Sunday  Saints of this Day October  23 Décimo Kaléndas Novémbris  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!  (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Make a Novena and pray the Rosary to Our Lady of Victory
40 days for Life Day 25
40 Days for Life
Pray that we display an attitude of humility as we stand in peaceful vigil, as we fast, as we knock on doors in our communities. Though we proudly proclaim Christ's truth, may our boasting be only in His grace.
Mary Mother of GOD
The Holy Ghost shall come down upon thee, Mary,
and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. -- Luke i.35

  15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

Six Canonized on Feast of Christ the King Nov 23 2014

CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2014

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

40 days For Life September - November

The Eucharist is a burning coal that sets us on fire. Fire is active by nature and tends to spread.
When the soul is under the action of the Eucharist, it is forced to cry out;
"O my God, what shall I do in return for so much love?"
And Jesus answers;
"Thou hast to resemble Me, to live for Me, and to live of Me."
The transformation will be easy; when it is a matter of love; one does not walk; one runs and flies.
-- St. Peter Julian Eymard





October 23, 2015
1149 Bertrand of Grandselve, OSB Cist. Abbot often favored with heavenly visions (AC)
1249 BD JOHN BUONI; -- a hermit’s life, which he began near Cesena, Mantua; Bd John received many supernatural enlightenments in prayer, wrought a number of most remarkable miracles, and did not allow advancing age to lessen his austerities; The penitents so increased and so many people came to see him out of curiosity that John made up his mind to go away secretly to a more quiet place but after having walked all night he found himself at dawn once more before the door of his own cell, so he concluded that it was God’s will that he should stay where he was.
1271 Blessed Bartholomew of Breganza received habit from Saint Dominic followed him as Popes Theologian; restored other churches; rebuilt ruined city; saved heretics OP B (AC)
1456 St. John of Capistrano "Initiative, Organization, Activity." Miracles
1680 Bl. Thomas Thwing English martyr
1794 Bl. Joseph Leroux  Ursuline martyr French Revolution
1833 St. Paul Tong Buong  Vietnamese martyr native 


Reciting the Rosary (I)
Do you remember when you were a child When your irate father raised his hand high To punish you for some serious error, Your mother stopped his arm ready to spank.  In the pious account that cannot mislead us, Jesus Christ on the cross, showing John to Mary, Said: “Here is your son!”  This is why I pray, For Mary to beseech my forgiveness At the hour of my death. For, when Jesus gave her this mysterious gift, He bequeathed Christian humanity to her. Your mother, O Lord, is all mine.  --  François Coppee

October 23 –Our Lady of Frassino (Lake Garda, Italy)
We can be sure of an adventure with Mary
If you are an adventurous person, follow in the Virgin Mary’s footsteps. Her life is a real adventure of faith. She placed everything in the hands of the Lord and set out. At the Grotto like in Egypt, in Nazareth or on Golgotha, she trusted and kept on walking. With her, we can be sure of an adventure.
Everywhere, take the Virgin Mary as your model and give Christ to the world. The location does not matter. The first time, Mary presented Jesus to the shepherds in a stable! What matters is that you live in charity and communion, for only then will Christ be with you. If you bring Jesus to others, your life will be a perpetual Christmas feast.
Cardinal François-Xavier NGUYEN VAN THUAN
Sur le chemin de l'espérance (The Road to Hope), Le Sarment, Fayard 1991
St. Ignatius, bishop at Constantinople; He rebuked Bardas Caesar for putting away his wife; for this reason, he was subjected to many sufferings by the Emperor and driven into exile. However, he was restored to his see by the Roman Pontiff St. Nicholas, and at last died a peaceful death.
  305 St. Servandus & Cermanus
4th v. Amo (Amon) of Toul B succeeded Saint Mansuetus (AC)
  362 St. Theodoret martyr priest of Antioch
 
420 St. Severinus Bishop of BORDEAUX; distinguished himself by his zeal against Arianism;
4th v. St. Verus Bishop of Salerno maintained orthodoxy traditions of his martyrs
   520 St. Clether Welsh saint martyr
  
524 St. Severinus Boethius Roman philosopher theologian statesman;  “the last of the Roman philosophers, and the first of the scholastic theologians”
   609 St. John of Syracuse Benedictine bishop  of Syracuse, in Sicily, from 595 until his death.
   639 St. Romanus of Rouen  Bishop of Rouen miracles
   650 St. Maroveus Abbot and founder Benedictine
   654 St. Benedict of Sebaste Turkey Bishop and hermit
   718 St. Leothade Benedictine bishop of Auch France. He was abbot of Moissac and was a Frankish noble.
   723 St. Oda Widow and servant of the poor
8th v. St. Domitius Hermit in Amiens France. He was a priest or deacon.
   877 St IGNATIUS, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE
   936 St. Elfleda Anglo-Saxon princess Benedictine nun
1134 ST ALLUCIO; shepherd in Pescia, Tuscany, Italy; devoted himself to establishment of shelters at fords, mountain-passes, and to similar public works, such as the building of a bridge over the Arno; A number of remarkable miracles were recorded of the saint and he was credited with bringing about reconciliation between the warring cities of Ravenna and Faenza
1149 Bertrand of Grandselve, OSB Cist. Abbot often favored with heavenly visions (AC)
1249 BD JOHN BUONI; earlier life was not conspicuous for religion later -- a hermit’s life, which he began near Cesena, Mantua; Bd John received many supernatural enlightenments in prayer, wrought a number of most remarkable miracles, and did not allow advancing age to lessen his austerities; The number of his penitents so increased and so many people came to see him out of curiosity that John made up his mind to go away secretly to a more quiet place but after having walked all night he found himself at dawn once more before the door of his own cell, so he concluded that it was God’s will that he should stay where he was.
1271 Blessed Bartholomew of Breganza received habit from Saint Dominic followed him as Popes Theologian restored
        other churches rebuilt ruined city saved heretics OP B (AC)
1456 St. John of Capistrano "Initiative, Organization, Activity." Miracles
1680 Bl. Thomas Thwing English martyr
1794 Bl. Joseph Leroux  Ursuline martyr French Revolution
1833 St. Paul Tong Buong  Vietnamese martyr native 

October 23 - Our Lady of Consolation (near Honfleur, France)   A Mother’s Rosary (I)
One day a student, who had lost the enthusiasm of his childhood and no longer prayed regularly, saw a strand of rosary beads lying on the road. His first thought was to pass by without minding the object. However, his childhood’s love for the Blessed Virgin was reawakened by the sight of the forsaken Rosary on the ground. He picked it up, brushed it off and said to himself, “How can I return this to the person who lost it? Since all Rosaries are in Mary’s honor,  I’ll give it back to her; I’ll leave it on her altar in the first church that I happen to come across.”  The young man entered the first church he saw and walked straight over to the altar of the Virgin Mary, who was expecting this child of hers. She gave him this inspiration: Recite the Rosary before leaving it on the altar.”   The student, who was moved by this thought, knelt down, and started to pray the Rosary like in his former years. Suddenly, a flood of thoughts overwhelmed him; it seemed as though he could hear a voice speaking straight to his heart and clearly asking him, “Would you become a priest, my child? You have been unfaithful to the call of my Son, but it is nevertheless your only vocation. Remember your love of old, and follow your vocation.” These words were like a beam of light that penetrated the young man to the depths of his soul.  After long thought and prayer, he exclaimed, “Yes, dear Mother! Yes, I am coming back to you.  With your help, I will become a priest of Jesus Christ.”
He kept his word and became a priest, and a very good priest at that. Of course, in addition to his other prayers, he liked to recite the Rosary every day, using the simple strand of rosary beads, which he had found on the road. It had given him the favor of his priesthood. Adapted from Priesthood and Restoration Quoted in the Marian Collection
by Fr. Albert Pfleger 1977

The Shrine of Our Lady of Rocamadour (II) October 23 - OUR LADY OF COMFORT
The Shrine of Our Lady of Rocamadour itself can be traced back to the twelfth century. Over the next few centuries, the numbers of pilgrims continued to increase. Many notable people came on pilgrimages to Rocamadour, including St Dominic and St Louis IX of France, and possibly even Charlemagne, on his way to battle the Moors in Spain.  The shrine eventually became so famous that kings and bishops began granting special privileges to those who made the pilgrimage. As an act of penance, pilgrims would regularly make the entire climb on their knees, as some still do today; 216 steps lead to the top of the rocky plateau on which the Chapel of Our Lady is located. The town suffered with the general decline of pilgrimages in the 17th and 18th centuries, but it was heavily restored and revitalized in the 19th century.  One recent notable pilgrim to Rocamadour was the French composer Francis Poulenc (d. January 30, 1963), who stayed in the city after a religious conversion he experienced there, and in honor of which he composed his Litanies of the Black Virgin (Litanies à la Vierge Noire). Today, the tomb of the ancient saint as well as the ancient image of Our Lady make the shrine at Rocamadour a popular destination; the site receives thousands of devout pilgrims each year.
 See http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/rocamadour-shrine-of-our-lady-of-rocamadour.htm 

October 23 - Italy. Lake Garda: Our Lady of Frassino
    Ireland and the Rosary
With the victory of Cromwell’s armies, Ireland entered a period of harsh persecutions during which it became more and more difficult for Catholic priests to meet the spiritual needs of the faithful. From that time dates the very special importance the Irish attribute to the Rosary, among the devotions in honor of the Blessed Virgin.

When a priest couldn’t be there to celebrate the Holy Sacrifice for the faithful, the assembly would pray the Rosary as a form of public prayer. It is not an exaggeration to affirm that, for more than three hundred years, the Rosary has been the most characteristic form of devotion of the Irish people. In each Catholic home, the recitation of the Rosary has become a daily, scrupulously observed ritual.

If sailors were setting sail to cross the seas and expose their lives, a pubic Rosary was offered before the ship hoisted the anchor. Fishermen used to recite it before lifting their nets. It is the traditional prayer at Catholic funerals; the one also that families recite when they gather at the bedside of one of their beloved who is dying. During the 19th century, when emigration dispersed Irish Catholics throughout the world in faraway countries often deprived of Catholic priests, the Rosary was the most efficient support for the poor exiles.
A. Gwynn, s. j. Notre Dame reine d'Irlande (Our Lady of Ireland)
"Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person" -- Benedict XVI
Benedict_XVI_Patriarch_Bartholomew

"Evil, is only eradicated by holiness, not by harshness. And holiness introduces into society a seed that heals and transforms.  It is like the tectonic plates of the earth’s crust: The deepest layers need only shift a few millimeters to shatter the world’s surface. Yet for this spiritual revolution to occur, we must experience radical 'metanoia'--a conversion of attitudes, habits and practices--for ways that we have misused or abused God’s Word, God’s gifts and God’s creation. The challenge before us is the discernment of God’s Word in the face of evil, the transfiguration of every last detail and speck of this world in the light of Resurrection." "The victory is al ready present in the depths of the Church, whenever we experience the grace of reconciliation and communion."
Patriarch_Bartholomew I: SYNOD OF BISHOPS VATICAN CITY, OCT. 17, 2008
Pope Leo XIII 1878-1903 The feast of St Severinus Boethius (as a martyr) is still kept at Pavia and in the church of St Mary in Portico in Rome. The confirmation of his cultus in these places by Pope Leo XIII in 1883
20 February, 1878; 20 July, 1903; Pope Leo XIII Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci  doctorate of theology; Civilization owes much to Leo for his stand on the social question.
The ecclesiastical sciences found a generous patron in Pope Leo.
Even among the Copts his efforts at reunion made headway.
Under Leo the Catholic Faith made great progress; With regard to the Kingdom of Italy, Leo XIII maintained Pius IX's attitude of protest; in Portugal the Government ceased to support the Goan schism, and in 1886 a concordat was drawn up. 
The United States at all times attracted the attention and admiration of Pope Leo.
Throughout his entire pontificate he was able to keep on good terms with France; 1872 he introduced the government standards for studies of the secondary schools and colleges.
Bishop of Perugia;  1843, appointed nuncio to Brussels.


"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints.
They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties,how to stand firm in our faith,
and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious." 
1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina
God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven.
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.


St. Ignatius, bishop at Constantinople; He rebuked Bardas Caesar for putting away his wife; for this reason, he was subjected to many sufferings by the Emperor and driven into exile. However, he was restored to his see by the Roman Pontiff St. Nicholas, and at last died a peaceful death.
Constantinópoli sancti Ignátii Epíscopi, qui, cum Bardam Cæsarem ob repudiátam uxórem arguísset, ab eo multis injúriis afféctus est, et in exsílium pulsus; sed, a sancto Nicoláo, Románo Pontífice, restitútus, tandem in pace quiévit.
    At Constantinople, St. Ignatius, bishop, who rebuked Bardas Caesar for putting away his wife, for which he was subjected to many insults and driven into banishment.  He was, however, restored to his See by the Roman Pontiff Nicholas, and there died in peace.
St. Romanus, bishop at Rouen
St. Domitius, priest in the territory of Amiens.
St. Benedict in the country of Poitiers
Blessed Giovanni Buono At Mantua of the Order of the Hermits of St Augustine, whose excellent life was written by St. Antoninus.

305 St. Servandus & Cermanus
Ad fundum Ursoniánum prope Gades, in Hispánia, sanctórum Mártyrum Servándi et Germáni, qui, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, sub Viatóre Vicário, post vérbera, squalórum cárceris, famis ac sitis injúriam, et longíssimi itíneris labórem, quem pertulérunt ferro onústi, novíssime martyrii sui cursum, cæsis cervícibus, implevérunt; ex quibus Germánus Eméritæ, Servándus autem Híspali cónditus est.
    At Osuma, near Cadiz in Spain, in the persecution of Diocletian, under the subgovernor Viator, the holy martyrs Servandus and Germanus.  They were subjected to scourging, imprisonment in a foul dungeon, want of food and drink, and the fatigue of a long journey while loaded with fetters, and at length reached the end of their martyrdom by having their heads stricken off.  Germanus was buried at Merida, and Servandus at Seville.
Two martyrs, reputedly the sons of St. Marcellus. They were put to death at Osuma near Cadiz.
the holy martyrs Servandus and Germanus. In the persecution of Diocletian, under the acting governor Viator, they were
flogged, confined to a foul prison, subjected to hunger and thirst, and forced to endure the hardships of a long journey which they made loaded with chains. They eventually finished the course of their martyrdom by having their throats cut. Germanus was buried at Merida and Servandus at Seville .
4th v. Amo (Amon) of Toul B succeeded Saint Mansuetus (AC)
4th century. Amo, the second known bishop of Toul, succeeded Saint Mansuetus (Benedictines)
.
362 St. Theodoret martyr priest of Antioch
Antiochíæ item natális sancti Theodóri Presbyteri, qui, in persecutióne ímpii Juliáni comprehénsus, et, post equúlei pœnam et multos ac duríssimos cruciátus, lampádibus étiam circa látera appósitis adústus, tandem, cum in confessióne Christi persísteret, gládii occisióne martyrium consummávit.
    At Antioch, the birthday of the holy priest Theodore, who was arrested in the persecution of the impious Julian.  After the torment of the rack and many severe tortures, including the burning of his sides with torches, he persisted in the confession of Christ, and so his martyrdom was completed by death with the sword.

362 ST THEODORET, MARTYR
JULIAN, uncle to the Emperor Julian and likewise an apostate, was made prefect of the East, of which Antioch was the capital city. Being informed that there was a quantity of gold and silver in the great church there, he ordered it to be brought to him, whereupon the clergy fled. But Theodoret, a zealous priest, refused to abandon his flock and continued to hold Christian assemblies. The prefect Julian commanded him to give up the sacred vessels, and when he refused charged him with having thrown down the statues of the gods and built churches in the precious reign. Theodoret owned he had built churches over the graves of the martyrs, and reproved the prefect because, after having known the true God, he had abandoned his service. So he was tormented in divers ways, during which the torturers were made helpless by a vision of angels about their victim. Julian in a rage ordered them to be drowned, whereat Theodoret said to them, “Go before, brethren. I will follow by vanquishing the Enemy.”
The prefect asked him who that enemy was. “The Devil”, said the martyr, “for whom you fight. Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world is He who giveth victory.” He then explained to his tormentor at some length the mysteries of the Incarnation and Redemption, and when Julian threatened him with instant death retorted by prophesying for him an early and painful end. He was then sentenced beheaded, which sentence was duly carried out. Julian then went to seize the church vessels, which he threw on the ground and profaned in a most outrageous manner.  When the prefect reported these happenings to his uncle, the emperor told him plainly that he did not approve his putting any Christian to death merely on account of his religion, and complained that this would afford an occasion to the Galileans to write against him and to make a martyr of Theodoret. Julian the prefect, who little expected such a reception, was much upset, and that same evening was taken violently ill. He was in great agony for over forty days, and then came to a miserable end.

Although Ruinart amongst his Acta Sincera includes the passio of this martyr it is difficult to put confidence in the miraculous details recorded. The text, with variations and a full commentary, may be read in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. x.  An earlier form of the passio has been discovered by P. Franchi de’ Cavalieri see his Note agiografiche, vol. v, pp. 59—101.  Theodoret is called Theodore in the Hieronymianum and the Roman Martyrology, and it appears he must be identified with the young man Theodore who was tortured at Antioch under Julian the Apostate, with whom the prefect Sallust remonstrated on account thereof (Rufinus, Eccl. hist., bk x). There is ample evidence of the veneration in which he was held at Antioch he was marvelously saved from death.
Also Theodore of Antioch (in modern Turkey), he refused to adhere to the anti-imperial decrees of Emperor Julian the Apostate (r. 361-363) and was martyred by beheading. He supposedly prophesied that Emperor Julian would soon die painfully, which he did, while on campaign against the Persians.
He was arrested in the persecution of the wicked Julian. Despite the torment of the rack and other severe tortures, including the burning of his sides with torches, he persevered in his confession of Christ. He completed his martyrdom by being put to the sword
.
420 St. Severinus Bishop of BORDEAUX; distinguished himself by his zeal against Arianism;
Burdígalæ sancti Severíni, Epíscopi Coloniénsis et Confessóris.
    At Bordeaux, St. Severin, bishop of Cologne and confessor.
420 ST SEVERINUS, OR SEURIN, Bishop OF BORDEAUX
THE Roman Martyrology, while putting his death at Bordeaux, calls Severinus “bishop of Cologne”. This has reference to identification, now abandoned, of Seurin with St Severinus of Cologne, also commemorated today. He distinguished himself by his zeal against Arianism, and died at the beginning of the fifth century.
   According to the legend Severinus while a priest was walking in the fields when he heard a voice say, “Severinus, you will be bishop of Cologne”. “When will that happen?” he asked. “When your staff buds and flowers”, was the reply. And his stick, stuck in the ground, took root and blossomed, and he was called to Cologne.
   At Tongres, says Gregory of Tours, he knew by revelation the death and glory of St Martin at the time of his departure from this life. In the midst of his labours against heresy he was again warned by a voice, this time that he was wanted in Bordeaux; he went thither and was met by the bishop St Amand who, also instructed by Heaven, yielded up his office to him.

Modern research has clearly established that the only Life of St Severinus of any authority, and in fact the source from which the others have borrowed, is that written by Venantius Fortunatus. Identified and printed for the first time by Fl. Quentin (La plus ancienne Vie de S. Seurin, 1902), it has been re-edited by W. Levison in the MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. vii, pp. 205—224. Severinus before coming to Bordeaux had apparently been bishop of Trier but there is nothing to connect him with Cologne. By a curious confusion, on which see the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxviii (1920), pp. 427—428, Seurin seems to have been the original from which an imaginary bishop of Bordeaux “St Fort” was afterwards evolved.
He was originally from Bordeaux, France. Severinus was a ferocius opponent of the Arian heresy Bishop of Bordeaux from about 405 until his death. Also called Seurin.
4th v. St. Verus Bishop of Salerno maintained orthodoxy traditions of his martyrs
Apud Salérnum sancti Veri Epíscopi.    At Salerno, Bishop St. Verus.
Italy. He maintained orthodoxy in the region and kept the traditions of his martyred predecessors.
St. Amo Bishop of Toul France.The successor of St. Mansuetus.
520 St. Clether Welsh saint martyr
also called Cleer, Clydog, Scledog, Citanus, or Cleodius. He was a descendant of a local king in Wales.
Clether left Wales and went to Cornwall, England. Churches including St. Clear near Liskeard were built in his honor. He is reported to have been martyred. A second Clether is commemorated on November 3.

Clether of Wales (AC) (also known as Cleer, Clydog, Scledog, Clitanus, Cleodius) Died in Herefordshire, England, c. 520. One of the saints descended from King Brychan of Brecknock, or at least of his clan. Several dedications of churches--for instance, St. Cleer, near Liskeard--perpetuate his memory. Another Clether, or Cledog, is commemorated on August 19. He is alleged to have died a martyr (Benedictines)
.
524 St. Severinus Boethius Roman philosopher theologian statesman;  “the last of the Roman philosophers, and the first of the scholastic theologians”
524 ST SEVERINUS BOETHIUS, MARTYR
Anicius MANLIUS Severinus BOETHIUS was born about the year 480, a member of one of the most illustrious families of Rome, the gens Anicia, to which Pope St Gregory the Great probably belonged.
He was left an orphan while still very young, and came under the guardianship of Q. Aurelius Symmachus, to whom he became attached by the ties of closest friendship and whose daughter, Rusticiana, he eventually married.
   Nothing else is known of his youth, but it must have been devoted to assiduous study, for before he was thirty Boethius was already reputed a very learned man. He set himself to translate the whole of Plato and Aristotle into Latin and to show their fundamental agreement this task he was not destined to finish, but Cassiodorus remarks that through his translations the people of Italy were able to know, as well as Plato and Aristotle, “Pythagoras the musician, Ptolemy the astronomer, Nichomachus the arithmetician, Euclid the geometer and Archimedes the mechanician”. This gives an idea of the many-sided-ness of Boethius’s interests, and he made his own contributions to logic, mathematics, geometry and music: moreover he was skilled in practice as well, for a well-known letter of Cassiodorus asks him to make a water-clock and a sundial for the king of the Burgundians. He was also a theological writer (the Anician family had been Christian since Constantine), and several of his treatises survive, including one on the Holy Trinity.
   The works of Boethius were exceedingly influential in the Middle Ages, especially in the development of logic, and it is not for nothing that he has been called “the last of the Roman philosophers, and the first of the scholastic theologians”. His translations were for long the only means for the study of Greek philosophy in the West.

Boethius was born very soon after the last of the Roman emperors in the West, Romulus “Augustulus”, had given up the remnants of his power to the barbarian Odoacer; he was about thirteen when Odoacer was murdered and the Ostrogoth Theodoric as Patricius obtained mastery of the whole of Italy.
The father of Boethius had accepted the new state of things and been given high office by Odoacer, and his son followed the example thus set: notwithstanding his devotion to scholarship he entered public life, and did so (as he tells us himself) as a deliberate response to Plato’s teaching that “states would be happy either if philosophers ruled them, or if it chanced that their rulers turned philosophers”. Theodoric made him consul in 510; and twelve years later he reached what he called “the highest point of his good fortune”, when he saw his two sons installed as consuls and himself delivered an oration before them in praise of King Theodoric. Soon after the king further honoured him with the post of “master of the offices”, which was one of the very highest importance and responsibility. But his fall was at hand.

The aged Theodoric became suspicious that certain members of the Roman senate were conspiring with the Eastern emperor, Justin, at Constantinople to overthrow the Ostrogoth power in Italy. Accordingly a charge was laid against the ex-consul Albinus, and Boethius rose in the court to defend him. Whether or no there was such a plot, it may be taken as quite certain that Boethius had nothing to do with it. But he also was arrested, and consigned to prison at Ticinum (now Pavia) he was charged not only with treason but also with sacrilege, that is, in this case, the practice of mathematics and astronomy for impious ends.  His condemnation followed, and Boethius spoke with bitter scorn of the senate, of which it seems only one member, his father-in-law Symmachus, had stood up for his innocence.
   Boethius was in prison for about nine months, and during that time he wrote the best-known of his works, the Consolation of Philosophy. It is in the form of a dialogue, with metrical interludes, between the writer and Philosophy, and she seeks to console him in his misfortune by showing the transitoriness and vanity of earthly success and the eternal value of the things of the mind:  disaster is irrelevant to those who have learned to appreciate divine wisdom, and the governance of the universe is just and righteous despite appearances to the contrary. Nothing is said about the Christian faith, but numerous problems of metaphysics and ethics are touched on, and the Consolation of Philosophy became one of the most popular books in the middle ages, not only among philosophers and theologians. It was one of the works translated into Old English by King Alfred the Great.

The imprisonment of Boethius ended only with violent death, said preceded by a brutal torture. He was buried in the old cathedral of Ticinum, and his relics are now in the church of St Peter in Ciel d’Oro at Pavia.

That Boethius died a martyr seems to have been taken for granted, and the background of his medieval influence and popularity was that he had died for the faith and was Saint Severinus.*{*See, for example, the Paradiso of Dante, canto x, lines 125 seq.  References to and echoes of the De consolatione are frequent in Dante, though for some reason he thought that work was “not well known”.  How well known it in fact was, among lay people as well as clerics, is shown by the fact that in the later middle ages translations or adaptations of it were made into German, Provençal, Anglo-Norman, French, Polish, Magyar, Greek, Hebrew and English (by Chaucer and by John Walton). It was one of the books with which the Benedictine martyr Bd Ambrose Barlow comforted himself when in prison.}

But there is nothing reliable to suggest that he was executed for any but purely political reasons; it is true that Theodoric was an Arian, but there is not the slightest evidence that this had any part in the prose­cution of his hitherto trusted minister of state. It is possible that the idea of Boethius’s martyrdom may have originated in what may well have been the notorious fact that he was put to death unjustly, for death imposed on the innocent, without any necessary hatred of the faith, has often been the passport to a veneration for martyrdom in earlier times.

Since the eighteenth century a still more fundamental question has been raised, viz. Was Boethius at the time of his death a professing and practising Christian?  That he was brought up and long remained a Christian admits of no doubt, especially since in 1877 a new piece of evidence confirms the authenticity of the theological writings with the authorship of which he had been credited for so long.  But the difficulty is this: How is it that a Christian man, who had written treatises in defence of the faith, should, in face of an unjust charge and of death, write a work for his own strengthening and solace which contains nothing dis­tinctively Christian except one or two indirect quotations from the Bible?

Or, as Boswell reports Dr Johnson as saying in 1770, “It was very surprising that, upon such a subject, and in such a situation, he should be magis philosophus quam Christianus”, “more of a philosopher than a Christian”.
The problem cannot be shrugged off, and the fact that nobody in the middle ages appeared to be worried by the anomaly does not help either way. Here it is sufficient to say that, when the question had once been posed, some scholars of weight were all for “dechristianizing” Boethius. But later on the opposite opinion strengthened, and the prevalent view is that he remained a Christian to the end. Two scholars, a Protestant and a Catholic, may be quoted in support:  The old question as to the relation of Boethius to Christianity is meaningless…a Christian theologian may well have written such a work as the Consolation, not to express his own views but to give philosophy’s answer to the chief problems of thought” (E. K. Rand in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. xv, p. i); and the Consolation of Philosophy is “a masterpiece which, in spite of its deliberate reticence, is a perfect expression of the union of the Christian spirit with the classical tradition” (Christopher Dawson in The Making of Europe, p. 51).
The feast of St Severinus Boethius (as a martyr) is still kept at Pavia and in the church of St Mary in Portico in Rome. The confirmation of his cultus in these places by Pope Leo XIII in 1883 might be thought to settle the questions of Boethius’s martyrdom and religion. But, though calling for the fullest respect, a confirmation of cultus is not an exercise of infallibility; it is only permissive, and is not always and inevitably preceded by a full and exhaustive examination of the historical problems that may be involved.

H. F. Stewart’s monograph on Boethius, published in 1891, is still a standard work; more recent works of value are FL R. Patch, The Tradition of Boethius (1935) and H. Barrett, Boethius Some Aspects of His Times and Work (1940). Patch provides a bibliography of twenty pages. The complete works, first published in Venice in 1497, are in Migne, PL., vols. lxiii and lxiv; the theological treatises and the “Consolation” are in the Loeb Classical Library (Latin text and translation); King Alfred’s version of the last-named is in the Oxford University Press Library of Translations (Alfred gives it a Christian colouring). In the Fortescue and Smith edition of De consolatione philosophiae (1925) the suggestion is made that it was written when Boethius was in exile but not yet in prison and under sentence of death; but this explanation of its silence about Christianity is open to strong objections, In the Bodleian there is a manuscript of this work given by Bishop Leofric c. 1050 to the cathedral church of Exeter. In 1650 Sir Thomas Hawkins and other Catholics translated a book by Nicholas Caussin, The Holy Court, containing a rather extravagant life of Boethius, into English, and the story of Boethius was used to illustrate the position of Catholics in England under the penal laws. New translations of the De consolatione, by Fr G. G. Walsh, and of the theological tracts with selected other writings, by Dr A. C. Pegis, are promised in the series of patristic translations of the Cima Company, of New York. The church of St Mary in Portico (in Campitelli) stood on the site of the house of St Galls (October 5), who was sister-in-law to Boethius .

One of the last notable philosophers in the classical Roman tradition. Known, in full as Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius, he was born to the ancient noble family of Rome, the Anicii, and studied at Athens and Alexandria, receiving a deep classical education.
In 510, he was named a consul under the Ostrogothic king Theodoric and became his magister officiorurn (master of offices) in 520, a post which demonstrated Theodoric’s deep trust and respect for Boethius’ abilities. However, relations between them soon deteriorated, as Boethius was staunchly orthodox in his Christianity while Theodoric was a devoted Arian.

When Boethius defended the ex-consul Albinus on charges of treason, Theodoric had him seized, condemned, and put to death. A brilliant philosopher and statesman, Roethius authored translations of Aristotle, the Isagoge by Porphyry, and a Commentary on the Topics of Cicero. He also authored treatises on the Holy Trinity (De Sancti Trinitate) and orthodox Christology, and a biography of the Christian monk and writer Cassiodorus (d. 580).
His most famous work, De Consolatione Philosophiae (The Consolation of Philosophy), was written while he was in prison. In it, he proposed that the study of philosophy made attainable knowledge of virtue and God. He is considered a martyr for the Catholic faith and was canonized under the name St. Severinus
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609 St. John of Syracuse Benedictine bishop  of Syracuse, in Sicily, from 595 until his death.
639 St. Romanus of Rouen Bishop of Rouen miracles
Rotómagi sancti Románi Epíscopi.    At Rouen, Bishop St. Romanus.

Not much that is certainly authentic is known of this bishop. His father, alleged to be a convert of St Remigius, was born of a Frankish family, and Romanus was placed young in the court of Clotaire II. Upon the death of Hidulf, c. 630, he was chosen bishop of Rouen. The remains of idolatry exercised his zeal; he converted the unbelievers and is said to have destroyed the remains of a temple of Venus. Amongst many miracles it is related that, the Seine having overflowed the city, the saint knelt to pray on the side of the water, with a crucifix in his hand, whereupon the floods retired gently within the banks of the river.

The name of St Romanus is famous in France on account of a privilege, which the metropolitical chapter of Rouen exercised until the Revolution, of releasing in his honour a prisoner under sentence of death every year on the feast of the Ascension of our Lord. The chapter sent notice to the parlement of Rouen two months before to stop the execution of criminals till that time; and on that day chose the prisoner who, being first condemned to death, was then set at liberty to assist in carrying the shrine of St Romanus in the great procession. He heard two exhortations and then was told that in honour of St Romanus he was pardoned. The legend is that this privilege took its rise from St Romanus killing a great serpent, called Gargouille, with the assistance of a murderer whom he took out of his dungeon. No traces of this story are found in any life of this saint or in any writings before the end of the fourteenth century; the deliverance of the condemned criminal was perhaps intended for a symbol of the redemption of mankind through Christ. The custom was called Privilège de la Fierte or of the Châsse de St Romain. St Romanus died about the year 640.
There are several short lives of St Romanus, but not of a date that would lend them any historical value. The texts for the most part are printed or summarized in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. x, but a useful note upon the lives and their authors is available in Vacandard, Vie de St Ouen (1902), pp. 356—358. Other references to St Romain occur passim in the text. See also Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p. 207 and L. Pillon in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, vol. xxx (1903), pp. 441—454.
He owed his elevation to the bishopric to the patronage of the Frankish king Clotaire II in whose court Romanus had grown up. As bishop, he worked to extirpate all lingering paganism, and per­sonally tore down a temple to Venus. He also cared for condemned prisoners. Romanus was famous for performing miracles.
650 St. Maroveus Abbot and founder Benedictine
Maroveus Abbot and founder of the Benedictine Monastery of Precipiano, near Tortona, Italy
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654 St. Benedict of Sebaste Turkey Bishop and hermit
In pago Pictaviénsi sancti Benedícti Confessóris.    In the country of Poitiers, St. Benedict, confessor.
Traditionally a bishop in the city of Sebaste, Turkey. During the persecutions of the era, he fled to Gaul. He built a hermitage near Poitiers, later transformed into the abbey St. Benedict of Quincay.
Benedict of Sebaste B (RM).  An alleged bishop of Sebaste in Samaria, Benedict had to escape to Gaul during the persecution of Julian the Apostate. He built a hermitage near Poitiers that later became the abbey of St. Benedict of Quincay. Not all the above details, however, are above suspicion (Benedictines)
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718 St. Leothade Benedictine bishop of Auch France. He was abbot of Moissac and was a Frankish noble.
723 St. Oda  Widow and servant of the poor
Originally a French princess wife of the duke of Aquitaine, she committed her life to aiding the poor after her husband’s death
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8th v. St. Domitius Hermit in Amiens France. He was a priest or deacon.
In território Ambianénsi sancti Domítii Presbyteri.    In the district of Amiens, St. Domitius, a priest.
Domitius of Amiens (RM) 8th century.
This is another story of a friendship leading to perfect love of God. Not far from Amiens, in northern France, there is a small river called the Noye which, after flowing through some low-lying and marshy ground, joins another small river called the Avre. Together they then join the River Somme and flow down to the sea. They have been there since the beginning of time, and they will probably be there at the end of time.

In the 8th century there lived on the banks of the Noye a young girl named Ulphia who was filled with longing to lead a life of perfection. At the same time there lived on the banks of the Avre a deacon of the church of Amiens named Domitius, who was no less eager for the same perfection. Their hermitages were barely a mile apart, and Ulphia often sought the counsel of Domitius, who instructed her in the great prayer of the Church and led her to God. Their 'mystic life in common' lasted for 30 years, from about 730 to 760.

The legend speaks of 'a good and ancient man who beard and hair were as white as snow,' and who walked with a staff to support 'his great age and infirmity.' The friendship that bound him to the holy girl who was less than half his age must have seemed strange to the people who lived nearby. It is said that Domitius once silenced all the frogs in a pond, but perhaps the frogs were human- -men and women, whose tongues were set wagging by the story of the two hermits.
If Domitius succeeded in silencing them, then it was a far greater miracle than silencing a few small creatures.

They used to go together on foot to recite the Office in what was then the cathedral of Amiens. It was a mutual exchange of services: Ulphia tended Domitius, and Domitius rewarded his devout daughter by teaching and explaining to her the Holy Scriptures. “They were,
says the legend, of a like will and spirit, chaste and devout.

Their lives were like the two rivers on whose banks they lived, two rivers which flowed through marshes and swamps and then joined together and flowed to the sea. Ulphia passed through the marshes of this world and entrusted herself to Domitius. Their course together was one of prayer, penitence, solitude, and self- forgetfulness that, after 30 years, eventually brought them to their triumphal entry into paradise. As the two rivers flowed together, so did their lives, and as the waters of the rivers were finally united with the sea, so were they finally united with God.
He who drinks of the water I shall give him, says Our Lord, will not thirst (Encyclopedia) .

St. Ignatius, bishop at Constantinople; He rebuked Bardas Caesar for putting away his wife; for this reason, he was subjected to many sufferings by the Emperor and driven into exile. However, he was restored to his see by the Roman Pontiff St. Nicholas, and at last died a peaceful death.
Constantinópoli sancti Ignátii Epíscopi, qui, cum Bardam Cæsarem ob repudiátam uxórem arguísset, ab eo multis injúriis afféctus est, et in exsílium pulsus; sed, a sancto Nicoláo, Románo Pontífice, restitútus, tandem in pace quiévit.
    At Constantinople, St. Ignatius, bishop, who rebuked Bardas Caesar for putting away his wife, for which he was subjected to many insults and driven into banishment.  He was, however, restored to his See by the Roman Pontiff Nicholas, and there died in peace.

<Ignatius_Hagia_Sophia_Constantinople_2007
THE birth of this saint was illustrious: his mother was daughter to the Emperor Nicephorus I, and his father Michael, surnamed Rangabe, was himself raised to the imperial throne.  Michael’s reign was short. In the year 813 he was deposed in favour of Leo the Armenian, and his two sons were mutilated and shut up in a monastery. The younger of them became a monk and changed his former name, Nicetas, to Ignatius.  He had much to suffer from the abbot of his monastery; but upon the death of his persecutor he was himself chosen abbot, having already been ordained priest. In 846 Ignatius was taken from his monastery of Satyrus and made patriarch of Constantinople.  His virtues shone brightly in this office, but the liberty, which he used in opposing vice and reprimanding public offenders drew on him severe persecution. The caesar Bardas, uncle of the Emperor Michael III, was accused of incestuous sexual relations, and at Epiphany 857 Ignatius refused him communion in the Great Church.  Bardas persuaded the young emperor, known ominously in history, but not altogether justly, as Michael the Drunkard, to get rid of the patriarch, and with the help of Bishop Gregory of Syracuse they trumped up charges and ordered Ignatius to be deposed and exiled.

This was not simply the revenge of an aggrieved individual. Behind it was the far-reaching tension and hostility between the dynasty and court clergy on one hand, with some support from a large moderate party, and on the other the sometimes-extreme rigorists, upholders of “the independence of the religious power”, led by the monks of the monastery of Studius. Of these last St Ignatius was an inflexible supporter. Accordingly he was banished to the island of Terebinthos. Here, in spite of what was said afterwards, it appears certain that he resigned his see, though perhaps conditionally.  In his place Bardas nominated his chief secretary, Photius, then a layman and a man of quite unusual talent, ability and learning.  In the week before the Christmas of 858 Photius was made monk, reader, subdeacon, deacon, priest and bishop in as many days. When he wrote announcing his election to the pope, St Nicholas I sent legates to Constan­tinople to investigate the situation.

There followed a long “affair” that had most important results and is a matter of general church history. It must however be mentioned that researches carried on during the past fifty years have put a rather different complexion on it and changed some of the judgements that have been everywhere accepted, gladly or regretfully, for centuries. What had appeared to be a pertinacious and con­tumacious attempt of Constantinople to maintain complete independence of the Roman see, with Photius as the arch-schismatic, now appears rather as one aspect of a strife of parties, parties both political and ecclesiastical, in which the “die­hard” supporters of St Ignatius became as rebellious towards the Holy See as Photius at his most defiant.

Nine years later, in 867, the Emperor Michael, who in the previous year had connived at the murder of Bardas, was himself murdered by Basil the Macedonian, who now became emperor. Basil at once dismissed Michael’s minister Photius from the patriarchal office (he was to return ten years later), and sought the support of Ignatius’s intransigent followers by summoning Ignatius back to it. After his restoration the persecuted prelate asked Pope Adrian II, who had succeeded Nicholas I, to hold a general council. This, a small assembly, was convened in Constantinople in 869, nowadays called the eighth œcumenical council and the fourth of that city.  It condemned Photius and his supporters, but treated them with leniency, though Photius himself was excommunicated.

For the remaining years of his life St Ignatius applied himself to the duties of his office with vigilance and energy, but unfortunately not with perfect prudence:  ironically enough, he followed the policy of Photius towards the Holy See in respect of patriarchal jurisdiction over the Bulgars. He even went so far as to encourage their prince, Boris, to expel his Latin bishops and priests in favour of the Greeks whom Ignatius had sent. Pope John VIII was naturally indignant and sent legates with an ultimatum threatening excommunication. They arrived at Constantinople only to find that St Ignatius had died on the previous October 23, 877.

The personal holiness of the life of Ignatius, his fearlessness in rebuking wickedness in high places and his patience under unjust treatment caused his name to be added to the Roman Martyrology, and his feast is kept by the Latin Catholics of Constantinople as well as by the Byzantines, both Catholic and dissident.

In the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. x, there is a Latin translation of the Greek life of St Ignatius by Nicetas the Paphlagonian: Dr Dvornik calls it little better than a political tract “and its veracity is highly questionable”. The Greek text is in Migne, PG., vol. cv. The diplomatic correspondence and documents of the period must be sought in Mansi or Hefele-Leclercq, Conches, vol. iv. The modern work on Photius referred to above began with A. Lapôtre, Le pape Jean VIII (1895) and E. Amann in DTC. (Articles on John VIII, John IX, Nicholas I and Photius); and was carried on by V. Laurent, V. Grumel, H. Grégoire and F. Dvornik: see especially his Photian Schism (1948). For a summary see Fliche and Martin, Flirt. de l’Église, t. vi, pp. 465—475 and 483—490 for Ignatius, pp. 465—501 for Photius. There is a full article on St Ignatius in DTC., t. vii, but this, like Hergen­röther’s monumental Photius, follows more conservative lines.

936 St. Elfleda Anglo-Saxon princess Benedictine nun
at Glastonbury, England. She lived as a recluse and was admired by St. Dunstan
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1134 ST ALLUCIO; shepherd in Pescia, Tuscany, Italy; devoted himself to establishment of shelters at fords, mountain-passes, and to similar public works, such as the building of a bridge over the Arno; A number of remarkable miracles were recorded of the saint and he was credited with bringing about reconciliation between the warring cities of Ravenna and Faenza

ALLUCIO, patron of Pescia in Tuscany, was a shepherd and herdman, who on account of the great interest he took in the almshouse of Vat di Nievole was ap­pointed master of it.  He became in effect its second founder, and further devoted himself to the establishment of shelters at fords, mountain-passes, and so on, and to similar public works, such as the building of a bridge over the Arno.  He staffed the hospices with young men, who were afterwards known as the Brothers of St Allucio.  A number of remarkable miracles were recorded of the saint and he was credited with bringing about reconciliation between the warring cities of Ravenna and Faenza. In 1182, forty-eight years after his death, the relics of St Allucio were enshrined and the almshouse was given his name. Pope Pius IX confirmed the cultus by the granting of a new proper Mass for the saint.

The cult of St Allucio seems to be adequately attested by documents, one of which takes the form of a public instrument summarizing the principal episodes of his life. They are given in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. x. See also DHG., vol. ii, c. 617, and a popular account by D. Biagioti (1934).

Director of the almshouse in Valdi Nievole. Allucio also built shelters in mountain passes and at rivers. The group with which he worked became the Brothers of St. Allucio. A miracle worker known throughout the region, Allucio ended the war between the city states of Ravenna and Faenza.

Allucio of Pescia (AC); cultus confirmed by Pius IX. Born in the diocese of Pescia in Tuscany, Italy, Allucio began life as a herdsman. Eventually his fellow citizens entrusted him with the direction of an almshouse at Val di Nievole and he became, in fact, the second founder of that charity, as well as a hospice at Campugliano. He had some followers who were named the Brethren of St. Allucio. (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1149 Bertrand of Grandselve, OSB Cist. Abbot often favored with heavenly visions (AC)
Died July 11, 1149. Cistercian abbot of Grandselve for 20 years. He was often favored with heavenly visions (Benedictines)
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1249 BD JOHN BUONI; earlier life was not conspicuous for religion later--a hermit’s life, which he began near Cesena, Mantua; Bd John received many supernatural enlightenments in prayer, wrought a number of most remarkable miracles, and did not allow advancing age to lessen his austerities; The number of his penitents so increased and so many people came to see him out of curiosity that John made up his mind to go away secretly to a more quiet place but after having walked all night he found himself at dawn once more before the door of his own cell, so he concluded that it was God’s will that he should stay where he was.

Mántuæ beáti Joánnis Boni, ex Eremitárum sancti Augustíni Ordine, Confessóris; cujus præcláram vitam sanctus Antonínus conscrípsit.
    At Mantua, blessed John the Good, of the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine, whose celebrated life was written by St. Antoninus.

IN spite of his name, which he inherited from his family, the Buonomini, his earlier life was not conspicuous for religion. When his father died he left his home at Mantua and made his living as an entertainer at the courts, palaces and wealthy establishments of Italy, leading a licentious and debauched life, though ever pursued by the prayers of his devoted mother.  

In 1208, when he was about forty, he had a serious illness which brought him near death, and when he had recovered he took the warning to heart and was soon a changed man. He had made a resolve during his sickness to mend his ways and, a less common thing than such resolutions, he kept it. He opened his heart to the bishop of Mantua, who allowed him to try a hermit’s life, which he began near Cesena. John set himself to conquer his insurgent flesh in solitude and acquire habits of devotion and virtue with such success that he soon had the reputation of a saint, and disciples began to gather round him.  For a time they lived according to regulations, which Bd John made on the spot as need, arose, but when a church had been built and the community taken definite shape papal approval was sought and Innocent IV imposed the Rule of St Augustine as their basis.

Bd John received many supernatural enlightenments in prayer, wrought a number of most remarkable miracles, and did not allow advancing age to lessen his austerities; he kept three Lents every year, wore only one light garment in the coldest weather, and had three beds in his cell, one uncomfortable, another more uncomfortable, and the third most uncomfortable. He continued to suffer very violent temptations, and was moreover slandered by malicious persons, calumnies that he opposed merely by a simple denial.

The number of his penitents so increased and so many people came to see him out of curiosity that John made up his mind to go away secretly to a more quiet place but after having walked all night he found himself at dawn once more before the door of his own cell, so he concluded that it was God’s will that he should stay where he was.

John died at Mantua in 1249 and his tomb was illustrious for miracles. His congregation of penitents did not survive long as an independent organization. Under the name of Boniti they had eleven establishments within a few years of their founder’s death, but in 1256 they were united with the other congregations of which Pope Alexander IV formed the order of Hermit-friars of St Augustine. The Augustinian friars and the Augustinians of the Assumption accordingly keep the feast of Bd John Buoni; his name was added to the Roman Martyrology, as beatus, in 1672.

The Bollandists, in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. ix, fill nearly two hundred folio pages with the documents that bear on the history of Bd John Bonus. These comprise a relatively lengthy biography written at the beginning of the sixteenth century by the Augustinian, Ambrose Calepinus, and also the depositions of witnesses who in 1251, 1252 and 1254 gave evidence with a view to John’s canonization. They describe inter alia his immunity from the effects of great heat, for he stood for several minutes shuffling his bare feet about without injury in a heap of red-hot Ashes see Fr. Thurston in The Month for February 1932, pp. 146—147.

1271 Blessed Bartholomew of Breganza ( b. Bartolommeo b. Barthélemy de Breganze) BISHOP of Vicenza; received habit from Saint Dominic; followed him as Popes Theologian; restored other churches, rebuilt ruined city, saved heretics OP B (AC)

BARTHOLOMEW Breganza studied in his youth at Padua and about the year 1220 received the Dominican habit from the hands of the founder of the order himself, in his native town of Vicenza. He prudently directed a number of houses as prior, and while preaching with Father John of Vicenza at Bologna in 1233 estab­lished a military order, called Fratres Gaudentes, for the preservation of peace and of public order; it spread to other towns of Italy and existed till the eighteenth century.  

At this time the Near East was in particular need of holy bishops in view of the abuses of the Crusades, and Bartholomew was appointed to a see in the isle of Cyprus. From here he visited St Louis of France in Palestine and formed a deep friendship with the king, who urged him to visit him in France.  This he was able to do a few years later when he was sent as papal legate to the king of England. Henry III was then in Aquitaine, where Bartholomew presented himself and accompanied the king to Paris. In 1256 Pope Alexander IV had translated Bartholomew to the see of Vicenza, wherein he was soon involved in troubles with the violent and evil Ghibelline leader, Ezzelino da Romano.  For a time he was in exile from his diocese, but on his return devoted himself with increased energy to his flock, rebuilding the churches ruined by Ezzelino and striving for the peace of the distracted cities of the Veneto.

Four years before his death Bartholomew assisted at the second translation of the relics of St Dominic, and preached the panegyric on that occasion. He died on July 1, 1271. He was greatly venerated by the people and commonly called Blessed Bartholomew, a cultus that was confirmed in 1793.

A sufficient account will be found in the Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. i. See also G. T. Faccioli, Vita e virtu del b. Bartolommeo (1794) B. Altaner, Dominikanermissionen des 13 Jahrhunderts (1924), pp. 40 seq. M. de Waresquiel, Le b. Barthélemy de Breganze (1905) and Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints, pp. 297—301.
Born at Vicenza, Italy, born c. 1200; cultus approved in 1793. Bartholomew was born into the family of the counts of Breganza, Lombardy, Italy. While still very young, he entered the University of Padua and gained a reputation for scholarship and sanctity. There he met Saint Dominic and received the Dominican habit from the founder's hands.  Bartholomew completed his novitiate, his studies at Vicenza and Padua, and was ordained.
Shortly thereafter Bartholomew was sent to preach against heresy in cities throughout Lombardy, and to make peace among the warring factions that were destroying the country. In 1233 he founded a sort of military order--the Fratres Gaudentes--for the preservation of public order. He preached so successfully in this difficult mission that he was summoned to Rome, where the holy father appointed him master of the sacred palace. He was one of the first after Saint Dominic himself to hold this traditionally Dominican office of the pope's theologian.
In 1252 he was sent to Cyprus as bishop of Nimesia. He journeyed there in company with Saint Louis, king of France, who was on a crusade to the Holy Land. Bartholomew had just begun his shepherding of Nimesia when he was called to Palestine by the king. He was of such service to the king that Louis promised him several valuable relics upon the king's return to France.
After administering the diocese on Cyprus, he was translated to Vicenza in 1256. Here his first care was to suitably enshrine the relics donated by Louis. He directed the building of the magnificent Church of the Crown to house these precious relics, which reputedly included a portion of the true Cross and a thorn from our Lord's crown. He restored other churches and rebuilt the city that had been destroyed by civil wars.
Civil war was not the only evil visited upon Vicenza. Heresy did even greater damage. Bartholomew used his powers as a preacher to bring many heretics back into the fold. He was a peacemaker and a builder. So beloved was he that he had to firmly resist the coercion of the grateful people to take over the temporal rule of the city as well as the spiritual. Blessed Bartholomew was also given the honor of preaching on the occasion of the second translation of Saint Dominic's relics (Benedictines, Dorcy)
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1456 St. John of Capistrano “Initiative, Organization, Activity.
Apud Villáckum, in Pannónia, natális sancti Joánnis de Capistráno, Sacerdótis ex Ordine Minórum et Confessóris, vitæ sanctitáte ac fídei cathólicæ propagándæ zelo illústris; qui Taurunénsem arcem, validíssimo Turcárum exércitu profligáto, suis précibus et miráculis ab obsidióne liberávit.  Ejus tamen festívitas quinto Kaléndas Aprílis recólitur.
    At Vilak in Hungary, the birthday of St. John Capistran, priest and confessor of the Order of Friars Minor, illustrious for the sanctity of his life and his zeal for the propagation of the Catholic faith.  By his prayers and miracles, he routed a powerful army of Turks, and forced them to quit the siege of Tornau.  His feastday, however, is celebrated on the 28th of March.
 
Sancti Joánnis de Capistráno, Sacerdótis ex Ordine Minórum et Confessóris, cujus memória recólitur décimo Kaléndas Novémbris.
    St. John Capistrano, confessor, a priest of the Order of Friars Minor, who is mentioned on the 23rd of October, formerly March 28.

ST JOHN OF CAPISTRANO
CAPISTRANO is a little town in the Abruzzi, which of old formed part of the kingdom of Naples.

Here in the fourteenth century a certain free-lance —whether he was of French or of German origin is disputed—had settled down after military service under Louis I and had married an Italian wife. A son, named John, was born to him in 1386 who was destined to become famous as one of the great lights of the Franciscan Order.

From early youth the boy’s talents made him conspicuous. He studied law at Perugia with such success that in 1412 he was appointed governor of that city and married the daughter of one of the principal inhabitants. During hostilities between Perugia and the Malatestas he — was imprisoned, and this was the occasion of his resolution to change his way of life and become a religious.

How he got over the difficulty of his marriage is not altogether clear. But it is said that he rode through Perugia on a donkey with his face to the tail and with a huge paper hat on his head upon which all his worst sins were plainly written. He was pelted by the children and covered with filth, and in this guise presented himself to ask admission into the noviceship of the Friars Minor. At that date, 1416, he was thirty years old, and his novice-master seems to have thought that for a man of such strength of will who had been accustomed to have his own way, a very severe training was necessary to test the genuineness of his vocation. (He had not yet even made his first communion.) The trials to which he was subjected were most humiliating and were apparently sometimes attended with supernatural manifestations. But Brother John persevered, and in after years often expressed his gratitude to the relentless instructor who had made it clear to him that self-conquest was the only sure road to perfection.

In 1420 John was raised to the priesthood. Meanwhile he made extraordinary progress in his theological studies, leading at the same time a life of extreme austerity, in which he tramped the roads barefoot without sandals, gave only three or four hours to sleep and wore a hair-shirt continually.

In his studies he had St James of the Marches as a fellow learner, and for a master St Bernardino of Siena, for whom he conceived the deepest veneration and affection.

Very soon John’s exceptional gifts of oratory made themselves perceptible. The whole of Italy at that period was passing through a terrible crisis of political unrest and relaxation of morals, troubles which were largely caused, and in any case accentuated, by the fact that there were three rival claimants for the papacy and that the bitter antagonisms between Guelfs and Ghibellines had not yet been healed.

Still, in preaching throughout the length and breadth of the peninsula St John met with wonderful response. There is undoubtedly a note of exaggeration in the terms in which Fathers Christopher of Varese and Nicholas of Fara describe the effect produced by his discourses. They speak of a hundred thousand or even a hundred and fifty thousand auditors being present at a single sermon. That was certainly not possible in a country depopulated by wars, pestilence and famine, and in view of the limited means of locomotion then available. But there was good evidence to justify the enthusiasm of the latter writer when he tells us: “No one was more anxious than John Capistran for the conversion of heretics, schismatics and Jews. No one was more anxious that religion should flourish, or had more power in working wonders; no one was so ardently desirous of martyrdom, no one was more famous for his holiness. And so he was welcomed with honour in all the provinces of Italy. The throng of people at his sermons was so great that it might be thought that the apostolic times were revived. On his arrival in a pro­vince, the towns and villages were in commotion and flocked in crowds to hear him. The towns invited him to visit them, either by pressing letters, or by deputations, or by an appeal to the Sovereign Pontiff through the medium of influential persons.”

But the work of preaching and the conversion of souls by no means absorbed all the saint’s attention. There is no occasion to make reference here in any detail to the domestic embarrassments which had beset the Order of St Francis since the death Of their Seraphic Founder. It is sufficient to say that the party known as the “Spirituals” held by no means the same views of religious observance as were entertained by those whom they termed the “Relaxed”.

The Observant reform which had been initiated in the middle of the fourteenth century still found itself hampered in many ways by the administration of superiors general who held a different standard of perfection, and on the other hand there had also been exaggerations in the direction of much greater austerity culminating eventually in the heretical teachings of the Fraticelli. All these difficulties required adjustment, and Capistran, working in harmony with St Bernardino of Siena, was called upon to bear a large share in this burden. After the general chapter held at Assisi in 1430, St John was appointed to draft the conclusions at which the assembly arrived, and these “Martinian statutes”, as they were called, in virtue of their confirmation by Pope Martin V, are among the most important in the history of the order.

So again John was on several occasions entrusted with inquisitorial powers by the Holy See, as for example to take proceedings against the Fraticelli and to inquire into the grave allegations which had been made against the Order of Gesuats founded by Bd John Colombini. Further, he was keenly interested in that reform of the Franciscan nuns which owed its chief inspiration to St Colette, and in the tertiaries of the order. In the Council of Ferrara, later removed to Florence, he was heard with attention, but between the early and the final sessions he had been compelled to visit Jerusalem as apostolic commissary, and incidentally had done much to help on the inclusion of the Armenians with the Greeks in the accommodation, unfor­tunately only short-lived, which was arrived at in Florence.

When the Emperor Frederick III, finding that the religious faith of the countries under his suzerainty was suffering grievously from the activities of the Hussites and other heretical sectariès, appealed to Pope Nicholas V for help, St John Capistran was sent as commissary and inquisitor general, and he set out for Vienna in 1451 with twelve of his Franciscan brethren to assist him. It is beyond doubt that his coming produced a great sensation. Aeneas Sylvius (the future Pope Pius II) tells us how, when he entered Austrian territory, “priests and people came out to meet him, carrying the sacred relics. They received him as a legate of the Apostolic See, as a preacher of truth, as some great prophet sent by God. They came down from the mountains to greet John, as though Peter or Paul or one of the other apostles were journeying there. They eagerly kissed the hem of his garment, brought their sick and afflicted to his feet, and it is reported that very many were cured...The elders of the city met him and conducted him to Vienna. No square in the city could contain the crowds. They looked on him as an angel of God.”

John’s work as inquisitor and his dealings with the Hussites and other Bohemian heretics have been severely criticized, but this is not the place to attempt any justification. His zeal was of the kind that sears and consumes, though he was merciful to the submissive and repentant, and he was before his time in his attitude to witchcraft and the use of torture. The miracles which attended his progress wherever he went, and which he attributed to the relics of St Bernardino of Siena, were sedulously recorded by his companions, and a certain prejudice was afterwards created against the saint by the accounts which were published of these marvels. He went from place to place, preaching in Bavaria, Saxony and Poland, and his efforts were everywhere accompanied by a great revival of faith and devotion.

Cochlaeus of Nuremberg tells us how “those who saw him there describe him as a man small of body, withered, emaciated, nothing but skin and bone, but cheerful, strong and strenuous in labour...He slept in his habit, rose before dawn, recited his office and then celebrated Mass. After that he preached, in Latin, which was afterwards explained to the people by an interpreter.” He also made a round of the sick who awaited his coming, laying his hands upon each, praying, and touching them with one of the relics of St Bernardino.
It was the capture of Constantinople by the Turks which brought this spiritual campaign to an end. Capistran was called upon to rally the defenders of the West and to preach a crusade against the infidel. His earlier efforts in Bavaria, and even in Austria, met with little response, and early in 1456 the situation became desperate. The Turks were advancing to lay siege to Belgrade, and the saint, who by this time had made his way into Hungary, taking counsel with the great general Hunyady, saw clearly that they would have to depend in the main upon local effort. St John wore himself out in preaching and exhorting the Hungarian people in order to raise an army that could meet the threatened danger, and himself led to Belgrade the troops he had been able to recruit. Very soon the Turks were in position and the siege began. Animated by the prayers and the heroic example in the field of Capistran, and wisely guided by the military experience of Hunyady, the garrison in the end gained an overwhelming victory. The siege was abandoned, and western Europe for the time was saved. But the infection bred by thousands of corpses which lay unburied round the city cost the life first of all of Hunyady, and then a month or two later of Capistran himself, worn out by years of toil and of austerities and by the strain of the siege. He died most peacefully at Villach on October 23, 1456, and was canonized in 1724. His feast was in 1890 made general for all the Western church, and was then transferred to March 28.

The more important biographical materials for the history of St John of Capistrano are printed in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. x. See BHL., nn. 4360—4368. But in addition to these there is a considerable amount of new information concerning St John’s writings, letters, reforms and other activities which has been printed during the present century in the Archivum Franciscanum Historicum edited at Quaracchi; attention may be called in particular to the papers on St John and the Hussites in vols. xv and xvi of the same periodical. This and other material has been used by J. Hofer in his St John Capistran, Reformer (1943), a work of much erudition and value. English readers may also be referred to a short life by Fr V. Fitzgerald, and to Leon, Auréole Séraphique  (Eng. trans.), vol. iii, pp. 388—420.
It has been said the Christian saints are the world’s greatest optimists. Not blind to the existence and consequences of evil, they base their confidence on the power of Christ’s redemption. The power of conversion through Christ extends not only to sinful people but also to calamitous events.
Imagine being born in the fourteenth century. One-third of the population and nearly 40 percent of the clergy were wiped out by the bubonic plague. The Western Schism split the Church with two or three claimants to the Holy See at one time. England and France were at war. The city-states of Italy were constantly in conflict. No wonder that gloom dominated the spirit of the culture and the times.
John Capistrano was born in 1386. His education was thorough. His talents and success were great. When he was 26 he was made governor of Perugia. Imprisoned after a battle against the Malatestas, he resolved to change his way of life completely. At the age of 30 he entered the Franciscan novitiate and was ordained a priest four years later.
His preaching attracted great throngs at a time of religious apathy and confusion. He and 12 Franciscan brethren were received in the countries of central Europe as angels of God. They were instrumental in reviving a dying faith and devotion.
The Franciscan Order itself was in turmoil over the interpretation and observance of the Rule of St. Francis. Through John’s tireless efforts and his expertise in law, the heretical Fraticelli were suppressed and the “Spirituals were freed from interference in their stricter observance.
He helped bring about a reunion with the Greek and Armenian Churches, unfortunately only a brief arrangement. When the Turks captured Constantinople in 1453, he was commissioned to preach a crusade for the defense of Europe. Gaining little response in Bavaria and Austria, he decided to concentrate his efforts in Hungary. He led the army to Belgrade. Under the great General John Junyadi, they gained an overwhelming victory, and the siege of Belgrade was lifted. Worn out by his superhuman efforts, Capistrano was an easy prey to the infection bred by the refuse of battle. He died October 23, 1456.

St. John of Capistrano, priest At Ilok in Hungary
of the Order of Friars Minor. He was illustrious for holiness Of life and zeal in extending the Catholic faith. By his prayers and miracles, he delivered from a siege the fortress of Zemun, a suburb of Belgrade, when it was beleaguered by a powerful Turkish army.
Comment: John Hofer, a biographer of John Capistrano, recalls a Brussels organization named after the saint. Seeking to solve life problems in a fully Christian spirit, its motto was: Initiative, Organization, Activity. These three words characterized John's life. He was not one to sit around, ever. His deep Christian optimism drove him to battle problems at all levels with the confidence engendered by a deep faith in Christ.
Quote:  On the saint's tomb in the Austrian town of Villach, the governor had this message inscribed: This tomb holds John, by birth of Capistrano, a man worthy of all praise, defender and promoter of the faith, guardian of the Church, zealous protector of his Order, an ornament to all the world, lover of truth and religious justice, mirror of life, surest guide in doctrine; praised by countless tongues, he reigns blessed in heaven. That is a fitting epitaph for a real and successful optimist.
St. John of Capistrano (1386-1456) 
It has been said the Christian saints are the world’s greatest optimists. Not blind to the existence and consequences of evil, they base their confidence on the power of Christ’s redemption. The power of conversion through Christ extends not only to sinful people but also to calamitous events.
Imagine being born in the fourteenth century. One-third of the population and nearly 40 percent of the clergy were wiped out by the bubonic plague. The Western Schism split the Church with two or three claimants to the Holy See at one time. England and France were at war. The city-states of Italy were constantly in conflict. No wonder that gloom dominated the spirit of the culture and the times.
John Capistrano was born in 1386. His education was thorough. His talents and success were great. When he was 26 he was made governor of Perugia. Imprisoned after a battle against the Malatestas, he resolved to change his way of life completely. At the age of 30 he entered the Franciscan novitiate and was ordained a priest four years later.
His preaching attracted great throngs at a time of religious apathy and confusion. He and 12 Franciscan brethren were received in the countries of central Europe as angels of God. They were instrumental in reviving a dying faith and devotion.
The Franciscan Order itself was in turmoil over the interpretation and observance of the Rule of St. Francis. Through John’s tireless efforts and his expertise in law, the heretical Fraticelli were suppressed and the "Spirituals" were freed from interference in their stricter observance.
He helped bring about a reunion with the Greek and Armenian Churches, unfortunately only a brief arrangement.
When the Turks captured Constantinople in 1453, he was commissioned to preach a crusade for the defense of Europe. Gaining little response in Bavaria and Austria, he decided to concentrate his efforts in Hungary. He led the army to Belgrade. Under the great General John Junyadi, they gained an overwhelming victory, and the siege of Belgrade was lifted. Worn out by his superhuman efforts, Capistrano was an easy prey to the infection bred by the refuse of battle. He died October 23, 1456.
1680 Bl. Thomas Thwing English martyr
Born at Heworth, Yorkshire, England, he studied at Douai, France, where he was ordained in 1665. Returning home, he labored for fifteen years in theYorkshire area as chaplain for his cousin, Sir Miles Stapeton, and as a school chaplain. Arrested in 1680 for supposed complicity in the Titus Oates Plot with his uncle, Sir Thomas Gascoigne, he was condemned and hanged, drawn, and quartered at York
.
1794 Bl. Joseph Leroux  Ursuline martyr French Revolution
 She was born Ann-Joseph Leroux at Cambral, France. After becoming an Ursuline at Valenciennes, she was driven from the convent but returned in 1793. Josephine was guillotined with her Ursuline companions. She was beatified in 1920
.
1833 St. Paul Tong Buong  Vietnamese martyr native
he served in the bodyguard of the king. A convert, he gave his assistance to the Paris Foreign Missions and so helped to advance the Catholic cause in the country. Arrested by Vietnamese authorities for being a Christian, he was tortured, humiliated, and beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988
.


On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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The POPES HTML
Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005 Benedict XVI

Pope St. Clement:  Since all things lie open to His eyes and ears, let us hold Him in awe and rid ourselves of impure desires to do works of evil, so that we may be protected by His mercy from the judgement that is to come.
Which of us can escape His mighty hand? 

"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious."  1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina
The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR benefit of others.
Non est inventus similis illis
God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heaven.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today

St. Margaret Clitherow was canonized in 1970 by Pope Paul VI
"The answers to many of life's questions can be found by reading the Lives of the Saints. They teach us how to overcome obstacles and difficulties, how to stand firm in our faith, and how to struggle against evil and emerge victorious." 
1913 Saint Barsanuphius of Optina

  John Paul II -- October 16 - The Purity of the Blessed Virgin Mary - John Paul II becomes Pope (1978)
Benedict_XVI_Patriarch_Bartholomew
"Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy,
but an encounter with a person" -- Benedict XVI


1667-1669 Pope Clement IX;
elected to the papacy by the unanimous Sacred College vote; idol of the Romans erudition application to business, his extreme charity, affability towards great and small; 2 days/week occupied confessional in St. Peter's church heard any one who wished to confess; frequently visited hospitals, lavish in alms to the poor; he did little or nothing to advance or enrich his family; aversion to notoriety, refused to permit his name to be placed on the buildings erected during his reign; declared blessed, Rose of Lima, first American saint, solemnly canonized S. Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi and St. Peter of Alcantara; death of the beloved pontiff was long lamented by Romans, who considered him, if not the greatest, at least the most amiable of the popes.
Pope Leo XIII

The best way to make our pleas heard 
The Rosary, a kind of prayer that seems to contain, as it were, a final pledge of affection and to sum up in itself the honor due to Our Lady… There has seemed to be no better means of conducting sacred solemnities or of obtaining protection and favors. (Encyclical Octobri Mense).

There are, of course, more ways than one to win her protection by prayer, but as for Us, We think that the best and most effective way to her favor lies in the Rosary. (Encyclical Adjutricem populi, 1895).

So that our pleas have the greatest effect… let us has recourse to Mary… through the Rosary (1891).


Mrs Adjoubei’s Rosary        Bishop Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII
As he left Bulgaria in 1934, Bishop Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII, stated,
"If a Slavic, catholic or not, knocks on my door, it will be opened and he will be greeted like a true friend." Later, a Slavic arrived one day at the airport of Fiumicino who asked to see Pope John XXIII. His reply was immediate, "Let him come!"
The meeting was set for March 7th.

After the general audience, the Pope called for Mr. Adjoubei and his wife, Rada, a young woman from Khrushchev. He received them in his library and asked them to be seated.
They spoke about many things including the Saints of Russia and the beauty of Orthodox liturgy.

Then John XXIII picked up a string of rosary beads that was laid on his table.
"Madam, this is for you. My entourage taught me that I should give currencies or stamps to a non-Catholic princess; but I still give you a Rosary because priests, in addition to the biblical prayer of the psalms, also have this popular form of prayer. For me, the Pope, it is like fifteen open windows - fifteen mysteries - through which I contemplate, in the light of the Lord, the events of the world. I say a rosary in the morning, another at the beginning of the afternoon, and another in the evening.
Look, I made a great impression by telling the journalists that in the fifth joyful mystery - "he listened and questioned them" - I was really praying for... I made an impression on those people when I said that, in the third joyful mystery - the Birth of Jesus - I prayed for all the babies who are born in the past twenty-four hours, because, Catholics or not, they will find the wishes of the Pope upon their entry into life.
When I recite the third mystery, I will also remember your children, Madam."

Mrs Adjoubei, who held the Rosary in her hands, answered,
"Thank you, Holy Father, how grateful I am to you! I will tell my children what you said...

" The Pope looked at her smiling, "I know the name of your sons... the third is called Yan, or John like me...
When you are back home, give him a special hug from me... " 
Rosary for the Church, #14 - 1973

Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (Zenit.org).- Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
APOSTLES: COLLABORATORS IN TRUE JOY
VATICAN CITY, 10 SEP 2008 (VIS) - At his general audience this morning, celebrated in the Paul VI Hall, the Pope dedicated his catechesis to St. Paul's view of the meaning of apostolate.
  The Pauline concept of apostleship went "beyond that of the group of Twelve" explained the Holy Father. "It was characterised by three elements: the first was the fact of having seen the Lord, in other words of having encountered Him in a way that marked his life. ... Definitively then, it is the Lord Who confers the apostolate, not individual presumption. Apostles do not make themselves but are created so by the Lord".
  The second characteristic is that of "having been sent. In fact, the Greek term 'apostolos' means envoy, ... the representative of a principal. ... Once again the idea emerges of an initiative arising from someone else, from God in Jesus Christ, to Whom one is duty-bound", of "a mission to be accomplished in His name, putting all personal interests aside".
  "Announcing the Gospel and the consequent founding of Churches" is the third requisite. "The tile of apostle", said Pope Benedict, "is not and cannot be a merely honorary title. It truly, even dramatically, involves the entire existence of the person concerned".
  St. Paul also defined apostles as "servants of God, Whose grace acts in them", said the Pope. "A typical element of the true apostle ... is a form of identification between the Gospel and the evangeliser, both share the same destiny. Indeed no-one so much as Paul highlighted how announcing the cross of Christ is a 'stumbling block and foolishness' to which many react with misunderstanding and refusal. That happened then and it should be no surprise that the same thing happens today".
  "With the stoical philosophy of his time, Paul shared the idea of tenacious perseverance in all the difficulties he had to face; but he went beyond the merely human perspective by recalling ... God's love and Christ's. ... This is the certainty, the profound joy that guided the Apostle though all those events: nothing can separate us from the love of God, and this love is the real treasure of human life".
  "As we may see, St. Paul gave himself to the Gospel with all his life", said the Holy Father in conclusion. "He undertook his ministry with faithfulness and joy that he 'might by all means save some'. And though aware of his own relationship of paternity - even, indeed, of maternity - towards the Churches, his attitude to them was one of complete service, declaring: "I do not mean to imply that we lord it over your faith; rather, we are workers with you for your joy'. This remains the mission of all the apostles of Christ in all times: to be collaborators of true joy".
AG/ST. PAUL/...VIS 080910 (480)

JOHN PAUL I  ANGELUS  Sunday, 10 September 1978
At Camp David, in America, Presidents Carter and Sadat and Prime Minister Begin are working for peace in the Middle East. All men are hungry and thirsty for peace, especially the poor, who pay more and suffer more in troubled times and in wars; for this reason they look to the Camp David meeting with interest and great hope. The Pope, too, has prayed, had prayers said, and is praying the Lord may deign to help the efforts of these politicians.

I was very favourably impressed by the fact that the three Presidents wished to express their hope in the Lord publicly in prayer. President Sadat's brothers in religion are accustomed to say as follows:
 "there is pitch darkness, a black stone and on the stone a little ant; but God sees it, and does not forget it".
President Carter, who is a fervent Christian, reads in the Gospel;
 "Knock, and it will be opened to you; ask, and it will be given you. Even the hairs of your head are all numbered."
And Premier Begin recalls that the Jewish people once passed difficult moments and addressed the Lord complaining and saying:
 "You have forsaken us, you have forgotten us!" "No!"—He replied through Isaiah the Prophet—"can a mother forget her own child? But even if it should happen, God will never forget his people".

Also we who are here have the same sentiments; we are the objects of undying love on the part of God. We know: he has always his eyes open on us, even when it seems to be dark. He is our father; even more he is our mother. He does not want to hurt us, He wants only to do good to us, to all of us.  If children are ill, they have additional claim to be loved by their mother. And we too, if by chance we are sick with badness, on the wrong track, have yet another claim to be loved by the Lord.

With these sentiments I invite you to pray together with the Pope for each of us, for the Middle East, for Iran, and for the whole world.  © Copyright 1978 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana