Mary the Mother of Jesus
  Tuesday  Saints of  September  26  Sexto Kaléndas Octóbris  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

What Martin Luther said about the Virgin Mary
These "great things" that God has done for her, we can neither express nor measure.
This is why we sum up the honor bestowed on her in one word, when we call her "Mother of God." When speaking of her or addressing her, nobody can add anything to this, even if he possessed more tongues than there are leaves and blades of grass, stars in the sky and grains of sand in the sea.
One should consider with deep reflection what it means to be the Mother of God.

Six Canonized on Feast of Christ the King


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Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

His Majesty, The Lord, rewards great sevices with trials, and there can be no better reward,
for out of trials springs love for God.
-- St. Teresa of Avila

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

September 26

Amos was a shepherd of Tekoa on the edge of the desert of Judah, 1:1; belonging to no prophetic confraternity, he was divinely called from his flock and sent to prophesy to Israel, 7:14. After a brief ministry mainly, perhaps exclusively, concerned with the schismatic shrine at Bethel, 7:10f, he was expelled from Israel and returned to his former occupation.
He preached under Jeroboam II, 783-743, by material standards a glorious reign during which the Northern Kingdom expanded and grew wealthy, but during which the rich exploited the poor, and fine liturgical show disguised the lack of sound religion. A true son of the desert, rough, direct, proud, rich in the images natural to the desert dwellers, Amos in the name of God condemned corrupt city life, social injustice, the deceitful consolations of insincere ceremonial, 5:21-22. Yahweh, sovereign lord of all the world, punisher of nations, ch. 1-2, would severely punish Israel, who, being chosen by God, should practise a morality stricter than that of others, 3:2.
The 'day of Yahweh ' (the phrase occurs here for the first time in the Bible) will be one of darkness and not light, 5: 18f; wreak his dreadful vengeance, 6:8f, God summons a nation, 6:14, Assyria, which, though not named, is always in the prophet's mind.
Yet Amos kindles a spark of hope; he looks forward to the salvation of those who stay faithful, the 'remnant' of Joseph, 5:15 (the first use of this expression by a prophet).
   This profound doctrine of God, all-powerful and universal lord, defender of justice, is formulated without the slightest hesitation; the prophet never once gives the impression of innovating: his preaching is merely a reminder, a sharp one, of the demands of pure Yahwism.
September 26 – Our Lady of Graces (Ancona, Italy, 1836)
 Protected from the Muslims by Angels 
 In the 16th century, the shrine of Loreto near Ancona became the most popular pilgrimage in Europe, attracting hundreds of thousands of faithful. Located in central Italy across the Adriatic Sea, the shrine of Loreto is believed to be the original house where the Virgin Mary was born and grew up.

This small brick house, called the Santa Casa, was allegedly transported from Palestine to these parts (a wood of laurels, hence the name of Loreto) in 1294 by angels, to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Muslims.

The shrine of Loreto became famous after 1460, shortly after the capture of Constantinople by the Turks. A place of Christian witness, this holy city was fortified to escape Ottoman rule. At the same time, a basilica was built.

The Christian victory over the Turks at Lepanto, on October 7, 1571, is attributed to the Virgin of Loreto.


The book has reached us in some disorder; the prose narrative, 7: 10-17, in particular, separating two visions, would be better placed at the end of the oracles. Certain short passages leave us in doubt about their authorship. The doxologies, 4:13; 5:8-9; 9:5-6, may have been added for liturgical recitation. The brief oracle on Judah, 2:4-5, is possibly from a different author. Further doubts have been raised by 9:8b-10 and especially by 9:11-15. There are no solid grounds for suspecting the former, but it is possible that 9:11-15 are an addition. No argument should be based on the promises of salvation which the latter passage contains, since from early times such promises had always been features of the prophets' preaching, cf. Amos in 5:15 and his contemporary Hosea. But the references to the collapsing (or already ruined) hut of David, to vengeance on Edom, and to a reinstatement or return of Israel, seem to indicate a later period, either after the Assyrian victories of 734-732, or after the fall of Jerusalem.

The Iveron Icon of the Mother of God (preserved on Mt. Athos); the icon was installed on the monastery gates. Therefore this icon came to be called "Portaitissa" or "Gate-Keeper" (October 13). This comes from the Akathist to the Mother of God: "Rejoice, O Blessed Gate-Keeper who opens the gates of Paradise to the righteous."

The Iveron Icon of the Mother of God
was kept in the home of a certain pious widow, who lived near Nicea. During the reign of the emperor Theophilus, the Iconoclasts came to the house of this Christian, and one of the soldiers struck the image of the Mother of God with a spear. Blood flowed from the place where it was struck.
The widow, fearing its destruction, promised the imperial soldiers money and implored them not to touch the icon until morning. When the soldiers departed, the woman and her son (later an Athonite monk), sent the holy icon away upon the sea to preserve it. The icon, standing upright upon the water, floated to Athos.
For several days, the Athonite monks had seen a fiery pillar on the sea rising up to the heavens. They came down to the shore and found the holy image, standing upon the waters. After a Molieben of thanksgiving, a pious monk of the Iveron monastery, St Gabriel (July 12), had a dream in which the Mother of God appeared to him and gave him instructions. So he walked across the water, and taking up the holy icon, he placed it in the church.

On the following day, however, the icon was found not within the church, but on the gates of the monastery. This was repeated several times, until the Most Holy Theotokos revealed to St Gabriel Her will, saying that She did not want the icon to be guarded by the monks, but rather She intended to be their Protectress. After this, the icon was installed on the monastery gates. Therefore this icon came to be called "Portaitissa" or "Gate-Keeper" (October 13). This comes from the Akathist to the Mother of God: "Rejoice, O Blessed Gate-Keeper who opens the gates of Paradise to the righteous."

There is a tradition that the Mother of God promised St Gabriel that the grace and mercy of Her Son toward the monks would continue as long as the Icon remained at the monastery. It is also believed that the disappearance of the Iveron Icon from Mt. Athos would be a sign of the end of the world.

The Iveron Icon is also commemorated on February 12, March 31, October 13 (Its arrival in Moscow in 1648), and Bright Tuesday (Commemorating the appearance of the Icon in a pillar of fire at Mt. Athos and its recovery by St Gabriel).

On September 26, 1989, a copy of this famous icon arrived in Tbilisi, Georgia from the Iveron Monastery on mt. Athos. This copy had been painted by the monks on Mt. Athos as a symbol of love and gratitude to the Georgian people.

September 26 - Our Lady of Victory (Tourney, 1340)

Mrs Adjoubei’s Rosary        Bishop Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII
As he left Bulgaria in 1934, Bishop Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII, stated,
"If a Slavic, catholic or not, knocks on my door, it will be opened and he will be greeted like a true friend." Later, a Slavic arrived one day at the airport of Fiumicino who asked to see Pope John XXIII. His reply was immediate, "Let him come!"
The meeting was set for March 7th.

After the general audience, the Pope called for Mr. Adjoubei and his wife, Rada, a young woman from Khrushchev. He received them in his library and asked them to be seated.
They spoke about many things including the Saints of Russia and the beauty of Orthodox liturgy.

Then John XXIII picked up a string of rosary beads that was laid on his table.
"Madam, this is for you. My entourage taught me that I should give currencies or stamps to a non-Catholic princess; but I still give you a Rosary because priests, in addition to the biblical prayer of the psalms, also have this popular form of prayer. For me, the Pope, it is like fifteen open windows - fifteen mysteries - through which I contemplate, in the light of the Lord, the events of the world. I say a rosary in the morning, another at the beginning of the afternoon, and another in the evening.
Look, I made a great impression by telling the journalists that in the fifth joyful mystery - "he listened and questioned them" - I was really praying for... I made an impression on those people when I said that, in the third joyful mystery - the Birth of Jesus - I prayed for all the babies who are born in the past twenty-four hours, because, Catholics or not, they will find the wishes of the Pope upon their entry into life.
When I recite the third mystery, I will also remember your children, Madam."

Mrs Adjoubei, who held the Rosary in her hands, answered,
"Thank you, Holy Father, how grateful I am to you! I will tell my children what you said...

" The Pope looked at her smiling, "I know the name of your sons... the third is called Yan, or John like me...
When you are back home, give him a special hug from me... " 
Rosary for the Church, #14 - 1973
John the Theologian The Holy, Glorious All-laudable Apostle and Evangelist, Virgin, and Beloved Friend of Christ
Son of Zebedee and Salome, a daughter of St Joseph the Betrothed. He was called by our Lord Jesus Christ to be one of His Apostles at the same time as his elder brother James. This took place at Lake Gennesareth (i.e. the Sea of Galilee). Leaving behind their father, both brothers followed the Lord.
 287 Sts. Cosmos & Damian skilled in medicine charitous
 300 St. Callistratus African martyr with 49 soldiers
  304 Ss birthday of holy martyrs Cyprian and virgin Justina; black magic and diabolical expertise to win her for himself but was repelled by her faith and the aid of Mary; He then turned to a priest named Eusebius for instruction and was converted to Christianity. He destroyed his magical books, gave his wealth to the poor, was baptized, as was Aglaides.
 400 St. Senator of the Albano catacomb is the largest and the most important of the ones outside Rome
 400 St. Eusebius, bishop and confessor at Bologna,
 506 St. Vigilius Bishop of Brescia, in Lombardy
6th v.  St. Meugant Hermit of Britain
 600 St. Amantius Patron saint of Cittá di Castello
 612 St. Colman of Elo Abbot bishop; author of the Alphabet of Devotion
1000 St. Nilus the Younger Abbot Born in Calabria
1159 St. John of Meda abbot Rule of St. Benedict to Milan
; A secular priest from Como, Italy, John joined the Humiliati, a penitential institute of laymen
13th v. BD LUCY OF CALTAGIRONE, VIRGIN special devotion to the Five Wounds; and miracles were attributed to her both before and after her death
1341 BD DALMATIUS MONER “he was...gently floating down to the ground. The lessons of his office say that he was familiarly known as 'the brother who talks with the angels':  a copy of Eymeric's work was identified and edited by Fr van Ortroy in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxi (1912), pp. 49-81. This memoir is extremely interesting because we have evidence that, unlike most hagiographical documents, it was written within ten years of the death of its subject.
1492 Saint Ephraim of Perekop, Novgorod; he persuaded his parents, Stephen and Annathem to leave the world and accept monasticism. Later, they also finished their earthly paths living as hermits; received a revelation from the Lord, commanding him to withdraw to a desolate place; St Ephraim was buried at the church of St Nicholas. In 1509, frequent floodings threatened the monastery with ruin, it was transferred to another location at the shore of Lake Ilmen. St Ephraim appeared to the igumen Romanus and pointed to the site of Klinkovo for relocating the monastery.
1649 St. Noel Chabanel Jesuit missionary to Hurons in Canada
1885 St. Theresa Coudere Foundress Our Lady of Retreat  Society of Our lady of the Cenacle

John the Theologian The Holy, Glorious All-laudable Apostle and Evangelist, Virgin, and Beloved Friend of Christ
Son of Zebedee and Salome, a daughter of St Joseph the Betrothed. He was called by our Lord Jesus Christ to be one of His Apostles at the same time as his elder brother James. This took place at Lake Gennesareth (i.e. the Sea of Galilee). Leaving behind their father, both brothers followed the Lord.
The Apostle John was especially loved by the Savior for his sacrificial love and his virginal purity. After his calling, the Apostle John did not part from the Lord, and he was one of the three apostles who were particularly close to Him. St John the Theologian was present when the Lord restored the daughter of Jairus to life, and he was a witness to the Transfiguration of the Lord on Mount Tabor.

During the Last Supper, he reclined next to the Lord, and laid his head upon His breast. He also asked the name of the Savior's betrayer. The Apostle John followed after the Lord when they led Him bound from the Garden of Gethsemane to the court of the iniquitous High Priests Annas and Caiphas. He was there in the courtyard of the High Priest during the interrogations of his Teacher and he resolutely followed after him on the way to Golgotha, grieving with all his heart.
At the foot of the Cross he stood with the Mother of God and heard the words of the Crucified Lord addressed to Her from the Cross: "Woman, behold Thy son." Then the Lord said to him, "Behold thy Mother" (John 19:26-27). From that moment the Apostle John, like a loving son, concerned himself over the Most Holy Virgin Mary, and he served Her until Her Dormition.

After the Dormition of the Mother of God the Apostle John went to Ephesus and other cities of Asia Minor to preach the Gospel, taking with him his own disciple Prochorus. They boarded a ship, which floundered during a terrible tempest. All the travellers were cast up upon dry ground, and only the Apostle John remained in the depths of the sea. Prochorus wept bitterly, bereft of his spiritual father and guide, and he went on towards Ephesus alone.

On the fourteenth day of his journey he stood at the shore of the sea and saw that the waves had cast a man ashore. Going up to him, he recognized the Apostle John, whom the Lord had preserved alive for fourteen days in the sea. Teacher and disciple went to Ephesus, where the Apostle John preached incessantly to the pagans about Christ. His preaching was accompanied by such numerous and great miracles, that the number of believers increased with each day.

During this time there had begun a persecution of Christians under the emperor Nero (56-68). They took the Apostle John for trial at Rome. St John was sentenced to death for his confession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, but the Lord preserved His chosen one. The apostle drank a cup of deadly poison, but he remained alive. Later, he emerged unharmed from a cauldron of boiling oil into which he had been thrown on orders from the torturer.

After this, they sent the Apostle John off to imprisonment to the island of Patmos, where he spent many years. Proceeding along on his way to the place of exile, St John worked many miracles. On the island of Patmos, his preaching and miracles attracted to him all the inhabitants of the island, and he enlightened them with the light of the Gospel. He cast out many devils from the pagan temples, and he healed a great multitude of the sick.

Sorcerers with demonic powers showed great hostility to the preaching of the holy apostle. He especially frightened the chief sorcerer of them all, named Kinops, who boasted that they would destroy the apostle. But the great John, by the grace of God acting through him, destroyed all the demonic artifices to which Kinops resorted, and the haughty sorcerer perished in the depths of the sea.

The Apostle John withdrew with his disciple Prochorus to a desolate height, where he imposed upon himself a three-day fast. As St John prayed the earth quaked and thunder rumbled. Prochorus fell to the ground in fright. The Apostle John lifted him up and told him to write down what he was about to say. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, saith the Lord, Who is and Who was and Who is to come, the Almighty" (Rev 1:8), proclaimed the Spirit of God through the Apostle John. Thus in about the year 67 the Book of Revelation was written, known also as the "Apocalypse," of the holy Apostle John the Theologian. In this Book were predictions of the tribulations of the Church and of the end of the world.

After his prolonged exile, the Apostle John received his freedom and returned to Ephesus, where he continued with his activity, instructing Christians to guard against false teachers and their erroneous teachings. In the year 95, the Apostle John wrote his Gospel at Ephesus. He called for all Christians to love the Lord and one another, and by this to fulfill the commands of Christ. The Church calls St John the "Apostle of Love", since he constantly taught that without love man cannot come near to God.

In his three Epistles, St John speaks of the significance of love for God and for neighbor. Already in his old age, he learned of a youth who had strayed from the true path to follow the leader of a band of robbers, so St John went out into the wilderness to seek him. Seeing the holy Elder, the guilty one tried to hide himself, but the Apostle John ran after him and besought him to stop. He promised to take the sins of the youth upon himself, if only he would repent and not bring ruin upon his soul. Shaken by the intense love of the holy Elder, the youth actually did repent and turn his life around.

St John when he was more than a hundred years old. he far outlived the other eyewitnesses of the Lord, and for a long time he remained the only remaining eyewitness of the earthly life of the Savior.

When it was time for the departure of the Apostle John, he went out beyond the city limits of Ephesus with the families of his disciples. He bade them prepare for him a cross-shaped grave, in which he lay, telling his disciples that they should cover him over with the soil. The disciples tearfully kissed their beloved teacher, but not wanting to be disobedient, they fulfilled his bidding. They covered the face of the saint with a cloth and filled in the grave. Learning of this, other disciples of St John came to the place of his burial. When they opened the grave, they found it empty.

Each year from the grave of the holy Apostle John on May 8 came forth a fine dust, which believers gathered up and were healed of sicknesses by it. Therefore, the Church also celebrates the memory of the holy Apostle John the Theologian on May 8.

The Lord bestowed on His beloved disciple John and John's brother James the name "Sons of Thunder" as an awesome messenger in its cleansing power of the heavenly fire. And precisely by this the Savior pointed out the flaming, fiery, sacrificial character of Christian love, the preacher of which was the Apostle John the Theologian. The eagle, symbol of the lofty heights of his theological thought, is the iconographic symbol of the Evangelist John the Theologian. The appellation "Theologian" is bestown by Holy Church only to St John among the immediate disciples and Apostles of Christ, as being the seer of the mysterious Judgments of God.

287 Sts. Cosmos & Damian skilled in medicine charitous
Ægéæ natális sanctórum Mártyrum Cosmæ et Damiáni fratrum, qui, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, post multa torménta, víncula et cárceres, post mare et ignes, cruces, lapidatiónem et sagíttas divínitus superátas, cápite plectúntur; cum quibus étiam referúntur passi tres eórum fratres germáni, id est Anthimus, Leóntius et Euprépius.
    At Aegea, during the persecution of Diocletian, the birthday of the holy martyrs Cosmas and Damian, brothers.  After miraculously overcoming many torments from bonds, imprisonment, fire, crucifixion, stoning, arrows, and from being cast into the sea, they were beheaded.  With them are said to have suffered three brothers: Anthimus, Leontius, and Euprepius.
COSMAS and Damian are the principal and best known of those saints venerated in the East as greek_cosmas_damian.gif , moneyless ones, because they practised medicine without taking reward from their patients. Though some writers have professed to be able to extract from their very extravagant and historically worthless acta fragments of lost and authentic originals, it is the opinion of Father Delehaye that their “origin and true history will probably always evade research”. Alban Butler summarizes the core of their story thus:
Saints Cosmas and Damian were twin brothers, born in Arabia, who studied the sciences in Syria and became eminent for their skill in medicine. Being Christians, and full of that holy temper of charity in which the spirit of our divine religion consists, they practised their profession with great application and success, but never took any fee for their services. They lived at Aegeae on the bay of Alexandretta in Cilicia, and were remarkable both for the love and respect which the people bore them on account of the good offices which they received from their charity, and for their zeal for the Christian faith, which they took every opportunity their profession gave them to propagate. When persecution began to rage, it was impossible for persons of so distinguished a character to lie concealed They were therefore apprehended by the order of Lysias, governor of Cilicia, and after various torments were beheaded for the faith. Their bodies were carried into Syria, and buried at Cyrrhus, which was the chief centre of their cult us and where the earliest references locate their martyrdom.
<>The legends pad out this simple story with numerous marvels. For example, before they were eventually beheaded they defied death by water, fire and crucifixion. While they were hanging on the crosses the mob stoned them, but the missiles recoiled on the heads of the throwers; in the same way the arrows of archers who were brought up to shoot at them turned in the air and scattered the bowmen (the same thing is recorded of St Christopher and others). The three brothers of Cosmas and Damian, Anthimus, Leontius and Euprepius, are said to have suffered with them, and their names are mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. Many miracles of healing were ascribed to them after their death, the saints sometimes appearing to the sufferers in sleep and prescribing for them or curing them there and then, as was supposed to happen to pagan devotees in the temples of Aesculapius and Serapis.

Among the distinguished people who attributed recovery from serious sickness to SS. Cosmas and Damian was the Emperor Justinian I, who out of regard for their relics honoured the city of Cyrrhus; and two churches at Constantinople are said to have been built in honour of the martyrs in the early fifth century. Their basilica at Rome with its lovely mosaics was dedicated c. 530. SS. Cosmas and Damian are named in the canon of the Mass, and they are, with St Luke, the patrons of physicians and surgeons. By an error the Byzantine Christians honour three pairs of saints of this name. “It should be known”, says the Synaxary of Constantinople, “that there are three groups of martyrs of the names of Cosmas and Damian: those of Arabia who were beheaded under Diocletian [October 17], those of Rome who were stoned under Carinus [July 1], and the sons of Theodora, who died peacefully [November 1]”, but these are all actually the same martyrs.

As has been said, physicians honour Cosmas and Damian as their patrons, with St Pantaleon and after St Luke. Happy are they in that profession who are glad to take the opportunities of charity which their art continually offers, of giving comfort and corporal, if not often also spiritual, succour to the suffering and distressed, especially among the poor. St Ambrose, St Basil and St Bernard warn us against too anxious a care of health as a mark of untrustingness and self-love, nor is anything generally more hurtful to health. But as man is not master of his own life or health, he is bound to take a reasonable care not to throw them away; and to neglect the more simple and ordinary aids of medicine when they are required is to transgress that charity which everyone owes to himself. The saints who condemned difficult or expensive measures as contrary to their state were, with St Charles Borrorneo, scrupulously attentive to prescriptions of physicians in simple and ordinary remedies. But let the Christian in sickness seek in the first place the health of his soul by penitence and the exercise of patience.

The many recensions of the passio of these saints are catalogued in BHG. and BHL. The texts printed in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. vii, serve abundantly to illustrate their fabulous nature, though others have come to light in recent years. See with regard to the early cultus the references given in CMH., pp. 528-529; and also Delehaye, The Legends of the Saints, Les origines du culte des martyrs, and other works. The data supplied in L. Deubner, Kosmas und Damianus (1907) deserve special notice. Cf. also Fr Thurston  in the Catholic Medical Guardian. October 1923. pp. 92-95. SS. Cosmas and Damian are named in the preparation of the Byzantine Mass.
Sts. Cosmos and Damian were brothers, born in Arabia, who had become eminent for their skill in the science of medicine. Being Christians, they were filled with the spirit of charity and never took money for their services. At Egaea in Cilicia, where they lived, they enjoyed the highest esteem of the people. When the persecution under Diocletian broke out, their very prominence rendered them marked objects of persecution. Being apprehended by order of Lysias, governor of Cilicia, they underwent various torments about the year 283. Their feast day is September 26th. They are patron saints of pharmacists.  (d. 303?)  
Nothing is known of their lives except that they suffered martyrdom in Syria during the persecution of Diocletian. A church erected on the site of their burial place was enlarged by the emperor Justinian. Devotion to the two saints spread rapidly in both East and West. A famous basilica was erected in their honor in Constantinople. Their names were placed in the canon of the Mass, probably in the sixth century.

Legend says that they were twin brothers born in Arabia, who became skilled doctors. They were among those who are venerated in the East as the "moneyless ones" because they did not charge a fee for their services. It was impossible that such prominent persons would escape unnoticed in time of persecution: They were arrested and beheaded.
Comment:   For a long time, it seems, we have been very conscious of Jesus' miracles as proofs of his divinity. What we sometimes overlook is Jesus' consuming interest in simply healing people's sickness, whatever other meaning his actions had. The power that "went out from him" was indeed a sign that God was definitively breaking into human history in final fulfillment of his promises; but the love of God was also concrete in a very human heart that was concerned about the suffering of his brothers and sisters. It is a reminder to Christians that salvation is for the whole person, the unique body-spirit unity.
Quote:    "Do you not know that your body is a temple of the holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you have been purchased at a price. Therefore glorify God in your body" (1 Corinthians 6:19-20) .
300 St. Callistratus African martyr with 49 soldiers.
Romæ sancti Callístrati Mártyris, et aliórum quadragínta novem mílitum; qui mílites, in persecutióne Diocletiáni Imperatóris, cum Callístratus, insútus cúleo et in mare demérsus, divína ope evasísset incólumis, ad Christiánam religiónem convérsi sunt, et cum eo páriter martyrium subiérunt.
    At Rome, in the persecution of Diocletian, the holy martyr Callistratus and forty-nine other soldiers who endured martyrdom together.  The companions of Callistratus were converted to Christ upon seeing him miraculously delivered from drowning in the sea, although he had been sewn up in a bag and thrown in.
They were put to death at Constantinople in the persecution conducted in the reign of Emperor Diocletian.
304 St. Justina of Antioch; birthday of the holy martyrs Cyprian and the virgin Justina; black magic and diabolical expertise to win her for himself but was repelled by her faith and the aid of Mary; He then turned to a priest named Eusebius for instruction and was converted to Christianity. He destroyed his magical books, gave his wealth to the poor, and was baptized, as was Aglaides.
   Justina then gave away her possessions and dedicated herself to God
Nicomedíæ natális sanctórum Mártyrum Cypriáni et Justínæ Vírginis.  Hæc, sub Diocletiáno Imperatóre et Eutólmio Præside, cum multa pro Christo pertulísset, ipsum quoque Cypriánum, qui erat magnus et suis mágicis ártibus eam dementáre conabátur, ad Christiánam fidem convértit; cum quo póstea martyrium sumpsit.  Eórum córpora, feris objécta, rapuérunt noctu quidam nautæ Christiáni, et Romam detulérunt; quæ, póstmodum in Basílicam Constantiniánam transláta, prope Baptistérium cóndita sunt.
    At Nicomedia, the birthday of the holy martyrs Cyprian and the virgin Justina.  Under Emperor Diocletian and the governor Eutholmius, Justina suffered greatly for the faith of Christ, and thus converted Cyprian, who, while a magician, had endeavoured to bring her under the influence of his magical practices.  She afterwards suffered martyrdom with him.  Their bodies were exposed to the beasts, but were taken away in the night by some Christian sailors, and carried to Rome.  They were subsequently taken into the Constantinian basilica, and buried near the baptistry.

SS. CYPRIAN AND JUSTINA, MARTYRS  THE legend of this St Cyprian, distinguished as of Antioch, is a moral tale, utterly fabulous (if there ever were a martyred Cyprian and Justina on whom the story was built all trace of them has been lost), composed in order to impress on the listener or reader the powerlessness of the Devil and his angels in the face of Christian chastity defending itself with the might of the Cross. The tale has been worked up from various sources, and was known at least as early as the fourth century, for St Gregory Nazianzen identifies this Cyprian with the great St Cyprian of Carthage; the poet Prudentius makes the same mistake. The story as told by Alban Butler is as follows:

Cyprian, surnamed the Magician, was a native of Antioch who was brought up in all the impious mysteries of idolatry, astrology and black magic. In hopes of making great discoveries in these infernal arts, he left his native country when he was grown up and travelled to Athens, Mount Olympus in Macedonia, Argos, Phrygia, Memphis in Egypt, Chaldaea, and the Indies, places at that time famous for superstition and magical practices. When Cyprian had filled his head with all the extravagances of these schools of wickedness and delusion he stuck at no crimes, blasphemed Christ, and committed secret murders in order to offer the blood and inspect the bowels of children as decisive of future events; nor did he scruple to use his arts to overcome the chastity of women. At that time there lived at Antioch a lady called Justina, whose beauty drew all eyes upon her. She was born of heathen parents but was brought over to the Christian faith by overhearing a deacon preaching, and her conversion was followed by that of her father and mother. A young pagan, Aglaides, fell deeply in love with her, and finding himself unable to win her to his will he applied to Cyprian for the assistance of his art. Cyprian was no less enamoured of the lady than his friend, and tried every secret with which he was acquainted to conquer her resolution. Justina, finding herself vigorously attacked, armed herself by prayer, watchfulness and mortification against all his artifices and the power of his spells, suppliantly beseeching the Virgin Mary that she would succour a virgin in danger. Three times she overcame the assaults of demons sent by Cyprian by blowing in their faces and making the sign of the cross.

Cyprian, finding himself worsted by a superior power, threatened his last emissary, who was the Devil himself, that he would abandon his service. The Devil, enraged to lose one by whom he had made so many conquests, assailed Cyprian with the utmost fury, and he was only repulsed by Cyprian himself making the sign of the cross. The soul of the penitent sinner was seized with a gloomy melancholy, which brought him almost to the brink of despair, at the sight of his past crimes. God inspired him in this perplexity to address himself to a priest named Eusebius, who had formerly been his school-fellow, and by the advice of this priest he was comforted and encouraged in his conversion. Cyprian, who in the trouble of his heart had been three days without eating, by the counsel of this director took some food, and on the following Sunday was conducted by him to the assembly of the Christians. So much was Cyprian struck by the reverence and devotion with which their divine worship was performed that he said of it, I saw the choir of heavenly men-or of angels-singing to God, adding at the end of every verse in the psalms the Hebrew word Alleluia, so that they seemed not to be men. *[*In the course of a footnote Butler here tells a story which admirably illustrates an eighteenth-century deist's knowledge of and attitude towards Catholic worship. Lord Bolingbroke, being one day present at Mass in the chapel at Versailles and seeing the bishop elevate the host, was much impressed and whispered to his companion, the Marquess de --, If I were king of France, I would always perform that ceremony myself!
Everyone present was astonished to see Cyprian introduced among them by a priest, and the bishop was scarce able to believe that his conversion was sincere. But Cyprian gave him a proof the next day by burning before his eyes all his magical books, giving his goods to the poor, and entering himself among the catechumens.

After due instruction and preparation, he received the sacrament of baptism from the hands of the bishop. Aglaides was likewise converted and baptized. Justina herself was so moved at these wonderful examples of the divine mercy that she cut off her hair as a sign that she dedicated her virginity to God, and disposed of her jewels and all her possessions to the poor. Cyprian was made door-keeper and then promoted to the priesthood, and, after the death of Anthimus the bishop, was placed in the episcopal chair of Antioch. [No known bishop of Antioch in Syria or Antioch in Pisidia was called either Cyprian or Anthimus.] When the persecution of Diocletian began, Cyprian was apprehended and carried before the governor of Phoenicia, who resided at Tyre. Justina had retired to Damascus, her native country, which city at that time was subject to the same authority and, falling into the hands of the persecutors, was presented to the same judge. She was inhumanly scourged, and Cyprian was torn with iron hooks. After this they were both sent in chains to Diocletian at Nicomedia who, upon reading the letter of the governor of Phoenicia, without more ado commanded their heads to be struck off. This sentence was executed upon the banks of the river Gallus, after a vain effort had been made to slay the martyrs by boiling them in a cauldron of pitch.

This legend was widely popular, as the many texts in Latin and Greek, not to speak of other languages, abundantly attest. Some part of the story was certainly known before the time of St Gregory Nazianzen, for the orator, preaching about the year 379, attributes to St Cyprian of Carthage a number of incidents which are taken from the legend of Cyprian of Antioch. None the less no shred of evidence can be produced to justify the belief that any such persons as Cyprian of Antioch, the quondam magician, and Justina the virgin martyr, ever existed. See on this especially Delehaye, Cyprien d'Antioche et Cyprien de Carthage in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxix (1921), pp. 314-332. Apart from the text of the legend, which may be read in the Acta Sanctorum (September, vol. vii), and elsewhere in other forms, the story has given rise to a considerable literature. See, for example, T. Zahn, Cyprian von Antiochien und die deutsche Faustsage (1882); R. Reitzenstein, Cyprian der Magier in the Göttingen Nachrichten, 1917, pp. 38-79; and Rademacher, Griechische Quellen zur Faustsage in the Vienna Sitzungsberichte, vol. 206 (1927). This legend was taken by Calderon as the theme for one of the most famous of his dramas, El Mugico Prodigioso, and passages from this were selected by Shelley in his Scenes from Calderon.

   Cyprian was a native of Antioch who became a practitioner of sorcery and black magic. He traveled widely in Greece, Egypt, Macedonia, and the Indies to broaden his knowledge of the black arts.
  When Aglaides, a young pagan, fell in love with beautiful Justina, a Christian of Antioch, he asked Cyprian to help him win her. Cyprian tried all his black magic and diabolical expertise to win her for himself but was repelled by her faith and the aid of Mary. He called on the devil, who assailed Justina with every weapon in his arsenal, to no avail. When Cyprian realized the overwhelming power of the forces arrayed against him and the devil, Cyprian threatened to leave the devil's service; whereupon the devil turned on Cyprian, only to be repulsed by the sign of the cross made by a repentant Cyprian, who realized the sinfulness of his past life.
   He then turned to a priest named Eusebius for instruction and was converted to Christianity. He destroyed his magical books, gave his wealth to the poor, and was baptized, as was Aglaides.
   Justina then gave away her possessions and dedicated herself to God. In time Cyprian was ordained and later was elected bishop of Antioch. He was arrested during Diocletian's persecution of the Christians and tortured at Tyre by the governor of Phoenicia, as was Justina. They were then sent to Diocletian, who had them beheaded at Nicomedia
400 St. Senator of the Albano catacomb is the largest and the most important of the ones outside Rome
Albáni sancti Senatóris.    At Albano, St. Senator.
A virtually unknown saint said to come from Albanum, a location which could be one of several sites, including Italy and France.
The Albano catacomb is the largest and the most important of the ones outside Rome. In the central crypt there are some well-preserved wall-paintings, including the one representing  St. Senator, after whom the catacomb is named (late 4th  – early 5th cent A.D.
Bonóniæ sancti Eusébii, Epíscopi et Confessóris.
    St. Eusebius, bishop and confessor at Bologna,
400 Bishop of Bologna, Italy, from circa 370 and a close friend of St. Ambrose of Milan. An opponent of Arianism, he is credited with the discovery of the relics of Sts. Agricola and Vitalis.
506 St. Vigilius Bishop of Brescia, in Lombardy Italy.
Bríxiæ sancti Vigílii Epíscopi.    At Brescia, St. Vigilius, bishop.
He aided local monasteries and worked to establish a solid foundation for the diocese.
6th v.  St. Meugant Hermit of Britain
Hermit of Britain. Also called Maughan, Mawghan, and Morgan, he was a disciple of St. Illtyd and reportedly died on the island of Bardsey. He is the titular patron of churches in Wales and Cornwall
600 St. Amantius Patron saint of Cittá di Castello a priest distinguished for the gift of miracles.
Tiférni, in Umbria, sancti Amántii Presbyteri, virtúte miraculórum illústris.
    At Tiferno in Umbria, St. Amantius, a priest distinguished for the gift of miracles
Italy. Amantius was a parish priest in the city, venerated by Pope St. Gregory I the Great because of his sanctity.
612 St. Colman of Elo Abbot bishop;  author of the Alphabet of Devotion
also called Colman Lann Elo. He was born circa 555 at Glenelly, Tyrone, Ireland, the nephew of St. Columba, In 590, he built a monastery at Offaly. He also founded Muckamore Abbey and became bishop of Connor. Colman was the author of the Alphabet of Devotion. He died at Lynally on December 26
THERE are dozens of saints of the name of Colman who have been or are still venerated in Ireland; twelve are mentioned in calendars in this month of September alone, and of them the most important one is St Colman of Lann Elo. He belonged to a family of Meath, but was born in Glenelly in Tyrone, about the year 555. He came under the influence of St Colmcille, who was his maternal uncle. Colman visited him at Iona, and is said to have been delivered from the perils of the voyage by his uncle's prayers. About the year 590 land was given to him in Offaly, where he founded a monastery and so fulfilled the prophecy made by St Macanisius sixty years earlier. (He is sometimes referred to as Coarb of MacNisse, perhaps because he exercised some authority at Connor in Antrim, where he stayed for a time and Macanisius was buried.) Colman's famous monastery was called Lann Elo, EOW Lynally. Near the end of his life he made a pilgrimage to Clonard, where he had a vision of St Finnian, and on his return announced his approaching death to his monks. A number of miracles of a familiar type are attributed to St Colman Elo, and to him is attributed the authorship of the tract called Aibgitir in Chrabaid, the Alphabet of Devotion. He is also said to have been deprived for a while of his memory in punishment of his pride of intellect, and then to have recovered it again by a miracle.

There is both an Irish and a Latin life of St Colman Elo. The former has been edited by C. Plummer in his Bethada Naem nÉrenn (Eng. trans. in vol. ii, pp. 162-176); and the latter by the same scholar in VSH., vol. i, pp. 258-273. See also Canon E. Maguire, St Barron (1923); and J. Ryan, Irish Monasticism (1931).

1000 St. Nilus the Younger Abbot Born in Calabria southern Italy,
In agro Tusculáno beáti Nili Abbátis, qui fundátor monastérii Cryptæ Ferrátæ ac vir magnæ sanctitátis éxstitit.
    In the Tuscan plain, the blessed Abbot Nilus, founder of the monastery of Grottaferrata, a man of eminent sanctity.
NILUS, sometimes called  the Younger, was born of a Greek family of Magna Graecia at Rossano in Calabria about the year 910, and was baptized Nicholas. So far from being in his youth fervent in religious duties and in the practice of all virtues, as Alban Butler avers, he was at least lukewarm and careless in his early life; it has even been questioned whether the lady with whom he lived, and who bore him a daughter, was married to him. But when he was thirty she and the child died, and this double bereavement, aided by a serious sickness, recalled him to a sense of his responsibilities and brought about a complete turning to God. At that time there were a number of monasteries of monks of the Byzantine rite in southern Italy, and Nicholas received the habit at one of them, taking the name of Nilus. At different times he lived in several of these monasteries, after being for a period a hermit, and became abbot of St Adrian's, near San Demetrio Corone. The reputation of his sanctity and learning was soon spread over the country and many came to him for spiritual advice. On one occasion the archbishop, Theophylact of Reggio, with the domesticus Leo, many priests, and others went to him, rather desiring to try his erudition and skill than to hear any lessons for their edification. The abbot knew their intention, but having saluted them courteously and made a short prayer with them, he put into the hands of Leo a book in which
 were contained certain theories concerning the small number of the elect, which seemed to the company too severe. But the saint undertook to prove them to be clearly founded on the principles laid down not only by St Basil, St john Chrysostom, St Ephrern, St Theodore the Studite, and other fathers, but by St Paul and the gospel itself, adding at the close of his discourse, These statements seem dreadful, but they only condemn the irregularity of your lives. Unless you be altogether holy you will not escape everlasting torments. One of them then asked the abbot whether Solomon were damned or saved? To which he replied, What does it concern us to know whether he be saved or no? But it is needful for you to reflect that Christ pronounces damnation against all persons who commit impurity. This he said knowing that the person who put the question was addicted to that vice. And he added, I would know whether you will be damned or saved. As for Solomon, the Bible makes no mention of his repentance, as it does of that of Manasses. Euphraxus was not satisfied and continued so urgent that the saint at length gave him the habit. The governor made all his slaves free, distributed his estate among the poor, and died three days later with holy resignation. Euphraxus, a vain and haughty nobleman, was sent as governor of Calabria from the imperial court of Constantinople. St Nilus made him no presents upon his arrival, as other prelates did, and so the governor sought every occasion of mortifying the servant of God. But shortly after, falling sick, he sent for Nilus and begged his pardon and prayers, and asked to receive the monastic habit from his hands. St Nilus refused a long time to give it him, saying, Your baptismal vows are sufficient for you. Penance requires no new vows but a sincere change of heart and life.

About the year 981 the Saracen incursions into south Italy compelled St Nilus to flee, and with many of his monks this representative of Eastern monachism threw himself upon the hospitality of the headquarters of Western monachism at Monte Cassino. They were received as if St Antony had come from Alexandria, or their own great St Benedict from the dead, and after living in the house for a time and celebrating their Greek offices in the church, the Benedictine abbot, Aligern, bestowed upon the fugitives the monastery of Vallelucio. There they lived for fifteen years, and then moved to Serper i, near Gaeta. When in the year 998 the Emperor Otto III came to Rome to expel Philagathos, Bishop of Piacenza, whom the senator Crescentius had set up as antipope against Gregory V, St Nilus went to intercede with the pope and emperor that the antipope might be treated with mildness. Philagathos (John XVI) was a Calabrian like himself, and Nilus had tried in vain to dissuade him from his schism and treason. The abbot was listened to with respect, but he was not able to do much to modify the atrocious cruelty with which the aged antipope was treated.  When a prelate was sent to make an explanation to Nilus, who had protested vigorously against the injuries done to the helpless Philagathos, he pretended to fall asleep in order to avoid an argument about it. Some time after Otto paid a visit to the laura of St Nilus; he was surprised to see his monastery consisting of poor scattered huts, and said, These men who live in tents as strangers on earth are truly citizens of Heaven. Nilus conducted the emperor first to the church, and after praying there entertained him in his cell. Otto pressed the saint to accept some spot of ground in his dominions, promising to endow it. Nilus thanked him and answered, If my brethren arc truly monks our divine Master will not forsake them when I am gone. In taking leave the emperor vainly asked him to accept some gift: St Nilus, laying his hand upon Otto's breast, said, The only thing I ask of you is that you would save your soul. Though emperor, you must die and give an account to God, like other men.

In 1004 (or 1005) Nilus set out to visit a monastery south of Tusculum and on the journey was taken ill among the Alban hills. Here he had a vision of our Lady, in which he learned that this was to be the abiding home of his monks. From Gregory, Count of Tusculum, he got a grant of land on the lower slopes of Monte Cavo and sent for his community to establish themselves there. But before the work could be begun he was dead. It was carried on by his successors, especially by St Bartholomew, who died about 1050; the monastery of Grottaferrata (of which St Nilus is generally accounted the first abbot as well as founder) has existed from that day to this, peopled by Italo-Greek monks, who thus have maintained the Byzantine life and liturgy within a few miles of the heart, not merely of the Latin, but of the Catholic world.

A life of serious value as a historical source, which was written in Greek by one of his disciples, is printed with a Latin translation in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. vii. This biography has more than once been translated into Italian, e.g, by G. Minasi, San Nilo di Calabria (1893), and by A. Rocchi, Vita di San Nilo abate (1904). St Nilus was also a writer of liturgical poetry, and his compositions have been edited by Sofronio Gassisi, Poesie di S. Nilo juniore (1906). On the question of Nilus's alleged marriage see U. Benigni in Miscellanea di storia e coltura ecclesiastica (1905), pp. 494-496. His view is adverse to the existence of any legitimate union. See also J. Gay, L'Italie méridionale et l'Empire byzantin (1904), pp. 268-286.

  Born to Greek parents, he spent dissolute youth until deciding to enter the Basilian order after his mistress and their child died when he was about thirty years old. After living as a hermit for a time, he took up residence in several communities and finally was elected abbot over San Demetrio Corone.
   In 981, marauding Saracens threatened southern Italy, and Nilus fled with his monks to Monte Cassino. After spending fifteen years in the monastery of Vallelucio which had been given to the monks for their use, he founded a new community at Serpero. Later he received a grant of land from Count Gregory of Tusculum and so established the community which became the Monastery of Grottaferrata under Nilus’ disciple St Bartholomew. Nilus died at Frascati on December 27
1159 St. John of Meda abbot Rule of St. Benedict to Milan; A secular priest from Como, Italy, John joined the Humiliati, a penitential institute of laymen who brought the Rule of St. Benedict to the Humiliati in Milan, Italy.
A secular priest from Como, Italy, John joined the Humiliati, a penitential institute of laymen. He introduced the Little Office of Our Lady and the rule of St. Benedict. Pope Alexander III canonized him
THERE is considerable discussion about the origins of the penitential association of lay-people who were in the middle ages called Humiliati, and the quite unreliable legend of St John of Meda does little but add to the confusion. In the earlier part of the twelfth century numbers of persons of good position in northern Italy, while still living in the world, gave themselves up entirely to works of penance and charity; and we are told that in the year 1134 some of the men, on the advice of St Bernard, gave up secular life altogether and began community life at Milan. At this time, it is said, there was a certain secular priest from Como, John of Meda, who had been a hermit at Rodenario and then joined the Humiliati. He belonged to the Oldrati of Milan, and was a welcome recruit for the new community. On his recommendation they chose to live under the Rule of St Benedict, which St John adapted to their needs, but they nevertheless called themselves canons. Among the peculiar observances which St John is supposed to have introduced was the daily recitation of the Little Office of our Lady and the use of a special Divine Office, called simply the Office of the Canons. Whatever the early history of the Humiliati, the order eventually went into a bad decline and was suppressed by the Holy See in 157I.

In the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. vii, the Bollandists have published a short medieval life, introducing it with lengthy prolegomena. It is much to be feared that this pretended biography and indeed the whole traditional early history of the Humiliati is no better than a romance. A review of the controversy is impossible here, but it has been excellently summarized, with abundant bibliographical references, by F. Vernet in DTC., vol. vi, cc. 307-321. It must suffice to mention the important work of L. Zanoni, Gli Umiliati nei  loro rapporti con I'Eresia (1911); the earlier investigation of Tiraboschi, Vetera Humiliatorum Monumenta (1766-1768); and the perhaps hypercritical article of A. de Stefano, LeOrigini dell' ordine degli Umiliati in the Rivista storico-critica delle scienze teologice, vol. ii (1906), pp. 851-871.

13th v. BD LUCY OF CALTAGIRONE, VIRGIN special devotion to the Five Wounds; and miracles were attributed to her both before and after her death
CALTAGIRONE, a town in Sicily well-known in later times as the home of Don Luigi Sturzo, was the birthplace of this beata, but she seems to have spent her life in a convent of Franciscan regular tertiaries at Salerno. Very little is known about her. She became mistress of novices, and instilled into her charges her own, the date of which is not known. Bd Lucy's cultus seems to have been approved by Popes Callistus III and Leo X.

See the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. vii.

1341 BD DALMATIUS MONER he was...gently floating down to the ground. The lessons of his office say that he was familiarly known as 'the brother who talks with the angels':  a copy of Eymeric's work was identified and edited by Fr van Ortroy in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxi (1912), pp. 49-81. This memoir is extremely interesting because we have evidence that, unlike most hagiographical documents, it was written within ten years of the death of its subject.

The life of this confessor of the order of Friars Preachers was passed in the obscurity of his cell and the quiet discharge of his ordinary duties; he was concerned in no public affairs whether of an ecclesiastical or secular nature. He belonged by birth to the village of Santa Columba in Catalonia and was eventually sent to the University of Montpellier. Here he had to struggle hard lest he be drawn into the disorderly life led by so many of the students; with the aid of grace he triumphed and, after finishing his studies, was accepted by the Dominicans at Gerona. Bd Dalmatius was then twenty-five and after profession was employed for many years in teaching, and became master of the novices. To those prescribed by his rule he added voluntary mortifications, such as abstaining from drink for three weeks on end and sleeping in an old chair, and he loved to pray out of doors in places where the beauty of nature spoke to him of the glory of God. It is said that one day, when Brother Dalmatius was missing and another friar was sent to find him, he was found to he literally caught up in ecstasy, and three people saw him gently floating down to the ground. The lessons of his office say that he was familiarly known as the brother who talks with the angels; but with women he would not talk at all, except over his shoulder. We are told that his personal appearance was somewhat unattractive.

It was a great desire of Bd Dalmatius to end his days at La Sainte Baume, where the legend of Provence says thirty years were spent by St Mary Magdalen, patroness of the Dominican Order, to whom he had an intense devotion. This was not to be, but he was allowed to hollow out for himself a cave in the friary grounds at Gerona and he lived in that uncomfortable place for four years, leaving it only to go to choir, chapter and refectory. Bd Dalmatius died on September 24, 1341, and his cultus was confirmed in 1721.

The Bollandists, writing of Bd Dalmatius in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. vi, were unable to procure the original Latin life of this holy ascetic which they knew had been compiled by his contemporary and fellow religious, the famous inquisitor, Nicholas Eymeric. They therefore reproduced in Latin the Spanish translation, or rather adaptation, of the original, which had been made by Francis Diego for his history of the Aragon province of the Friars Preachers. In the early years, however, of the present century a copy of Eymeric's work was identified and it was edited by Fr van Ortroy in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxxi (1912), pp. 49-81. This memoir is extremely interesting because we have evidence that, unlike most hagiographical documents, it was written within ten years of the death of its subject.

1492 Saint Ephraim of Perekop, Novgorod; he persuaded his parents, Stephen and Annathem to leave the world and accept monasticism. Later, they also finished their earthly paths living as hermits; received a revelation from the Lord, commanding him to withdraw to a desolate place; St Ephraim was buried at the church of St Nicholas. In 1509, frequent floodings threatened the monastery with ruin, it was transferred to another location at the shore of Lake Ilmen. St Ephraim appeared to the igumen Romanus and pointed to the site of Klinkovo for relocating the monastery.

Born on September 20, 1412 in the city of Kashin. In Holy Baptism he was named Eustathius. His parents, Stephen and Anna, lived not far from the Kashin women's monastery named in honor of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos.

Drawn to the solitary life, Eustathius left his parental home while still in his early years and settled in the Kalyazin monastery of the Most Holy Trinity. His parents wanted their son to return home, but he persuaded
his parents, Stephen and Annathem to leave the world and accept monasticism. Later, they also finished their earthly paths living as hermits.

After three years in the monastery, Eustathius, through a miraculous revelation, transferred to the monastery of St Sava of Vishersk (October 1). It was there in 1437 that he accepted tonsure with the name Ephraim. While in the monastery, St Ephraim received a revelation from the Lord, commanding him to withdraw to a desolate place.

Having received the blessing of St Sava, in 1450 he went to Lake Ilmen, at the mouth of the River Verenda, and on the banks of the River Cherna he built a cell. After a certain while the Elder Thomas and two monks came to St Ephraim, and they settled not far from his cell. From that time, other hermits also began to gather to the new monastery. At their request St Ephraim was ordained a priest at Novgorod by St Euthymius (March 11).

Returning from Novgorod, St Ephraim built a church in honor of the Theophany of the Lord on an island, at the mouth of the River Verenda. To secure a ready supply of water for the monastery, the monk dug a canal to Lake Ilmen, from which the monastery received its name "Perekop" (from "perekopat'" meaning "to dig through"). Later on, St Ephraim built a stone church named for St Nicholas the Wonderworker. Unable to find sufficient skilled builders, he sent several monks to Great Prince Basil with a request for sending stone-workers. The construction of the temple was completed in 1466.

St Ephraim reposed on September 26, 1492 and was buried at the church of St Nicholas. In 1509, because of frequent floodings that threatened the monastery with ruin, it was transferred to another location at the shore of Lake Ilmen. St Ephraim appeared to the igumen Romanus and pointed to the site of Klinkovo for relocating the monastery.

Over the saint's tomb a chapel was built, since all the monastery churches were in ruins. On May 16, 1545 the relics of St Ephraim were transferred to the site of the new monastery. On this day there is an annual celebration of St Ephraim of Perekop at the monastery, confirmed after the glorification of the holy ascetic at the Council of 1549. (The Transfer of the Relics of St Ephraim of Perekop is celebrated May 16).

THE good intentions of the explorer James Cartier, to whom redounds the credit of having tried in 1534 to bring Christianity to Canada, as well as the later efforts of Samuel Champlain who founded Quebec in 1608, remained without permanent result. Nevertheless by the wish of the French King Henry IV, in this same year 1608, two Jesuits, Peter Biard and Ennemond Masse, had sailed from Europe, and on their arrival in Acadia (Nova Scotia) began work among the Souriquois Indians at Port Royal (now Annapolis). Their first task was to learn the language. Masse went into the woods to live with these nomad
 tribes and to pick up what he could of their speech, while Biard stayed at the settlement and bribed with food and sweets the few Indians who remained, in order to induce them to teach him the words he required. After a year they were able to draw up a catechism and to begin to teach. They found one of the two tribes they had to do with-the Etchemins-averse to Christianity, and the Souriquois, though more favourably disposed, lacking in the religious sense. All were given to drunkenness and sorcery, and all practised polygamy. Nevertheless by the time the missionaries were joined by fresh colonists and by two more Jesuit priests, as well as by a lay-brother, the work of evangelization seemed well inaugurated. But in 1613 a raid was made from the sea by the piratical English captain of a merchant vessel, who descended with his crew on the unfortunate inhabitants, pillaged the settlement, and set adrift fifteen of the colony, including Masse. He then sailed back to Virginia with Biard and Quentin on board. Eventually the missionaries found their way back to France, but their work of preaching the gospel was brought to a standstill.
  In the meantime Champlain, now governor of New France, was continually imploring that good religious should be sent out, and in 1615 several Franciscan's arrived at Tadroussac. They laboured heroically, hut finding that they could not ohtain enough men or enough money to convert the Indians, they invited the Jesuits to come to their assistance. In 1625 three priests of the Society of Jesus landed in Quebec in time to meet the Indian traders who had just murdered the friar Vial and his catechist and had thrown them into that part of the rapids which is still known as Sault-au-Recollet- Of the three new-comers one was Masse, returning to his former labours, but the two others, Brébeuf  and Charles Lalemant, were new to the work. When John de Brébeuf  entered the Jesuit seminary in Rouen, at the age of twenty-four, his constitution was so feeble that he could not pursue the usual courses of study, nor could he teach for any length of time. It seems almost incredible that this tuberculous invalid should have developed within a very few years into the giant apostle of the Hurons, whose powers of endurance and courage were so outstanding that the Indians who killed him drank his blood to infuse themselves with his valour
As Brébeuf  was unable to trust himself at once to the Hurons he wintered with the Algonquins, learning their speech and their customs under conditions of appalling discomfort, dirt and occasionally of hunger. The following year he went with a Franciscan and a fellow Jesuit to the Huron country. On the journey of 600 miles they were obliged, owing to the rapids, to carry their canoes thirty-five times and to drag them repeatedly, and all their baggage had to be carried by hand at these numerous portages. The Jesuits settled at Tad's Point, but Brébeuf 's companions were soon recalled and Brébeuf  was left alone with the Hurons, whose habit of living, less migratory than that of other tribes, gave the missionaries a better prospect of evangelizing them. He soon discovered that he was a source of constant suspicion to his hosts, who blamed him for every mishap that befell them and had a superstitious terror of the cross on the top of his cabin. During that period he failed to make a single convert among them. His stay was, however, cut short. The colony was in distress: the English closed the St Lawrence to all relief from France and obliged Champlain to surrender. Colonists and missionaries were forced to return to their own country, and Canada became, for the first time and for a short period, a British colony. Before long the indefatigable Champlain brought the matter to the law courts in London, and was able to prove so conclusively that the seizure of the colony was unjust that in 1632 Canada reverted to France.

Immediately the Franciscans were invited to return, but they had not enough men, and the Jesuits took up the work of evangelization once more. Father Le Jeune, who was placed in charge of the mission, came to New France in 1632, Antony Daniel soon followed, and in 1633 Brébeuf  and Masse arrived with Champlain, the governor. Le Jeune, who had been a Huguenot in early life, was a man of extraordinary ability and of wide vision. He considered the mission not merely a matter for a few priests and their supporters, but as an enterprise in which every French Catholic ought to be interested. He conceived the plan of keeping the entire nation informed of the actual conditions in Canada by a series of graphic descriptions, beginning with his own personal experiences on the voyage and his first impressions of the Indians. The earliest reports were written and despatched to France within two months and were published at the end of the year. These missives, known as “The Jesuit Relations, continued to pass from New to Old France almost without interruption, and often embodied the letters of other Jesuits, such as Brébeuf  and Perrault. They awakened interest not only in France but in all Europe. Immediately on their appearance a stream of emigration began to flow from the old country, and religious-both men and women-soon came to labour among the Indians, as well as to render spiritual help to the colonists. Father Antony Daniel, who was to be Brébeuf ''s companion for some time, was, like him, a Norman by birth. He was studying law when he decided to become a Jesuit, and previous to his departure for the New World had been in contact with those who had much to tell about the Canadian mission.

When the Hurons came to Quebec for their annual market they were delighted to meet Brébeuf  and to be addressed by him in their own language. They wished him to go back with them, and he was eager to do so, but they were frightened at the last moment by an Ottawa chieftain, and for the time refused. The following year, however, when they came again, they agreed to take Brébeuf , Daniel and another priest named Darost, and after a most uncomfortable journey in which they were robbed and abandoned by their guides, the three Jesuits reached their destination, where the Hurons built a hut for them. Brébeuf  gave his companions lessons in Huron, and Daniel, who proved himself an apt pupil, could soon lead the children in chanting the Lord's Prayer when Brébeuf  held assemblies in his cabin. Religion, as the Indians understood it, was solely based on fear, and the missionaries found it desirable to start with what they could apprehend. As Brébeuf  writes: “We began our catechizing with the memorable truth that their souls, which are immortal, all go after death either to paradise or hell. It is thus we approach them in public or in private. I explained that it rested with them during life to decide what their future lot was to be.” A great drought parched the land and threatened famine: the sorcerers could do nothing and the Indians were in despair. Brébeuf , to whom they appealed, told them to pray, and began a novena, at the close of which rain fell in abundance and the crops were saved. The Hurons were impressed, but the older members held fast to their old traditions and the middle-aged were indifferent and fickle. The Jesuits decided never to confer baptism on adults without long preparation and proof of constancy, but they baptized the sick near to death-of whom there were always a number, owing to the prevalence of epidemics. The children, on the other hand, were teachable and well disposed, though vice was so general that it was well-nigh impossible to preserve them from the contamination of their elders. It was therefore resolved to establish a seminary at Quebec for Indians, and Daniel started back with two or three children to found the new institution which became the centre of the missionaries' hopes. Daniel himself was not only the children's father, but their teacher, nurse and playmate. For a short time Brébeuf  was again alone among the Hurons and he then wrote for those who were to come to the Huron mission an instruction which afterwards became famous.

In 1636 arrived five more Jesuits, two of whom were destined to be numbered among the martyrs-Jogues, who was to become the apostle of a new Indian nation, and Garnier. Isaac Jogues had been born at Orleans, and after entering the Jesuit novitiate at Rouen at the age of seventeen had studied at the royal college of La Fleche, which Descartes considered one of the first schools of Europe. After his ordination he was appointed to Canada and sailed with the governor of New France, Huault de Montmagny. Charles Garnier was a Parisian, educated at the Clermont college. At nineteen he became a Jesuit, and after his ordination in 1635 he volunteered for the Canadian mission. He sailed with Jogues in 1636. Garnier was then thirty years of age, Jogues was twenty-nine.

While Brébeuf  was alone with the Hurons he had gone through the excitement of a threatened invasion by their bitter enemies the Iroquois, and had to witness the horrible sight of an Iroquois tortured to death. He could do nothing to avert this; but, as he had baptized the captive shortly before, he was determined to stand by to encourage him. He saw an aspect of Indian character which was a revelation to him. "Their mockery of their victim was fiendish. The more they burned his flesh and crushed his bones, the more they flattered and even caressed him. It was an all-night tragedy." Brébeuf  was witnessing what he himself would afterwards suffer. Five of the new-comers went almost at once to join Father de Brébeuf , and Jogues, who had not been intended at first for the Huron mission, followed a few months later. An epidemic which was raging in the village prostrated most of the missionaries for a time, and although even the convalescents ministered to the Indian sick, the village sorcerer spread the suspicion-which they were only temporarily able to allay-that the foreigners were the cause of the visitation.

Nevertheless in May 1637 Brébeuf  felt free to write to the father general of his order: We are gladly heard, we have baptized more than 200 this year, and there is hardly a village that has not invited us to go to it. Besides, the result of this pestilence and of these reports has been to make us better known to this people; and at last it is understood from our whole conduct that we have not come hither to buy skins or to carry on any traffic, but solely to teach them, and to procure for them their souls' health and in the end happiness which will last for ever. Again, however, the hopes of the missionaries received a check in consequence of a new outbreak of suspicion, culminating in a tribal council of twenty-eight villages which was practically a trial of the priests. Brébeuf  defended himself and his companions with spirit, but they were informed that they must die. They drew up a last statement for their superiors, and Brébeuf  invited the Indians to his farewell feast. There he harangued them about life after death, and so wrought upon them that he was adopted by them, and his companions were left in peace.

A second mission was established at Teanaustaye, and Lalemant was appointed in charge of both stations, whilst Brébeuf  at his own wish undertook the care of a new location, called Sainte-Marie, at some distance from the Indian villages. This settlement acted as a central bureau for missions and as a headquarters for priests and their attendants, as well as for the Frenchmen who served as labourers or soldiers. A hospital and a fort were erected and a cemetery established, and for five years the pioneers worked perseveringly, often undertaking long and perilous expeditions to other tribes-to the Petun or Tobacco Indians, the Ojibways, and to the Neuters north of Lake Erie-by whom they were more often than not very badly received. The first adult to be baptized (in 1637) was followed by over eighty, two years later, and by sixty in 1641. It did not seem much, but it proved that genuine conversion was possible. Lalemant, in his relation for 1639, wrote, We have sometimes wondered whether we could hope for the conversion of this country without the shedding of blood, and at least two of the missionaries, Brébeuf  and Jogues, were praying constantly to be allowed a share in the glory of suffering-if not of martyrdom. In 1642 the Huron country was in great distress: harvests were poor, sickness abounded, and clothing was scarce. Quebec was the only source of supplies, and Jogues was chosen to lead an expedition. It reached its objective safely and started back well supplied with goods for the mission, but the Iroquois, the bitter enemies of the Hurons, and the fiercest of all Indian tribes, were on the war-path and ambushed the returning expedition. The story of the ill-treatment and torture of the captives cannot here be told. Suffice it to say that Jogues and his assistant René Goupil, besides being beaten to the ground and assailed several times with knotted sticks and fists, had their hair, beards and nails tom off and their forefingers bitten through. What grieved them far more was the cruelty practised on their Christian converts. The first of all the martyrs to suffer death was Goupil, who was tomahawked on September 29, 1642, for having made the sign of the cross on the brow of some children. This René Goupil was a remarkable man. He had tried hard to be a Jesuit and had even entered the novitiate, but his health forced him to give up the attempt. He then studied surgery and found his way to Canada, where he offered his services to the missionaries, whose fortitude he emulated.

Jogues remained a slave among the Mohawks, one of the Iroquois tribes, who, however, had decided to kill him. He owed his escape to the Dutch, who, ever since they had heard of the sufferings he and his friends were enduring, had been trying to obtain his release. Through the efforts of the governor of Fort Orange and of the governor of New Netherlands he was taken on board a vessel and, by way of England, got back to France, where his arrival roused the keenest interest. With mutilated fingers he was debarred from celebrating Mass, but Pope Urban VII granted him special permission to do so, saying, It would be unjust that a martyr for Christ should not drink the blood of Christ. Early in 1644 Jogues was again at sea on his way back to New France. Arriving at Montreal, then recently founded, he began to work among the Indians of that neighbourhood, pending the time when he could return to the Hurons, a journey which was becoming yearly more perilous because Iroquois Indians were everywhere along the route. Unexpectedly the Iroquois sent an embassy to Three Rivers to sue for peace: Jogues, who was present at the conference, noticed that no representative came from the chief village, Ossernenon. Moreover, it was clear to him that the Iroquois only desired peace with the French-not with the Hurons. However, it was considered desirable to send a deputation from New France to meet the Iroquois chiefs at Ossernenon, and Jogues was selected as ambassador, together with John Bourdon, who represented the government of the colony.

They went by the route of Lake Champlain and Lake George, and after spending a week in confirming the pact they returned to Quebec, Jogues leaving behind a box of religious articles because he was resolved later to return to the Mohawks as a missionary, and was glad to be relieved of one of his packages. This box proved the immediate cause of his martyrdom. The Mohawks had had a bad crop, and soon after Jogues's departure an epidemic broke out which they attributed to a devil concealed in the box. So when they heard that Jogues was paying a third visit to their villages, they waylaid, stripped and ill-treated him and his companion Lalande. His captors were members of the Bear clan, and although the other clans tried to protect the prisoners, the Bear family refused to allow their fate to be decided in council. Some of them treacherously invited Jogues to a meal on the evening of October 18 and tomahawked him as he was entering the cabin. His head they cut off and placed on a pole facing the route by which he had come. *[* Ossernenon, the scene of these martyrdoms, was ten years later the birthplace of Kateri Tekakwitha, the Mohawk girl whose beatification is looked forward to. {Ownkeonweke Katsitsiio Teonsitsianekaron The fairest flower that ever bloomed among red men. She is called The Lily of the Mohawks,]}

  The following day his companion Lalande and the Huron guide were likewise tomahawked and beheaded, their bodies being afterwards thrown into the river. John Lalande was, like Rene Goupil, a donné or oblate of the mission. The martyrdom of Jogues sealed the fate of the Hurons, whose only hope of peace had lain in his success as a missionary among their ferocious enemies, the Iroquois. They had begun to receive the faith in considerable numbers, and there were twenty-four missionaries working amongst them, including Father Daniel. The Hurons, in fact, were gradually becoming Christian, and with a period of peace the whole tribe would have been converted, but the Iroquois were unremitting in their hostilities. They began to attack and pillage the Huron villages, sparing no one, and on July 4, 1648, they appeared at Teanaustaye, just as Daniel had finished celebrating Mass. A great panic  ensued, but the father threw himself amongst them and baptized all he could. There were so many who cried to him that he was constrained to dip his handkerchief in water and baptize them by aspersion. When he saw that the Iroquois were becoming masters of the place, instead of escaping, as his converts urged him to do, he remembered some old and sick people he had long ago prepared for baptism, and went through the cabins to encourage them to be steadfast. Then, betaking himself to the church, which he found filled with Christians, he warned them to fly while there was yet time, and went forth alone to meet the enemy. They surrounded him on all sides, covering him with arrows till he fell dead, pierced through the breast. They stripped him and threw his body into the church, which they set on fire. As the narrator of this martyrdom writes, He could not have been more gloriously consumed than in the conflagration of such a chapelle ardente.

Within a year, on March 16, 1649, the Iroquois attacked the village at which Brébeuf and Lalemant were stationed. Gabriel Lalemant was the last of the martyrs to reach New France. Two of his uncles had been Canadian missionaries, and he, after taking his vows in Paris as a Jesuit, had added a fourth vow-to sacrifice his life to the Indians-a vow which had to wait fourteen years for its fulfilment. The torture of these two missionaries was as atrocious as anything recorded in history. Even after they had been stripped naked and beaten with sticks on every part of their bodies, Brebeuf continued to exhort and encourage the Christians who were around him. One of the fathers had his hands cut off, and to both were applied under the armpits and beside the loins hatchets heated in the fire, as well as necklaces of red-hot lance blades round their necks. Their tormentors then proceeded to girdle them with belts of bark steeped in pitch and resin, to which they set fire. At the height of these torments Father Lalemant raised his eyes to Heaven and with sighs invoked God's aid, whilst Father de Brebeuf set his face like a rock as though insensible to the pain. Then, like one recovering consciousness, he preached to his persecutors and to the Christian captives until the savages gagged his mouth, cut off his nose, tore off his lips, and then, in derision of baptism, deluged him and his companion martyrs with boiling water. Finally, large pieces of flesh were cut out of the bodies of both the priests and roasted by the Indians, who tore out their hearts before their death by means of an opening above the breast, feasting on them and on their blood, which they drank while it was still warm.

The murder of the missionaries and the havoc wrought amongst the Hurons, far from satisfying the ferocious Iroquois, only whetted their thirst for blood. Before the end of the year 1649 they had penetrated as far as the Tobacco nation, where Father Garnier had founded a mission in 1641 and where the Jesuits now had two stations. The inhabitants of the village of Saint-Jean, hearing that the enemy was approaching, sent out their men to meet the attackers, who, however, having elicited from fugitives information of the defenceless condition of the settlement, took a roundabout way and arrived at the gates unexpectedly. An orgy of incredible cruelty followed, in the midst of which Garnier, the only priest in the mission, hastened from place to place, giving absolution to the Christians and baptizing the children and catechumens, totally unmindful of his own fate. While thus employed he was shot down by the musket of an Iroquois. He strove to reach a dying man whom he thought he could help, but after three attempts he collapsed, and subsequently received his death-blow from a hatchet which penetrated to the brain. Some of his Indian converts buried him on the spot where the church had stood.

Father Noel Chabanel, the missionary companion of Garnier, was immediately recalled. He had started on his way back with some Christian Hurons when they heard the cries of the Iroquois returning from Saint-Jean. The father urged his followers to escape, but was too much exhausted to keep up with them. His fate was long uncertain, but a Huron apostate eventually admitted having killed the holy man out of hatred of the Christian faith. Chabanel was not the least heroic of the martyrs. He possessed none of the adaptability of the rest, nor could he ever learn the language of the savages, the sight of whom, their food-everything about them-was revolting to him.  Moreover, he was tried by spiritual dryness during the whole of his stay in Canada. Yet in order to bind himself more inviolably to the work which his nature abhorred, he made a solemn vow, in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, to remain till death in this mission to the Indians.  Little did these noble martyrs who saw such scanty results accruing from their labours foresee that within a short time after their death the truths they proclaimed would be embraced by their very executioners, and that their own successors would visit and christianize almost every tribe with which the martyr" had been in contact.

These martyrs of North America, viz. SS. John de Brébeuf, Isaac Jogues, Antony Daniel, Gabrial Lalemant, Charles Garnier, Noel Chabanel, Rene Goupil and  John Lalande, were canonized in 1930. Their feast is observed  throughout the United States and Canada on this day and on March 16 by the Society of Jesus.

The primary source of information concerning these martyrs must of course be the letters of the missionaries themselves. These are accessible to all and equipped with an English translation in the great series of R.G. Thwaites, Jesuit Relations (73 vols., 1897-1901). Of the many books which provide a more compendious account may be mentioned J. Wynne, The Jesuit Martyrs of North America (1925); E. J. Devine, The Jesuit Martyrs of Canada (1925); and T. J. Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America. In French we have Rigault and Goyau, Martyrs de la Nouvelle France; and more especially H. Fouqueray, Martyrs du Canada (1930), which last may be recommended for its excellent bibliography. There are also some biographies of the individual martyrs, particularly those of Jogues, Brébeuf, and Garnier by F. Martin. Needless to say that many non-Catholic historians have also paid a generous tribute of respect to these heroic missionaries, notably Francis Parkman in The Jesuits in North America (1868). More recent American works are J. A. O'Brien, The American Martyrs; F. X. Talbot, A Saint Among the Savages and A Saint Among the Hurons; and W. and E. M. Jury, Sainte-Marie among the Hurons (1953). See also L. Pouliot, Etude sur les Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France (1940); and R. Latourelle, Etude sur les écrits de S. Jean de Brébeuf (2 vols. 1953).

1649 St. Noel Chabanel Jesuit missionary to Hurons in Canada
Noel was born on February 2 near Mende, France. He joined the Jesuits in 1630 and in 1643 was sent as a missionary to the Huron Indians in Canada. He became assistant to Father Charles Garnier at the Indian village of Etarita in 1649 and was murdered on December 8 by an apostate Indian while returning from a visit to neighboring Ste. Marie. He was canonized in 1930 by Pope Pius XI as one of the martyrs of North America.
Born in Southern France, 2 February, 1613

A Jesuit missionary among the Huron Indians
Entered the Jesuit novitiate at Toulouse at the age of seventeen, and was professor of rhetoric in several colleges of the society in the province of Toulouse. He was highly esteemed for virtue and learning.
In 1643, he was sent to Canada and, after studying the Algonquin language for a time, was appointed to the mission of the Hurons, among whom he remained till his death. In these apostolic labours he was the companion of the intrepid missionary, Father Charles Garnier. As he felt a strong repugnance to the life and habits of the Indians, and feared it might result in his own withdrawal from the work, he nobly bound himself by vow never to leave mission, and he kept his vow to the end. Slain by a renegade Huron, 8 December, 1649
1885 St. Marie Teresa Couderc Foundress Society of Our lady of the Cenacle

1885 BD TERESA COUDERC, VIRGIN, CO-FOUNDRESS OF THE CO"GREGATION OF OUR LADY OF THE RETREAT IN THE CENACLE *'*' This name has reference to the period between our Lord's Ascension and the day of Pentecost, when the Apostles “were persevering with one mind in prayer, with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brethren”, in the upper room at Jerusalem. Cénacle is the French form of Latin cenaculum, literally a “dining-room”. “Upper room” is the traditional rendering in English.

IN the year 1824 the Reverend J. P. E. Terme and other priests were sent by their bishop to La Louvesc, in the Vivarais in south-eastern France, to do missionary work among the peasants and to look after the pilgrim shrine of St John Francis Regis. It was soon found urgently necessary to open a hostel for women pilgrims; and to look after this hostel Father Terme turned to a community of sisters whom he had established to teach school in his former parish of Aps. Three young women were accordingly sent to La Louvesc in 1827, among them Sister Teresa Couderc. Sister Teresa, born in 1805 and christened Mary Victoria, came of good farming stock at Sablières, and had been one of the first members of the community at Aps.

Father Terme said that Sister Teresa had a sound head, sound judgement, and a power of spiritual discrimination rare in a woman; and in the very next year, when she was only twenty-three, he made her superioress at La Louvesc, where under considerable difficulties (especially from the climate which, at 4000 feet up, is fierce in winter) the community was already showing signs of growth. The year after that came its turning-point. Father Terme went to a retreat at a Jesuit house near Le Puy: and on his return he announced that the Daughters of St Regis (as they were then called) should add to their work the giving of retreats for women-not, of course, with spiritual direction or anything like that, but to begin with spiritual reading and simple instruction on the fundamentals of Christianity. This was at that time a most remarkable innovation; it was an immediate success, especially among the countrywomen, and in years to come it was to spread across the world. But meanwhile, on December 12, 1834, Father Terme died.

The shrine and parish of La Louvesc had recently been taken over by the Jesuit fathers; and with their advice it was decided to separate the work of school teaching from that of retreats. Twelve carefully-chosen sisters were therefore withdrawn from the Daughters of St Regis and, with Mother Teresa Couderc at their head, installed at La Louvesc, under the direction of Father Rigaud, S.J. The giving of retreats according to the method of St Ignatius went ahead, and a new house and church for the convent soon became necessary. But the source on which reliance had been put to meet these and other expenses suddenly failed, and the community was left with very large debts and nothing to pay them with. Mother Teresa blamed herself-quite unnecessarily-for what had happened, and in 1838 she resigned her office as superioress. Thereupon the bishop of Viviers named in her place a wealthy widow who had been in the community less than a month.

Thus began a long, complex and not always edifying story, which is a matter of the history and development of the Society of the Cenacle (as it was soon to be known), rather than of its holy foundress. Mother Teresa was sent to make a new foundation at Lyons, in most difficult conditions; but she more and more dropped into obscurity, living the words she uttered on her death-bed: “I ask of God that we shall never do anything out of ostentation; but that we should on the contrary do our good in the background, and that we should always look on ourselves as the least of the Church's little ones.”

It was nearly twenty years before Mgr Guibert, bishop of Viviers, declared once and for all that the founder of the Cenacle was Father John Terme and the foundress Mother Teresa Couderc, and nobody else; and at that time she was sent to the Paris convent as temporary superioress at a moment of crisis. Then she sank into the background again, so that Cardinal Lavigerie on a visit to the nuns, at once detecting holiness in her face, had to ask who was the one that had been left out.

Bd Teresa Couderc was a foundress, yet for well over half of her eighty years her life was a hidden one, forwarding the work of her foundation in hiding as it were, with her prayers, her penances, her humiliations. In herself she saw only feebleness and incapacity, uselessness and a complete lack of virtue. No criticism was heard from her of so much that seems to deserve criticism. She was content.  God has always given me peace of soul, the grace to leave myself in His hands and to want nothing but to love Him and be ever closer to Him. The word bonté recurs on the lips of those who knew her; and in English the simple word goodness expresses the depth and nature of her quality better than all the superlatives of hagiographers.

Towards the end of her life Mother Teresa's health began to fail badly, and for the last nine months she suffered terribly in body. At Fourvière on September 26, 1885, Mary Victoria Couderc, Mother Teresa, died; and in 1951 she was beatified.

See, in French, E. M. I., La Mère Thérèse Couderc (1911); H. Perroy, Une grande humble (1928); S. Dehin, L'esprit de la vén. Mère Thérèse Couderc (1947); P. Vernion, La Cénacle et son message (1948): in English: C. C. Martindale, Marie Thérèse Couderc (1921); R. Surles, Surrender to the Spirit (1951), an American adaptation of Fr Perroy's book. See also G. Longhaye, La Société de N.-D. du Cénacle (1898), and M. de Sailly, J. P. E. Terme (1913).

Foundress of the Society of Our lady of the Cenacle at La Louvesc, France. She was born on February 1, at Masle, France. Joining Father J. Terme in his parish work in Aps, she founded the Daughters of St. Regis, the original group that became the Society. She served as superior until 1838 and then resumed the role of a simple member of the com­munity until her death on September 26. Murió el 26 de septiembre de 1885.
By the time of her death, her congregation spread rapidly. Pope Paul VI canonized her in 1970.
1885 St. Theresa Coudere Foundress Our Lady of Retreat
Foundress of the Religious of Our Lady of the Retreat in the Cenacle. She was born in Le Mas. France, in 1805 and entered a community of dedicated women that evolved into the Sisters of St. Regis in 1829. Theresa founded the Cenacle. She resigned as superior in 1838 and spent the rest of her life, except for a brief period, as a simple sister. She died at Fourviere on September 26. She was beatified in 1951 and canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970

Mary's Divine Motherhood

Parishes. That our parishes, animated by a missionary spirit,
may be places where faith is communicated and charity is seen.

Marian spirituality: all are invited.
God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.

Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas

                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
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There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory