July 2000

Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's second largest oil producer and was the eighth largest supplier of crude to the United States in 1999. Major offshore oil finds have made Angola a leading area for hydrocarbon exploration in sub-Saharan Africa.

Note: The information contained in this report is the best available as of July 2000 and can change.

Angola Lontra
 On Block 20, the Lontra #1 exploratory well was drilled to a total depth of 4,195 meters (13,763 feet) and penetrated approximately 75 meters (250 feet) of net pay in a very high quality reservoir section. The discovery well encountered both a high liquids content gas interval and an oil interval. A drill stem test was conducted in the high liquids content gas interval and successfully produced a sustained flow rate of 2,500 barrels per day of condensate and 39 million cubic feet per day of gas.

Cobalt has compiled an impressive and unique portfolio of assets in highly attractive oil prone basins and countries. Cobalt operates the majority of these assets, thereby influencing the pace of operations and enhancing value creation. We acquire the industry’s best subsurface and seismic data to identify deepwater oil reservoirs trapped in subsalt and pre-salt layers in the deepwaters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and West Africa.


Angola LNG
The 5.2 million-metric-ton-per-year LNG plant in Soyo is operated by Angola LNG Limited. Chevron holds a 36.4 percent interest in the project. The plant can process 1.1 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day, with expected average total daily sales of 670 million cubic feet of natural gas and up to 63,000 barrels of NGLs.

This is the world’s first LNG plant supplied with associated gas—natural gas produced as a byproduct of crude oil production. Feedstock for the plant originates from multiple fields and operators. In early 2016, work was completed on plant modifications and capacity and reliability enhancements. The first LNG cargo is expected in the second quarter of 2016.

 On Block 20, the Lontra #1 exploratory well was drilled to a total depth of 4,195 meters (13,763 feet) and penetrated approximately 75 meters (250 feet) of net pay in a very high quality reservoir section. The discovery well encountered both a high liquids content gas interval and an oil interval. A drill stem test was conducted in the high liquids content gas interval and successfully produced a sustained flow rate of 2,500 barrels per day of condensate and 39 million cubic feet per day of gas.

Angola has been in a state of nearly constant civil war since it achieved independence from Portugal in 1975. More than 500,000 people have been killed in the strife, Africa's longest running conflict in the post-colonial era. After a brief period of cease-fire, hostilities resumed in the latter half of 1998 between the government Forcas Armadas de Angola (FAA) and forces of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). Angola's civil war has ravaged the non-mineral sectors of the country's economy, destroyed much of its infrastructure, and displaced an estimated 2.5 - 4 million people. The capital, Luanda, continues to experience chronic water and power outages, and insecurity reigns throughout much of the interior. In April 2000, the United Nations Security Council voted unanimously to tighten sanctions against UNITA in response to violations of the Council’s three previous sanctions resolutions on UNITA. Angola's President Eduardo dos Santos has promised to hold national elections in 2001.

The Angolan economy is highly dependent on its offshore oil sector, which accounts for over 40% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and as much as 90% (approximately $3.5 billion annually) of government revenues. Angola maintains positive GDP growth rates due to the strength of its oil sector, which has very few linkages to other sectors of the economy. In spite of Angola's rapidly rising oil production, most of Angola's 12 million people live in poverty. In 1999, inflation measured approximately 250%, mainly due to the government decision to print money to finance its military expenditures. Revenue from petroleum exports provides the principle source of funding for the Angolan government's war effort, while UNITA has relied on the sale of diamonds to fund its activities. In recent months, government forces pushed UNITA out of the diamond-rich Cuango River valley and its strongholds in Andulo, Bailundo and Jamba, cutting UNITA's main source of funding to pay for its military operations.

In July 2000, the World Bank approved a Second Social Action Fund Credit of $33 million to support increased Angolan government spending on social and poverty-oriented programs. In April 2000, Angola signed a nine-month economic monitoring program agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that requires Angola to undertake a sustained program of economic reforms before it is considered for a formal loan agreement. Under the agreement with the IMF, Angola has promised to allow outside auditors to examine the way it spends oil money. In 1999, Angola successfully introduced a floating exchange-rate regime.

Within the framework of the Angola-United States Bilateral Consultative Commission (BCC), the U.S. Department of Energy plans to work with the Angolan energy ministry to streamline the country's energy sector and to facilitate the development of its infrastructure. In 1999, the United States ran a $2.2 billion trade deficit with Angola.

Angola is active militarily in the Central West African sub-region and is a member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Under a security pact linking Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Republic of Congo, Angola has provided troops to support government forces against rebel groups operating in the two Congos.

Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's second largest oil producer behind Nigeria, with the majority of its crude production located offshore Cabinda. Crude reserves are also located onshore around the city of Soyo, offshore in the Kwanza Basin north of Luanda, and offshore of the northern coast. Angola's crude oil generally is of high quality. The crude has an API gravity ranging from 32o to 39.5o and sulfur content from 0.12% to 0.14%.

Angola's national oil company, Sonangol, was established in 1976. A hydrocarbon law passed in 1978 made Sonangol sole concessionaire for exploration and production. Associations with foreign companies are in the form of joint ventures (JVs) and production sharing agreements (PSAs).

Angola is attracting considerable international investment attention in the oil sector. In late 1999, Sonangol announced that more than $18 billion in foreign oil investment was being lined up over the next four years. The top foreign oil companies operating in Angola are Chevron, TotalFinaElf, and Texaco.

Foreign oil companies operating in Angola are expected to pay a non-recoverable "signature bonus" generally worth millions of dollars for the right to operate one of Angola's oil exploration blocks. In 1999, a total of $900 million in payments for Blocks 31-33 helped to finance the government's military operations. Government financing of arms purchases and oil-backed loans typically bypass the Central Bank and Ministry of Finance and are routed through the state oil company, Sonangol, and the Office of the Presidency. In 1999, according to international banking officials, a $900-million windfall in oil earnings was not recorded in the country's published budget.

The Angolan province of Cabinda faces a situation similar to the Niger Delta states in Nigeria. Cabinda produces about 70% of Angola's oil and accounts for nearly all of its foreign exchange earnings. Political tensions are high in some areas of Cabinda as separatist groups such as FLEC (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda)-Renovata demand a greater share of oil revenue for the province's population of 250,000. FLEC-Renovata wants Cabinda to control 30% of the province's production. The province receives about 10% of the taxes paid by Chevron and its partners operating offshore Cabinda.

Production and Exports
Crude oil production, which has more than quadrupled since 1980, averaged 766,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) in 1999. The Angolan government expects that oil production will increase to 1 million bbl/d by the end of 2001 and to 1.4 million bbl/d by 2003. Block Zero (Area A, Area B, and Area C), located offshore the enclave of Cabinda, accounts for nearly 70% of Angolan crude oil production. The Chevron subsidiary, Cabinda Gulf Oil Company (CABGOC), is the operator of the fields located offshore Cabinda, with a 39.2% share in the JV. Other partners include Sonangol (41%), TotalFinaElf (10%) and ENI-Agip (Agip 9.8%). Angola's largest producing oil fields are Takula (Area A), Numbi (Area A), and Kokongo (Area B). Total production on Block Zero reached 510,000 bbl/d at the end of 1999, as new wells were commissioned on the Nemba field (Area B) and development was completed on the Lomba field (Area B). CABGOC and its partners expect to expand Block Zero production to 600,000 bbl/d by 2001. CABGOC plans to invest nearly $4 billion >

Transfer interrupted!

the next five years. CABGOC will continue to develop Areas B and C, and will develop enhanced recovery projects on older fields in Area A.

The second largest area of production in Angola is Block 3, which is located offshore of the northern coast. The largest fields on Block 3 are Pacassa, Cobo/Pambi, and Palanca. TotalFinaElf is the operator of Block 3 with a 50% interest. Other partners on the block include Ajoco, Agip, Mitsubishi, Sonangol, INA-Naftaplin, and Naftgas.

In January 2000, Chevron announced that production had begun on the Kuito field in Block 14, Angola's first deepwater field. First oil on the Kuito field was achieved only 15 months after the award of the contract, making it the fastest cycle time of any project of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa. Kuito currently is producing at a rate of 80,000 bbl/d and Chevron anticipates that Kuito will reach a peak production level of 100,000 bbl/d later in the year. Chevron is the operator with 31%, while Sonangol holds 20%, Agip 20%, and Petrogal 9%. In July 1999, Chevron announced the start of production on the Banzala oil field, located offshore Angola's Cabinda province.

Blocks 1 and 2, located offshore of the northern Angolan city of Soyo, also are in production. Agip (Safueiro field) and Texaco are the operators on Block 1, while Texaco and TotalFinaElf are operators on Block 2. Approximately 100,000 bbl/d of crude is produced on the Texaco-operated portion (Sections 80-85) of Block 2. Major Block 2 fields include Lombo, Sulele, and Tubarao.

TotalFinaElf is the operator of Angola's onshore production. Production is centered in two areas, Kwanza near Luanda, and the Congo basin near Soyo. Ganda, Pangala, Kitona, and N'Zombo are the major onshore fields.

Canada's Ranger Oil began production from the Kiame field (Block 4) in June 1998. Ranger produced an average of 8,239 bbl/d from Kiame in 1999, but the field is now in the decline phase. The Kiame field has estimated reserves of 8.5 million barrels. Ranger has 100% interest on the Kiame field. Sonangol is the operator (100% share) of the Kiabo field, another Block 4, shallow water field. The Kiame and Kiabo fields are Angola's only fields that are not operated by major foreign oil companies.

Angola's crude oil exports to the United States were 337,000 bbl/d in 1999 (44% of Angola's production for the year). Angola was the eighth largest supplier (largest non-OPEC supplier outside the Western Hemisphere) of imported crude to the United States in 1999. Angolan crude is also exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and Latin America.

In February 2000, Chevron announced the completion of two significant appraisal wells in the Benguela and Belize oil fields in deepwater Block 14. The exploration tests on Benguela and Belize resulted in an average output of 8,400 and 11,000 bbl/d, respectively. Chevron is operator for Block 14 and holds 31% interest. Sonangol (20%), Agip (20%), TotalFina Elf (20%), and Petrogal (9%) hold the remaining interest.

Several significant discoveries have been made on deepwater offshore Block 17, located northwest of Luanda. The Girassol field was discovered in 1996 in 4,500 feet (1,365 meters) of water. Girassol, like the Kuito field, is estimated to contain between 700 million - 1 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. TotalFinaElf, operator with 40% interest in the Block 17 PSA, and its partners ExxonMobil (20%), BP-Amoco (16.67%), Statoil (13.33%), and Norsk Hydro (10%) decided to fast-track the development of the Girassol field, and then experienced delays. Production is expected to begin by the fourth quarter of 2000, and peak production of 200,000 bbl/d is planned by the end of 2001. Additional discoveries have been made on Block 17, including Dalia (1997), Rosa (1998), Lirio (1998), Tulipa (1999), Orquidea (1999), Cravo (1999), Camelia (1999) and Jasmin 1 (2000). The Dalia and Rosa finds are potentially larger than Girassol and further appraisal on both discoveries is planned. The latest Block 17 find, Jasmin 1, has an expected production capacity of 10,800 bbl/d.

In May 2000, BP Amoco announced the discovery of the Galio field, its third oil discovery on Angola Block 18. The Galio field tested at 4,770 bbl/d. In July 1999, BP Amoco reported that its second significant discovery in Block 18, the Plutonio well, tested at up to 5,700 bbl/d. The first discovery, Platina, tested at 6,500 bbl/d in early 1999. BP Amoco is operator of Block 18 with a 50% stake, while Shell holds the remaining 50%. The Platina and Plutonio wells are expected to contain 500 million barrels of oil. The first of four exploration wells is scheduled to be drilled on Block 18 at the end of 2000.

In June 2000, ExxonMobil announced a deepwater oil discovery on Block 15. The Mondo field, located 230 miles northwest of the capital Luanda, flowed at a test rate of 4,200 bbl/d. ExxonMobil's affiliate Esso, and Sonangol, have announced six other Block 15 discoveries since 1998. The first discovery, Kissanje, was made in February 1998 with initial oil flows of 10,000 bbl/d. The second discovery on Block 15, Marimba, was made in March 1998. Marimba's initial test flow was 6,800 bbl/d. In July 1998, Hungo, with a test flow rate of 15,900 bbl/d was discovered. The October 1998 discovery of the Dikanza field flowed at a test rate of 4,400 bbl/d. In 1999, Esso and Sonangol announced the Chocalho and Xilomba discoveries, which flowed at a test rate of 4,500 bbl/d and 1,400 bbl/d respectively. Total recoverable reserves on Block 15 are estimated to exceed 2 billion barrels. ExxonMobil (40%), BP Amoco (26.67%), Agip (20%), and Statoil (13.33%) are the participants on the Block 15 PSA.

Recent offshore discoveries in Angola have sparked interest in Angola's exploration blocks. Agreements on significant deepwater blocks were finalized in early 1999. BP Amoco was named operator (40%) in a PSA signed for deepwater Block 31. TotalFinaElf (30% interest) was chosen as operator for Block 32, and ExxonMobil (45%) was chosen as the operator on Block 33. Deepwater Blocks 31-33 drew intense international interest because of their potential to become as productive as Brazil's Campos Basin. Other recent agreements include Block 25 (Agip operator), and two onshore blocks -- Cabinda Central (Ocean Energy operator) and Cabinda Southern (TotalFinaElf operator). There are also plans to establish new deepwater blocks along Angola's central and southern coasts. Energy Africa is drilling a wildcat well (Mexilhao 1) on Block 7, the first deepwater well in Angola's Kwanza Basin.

In 2000, Angola plans to farm-out the highly prospective Block 34. This block is to be operated by Sonangol with technical assistance from Norway's Norsk Hydro. Angola also may open additional blocks in the very deep offshore Kwanza basin to foreign investment pending the results of an exploration well drilled by Agip toward the end of 2000.

In January 2000, Sonangol announced a joint venture project with the Namibian Petroleum Corporation (Namcor) to conduct petroleum exploration in the offshore Namibe Basin straddling the Angola-Namibia border.

Refining and Downstream
The Fina Petroleos de Angola refinery in Luanda has current capacity of 39,000 bbl/d. The refinery is a joint venture between Sonangol (36%), TotalFinaElf (operator, 61%) and private investors (3%). The refinery is the source of supply for products consumed in Angola, as well as for a small amount of products destined for export.

Three firms, Sonangol, TotalFinaElf, and Sonangalp, a joint venture between Sonangol (51%) and Petrogal (49%), provide product distribution and marketing in Angola. Angola's small market size and lack of infrastructure have hindered Sonangol's plans to attract additional foreign companies to the country's downstream market.

Angola is developing plans for a new 200,000-bbl/d refinery, tentatively to be located in the central coastal city of Lobito with an estimated cost of $2 billion. The majority of products refined at the new facility (80%) would be exported regionally. Angola has discussed potential partnerships for the construction of the refinery with China, Petrogal, Gabon, and most recently, the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In the Republic of Congo, Sonangol is to assist with exploration, production, and marketing of Congolese petroleum.

Angola has estimated natural gas reserves of 1.6 trillion cubic feet. The majority (approximately 85%) of gas produced in Angola is flared, but some is reinjected to aid in crude production. The government is developing strategies to reduce gas flaring and increase commercial usage of natural gas. CABGOC has initiated two zero-flare fields, Nemba and Lomba, and plans to make Kuito the third.

Texaco and Sonangol have agreed to undertake the development of a LNG (liquefied natural gas) project that would convert natural gas from offshore oil fields to LNG for domestic consumption and export. The LNG plant will process natural gas from offshore Blocks 1, 2, 3, 4, 16, as well as from the large new discoveries on Blocks 15, 17, and 18. Sonangol and Texaco each have a 50% interest in the project. Subject to the completion of development studies with Sonangol, Texaco expects to implement the $2.5-billion LNG project in 2005. The preferred site for the plant is next to the existing oil refinery in the capital, Luanda.

Angola has announced plans for a major rehabilitation of its power sector infrastructure. Significant portions of the country's power generation and transmission facilities were damaged during the civil war. Angola intends to mobilize approximately $500 million for a program to recover the productive capacity of the National Electricity Company (ENE) by rehabilitating most of its hydropower stations. The government already has allocated $200 million for repairs on Angola's six dams. Of the six, only three (Cambambe, Biopo, and Matala) are functioning. Under the plan, Cambambe will receive $70 million, Biopo $3 million, and Matala $20 million for renovation and upgrades. The other three dams (Mabubas, Lumaun, and Gove) have been severely damaged during Angola's civil war. The government plans to create a national grid by linking the three regional electricity sectors and establishing grid linkages with neighboring countries. This project, coupled with the power plant rehabilitation projects, could provide the basis for Angola becoming a regional exporter of electricity.

Recent power outages in the capital Luanda and other urban centers have been attributed to shortages of fuel oil for generator groups operated by ENE. Local analysts estimate that only 15% of Angola's 11 million people have access to electric power.

The Brazilian construction company Odebrecht has signed a contract to restore the energy generating capacity of central Angola, beginning with a renovation of the Biopio gas and thermal power stations. Oderbrecht also is building the 520-megawatt Capanda hydroelectric dam in Malange, 300 kilometers (190 miles) east of Luanda. Completion of the Capanda project will double Angola's electricity generating capacity.

Spain has offered to donate $3 million to rehabilitate the electrical supply network in Cabinda city. According to ENE authorities, implementation of the project consists of three phases and will supply power to the city within 15 months.

In April 2000, Angola and Namibia signed a bilateral cooperation agreement in the field of energy. The two countries are considering the development of a hydroelectric facility on the Cunene River. Both countries would receive electricity from the facility. Two possible sites for the dam are being considered, one at Baynes and the other at Epupa Falls, pending environmental impact studies. Namibia reportedly favors the Epupa site while Angola is pressing for the Baynes site because it would enable Angola to renovate and regulate the Gove dam, which was damaged during the Angolan civil war. The proposal for location of the dam at Epupa Falls has met with opposition from environmental groups and local communities. A central issue is the potential displacement of the Himba people, the traditional inhabitants of the area surrounding the falls. An estimated 3,000 Himba would be displaced if the land they occupy is flooded by the dam, and another 30,000 Himba could be affected by exposure to diseases such as hepatitis and malaria transmitted by mosquitoes breeding in the stagnant water of the reservoir. A feasibility study conducted by a consortium of Namibian, Swedish, Norwegian, and Angolan consultants has concluded that the Epupa Falls dam site would be economically more viable because the Baynes site would require Angola reconstruct the Gove dam and to regulate the flow of the Cunene River at Gove, located upstream from Baynes. Namibia has cited instability in southern Angola and the millions of dollars needed to repair Gove as factors that favor the Epupa Falls site.

The Russian Alrosa diamond company has proposed a hydroelectric project on the Chicapa River to provide a source of power for its planned $40 million investment in diamond mining infrastructure in Angola.

In early 2000, up to 100 barrels of crude oil was estimated to have leaked from a CABGOC offshore oil well, causing serious pollution of the surrounding waters and coastal areas. Many residents of Futilla village near the Malongo oilfield reportedly fell ill as a result of the pollution. Chevron announced it would take responsibility for the pollution, which resulted in 70 people receiving hospital treatment for poisoning.

In late December 1999, a crude oil discharge at a Chevron-owned treatment tank polluted beaches in Cabinda and killed large quantities of fish. CABGOC reportedly paid compensation to some 160 fishermen for losses suffered as a result of the spill.

In November 1999, the Angolan government drafted a bill to prevent ecological disaster caused by oil production in the country. The bill stipulates provisions for the creation of institutions to deal specifically with major environmental disasters.

Sources for this report include: Africa Energy and Mining, Africa News, Africa Oil and Gas, Agence France Presse, Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections, AP Worldstream, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, CIA World Factbook 1999, Dow Jones, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) Viewswire, Financial Times, Hart's Africa Oil and Gas, International Monetary Fund, Oil and Gas Journal, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Panafrican News Agency, Petroleum Intelligence Weekly, WEFA Middle East and Africa Economic Outlook, World Bank.

President: José Eduardo dos Santos
Independence: November 11, 1975 (from Portugal)
Population (July 1999E): 11.2 million
Location/Size: Southern Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean (on the west), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (on the north and east); Zambia (on the east); and Namibia (on the south)/1,246,700 square kilometers (481,350 square miles), slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Major Cities: Luanda (capital), Huambo, Lobito, Soyo
Languages: Portuguese (official), over 60 local languages including Umbundu, Kimbundu, Kikongo, Tchokwe and Ovambo
Ethnic Groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%
Religion: Traditional beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
Defense (1998E): Army (106,000), Navy (2,000), Air Force (6,000), Paramilitary Forces (15,000)

Minister of Finance: Joaquim Duarte da Costa
Currency: New Kwanza (NKz)
Exchange Rate (6/30/00): US$1 = 6.05 NKz
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (1998E): $8.0 billion
Real GDP Growth Rate (1998E): 2.8% (1999E): 2.6%
Inflation Rate (1998E): 91% (1999E): 250%
Current Account Balance (1998E): -$1.9 billion (1999E): -$1.4 billion
Major Trading Partners: United States, Portugal, China, France, South Africa
Major Export Products: Crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products
Major Import Products: Consumer goods, military and capital goods, machinery, vehicles and spare parts
Total External Debt (2000E): $12 billion

Minister of Petroleum: José Maria Botelho de Vasconcelos
Minister of Energy and Water: Luis Filipe da Silva
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/00E): 5.4 billion barrels
Oil Production (1999E): 766,000 barrels per day (bbl/d), all of which is crude oil
Oil Consumption (1999E): 34,000 bbl/d
Crude Oil Exports (1999E): 732,000 bbl/d
Refining Capacity (1/1/00E): 39,000 bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/00E): 1.6 trillion cubic feet
Natural Gas Production (1998E): 20.5 billion cubic feet (bcf)
Natural Gas Consumption (1998E): 20.5 bcf
Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/98E): 617 megawatts
Electricity Generation (1998E): 1.9 billion kilowatthours (75% hydroelectric, 25% thermal)

Minister of Fisheries and Environment: Maria de Fatima Monteiro Jardim
Total Energy Consumption (1998E): 0.1 quadrillion Btu* (0.03% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (1998E): 3.7 million metric tons of carbon (0.06% of world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (1998E): 8.8 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 350.7 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (1998E): 0.3 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (1998E): 9,900 Btu/$1990 (vs. U.S. value of 13,400 Btu/$1990) **
Carbon Intensity (1998E): 0.35 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1990 (vs.U.S. value of 0.21 metric tons of carbon/$1990)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1997E): Transportation (50.1%), Industrial (37.3%), Residential (16.1%)
Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1997E): Transportation (42.3%), Industrial (41.3%), Residential (16.5%)
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Oil (65.4%), Natural Gas (20.5%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Natural Gas (63.7%), Oil (36.3%)
Renewable Energy Consumption (1997E): 170 trillion Btu* (6% increase from 1996)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1997): 50 (vs U.S. value of 1.3)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (signed June 14, 1992 but not ratified). Not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
Major Environmental Issues: Overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest (in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel), loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Biodiversity, Desertification and Law of the Sea

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar and wind electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data. **GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 1998

Organization: State-owned Sociedade Nacional de Combustiveis de Angola (Sonangol) oversees offshore and onshore oil operations in Angola.
Major Oil Fields (production bbl/d) (1998E): Takula-Block Zero (135,158 bbl/d), Numbi-Block Zero (66,713 bbl/d), Kokongo-Block Zero (37,330 bbl/d), Pacassa-Block 3 (70,577 bbl/d), Cobo/Pambi- Block 3 (51,304 bbl/d)
Major Refineries (1/1/00 Capacity): Fina Petroleos De Angola - Luanda (39,000 bbl/d)
Major Oil Terminals: Luanda, Malango (Cabinda), Palanca, Quinfuquena
Foreign Oil Company Involvement: Ajoco, BHP, BP-Amoco, Chevron, Daewoo, Engen, ENI-Agip, ExxonMobil, Falcon Oil, Gulf Energy Resources, INA-Naftaplin, Lacula Oil, Marathon Oil, Mitsubishi, Naftgas, Naphta, Neste, Norsk Hydro/Saga, Occidental, Ocean Energy, Pedco, Petrobras, Petrofina, Petrogal, Petro-Inett, Petronas, Phillips, Prodev, Ranger, Shell, Statoil, Teikoku, Texaco, TotalFinaElf


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File last modified: July 7, 2000


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