Saint Josaphat{1623 first Oriental Catholic formally canonized in Rome}>

Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.

And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
(Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

By giving yourself to God, you not only receive Himself in exchange, but eternal life as well.-- St Francis de Sales

Every Day, Every Hour Billions of people all over the world become Saints
As the Holy Eucharist enters their bodies from the Sanctified hands of Priests.
Ukrainians and others keep it on November 12, or the ‘Sunday following, according to the Julian calendar.’


Suffering Priests. That priests who experience difficulties may find comfort in their suffering, support in their doubts, and confirmation in their fidelity.
Latin American Churches. That as fruit of the continental mission, Latin American Churches may send missionaries to other Churches.

Tuesday, November 12, 2013
St. Josaphat, Bishop, Martyr (Memorial)

Wisdom 2:23 -- 3:9 Psalm 34:2-3, 16-19 Luke 17:7-10
Judge thou, O Lord, them that wrong me: overthrow them that fight against me.
Take hold of arms and shield: and rise up to help me. -- Psalm xxxiv. 1,2

November 12 - Our Lady of the Secret Tower (Turin, Italy, 1863) The Blessed Virgin's Predestination (I)
I saw in my mind how his Majesty is in himself; infinite in his substance and attributes,
united in essence and in the trinity of Persons, eternally equal yet distinct.
I first beheld him in a vast desert void of all the creatures of whom he had no need, and I witnessed his decree to accomplish works ad extra, i.e. to draw out of nothingness all the beings present in his mind.
At that moment I had the boldness to ask his majesty what hierarchy he chose in that desert
so as to know what rank the Mother of God was to occupy.
He deigned to satisfy this desire and I will now tell the order I discovered in his thoughts.
Excerpts from City of God or the Divine History and Life of the Virgin Mother of God (Part 1, chapter I)
manifested to Mary of Agreda

November 12 - Our Lady of the Tower (Eriburg, Germany)  A Son of Israel Converts (II)
From that day on his entire life was devoted to the love of Our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament and to Our Lady, in particular the apostolate of the Scapular of Our Lady of Carmel Mount. He established an association whose mission was the exposition and nocturnal adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. He entered the order of Carmel on October 6, 1849, and received the habit under the name of Brother Augustine Mary of the Most Blessed Sacrament.

Hermann aspired to a life completely hidden in God, but his Superiors sent him to travel throughout Europe to preach. He brought God back into the hearts of innumerable Jews, Protestants and nonbelievers. In 1868, he finally obtained permission from his superiors to withdraw into "solitude". However, he was struck by a new trial: an illness in his eyes. Placing his confidence in the Virgin of Lourdes, he made a novena in the grotto of the apparitions, washing his eyes every day at the miraculous spring. On the ninth day, he experienced a sudden and complete cure-it was an obvious miracle. He was the first Jew miraculously cured at Lourdes.

In November 1870 he was sent as chaplain of the French prisoners in Berlin, where he contracted small pox administering Extreme Unction to prisoners. He died there in Berlin, a victim of his devotion and his immense charity. The evening of January 19, he made his confession peacefully, and received Holy Communion. His calm breathing continued until around 10 o'clock the next morning, when, as the nun who sat up with him sang the Salve Regina at his request, he gently expired.

November 12 - Saint Josaphat (d. 1623) – The Holy Miraculous Icon (Russia)

  November 12, 1948: I am asking the same thing here that I asked for in Fatima
The Shrine of Lipa in the Philippines was built to commemorate an apparition of the Virgin Mary, which took place in 1948 and was accompanied by a shower of rose petals.
On September 12, 1948, around 5 pm, Sister Teresita Castillo, a young postulant in the Carmel of Lipa, was walking in the garden of her convent. Suddenly, (…) Teresita saw the Virgin. The apparition asked from the Community an individual consecration of its members to herself according to the spirit of Saint Louis de Montfort.
On Sunday, September 26, 1948, the Virgin Mary repeated her request: (…) “Do not forget to consecrate yourselves to me on October 7th. (…) I am Mary Mediatrix of All Grace. Then on October 3th, a “shower of rose petals” occurred.
On Friday, November 12, 1948, Teresita saw the Blessed Virgin again, after the holy Mass. “Pray and pray and pray, my daughters, because of the persecutions. Pray for priests. I am asking the same thing here that I asked for in Fatima. Do penance for those who do not believe. This is my last apparition in Lipa.”

On December 6, 1948, Bishop A. Verzosa of Lipa blessed the site of the apparitions, appointed an investigation committee,
and declared that the Blessed Virgin was the source of the “showers of petals.” The MDN team

Adapted from an article by Patricia Viscomte
Our Lady of Modern Times (Notre-Dame des Temps Nouveaux) #1, 1973

As Saint Josaphat  battled to bring back his straying sheep, personal opposition against him became increasingly intense.  Surrounded one day by an angry mob, he said, "You people of Vitebsk want to put me to death...I am ready to die for the holy union, for the supremacy of St. Peter and of his successor, the Supreme Pontiff." Sometime later a gang entered his church.  Crying out, Kill the papist, they shot the archbishop, crushed his skull, and threw his body into the river.
St. Josephat's death served only to encourage Ukrainians in their loyalty to the pope.  In our own more ecumenical days, the Catholic Church is striving to reestablish unity with all the Orthodox churches through loving dialogue.
To the work of reconciliation, we may be sure, St. Josaphat is adding his own powerful prayers. Father Robert F. McNamara
960 B. C. The Holy Prophet Ahijah, (cf. 1/3 Kgs 11:29 ff.)
Contemporary of Solomon, and was born in the city of Shiloh. The prophet predicted to Jeroboam his kingly rule over the ten Tribes of Israel, which God would grant him, snatching them away from the hands of Solomon. Afterwards Ahijah predicted to Jeroboam the perishing of all his line. All the predictions of the prophet were fulfilled. The Prophet Ahijah died in old age 960 years before the birth of Christ.
The All-Merciful Kykko Icon of the Mother of God:
This icon was painted, according to Tradition, by the holy Evangelist Luke. It received its name "Kykkiotisa" from Mount Kykkos, on the island of Cyprus. Here it was placed in an imperial monastery (so designated because it was built with donations from the Emperor), in a church named for it. Before coming to the island of Cyprus, the wonderworking icon of the Mother of God was brought throughout the region by the will of God. At first, it was in one the earliest Christian communities in Egypt, and then it was taken to Constantinople in 980, where it remained in the time of Emperor Alexius Comnenos (end of the eleventh to early twelfth century).

During these years it was revealed to the Elder Isaiah through a miraculous sign, that by his efforts the wonderworking image painted by the Evangelist Luke would be transferred to Cyprus. The Elder exerted much effort to fulfill the divine revelation.

When the icon of the Mother of God arrived on the island, many miracles were performed. The Elder Isaiah was instrumental in building a church dedicated to the Theotokos, and placing the Kykko Icon in it. From ancient times up to the present day, those afflicted by every sort of infirmity flock to the monastery of the Mother of God the Merciful, and they receive healing according to their faith. The Orthodox are not the only ones who believe in the miraculous power of the holy icon, but those of other faiths also pray before it in misfortune and illness.

Inexhaustible is the mercy of the Most Holy Theotokos, Mediatrix for all the suffering, and Her icon fittingly bears the name, the "Merciful." The wonderworking "Kykkiotisa" Icon of the Mother of God possesses a remarkable peculiarity: from what time period is unknown, but it is covered by a half shroud from the upper left corner to the lower right, so that no one is able to see the faces of the Mother of God and the Divine Infant. The depiction of the Mother of God appears to be of the Hodigitria ("Directress") type, as is also the Smolensk Icon of the Mother of God. The head of the Mother of God is adorned with a crown.

A copy of this icon is particularly venerated at the women's Nikolsk monastery in the city of Mukachev.
Coptic St. Athanasius and His Sister, Irene. Departure of
Coptic St. Cyriacus; Departure of; brought to Abba Peter, Bishop of Corinth, his cousin,; he ordained him reader. Cyriacus read continually searched interpretations of Holy Scriptures surpassed many in it; went to Jerusalem, met bishop Abba Cyril; sent to Euthymius (Otimus) Palestine; lived virtuous life much asceticism humility, godliness devoutness; God bestowed the gift of healing; He healed all who came to the monastery all kinds of sicknesses or infirmities; His virtues and holiness spread everywhere
         They suffered many tortures at the hands of Maximianus.
  150 St. Patiens  Patron saint of Metz, France fourth diocesecan bishop
2nd v. Aurelius and Publius bishops who wrote against the Montanists or Cata-Phrygians BM (RM)
  200 St. Rufus and Avignon first bishop of Avignon France
  430 St. Nilus the Elder Bishop and friend of St. John Chrysostom
  422 St. Renatus  First bishop of Angers, France, and Sorrento, Italy
  574 St. Emilian Cucullatus shepherd hermit priest patron saint of Spain favoured with many miracles
6th v. St. Machar founder of Aberdeen, Scotland companion of St. Columba
  610 St Imerius of Immertal monk-hermit and a missionary in the district of the Swiss Jura  Abbot (AC)
616-620 Saint John the Merciful, monk, Patriarch of Alexandria; spiritual exploits won honor among men, even the
charitable to all;  ransomed prisoners, Wed & Fri he received everyone in need; settled quarrels,
            helped the wronged, ;distributed alms. 3x's times a week visited the sick-houses, rendered assistance to the

  633 St Cunibert of Trèves untiring builder of churches and monasteries B (RM)

  650 St. Livinus Martyred Irish bishop
  655 Complúti, in Hispánia, natális sancti Dídaci Confessóris, ex Ordine Minórum, humilitáte célebris; quem Xystus Quintus, Póntifex Máximus, Sanctórum catálogo adscrípsit.  Ipsíus autem festum sequénti die celebrátur.
    At Alcala in Spain, the birthday of St. Didacus, confessor, a member of the Order of Friars Minor well known for his humility.  Pope Sixtus V included him in the catalogue of the saints and his feast is celebrated on the day following. November 13
Pope St. Martin I defender of the faith
buried in the church of Our Lady, called Blachernæ, near Cherson, many
         miracles are related wrought by St Martin in life and after death

  665 St. Cummian Fada Irish monastic founder defender of Roman liturgical customs
  689 St. Cadwallader king of Saxon peoples
  726 St. Paternus  Benedictine monk of Saint Pierre le Vif
  773 St. Lebuin Benedictine called Leaf Wine in his native England
  800 St. Namphasius Hermit monk Soldier and friend of Charlemagne
  830 St. Ymar Benedictine martyred by marauding Danes of England
1005 St. Benedict Companions Italian Benedictine martyrs
1035 St. Astericus Benedictine bishop ambassador to King Stephen Hungary
1040 St. Anastasius XIX first Archbishop of Hungary companion of St. Stephen
1304 BD RAINERIUS OF AREZZO  town had an altar set up in his honour and record kept of attributed Miracles
1332 BD JOHN DELLA PACE  founder of the Fraticelli delta Penitenza at Pisa was at one time a hermit
1433 Blessed John Cini "della Pace," bred to arms. In 1396 he became a Franciscan tertiary and founded several
        charitable organizations and a confraternity of flagellants OFM Tert.
1456 Blessed Gabriel Ferretti scion of the counts Ferretti OFM (AC)
1500 Blessed Christopher of Portugal beheaded for the faith by the Islamic prince of Ceylon M (PC)
1580 Blessed John the Merciful of Rostov (also known as "the Hairy") Living in humility, patience and unceasing
         prayer, he spiritually nourished many people

1623 St. Josaphat of Polotsk an Eastern Rite bishop martyr
1651 Saint Nilus the Myrrh-Gusher of Mt Athos predicted telephone, airplane submarine warned that people's minds would be clouded by carnal passions, "dishonor lawlessness grow stronger." Men indistinguishable from women because of "shameless dress and style of hair." lamented Christian pastors, bishops priests, become vain, morals and traditions of the Church would change. Few pious God-fearing pastors remain, ad many people stray from the right path because no one would instruct them.
Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.
Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.
God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven:  only saints are allowed into heaven.
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
649-655 Pope St. Martin I defender of the faith; buried in the church of Our Lady, called Blachernæ, near Cherson
Sancti Martíni Primi, Papæ et Mártyris, cujus dies natális sextodécimo Kaléndas Octóbris recensétur.
    The Feast of St. Martin I, pope and martyr, whose birthday is mentioned on the 16th day of September.

Many miracles are related wrought by St Martin in life and after death;
Pope St. Martin I of noble birth, great student, commanding intelligence, profound learning, great charity to the poor Saint Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome native of the Tuscany convened Lateran Council at Rome condemn Monothelite heresy;
Last martyred Pope.

“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith
Saints Nov 12 Prídie Idus Novémbris.
On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"

Pope BENEDICT XVI'S Holy Father's Prayer Intentions For 2011 for November
General Intention:  That the family may be respected by all in its identity
and that its irreplaceable contribution to all of society be recognized.
Missionary Intention:  That in the mission territories where the struggle against disease is most urgent,
Christian communities may witness to the presence of Christ to those who suffer

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
How do I start the Five First Saturdays?
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
 (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, 61). 12  St Patricks 1112 Nov syriac Serbian  Melkite
Monthly Saints with pics here icons
Lutheran Saints  One Saint per day  God's Humourous Saints

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth.
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
How to Stay Out of PURGATORY -- How to Get others Out     POPES html    Parents of Saints html   
Patron_Saints.html    Angels and Archangels html
Marian Apparitions. html  Doctors_of_the_Church  
   We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:


The Five Reasons
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

Miracles 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000  
1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900 Lay Saints
Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005Benedict XVI

“The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious.”  1913 Saint Barsanuphius

Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person -- Benedict XVI
Pope Warns Against Domesticating Memory of Salvation
At Morning Mass, Says It's 'So Wonderful to Be Saved' That We Must Feast
- Pope Francis reflected today on the joy of the Christian life, specifically, the awareness that Christ came to save us.

He celebrated his habitual morning Mass in the Domus Sanctae Marthae with the eight cardinals who he has chosen to be his advisory council. The council is meeting these days at the Vatican.

Vatican Radio reported that the Holy Father's homily was drawn from the First Reading, from Chapter 8 of Nehemiah, which describes the people's rejoicing as Ezra read from the Book of the Law.

The People of God, he said, “had the memory of the Law, but it was a distant memory.” The recovery of the Law brought them "the experience of the closeness of salvation."
“This is important not only in the great moments in history, but also in the moments of our life: we all have the memory of salvation, everyone. I wonder, though: is this memory close to us, or is it a memory a bit far away, spread a little thin, a bit archaic, a little like a museum [piece]… it can get far away [from us]… and when the memory is not close, when we do not experience the closeness of memory, it enters into a process of transformation, and the memory becomes a mere recollection.”
When memory is distant, Francis added, “it is transformed into recollection, but when it comes near, it turns into joy, and this is the joy of the people.” This, he continued, constitutes “a principle of our Christian life.” When memory is close, said Pope Francis, “it warms the heart and gives us joy.”:

“This joy is our strength. The joy of the nearness of memory. Domesticated memory, on the other hand, which moves away and becomes a mere recollection, does not warm the heart. It gives us neither joy nor strength. This encounter with memory is an event of salvation, it is an encounter with the love of God that has made history with us and saved us. It is a meeting of salvation - and it is so wonderful to be saved, that we need to make feast.”

The Church, said Pope Francis, has “[Christ’s] memory”: the “memory of the Passion of the Lord.” We too, he said, run the risk of “pushing this memory away, turning it into a mere recollection, in a rote exercise."
“Every week we go to church, or perhaps when someone dies, we go to the funeral … and this memory often times bores us, because it is not near. It is sad, but the Mass is often turned into a social event and we are not close to the memory of the Church, which is the presence of the Lord before us. Imagine this beautiful scene in the Book of Nehemiah: Ezra who carries the Book of Israel’s memory and the people once again grow near to their memory and weep, the heart is warmed, is joyful, it feels that the joy of the Lord is its strength – and the people make a feast, without fear, simply.”

“Let us ask the Lord,” concluded Pope Francis, “for the grace to always have His memory close to us, a memory close
and not domesticated by habit, by so many things, and pushed away into mere recollection.”
Pope Francis VATICAN CITY, October 03, 2013 (

"Whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you shall receive it, and it shall come to you. St. Mark 11:24"

Pope St. Clement:  Since all things lie open to His eyes and ears, let us hold Him in awe and rid ourselves of impure desires to do works of evil, so that we may be protected by His mercy from the judgement that is to come.
Which of us can escape His mighty hand? 

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (
Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
The Pope said this before reciting the midday Angelus with several thousand people gathered in the courtyard of the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
Referring to the Gospel reading for today's Mass, the Holy Father reflected on the faith of Peter, which is shown to be "still immature and too much influenced by the 'mentality of this world.'”  He explained that when Christ spoke openly about how he was to "suffer much, be killed and rise again, Peter protests, saying: 'God forbid, Lord! No such thing shall ever happen to you.'"
"It is evident that the Master and the disciple follow two opposed ways of thinking," continued the Pontiff. "Peter, according to a human logic, is convinced that God would never allow his Son to end his mission dying on the cross.  "Jesus, on the contrary, knows that the Father, in his great love for men, sent him to give his life for them, and if this means the passion and the cross, it is right that such should happen."
Christ also knew that "the resurrection would be the last word," Benedict XVI added.
Serious illness
The Pope continued, "If to save us the Son of God had to suffer and die crucified, it certainly was not because of a cruel design of the heavenly Father.  "The cause of it is the gravity of the sickness of which he must cure us: an evil so serious and deadly that it will require all of his blood. 
"In fact, it is with his death and resurrection that Jesus defeated sin and death, reestablishing the lordship of God."

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven.

"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious."  1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR benefit of others.
Non est inventus similis illis

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).
"Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person" -- Benedict XVI
"To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).
Pope Francis


The Lord hath reigned, let Mary rejoice: in all the empire under her rule.

Adore her, all ye citizens of the heavenly commonwealth:
exalt her, ye fair virgins, her daughters.

For she is raised above principalities and dominations: she is exalted above angels and the embassies of archangels.

Patriarchs and prophets, break forth in her praise: make a harmony, Apostles and martyrs of Christ.

Confessors and virgins, sing canticles to her from the songs of Sion:
and congratulate her, holy monks, for the triumphs she has won.

Our Father, who art in Heaven, Hallowed be Thy Name, Thy Kingdom come Thy Will be done, on earth as it is in Heaven; give us this day our daily Bread, and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation but deliver us from evil; Amen

Hail Mary, full of Grace, the Lord is with thee, Blessed art Thou amoung women, and Blessed is the fruit of Thy womb JESUS,  Holy Mary, Mother of God pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death; Amen
Eternal rest, grant unto them of Lord, and let Thy Perpetual Light shine upon them;  Amen.
Indulgence of 500 days for each of these prayers.

Paul VI_Athenagoras_05_01_1964
Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland(#1).


Benedict XVI_Archbishop_Hilarion
Benedict XVI receives Orthodox Archbishop Hilarion n September 18th, Pope Benedict XVI;  Archbishop Hilarion, president of the Department for External Church Affairs of the Patriarchate of Moscow.
The Orthodox Archbishop is currently visiting the Vatican at the invitation of Cardinal Kasper, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.
This Pontifical Council underlined that the visit will confirm the ties of friendship between the Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church, with a view to closer collaboration and to favor the presence of the Church in the lives of the peoples of Europe and the world.
In addition, a further step in ecumenical relations is scheduled for the month of October in Cyprus: the meeting of the Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, which will address the theme of Petrine Primacy.
Benedict XVI met with Aram I Catholicos of Cilicia, the highest authority of the Orthodox Church.  The Pope remembered the martyrs of the Armenian Church and the Armenian genocide, without explicitly mentioning it, and denounced the persecution of Christians in modern times.  Benedict XVI
That testimony culminated in the twentieth century, which proved a time of Unspeakable suffering for your people. Most recently we have all been saddened by the escalation of persecution and violence against Christians in parts of the Middle East and elsewhere.
The Catholicos is based in Lebanon. That is why, the Pope said, he prays every day for peace in this country and throughout the Middle East. Benedict XVI said there will only be peace in the region when each country is free to decide its own destiny and when every ethnic and religious group accepts and respects the others. Aram I emphasized that the churches must be means for peace and to achieve that they must recognize all genocides, even the Armenian.. The Catholicos recalled his meeting with John Paul II, adding that this visit represents a new step for ecumenical dialogue.
Aram I Catholicos
Our meeting is an opportunity to pray and reflect together, and to renew our commitment and efforts for Christian unity.
Armenian church members from all over the world join with Catholicos in making pilgrimages to Rome.

The great psalm of the Passion, Chapter 22, whose first verse “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”
Jesus pronounced on the cross, ended with the vision: “All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him
For kingship belongs to the LORD, the ruler over the nations. All who sleep in the earth will bow low before God; All who have gone down into the dust will kneel in homage. And I will live for the LORD; my descendants will serve you. The generation to come will be told of the Lord, that they may proclaim to a people yet unborn the deliverance you have brought.
Pope Benedict XVI to The Catholic Church In China {whole article here} 2000 years of the Catholic Church in China
The saints “a cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible. Patron_Saints.html


The God of gods hath spoken to Mary: by Gabriel, his messenger, saying:
Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: by thee the salvation of the world is repaired.
The Son of the Most High hath greatly desired thy beauty and thy comeliness.
Adorn thy bridal chamber, O Daughter of Sion: prepare to meet thy God.
Thou shalt conceive by the Holy Ghost: who will make thy delivery virginal and joyful.

Oh, with how joyful a soul, with how serene an aspect hast thou received
her, O God of angels and men: and given her the principality over every place of thy domination.

Glory be to the Father who created Heaven and earth; His only Son who lived and died for all of us;
and the Holy Spirit the Lord giver of life, Who proceeds from the Father and Son, with the Father and Son He is Worshiped and Glorified, and He has spoken through the prophets:  Amen.

Join us on Be part of a new movement committed to using powerful media projects to create a Culture of Life. We can help shape the movement and have a voice in its future. Check it out at

Saint Frances Xavier Seelos  Practical Guide to Holiness
1. Go to Mass with deepest devotion. 2. Spend a half hour to reflect upon your main failing & make resolutions to avoid it.
3. Do daily spiritual reading for at least 15 minutes, if a half hour is not possible.  4. Say the rosary every day.
5. Also daily, if at all possible, visit the Blessed Sacrament; toward evening, meditate on the Passion of Christ for a half hour, 6.  Conclude the day with evening prayer & an examination of conscience over all the faults & sins of the day.
7.  Every month make a review of the month in confession.
8. Choose a special patron every month & imitate that patron in some special virtue.
9. Precede every great feast with a novena that is nine days of devotion. 10. Try to begin & end every activity with a Hail Mary

My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not
O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.  I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world, in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended, and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.  I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is general and binds all the followers of Christ.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique each the result of a new idea.
As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike.
It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints.

Dear Lord, grant us a spirit not bound by our own ideas and preferences.
Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves.

O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory.
Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.
Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.
The 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary ) Revealed to St. Dominic and Blessed Alan)
1.    Whoever shall faithfully serve me by the recitation of the Rosary, shall receive signal graces. 2.    I promise my special protection and the greatest graces to all those who shall recite the Rosary. 3.    The Rosary shall be a powerful armor against hell, it will destroy vice, decrease sin, and defeat heresies. 4.    It will cause virtue and good works to flourish; it will obtain for souls the abundant mercy of God; it will withdraw the hearts of people from the love of the world and its vanities, and will lift them to the desire of eternal things.  Oh, that soul would sanctify them by this means.  5.    The soul that recommends itself to me by the recitation of the Rosary shall not perish. 6.    Whoever shall recite the Rosary devoutly, applying themselves to the consideration of its Sacred Mysteries shall never be conquered by misfortune.  God will not chastise them in His justice, they shall not perish by an unprovided death; if they be just, they shall remain in the grace of God, and become worthy of eternal life. 7.    Whoever shall have a true devotion for the Rosary shall not die without the Sacraments of the Church. 8.    Those who are faithful to recite the Rosary shall have during their life and at their death the light of God and the plentitude of His graces; at the moment of death they shall participate in the merits of the Saints in Paradise. 9.    I shall deliver from purgatory those who have been devoted to the Rosary. 10.    The faithful children of the Rosary shall merit a high degree of glory in Heaven.  11.    You shall obtain all you ask of me by the recitation of the Rosary. 12.    I shall aid all those who propagate the Holy Rosary in their necessities. 13.    I have obtained from my Divine Son that all the advocates of the Rosary shall have for intercessors the entire celestial court during their life and at the hour of death. 14.    All who recite the Rosary are my children, and brothers and sisters of my only Son, Jesus Christ. 15.    Devotion to my Rosary is a great sign of predestination.
Aramaic dialect of Edessa, now known as Syriac
The exact date of the introduction of Christianity into Edessa {Armenian Ourhaï in Arabic Er Roha, commonly Orfa or Urfa, its present name} is not known. It is certain, however, that the Christian community was at first made up from the Jewish population of the city. According to an ancient legend, King Abgar V, Ushana, was converted by Addai, who was one of the seventy-two disciples. In fact, however, the first King of Edessa to embrace the Christian Faith was Abgar IX (c. 206) becoming official kingdom religion.
  Christian council held at Edessa early as 197 (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V,xxiii).
In 201 the city was devastated by a great flood, and the Christian church was destroyed (“Chronicon Edessenum”, ad. an. 201).
In 232 the relics of the Apostle St. Thomas were brought from India, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written.
Under Roman domination martyrs suffered at Edessa: Sts. Scharbîl and Barsamya, under Decius; Sts. Gûrja, Schâmôna, Habib, and others under Diocletian. 
In the meanwhile Christian priests from Edessa evangelized Eastern Mesopotamia and Persia, established the first Churches in the kingdom of the Sassanides.  Atillâtiâ, Bishop of Edessa, assisted at the Council of Nicæa (325). The “Peregrinatio Silviæ” (or Etheriæ) (ed. Gamurrini, Rome, 1887, 62 sqq.) gives an account of the many sanctuaries at Edessa about 388.
Although Hebrew had been the language of the ancient Israelite kingdom, after their return from Exile the Jews turned more and more to Aramaic, using it for parts of the books of Ezra and Daniel in the Bible. By the time of Jesus, Aramaic was the main language of Palestine, and quite a number of texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls are also written in Aramaic.
Aramaic continued to be an important language for Jews, alongside Hebrew, and parts of the Talmud are written in it.
After Arab conquests of the seventh century, Arabic quickly replaced Aramaic as the main language of those who converted to Islam, although in out of the way places, Aramaic continued as a vernacular language of Muslims.
Aramaic, however, enjoyed its greatest success in Christianity. Although the New Testament wins written in Greek, Christianity had come into existence in an Aramaic-speaking milieu, and it was the Aramaic dialect of Edessa, now known as Syriac, that became the literary language of a large number of Christians living in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire and in the Persian Empire, further east. Over the course of the centuries the influence of the Syriac Churches spread eastwards to China (in Xian, in western China, a Chinese-Syriac inscription dated 781 is still to be seen); to southern India where the state of Kerala can boast more Christians of Syriac liturgical tradition than anywhere else in the world.
Meeting of the Saints  walis (saints of Allah)
Great men covet to embrace martyrdom for a cause and principle.
So was the case with Hazrat Ali. He could have made a compromise with the evil forces of his time and, as a result, could have led a very comfortable, easy and luxurious life.  But he was not a person who would succumb to such temptations. His upbringing, his education and his training in the lap of the holy Prophet made him refuse such an offer.
Rabia Al-Basri (717–801 C.E.) She was first to set forth the doctrine of mystical love and who is widely considered to be the most important of the early Sufi poets. An elderly Shia pointed out that during his pre-Partition childhood it was quite common to find pictures and portraits of Shia icons in Imambaras across the country.
Shah Abdul Latif: The Exalted Sufi Master born 1690 in a Syed family; died 1754. In ancient times, Sindh housed the exemplary Indus Valley Civilisation with Moenjo Daro as its capital, and now, it is the land of a culture which evolved from the teachings of eminent Sufi saints. Pakistan is home to the mortal remains of many Sufi saints, the exalted among them being Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, a practitioner of the real Islam, philosopher, poet, musicologist and preacher. He presented his teaching through poetry and music - both instruments sublime - and commands a very large following, not only among Muslims but also among Hindus and Christians. Sindh culture: The Shah is synonymous with Sindh. He is the very fountainhead of Sindh's culture. His message remains as fresh as that of any present day poet, and the people of Sindh find solace from his writings. He did indeed think for Sindh. One of his prayers, in exquisite Sindhi, translates thus: “Oh God, may ever You on Sindh bestow abundance rare! Beloved! All the world let share Thy grace, and fruitful be.”
Shia Ali al-Hadi, died 868 and son Hassan al-Askari 874. These saints are the 10th and 11th of Shia's 12 most revered Imams. Baba Farid Sufi 1398 miracle, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki renowned Muslim Sufi saint scholar miracles 569 A.H. [1173 C.E.] hermit gave to poor, Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti greatest mystic of his time born 533 Hijri (1138-39 A.D.), Hazrat Ghuas-e Azam, Hazrat Bu Ali Sharif, and Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia Sufi Saint Hazrath Khwaja Syed Mohammed Badshah Quadri Chisty Yamani Quadeer (RA)
1236-1325 welcomed people of all faiths & all walks of life
To Save A Life is Earthly; Saving A Soul is Eternal Donation by mail, please send check or money order to:
Eternal Word Television Network 5817 Old Leeds Rd. Irondale, AL 35210  USA
  Catholic Television Network  Supported entirely by donations from viewers  help  spread the Eternal Word, online Here
Mother Angelica saving souls is this beautiful womans journey Shrine_of_The_Most_Blessed_Sacrament
Colombia was among the countries Mother Angelica visited. 
In Bogotá, a Salesian priest - Father Juan Pablo Rodriguez - brought Mother and the nuns to the Sanctuary of the Divine Infant Jesus to attend Mass.  After Mass, Father Juan Pablo took them into a small Shrine which housed the miraculous statue of the Child Jesus. Mother Angelica stood praying at the side of the statue when suddenly the miraculous image came alive and turned towards her.  Then the Child Jesus spoke with the voice of a young boy:  “Build Me a Temple and I will help those who help you.” 

Thus began a great adventure that would eventually result in the Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament, a Temple dedicated to the Divine Child Jesus, a place of refuge for all. Use this link to read a remarkable story about
The Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament
Father Reardon, Editor of The Catholic Bulletin for 14 years Lover of the poor; A very Holy Man of God.
Monsignor Reardon Protonotarius Apostolicus
Pastor 42 years BASILICA OF SAINT MARY Minneapolis MN
America's First Basilica Largest Nave in the World
August 7, 1907-ground broke for the foundation
by Archbishop Ireland-laying cornerstone May 31, 1908
James M. Reardon Publication History of Basilica of Saint Mary 1600-1932
James M. Reardon Publication  History of the Basilica of Saint Mary 1955 {update}

Brief History of our Beloved Holy Priest Here and his published books of Catholic History in North America
Reardon, J.M. Archbishop Ireland; Prelate, Patriot, Publicist, 1838-1918.
A Memoir (St. Paul; 1919); George Anthony Belcourt Pioneer Catholic Missionary of the Northwest 1803-1874 (1955);
The Catholic Church IN THE DIOCESE OF ST. PAUL from earliest origin to centennial achievement
1362-1950 (1952);

The Church of Saint Mary of Saint Paul 1875-1922;
The Vikings in the American Heartland;
The Catholic Total Abstinence Society in Minnesota;
James Michael Reardon Born in Nova Scotia, 1872;  Priest, ordained by Bishop Ireland;
Member -- St. Paul Seminary faculty.
Affiliations and Indulgence Litany of Loretto in Stained glass windows here.  Nave Sacristy and Residence Here
spaces between them filled with grilles of hand-forged wrought iron the
life of our Blessed Lady After the crucifixon
Apostle statues Replicas of those in St John Lateran--Christendom's earliest Basilica.
Ordered by Rome's first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great, Popes' cathedral and official residence first millennium of Christian history.

The only replicas ever made:  in order from west to east {1932}.
Every Christian must be a living book wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel
It Makes No Sense
Not To Believe In GOD
THE BLESSED MOTHER AND ISLAM By Father John Corapi. Site http://www.fathercorapi
As we watch the spectacle of the world seeming to self-destruct before our eyes, we can’t help but be saddened and even frightened by so much evil run rampant. Iraq, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Somalia, North Korea—It is all a disaster of epic proportions displayed in living color on our television screens.  These are not ordinary times and this is not business as usual. We are at a crossroads in human history and the time for Catholics and all Christians to act is now. All evil can ultimately be traced to its origin, which is moral evil. All of the political action, peace talks, international peacekeeping forces, etc. will avail nothing if the underlying sickness is not addressed. This is sin. One person at a time hearts and minds must be moved from evil to good, from lies to truth, from violence to peace.
Islam, an Arabic word that has often been defined as “to make peace,” seems like a living contradiction today. Although it is supposed to be a religion of peace, Islam has been hijacked by Satan and now operates in the dark space of international terrorism.  As we celebrate the birthday of Our Lady, I am proposing that each one of us pray the Rosary for peace. Prayer is what must precede all other activity if that activity is to have any chance of success. Pray for peace, pray the Rosary every day without fail.  There is a great love for Mary among Muslim people. It is not a coincidence that a little village named Fatima is where God chose to have His Mother appear in the twentieth century. Our Lady’s name appears no less than thirty times in the Koran. No other woman’s name is mentioned, not even that of Mohammed’s daughter, Fatima. In the Koran Our Lady is described as “Virgin, ever Virgin.”
Archbishop Fulton Sheen prophetically spoke of the resurgence of Islam in our day. He said it would be through the Blessed Virgin Mary that Islam would be converted. We must pray for this to happen quickly if we are to avert a horrible time of suffering for this poor, sinful world. Turn to our Mother in this time of great peril. Pray the Rosary every day. Then, and only then will there be peace, when the hearts and minds of men are changed from the inside.
Talk is weak. Prayer is strong. Pray!  God bless you, Father John Corapi
Site http://www.fathercorapi

Father Corapi's Biography

Father John Corapi is what has commonly been called a late vocation. In other words, he came to the priesthood other than a young man. He was 44 years old when he was ordained. From small town boy to the Vietnam era US Army, from successful businessman in Las Vegas and Hollywood to drug addicted and homeless, to religious life and ordination to the priesthood by Pope John Paul II, to a life as a preacher of the Gospel who has reached millions with the simple message that God's Name is Mercy!

Father Corapi's academic credentials are quite extensive. He received a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from Pace University in the seventies. Then as an older man returned to the university classrooms in preparation for his life as a priest and preacher. He received all of his academic credentials for the Church with honors: a Masters degree in Sacred Scripture from Holy Apostles Seminary and Bachelor, Licentiate, and Doctorate degrees in dogmatic theology from the University of Navarre in Spain.

Since his ordination to the priesthood in 1991 Fr. Corapi has traveled over 2,000,000 miles preaching the Gospel. He has preached in 49 of the 50 states, all of the Canadian provinces except NewFoundland, and several other foreign countries. He is currently engaged in preaching and teaching the Catholic faith by way of the means of social communication: television, radio, the internet, and various other multi-media formats.

  Father John Corapi goes to the heart of the contemporary world's many woes and wars, whether the wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, Somalia, or the Congo, or the natural disasters that seem to be increasing every year, the moral and spiritual war is at the basis of everything. “Our battle is not against human forces,” St. Paul asserts, “but against principalities and powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness...” (Ephesians 6:12). 
The “War to end all wars” is the moral and spiritual combat that rages in the hearts and minds of human beings. The outcome of that  unseen fight largely determines how the battle in the realm of the seen unfolds.  The title talk, “With the Moon Under Her Feet,” is taken from the twelfth chapter of the Book of Revelation, and deals with the current threat to the world from radical Islam, and the Blessed Virgin Mary's role in the ultimate victory that will result in the conversion of Islam. Few Catholics are aware of the connection between Islam, Fatima, and Guadalupe. Presented in Father Corapi's straight-forward style, you will be both inspired and educated by him.

About Father John Corapi.
Father Corapi is a Catholic priest .
The pillars of father's preaching are basically:
Love for and a relationship with the Blessed Virgin Mary 
Leading a vibrant and loving relationship with Jesus Christ
Great love and reverence for the Most Holy Eucharist from Holy Mass to adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
An uncompromising love for and obedience to the Holy Father and the teaching of the Magisterium of the Church

Marian Apparitions (over 2000)  India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes Feb 11- July 16, Loreto, Italy 1858 
Marian shrines
May 23, 1995 Zarvintisya Ukraine Lourdes Kenya national Marian shrine    Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798  
Links to Related
Marian Websites  Angels and Archangels
Doctors_of_the_Church   Acts_Of_The_Apostles  Roman Catholic Popes  Purgatory  Uniates

     St. Cyriacus.The Departure of; brought to Abba Peter, Bishop of Corinth, his cousin,; he ordained him reader. Cyriacus read continually searched interpretations of Holy Scriptures surpassed many in it; went to Jerusalem, met bishop Abba Cyril; sent to Euthymius (Otimus) Palestine; lived virtuous life much asceticism humility, godliness devoutness; God bestowed the gift of healing; He healed all who came to the monastery all kinds of sicknesses or infirmities; His virtues and holiness spread everywhere

On this day, the holy father, St. Cyriacus, departed. This striver was brought up in the city of Corinth in Greece. He was the son of Orthodox Christian parents, who taught him the church subjects. They brought him to Abba Peter, Bishop of Corinth, who was his cousin, and he ordained him a reader. Cyriacus read continually and searched in the interpretations of the Holy Scriptures until he surpassed many in it. Abba Peter appointed him to read to the people in the church and to him in his cell, and he was pleased with him.

When he was 18 years old, his parents asked him if he wished to marry, but he refused. He asked them for permission to visit one of the monasteries in order to be blessed by the saints therein. He continued to visit the monastery from time to time and he longed for the monastic garb. He went to the Holy city, Jerusalem, and met its bishop, Abba Cyril. He presented to him his wish to become a monk. Abba Cyril approved his wish and prophesied of him saying that he would become a great father, would have many accomplishments, and many souls would be enlightened by his teachings. He blessed him and sent him to the great father Euthymius (Otimus), the father of the monks of Palestine.

Father Euthymius accepted him with joy and put the garb of the monk on him. He handed him to one of the elders of the monastery who taught him the ways of worship and revealed to him the artifices of Satan. Abba Cyriacus lived a virtuous life with much asceticism besides humility, godliness and devoutness. God bestowed upon him the gift of healing. He healed all those who came to the monastery with all kinds of sicknesses or infirmities. His virtues and his holiness spread everywhere.

This holy man accompanied Abba Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, to the Ecumenical council of the hundred and fifty that gathered at Constantinople because of Macedonius, the enemy of the Holy Spirit. Abba Cyriacus opposed his arguments and vanquished him by evidences and proofs. He departed at a good old age. The Lord made manifest from his body after his departure, many signs and miracles. His body still rests in one of the monasteries of the city of Jerusalem, without any change or corruption, to the extent that anyone who sees him today would think that he just died only a short time ago. More than 700 years have passed from the time of his departure till the writing of his biography. He lived at the time of Theodosius the Great in the later part of the fourth Christian century.
His intercession be for us. Amen.
St. Athanasius and His Sister, Irene. Departure of
On this day also, St. Athanasius and his sister, Irene, departed. They suffered many tortures at the hands of Maximianus. When he failed to turn them away from their faith in Christ, he ordered to cast them into an empty pit, and to shut over them, wherein they departed.

150 St. Patiens  Patron saint of Metz, France fourth diocesecan bishop.
2nd v. Aurelius and Publius bishops who wrote against the Montanists or Cata-Phrygians BM (RM)
In Asia pássio sanctórum Aurélii et Públii Episcopórum.
    In Asia, the martyrdom of the holy bishops Aurelius and Publius.
Aurelius and Publius were bishops who wrote against the Montanists or Cata-Phrygians. They were martyred, probably in Asia, though others place the site in North Africa (Benedictines).
200 St. Rufus and Avignon first bishop of Avignon France
Avenióne sancti Rufi, qui éxstitit primus ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus.
    At Avignon, St. Rufus, the first bishop of that city.
It is certain that he did live, although biographies written about him are considered unreliable.

430 St. Nilus the Elder Bishop and friend of St. John Chrysostom
Constantinópoli sancti Nili Abbátis, qui, sub Theodósio junióre, ex Præfécto ejúsdem civitátis factus Mónachus, doctrína et sanctitáte cláruit.
    At Constantinople, St. Nilus, abbot, who resigned as prefect of the city to become a monk, and during the reign of Theodosius the Younger became distinguished for his learning and sanctity.

He was reputedly a member of the imperial court at Constantinople, modern Istanbul, who gave up his family and, with his son, Theodulus, took up the life of a monk on Mount Sinai. Theodulus was kidnapped by Arab raiders, and Nilus set out to find him. They were reunited, and both were ordained by a bishop at Eleusa. They then returned to Sinai. Nilus also became the bishop of Ancyra and was the reputed author of ascetical treatises and many letters. There is a possibility that he may be confused with the monk of Ancyra called “the Wise,” who wrote the various treatises.

Saint Nilus the Faster of Sinai, a native of Constantinople. He lived during the fifth century and was a disciple of St John Chrysostom. Having received a fine education, the saint was appointed to the important post of prefect of the capital while still a young man. During this period, Nilus was married and had children, but the pomp of courtly life bothered the couple. St John Chrysostom exerted a tremendous influence upon their lives and their strivings. The spouses decided to separate and devote themselves to the monastic life.
<Nilus and John
The wife and daughter of Nilus went to one of the women's monasteries in Egypt, and St Nilus and his son Theodulus went to Sinai, where they settled in a cave dug out by their own hands. For forty years this cave served as the dwelling of St Nilus. By fasting, prayer and works, the monk attained a high degree of spiritual perfection. People began to come to him from every occupation and social rank from the emperor down to the farmer, and each found counsel and comfort from the saint.

At Sinai, St Nilus wrote many soul-profiting works to guide Christians on the path of salvation. In one of his letters there is an angry denunciation of the emperor Arcadius, who had exiled St John Chrysostom. The ascetic works of the venerable Nilus are widely known: they are perfectly executed in form, profoundly Orthodox in content, and are clear and lucid in expression. His Ascetic Discourse is found in Volume I of the English PHILOKALIA.

St Nilus suffered many misfortunes in the wilderness. Once, Saracens captured his son Theodulus, whom they intended to offer as a sacrifice to their pagan gods. Through the prayers of the saint the Lord saved Theodulus, and his father found him with the Bishop of Emessa, who had ransomed the young man from the barbarians. This bishop ordained both of them as presbyters. After ordination they returned to Sinai, where they lived as ascetics together until the death of St Nilus.

AMONG the disciples of St John Chrysostom was a certain Nilus, who was an official at Constantinople and is said even to have been prefect of the city.  He was married and had two children, some years after the birth of whom Nilus was seized by a great craving after solitude.   He eventually agreed with his wife that they should withdraw from the world, he taking his son Theodulus with him.
went to reside with the monks of Mount Sinai, from whence Nilus wrote two letters of protest and rebuke to the Emperor Arcadius after the banishment of Chrysostom from Constantinople.  After a few years the monastery suffered a raid from Arabs, when many monks were slaughtered and the young Theodulus was carried off.  His father followed up the raiders with the intention of ransoming the boy, and at last traced him to Eleusa, south of Beersheba, where Theodulus had been bought by the local bishop out of charity and given employment in the church.  Before sending them back to Sinai this bishop ordained both Nilus and his son priests.
    By the letters and other writings attributed to him Nilus was well known as a writer, theological, Biblical and especially ascetic. In his treatise on prayer he recommends that we beg of God in the first place the gift of prayer, and entreat the Holy Ghost to form in our hearts those desires which He has promised always to hear, and continually to ask of God that His will maybe done in the most perfect manner.  To persons in the world he inculcates temperance, meditation on death and the obligation of giving alms, and he was always ready to communicate to others his spiritual science.
  What proficiency he had attained in an interior life and in the study of the Holy Scriptures, and how much he was consulted by persons of all ranks, appear from the number of his letters which are still in existence.  One of these was in reply to the prefect Olympiodorus, who had built a church and wanted to know if he might adorn its walls with mosaics not only of sacred subjects but also of hunting scenes, birds, beasts and the like.  St Nilus makes short work of this suggestion, and then says that the walls should be painted with scenes from the Old and New Testaments for the instruction of those who could not read, but only one cross should be displayed, and that in the sanctuary.
    St Nilus wrote a special treatise to show the life of hermits to be preferable to that of religious who live in communities in cities, but that hermits have their particular difficulties and trials.  These he himself had experienced by violent temptations, troubles of mind and assaults of evil spirits.  To a certain monk living on a pillar he writes that his lofty position is due to pride:   Every one that exalteth himself shall be humbled."
   It would seem, however, that the story of St Nilus, accepted by Tillemont and Alban Butler on the authority of the Narrationes (printed in Migne, PG., vol. lxxix, pp. 583-694), is open to the gravest doubt. We have no reason to believe that Nilus was a high court official, that he was married, betook himself to Sinai and underwent alarming experiences in the search for his captive son.This is, no doubt, the tale perpetuated in synaxaries, but it cannot be made to agree with the data furnished in Nilus's authentic letters.  Nilus the writer would appear to have been another person, a monk of Ancyra in Galatia (modern Ankara), and the two contemporaries seem to have been confused into one.
See the reference in Migne, PG., given above; K. Heussi, Untersuchungen zu Nilus dem Asketen in Texte und Untersuchungen (1917); F. Degenhart, Des hl. Nilus Sinaita (1925) and Neue Beitrage zur Nilusforschung (1918); and also DTC., vol. xi (1931), cc. 661-674, which includes a full bibliography.
422 St. Renatus  First bishop of Angers, France, and Sorrento, Italy
also listed as Rend. Owing to the unlikelihood of his having held both positions, scholars Believe that there are actually two bishops who have been placed under the same name.

6th v. Machar of Iona B (AC)
(also known as Macharius or Mochumma of Iona or Aberdeen) An Irishman by birth, he was baptized by Saint Colman {676} and became a disciple of Saint Columba {Born in Garton, County Donegal, Ireland, c. 521; died June 9, 597} at Iona. Afterwards he was sent with 12 disciples to convert the Picts, and fixed his episcopal residence at Old Aberdeen, of which he is said to have been the first bishop. The water from his well was at one time used for baptisms in Aberdeen cathedral (Benedictines, Montague).
560 Saint Evodius Bishop of Le Puy B (AC)
Bishop of Le Puy, France (Benedictines).

574 St. Emilian Cucullatus shepherd hermit priest patron saint of Spain favoured with many miracles
Turiasóne, in Hispánia Tarraconénsi, beáti Æmiliáni Presbyteri, qui innúmeris miráculis cláruit; cujus admirábilem vitam sanctus Bráulio, Cæsaraugustánus Epíscopus, descrípsit.
    At Tarazona in Aragon, blessed Emilian, a priest favoured with many miracles.  His admirable life was recorded by St. Braulio, bishop of Saragossa.
THIS St Emilian, under the name of San Millán de la Cogolla, i.e. “with the Hood, was a famous early saint of Spain and is regarded as a patron of that country.  The Roman Martyrology refers to the fact that his life was written by St Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa, about fifty years after his death. Emilian's birthplace has for centuries been a matter in dispute between Aragon and Castile.
As a youth he was a shepherd.  At the age of twenty he heard a call from God to His direct service and for a time he attached himself to a hermit.  Then he returned to his home, but so many people importuned him that he wandered off into the mountains above Burgos.  He lived there for forty years-according to tradition on the mountain where the abbey of San Milldn was afterwards built--till the bishop of Tarazona insisted on his receiving holy orders and becoming a parish priest. 
But the heroic virtues that the hermit had learned in the wilderness were not understood by his fellow clergy, and he was accused to the bishop of wasting the goods of the church, which he had given away in charity.  He was therefore deprived of his cure, and with some disciples returned to solitude and contemplation, and so spent the rest of his life. St Emilian is sometimes called the first Spanish Benedictine, but the monastery of La Cogolla, of course, did not have Benedictine Rule till long after his time.
The Latin biography by Braulio is printed by Mabillon, vol. i, pp. 198-207. In Florea, España Sagrada, vol. I, will also be found an account of the saint's translation and of the miracles wrought at his shrine.  See further T. Minguella, S. Millan de La Cogolla, estudios historicos (1883), and V. de Ia Fuente, San Millian, presbitero secular (1883). A new critical edition of the vita, ed. L. Vazquez de Parga, was published at Madrid in 1943.

One of the patron saints of Spain, called La Cogalla, “the Cowled.” A shepherd from La Rioja, in Navarre, Spain, he was ordained a priest after many years as a hermit. He was made pastor of the parish in Berceo but became a hermit again. In time so many joined him that he founded a hermitage that became the Benedictine Abbey of La Cogalla. Emilian Cucullatus, Abbot (RM) (also known as Aemilian, Emilianus or Millan of Cucullatus or La Cogolla or de la Gogolla). A shepherd at La Rioja, Navarre, Spain, he became a hermit when 20. After a brief stay at home, he spent the next 40 years in extreme solitude as a hermit in the mountains around Burgos when at the insistence of the bishop of Tarazona, he was ordained.  He became a parish priest at Berceo but because of his excessive charity was forced to leave and with several disciples resumed his eremitical life. He died at the age of 100. Tradition says the mountain hermitage he occupied near Burgos became the site of the Benedictine monastery of La Cogolla. He is a minor patron of Spain, where he is known as San Millan de la Cogolla--the cowled Saint Emilian (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
Saint Millan is represented as a monk on horseback fighting the Moors, and sometimes as a Benedictine on horseback holding a banner and sword. Abbot of La Cogolla, Tarazona. Minor patron saint of Spain (Roeder).
6th v. St. Machar founder of Aberdeen, Scotland companion of St. Columba
THE diocese of Aberdeen today keeps the feast of St Machar (Mochumma), but nothing certain is known about him except that he was an Irish missionary who came to Scotland with St Columba.   He is said to have evangelized the isle of Mull, and been consecrated bishop before being sent to preach to the Picts in what is now Aberdeenshire.  It is likely that he was a missionary in that neighbourhood, and the establishment of what became the see of Aberdeen is attributed to him.  Water from St Machar's well at Old Aberdeen used always to be used for baptisms in the cathedral.

Little is known of St Machar beyond what we find in the Aberdeen Breviary. Forbes in KSS., treats of him (pp. 393-394) under the heading Mauritius, Macbar or Mocumnia”. In the Aberdeen Martyrology he is described as Archbishop of Tours.  We are further told that Mr Bradshaw has discovered in the University Library at Cambridge a metrical Life of this saint, which he supposes to have been composed by Barbour in his extreme old age.  This metrical life, written about 1390, has since been printed by Horstmann in his Altenglische Legenden (1881). And cf. an article by Professor A. S. Ferguson in Scottish Gaelic Studies, vol. vi, pp. 58 seq.
Also called Macharius and Mochuemna, he was baptized by St. Colman and joined Columba on lona. Machar evangelized the island of Mull. Consecrated a bishop, he became the Apostle to the Picts in the Aberdeenshire region.
610 Imerius of Immertal monk-hermit and a missionary in the district of the Swiss Jura  Abbot (AC).
(also known as Himerius, Imier) A monk-hermit and a missionary in the district of the Swiss Jura, now called after him Immertal, Val-Saint-Imier (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). In art Imerius is depicted as an old hermit among twigs or branches. Venerated at Immertal, Switzerland (Roeder).
616-620 Saint John the Merciful, monk, Patriarch of Alexandria His spiritual exploits won him honor among men, even the emperor; charitable to all;  ransomed prisoners, Wed & Fri he received everyone in need; settled quarrels, helped the wronged, distributed alms. 3x's times a week visited the sick-houses, rendered assistance to the suffering.
Born on Cyprus in the seventh century into the family of the illustrious dignitary Epiphanius. At the wish of his parents he entered into marriage and had children. When the wife and the children of the saint died, he became a monk. He was zealous in fasting and prayer, and had great love for those around him.

His spiritual exploits won him honor among men, and even the emperor revered him. When the Patriarchal throne of Alexandria fell vacant, the emperor Heraclius and all the clergy begged St John to occupy the Patriarchal throne.

The saint worthily assumed his archpastoral service, concerning himself with the moral and dogmatic welfare of his flock. As patriarch he denounced every soul-destroying heresy, and drove out from Alexandria the Monophysite Phyllonos of Antioch.

He considered his chief task to be charitable and to give help all those in need. At the beginning of his patriarchal service he ordered his stewards to compile a list of all the poor and downtrodden in Alexandria, which turned out to be over seven thousand men. The saint ordered that all of these unfortunates be provided for each day out of the church's treasury.

Twice during the week, on Wednesdays and Fridays, he emerged from the doors of the patriarchal cathedral, and sitting on the church portico, he received everyone in need. He settled quarrels, helped the wronged, and distributed alms. Three times a week he visited the sick-houses, and rendered assistance to the suffering. It was during this period that the emperor Heraclius led a tremendous army against the Persian emperor Chosroes II. The Persians ravaged and burned Jerusalem, taking a multitude of captives. The holy Patriarch John gave a large portion of the church treasury for their ransom.

The saint never refused suppliants. One day, when the saint was visiting the sick, he met a beggar and commanded that he be given six silver coins. The beggar changed his clothes, ran on ahead of the Patriarch, and again asked for alms. St John gave him six more silver coins. When, however, the beggar sought charity a third time, and the servants began to chase the fellow away, the Patriarch ordered that he be given twelve pieces of silver, saying, "Perhaps he is Christ putting me to the test." Twice the saint gave money to a merchant that had suffered shipwreck, and a third time gave him a ship belonging to the Patriarchate and filled with grain, with which the merchant had a successful journey and repaid his obligations.

St John the Merciful was known for his gentle attitude towards people. Once, the saint was compelled to excommunicate two clergymen for a certain time because of some offense. One of them repented, but the other fellow became angry with the Patriarch and fell into greater sins. The saint wanted to summon him and calm him with kind words, but it slipped his mind. When he was celebrating the Divine Liturgy, the saint was suddenly reminded by the words of the Gospel: if you bring your gift to the altar and remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift before the altar ... first, be reconciled with your brother, and then come and offer your gift (Mt. 5:23-24). The saint came out of the altar, called the offending clergyman to him, and falling down on his knees before him in front of all the people he asked forgiveness. The cleric, filled with remorse, repented of his sin, corrected himself, and afterwards was found worthy to be ordained to the priesthood.

There was a time when a certain citizen insulted George, the Patriarch's nephew. George asked the saint to avenge the wrong. The saint promised to deal with the offender so that all of Alexandria would marvel at what he had done. This calmed George, and St John began to instruct him, speaking of the necessity for meekness and humility. Then he summoned the man who insulted George. When St John learned that the man lived in a house owned by the church, he declared that he would excuse him from paying rent for an entire year. Alexandria indeed was amazed by such a "revenge," and George learned from his uncle how to forgive offenses and to bear insults for God's sake.

St John, a strict ascetic and man of prayer, was always mindful of his soul, and of death. He ordered a coffin for himself, but told the craftsmen not to finish it. Instead, he would have them come each feastday and ask if it was time to finish the work.

St John was persuaded to accompany the governor Nicetas on a visit to the emperor in Constantinople. While on his way to visit the earthly king, he dreamed of a resplendent man who said to him, "The King of Kings summons you."
He sailed to his native island of Cyprus, and died at Amanthos, the saint peacefully fell asleep in the Lord (616-620).
633 Cunibert of Trèves untiring builder of churches and monasteries B (RM)
Colóniæ Agrippínæ deposítio sancti Cunibérti Epíscopi   At Cologne, the death of St. Cunibert, bishop.

THE fine church of St Cunibert at Cologne was founded by this bishop, who dedicated it in honour of St Clement ; when his own relics were enshrined therein it was renamed after its founder.    He was undoubtedly a great and holy prelate, but the authorities for details of his life are not very reliable or full.   He is said to have been brought up at the court of Clotaire II, received holy orders, and was made archdeacon of the church of Trier.
    About 625 he was advanced to the bishopric of Cologne, and wielded such influence that he is commonly referred to as archbishop, though there was no actual metropolitan of that city till thc end of the eighth century.  He was a royal counsellor and assisted at several important synods, and when Dagobert I made his four-year-old son Sigebert king of Austrasia, Cunibert was appointed one of his two guardians.
    St Cunibert was concerned for the evangelization of the Frisians, as we learn from a letter of St Boniface and in his later years he left the court to devote himself entirely to his diocese.   He died in an uncertain year, leaving a great reputation for holiness.
Medieval lives of St Cunibert are numerous, belonging to two different types.  Fr M. Coens in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlvii (1929), pp. 338-367, has discussed the whole question very thoroughly, and published one particular text, adding abundant references to the more recent literature of the subject.  On the church of St Cunibert see the Festschrijt Anton Ditges gewidmet (1911), and also P. Clemen in Kunstdenkmahler der Rheinprovinz, vol. vi, pt 4(1916), pp. 231-313; relics of The Two Ewalds (October 3) are preserved there.
Cunibert, a Frankish courtier, was successively archdeacon of Trèves (Trier) and archbishop of Cologne. He filled the office of chief minister during the minority of King Sigebert of Austrasia. He was an untiring builder of churches and monasteries (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). Saint Cunibert is always shown with a dove on his head or at his ear. Sometimes he holds Cologne Cathedral (Roeder).
650 St. Livinus Martyred Irish bishop
IEschæ, in Bélgio, sancti Livíni, Epíscopi et Mártyris; qui, cum plúrimos ad Christi fidem convertísset, a Pagánis necátus est.  Ipsíus vero corpus ad Portum Gandæ póstea translátum fuit.
    At Eschen in Belgium, St. Livinus, bishop and martyr.  After converting many to the faith he was slain by heathens.  His body, however, was afterwards translated to Ghent.
ordained by St. Augustine of Canterbury, England {D. 607?}.

THE Church in Ireland today keeps the feast of St Livinus, who is mentioned in the Roman Martyrology as having been martyred in Belgium and who, like several other Irish missionaries on the continent, is credited with having been bishop in Dublin. His medieval life states that he was the son of a noble Scottish father and a royal Irish mother, and that he was baptized by St Augustine of Canterbury, who also ordained him. He later became a bishop and with three companions left Ireland for Flanders, where they were received by the abbot St Floribert at Ghent. Then he went preaching among the heathen in Brabant, was hospitably received by a lady, and eventually killed by pagans, who cut off his head at Eschen, near Alost.  His relics finally found a resting-place at the abbey of St Peter in Ghent.
  The Life of St Livinus professes to have been written from information received from his personal disciples, but it is not heard of before the eleventh century, and the resemblance of the above story to that of St Lebuin (see below) is obvious.  It is now generally received among scholars that this bishop had no independent existence, that the St Livinus commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, in Ireland and at Ghent is the same as the St Lebuin who was certainly a missionary in Holland and is venerated in that country.
A medieval life, purporting to have been written by a certain " Bonifacius peccator and at one time ascribed to the great St Boniface, is printed in Mabillon, vol. ii, pp. 449-461. Its worthlessness has been demonstrated by 0. Holder-Egger in Historische Aufsätze an G. Waltz gewidmet (1886), pp. 622-665.  J. Kenney, Sources for the Early History of Ireland, says, p. 509  “It is probable that Livinus is a doublet of the English St Liafwin or Lebuin of Deventer in Holland on which cf. Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxx (1952), pp. 285-308.

He was the son of a Scottish noble and an Irish princess. Livinus and three companions went to Flanders, Belgium, where they evangelized the area. He was martyred near Clost, in Brabant. Also called Lebwin, he is identified by some scholars with St. Lebuinus. 

Livinus of Alost BM (RM) (also known as Lebwin). An Irishman by birth, he was ordained a priest by Saint Augustine of Canterbury, and sailed to Flanders, where for some years he preached the gospel with great success. At some time during this period he is said to have been consecrated bishop in Ireland. He was martyred with several companions near Alost, Brabant, Belgium. His relics are enshrined and venerated at Ghent. He is perhaps to be identified with as Saint Lebuinus (Benedictines, Montague). Saint Lebwin is shown as a bishop holding his tongue with a pair of tongs (because it was plucked out). Venerated at Alost (Roeder).
655 Pope St. Martin I defender of the faith; buried in the church of Our Lady, called Blachernæ, near Cherson, many miracles are related wrought by St Martin in life and after death
Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to succeed Theodore I; died at Cherson in the present peninsulas of Krym, 16 Sept., 655, after a reign of 6 years, one month and twenty six days, having ordained eleven priests, five deacons and thirty-three bishops. 5 July is the date commonly given for his election, but 21 July (given by Lobkowitz, "Statistik der Papste" Freiburg, 1905) seems to correspond better with the date of his death and reign (Duchesne "Lib. Pont.", I, 336); his feast is on 12 November.The Greeks honor him on 13 April and 15 September, the Muscovites on 14 April. In the hymns of the Office the Greeks style him infallibilis fidei magister because he was the successor of St. Peter in the See of Rome (Nilles, "Calendarium Manuale", Innsbruck, 1896, I, 336).

Martin, one of the noblest figures in a long line of Roman pontiffs (Hodgkin, "Italy", VI, 268) was, according to his biographer Theodore (Mai, "Spicil. Rom.", IV 293) of noble birth, a great student, of commanding intelligence, of profound learning, and of great charity to the poor. Piazza, II 45 7 states that he belonged to the order of St. Basil. He governed the Church at a time when the leaders of the Monothelite heresy, supported by the emperor, were making most strenuous efforts to spread their tenets in the East and West. Pope Theodore had sent Martin as apocrysiary to Constantinople to make arrangements for canonical deposition of the heretical patriarch, Pyrrhus. After his election, Martin had himself consecrated without waiting for the imperial confirmation, and soon called a council in the Lateran at which one hundred and five bishops met. Five sessions were held on 5, 8, 17, 119 and 31 Oct., 649 (Hefele, "Conciliengeschichte", III, 190). The "Ecthesis" of Heraclius and the "Typus" of Constans II were rejected; nominal excommunication was passed against Sergius, Pyrrus, and Paul of Constantinople, Cyrus of Alexandria and Theodore of Phran in Arabia; twenty canons were enacted defining the Catholic doctrine on the two wills of Christ. The decrees signed by the pope and the assembled bishops were sent to the other bishops and the faithful of the world together with an encyclical of Martin. The Acts with a Greek translation were also sent to the Emperor Constans II.

The pope appointed John, Bishop of Philadelphia, as his vicar in the East with necessary instructions and full authority . Bishop Paul of Thessalonica refused to recall his heretical letters previously sent to Rome and added others,—he was, therefore, formally excommunicated and deposed. The Patriarch of Constantinople, Paul, had urged the emperor to use drastic means to force the pope and the Western Bishops at least to subscribe to the "Typus". The emperor sent Olympius as exarch to Italy, where he arrived while the council was still in session. Olympius tried to create a faction among the fathers to favor the views of the emperor, but without success. Then upon pretense of reconciliation he wished to receive Holy Communion from the hands of the pontiff with the intention of slaying him. But Divine Providence protected the pope, and Olympius left Rome to fight against the Saracens in Sicily and died there. Constans II thwarted in his plans, sent as exarch Theodore Calliopas with orders to bring Martin to Constantinople. Calliopas arrived in Rome, 15 June, 653, and, entering the Lateran Basilica two days later, informed the clergy that Martin had been deposed as an unworthy intruder, that he must be brought to Constantinople and that another was to be chosen in his place. The pope, wishing to avoid the shedding of human blood, forbade resistance and declared himself willing to be brought before the emperor. The saintly prisoner, accompanied by only a few attendants, and suffering much from bodily ailments and privations, arrived at Constantinople on 17 Sept., 653 or 654, having landed nowhere except the island of Naxos. The letters of the pope seem to indicate he was kept at Naxos for a year. Jaffe, n. 1608, and Ewald, n 2079, consider the annum fecimus an interpolation and would allow only a very short stop at Naxos, which granted the pope an opportunity to enjoy a bath. Duchesne, "Lib. Pont.", I, 336 can see no reason for abandoning the original account; Hefele,"Conciliengeschichte" III, 212, held the same view (see "Zeitschr. für Kath. Theol.", 1892, XVI, 375).

From Abydos messengers were sent to the imperial city to announce the arrival of the prisoner who was branded as a heretic and rebel, an enemy of God and of the State. Upon his arrival in Constantinople Martin was left for several hours on deck exposed to the jests and insults of a curious crowd of spectators. Towards evening he was brought to a prison called Prandearia and kept in close and cruel confinement for ninety-three days, suffering from hunger, cold and thirst. All this did not break his energy and on 19 December he was brought before the assembled senate where the imperial treasurer acted as judge. Various political charges were made, but the true and only charge was the pope's refusal to sign the "Typus". He was then carried to an open space in full view of the emperor and of a large crowd of people. These were asked to pass anathema upon the pope to which but few responded. Numberless indignities were heaped upon him, he was stripped of nearly all his clothing, loaded with chains, dragged through the streets of the city and then again thrown into the prison of Diomede, where he remained for eighty five days. Perhaps influenced by the death of Paul, Patriarch of Constantinople, Constans did not sentence the pope to death, but to exile. He was put on board a ship, 26 March, 654 (655) and arrived at his destination on 15 May. Cherson was at the time suffering from a great famine. The venerable pontiff here passed the remaining days of his life. He was buried in the church of Our Lady, called Blachernæ, near Cherson, and many miracles are related as wrought by St Martin in life and after death. The greater part of his relics are said to have been transferred to Rome, where they repose in the church of San Martino ai Monti. Of his letters seventeen are extant in P.L., LXXXVII, 119.

ST MARTIN was a native of Todi in Umbria, renowned among the clergy of Rome for his learning and holiness. Whilst he was deacon he was sent by Pope Theodore I as apocrisiarius or nuncio to Constantinople, and upon the death of Theodore Martin himself was elected pope in July 649.  In the October following he held a council at the Lateran against Monothelism (the denial that Christ had a human will), in which the orthodox doctrine of the two wills was affirmed and the leaders of the heresy anathematized.  Two imperial edicts, the
Ekthesis of Heraclius and the Typos of Constans, were likewise censured: the first because it contained an exposition of faith entirely favourable to the monothelites, the second because it was a formulary by which silence was imposed on both parties and it was forbidden to mention either one or two wills and energies in Christ. 
The Lord, said the Lateran fathers, has commanded us to shun evil and do good, but not to reject the good with the evil. We are not to deny at the  same time both error and truth”.-which sounds like a reference to Pope Honorius I, though he is not mentioned. These decrees were published throughout the West, Martin invoking the energy of the bishops of Africa, Spain and England for the putting down of Monothelism, and in the East he appointed a vicar to enforce the synodal decisions in the patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem.
  The emperor, Constans II, was infuriated. He had already sent an exarch to Rome who had failed in his mission of sowing dissension among the bishops at the synod, and he now sent another, Theodore Kalliopes, with orders to bring the pope to Constantinople.   Martin, who was sick, took refuge in the Lateran basilica, where he was lying on a couch in front of the altar when Kalliopes and his soldiers broke in; he refused to make any resistance, and was taken secretly out of Rome to be put on board ship at Porto. The voyage was long and Martin suffered greatly from dysentery. He arrived in Constantinople in the autumn of 653 and was there left in jail for three months; he wrote in a letter : 
I have not been allowed to wash, even in cold water, for forty-seven days.  I am wasted away and frozen through, and have had no respite from dysentery...The food that is given me makes me feel sick.  I hope that God, who knows all things, will bring my persecutors to repentance after He will have taken me out of this world .
    The pope was eventually arraigned before the senate on a charge of treason and condemned unheard (His real offence, as St Martin pointed out to his accusers, was his refusal to sign the theological
Typos); then, after shameful public indignities and ill-treatment, which aroused indignation of the people, he was returned to prison for another three months. His life, however, was spared (at the intercession of the dying patriarch Paul) and in April 654 he was taken into exile at Kherson in the Crimea. From there St Martin wrote an account of the famine, his own difficulty in getting food, the barbarism of the inhabitants, and the neglect with which he was treated.
I am surprised at the indifference of all those who, though they once knew me, have now so entirely forgotten me that they do not even seem to know whether I am in the world. I wonder still more at those who belong to the church of St Peter for the little concern they show for one of their body.  If  that church has no money, it wants not corn, oil or other provisions out of which they might send us a small supply.  What fear has seized all these men that it hinders them from fulfilling the commands of God in relieving the distressed? Have I appeared such an enemy to the whole Church, or to them in particular ?
    However, I pray God, by the intercession of St Peter, to preserve them steadfast and immovable in the orthodox faith.
    As to this wretched body, God will have care of it. He is at hand; why should I trouble myself? I hope in His mercy that He
    will not prolong my course.

   St Martin was not disappointed in his hope, for he died perhaps about two years later, the last of the popes so far to be venerated as a martyr. His feast is celebrated in the West on November 12 and in the East on various dates, the Byzantine liturgy acclaiming him as a glorious defender of the true faith and an  ornament of the divine see of Peter. A contemporary wrote of Pope St Martin I as being a man of great intelligence, learning and charity.
For sources we have in this case the letters of the pope, though these have not always come to us in a very satisfactory form. There is also a contemporary account in the Liber Pontificalis-see Duchesne's edition, vol. i, pp. 336 seq. with his admirable notes-and the Commemoratio, a narrative written by an ecclesiastic who had accompanied St Martin In his exile. This, with the letters, maybe found in Migne, PL., vols, lxxxvii and cxxix. The Life of St Eligius by St Ouen, and the Greek biography of St Maximus the Confessor, supply some further details. From these materials Mgr Mann compiled a tolerably complete history of the pontificate Lives of the Popes, vol. i. pt 1, pp. 385-405. But since he wrote in 1902 other valuable contributions have been made to the subject, notably the publication by Fr P. Peeters in the Anaecta Bollandiana vol. 1i (1933), pp. 225-262, of a previously unknown Greek life of St Martin. See also R. Devreesse, La Vie de St Maxime le Confesseur, in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlvi (1928), pp. 5-49, and in vol. liii (1935), pp. 49 seq. W.Peita in the Historischesjahrbuch, vol. xxxviii (1917), pp. 213-236 and 428-458 Duchesne, L'Église au VIeme siècle (1925), pp. 445-453; E. Amann in DTC,, vol. x, cc. 182-194, etc.
665 St. Cummian Fada Irish monastic founder defender of Roman liturgical customs

CUIMINE FOTA, that is to say “ the Tall , was born about the year 590, a son of Fiachna, King of West Munster. While he was young he became a monk, and later presided over the school and district of Clonfert, whcre he is said to have been bishop. He is often identified with the Cumian who founded a house at Kilcummin in Offaly, where he introduced the Roman computation of Easter.
gave offence in many quarters and the abbot of lona rebuked Cumian for abandoning the Celtic computation, which had been hallowed by the observance of St Columcille.  Cumian replied in a letter known as the Paschal Epistle, in which he learnedly defends the Roman reckoning, citing synods, Western fathers and the paschal cycles of antiquity. This epistle, as Alban Butler remarks, alone suffices to give us a high idea of the learning, eloquence and virtue of the writer.
   But the eloquence
and learning of St Cumian had no effect on the intransigent monks of Jona. He also wrote a hymn, the last three stanzas of which are found as part of a liturgical office in the Book of Mulling in Trinity College, Dublin.
There seems to be no proper life of St Cumian in either Latin or Irish.  The Felire of Oengus, however, under November 12 has the entry:   “”here has been given with wisdom, science and much prudence, to my Cumian of beautiful warfare, the fair tall (Fota) son of Fiachna.  See especially Kenney, Sources for the Early History of Ireland, vol. i, pp. 220-221, and 324-325. Whether this Cumian was the author of a penitential sometimes attributed to him seems very doubtful.  On this consult J. T. McNeill in the Revue Celtique for 1922 and 1923, and other authorities referred to by L. Gougaud, Christianity in Celtic Lands, p. 285 and passim. Forbes in his KSS. states (p. 317) that  Fort Augustus is in the vulgar language called Kilichuimin, i.e. the church of Cumian  but Cumians were numerous and their identities are very tangled.
The son of the king of West Munster, Ireland, he entered Clonfert Monastery and headed the school there. He later became abbot of Kilcummin Monastery, which he founded. Cummian was a stout defender of the Roman liturgy against the Celtic school. His Paschal Epistle is still extant. Called “Fada,” Cummian received the name “tall” because of his height.
Cumian the Fada, Abbot (AC) (also known as Cummian, Cummin) Born in Ireland, c. 590; died c. 665. Son of King Fiachna of West Munster, Ireland, Cumian became a monk and was placed in charge of the abbey school at Clonfert. Later he was the abbot-founder of Kilcummin Monastery. He was noted for his learning and ably defended the Roman liturgical practices against the abbot of Iona, who was a stalwart defender of the Celtic practices. Cumian's defense is still available, the Paschal Epistle, and he also wrote a hymn, some of which is still extant. The surname Fada or Fota means "the tall" (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
689 St. Cadwallader king of Saxon peoples
He is also called Cadwalla and Ceadwalla. Born circa 659, Cadwallader became king of the West Saxons in 685 or 686. He expanded his kingdom to Sussex, Surrey, as well as Kent, In 668, he resigned and went to Rome, where he was baptized on Faster eve, by Pope Sergius I. He died a few days later and was entombed in St. Peter's.
Cadwallador, King (AC). A chieftain in Wales of ancient British race, not to be confused with the Anglo-Saxon Saint Ceadwalla, who is also known as Cadwallader. Both are on the Roman calendar. Even Delaney has confused the two (Benedictines).
726 St. Paternus  Benedictine monk of Saint Pierre le Vif
Apud óppidum Sergíniam, in território Senonénsi, sancti Patérni, Mónachi et Mártyris; qui, dum eídem occurréntes in ipsíus óppidi silva latrónes ad emendándam vitam incitáret, ab illis trucidátus est.
    In the neighbourhood of Sens, St. Paternus, monk and martyr.  He had met some robbers in a nearby forest, and for attempting to persuade them to amend their lives, they slew him near Sens, France: slain by evildoers whom he severely chastised.
773 St. Lebuin Benedictine called Leaf Wine in his native England
who worked with St. Boniface. He was a monk at Ripon, England, who went to Germany in 754. There he worked with St. Marchelm among the Frisians. Lebuin went to a pagan gathering at Marklo, where he won the respect of the Westphalian Saxons.

THIS saint was by birth an Englishman, called in his own tongue Liafwine, and became a monk in the monastery of Ripon where he was promoted to priest's orders.  That he might employ his talent for the salvation of souls, he went over into lower Germany sometime after 754 where several English missionaries were planting the gospel, and he addressed himself to St Gregory, vicar at Utrecht for that diocese.  This holy man received him with joy, and sent him with St Marchelm (Marculf) to carry the gospel into the country now called Overyssel.  St Lebuin was joyfully received by a lady named Ahachilda and, many being converted, they built a chapel on the west bank of the river near Deventer ; later a church and residence were built on the other bank, at Deventer itself.
       But many shut their ears to the truth, from whom the saint had much to suffer he seemed to gather greater courage from persecutions and continued his work until his enemies allied themselves with the Westphalian Saxons, burned down his church, and scattered his Frisian converts.

  These Saxons used to hold a yearly assembly at Marklo, upon the river Weser, to deliberate on the affairs of their nation, and St Lebuin determined to brave them thereat. Clothed in his priestly vestments, he entered the assemhly, holding a cross and a gospel-book.  And he cried out to them with a loud voice, saying,  Hear me, all of you!   Listen to God who speaks to you by my mouth. Know that the Lord, the Maker of the heavens, the earth and all things, is the only true God.  They stopped to listen, and he went on, affirming that their gods were powerless dead things and that he had been sent by the Lord of Heaven to promise them His peace and His salvation if they would acknowledge Him and receive baptism. But if they refused he threatened (perhaps a little tactlessly) that they should he speedily destroyed by a prince whom God in His wrath would raise up against them.  Whereupon many of the Saxons ran to the hedges and plucked up sharp stakes to murder him. But one in authority cried out that they had often received with respect ambassadors from men much more ought they to honour an ambassador from a god who was so powerful that his messenger had escaped from their hands, as Lebuin had done. This impressed the barbarians and it was agreed that he should be permitted to travel and preach where he pleased.
Lebuin after this heroic venture returned to Deventer and continued his work till he died.
The paper contributed in 1916 by Hofmeister to the volume Geschichtliche Studien Albert Hauck dargebracht, pp. 85-107, is of special importance. Besides the life by Hucbald of Enone (in Migne, PL., vol. cxxxii, cc. 877-894) see that edited by Hofmeister in MGH., Scriptores, vol. xxx, pt 2, pp. 789-795.  This had been previously printed by Fr M. Coens in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxix (1921), pp. 306-330. There is an account by F. Hesterman, Der hl. Lebuin (1935). The second life mentioned above is translated by C. H. Talbot in Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany (1954).
Lebuin of Deventer, OSB (AC) (also known as Lebwin, Leafwine, Liafwine, Livinius). An English Benedictine monk of Ripon, who crossed over to the Netherlands and partook of the missionary work inaugurated by Saint Boniface{680}; died at Dokkum, Friesland, in 755. He worked with Saint Marchelm{D. 762} under Saint Gregory of Utrecht(780} and established the first church of Deventer. From there he preached to the Saxons and Frisians (Attwater, Benedictines). Sometimes he is shown with Saint Marchelm (Roeder). He is patron of Daventer (Husenbeth). Medieval Sourcebook: The Life of Lebuin, 10th Century

[Talbot Introduction]

Though the life of St. Lebuin written by Hucbald of St. Amand is better known and was considered for a long time to be the first, M. J. A Moltzer showed in 1909 that it was based on an older biography, which is here translated. Hucbald was born about A.D. 840 and became monk of Elnone on the Scarpe. He went to Auxerre, where he followed the lectures of Heiric, a disciple of John Scotus Eriugena. Later he passed to St. Bertin, where he was placed in charge of the schools. The successor of Hincmar of Rheims, Fulques (881-­900), invited him to reorgamze the schools in the cathedral city, and after doing so he returned to St. Amand, where he died, 20 June, probably in the year 931. Among a number of other lives of Saints, he wrote a biography of St. Lebuin at the request of Baldric, the restorer of the diocese of Utrecht (918­76), but as he merely pads out the facts without making any original contribution it has seemed better to present the original and earlier text to the reader.

Sources: The Life of St. Lebuin was first published by Surius, vol. vi, pp 277-86, but this was the text written by Hucbald of St. Amand. A translation of this appeared in Serenus Cressy's Church History of Brittany, vol. xxivv, 7. The present text is, however, based on the Vita Lebuini Antiqua, edited by A. Hofmeister, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores (x926-34), vol. xxx, 2, pp. 789-95.


[229] THE LAND of England which was converted to the faith of Christ by the intervention of the blessed Pope Gregory has always been most steadfast in its religion. And just as it is prolific in all kinds of animals, so also is it productive of holy men. There one finds laymen devoted to the service of God, virgins of exceptional virtue and monks of outstanding generosity spurning the world for the love of Christ. Very many of these have forsaken their country for the Lord's sake, either to expiate their sins or benefit pagans and Christians by their teaching.

The Lord Himself admonished St. Lebuin to forsake his country and to preach to the Saxons across the sea and told him to instruct the people who dwelt in the lands of the Franks and Saxons near the river Isel. After receiving this command, not once but a second and a third time, he embarked on a ship and came to the priest Gregory, who at that time was in charge of the church at Utrecht, which in olden times was called Wiltenburg. Though Gregory was only a priest, he was fulfilling the duties of a bishop. This man, who was the scion of a noble Frankish family, had been brought up in the service of St. Boniface since he was a boy and first joined him when at God's command he went to preach to the people of Hesse and Thuringia. Boniface had come from England at the time of Charles and became so renowned for his wisdom and holiness in the days of that king's two sons, Carloman and Pippin, that he was able to effect reforms both in religion and belief throughout the whole Frankish kingdoms. Though he set out as a poor pilgrim, such was his eloquence and prudence that he was chosen by the kings and the people to be Bishop of Mainz, and when he went to Rome to be consecrated archbishop by Pope Gregory the third his name was changed from Wynfrith to Boniface because of his good deeds [bona facta]. But after this blessed master was slain by the sword vrith fifty­two companions whilst he [230] was preaching in Frisia, St. Gregory spent the rest of his life ministering to the young Chistian community which St. Willibrord and other disciples of the Lord had baptized in Frisia and in the districts round about.

St. Lebuin, therefore, told St. Gregory what the Lord had comrnanded him and asked to be conducted to the spot in his diocese which the Lord had pointed out and commended to his care. After blessed Gregory had listened to him, congratulated him and welcomed this visitation from the Lord, he directed him to the place he had mentioned and gave him as a companion the servant of God, Marchelmus, who had been one of Willibrord's disciples Then he was received into the house of a widow named Abarhilda and enjoyed her hospitality for some days.

When many had accepted his teaching, the Christians who lived there built an oratory for him near the western bank of the river Isel at a place called Wilp, and not long afterwards they built a church and a dwelling­place on the eastern bank of the same river, where the man of God remained intent on the work of God. From time to time he went into Saxony to see if he could gain souls to God, and he persuaded many to accept the faith of Christ. Among his friends and acquaintances were people of the nobility, one of whom was a rich man named Folcbert who lived in the village of Suderg.

But as it were not possible for him who bore the light of Christ to remain concealed for long, nor for the seed of Christ to grow without persecution, complaints arose among those who did not believe and they began to threaten the man of God because some of their number had abandoned the ancient worship and had turned to new ways. "Why do we not get hold of this fanatic," they said," and give him what he deserves for gadding about the province and jabbering his incantations and sending people out of their minds?" And so they banded together in a mob, burned down his church and drove out the Christians from their midst.

In olden times the Saxons had no king but appointed rulers over each village; and their custom was to hold a general meeting once a year in the centre of Saxony near the river Yser at a place called Marklo. There all the leaders used to gather together and they [231] were joined by twelve noblemen from each village with as many freedmen and serfs. There they confirmed the laws, gave judgment on outstanding cases and by common consent drew up plans for the coming year on which they could act either in peace or war.

Folcbert, whom we have already mentioned, had a son named Helco, who was to set out with the other youths for the meeting. One morning, whilst he was speaking to his son, he said, among other things: " I feel anxious about Wine" - for this is what he used to call Lebuin - "and I am afraid that if he meets with those who hate him they will either kill him or drag him to the meeting place and have him killed there." Whilst he was still speaking, the dogs began barking in the hall and growling at someone coming in. The young man Helco went to the door to see who it was and there he found Lebuin trying to ward off the dogs with his stick. He ran up to him and, driving the dogs away, brought him vwith joy to his father. After they had greeted each other and sat down, Folcbert said to the man of God: "You have just come at the right time, my dear Wine, for I was wanting to see you and have a few words with you. Where do you intend to go now?" The man of God said: "I am going to the meeting of the Saxons." Folcbert said: "You are on friendly terms with many of us, dear Wine, and what you say gives pleasure even to me. But I hear that there are many insolent young fellows who insult and threaten you. Listen to me and be on your guard against them. Do not go to the meeting, but return home to your friend Davo. For once the meeting is over you may go about with less danger and then you can come here in safety and we shall listen to your words with very great pleasure." The man of God replied: " I must not fail to be present at this meeting, for Christ himself has commanded me to make known his words to the Saxons." Folcbert said: " You will not get away." He answered: " I shall escape easily enough, for He who sent me will be my aid."

Since he could not persuade him, he sent him away.

When the day of the meeting came round, all the leaders were present, as were others whose duty it was to attend. Then, when they had gathered together, they first offered up prayers to their gods, as is their custom, asking them to protect their country and [232] to guide them in making decrees both useful to themselves and pleasing to the gods. Then when a circle had been formed they began the discussions.

Suddenly Lebuin appeared in the middle of the circle, clothed in his priestly garments, bearing a aoss in his hands and a copy of the Gospels in the crook of his arm. Raising his voice, he aied: "Listen to me, listen. I am the messenger of Almighty God and to you Saxons I bring his command." Astonished at his words and at his unusual appearance, a hush fell upon the assembly. The man of God then followed up his announcement with these words: " The God of heaven and Ruler of the world and His Son, Jesus Christ, commands me to tell you that if you are willing to be and to do what His senants tell you He will confer benefits upon you such as you have never heard of before." Then he added: "As you have never had a king over you before this time, so no king will prevail against you and subject you to his domination. But if you are unwilling to accept God's commands, a king has been prepared nearby who will invade your lands, spoil and lay them waste and sap away your strength in war; he will lead you into exile, deprive you of your inheritance, slay you with the sword, and hand over your possessions to whom he has a mind: and afterwards you will be slaves both to him and his successors."

At this they could no longer hold their tongue and cried out in a loud voice: "This is the wandering charlatan who goes about the country preaching wild, fantastic nonsense. Catch him and stone him to death." In spite of the efforts of the wiser among them to prevent it, the mob ran to the fence close by, wrenched stakes from it, pared and sharpened them and threw them, trying to transfix him. But suddenly he was no longer there. Then, all of them, both those who had been put to confusion and those who had tried to control them, condemned their action as unjust, and one of them in particular, a speaker named Buto, climbed on to the trunk of a tree and addressed them as follows: "All you who have any sense of justice, listen to what I have to say. When the Normans, Slavs and Frisians or any other people send messengers to us we receive them peacefully and listen with courtesy [233] to what they have to say. But now, when a messenger of God comes to us, look at the insults we pour upon him! The ease with which he escaped from our hands ought to prove to you that he spoke the truth and that the threats he uttered will not be long in happening."

Moved by regret at what they had done, they decided that the messenger of God should go unharmed if he appeared again and that he should be allowed to travel wheresoever he pleased. Then, after this decision had been reached, they continued with the business they had in hand.

St. Lebuin, therefore, went about wherever the Spirit of God led him, persevering in the work of God until he gave back his soul to its Creator. He was buried after his death in the church which had formerly been burned down and rebuilt. But after his death the wicked Saxons laid waste that place and set the church on fire and for three days tried without success to find his body. At the same time Abbot Gregory also died and his diocese was taken over by his nephew Albricus, who loved Liutger [l] with a deep affection. He said to him: " Because you are now my dearest brother, I beg you to carry out my wishes. For the place in which St. Lebuin carried out his work until his death and where he is now buried has been laid waste. I want you to restore that place and to rebuild the church over his body."

[1] The St. Liutger mentioned in this biography was the first Bishop of Munster in Westphalia. Born at Zuilen near Utrecht about 774 (d. 26 March 809), he was sent to the school of Gregory at Utrecht and from there went to York with Alubert, who was consecrated bishop At York Llutger studhed under Alcuin and contracted a friendship with him that lasted throughout hus hfe. It was in 775 that he was despatched to Deventer to restore the chapel destroyed by the Saxons and to find the relics of St. Lebuin, after which he spent some time teaching at the school of Utrecht. In 777 he was ordained at Cologne and put in charge of the Eastern part of Friesland, with Dokkum, the scene of St. Boniface's martyrdom, as his centre. After seven years he was drlven out by the rlsians, instigated by Widukind, leader of the Saxons, and in 785 vlsited Rome, where he was received by Pope Adrian. For the next two years he stayed at Monte Cassino, and there, on the arrival of Charlemagne, was appointed musslonary to the five districts at the mouth of the river Ems. In 793 Charlemagne wlshed to make him Bishop of Trier, but he declined the honour and proposed instead to evangelize the Saxons. He built a monastery m the place, later called Munster, and lived there under the Rule of St. Chrodegang of Metz, whlch a few years before had been imposed in all Frankish territories. Someume between 80z and 803 he was consecrated Bishop of Munster and died on Passion Sunday 809. His body rests at Werden, the Benedictine monastery begun by hlm in 799 and completed in 804.

[234] Therefore the servant of God Liutger, in obedience to the commands of his master, looked for the body of the saint in the place just mentioned but was unable to f nd it. He began to raise a church, however, in the part where he thought it ought to be. When he had laid the foundations and was trying to erect the walls St. Lebuin appeared to him in a dream and said: " Dearest brother Liutger, you have done well in restoring the church of God which the heathens destroyed so long ago: my body, which you were looking for, will be found buried under the south wall which you have built." On the following morning, after saying his prayers, Liutger found the body in the place described to him in the dream, and, gathering together a large band of men, he had the foundations moved to the south part of the building so that the tomb of the saint could be enclosed within the church. It is in this place that God works many miracles through his servant Lebuin even to the present day.


C. H. Talbot, The Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany, Being the Lives of SS. Willibrord, Boniface, Leoba and Lebuin together with the Hodoepericon of St. Willibald and a selection from the correspondence of St. Boniface, (London and New York: Sheed and Ward, 1954)

The copyright status of this text has been checked carefully. The situation is complicated, but in sum is as follows. The book was published in 1954 by Sheed & Ward, apparently simultaneously, in both London and New York. The American-printed edition simply gave 'New York' as place of publication, the British-printed edition gave 'London and New York'. Copyright was not renewed in 1982 or 1983, as required by US Law. The recent GATT treaty (1995?) restored copyright to foreign publications which had entered US public domain simply because copyright had not be renewed in accordance with US law. This GATT provision does not seem to apply to this text because it was published simultaneously in the US and Britain by a publisher operating in both countries (a situation specifically addressed in the GATT regulations). Thus, while still under copyright protection in much of the world, the text remains in the US public domain.

Some years ago, a collection of such hagiographical texts, including some texts from Talbot, was published:-

Thomas F.X. Noble and Thomas Head, Soldiers of Christ: Saint and Saints' Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995).

Soldiers of Christ uses, among others, the Talbot translated texts, but is much improved by additional notes by the two editors, and by new translations of some parts. Readers from outside the US should consult this volume, and readers in the US would find it profitable to do so.

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

© Paul Halsall, October 1, 2000

800 St. Namphasius Hermit monk Soldier and friend of Charlemagne
also known as Nauphary, Namphrase, and Namphisius.
A one-time Soldier and friend of Charlemagne {742-814}, he embraced the life of a recluse at Marcillac, France.

Namphasius, OSB (AC) (also known as Namphisius, Namphosius, Nauphary, Namphrase). A friend of Charlemagne, and fought against Saracens in southern France. He afterwards became a monk-recluse near Marcillac (Lot) (Benedictines).
830 St. Ymar Benedictine martyred by marauding Danes of England
Ymar (d.c. 830) +. A monk in Reculver Abbey, Kent, England, he was put to death by marauding Danes.

1005 St. Benedict Companions Italian Benedictine martyrs
Apud Casimíriam, in Polónia, sanctórum Mártyrum Eremitárum Benedícti, Joánnis, Matthæi, Isaac et Christiáni; qui a prædónibus, divíno inténti servítio, dire vexáti sunt et gládiis occísi.
    At Gnesen in Poland, the holy hermits and martyrs Benedict, John, Matthew, Isaac, and Christian.  They were savagely attacked by robbers and slain by the sword while there were at prayer.

ST BENEDICT of Benevento was a friend of St Bruno of Querfurt, they having shared a cell at a monastery near Ravenna, under the direction of St Romuald. When the Emperor Otto III wished to evangelize the Slays of Pomerania, Benedict and other monks were sent to engage in the work.   They first went into western Poland, where they were well received at the court of Duke Boleslaus I and teachers were appointed to instruct them in the Slavonic speech.
  The monks established themselves at Kazimierz, near Gniezno, where on November 11, 1003, St Benedict and four others were murdered by pagan robbers.
  They were venerated as martyrs, their relics solemnly translated to Olomuc, and their names added to the Roman Martyrology:
the holy martyred hermits Benedict, John, Matthew, Isaac and Christian who, intent upon the service of God, were grievously troubled by robbers and by them slain with the sword , as their notice now runs. These martyrs, who are venerated in Poland as the Five Polish Brothers, although they were neither Poles nor (apart from Matthew and Isaac), other than spiritually, brothers, are accounted to the glory of the Camaldolese Order, though in fact they were dead some years before St Romuald founded Camaldoli. When St Bruno of Querfurt learned of the fate of his friend Benedict and his four fellows, he collected evidence from Poland and wrote down an account of what had happened.
There are two main sources for the history of these martyrs.  The first is the narrative of St Bruno of Querfurt, of which the text may be read in MGH., Scriptores, vol. xv, pp. 716-738, and in the German annotated translation of H. G. Voigt, Bruno von Querfurt (1907).  The second account, of later date, is that of Cosmas of Prague.  It is printed in Migne, PL., vol. clxvi, cc. 109-113.  See also the Neues Archiv, vol. viii, pp. 365 seq.
Benedict, with John, Matthew, Isaac, and Christinus, went with St. Adalbert of Prague to a mission among the Slavic peoples. Robbers attacked their monastery near Gnesen and slew them. Pope Julius II canonized them. They are revered in Poland as "the Five Polish Brothers;' although they were not Poles and not related.
Benedict, John, Matthew, Isaac, & Christinus, OSB MM (RM); canonized by Pope Julius II. Italian Benedictines who followed Saint Adalbert of Prague in the mission among Slavs; massacred by robbers at their monastery near Gnesen (Benedictines).
Benedict of Benevento & Companions MM (RM) This may be the Benedict of the group of martyrs above.
1040 St. Anastasius XIX first Archbishop of Hungary companion of St. Stephen
IT is agreed that the first archbishop in Hungary was called Astrik, but there is a great deal of uncertainty about his identity. There are three candidates , all associated with St Adalbert of Pragud: viz. Anastasius, the first abbot of Brevnov in Bohemia, Astericus, one of Adalbert's clergy, and Radla, Adalbert's fellow student at Magdeburg and his close friend.   The first two of these may be reallyone person.  On the whole it seems likely to have been Radla, a Czech or Croat from Bohemia who is known to have been a monk in Hungary.
   He probably received the habit
at Brevnov, taking the name of Anastasius, of which Astrik seems to be an equivalent.  Then, when St Adalbert failed to consolidate his position in Bohemia, and left Prague, Astrik Radla went to help the missionaries among the Magyars.
He is known to have been in the service of the wife of Duke Geza in 997; and he was almost certainly the first abbot of St Martin's (Pannonhalma), the first ecclesiastical institution of Hungary, founded by Geza. On the duke's death and the accession of his son St Stephen I the evangelization of the Magyars was taken seriously in hand, and St Astrik was active in the work of preaching the gospel and establishing an ecclesiastical organization.  In connection with this Stephen sent him to Rome to confer with Pope Silvester II, and soon after his return the sovereign was crowned with a royal crown, granted no doubt at the instance of the Emperor Otto III, in 1001.  There is a good case for Radla being the Astrik who was now promoted to be archbishop of the new Hungarian church.
   When Astrik attended a synod at Frankfurt in iooó he was styled simply Ungarorum epicopus, and it seems that his seat was not at Esztergom, which before long became the primatial see; Vesprem is the first Hungarian diocese for which there is documentary evidence, but Astrik's see may have been at Kalocsa.  Throughout the remainder of his long life he worked hand in hand with King St Stephen for the proper settlement of the Church in his dominions and for the conversion of the fierce Magyars to the faith of Christ.  He died soon after his royal master, about the year 1040.
  Of the personality and personal life of St Astrik nothing is known; but it is significant that St Adalbert of Prague had so much affection for and trust in him Adalbert wrote to Geza's wife asking her to send 
his master back to him in Poland; and to Astrik Radla himself he wrote saying that if the duchess would not release him, he should slip away secretly and rejoin your Adalbert. But to Astrik his duty was clear that he must stay among the Magyars.
The best examination of the problem is doubtless that of F. Dvornik in his Making of Central and Eastern Europe (1949), pp. 159-166, which shows clearly how confused and uncertain is the history of the conversion of Hungary, even for scholars who are natives of eastern Europe.  Cf. C. Kadlec in the Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iv, p. 214.  See also St Bruno's Life of St Adalbert in Fontes rerum Bohemicarum (1871), vol. i  the Life of St Stephen in MGH., Scriptores, vol. xi, and cf vol. iv, pp. 547, 563  and Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirche, vol. i (1930), c. 394.
The archbishop, he started as a monk originally named Radla. In 997, he served as a missionary among the Magyars, becoming abbot of the abbey founded by the duke and duchess of Geza in Hungary. St. Stephen was the son and heir of the duke. He succeeded his father and aided Anastasius in missionary efforts among the Magyars. Pope Sylvester II recognized Stephen as king of the Hungarians and sent him a crown through Anastasius. The archbishop supported Stephen's enlightened rule, dying two years after the king's passing. Astrik of Pannonhalma, OSB B (AC) (also known as Anastasius, Astericus, Ascrick, Astricus) Born in Bohemia; died c. 1030-1040. Radla, probably a Croat or a Czech from Bohemia, took the name Anastasius when became a monk of SS Boniface and Alexius at Rome. He accompanied Saint Adalbert to the Bohemian mission. He became the first abbot of Brevnov, but had to flee to Hungary. There he engaged in missionary work among the Magyars, was in the service of the wife of Duke Geza in 997, and was named first abbot of Saint Martin's in Pannonhalma, the first monastery in Hungary, which was founded by the duke. When Saint Stephen succeeded his father Geza as duke, Anastasius set up a hierarchy, renewed his evangelization efforts among the Magyars, to which he devoted the rest of his life, and was appointed the first archbishop of the Hungarian Church with his see probably at Kalocsa. Anastasius was the king's ambassador, sent to negotiate the recognition of the new Hungarian kingdom by the Pope Sylvester II. This trip probably was responsible for Stephen receiving papal recognition as King of the Hungarians and his crowning by Emperor Otto III in 1001 with a crown sent by the Pope to him through Anastasius. He worked closely with Stephen the rest of his life and died two years after him (Benedictines, Delaney).
1035 St. Astericus Benedictine bishop ambassador to King Stephen Hungary
the one who brought the Holy Crown to St. Stephen. Astericus was born in Bohemia. After becoming a Benedictine, he accompanied St. Adalbert to the missions. Appointed the first abbot of Brevnov, he was also named abbot of Pannonhalma in Hungary. As the king's ambassador, he went to Rome to negotiate the recognition of Hungary by Pope Sylvester II. In some lists he is called Anastasius.
Astericus (Astricus, Ascrick) Nov 12 + c 1035. Born in Czechia, he became a monk and accompanied St Adalbert in the Czech mission. He became the first Abbot of Brevnov but had to flee to Hungary where he became the first Abbot of Pannonhalma, recently founded by King Stephen, and Archbishop of Kalocsa.
Anastasius was the King's ambassador and brought the holy crown of Hungary to St Stephen.

1304 BD RAINERIUS OF AREZZO  town had an altar set up in his honour and record kept of attributed Miracles
INFORMATION is lacking about the details of the life of this early Franciscan beatus.  He was born at Arezzo, of the Mariani family, and gave up a secular career to join the Friars Minor.  He was a companion of Bd Benedict of Arezzo, who had been received into the order by St Francis himself.  Miracles were attributed to Bd Rainerius during his life, and immediately after his death, at Borgo San Sepoicro on November I, 1304, the municipality of the town had an altar set up in his honour and record kept of his miracles.   His cultus was confirmed in 1802.
  Bd Rainerius is dealt with by the Bollandists on November 1. They found no record of his life beyond such brief notices as were supplied by Wadding and other annalists, but they print from manuscript sources a record of miracles worked at his tomb.  See further Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano (1680), vol. iii, pp. 295-296 and Leon Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iv, pp. 34-35.
1332 BD JOHN DELLA PACE  founder of the Fraticelli delta Penitenza at Pisa was at one time a hermit
A confirmatio cultus may, or at any rate used, in former days, to be accorded with very little knowledge of the life of the servant of God to whom honour was paid.  When Pope Pius IX in 1856 approved the celebration of this feast for the Franciscan Order, it was supposed that Bd John died in the first half of the fifteenth century.  Since then it has come to light, through the indefatigable researches of the archivist S. Earsotti, that there were two Johns at Pisa who have become confused.   He who died in 1433 was a furrier who lived in matrimony all his days; but the founder of the Fraticelli delta Penitenza at Pisa was at one time a hermit, and his death took place about 1332.
See the two books of S. Barsotti, Pro memoria sul B. Giovanni della Pace (1901) and Un muovo fiore serafico (1906)  and the notice of the confirmation of cult in the Analecta Juris Pontificii, vol. iii (1858), cc. 378-380.  The confusion has been perpetuated in other works, e.g. Leon, Aureole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iv, p. 60.
1433 Blessed John Cini "della Pace," bred to arms. In 1396 he became a Franciscan tertiary and founded several charitable organizations and a confraternity of flagellants OFM Tert. (AC)
Born in Pisa, Italy; cultus approved in 1856. Surnamed 'the Soldier' or 'Stipendario,' or from his domicile, 'de Porta pacis,' 'della pace.' John Cini was bred to arms. In 1396 he became a Franciscan tertiary and founded several charitable organizations and a confraternity of flagellants (Benedictines).

1456 Blessed Gabriel Ferretti the scion of the counts Ferretti OFM (AC)
ST JAMES DELLA Marca, whose feast is kept on the 28th of this month, was instructed by Pope Callistus III to draw up an account of the life of this holy Franciscan. Unfortunately the document could not be found when his cultus came up for confirmation in 1753, and particulars of his career are few.  He belonged to the Ferretti of Ancona and became a friar minor of the Observance when he was eighteen.  He was a missioner for fifteen years in the March of Ancona, where he was conspicuous by his holiness and miracles, and was then appointed guardian of the Observants in his native town,  It is said that he greatly encouraged among his young friars the use of the devotion called the Franciscan or Seraphic Crown, a rosary in honour of the joys of our Lady, and that her approval of this was marvelously demonstrated.
On one occasion Bd Gabriel was reported to St James for some small dereliction of duty. St James, looking rather to the quality of the doer than the smallness of the fault, ordered him to accuse and discipline himself before his community.  This Gabriel did cheerfully, and sent a sugar-loaf and a carpet for his church to St James as a token of goodwill.  He died at Ancona on November 12, 1456.   Pope Pius IX (Mastai-Ferretti) belonged to another branch of Bd Gabriel's family.
Most of the older collections of Franciscan lives provide some account of Bd Gabriel for example, we find a tolerably full notice in Mazzara, Leggendario Francescano (1680), vol. ii, pt 2, pp. 425-427.  In particular a certain authority attaches to the information furnished by Wadding, Annales Ordinis Minorum, vol. xii, nn. 206-214.  Short sketches were published separately by V. M. Ferretti in and by S. Melchiori in 1846.  See also Leon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iv, pp. 61-66.
Born in Ancona, Italy, 1385; cultus confirmed in 1753. Gabriel was the scion of the counts Ferretti. He became a Friar Minor at Ancona, and eventually provincial of Piceno in the Marches (Benedictines). Blessed Gabriel is represented as a Franciscan with a book on the ground before him, and a pool containing ducks. The Virgin and Child in glory appear in the heavens. Venerated at Ancona and the Marches (Roeder).
1500 Blessed Christopher of Portugal beheaded for the faith by the Islamic prince of Ceylon M (PC)
Christopher, a Portuguese knight of the Order of Christ (under the Cistercian Rule), was beheaded for the faith by the Islamic prince of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (Benedictines).
1580 Blessed John the Merciful of Rostov (also known as "the Hairy") Living in humility, patience and unceasing prayer, he spiritually nourished many people
Struggled at Rostov in the exploit of holy foolishness, enduring much deprivation and sorrow. He did not have a permanent shelter, and at times took his rest at the house of his spiritual Father, a priest at the church of the All-Holy, or with one of the aged widows.

Living in humility, patience and unceasing prayer, he spiritually nourished many people, among them St Irenarchus, Hermit of Rostov (January 13). After a long life of pursuing asceticism, he died on September 3, 1580 and was buried, according to his final wishes, beside the church of St Blaise beyond the altar.

He had "hair upon his head abundantly," therefore he was called "Hairy." The title "Merciful" was given to Blessed John because of the many healings that occurred at his grave, and also in connection with the memory of the holy Patriarch John the Merciful (November 12), whose n
ame he shared.
1623 St. Josaphat of Polotsk an Eastern Rite bishop martyr to church unity because he died trying to bring part of the Orthodox Church into union with Rome
Vitépsci, in Polónia, pássio sancti Jósaphat, e sancti Basilíi Ordine, Epíscopi Polocénsis et Mártyris; qui a schismáticis, in ódium cathólicæ unitátis et veritátis, crudéliter interféctus est, et a Pio Papa Nono inter sanctos Mártyres adscríptus.  Ejus tamen festívitas recólitur décimo octávo Kaléndas Decémbris.
    At Witebsk in Poland, the martyrdom of St. Josaphat, of the Order of St. Basil, a Polish archbishop and martyr, who was cruelly slain by schismatics through hatred of Catholic unity and truth.  He was canonized by Pope Pius IX, and his feast is observed on the 16th of November.
   In 1054, a formal split called a schism took place between the Eastern Church centered in Constantinople and the Western Church centered in Rome. Trouble between the two had been brewing for centuries because of cultural, political, and theological differences. In 1054 Cardinal Humbert was sent to Constantinople to try and reconcile the latest flare up and wound up excommunicating the patriarch.
The immediate problems included an insistence on the Byzantine rite, married clergy,
disagreement on whether the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father and the Son.
The split only grew worse from there, centering mostly on whether to except the authority of the Pope and Rome.

More than five centuries later, in what is now known as Byelorussia and the Ukraine but what was then part of Poland-Lithuania, an Orthodox metropolitan of Kiev and five Orthodox bishops decided to commit the millions of Christians under their pastoral care to reunion with Rome.
Josaphat Kunsevich who was born in 1580 or 1584 was still a young boy when the Synod of Brest Litovsk took place in 1595-96, but he was witness to the results both positive and negative.

Many of the millions of Christians did not agree with the bishops decision to return to communion with the Catholic Church and both sides tried to resolve this disagreement unfortunately not only with words but with violence. Martyrs died on both sides. Josaphat was a voice of Christian peace in this dissent.

After an apprenticeship to a merchant, Josaphat turned down a partnership in the business and a marriage to enter the monastery of the Holy Trinity at Vilna in 1604. As a teenager he had found encouragement in his vocation from two Jesuits and a rector who understood his heart. And in the monastery he found another soulmate in Joseph Benjamin Rutsky. Rutsky who had joined the Byzantine Rite under orders of Pope Clement VIII after converting from Calvinism shared the young Josaphat's passion to work for reunion with Rome. The two friends spent long hours making plans on how they could bring about that communion and reform monastic life.

The careers of the two friends parted physically when Josaphat was sent to found new houses in Rome and Rutsky was first made abbot at Vilna. Josaphat replaced Rutsky as abbot when Rutsky became metropolitan of Kiev. Josaphat immediately put into practice his early plans of reform. Because his plans tended to reflect his own extremely austere ascetic tendencies, he was not always met with joy. One community threatened to throw him into the river until his general compassion and his convincing words won them over to a few changes.

Josaphat faced even more problems when he became first bishop of Vitebsk and then Polotsk in 1617. The church there was literally and figuratively in ruins with buildings falling apart, clergy marrying two or three times, and monks and clergy everywhere not really interested in pastoral care or model Christian living. Within three years, Josaphat had rebuilt the church by holding synods, publishing a catechism to be used all over, and enforcing rules of conduct for clergy. But his most compelling argument was his own life which he spent preaching, instructing others in the faith, visiting the needy of the towns.

But despite all his work and the respect he had, the Orthodox separatists found fertile ground with they set up their own bishops in the exact same area. Meletius Smotritsky was named his rival archbishop of Polotsk. It must have hurt Josaphat to see the people he had served so faithfully break into riots when the King of Poland declared Josaphat the only legitimate archbishop. His former diocese of Vitebsk turned completely against the reunion and him along with two other cities.

But what probably hurt even more was that the very Catholics he looked to for communion opposed him as well. Catholics who should have been his support didn't like the way he insisted on the use of the Byzantine rite instead of the Roman rite. Out of fear or ignorance, Leo Sapiah, chancellor of Lithuania, chose to believe stories that Josaphat was inciting the people to violence and instead of coming to his aid, condemned him. Actually his only act of force was when the separatists took over the church at Mogilev and he asked the civil power to help him return it to his authority.

In October 1623, Josaphat decided to return to Vitebsk to try to calm the troubles himself. He was completely aware of the danger but said, "If I am counted worthy of martyrdom, then I am not afraid to die."

The separatists saw their chance to get rid of Josaphat and discredit him if they could only stir Josaphat's party to strike the first blow. Then they would have an excuse to strike back. Their threats were so public that Josaphat preached on the gospel verse John 16:2, "Indeed, an hour is coming when those who kill you will think that by doing so they are offering worship to God." He told the people, "You people want to kill me. You wait in ambush for me in the streets, on the bridges, on the highways, in the marketplace, everywhere. Here I am; I came to you as a shepherd. You know I would be happy to give my life for you. I am ready to die for union of the Church under St. Peter and his successor the Pope."

But aside from words, Josaphat insisted that his party not react in anyway that did not show patience and forbearance. When the separatists saw that they were not getting the violent response they had hoped for they decided to wear Josaphat and the others down as they plotted more direct action. A priest named Elias went to the house where everyone was staying and shouted insults and threats to everyone he saw, focusing on calumniating Josaphat and the Church of Rome.

Josaphat knew of the plot against him and spent his day in prayer. In the evening he had a long conversation with a beggar he had invited in off the streets.

When Elias was back the next morning of November 12, the servants were at their wits' ends and begged Josaphat's permission to do something. Before he went off to say his office he told them they could lock Elias away if he caused trouble again. When he returned to the house he found that the servants had done just that and Josaphat let Elias out of the room.

But it was too late. The mistake had been made. Elias had not been hurt in anyway but as soon as the mob saw that Elias had been locked up they rejoiced in the excuse they had been waiting for. Bells were rung and mobs descended on the house. By the time they reached the house, Elias had been released but the mob didn't care; they wanted the blood they had been denied for so long.

Josaphat came out in the courtyard to see the mob beating and trampling his friends and servants. He cried out, "My children what are you doing with my servants? If you have anything against me, here I am, but leave them alone!" With shouts of "Kill the papist" Josaphat was hit with a stick, then an axe, and finally shot through the head. His bloody body was dragged to the river and thrown in, along with the body of a dog who had tried to protect him.

The unsung heroes of this horrible terrorism were the Jewish people of Vitebsk. Some of the Jewish people risked their own lives to rush into the courtyard and rescue Josaphat's friends and servants from the bloodthirsty mobs. Through their courage, lives were saved. These same Jewish people were the only ones to publicly accuse the killers and mourn the death of Josaphat while the Catholics of the city hid in fear of their lives.

As usual violence had the opposite affect from that intended. Regret and horror at how far the violence had gone and the loss of their archbishop swung public opinion over toward the Catholics and unity. Eventually even Archbishop Meletius Smotritsky, Josaphat's rival, was reconciled with Rome. And in 1867 Josaphat became the first saint of the Eastern church to be formally canonized by Rome.

Josaphat of Poland BM (RM) (also known as Joseph Polotsk) Born at Vladimir, Volhynia, Poland, 1584; died at Vitebsk, 1623; canonized 1867; feast day formerly on November 14.

John Kunsevich was born at a time when the attempts of some Christians to bring about a reunion between Rome and the Russian Orthodox Christians were causing deep dissension. Poland had annexed the Ruthenian countries--Byelorussia and the Ukraine-- during the 14th century. In 1595, with the approval of Clement VIII and the Polish government, a synod at Brest-Litovsk, Lithuania, agreed on the unification of the schismatic Greek bishops with the Latin bishops, and on their joint union with Rome.

But the decisions of leaders in isolation from those affected means little. The union failed to take root in the hearts of the 10 million Ruthenians and, instead of union between two churches, a third arose--the Ruthenian Catholic Church that affiliated itself with Rome but kept the oriental rites.

Of these three churches it was the Ruthenian Catholic Church that, being the most recent and therefore also the most revolutionary, aroused the greatest anger on the part of those who, either from principle or calculating interest, were conservatives. The familiar cries arose of indignation, the same cries we hear even today from those who are bound by routine. And, of course, there was the normal squabble for power over appointments.

Only the blood of a martyr can overcome such differences by converting even the hardest of hearts. And so Ruthenia, which was just one example of the eternal problem of minorities, was awaiting its martyr. A rare sort of man was needed, one who was sufficiently dedicated to God not to swear allegiance to anyone else, and sufficiently involved in events to be able to change their course. Such a man was Josaphat, who was baptized John.

Josaphat's father was a Catholic burger of a good family. He sent young John to the local school and then apprenticed him to a merchant at Vilna. John wasn't terrible successful because his interests were in the church. Instead of pursuing the trade, he learned church Slavonic, the language of the Byzantine liturgy, so that he could assist more ably at divine worship and recite some of the lengthy Byzantine office each day. He refused a partnership in the business and marriage to his master's daughter.

At this time he became acquainted with Peter Arcudius, rector of the Basilian college and Vilna, and two Jesuits, Valentine Fabricius and Gregory Gruzevsky, who encouraged his liturgical studies. John soon realized that the quarrel between the three churches was more in need of good men than good arguments. Though inexperienced in life, John's heart was devoted to God. His main idea was to reconcile the best of both parties; the rest would follow naturally.

In 1604 John persuaded his friend Joseph Benjamin Rutsky (a convert from Calvinism who had been induced by Pope Clement VIII to join the Byzantine rite against his personal wishes) to enter with him the Order of Saint Basil at Holy Trinity monastery in Vilna. At this time John took the name Josaphat. In 1609 he was ordained a priest and soon had a reputation as a compelling preacher and a leading advocate for the union of the Ukrainian Church with Rome. Together the two young monks devised schemes for promoting union and reforming Ruthenian monastic observance.

Josaphat lived simply and engaged in such extreme mortifications that he was chastised by even the most austere monks. The abbot held separatist views, so Josaphat's studies were cut short and he was sent to found new houses in Poland at Byten and Zyrowice.

His friend Joseph Rutsky became abbot of Holy Trinity, and when Rutsky was named metropolitan of Kiev in 1614, Josaphat returned to Holy Trinity as abbot of the monastery. Josaphat accompanied Rutsky to his new cathedral and visited the monastery of The Caves at Kiev. The monks threatened to throw Josaphat, a reformer, into the river, because they were content under their relaxed rule. He was unable to reform them, but his character generated their goodwill.

In 1617 he was elected first bishop of Vitebsk, Russia, with the right of succession to Polotsk (in modern Lithuania or Byelorussia), and a few months later became archbishop at age 39 when Archbishop Brolnitsky (who favored the dissident Greeks) died.

He found the diocese in deplorable condition--there was widespread opposition to Rome, married clergy, lax discipline, churches in a rundown state. The more religious people were inclined to schism through fear of arbitrary Roman interference with their worship and customs. To put into effect his reforms, Josaphat sent for some of his brethren from Vilna to help him, called synods, wrote a catechism, set down rules for his clergy, fought the interference of laymen in ecclesiastical affairs, and preached and tended his flock as personally as he could. By 1620 the reforms had some effect. Josaphat's virtues and reasonableness gained him much support.

The dispute between East and West, however, was breaking his see asunder; there was much bitterness and violence on both sides. The laity was confused. The secular rulers were causing havoc in church affairs. Around 1620 Metetius Smotritsky was appointed archbishop of Polotsk by a group of dissident bishops and began to sow the seeds of dissension, claiming that Josaphat was really a Latin priest, declaring that his people would be forced to become Latins, too, and that Roman Catholicism was not the traditional Christianity of the Ruthenian people.

Returning from Warsaw, Poland, Josaphat found that some of his support was becoming shaky; the monk Silvester had persuaded Vitebsk, Mogilev, and Orcha to the side of Metetius. The nobility and many of the people, especially those of the episcopal city who knew Josaphat well, adhered strongly to the union. But Josaphat could do little with these three cities.

Riots broke out and people chose sides, when the king of Poland proclaimed that Josaphat was the legitimate archbishop of Polotsk. Josaphat was falsely accused of fomenting trouble and using force against the dissidents by the chancellor of Lithuania, Leon Sapieha, a Roman Catholic, thus stirring up further dissent. Leon was afraid of the potential for political unrest due to these disturbances, and lent to willing an ear to the heated charges of the dissidents outside of Poland. In 1622, Sapieha wrote that Josaphat had caused the violence in the maintenance of the union and put the kingdom in peril from the Zaporozhsky Cossacks by stirring up discord among the people. The accusations were made in general terms and demonstrated to be false by contemporary testimony from both sides. Josaphat was, however, guilty of invoking civil power to recover the church at Mogilev from the dissidents.

Thus, Josaphat met opposition and misunderstanding on both sides. He was not given the support he should have received from the Latin bishops of Poland because of his insistence on maintaining Byzantine rites and customs, and accused by the Orthodox of being Roman. He stoically held firm and determined to appear personally in Vitebsk, the hotbed of opposition, in 1623 to meet it head on despite threats of violence against him.

He declined a proffered military escort and strived instead to bring order knowing that some of his opponents hated him enough to kill him if they could do so. He once addressed an angry mob with the words, "I, your shepherd, am happy to die for you." On Nov. 12, 1623, this is precisely what happened.

A priest named Elias, who had harassed Josaphat several times previously, was locked up by one of Josaphat's deacons when Elias again abused the archbishop. A mob assembled demanding Elias's release, and though Josaphat released Elias with a warning, they broke into his home and beat Josaphat's attendants.

Saint Josaphat went outside to beg them not to harm his servants and was murdered by the mob crying 'Kill the papist!' He was beaten over the head with a halberd and shot to death by the mob, and his body thrown into the Dvina River at Vitebsk, Russia. Jesus had said that this is how those who offended little children should be punished. Josaphat had only offended little spirits. He wanted to make his contemporaries see a world in which there were no longer Ruthenians, Poles, Russians, Greeks, Latins, Schismatics, or Uniates but only Christians, children of the same Father, belonging to the same faith.

Saint Josaphat was the first of the Oriental Catholics to be formally canonized in Rome (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Walsh, White).

In art Saint Josaphat is depicted as a Polish bishop with an axe (Roeder), or with a chalice, crown, or as a winged deacon (White).

(1580-1620) Since many of the children of St. Thomas the Apostle parish have attended St. Josaphat School, one of our parishioners has suggested that I devote a "Saints Alive" column to the story of the Ukrainian archbishop and martyr.  The older of Rochester's two Catholic Ukrainian Churches is St. Josaphat's, on Ridge Road East.  This parish is rightly proud of its patron saint.  An archbishop of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite, he died in defense of the union of his people with the Holy See.
     Most American Catholics belong to the Latin Rite which follows the liturgy common in the church in western Europe.  But even before the Latin Rite was fully formed, there were several Catholic churches in eastern Europe, Asia and Africa that followed a somewhat different but still authentic way of offering Mass, and used other languages than Latin.
     One of the tragedies of Christian history is that certain of these great churches broke off their connection with the pope during the Middle Ages.  By now, there are Catholic branches of each of these fragmented communities.  The Catholic branches continue their own Eastern liturgical practices, but acknowledge the Holy Father as head of the total church.  But most of these Catholic branches are relatively small, and have often suffered much to maintain their union with both the Holy See and the Greek Rite.
         That brings us to St. Josaphat.  Christianity was introduced into Russia by St. Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev, in 989.  Since the missionaries to Kiev came from Constantinople, the type of liturgy adopted was both Greek and Slavonic.  Constantinople and Ukraine at that time acknowledged the pope.  The Greek Rite, in the Old Slavonic language, was used.  After 1054, however, Constantinople, for political as well as religious reasons, declared its independence of the Holy See, and gradually the other Eastern Orthodox churches followed suit, especially Moscow.
     Efforts were not wanting on the part of the popes and some Eastern churchmen to reestablish union with the Holy See.  Thus, in 1595, the Orthodox bishop of Kiev and five other Ukrainian bishops sought official reunion with Rome.  However, this partial reunion aroused great opposition on the part of the Russian Orthodox majority of the country, and much violence followed.
     John Kunsevich was born in 1580 to a prominent Catholic of the city of Vladimir.  A thoughtful and devout young man, John entered a monastery in 1604, taking the name Josaphat.  He became noted for his holiness as a monk, and for his ability as a preacher.  Since there was so much opposition to reunion with Rome, Father Josaphat devoted much of his preaching to defending Catholic unity.  In 1617 he became archbishop of Polotsk.  Here he struggled manfully but successfully to bring about a reform among his clergy and laity.
     In 1620, however, the opponents of union with Rome set up a non-Roman archbishop of Polotsk to serve as a rival.  Soon they had won a number of Catholic Ukrainians away from the pope.
     As Josaphat battled to bring back his straying sheep, personal opposition against him became increasingly intense.  Surrounded one day by an angry mob, he said, "You people of Vitebsk want to put me to death . . . I am ready to die for the holy union, for the supremacy of St. Peter and of his successor, the Supreme Pontiff."
     Sometime later a gang entered his church.  Crying out, "Kill the papist," they shot the archbishop, crushed his skull, and threw his body into the river.
     St. Josephat's death served only to encourage the Ukrainians in their loyalty to the pope.  In our own more ecumenical days, the Catholic Church is striving to reestablish unity with all the Orthodox churches through loving dialogue.  To this work of reconciliation, we may be sure, St. Josaphat is adding his own powerful prayers.
Would we be ready to die like this for the supremacy of the pope over Christ's church?  A frank question! --Father Robert F. McNamara

IN the month of October 1595, at Brest-Litovsk in Lithuania (a town which three hundred and twenty-two years later again became talked of throughout Europe but in a quite different connection), the dissident Orthodox metro­politan of Kiev and five bishops, representing millions of Ruthenians (to-day called Byelorussians and Ukrainians), decided to seek communion with the Holy See of Rome. The controversies which followed this event were disfigured by deplorable excesses and violence, and the great upholder of Christian unity whose feast is kept today was called on to shed his blood for the cause, whence he is venerated as the protomartyr of the reunion of Christendom.

At the time of the Union of Brest he was still a boy, having been born at Vladimir in Volhynia in 1580 or 1584, and baptized John. His father, a Catholic, was a burgess of a good family called Kunsevich, who sent John to school in his native town and then apprenticed him to a merchant of Vilna. John was not particularly interested in trade, and employed his spare time in mastering Church Slavonic in order that he might assist more intelligently at divine worship and recite some of the long Byzantine office every day; and he got to know Peter Arcudius, who was then rector of the oriental college at Vilna, and the two Jesuits, Valentine Fabricius and Gregory Gruzevsky, who took an interest in him and gave him every encouragement.

At first his master was not favourably disposed towards John’s religious preoccupations, but he did his work so well that eventually the merchant offered him a partnership and one of his daughters in marriage. Both offers were refused, for John had decided to be a monk and in 1604 he entered the monastery of the Holy Trinity at Vilna. He induced to join him there Joseph Benjamin Rutsky, a learned convert from Calvinism who had been ordered by Pope Clement VIII to join the Byzantine rite against his personal wishes, and together the two young monks concerted schemes for promoting union and reforming Ruthenian monastic observance.

   John Kunsevich, who had now taken the name of Josaphat, was ordained deacon and priest and speedily had a great reputation as a preacher, especially on behalf of reunion with Rome. He led a most austere personal life and added to a careful observance of the austerities of eastern monastic life such extreme voluntary mortifications that he was often remonstrated with by the most ascetic. At his beatification the burgomaster of Vilna testified that, “there was not a better religious in the town than Father Josaphat”. Meanwhile, the abbot of Holy Trinity having developed separatist views, Rutsky was promoted in his place and the monastery was soon full, so Father Josaphat was taken away from his study of the Eastern fathers to help in the foundation of new houses in Poland. In 1614 Rutsky was made metropolitan of Kiev and Josaphat succeeded him as abbot at Vilna. When the new metropolitan went to take possession of his cathedral Josaphat accompanied him and took the opportunity of visiting the great monastery of The Caves at Kiev. The community of two hundred monks was relaxed, and they threatened to throw the Catholic reformer into the river Dnieper. He was not successful in his efforts to bring them to unity, but his personality and exhortations brought about a somewhat changed attitude and a notable increase of good-will.

The archbishop of Polotsk at this time was a very old man and a favourer of the dissidents, and in 1617 Abbot Josaphat was ordained bishop of Vitebsk with right of succession to Polotsk. A few months later the old archbishop died and Josaphat was confronted with an eparchy, which was as large in extent as it was degraded in life. The more religious people were inclined to schism through fear of arbitrary Roman interference with their worship and customs; churches were in ruins and benefices in the hands of laymen; many of the secular clergy had been married two and three times and the monks were decadent. *{*Though according to Eastern Canon law a married man may be ordained to the priesthood, if his wife dies he cannot marry another and if ordained a bachelor he must remain single.}

   Josaphat sent for some of his brethren from Vilna to help him and got to work. He held synods in the central towns, published a catechism and imposed its use, issued rules of conduct for the clergy, and fought the interference of the “squires” in the affairs of the local churches. At the same time setting a personal example of assiduous instructing and preaching, administration of the sacraments and visiting of the poor, the sick, prisoners and the most remote hamlets. By i 6w the eparchy was practically solidly Catholic, order had been restored, and the example of a few good men had brought about a real concern for Christian life. But in that year a dissident hierarchy of bishops was set up in the territory affected by the Union of Brest, side by side with the Catholic one; and one Meletius Smotritsky was sent as archbishop to Polotsk, who began with great vigour to undo the work of the Catholic archbishop. He zealously spread a report that St Josaphat had “turned Latin ”, that all his flock would have to do the same, and that Catholicism was not the traditional Christianity of the Ruthenian people.
  St Josaphat was at Warsaw when this began and on his return he found that, though his episcopal city was firm for him, some other parts of the eparchy had begun to waver; a monk called Silvester had managed to draw nearly all the people of Vitebsk, Mogilev and Orcha to the side of Smotritsky. The nobility and many of the people adhered strongly to the union, but St Josaphat could do little with these three towns; and not only at Yitebsk but even at Vilna, when the proclamation of the King of Poland that Josaphat was the only legitimate archbishop of Polotsk was publicly read in his presence, there were riots and the life of St Josaphat was threatened.

Leo Sapieha, the chancellor of Lithuania and a Catholic, was fearful of the possible political results of the general unrest, and lent too willing an ear to the heated charges of dissidents outside of Poland that Josaphat had caused it by his policy. Accordingly in 1622 Sapieha wrote accusing him of violence in the maintenance of the union, of putting the kingdom in peril from the Zaporozhsky Cossacks by making discord among the people, of forcibly shutting-up non-Catholic churches, and so on. These and similar accusations were made in general  terms, and their unjustifiability was amply demonstrated by contemporary ad hoc testimony from both sides the only actual fact of the sort is the admitted one that Josaphat invoked the aid of the civil power to recover the church at Mogilev from the dissidents. Thus the archbishop had to face misunderstanding, misrepresentation and opposition from Catholics as well.
   There is no doubt that some of the easy reversion to schism was due to the firm discipline and reform of morals that had been inaugurated under Catholic auspices, and St Josaphat did not receive the support he was entitled to from the Latin bishops of Poland because of the uncompromising way in which he maintained the right of the Byzantine clergy and customs to equal treatment with those of Rome. He continued doggedly and fearlessly on his way and, Vitebsk continuing to be a hotbed of trouble, he determined in October 1623 to go there in person again. He could neither be dissuaded nor would he take a military escort. “If I am accounted so worthy as to deserve martyrdom, then I am not afraid to die”, he said. He went accordingly, and for a fortnight preached in the churches and visited the houses of all without distinction. He was continually threatened in the streets, and his opponents tried to pick quarrels with his attendants in order that he might be killed in the ensuing fracas. On the feast of St Demetrius the Martyr he was surrounded by an angry mob, and exclaimed: “You people of Vitebsk want to put me to death. You make ambushes for me everywhere, in the streets, on the bridges, on the highways, in the market place. I am here among you as your shepherd and you ought to know that I should be happy to give my life for you. I am ready to die for the holy union, for the supremacy of St Peter and of his successor the Supreme Pontiff.”

Smotritsky was fomenting this agitation, his object doubtless being no worse than to drive his rival from the diocese. But his followers got out of hand, and a plot was laid to murder St Josaphat on November 12, if he could not be induced to give excuse for violence before then. A priest named Elias was put up to go into the courtyard of the archbishop’s house and to use insulting words to his servants about their master and their religion, and after several complaints St Josaphat gave permission for him to be seized if it happened again. On the morning of the 12th, as the archbishop came to the church for the office of Daybreak, he was met by Elias, who began to abuse him to his face he therefore allowed his deacon to have the man taken and shut up in a room of the house. This was just what his enemies were waiting for: the bells of the town hall were rung and a mob assembled, demanding the release of Elias and the punishment of the archbishop. After office St Josaphat returned to his house unharmed, and let Elias go with a warning, but the people broke in, calling for their victim and striking his attendants. St Josaphat went out to them. “My children”, he asked, “what are you doing with my servants? If you have anything against me, here I am:  but leave them alone”—words remarkably reminiscent of those of another archbishop, St Thomas Becket, on a similar occasion. Amid cries of “Kill the papist!”
he was brained with a halberd and pierced by a bullet. The mangled body was dragged out and contemptuously cast into the river Dvina.
St Josaphat Kunsevich was canonized in 1867, the first saint of the Eastern churches to be formally canonized after process in the Congregation of Sacred Rites. Fifteen years later Pope Leo XIII gave his feast to the whole Western church for this date the Ukrainians and others keep it on November 12, or the ‘Sunday following, according to the Julian calendar. An immediate result of the martyrdom was a revulsion in favour of Catholicity and unity but the controversy continued to be carried on with an unholy bitterness, and the dissidents too had their martyr, Abbot Athanasius of Brest, who was put to death in 1648. On the other hand, Archbishop Meletius Smotritsky himself eventually was reconciled with the Holy See, and the great Ruthenian reunion persisted, with varying fortunes, until after the partition of Poland. The Russian sovereigns forcibly aggregated a majority of the Ruthenian Catholics to the Orthodox Church of Russia. To the afflictions with which a repetition of history has visited the remainder in our own time Pope Pius XII bore sufficient witness, in his encyclical letter "Orientales omnes" issued at the 350th anniversary of the Union of Brest in 1946.

In 1874 Dom Alphonse Guépin published two stout octavo volumes, amounting altogether to more than a thousand pages, under the title Saint Josaphat, archevéque martyr, et l’Église Grecque unie en Pologne. In the preface he speaks of the sources upon which his work is based. He thanks Father J. Martynov in particular for placing at his disposition a copy of the beatification process and a number of other papers transcribed from the Roman archives. He also makes appeal to a vast collection of documents formed by the Basilian hieromonk Paul Szymansky, and to another great manuscript library of similar character, which Bishop Naruszewicz had accumulated, with a view to his own work as a historian. All these had been entrusted to Dom Guépin, and they were put to such good use that most of the Western writers who have since then touched upon the subject have been largely depend­ent upon his researches. Attention should, however, be called to the very useful little books of Father G. Hofmann, nos. 6 and 12 of the series “Orientalia Christiana”. When St Josaphat was put to death the news spread quickly throughout Europe, and the British Museum possesses a copy of a tract, Relacion verdadera de la Muerte y Martirio de… Josafat; it was printed at Seville in 1625. See also 0. Kozanewyc, Leben des hl. Josaphat (1931); and the periodical Roma e l’Orient, vol. x (1920), pp. 27—34. The background of the events narrated above may be read in the Cambridge History of Poland, vol. i (1950), pp. 507 seq. St Josaphat and the Metropolitan Rutsky were the initiators of that movement in Ruthenian monasticism, which eventually became the organized Order of St Basil, and accordingly these monks have been officially known since 1932 as the Basilians of St Josaphat. In 1952 they published at Rome the first volume of Latin text of the beatification documents of St Josaphat.  

1651 Saint Nilus the Myrrh-Gusher of Mt Athos predicted telephone, airplane, submarine warned that people's minds would be clouded by carnal passions, "and dishonor and lawlessness will grow stronger." Men would not be distinguishable from women because of their "shamelessness of dress and style of hair." St Nilus lamented that Christian pastors, bishops and priests, would become vain men, and that the morals and traditions of the Church would change. Few pious and God-fearing pastors would remain, and many people would stray from the right path because no one would instruct them.
Born in Greece, in a village named for St Peter, in the Zakoneia diocese. He was raised by his uncle, the hieromonk Macarius. Having attained the age of maturity, he received monastic tonsure and was found worthy of ordination to hierodeacon, and then to hieromonk.
The desire for greater monastic struggles brought uncle and nephew to Mt Athos, where Macarius and Nilus lived in asceticism at a place called the Holy Rocks. Upon the repose of St Macarius, the venerable Nilus, aflame with zeal for even more intense spiritual efforts, found an isolated place almost inaccessible for any living thing. Upon his departure to the Lord in 1651, St Nilus was glorified by an abundant flow of curative myrrh, for which Christians journeyed from the most distant lands of the East.

St Nilus has left a remarkably accurate prophecy concerning the state of the Church in the mid-twentieth century, and a description of the people of that time. Among the inventions he predicted are the telephone, airplane, and submarine. He also warned that people's minds would be clouded by carnal passions, "and dishonor and lawlessness will grow stronger." Men would not be distinguishable from women because of their "shamelessness of dress and style of hair." St Nilus lamented that Christian pastors, bishops and priests, would become vain men, and that the morals and traditions of the Church would change. Few pious and God-fearing pastors would remain, and many people would stray from the right path because no one would instruct them.