teréntio Júdice gravíssimis torméntis multiplíciter est afflíctus, tandem ejus collum vecte férreo tundi et corpus láncea perforári jubétur.
    At Dijon, St. Benignus, a priest, who was sent to France by blessed Polycarp to preach the Gospel.  After he had been subjected to many grievous torments by the judge Terentius, under Emperor Marcus Aurelius, he was finally condemned to have his neck struck with an iron bar and his body pierced with a lance.

ALTHOUGH the Roman Martyrology lends its authority to the statement that St Benignus was a disciple of St Polycarp at Smyrna and was martyred at Dijon in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Alban Butler only ventures that he was a Roman missionary who suffered near Dijon, “probably in the reign of Aurelian”. Even this is going too far, as his nationality is not known, and the suggested date is perhaps too late: he may have been a disciple of St Irenaeus of Lyons, martyred at Épagny. He came to be venerated in the neighbourhood of Dijon, but at the beginning of the sixth century nothing was known about him locally.

    St Gregory of Tours says that at this time the people of Dijon honoured a certain tomb, which his great-grandfather, St Gregory, Bishop of Langres, believed to be the grave of a pagan. He was warned in a dream and by a miracle that it was actually the resting-place of the martyred St Benignus. Gregory of Langres accordingly restored the tomb and built a basilica over it. He had no particulars of the life and death of the martyr, but in due course some pilgrims returning from Italy put him in possession of a passio Sancti Benigni. That this document had its origin in Rome is not likely, and it is manifest that in its present form (which seems to be contemporaneous with St Gregory of Langres) it has at the very least been edited in Dijon and is completely spurious.

This passio relates that St Polycarp of Smyrna had a vision of St Irenaeus, then dead (in fact he did not die until some fifty years after Polycarp), in consequence of which he sent two priests, Benignus and Andochius, and the deacon Thyrsus to preach the gospel in Gaul. After being wrecked on Corsica, where they picked up St Andeolus, they landed at Marseilles and made their way to the Côte d’Or. At Autun they were received into the house of one Faustus, whose son St Symphorian was baptized by St Benignus. The missionaries then separated and at Langres Benignus converted St Leonilla and her three twin grandsons (see St Speusippus, etc., on January 17). He went on to Dijon and there preached with great effect, and wrought many miracles.

   Persecution of Christians having broken out, the judge Terence denounced Benignus to the Emperor Aurelian, who was in Gaul (so he was, about a hundred years after the death of St Polycarp). The missionary was arrested at Épagny, near Dijon, and after many trials and torments, which he opposed by no less startling miracles, his head was crushed with an iron bar and his heart pierced. The body was buried in a tomb that was made to look like a pagan monument in order to deceive the persecutors.

   Mgr Duchesne has shown that this tale is the first link in a chain of religious romances written during the early part of the sixth century to describe the beginnings of the churches of Autun, Besançon, Langres and Valence (SS. Andochius and Thyrsus, Ferreolus and Ferrutio, Benignus, Felix, Achilleus and Fortunatus); no reliance whatever can be placed on them and the very existence of some of these martyrs is doubtful.

Here again five separate texts of the passio will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i. Besides the commentary of the Bollandists, see also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. i, pp. 51-62, and Leclercq in DAC., vol. iv, cc. 835—849. 

The cultus of this martyr began in the early 6th century with the discovery of an ancient tomb at Dijon. Subsequently, a Passio of Saint Benignus made its appearance; it was said to have had its origin in Italy, but the story it tells is manifestly spurious in all its versions. There is a remote possibility that Benignus was a missionary priest from Lyons, martyred at Epagny, near Dijon, in the late second century (probably under Aurelian, 270-275).
According to the 6th century legend, Saint Benignus, along with another priest and a deacon, were sent by Saint Polycarp to preach the Gospel in Gaul. Their adventures included being shipwrecked at Corsica, landing at Marseilles and making their way perilously up the rivers Rhone and Saone. They reached Autun, where Benignus converted a nobleman who later was martyred (Saint Symphorianus).

He and his companions separated, to evangelize different parts of Gaul. He worked openly, despite the danger to Christians. Inevitably Benignus was denounced to the authorities and put on trial. He refused to sacrifice to pagan idols or to Caesar. He refused to deny Christ. Attempts were made to make him change his mind by savage tortures. Eventually he was put to death.

His impressive sarcophagus can still be seen in the crypt under the cathedral at Dijon in what was a large Roman cemetery. In the 6th century, Saint Gregory of Langres built a basilica and monastery on the site. William of Volpiano built a larger church there for his Cluniac monastery, which revived monasticism in Normandy in the 11th century. The church and the tomb of Saint Benignus have survived an earthquake (1280) and the French Revolution (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Farmer).

Roeder says there it is difficult to sort out the graphic attributes of several Benignus's. It appears, however, the Benignus of Dijon, on the seal of the abbey, is represented as having a dog by him and holding a key (Roeder). A late medieval carved cantor's staff of Benignus, depicting his fingers as damaged during his martyrdom, remains at Dijon (Farmer).
300 St. Mary the Slave Martyr slave of a Roman patrician named Tertullus
Eódem die sanctæ Maríæ ancíllæ, quæ, Christiánæ religiónis nómine accusáta, hinc, sub Hadriáno Imperatóre, diris verbéribus afflícta, equúlei extensiónem et ungulárum laceratiónem passa, martyrium complévit.
    On the same day, St. Mary, a servant girl.  Being accused of professing the Christian religion in the time of Emperor Hadrian, she was subjected to cruel scourging, to torture on the rack, and the lacerating of her body with iron hooks, and thus completed her martyrdom
 Delivered to the local prefect on charges of being a Christian, despite Tertullus’ effort to save her, Mary suffered unspeakable tortures. Spectators demanded her release, and the prefect turned her over to the custody of a soldier. He aided her escape. She died a natural death but is venerated as a martyr because of the intensity of her sufferings.

Mary the Slave VM (RM). Saint Mary was a slave girl in the household of a Roman patrician, Senator Tertullus. Mary, a cradle Catholic, prayed constantly and fasted frequently, especially during pagan festivals, which displeased her superstitious mistress. Her master, however, highly valued her fidelity to duty. When Diocletian issued his edicts against Christians, Tertullus repeatedly tried to convince Mary to renounce her faith, including whipping her unmercifully then locking her in a dark cellar for 30 days with nothing but bread and water. Nothing could shake her constancy. In the meantime, judgement had been rendered against Tertullus for having hidden a Christian and she had to be surrendered. The mob hearing her modest confession before the judge demanded that Mary be burned to death. She responded: "God, whom I serve, is with me; and I do not fear your torments, which can only take away a life which I desire to lay down for Jesus Christ." She was then tortured until the crowd begged for her release. The judge gave her into the custody of a soldier from whom she escaped into the mountains, where she died a happy death. She is venerated as a martyr because of her suffering during the persecution of Diocletian (Benedictines).
306 St. Cyrenia & Juliana Martyred women burned to death at Tarsus Turkey
Tarsi, in Cilícia, sanctárum Cyréniæ et Juliánæ Mártyrum, sub Maximiáno Imperatóre.
    At Tarsus in Cilicia, under Emperor Maximian, the Saints Cyrenia and Juliana.
in the reign of co-Emperor Galerius.
Cyrenia and Juliana MM (RM). Two Christian women burnt to death at Tarsus in Asia Minor under Diocletian (Benedictines).

Tarracínæ, in Campánia, natális sancti Cæsárii Diáconi, qui, diébus multis in custódia macerátus, póstea, cum sancto Juliáno Presbytero, in saccum missus et in mare præcipitátus est.
   
St. Caesarius, deacon,  with the priest St. Julian at Terracina in Campania, the birthday of St. Caesarius, who was detained many days in prison, afterwards put into a sack, and then thrown into the sea.
344 St. John & James Persian martyrs executed by King Shapur II
In Pérside sanctórum Mártyrum Joánnis Epíscopi, et Jacóbi Presbyteri, sub Sápore Rege.
    In Persia, the holy martyrs John, a bishop, and James, a priest, under King Sapor.
Tradition states that John was a bishop.
John and James MM (RM). Persian martyrs who suffered under King Shapur II. John is described as a bishop (Benedictines).
3rd century St. Austremonius Bishop one of 7 missionaries  to evangelize Gaul
 Arvérnis, in Gállia, sancti Austremónii, qui fuit primus ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus.
    At Auvergne in France, St. Austremonius, first bishop of Clermont.

4th v, ? ST AUSTREMONIUS, Bishop of CLERMONT

NOTHING very certain is known of this saint except that he was a missionary in Auvergne where, as St Stremoine, he is venerated as the apostle and first bishop of Clermont. Even the time during which he flourished is a matter of some dis­cussion. According to St Gregory of Tours he was one of the seven bishops sent from Rome into Gaul about the middle of the third century. His cultus having become popular owing to a vision seen by a deacon of his reputed tomb at Issoire, a legendary account of St Austremonius evolved during the sixth and following centuries. This made him one of the seventy-two disciples of our Lord, and attributed his death to a Jewish rabbi whose son the saint had converted the rabbi killed him and cut off his head, throwing it down a well to which it was afterwards traced by the trail of blood. St Austremonius was (and is, at Clermont) accordingly revered as a martyr. His body was first buried at Issoire. There is no reason to suppose that St Austremonius was a martyr, and he is not recognized as such in the Roman Martyrology.

Three legendary lives of St Austremonius, the third of which has been attributed without reason to St Praejectus, arc printed in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i. With these the Bollandists have edited other texts relating to the translations of the saint’s supposed relics and his miracles. See further Duchesne, Fastes Episcopaux, vol. ii, pp. 119—122 Poncelet in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xiii (1894), pp. 33—46 Leclercq in DAC., vol. iii, cc. 1906—1914; and L. Levillain in Le Moyen-Age (on the translations) for 1904, pp. 281—337. it seems true shat St Praejectus (Prix) did complete an account of his predecessor Austremonius, but it has perished. 

Also called St. Stremoine, in Clermont, France. Austremonius was sent with six other missionaries from Rome to evangelize Gaul. Another tradition states that Austremonius was martyred. He was supposedly slain by a Jewish rabbi for converting the man's son.

4th v.? ST MARY, VIRGIN AND MARTYR

MARY was slave to Tertullus, a Roman official, and a Christian from her cradle, the only one in the household. She prayed much and fasted frequently, especially on idolatrous festivals. This devotion displeased her mistress, but her fidelity and diligence were appreciated. When persecution broke out Tertullus tried to induce Mary to renounce her faith, but he could not shake her constancy. Fearing to lose her if she fell into the hands of the prefect, he had her unmercifully whipped and then hidden in a dark room. The matter became known, and the prefect made a charge against Tertullus that he had concealed a Christian in his house; the slave was forthwith delivered up. The mob in the court, hearing her confess the name of Christ, demanded that she should be burnt alive. Mary stood praying that God would give her constancy, and said to the judge, “The God whom I serve is with me. I fear not your torments, which can only take away a life that I am ready to lay down for Jesus Christ.” The judge commanded her to be tortured, which was done with such cruelty that the bystanders now cried out that they could not bear so horrible a sight and entreated that she might be released. The judge handed her over to a soldier, who, however, respected her helplessness and allowed her to escape. St Mary eventually died a natural death, but she is called a martyr in the Roman Martyrology on account of her sufferings for Christ. 

The Bollandist Father Van Hooff, in agreement with E. Le Blant, was inclined to believe that some traces of an authentic story are preserved in the passio of this martyr. It is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i. But the text, as we possess it, has certainly been rewritten to suit the taste of later times. It contains extravagances borrowed from other hagiographical fictions, and the writer, moreover, assigns the martyrdom to the time of Marcus Aurelius, which is quite unlikely. There is a doubtful mention of Maria in the Hieronymianum, and in this manner, as Dom Quentin (Lu Martyrologes historiques, p. 180) explains, Mary, the Ancilla, has, by way of Ado and Usuard, found a place in the Roman Martyrology. 

388 Saint Maturinus of Sens sold everything he owned to possess the pearl of great price (RM)
Lyricánti, in Wastinénsi Gálliæ território, sancti Maturíni Confessóris.
    In Gatinais in France, St. Mathurin, confessor.
(also known as Mathurin) Born near Montargis, France. As soon as Saint Maturinus heard the Good News, his heart was entirely converted to Christ. He sold everything he owned to possess the pearl of great price. Whole-heartedly devoting himself to God, he was ordained a priest by Bishop Polycarp of Sens. In his turn he converted his own parents and evangelized his native district with signal success. He is honored as the apostle and patron of the province of Gatinois. Upon his death, his remains were deposited at Sens. Later the majority of them were translated to Larchant near Nemours, which began a site of pilgrimage until it was destroyed by the Huguenots in 1568. Saint Maturinus is the titular patron of two churches in Paris, one of which was given to the Trinitarians, who were thereafter called Mathurins in France. The other possesses considerable relics of the saint (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
4th v. ST MATURINUS, OR MATHURIN

THE entirely legendary Life of St Maturinus says he was the son of pagan parents at Larchant in the territory of Sens. Unlike his father, who was a persecutor, Maturinus listened to the Christian gospel, and at the age of twelve was judged worthy to receive baptism. His first converts were his own parents. He became a priest at twenty, with a great gift of casting out evil spirits, and was so trusted by his bishop that when he had to go to Rome he left Maturinus in charge. The saint preached in the Gâtinais and made many converts, until, his reputation as an exorcist having travelled; he also was sent for to Rome, to deliver a noble maiden who was grievously tormented. There, says the legend, he died. His body was brought back to Sens and then to his native place, where the Huguenots destroyed the relics. The cultus seems never to have been extensive, and his name is most familiar, in “Mathurins”, as the colloquial name in France of the Trinitarian friars, to whom was given a church in Paris dedicated in honour of St Mathurin.

See the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i, where the Latin texts of the legend are printed with a commentary. The local bearings of the cult have been fully studied by E. Thoison in a series of articles contributed to the Annales de la Société hist.-archéol. Gâtinais from 1886 to 1888. Cf. also H. Gaidox in Mélusine, vol. v (1890), pp. 151—152. 

Sometimes called Maturinus. He was born in a pagan family at Larchant, France. Baptized at age twelve, he was ordained a priest by St. Polycarp. A successful missionary, Mathurin was also an exorcist. He died in Rome.
430 St. Marcellus of Paris From his youth he exhibited the virtues of purity, modesty, meekness, and charity miracle worker B (RM)
Lutétiæ Parisiórum deposítio sancti Marcélli Epíscopi.
    At Paris, the death of St. Marcellus, bishop.

410? ST MARCELLUS, BISHOP OF PARIS
IT is stated that this Marcellus was born at Paris of parents not conspicuous for rank in the world but on whom his holiness reflected the greatest honour: he gave himself entirely to the discipline of virtue and prayer, so as to seem disengaged both from the world and the flesh, says the author of his life. The uncommon gravity of his character and his progress in sacred learning recommended him to Prudentius, Bishop of Paris, who ordained him reader and later made him his archdeacon. From this time the saint is said to have given frequent proofs of a wonderful gift of miracles, and upon the decease of Prudentius was unanimously chosen bishop of Paris. It is related that by his prayers and authority he defended his flock from the raids of barbarians, and some surprising marvels (including victory over a great serpent or dragon) are attributed to him by his biographer. “But”, as Alban Butler remarks, “the circumstances depend upon the authority of one who wrote over a hundred years after the time, and who, being a foreigner, took them upon trust and probably upon popular reports.” The saint died early in the fifth century. His body was buried in the catacomb known by his name on the left bank of the Seine, a district now joined to the city and called the suburb of Saint-Marceau. 
Modern criticism seems agreed that the Life of this saint may without hesitation be assigned to the authorship of St Venantius Fortunatus, who, pace Alban Butler, can hardly be regarded as a foreigner in Gaul, except technically. It has been critically edited both by B. Krusch in MGH., Auctores antiquissimi, vol. iv, pt 2, pp. 49—54, and in the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i. See also Duchesne, Fastes Episcopaux, vol. ii, p. 470. 

(also known as Marceau) Born in Paris; died November 1, c. 430. Bishop Marcellus of Paris was born of common, but obviously virtuous, parents. From his youth he exhibited the virtues of purity, modesty, meekness, and charity. He attempted to live in the world without     being a part of it, keeping his eyes focussed on the heavenly Jerusalem. His progress in this regard led to his appointment as reader in the cathedral of Paris. From that time, he was known as a miracle worker and soon ordained to the priesthood. Upon the death of Bishop Prudentius, Marcellus was chosen to succeed him. As bishop he was careful and indefatigable. An unreliable report by a foreigner tell us that Marcellus freed the country from a great serpent that lived in the sepulcher of an adulteress. Saint Marcellus was buried in the old Christian cemetery outside the walls of the city, where now is the suburb of Saint-Marceau that was named in his honor. His relics are venerated in the cathedral (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
475 St. Amabilis reputation for holiness and Patron effectiveness against fire and snakes
Amabilis served at the Clermont Cathedral and then Auvergne.
He gained a reputation for holiness and effectiveness against fire and snakes.
Amabilis of Auvergne (of Riom) (AC). It seems that Amabilis was precentor of the cathedral at Clermont and afterwards parish priest of Riom in Auvergne (Benedictines). Saint Amabilis is portrayed as a bishop with an angel playing music to him. He is venerated at Auvergne and Riom. Invoked against fire, snake-bite, poison, wild beasts, possession, and madness (Roeder).
5th century St. Dingad Reportedly the hermit son of Chieftain Brychan
of Brecknock. He lived in Llangingad, Llangovery, in Dyfed, Wales.

Dingad of Wales (AC) (also known as Digat) Died 5th century. Saint Dingad was another son of the chieftain Brychan of Brecknock. He led a monastic or eremitical life at Llandingad (Llandovery, Dyfed) in Monmouthshire, southern Wales. The patron of Dingestow (Gwent) may be today's saint or Dingad ab Nudd Hael, king of Bryn Buga (Benedictines, Bowen, Farmer).

5th v.  Cledwyn of Wales Patron saint of Llangledwyn in Carmarthenshire (AC)  
(also known as Clydwyn)
Patron saint of Llangledwyn in Carmarthenshire. Alleged to have been the eldest son of King Saint Brychan, and to have succeeded him as ruler of part of his dominions (Benedictines).
5th or 6th century. Pabiali of Wales (AC)
(also known as Partypallai)  Pabiali, another son of the British prince Brychan by his Spanish wife Proistri, is said to have gone to Spain. He is patron of a chapel called Partypallai in Wales (Benedictines).

537 St. Vigor Bishop and missionary opposed paganism
Bajócis, in Gállia, sancti Vigóris Epíscopi, témpore Childebérti, Francórum Regis.
    At Bayeux, in the reign of the Frankish king Childebert, St. Vigor, bishop.

Vigor was born in Artois and was active during the reign of King Childebert I. His education was entrusted to St Vedast at Arras, but Vigor feared his father would not approve of his desire to be a priest, so he ran away with a companion and concealed himself at the village of Ravière, near Bayeux. Here they preached and instructed the people, and after he had been ordained Vigor extended his missionary labours. In 513 the bishop of Bayeux died and St Vigor was put in his place. He found that some people still gave religious worship to a stone figure on a hill near the city. He therefore threw down the idol, and built a church in its place, renaming it the Hill of Anointing. When Count Bertulf fell from his horse and broke his neck, it was regarded as a judgement on him for having laid claim to this newly sanctified hill. Saint-Vigeur-le-Grand, near Bayeux, takes its name from this bishop, who founded a monastery there:  two or three churches in England were dedicated in his honour by the Normans.

See the Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. i, where a short Latin life, probably of the eighth century, has been critically edited from a variety of manuscripts. See also Corblet, Hagiographie d’Amiens, vol. iv, pp. 657—664, and Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p 220

Born at Artois, France, he studied at Arras under St.Vedast and considered the idea of becoming a priest so overwhelmmg that he ran away when his father expressed his opposition to his ordination. Subsequently ordained, he preached at Raviere and worked as a missionary until 513 when he was named bishop of Baycux. As bishop, he opposed paganism and founded a church on the site of a one-time pagan idol. He also founded a monastery nearby, later known as St. Vigeur le Grand.

Vigor of Bayeux B (RM)Born at Artois; died c. 537. Vigor was a disciple of Saint Vedastus under whom he was educated at Arras. He started to serve God as a preaching hermit at Ravière near Bayeux but his zeal carried him further. In 513, Vigor was consecrated bishop of Bayeux and distinguished himself by his fervor in suppressing idolatry. He destroyed a large idol and built a church on the site. He is the titular patron of the town of Saint-Vigeur-le-Grand near his episcopal seat, where he founded a monastery. Saint Vigor is mentioned in the vita of Saint Paternus. Under the influence of the Normans, two churches in England bear dedications to Saint Vigor, whose feast is often moved in deference to the Solemnity of All Saints (Benedictines, Farmer).
5th and 6th century St. Pabiali Welsh patron saint
He is believed to have been one of the saintly descendant of a local Welsh king. A chapel in Wales is dedicated in his honor.

6th v.  St. Ceitho of Wales One of five brothers, saints of the great Welsh family of Cunedda (AC)
One of five brothers, saints of the great Welsh family of Cunedda. A church at Pumpsant was dedicated to the five brothers. That at Llangeith in Cardiganshire, was founded by Saint Ceitho (Benedictines).

Saint Gwythian patron of a church in northern Cornwall
(Gwithian, Gothian) (AC) Date unknown. Saint Gwythian, patron of a church in northern Cornwall and a nearby ruined chapel, settled at Towednack and was probably associated with Saint Winwaloë (Farmer).

6th century St. Cadfan Missionary to Wales
6th v. ST CADFAN, ABBOT
DURING the second half of the fifth century settlements were made in north and west Wales by emigrants from Letavia, which is commonly understood to be Brittany but there is not wanting some evidence that it was a district somewhere in southeast Wales. Cadfan, grandson of Emyr Llydaw, led one of the companies. Among those with him was his cousin St Padarn, who went to Cardigan-shire, while Cadfan founded the church at Towyn in Merioneth. His monastery there persisted into the Middle Ages as a college of priests (the prebendaries were often laymen), which helped to keep his memory green when British saints became of little account. A twelfth-century bard speaks of “Cadfan’s high church near the shore of the blue sea”, wherein were “three magnificent altars, famous for miracles”, dedicated in honour of our Lady, St Peter and St Cadfan himself. It was “the glory of Merioneth”, and was a place of sanctuary whither many fled for protection. His holy well there was a place of resort—but apparently on purely natural grounds—until into the nineteenth century, but is now enclosed within a stable. But St Cadfan’s name is at least as well known in connection with the monastic island of Bardsey (Ynys Enlli), to which he later went, according to tradition, and became the first abbot there. He was venerated as the founder of this resort of  “20,000 monks”, which even in the time of Pennant, the third quarter of the eighteenth century, was still regarded with such reverence that the local fishermen as they approached it “made a full stop, pulled off their hats, and offered up a short prayer”.

In the medieval poem just referred to St Cadfan is called the “protector in battle”, he was a patron of warriors, and in a chapel near Quimper is a statue, said to be of him, dressed as a soldier, with a sword. From this it may be inferred that before he was a missionary and monk he had distinguished himself as a fighting-man; but it may all be a misunderstanding, as his cousin and fellow-missionary in Powysland, St Tydecho, is referred to as “one of Heaven’s warriors” in a poem of the fifteenth century or it is possible that the tendency to regard St Cadfan as a military patron may be due to some confusion with Cadfan, King of Gwynedd, who was a Welsh leader in the wars against Ethelfrith, King of Northumbria. St Cadfan is usually said to have died and been buried on Bardsey, but his burying-place is claimed for Towyn as well. His other principal foundation is Llangadfan in Montgomeryshire.

There is no formal life of St Cadfan, and we have to be content with casual references as they have been gathered up in It. Rees, Essay on the Welsh Saints (1836), pp. 2I3-214 LBS., vol. ii, pp. 1—9 and A. W. Wade-Evans, Welsh Christian Origins (19M), pp. 161—164. For Bardsey, see 0. H. Jones, Celtic Britain and the Pilgrim Movement, pp. 354—362 and for the Cadfan stone at Towyn, V. E. Nash-Williams, Early Christian Monuments of Wales (1950). Bardsey seems to have survived until the dissolution of the monasteries as a Celtic settlement outside the normal later medieval monastic patterns. See B. (3. Bowen, Settle­ments of the Celtic Saints in Wales (1954.). 
Venerated in Owynedd and Bardsey Island as a companion of Towyn. He was a native of Brittany, France, and founded monasteries in Wales.
Cadfan of Wales, Abbot (AC) (also known as Catamanu, Catman)
Died probably at Bardsey in the early 6th century. A missionary from Letavia (probably in Brittany but possibly in southeastern Wales) to Wales, Cadfan founded monasteries at Towyn in Merionethshire and Llangadfan in Montgomeryshire, and later a monastic center on the island of Bardsey (Ynys Enlli), where he was first abbot. Bardsey developed into a great center of monasticism. It is said that as he went from Towyn to Llangadfan he passed through Pistyll Gadfan, Eisteddfa Gadfa, and Llwbyr Gadfan.
His holy well could be found in the churchyard at Towyn, near his chapel (since destroyed), where many were cured of rheumatism, scrofula, and skin diseases. It continued to attract pilgrims long after the Reformation. Baths and changing-rooms were added until it went into disuse about 1894.
In the church at Towyn, there is a stone pillar, called the Cadfan stone, with an ancient inscription that marks the place of his burial: "Beneath a similar mound lies Cadfan, sad it should enclose the praise of the earth. May he rest without blemish."
A Cadfan also has an active cultus in Finistère and Côtes du Nord, Brittany. While it is generally held that this is the same Cadfan (the reason for thinking that he was a Breton), there are still problems in making the connection between the two. The question may never be settled. The Breton Cadfan is the patron of a church at Poullan, near Douarnenez. There is an extant statue of him in military garb at Briec (Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer). 

627 Caesarius of Clermont B (AC)
 The 19th or 22nd bishop of Clermont (Benedictines).

6th century St. Ceitho Welsh saint one of 5 brothers of Cunedda
A church at Pumpsant was dedicated to the brothers. Ceitho founded a church in Liangeith, in Dyfed.

660 St. Floribert Benedictine abbot of Ghent
Belgium, also called Florbert. He was appointed abbot of Mont-Bladin and Saint-Bavon by St. Amandus.
Floribert of Ghent, OSB Abbot (AC)(also known as Florbert). Floribert was appointed abbot of the new Belgium monasteries of Ghent Mont-Blandin and Saint-Bavon by Saint Amadus (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
609 St. Severinus Benedictine monk and hermit
Tíbure sancti Severíni Mónachi.    At Tivoli, St. Severinus, monk.
He lived at Tivoli, near Rome, and his relies are enshrined in that city.
616 St. Licinius Bishop and Frankish nobleman
Andégavi, in Gállia, deposítio sancti Licínii Epíscopi, venerábilis sanctitátis viri.
    At Angers in France, the death of the aged holy man, St. Licinius, bishop.
The Count of Anjou under the Merovingian king Chilperic, he gave up his title and became a monk. However, after a number of years, he was chosen bishop of Angers, receiving ordination at the hands of St. Gregory of Tours.
According to tradition, Licinius desired to retire from his office, but was prevented from doing so by the people of Angers.
679 Genesius of Fontenelle 658 raised to the see of Lyons OSB B (AC)
After being prior at Fontenelle, Genesius was chosen abbot-chaplain of the palace by Queen Saint Bathildis, and in 658 raised to the see of Lyons. He died at the nunnery of Chelles while on a visit there (Benedictines).

699 St. Severinus of Tivoli, OSB Hermit (RM)
The relics of Saint Severinus, a Benedictine hermit at Tivoli, are in the church of Saint Laurence in that city (Benedictines).
1000 Germanus of Montfort relics were elevated by Saint Francis de Sales in 1621 OSB Monk (AC)
 Born at Montfort, Germanus studied at Paris and was ordained a priest. Afterwards he entered the abbey of Savigny and was made prior of Talloires. He ended his life as a recluse.
His relics were elevated by Saint Francis de Sales in 1621 (Benedictines).
1358 St. Salaun Confessor poor man spiritual attainment was recognized
also called Salomon. He was a poor man who lived at Leseven, in Brittany. For years he was the object of contempt and disdain from his local community for being a fool. Later his level of spiritual attainment was recognized and he was venerated as a saint.
Salaun of Brittany (AC)(also known as Salomon)Born in Lesneven, Brittany; died 1358. Salaun was a poor man, who was content to be despised and considered "a fool for Christ's sake." He reached a high degree of contemplation. Salaun is venerated at Notre Dame de Folgoet in Brittany (Benedictines).

1429 Blessed Conradin of Brescia model Dominican friar just as he was formerly a model student of purity and charity OP (PC)
Born at Bornato (near Brescia), Italy; died . During the time of the Western Schism, Conradin was born to staunch Catholics of nobility and wealth. His parents provided their children with a thoroughly Catholic education and upbringing, which paid dividends in the lives of their offspring. Conradin studied civil and canon law at the University of Padua, where he became acquainted with the Dominicans. He was professed a Dominican in 1413, finished his studies, was ordained, and became a model friar just as he was formerly a model student of purity and charity.
After being chosen prior of his friary in Brescia at a young age, he was appointed prior of the larger house at Bologna, sent there to restore primitive observance of the Rule of Saint Dominic. It was a difficult task because plague and schism had infected the order, the country, and the Church. Few were entering religious life, so even the most idealistic felt it might be good to rewrite the rule to relax the discipline and shorten the training period to keep the novitiate alive. Conradin held the line and continued to enforce the primitive form of the rule.
Twice Conradin was imprisoned for defending the pope. Plague had stricken Bologna forcefully during Conradin's abbacy. The situation was especially bleak for Bologna, which was under a published papal interdict because the populace had rebelled against papal authority. The interdict was ignored by most. Conradin tried to sway the people to repentance before it was too late, hoping that the interdict might be lifted. The Bolognese refused to listen, even as they were dying of the plague. Tired of his hounding, Conradin was captured, badly beaten, and imprisoned. Later, the prior prevailed and the city submitted to the pope.
In recognition of his work as mediator, Pope Martin V intended to name Conradin a cardinal, but the prior refused. In 1429, when a fresh outbreak of the plague called all the friars once more to the streets to assist the dying, Conradin also fell victim to the disease (Benedictines, Dorcy).
1622 Bl. Paul Navarro Martyr of Japan
A native of Laino, Cassano, Italy, Paul received an excellent education before becoming a Jesuit in 1587. He was sent to India where he was ordained, and subsequently went to Japan where he helped to build the rapidly growing Catholic community there, holding the post of superior. Arrested by Japanese authorities, he was burned alive at Shimabara along with two other Jesuits and an assistant. Blessed Paul Shinsuki was his catechist. 
Blessed Paul Navarro, SJ, & Companions MM (AC)
Born at Laino (diocese of Cassano), Italy, in 1560; died at Ximabara, Japan, in 1622. Blessed Paul became a Jesuit in 1587 and while still a scholastic was sent to India where he was ordained. He then went on to Japan. He worked with great success as superior of Amanguchi. He was burnt alive with three Japanese laymen (Benedictines).

Bl 1622  Peter Onizuko  Japanese martyr native of Arima Japan
Peter was converted to Christianity and became a Jesuit postulant. With Blessed Paul Navarro, whom he assisted in his work, he was seized by Japanese authorities and burned alive at Shimabara.

1836 Blessed Nunzio Sulprizio an Italian from Pescara who worked as an apprentice blacksmith. He suffered from poor health during his life and was considered to those who knew him to be a gentle and pious individual.
(13 April 1817 – 5 May)

Sulprizio was beatified in 1963 after the recognition of two miracles attributed to his intercession. A third is now under investigation and is required for his canonization.

Nunzio Sulprizio was born on 13 April 1817 to Domenico Sulprizio and Rosa Luciani. He was baptized mere hours after his birth.

His father died in August 1820 and his mother remarried in 1822. His stepfather viewed Sulprizio with harshness and contempt. The relationship between the two was nonexistent and Sulprizio bonded more with his mother and maternal grandmother. At this time he also started to attend school that a local priest ran where he learned to read and to write. In his childhood he took the time to attend Mass and come to know Jesus Christ but also to follow His example and that of the saints.

His mother died on 5 March 1823 and he and was sent to live with his maternal grandmother Rosaria. The latter died on 4 April 1826. After this his uncle - Domenico Luciani - took him on as an apprentice blacksmith. His uncle was harsh on him and often left him without proper nourishment. He sent Sulprizio to run errands regardless of the distance which put a great strain upon him. The work was too much for him due to his age and he contracted a disease in 1831. It was found to be gangrene in one leg. He was hospitalized first in L'Aquila between April and June and then in Naples. Despite his pain he dealt with it with patience and his offering his pain to God.

The hospitalized Sulprizio later met his other uncle - Francesco Sulprizio - who introduced him to a fellow soldier: Colonel Felice Wochinger. His uncle introduced him to the colonel in 1832. The two's relationship soon grew until it became that of father and son. Gaetano Errico - future saint - promised him that he would admit him into his religious order when the time was right.

In 1835 the doctors decided to amputate his leg as their sole option but his pain continued. His situation worsened in March 1836 and his suffering increased. He continued to place his trust in God and was well aware of the fact that the end was near. Two months later he summoned his confessor and received the sacraments. He died in 1836 due to the disease he contracted. His remains are located in the Church of San Domenico Soriano in Naples. Decades after his death Pope Leo XIII proposed Sulprizio as a model for workers.

1861 St. Valentine Berrio-Ochoa Dominican Bishop Vietnam martyr
A native of Ellorio, Spain, he entered the Dominican Order and was sent to the Philippines. From there he went to Vietnam in 1858, serving as a vicar apostolic and titular bishop until betrayed by an apostate. He was martyred by beheading with St. Jerome Hermosilla and Blessed Peter Amato, by enemies of the Church. He was canonized in 1988 by Pope John Paul II.
1861 Blessed Jerome Hermosilla and Companions, OP MM (AC)
beatified in 1906 by Pope Pius X. Little is known of the early lives of Bishop Jerome Hermosilla or Bishop Valentine Berrio-Ochoa. That they were chosen for the Oriental mission is evidence that they were courageous and resourceful men, adept in language.

Jerome was a native of La Calzada, in Old Castile (Spain), who after his profession in the Dominican Order, was sent to Manila, where he was ordained priest and, in 1828, appointed to the mission of East Tonkin. He succeeded Blessed Ignatius Delgado as vicar-apostolic and was consecrated bishop in April 1841. Like the early office of pontiff, this position was practically synonymous with martyrdom; several of those appointed as bishop of Tonkin did not even live to be consecrated.

Bishop Hermosilla made it his first task to gather the relics of his two immediate predecessors. Bishop Delgado had been thrown into the sea, but some of the relics were recovered by a fisherman. These and the remains of other martyrs were carefully preserved by Hermosilla, who also committed to paper their passios according to the accounts of eye witnesses. This took real courage--to carefully record the terrible tortures that he well knew were awaiting him.

The twenty years of Bishop Hermosilla's life in Tonkin were comprised of constant heroism, flight, and unswerving faith. He had to hold his flock together, while some of his finest assistants fell at his side. His work had to be accomplished entirely in secret. There was always the possibility that a recent convert or his pagan family might betray the hiding place of the priest, perhaps under torture. It was a weak Christian who finally betrayed Hermosilla and Valentine.

The two bishops had been hidden on board a ship en route to a place where they were needed to give the sacraments. The betrayer identified them to the ship's captain, who summoned the soldiers. A group of Christians almost succeeded in rescuing them, but they were betrayed a second time and placed in chains. Three hundred men were sent to escort them to the capital.

When the arrived, they saw that they would be required to step upon a crucifix laid in the road. Heavily manacled and weak from torture, the two bishops fought so vigorously against committing this sacrilege that the soldiers finally relented and removed the cross. Shortly thereafter the bishops, two other Spanish Dominicans, and a number of native Christians were led in triumphant procession to the place of their execution, where they were put in cages. Christian witnesses reported that the martyrs were so rapt in prayer that they seemed unaware of the screaming crowds, trumpeting elephants, and other noisy animals surrounding them. In turn, each of the martyrs was bound, tied to stakes in the ground, and beheaded. Their remains were guarded for several days to prevent other Christians from claiming their relics.

Peter Almató, OP, was born at Sassera, diocese of Vich, Spain. He became a Dominican and was sent to the Philippines then to Ximabara under Bishop Hermosilla with whom he was beheaded.

Also beheaded with the above beatae was Blessed Valentine, who was born in 1827 at Ellorio, diocese of Vitoria, Spain. After his profession as a Dominican also went to the Philippines then to Tonkin as a bishop titular and vicar-apostolic. Due to a number of miracles attributed to Bishop Valentine Berrio-Ochoa, his cause has been separated from the group. He was beatified in 1909, rather than 1906, and since 1952 canonization has been sought for him (Benedictines, Dorcy).