Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
 Wednesday  November  30 Saints Prídie Kaléndas Decémbris  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!  (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
Six Canonized on Feast of Christ the King Nov 23 2014
CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2014

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Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

November 30
60  St. Andrew St. Peter’s brother, and was called with him.
502 king Vakhtang I Georgia remarkable in faith, wisdom, grace, virtue; founded Georgian Holy Cross Monastery in Jerusalem
1577 St Cuthbert Mayne one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales M (AC)
1835 St. Joseph Marchand  Vietnam Martyr


Pope Benedict XVI to The Catholic Church In China {whole article here }

The saints “a cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Humility is the safeguard of chastity. In the matter of purity, there is no greater danger than not fearing danger. When a person puts himself in an occasion of sin, saying, " I shall not fall", it is almost an infallible sign that he will fall, and with great injury to his soul.
We must specifically and regularly pray for God's assistance and not rely on our own strength. -- St. Phillip Neri

November 30 - Our Lady of Genesta (Genoa, Italy)
Mary in the Temple (X)  When you approached the Holy of Holies
The plan that existed before all times, from our God who is before time, came to pass, O most Immaculate Mother, when you approached the Holy of Holies to be raised there, in preparation of your becoming the dwelling of the Word.
Litia from November 21 Vespers
November 30 – Saint Andrew, Apostle
God Has Placed Me Under the Mantle
As a Marian priest, I firmly believe that there is a tried and true method, taught by God himself, for bringing people back into a belief in Jesus Christ, and back into a love for the truthfulness of his teachings and the Church he founded. That method is Mary. Lovely, beautiful, crown of creation, masterpiece of beauty, demon-crushing, heresy-conquering, humble, handmaid of the Lord, Mary!
 
Like so many in our times, and in times past, I came to know and love Jesus through Mary. I am a 21st century priest because God has placed me under the mantle. There, I find my strength, my purpose, my life, my sweetness, and my hope. And God is placing many more under this most loving maternal mantle. Jesus is raising up a new generation of Catholics today. Ask almost anyone who has experienced a conversion or reversion to the Catholic faith today, and you will almost inevitably hear that the Virgin Mary played a major role in bringing them home. And how could she not? She is the mother of God’s children, the heart of the mystery of salvation, and the nexus of the mysteries of Christianity.
Father Donald H. Calloway, MIC, Under the Mantle, (Marian Press, 2013), p. 10.  See: www.marian.org
    60  St. Andrew St. Peter’s brother, and was called with him.
   339 SS Sapor (Shapur), Isaac & Comps. BM (AC)
         St. Justina of Constantinople VM (RM)
   383 St Frumentius the Archbishop of Abyssinia, Ethiopia
         St. Constantius Roman priest who fought against the Pelagians Castulus & Euprepis MM (RM)
   502 king Vakhtang I Georgia remarkable in faith, wisdom, grace, virtue; founded Georgian Holy Cross Monastery in Jerusalem
6th v. Saint Peter first catholicos of Georgia. He led the Church of Kartli from the 460s through the beginning of the 6th century. According to God’s will, St. Peter inaugurated the dynasty of the chief shepherds of Georgia.
   533 St. Trojan Bishop son of Jewish father Arabic mother shows by many miracles he lives in heaven, though his body is buried on earth.
6th v. Tual of Tréguier Powerful administrator Abbot B
   564 St. Tudwal Welsh monk bishop
6th v. St. Zosimus  hermit who resided in Palestine
         St. Maura island was named in her honor in the Ionian Sea
1155 St Arnold of Gemblours, OSB Abbot (AC)
1186 Blessed Joscius Roseus of St-Bertin great devotion to the Ave Maria OSB (AC)
1348 BD ANDREW OF ANTIOCH
1423 Blessed William de Paulo restore monastic disciple at Maniaco restore monastic disciple at Maniaco
1577 St Cuthbert Mayne one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales M (AC)
1835 St. Joseph Marchand  Vietnam Martyr  

Prídie Kaléndas Decémbris Martyrology of the Sacred Order of Friars Preachers
At Patras in Achaia, the birthday of St. Andrew the Apostle. He preached the sacred Gospel of Christ in Thrace and Scythia, and was arrested by Aegeas the proconsul. After imprisonment, he was barbarously scourged and finally hung on a cross; he lived for two days, during which he did not cease to teach the people. He asked God not to permit him to be taken down from the cross, and he was then surrounded with a great light from heaven. When the light finally disappeared, he gave up his soul. A totum duplex feast of the second class.
At Rome, the suffering of SS. Castulus and Euprepes.
At Constantinople, St. Maura, virgin and martyr.
Also, St. Justina, virgin and martyr.
At Rome, St. Constantius, confessor. He fought bravely against the Pelagians and from that faction suffered many injuries, which made him a fellow of the holy confessors.
Near Saintes in Gaul, St. Trojan, bishop. He was a man of great holiness. He made it clear, by the many miracles he worked, that he lives in Heaven even though his body was buried on earth.
In Palestine, Blessed Zosimus, confessor. He was renowned for holiness and miracles, in the days of the Emperor Justin.
The legend of Blessed Joscius
Entrance of the Apostle Andrew into Georgia
Maximilla, the wife of the prefect, had the body of  Apostle Andrew taken down from the cross, and buried him with honor. A few centuries later, under the emperor Constantine the Great, the relics of the holy Apostle Andrew were solemnly transferred to Constantinople and placed in the church of the Holy Apostles beside the relics of the holy Evangelist Luke and St Paul's disciple St Timothy.

The legend of Blessed Joscius
On November 30, 1186, on Saint Andrew’s feast day, the monks of Déols were gathered together for the office of matins. In the flickering candlelight, the abbot crossed the choir, making sure that each one was in his place. He finished his inspection and was going to give the signal to begin the office, when his glance fell on an empty stall. “Where is our brother Joscius?” he asked. Hoods bobbed up and down; a long whisper ran through the aisles, but nobody could answer the abbot’s question. “It must be something serious; I will go and find out myself.” And he left in haste, followed by a novice.

In fact, Joscius was known for his virtues, his piety and the scrupulous practice of his duties. After a few minutes, the abbot returned, his face fallen and pale, and he exclaimed, “My brothers, a great honor has been bestowed upon us. Blessed Joscius is in heaven. Come and see the amazing miracle that has occurred to his body.”

The monks ran after the abbot and entered the cell with him where a marvellous spectacle awaited. Joscius lay dead on his rush mat, wrapped in the deep folds
of his black habit like a shroud, his hands joined together in prayer, his face turned up towards heaven. Two silver roses had sprouted from his eyes, two others from his ears, a fifth rose from his mouth and the name "Maria" was found on the petals of each flower.

Archbishop Henri de Sully admired the wonder and, dressed in his pontifical robes and surrounded by his clergy, he thought he should take the miraculous roses from the body, but each rose faded as it was removed from its place, except for the one that had sprouted in the mouth. For a long time, the latter retained its freshness and color in the reliquary where it was deposited with the other wilted roses.  Adapted from the French story by J. Veillat.


ST ANDREW, APOSTLE, PATRON OF SCOTLAND

ST ANDREW was a native of Bethsaida, a town in Galilee upon the banks of the lake of Genesareth. He was the son of Jona, a fisherman of that town, and brother to Simon Peter, but whether older or younger the Holy Scriptures do not say. They had a house at Capharnaum, where Jesus lodged when he preached in that city. When St John Baptist began to preach penance, Andrew became his disciple, and he was with his master when St John, seeing Jesus pass by the way after He had been baptized by him, said, Behold the Lamb of God.

Andrew was so far enlightened as to comprehend this mysterious saying, and without delay he and another disciple of the Baptist went after Jesus, who saw them with the eyes of His spirit before He beheld them with His corporal eyes. Turning back as he walked, he said, “What seek ye?” They said they wanted to know where He dwelt, and He bade them come and see. There remained but two hours of that day, which they spent with him, and Andrew clearly learned that Jesus was the Messias and resolved from that moment to follow Him; he was thus the first of His disciples, and therefore is styled by the Greeks the “Protoclete” or First-called. He then fetched his brother, that he might also know Him, and Simon was no sooner come to Jesus than the Saviour admitted him also as a disciple, and gave him the name of Peter. From this time they were his followers, not constantly attending Him as they afterwards did, but hearing Him as frequently as their business would permit and returning to their trade and family affairs again. When Jesus, going up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover, stayed some days in Judaea and baptized in the Jordan, Peter and Andrew also baptized by His authority and in His name. Our Saviour, being come back into Galilee and meeting Peter and Andrew fishing in the lake, He called them permanently to the ministry of the gospel, saying that He would make them fishers of men. Whereupon they im­mediately left their nets to follow Him, and never went from Him again. The year following our Lord chose twelve to be His apostles, and St Andrew is named among the first four in all the biblical lists. He is also mentioned in connection with the feeding of the five thousand (John vi 8, 9) and the Gentiles who would see Jesus (John xii 20—22).

Apart from a few words in Eusebius, who informs us that St Andrew preached in Scythia and that certain spurious “acts” bearing his name were made use of by heretics, we have practically nothing but apocryphal writings which profess to tell us anything of the later history of St Andrew. There is, however, one curious mention in the ancient document known as the Muratorian Fragment. This dates from the very beginning of the third century and therein it is stated: “The fourth gospel [was written by] John one of the disciples [i.e. apostles]. When his fellow disciples and bishop urgently pressed him, he said, Fast with me from today, for three days, and let us tell one another what revelation may be made to us, either for or against [the plan of writing].' On the same night it was revealed to Andrew, one of the apostles, that John should relate all in his own name, and that all should review his writing.”
  Theodoret tells us that Andrew passed into Greece; St Gregory Nazianzen mentions particularly Epirus, and St Jerome Achaia. St Philastrius says that he came out of Pontus into Greece, and that in his time (fourth century) people at Sinope believed that they had his true picture and the ambo from which he preached in that city. Though there is agreement among these as to the direction of St Andrew’s apostolate there is no certainty about it. The favorite view of the middle ages was that he eventually came to Byzantium and there left his disciple Stachys (Romans xvi 9) as bishop. This tradition is due to a document forged at a time when it was a great help to the ecclesiastical position of Constan­tinople apparently to have an apostolic origin for their church, like Rome, Alex­andria and Antioch. (The first historically certain bishop of Byzantium was St Metrophanes, early in the fourth century.)
   The place and manner of the death of St Andrew are equally in doubt. His apocryphal passio says that he was crucified at Patras in Achaia, being not nailed but bound to a cross, on which he suffered and preached to the people for two days before he died. The idea that his cross was of the kind called saltire or decussate (X-shaped) was apparently not known before the fourteenth century. Under the Emperor Constantius II (d. 361) what purported to be the relics of St Andrew were translated from Patras to the church of the Apostles at Constantinople after the seizure of that city by the Crusaders in 1204 they were stolen and given to the cathedral of Amalfi in Italy.

St Andrew is the patron saint of Russia, on account of a valueless tradition that he preached in that country so far as Kiev, and of Scotland. It is not claimed that he preached in Scotland, but the legend preserved by John of Fordun and in the Aberdeen Breviary is no less undeserving of credence. According to this a certain St Rule (Regulus), who was a native of Patras and had charge of the relics of St Andrew in the fourth century, was warned by an angel in a dream to take a part of those relics and convey them to a place that would be indicated. He did as he was told, going forth in a north-westerly direction “towards the ends of the earth”, until by a sign the angel stopped him at the place we call Saint Andrews, where he built a church to shelter them, was made its first bishop, and evangelized the people for thirty years. This story may have originated in the eighth century. A feast of the translation is observed in the archdiocese of Saint Andrews on May 9.

The name of St Andrew appears in the canon of the Mass with those of the other apostles, and he is also named with our Lady and SS. Peter and Paul in the embolism after the Lord’s Prayer. This is generally attributed to the personal devotion of Pope St Gregory the Great for the saint, but the usage may antedate his time.

Although Duchesne, Delehaye and others regard St Andrew’s connection with Patras as unreliable, some are inclined to affirm it very positively. “More certain”, says Kellner (Heortology, P. 289), “is his martyrdom at Patras, of which we have a trustworthy account.” [He means the passio printed by Max Bonnet, Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xiii, pp. 373—378.]  “Besides this, there is a well-known encyclical letter from the priests and deacons of Achaia, which in all essential points agrees with the account of the martyrdom, although in some other respects it is open to criticism.” This is putting the matter rather strongly, but it is certainly worthy of remark that there is almost perfect uniformity in Latin and Greek calendars at all periods in assigning St Andrew’s feast to November 30, and also that the “Hieronymianum” under February 5 has the entry Patras in Achaia ordinatio episcopatus sancti Andraeae apostoli. The letter of the Achaia clergy is printed in Migne, PG., vol. ii, pp. 1217—1243, but the best of the apocryphal material regarding St Andrew can be most conveniently studied in the contributions of M. Bonnet to the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xiii (1894), afterwards separately reprinted. There are also Ethiopic, Coptic and other oriental texts. See further the Dictionnaire de la Bible Supplément, vol. i, cc. 504—509; Flamion, Les actes apocryphes de l’apótre André (1911) Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apocryphen (1904), PP. 459—473, and Handbuch (1904), pp. 544—562. The legend of St Andrew must have excited interest in England at an early date the Anglo-Saxon poem, Andrew, based upon it is probably the work of Cynewulf, who wrote about the year 800. On St Andrew’s connection with Scotland see W. Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. i, pp. 296—299 for Eusebius’s reference, his Eccl. Hist., bk iii and for the Muratorian reference, DAC., vol. xii, c. 552, a facsimile of the original manuscript.

The Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called was the first of the Apostles to follow Christ, and he later brought his own brother, the holy Apostle Peter, to Christ (John 1:35-42). The future apostle was from Bethsaida, and from his youth he turned with all his soul to God. He did not enter into marriage, and he worked with his brother as a fisherman. When the holy Prophet, Forerunner and Baptist John began to preach, St Andrew became his closest disciple. St John the Baptist himself sent to Christ his own two disciples, the future Apostles Andrew and John the Theologian, declaring Christ to be the Lamb of God.

After the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, St Andrew went to the Eastern lands preaching the Word of God. He went through Asia Minor, Thrace, Macedonia, he reached the River Danube, went along the coast of the Black Sea, through Crimea, the Black Sea region and along the River Dniepr he climbed to the place where the city of Kiev now stands.


He stopped overnight on the hills of Kiev. Rising in the morning, he said to those disciples that were with him: "See these hills? Upon these hills shall shine forth the beneficence of God, and there will be a great city here, and God shall raise up many churches." The apostle went up around the hills, blessed them and set up a cross. Having prayed, he went up even further along the Dniepr and reached a settlement of the Slavs, where Novgorod was built. From here the apostle went through the land of the Varangians towards Rome for preaching, and again he returned to Thrace, where in the small village of Byzantium, the future Constantinople, he founded the Church of Christ. The name of the holy Apostle Andrew links the mother, the Church of Constantinople, with her daughter, the Russian Church.

On his journeys the First-Called Apostle endured many sufferings and torments from pagans: they cast him out of their cities and they beat him. In Sinope they pelted him with stones, but remaining unharmed, the persistant disciple of Christ continued to preach to people about the Savior. Through the prayers of the Apostle, the Lord worked miracles. By the labors of the holy Apostle Andrew, Christian Churches were established, for which he provided bishops and clergy. The final city to which the Apostle came was the city of Patra, where he was destined to suffer martyrdom.

The Lord worked many miracles through His disciple in Patra. The infirm were made whole, and the blind received their sight. Through the prayers of the Apostle, the illustrious citizen Sosios recovered from serious illness; he healed Maximilla, wife of the governor of Patra, and his brother Stratokles. The miracles accomplished by the Apostle and his fiery speech enlightened almost all the citizens of the city of Patra with the true Faith.

Few pagans remained at Patra, but among them was the prefect of the city, Aegeatos. The Apostle Andrew repeatedly turned to him with the words of the Gospel. But even the miracles of the Apostle did not convince Aegeatos. The holy Apostle with love and humility appealed to his soul, striving to reveal to him the Christian mystery of life eternal, through the wonderworking power of the Holy Cross of the Lord. The angry Aegeatos gave orders to crucify the apostle. The pagan thought he might undo St Andrew's preaching if he were to put him to death on the cross.

St Andrew the First-Called accepted the decision of the prefect with joy and with prayer to the Lord, and went willingly to the place of execution. In order to prolong the suffering of the saint, Aegeatos gave orders not to nail the saint's hands and feet, but to tie them to the cross. For two days the apostle taught the citizens who gathered about. The people, in listening to him, with all their souls pitied him and tried to take St Andrew down from the cross. Fearing a riot of the people, Aegeatos gave orders to stop the execution. But the holy apostle began to pray that the Lord would grant him death on the cross. Just as the soldiers tried to take hold of the Apostle Andrew, they lost control of their hands. The crucified apostle, having given glory to God, said: "Lord Jesus Christ, receive my spirit." Then a blazing ray of divine light illumined the cross and the martyr crucified upon it. When the light faded, the holy Apostle Andrew had already given up his holy soul to the Lord. Maximilla, the wife of the prefect, had the body of the saint taken down from the cross, and buried him with honor.

A few centuries later, under the emperor Constantine the Great, the relics of the holy Apostle Andrew were solemnly transferred to Constantinople and placed in the church of the Holy Apostles beside the relics of the holy Evangelist Luke and St Paul's disciple St Timothy.

St. Andrew St. Peter’s brother, and was called with him.
Apud Patras, in Achája, natális sancti Andréæ Apóstoli, qui in Thrácia et Scythia sacrum Christi Evangélium prædicávit.  Is, ab Ægéa Proncónsule comprehénsus, primum in cárcere clausus est, deínde gravíssime cæsus, ad últimum suspénsus in cruce, in ea pópulum docens bíduo supervíxit; et, rogáto Dómino ne eum síneret de cruce depóni, circúmdatus est magno splendóre de cælo, et, abscedénte póstmodum lúmine, emísit spíritum.
    At Patras in Achaia, the birthday of the apostle St. Andrew, who preached the gospel of Christ in Thrace and Sythia.  He was apprehended by the proconsul Aegeas, imprisoned, and severely scourged, and finally, being hung on a cross, he lived two days on it, teaching the people.  Having besought our Lord not to permit him to be taken down from the cross, he was surrounded with a great brightness from heaven, and when the light disappeared he breathed his last.
"As [Jesus] was walking by the sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon who is now called Peter, and his brother Andrew, casting a net into the sea; they were fishermen. He said to them, ‘Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men.’ At once they left their nets and followed him" (Matthew 4:18-20). 
John the Evangelist presents Andrew as a disciple of John the Baptist.  When Jesus walked by one day, John said, "Behold, the Lamb of God."
Andrew and another disciple followed Jesus. "Jesus turned and saw them following him and said to them, ‘What are you looking for?’ They said to him, ‘Rabbi’ (which translated means Teacher), ‘where are you staying?’ He said to them, ‘Come, and you will see.’ So they went and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day" (John 1:38-39a).

Little else is said about Andrew in the Gospels.
Before the multiplication of the loaves, it was Andrew who spoke up about the boy who had the barley loaves and fishes (see John 6:8-9). When the Gentiles went to see Jesus, they came to Philip, but Philip then had recourse to Andrew (see John 12:20-22).
Legend has it that Andrew preached the Good News in what is now modern Greece and Turkey and was crucified at Patras.

Comment:  As in the case of all the apostles except Peter and John, the Gospels give us little about the holiness of Andrew. He was an apostle. That is enough. He was called personally by Jesus to proclaim the Good News, to heal with Jesus' power and to share his life and death.  Holiness today is no different. It is a gift that includes a call to be concerned about the Kingdom, an outgoing attitude that wants nothing more than to share the riches of Christ with all people.
Quote: “...The Twelve called together the community of the disciples and said, ‘It is not right for us to neglect the word of God to serve at table. Brothers, select from among you seven reputable men, filled with the Spirit and wisdom, whom we shall appoint to this task, whereas we shall devote ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word’” (Acts 6:2-4).   

Andrew the Apostle (RM) (also known as Andreas, Endres) 1st century; feast day formerly on November 3; feast of his translation, May 9. Andrew was a worrier, or so it seems, who concentrated on details. He wanted to know where Jesus lived (John 1:38), how they were going to feed a crowd (John 6:9), and when Jerusalem would be destroyed (Mark 13:4).

Born at Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee, Andrew was a fisherman, the son of the fisherman John, and the brother of the fisherman Simon Peter.  It's no wonder then that Jesus called Andrew to be a fisher of men (Mark 1:16-18). Jesus stayed with the brothers at their second home in Caparnaum (Mark 1:29), so they must have been prosperous fishermen, which makes their commitment even more amazing.
It's appropriate that we celebrate Saint Andrew's feast at the beginning of Advent because he was first a disciple of John the Baptist, and, when he met the Lord of Creation at Jesus' baptism in the Jordan, he became Jesus' first disciple (John 1:29-40).

Let's ask Saint Andrew to bring us anew to the Lord as he also brought his brother Peter (John 1:41-42). For a time Andrew and Simon followed Jesus intermittently, but when the Savior returned to Galilee, he called them from fishing into ministry and they "dropped their nets immediately and followed Him (Matt. 4:20) (may we, too, as quickly drop our work to follow when the Lord calls). They left their families, their business, and their possessions.

With Philip, he presented the Gentiles to Christ (John 12:20-22) and pointed out the boy with the loaves and fishes (John 6:8). After the Pentecost he is said to have preached the gospel in many regions, including Scythia (according to Eusebius), Epirus (according to Saint Gregory Nazianzen), or Achaia (per Saint Jerome). An ancient legend preserved in the Old English poem Andreas (once attributed to Cynewulf) has him preaching in Ethiopia. A later dubious tradition has him going to Byzantium, where he appointed Saint Stachys bishop.

Andrew is one of the few early disciples of Jesus about whom there are few legends. Rather than miraculous legends the story of Saint Andrew is the story of the Apostles. We always want extraordinary saints, and we are surprised to find that even among the Apostles there was one whose life was without miracles. Most saints have lived a simple, everyday life, sometimes miraculous, but only sometimes. Saint Andrew is just another indication that we, too, can live a simple, everyday life and still be saints. We, too, can live a life that is hidden in God and in His Church.

It's uncertain where and how he died except that it was somewhere near the Black Sea, but an ancient tradition (4th century Acta) says he was crucified at Patras in Achaia on an X- shaped cross (now known as a Saint Andrew's Cross). This tradition tells us that the proconsul tied him to the cross where he remained for several days preaching to all who came to watch the execution. And the tradition of his martyrdom at Patras was based on an early medieval forgery, strengthened by the translation of his alleged relics from Patras. The forgery was intended to provide a counterweight to Rome's more solid claim to the relics of Saints Peter and Paul.

There is an unfounded tradition that he preached in Russia, reaching as far as Kiev in the Ukraine, from where the conversion of the country spread in the 11th century. He is also considered to be a patron of Scotland, where another tradition says some of his relics where brought in the 4th century in consequence of a dream of Saint Rule (Regulus), who was custodian of Andrew's relics at Patras.

Reportedly an angel guided Rule to a place called Saint Andrew's, where Regulus built a church to house the relics, became its first bishop, and evangelized the Scots in the area for three decades. The church became a center of pilgrimage.

Crusaders stole Andrew's alleged body in 1210 and took them to Amalfi, which still claims the relics. The head, considered one of the treasures of Saint Peter's, was given to Pope Pius II by the despot Thomas Palaeologus in 1461, but was returned to Constantinople by Pope Paul VI.
Andrew's feast was universal in the West from the 6th century. There are church dedications in his honor from early times in France, Italy, and England (at Rochester as early as 637). (Attwater, Attwater 2, Benedictines, Bentley, Coulson, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, White).

Saint Andrew is generally pictured as an old man, generally with a book and transverse or saltire cross. Sometimes the image may contain (1) fish or a fishing net; (2) rope; (3) Andrew sitting in a boat (Roeder). In the most ancient images, he is depicted with a normal Latin cross. The X-cross was associated with him from the 10th century at Autun, but became common only in the 14th century (Farmer). There are several images available on the Internet:
He is the patron of Avranches, Brabant, Brunswick, Burgundy, Holstein, Luxembourg, Minden, Pesaro, Yetminster, Russia, Scotland, and Greece. He is the protector of fishermen, fishmongers, and sailors. He is invoked against gout and stiff-neck (Delaney, Roeder).
Apostle Andrew, the Holy and All-Praised First-Called

The Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called was the first of the Apostles to follow Christ, and he later brought his own brother, the holy Apostle Peter, to Christ (John 1:35-42). The future apostle was from Bethsaida, and from his youth he turned with all his soul to God. He did not enter into marriage, and he worked with his brother as a fisherman. When the holy Prophet, Forerunner and Baptist John began to preach, St Andrew became his closest disciple. St John the Baptist himself sent to Christ his own two disciples, the future Apostles Andrew and John the Theologian, declaring Christ to be the Lamb of God.

After the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, St Andrew went to the Eastern lands preaching the Word of God. He went through Asia Minor, Thrace, Macedonia, he reached the River Danube, went along the coast of the Black Sea, through Crimea, the Black Sea region and along the River Dniepr he climbed to the place where the city of Kiev now stands.

He stopped overnight on the hills of Kiev. Rising in the morning, he said to those disciples that were with him: "See these hills? Upon these hills shall shine forth the beneficence of God, and there will be a great city here, and God shall raise up many churches." The apostle went up around the hills, blessed them and set up a cross. Having prayed, he went up even further along the Dniepr and reached a settlement of the Slavs, where Novgorod was built. From here the apostle went through the land of the Varangians towards Rome for preaching, and again he returned to Thrace, where in the small village of Byzantium, the future Constantinople, he founded the Church of Christ. The name of the holy Apostle Andrew links the mother, the Church of Constantinople, with her daughter, the Russian Church.

On his journeys the First-Called Apostle endured many sufferings and torments from pagans: they cast him out of their cities and they beat him. In Sinope they pelted him with stones, but remaining unharmed, the persistant disciple of Christ continued to preach to people about the Savior. Through the prayers of the Apostle, the Lord worked miracles. By the labors of the holy Apostle Andrew, Christian Churches were established, for which he provided bishops and clergy. The final city to which the Apostle came was the city of Patra, where he was destined to suffer martyrdom.

The Lord worked many miracles through His disciple in Patra. The infirm were made whole, and the blind received their sight. Through the prayers of the Apostle, the illustrious citizen Sosios recovered from serious illness; he healed Maximilla, wife of the governor of Patra, and his brother Stratokles. The miracles accomplished by the Apostle and his fiery speech enlightened almost all the citizens of the city of Patra with the true Faith.

Few pagans remained at Patra, but among them was the prefect of the city, Aegeatos. The Apostle Andrew repeatedly turned to him with the words of the Gospel. But even the miracles of the Apostle did not convince Aegeatos. The holy Apostle with love and humility appealed to his soul, striving to reveal to him the Christian mystery of life eternal, through the wonderworking power of the Holy Cross of the Lord. The angry Aegeatos gave orders to crucify the apostle. The pagan thought he might undo St Andrew's preaching if he were to put him to death on the cross.

St Andrew the First-Called accepted the decision of the prefect with joy and with prayer to the Lord, and went willingly to the place of execution. In order to prolong the suffering of the saint, Aegeatos gave orders not to nail the saint's hands and feet, but to tie them to the cross. For two days the apostle taught the citizens who gathered about. The people, in listening to him, with all their souls pitied him and tried to take St Andrew down from the cross. Fearing a riot of the people, Aegeatos gave orders to stop the execution. But the holy apostle began to pray that the Lord would grant him death on the cross. Just as the soldiers tried to take hold of the Apostle Andrew, they lost control of their hands. The crucified apostle, having given glory to God, said: "Lord Jesus Christ, receive my spirit." Then a blazing ray of divine light illumined the cross and the martyr crucified upon it. When the light faded, the holy Apostle Andrew had already given up his holy soul to the Lord.

Maximilla, the wife of the prefect, had the body of  Apostle Andrew taken down from the cross, and buried him with honor. A few centuries later, under the emperor Constantine the Great, the relics of the holy Apostle Andrew were solemnly transferred to Constantinople and placed in the church of the Holy Apostles beside the relics of the holy Evangelist Luke and St Paul's disciple St Timothy.
St. Maura island was named in her honor in the Ionian Sea
Constantinópoli sanctæ Mauræ, Vírginis et Mártyris.    At Constantinople, St. Maura, virgin and martyr.
A virgin martyr who suffered in Constantinople in some unknown year. An island was named in her honor in the Ionian Sea.
Maura of Constantinople VM (RM) dates unknown. The virgin Maura was martyred at Constantinople. One of the Ionian islands is named in her honor, althoug her authenticity has been questioned (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

Justina of Constantinople VM (RM).
Item sanctæ Justínæ, Vírginis et Mártyris.    Also, St. Justina, virgin and martyr.
A maiden martyred at Constantinople (Benedictines).
339 Sapor (Shapur), Isaac & Comps. BM (AC)
SS. SAPOR and ISAAC, BISHOPS AND MARTYRS (AD. 339)
THE long and shocking persecution of the Christians of Persia under Sapor II was due to a suspicion that they were intriguing with the Roman emperors against their own country, and profession of the national religion, Mazdeism, was made the test of loyalty. Mahanes, Abraham and Simeon were the first who fell into the hands of the officers, and soon after Sapor and Isaac, both bishops, were taken up for building churches and making converts. All five were presented to the king, who said to them, “Have you not heard that I am descended from the god ? Yet I sacrifice to the sun and pay divine honors to the moon. Who are you to resist my laws?” The martyrs answered, “We acknowledge one God, and Him alone we worship”, and Sapor the bishop said, “We confess one only God, who made all things, and Jesus Christ, born of Him”. The king commanded that he should be struck on the mouth, which was done with such cruelty that his teeth were knocked out, and he was beaten with clubs till his whole body was bruised and bones broken. Isaac appeared next, and Sapor the king reproached him for having presumed to build churches. He maintained Christ with inflexible constancy, so several apostates were sent for and by threats made to carry off Isaac and stone him to death. At the news of his martyrdom, St Sapor exulted and himself died of his wounds two days after, in prison. The barbarous king, to be sure of his death, caused his head to be cut off, and brought to him. The other three were then called up and the king, finding them no less invincible, ordered the skin of Mahanes to be flayed from the top of his head to the navel; under which torture he died. Abraham’s eyes were bored out with a hot iron, and Simeon was buried in the earth up to his breast and shot to death with arrows.

The story of the martyrdom of these bishops, written in Syriac, was published in the eighteenth century by S. E. Assemani in his Acta sanctorum martyrum, Orientalium et Occidentalium, vol. i, pp. 225—230. A better text has since been edited from a collation of other manuscripts by P. Bedjan in his Acta martyrum et sanctorum, vol. ii (1891). It would seem that this Sapor must be the same who is mentioned in the early Syriac breviarium amongst “the bishops of Persia”. The notice, to which no day of the month is attached, simply names “John and Shabur (Sapor), bishops of the city of Beth-Seleucia”.

Bishop Sapor of Beth-Nictor and Bishop Isaac of Beth-Seleucia were martyred with members of their flock under the Persian King Shapur II, including Saints Mahanes, Abraham, and Simeon. Sapor died in prison; Isaac was stoned to death.

Their genuine acta have been preserved in Chaldaic, which relate that the Persians complained to the king that they could no longer worship the heavenly bodies or the elements without the Christians despising them. Shapur immediately ordered the arrest of all the followers of Christ. Mahanes, Abraham, and Simeon were the first to be captured. When the king learned that Sapor and Isaac were building churches and evangelizing the people in distant outposts, he sent soldiers to track them down and bring them to trial within three days.

The day after their capture, all five were brought before the king, who inquired: "Have not you heard that I derive my pedigree from the gods? Yet I sacrifice to the sun, and pay divine honors to the moon. And who are you who resist my laws, and despise the sun and fire?"

The martyrs with one voice answered: "We acknowledge one God, and Him alone we worship."
The king asked: "What God is better than Hormisdatas, or stronger than the angry Armanes? And who is ignorant that the sun is to be worshipped."
Sapor replied: "We confess one only God, who made all things, and Jesus Christ born of him."
At this the king commanded that he should be beaten on the mouth; all the bishop's teeth were knocked out. Then he was beaten with clubs, until his whole body was bruised and his bones broken. After this he was loaded with chains.
Isaac appeared next. The king scolded him for having built churches; but the martyr maintained the cause of Christ with inflexible constancy. The king next commanded that several of the chief men of the city who had apostatized be summoned. With threats he cowed them into stoning Bishop Isaac to death.
When Saint Sapor heard of Isaace happy martyrdom, he was exultant and died of his wounds two days later in prison. The king nevertheless severed the bishop's head from his body. The other three were called again to court. Mahanes was flayed from the top of his head to the navel, dying in the process. Abraham's eyes were bored out with a hot iron, and he died of his wounds two days later. Simeon was buried alive and shot through with arrows. The faithful Christians managed to obtain and privately bury the remains of the martyrs (Attwater 2, Benedictines, Coulson, Husenbeth).

383 St Frumentius the Archbishop of Abyssinia, Ethiopia

Saint Frumentius, Archbishop of Inda (Ethiopia, formerly Abysssinia), was a native of the city of Tyre. While still a child, he came to Abyssinia by divine Providence. Growing up near the imperial court, he became a friend and chief counselor of the Abyssinian emperor, and afterwards tutor to his son, who ascended the throne while still a minor after the death of his father.


With the consent of the new emperor, St Frumentius journeyed to his native land and afterwards visited Alexandria and its patriarch, St Athanasius the Great (May 2). With the blessing of St Athanasius, Frumentius was elevated to become Bishop of Abyssinia and he returned to that country, which had sheltered him from his childhood.  After he returned from his consecration, St Frumentius began to perform miracles, bringing many people to the Church. The emperor said to him, "You have lived among us for many years, yet we never saw you perform such wonders. Why is it that you do so now?" The saint replied, "This has nothing to do with me, but is due to the grace of the priesthood." Then the emperor and many of his subjects received holy Baptism.  Having accomplished the apostolic task of converting the Abyssinian nation to Christ, St Frumentius zealously and fruitfully guided the Church entrusted him by God for many years, then peacefully departed to the Lord in great old age.

Phoenician Saint Frumentius, Apostle of Abyssinia and Bishop of Axum, and his brother priest Edesius
The brothers from Tyre, Phoenicia. Frumentius introduced Christianity to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and translated the New Testament into Ethiopian

Edesius and Frumentius, brothers from Tyre, Phoenician, introduced Christianity into Abyssinia; the latter a saint and first Bishop of Axum is styled the Apostle of Abyssinia, d. about 383.

When still mere boys they accompanied their uncle Metropius on a voyage to Abyssinia. When their ship stopped at one of the harbor of the Red Sea, people of the neighborhood massacred the whole crew, with the exception of Edesius and Frumentius, who were taken as slaves to the King of Axum. This occurred about 316. The two boys soon gained the favor of the king, who raised them to positions of trust and shortly before his death gave them their liberty.

The widowed queen, however, prevailed upon them to remain at the court and assist her in the education of the young prince Erazanes and in the administration of the kingdom during the prince's minority. They remained and (especially Frumentius) used their influence to spread Christianity. First they encouraged the Christian merchants, who were temporarily in the country, to practice their faith openly by meeting at places of public worship; later they also converted some of the natives.

When the prince came of age, Edesius returned to his friends and relatives at Tyre and was ordained priest, but did not return to Abyssinia. Frumentius, on the other hand, who was eager for the conversion of Abyssinia, accompanied Edesius as far as Alexandria, where he requested St. Athanasius to send a bishop and some priests to Abyssinia. St. Athanasius considered Frumentius himself the most suitable person for bishop and consecrated him in 328, according to others between 340-46.

Frumentius returned to Abyssinia, erected his episcopal see at Axum, baptized King Aeizanas, who had meanwhile succeeded to the throne, built many churches, and spread the Christian Faith throughout Abyssinia. The people called him Abuna (Our Father) or Abba Salama (Father of Peace), titles still given to the head of the Abyssinian Church.

In 365 Emperor Constantius addressed a letter to King Aeizanas and his brother Saizanas in which he vainly requested them to substitute the Arian bishop Theophilus for Frumentius (Athanasius, "Apol. ad Constantium" in P.G., XXV, 631).

The Latins celebrate the feast of Frumentius on 27 October, the Greeks on 30 November, and the Copts on 18 December.
Abyssinian tradition credits him with the first Ethiopian translation of the New Testament.
RUFINUS, Historia Ecclesiastica, lib. I, cap. ix, in P.L., XXI, 478-80; Acta SS. Oct., XII, 257-70; DUCHESNE, Les missiones chrétienne au Sud de l'empire romain in Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire (Rome, 1896), XVI, 79-122; THEBAUD, The Church and the Gentile World (New York, 1878), I, 231-40; BUTLER, Lives of the Saints, 27 Oct.; BARING-GOULD, Lives of the Saints (London, 1872), 27 Oct.
MICHAEL OTT  Transcribed by WGKofron  With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V Copyright © 1909 by Robert Appleton Company Online Edition Copyright © 1999 by Kevin Knight Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York
5th v. St. Constantius Roman priest who fought against the Pelagians
Romæ sancti Constántii Confessóris, qui, fórtiter Pelagiánis resístens, ab eórum factióne pértulit multa, quæ illum sanctis Confessóribus sociárunt.
    At Rome, St. Constantius, confessor, who bravely opposed the Pelagians, and by enduring many injuries from them, gained a place among the holy confessors.
Roman priest who fought against the Pelagians and suffered at their hands in Rome.
Constantius of Rome (RM). A Roman priest who strongly opposed the Pelagians, at whose hands he had much to endure (Benedictines). A priest in Rome who opposed the Pelagians and at whose hands he suffered a great deal.
Castulus & Euprepis MM (RM).
Romæ pássio sanctórum Cástuli et Euprépitis.
    At Rome, the martyrdom of the Saints Castulus and Euprepis.
 Roman martyrs (Benedictines).
502 king Vakhtang I Georgia remarkable in faith, wisdom, grace, virtue; founded Georgian Holy Cross Monastery in Jerusalem
The holy and right-believing ascended the throne of Kartli at the age of fifteen. At that time Kartli was continually being invaded by the Persians from the south and by the Ossetians from the north. The situation was no better in western Georgia: the Byzantines had captured all the lands from Egrisi to Tsikhegoji.

After his coronation, the young King Vakhtang summoned his court and addressed his dedicated servants with great wisdom. He said that the sorrowful circumstances in which the nation had found itself were a manifestation of God’s anger at the sins of the king and the people. He called upon everyone to struggle in unity and selflessness on behalf of the Faith and motherland.

King Vakhtang led a victorious campaign against the Ossetians, freed the captive princess (his older sister), and signed several treaties with the Caucasian mountain tribes to secure their cooperation in the struggle against foreign conquerors. Then he carried out another campaign in western Georgia, freed that region from the Byzantines, reinforced the authority of KingGubaz, and returned in triumph to Kartli.

King Vakhtang was remarkable in faith, wisdom, grace, virtue, and appearance (he towered above all others at a stately seven feet ten inches). He spent many nights in prayer and distributed alms to the poor, in this way dedicating his life to God. King Vakhtang could fight tirelessly in battle. Vested in armor and fully armed, he could carry a war-horse on his shoulders and climb from Mtskheta to the Armazi Fortress in the mountains outside the city. On foot he could outrun a deer. The holy king was judicious in politics, displayed great composure, and preserved a sense of calm even when critical decisions needed to be made.

On the brow of Vakhtang’s military helmet was depicted a wolf, and on the back, a lion. Catching a glimpse of the helmet with the wolf and lion, the Persians would cry out to one another: “Dar’ az gurgsar!” (“Beware of the wolf ’s head!”) This was the source of King Vakhtang’s appellation “Gorgasali.”

During King Vakhtang’s reign the Georgian Church was first recognized as autocephalous. When the holy king banished the pagan fire-worshippers from Georgia, he also sent a certain Bishop Michael—who was inclined to the Monophysite heresy, which had been planted in Georgia by the Persians—to Constantinople to be tried by the patriarch. The bishop had disgracefully cursed the king and his army for rising up against the Monophysites. In fact, he was so infuriated that when King Vakhtang approached him to receive his blessing, he kicked him in the mouth and broke several of his teeth.
The patriarch of Constantinople subsequently defrocked Bishop Michael and sent him to a monastery to repent.
More importantly perhaps, the patriarch and the Byzantine emperor then sent to the patriarch of Antioch several clergymen whom King Vakhtang had chosen for consecration. In Antioch the patriarch consecrated twelve of these clergymen as bishops and enthroned a certain Petre as the first Catholicos of Georgia.

Vakhtang fulfilled the will of Holy King Mirian by founding the Georgian Holy Cross Monastery in Jerusalem. In addition, he replaced a wooden church that had been built in Mtskheta at the time of St. Nino with a church made of stone. During his reign several new dioceses were founded. King Vakhtang built a cathedral in Nikozi (Inner Kartli) and established a new diocese there, to which he translated the holy relics of the Protomartyr Razhden.

King Vakhtang built fortresses at Tukhari, Artanuji, and Akhiza; founded monasteries in Klarjeti at Artanuji, Mere, Shindobi, and Akhiza; and established many other strongholds, churches, and monasteries as well. He built a new royal residence in Ujarma and laid the foundations of the new Georgian capital, Tbilisi. His political creed consisted of three parts: an equal union of the Georgian Church with the Byzantine Church, national independence, and the unity of the Church and nation.

In the year 502 the sixty-year-old King Vakhtang was obliged to defend his country for the last time. In a battle with the Persians he was fatally wounded when a poisoned arrow pierced him under the arm. Before he died, King Vakhtang summoned the clergy, his family and his court and urged them to be strong in the Faith and to seek death for Christ’s sake in order to gain eternal glory.

All of Georgia mourned the passing of the king. His body was moved from the royal residence in Ujarma to Mtskheta, to Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, which he had himself built. There he was buried with great honor.

Some fifteen centuries later, with the blessing of Catholicos-Patriarch Ilia II, an addition was built onto the Sioni Patriarchal Cathedral in Holy King Vakhtang Gorgasali’s name, and a cathedral in his honor was founded in the city of Rustavi.
<6th v. Saint Peter first catholicos of Georgia. He led the Church of Kartli from the 460s through the beginning of the 6th century. According to God’s will, St. Peter inaugurated the dynasty of the chief shepherds of Georgia.

Samuel_2nd_Catholicos_of_Georgia>

It is written in the biography of Holy King Vakhtang IV Gorgasali that the king was introduced to Peter, a pupil of St. Gregory the Theologian, during one of his visits to Byzantium, and he became very close to him. At that time he was also introduced to the future catholicos Samuel.

The close spiritual bond of the holy king and the catholicos, combined with their concerted efforts on behalf of the Church, contributed immeasurably to the establishment of friendly political relations between Georgia and Byzantium and the proclamation of the autocephaly of the Georgian Apostolic Church.

Having returned to his own capital, King Vakhtang sent an envoy to Byzantium to find him a wife. He also sent a request that the hierarch Peter be elevated as catholicos and that the priest Samuel be consecrated bishop. He pleaded with the patriarch to hasten the arrival of Catholicos Peter and the twelve bishops with him.

The patriarch of Constantinople approved King Vakhtang’s request to institute the rank of catholicos of Georgia. Since the Georgian Church was still under the jurisdiction of Antioch, Peter and Samuel were sent to the Antiochian patriarch himself to be elevated. The autocephaly of the Georgian Church was proclaimed upon the arrival of the holy fathers in Georgia.

St. Peter ruled the Church according to the principle of autocephaly and established a form of self-rule that would later help to increase the authority of the Georgian Apostolic Orthodox Church.

The mutual respect and cooperation of the catholicos and the holy king laid the foundations for future, harmonious relations between secular and Church authorities in Georgia. Their example defined the authority of the Church and a national love and respect for the king.

Peter accompanied Holy King Vakhtang Gorgasali to war with the Persians in 502. It is written that “the fatally wounded king Vakhtang summoned the catholicos, the queen, his sons and all the nobility.” St. Peter heard the king’s last confession, granted the remission of his sins, presided at his funeral service, and blessed the prince Dachi (502–514) to succeed him as king of Kartli.

Holy Catholicos Peter led the Georgian Church with great wisdom to the end of his days.

St. Samuel ascended the throne of the Apostolic Orthodox Church of Georgia in the 6th century, after the holy catholicos Peter.

Like St. Peter, Samuel was a native of Byzantium. He arrived with Catholicos Peter in Georgia as a bishop, at the invitation of King Vakhtang Gorgasali and with the blessing of the patriarch of Constantinople.

At that time Svetitskhoveli in Mtskheta was the residence of the catholicos.

After the repose of Catholicos Peter, Samuel succeeded him, and King Dachi “bestowed upon him the city of Mtskheta, according to the will of King Vakhtang.” St. Samuel led the Georgian Church during the reigns of King Dachi and his son Bakur. He initiated construction of Tsqarostavi Church in the Javakheti region.

What we know of St. Samuel’s activity paints him as a pastor who demonstrated great foresight and cared deeply about his flock. He was also a close acquaintance of the holy martyr Queen Shushanik.

St. Samuel faithfully served the Autocephalous Church of Georgia and labored to strengthen the Christian Faith of the Georgian people to the end of his days.

The Holy Synod of the Georgian Apostolic Orthodox Church canonized the holy catholicos Peter and the holy catholicos Samuel on October 17, 2002.
533 St. Trojan Bishop son of Jewish father Arabic mother shews by many miracles that he lives in heaven, though his body is buried on earth.
Apud Sántonas, in Gállia, sancti Trojáni Epíscopi, magnæ sanctitátis viri, qui, sepúltus in terris, se in cælis vívere multis virtútibus maniféstat.
    At Saintes in France, St. Trojan, bishop and confessor, a man of great sanctity, who shews by many miracles that he lives in heaven, though his body is buried on earth.
also called Troyen. He was the son of a Jewish father and an Arabic mother. Converted to the Christian faith, he was ordained a priest and later became bishop of Saintes, France.
Trojan of Tréguier B (RM) (also known as Troyen) Died c. 564 (or 533?). Said to have been born of a Jewish father and a Saracen mother. He became a priest at Saintes under Saint Vivian, whom he succeeded as bishop of Saintes, where his merits edified his people (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

6th v. Tual of Tréguier Powerful administrator Abbot B.
 (Encyclopedia).

564 St. Tudwal Welsh monk bishop called Pabu (Father) among the Bretons.
6th v.  ST TUDWAL, BISHOP

According to Breton tradition St Tudwal (Tutwal, Tugdual) was a Briton from Wales who crossed over to Brittany with his mother, his sister, some monks, and others, where the king of Dumnonia, Deroc, was his cousin. He settled at Lan Pabu in Leon (Tudwal was called Pabu, i.e. Father, in Brittany) and made several other monastic foundations. He went to Paris to have his grants of land confirmed by King Childebert I and was consecrated bishop, and ended his days in the monastery of Treher, now Tréguier, of which city he is accounted the first bishop. His appellation, Pabu, led to the legend that he became pope under the name of Leo, a fable that has been richly embroidered by Breton hagiographers. St Tudwal does not figure in any Welsh calendars, but the name occurs in three places in the Lleyn peninsula, the northern arm of Cardigan Bay. The chief of these, a small uninhabited island off Abersoch, is called Ynys Tudwal, and has ruins of an ancient chapel. It was here that, from May to December 1887, the holy Henry Hughes, a Welsh priest of the diocese of Shrewsbury and tertiary of the Order of Preachers, began to lead a heroic missionary life cut short by an untimely death. The feast of St Tudwal is kept in Brittany, and the Catholic Church at Barmouth is dedicated in his honour.

The three separate accounts of St Tudwal which have been preserved to us are late (one may be of the ninth century), conflicting and unreliable. The Latin texts may best be consulted in A. de la Borderie, Les trois anciennes Vies de S. Tudwal (1887), pp. 12—45 and cf. the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. viii (1889), pp. 158—163. St Tudwal is invoked in the tenth-century Breton litany originally printed by Mabillon and reproduced by Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, vol. ii, p. 82. See also LBS., vol. iv, pp. 271—274; Duine, Memento, p. 61; A. Oheix, Etudes hagiographiques (1919), no. 8; Mgr Duchesne in the Bulletin Critique, vol. 2 (1889), pp. 228—229; and, regarding the reputed relics of the saint, A. de Barthelemy in the Revue de Bretagne, vol. xxv (1901), pp. 401—413. Dom Gougaud was of the opinion that Tudwal was a native of insular Dumnonia, i.e. Devon or Cornwall.

Sometimes listed as Tugdual. Originally a monk in Wales, he journeyed to Brittany, France, with his mother, sisters, and other relatives. The Celtic language of Brittany was easily understood by Welsh speakers. Tudwal’s cousin, Deroc, was a king of Dumnonia and he worked to promote the faith in his cousin’s domain, founding Lan Paku at Leon, Spain. He eventually became bishop of Treher (Treguier) with King Childebert I (r. 511 -558) as his patron. He is remembered in Wales in several sites in the Leyn Peninsula.
6th v. St. Zosimus  hermit who resided in Palestine
In Palæstína beáti Zósimi Confessóris, qui, sub Justíno Imperatóre, sanctitáte et miráculis fuit insígnis.
    In Palestine, blessed Zosimus, confessor, who was distinguished for his sanctity and miracles in the time of Emperor Justin.

Zosimus (d. sixth century) + A hermit who resided in Palestine as part of the erernetical revival there. He was given the nickname "Wonder Worker" for his many remarkable miracles and spiritual gifts.

1155 Arnold of Gemblours, OSB Abbot (AC).
Saint Arnold was a Benedictine of the abbey of Saint Nicasius at Rheims when he was appointed abbot of Gemblours (Benedictines).

1186 Blessed Joscius Roseus of St-Bertin great devotion to the Ave Maria OSB (AC)
(also known as Josbert, Valbebertus)
The Benedictine monk Joscius of Saint-Bertin (Saint Omer) in the diocese of Arras had a great devotion to the Ave Maria. It is said that at his death roses grew from his mouth and the name of Mary was written on the leaves of one of the roses (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). Blessed Joscius is represented in art as a Benedictine with roses sprouting from his mouth, ears, and eyes. "Maria" is written in a ray of light near him. He is venerated at Saint-Omer (Roeder).

1348 BD ANDREW OF ANTIOCH

THIS Andrew, Norman by blood, was born at Antioch about 1268, the year in which the Sultan Bibars finally broke the Crusaders’ power in Syria; he was descended from Bohemund III, Prince of Antioch in the Latin kingdom, and so from Robert Guiscard. Andrew joined the community of Augustinian canons regular which had been formed to serve the basilica of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and was appointed by the Latin patriarch to be the key-bearer; that is, he had charge of the key of the Holy Sepulchre, a purely honorary office, since the Saracens had retaken possession of Jerusalem twenty-five years before Andrew was born* {Information is very defective. See, however, DHG., vol. ii, c. 1632.}

    Few particulars of his life are known, but towards its end he was sent on a mission to visit the houses of his order in Europe and to collect funds for the maintenance of the canons who had shared the ruin of the Crusaders’ kingdom. He visited Sicily, Italy, Poland and France, and in 1347 he was at Annecy in Savoy, where he received a contribution for the funds of the local priory of the Holy Sepulchre. He died in that place, with a great reputation for holiness, and in 1360 his cultus was recognized and spread by the elevation of his relics to a shrine. St Francis of Sales had a devotion to Bd Andrew, and testified to the miracles that took place at his tomb. His feast was celebrated annually at Annecy on this date until the Revolution.

* The Latin canons were not driven out, but the keys of the church were handed over to the Mohammedan families of Judah and Nussaibah, to whom they had probably been entrusted by Saladin in 1187. It is said that descendants of those families are still the official door-keepers and hold the keys, though they are also still Mohammedans.

1423 Blessed William de Paulo restore monastic disciple at Maniaco  restore monastic disciple at Maniaco OSB Abbot (AC)
Born at Catania;  Blessed William joined the Benedictines at San Niccolò dell'Arena, and later was sent to restore monastic disciple at Maniaco (Benedictines).

1577 Cuthbert Mayne one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales M (AC).
Born at Youlston (near Barnstaple), Devonshire, England, 1544; beatified in 1886; canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales (general feast day is October 25); feast day was November 29.

Saint Cuthbert was raised as a Protestant by his uncle, a schismatic priest. His elementary education was provided at the Barnstaple Grammar School. He himself was ordained a Protestant minister when he was about 19 without an inclination or preparation for the role.

Cuthbert studied at Saint John's, Oxford, where he received his master's degree and met the still-Protestant Saint Edmund Campion. Like many converts to Catholicism, Cuthbert Mayne hesitated out of fear--of rejection by family and friends, of losing his appointments and falling into poverty--although his was convicted of its truth. At the urging of Campion, Mayne became a Catholic in 1570 (age 26) (another source says 1573 at Douai). He was forced to flee England when letters from Campion at Douai were intercepted by the bishop of London, who ordered the arrest of all mentioned in the letter. He went to the English College at Douai, which was founded in 1568, to study for the priesthood. He received his bachelor's degree in theology and was ordained there in 1575. The following year he was sent back to England with Saint John Payne to preach in the mission.

He became estate steward of Francis Tregian at Golden, Cornwall, and was arrested the following year with Tregian after the high sheriff, Richard Grenville searched Tregian's mansion and found Mayne with an agnus Dei around his neck. Mayne was taken to Launceston, thrown into a filthy prison, and chained to the bedpost.

At Launceston assizes during Michelmas, he was found guilty of having obtained from Rome and published at Golden a "faculty containing matter of absolution" of the Queen's subjects. (What they had actually found was an outdated announcement of the jubilee indulgence of 1575 published at Douai.) He was also charged with having celebrated Mass, because they found a missal, chalice, and vestments at Golden. But at the direction of Justice Manwood, after consultation with Grenville, the jury found him guilty of violating statutes 1 and 13 of Elizabeth and sentenced him to death. Several gentlemen, including Tregian, and their three yeomen were charged with abetting Mayne and sentenced to perpetual imprisonment and forfeiture of their property.

The circumstances were such that a majority of the judges of the country, gathered at Serjeants' Inn to reconsider the case, thought the conviction could not stand. But the Privy Council directed that the sentence be executed as a warning to priests coming from the Continent.

The day before his scheduled execution, Mayne was offered his liberty in exchange for his oath that the queen possessed ecclesiastical supremacy. He asked for a Bible, kissed it, and said: "The queen neither ever was nor is nor ever shall be the head of the Church of England." At the marketplace before his execution, Cuthbert Mayne aws not given the opportunity to address the crowd from the scaffold. When invited to implicate Tregian and his brother-in-law, Sir John Arundell, the saint replied: "I know nothing of them except that they are good and pious men; and of the things laid to my charge no one but myself has any knowledge."

Thus, Cuthbert was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Launceston on November 25 on the charge of treason because he was a priest who refused to accept the supremacy of Queen Elizabeth I in ecclesiastical matters. He was cut down before he died, but was probably unconscious before the disembowelling began. He was the first Englishman trained for the priesthood at Douai to be martyred (at that time the penal code distinguished between priests trained on the Continent and those "Marian priests," who had been ordained in England). For this reason, Cuthbert Mayne is the protomartyr of English seminaries. His feast is kept at Plymouth and in several other English dioceses (Attwater, Attwater 2, Benedictines, Delaney, Walsh).
1835 St. Joseph Marchand  Vietnam Martyr.
Born in Passavant, France, he joined the Missionary Seminary of Paris after ordination. Sent to Vietnam, he was arrested in Saigon and condemned by authorities; he was martyred with red-hot tongs. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.

Joseph Marchand M (AC) Born at Passavant (diocese of Besançon), France; died 1835; beatified in 1900; canonized in 1988 as one of the Martyrs of Vietnam. Joseph completed his theological studies at the seminary of Paris Society of Foreign Missions, was ordained, and sent to Annam. He was arrested at Saigon where he died while the flesh was being torn from his body with red-hot tongs (Attwater 2, Benedictines).


 Wednesday  November  30 Saints Prídie Kaléndas Decémbris  

November 2 Feast of All Souls:  PURGATORY - - CONFESSIONS FROM THE SAINTS
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
   `   
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  November 2016
Universal: Countries Receiving Refugees

That the countries which take in a great number of displaced persons and refugees may find support for their efforts which show solidarity.

Evangelization: Collaboration of Priests and Laity
That within parishes, priests and lay people may collaborate in service to the community without giving in to the temptation of discouragement.


God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
                      

                                                                           
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.