|Our Lady of Kazan||Our_Lady_of_Vladimir||Hodegitria|
|Our Lady of Tikhvin||Our_Lady_of_St._Theodore||Our Lady of the Don|
|Our_Lady_Mother_All_Glorified_Vsepetaia||Our Lady the Joy of All Afflicted||Our_Lady_of_Igor|
Lady the Joy of All
Late 17th - early of 18th century (after 1697). From the St. Nicholas Church in Tolmachi, Moscow.
The icon is a copy of the miracle-working image of Our Lady the Joy of All Afflicted of the Transfiguration Church at Ordynka, Moscow. The worship started in 1688, after it cured the sister of Patriarch Joachim. The icon, probably, appeared in the church after it was rebuilt of stone in 1685. The history of this icon is unclear. According to one version, it was in the Church of Our Lady the Joy of All Afflicted at Ordynka on the site of the Transfiguration Church, till it was closed in the Soviet years. According to another hypothesis, the miraculous icon was taken to St. Petersburg on order of Natalia, a sister of Peter the Great, in 1711, while a copy remained in Moscow. The Moscow and St. Petersburg images have notable iconographic differences.
Known in Russia since the 1680s, the iconography of Our Lady the Joy of All Afflicted emerged under spectacular influences of several Roman Catholic types. Hence its many variants, largely differing on many points. They have only one feature in common — the figures of sufferers praying to the Virgin, the Protectress interceding for them. The St. Petersburg icon, with no such figures, is the only exception. The iconographic variant which includes both the Moscow and St. Petersburg images has the crowned Virgin in the centre (often portrayed standing on the moon), holding the Child, also crowned, on Her left arm, and surrounded by a halo — the Roman Catholic type ascending to the words of Revelation about the «woman clothed with the sun» (Rev 12:1). The variant to which the miracle-working icon of Moscow belonged adds to this image a crowd of sufferers divided in six groups — seniors, the unclothed, the sick, the afflicted, the hungry and travellers, all consoled by angels at Her bidding. These figures directly illustrate the troparion to the icon, written in a cartouche in the lower part of the composition. The Moscow icon has one definitive characteristic — four saints to both sides of the Virgin, above the sufferers — Sergii of Radonezh, Theodore of Sykeon, Gregory Decapolites and Barlaam of Khutyn.
The icon repeats the iconography of the Moscow miraculous image closely enough, and almost fully coincides with it in size. It may be seen as one of the oldest replicas of this type. It changes the arrangement of the four supplementary saints, and replaces St. Gregory Decapolites by Gregory of Neocaesarea — perhaps, due to the topographical closeness of the St. Nicholas Church at Tolmachi and the Church of St. Gregory of Neocaesarea at Polyanka.
Late 11th - early 12th century, Byzantium. The earliest references to the icon are found in the oldest chronicles (entries for 1155). The first Story was compiled in Vladimir at Prince Andrei Bogolubsky's court in the 1160s. Prince Andrei took the icon with him when he acquired the throne of Vladimir and Suzdal. He ordered for the holy image a gold case, and placed it in the new Dormition Cathedral of Vladimir. Though some miracles of the icon were known in Kiev, the peak of its glory came in Vladimir. When Tamerlane's horde invaded Russia in 1395, the image was brought to Moscow for heavenly intercession to ward off the city's doom — and miraculous deliverance did come. The Story was composed some years later, when the worship of the icon became even more dedicated. It came to Moscow for good in 1480. In the next century the icon became the palladium of Moscow and the most important among Russian holy relics. The icon is commemorated three times a year: August 26 (Moscow's deliverance from the Tartar siege of 1395), June 23 (final transfer of the icon to Moscow, and the bloodless victory over Tartars on the Ugra river, 1480), and May 21 (Moscow's deliverance from Khan Mahmet Ghirei in 1521). At these feasts there were the liturgical processions with the original icon or its copy. The image belongs to the iconographic type known as Tenderness (Umilenie) or Eleusa. It prototyped many Russian iconographic variants of the Virgin Tenderness, connected with some miraculous icons of local worship.
This icon is the oldest of all known copies of its miraculous original, unearthed in Kazan on July 8, 1579, after the Virgin thrice appeared in prophetic dreams to a little girl Matrona and told her the spot where secret Christians had buried Her image before the Russian victory over Muslim Kazan. Hermogene, Metropolitan of Kazan, active in these events, later described them in the special Story he composed on request of Tsar Fedor loannovich in 1595. In 1612 the miraculous icon was in the Russian army which delivered Moscow from Polish occupiers. This success was ascribed to the intercession of Our Lady of Kazan. The icon was considered to protect the Romanov dynasty, and became one of Russia's best-worshipped holy images during its reign. It is commemorated twice a year — July 8, the day it was found, and October 22, the day of Moscow's deliverance. In these days the liturgical processions with the icon were established: from the Dormition Cathedral of the Kremlin to the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan on the Red Square (1636), which was the abode of the miracle-working icon. Like the Hodegitia of Constatinople, the Kazan icon was bearing in solemn processions along the city walls as a major protectress of Moscow. In the early 19th century another cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan rose in St. Petersburg, whose patron image it was. To this magnificent church in Nevsky Avenue Fieldmarshal Kutuzov donated the trophy silver captured from the French army in the Napoleonic War of 1812. In World War II, the icon led a procession round the fortifica tions of the nazi-besieged Leningrad.
The icons of Our Lady of Kazan are traditionally small, following the miraculous original (27 x 22.5 cm). An iconographic variant of the Hodegitria, it is mainly noted for the Child standing, with the Virgin chest-length — one of the reduced images widespread in the 16th century. Prokopii Chirin's icon of 1606 is notable for attention to small details, characteristic of so named Stroganov school .
This icon is a copy of one of the most famous Russian miraculous images. According to the chronicles, the icon
The iconography of Our Lady of Tikhvin is close to the Byzantine type of Hodegetria. The gesture of Christ is its most spectacular characteristic, with the right hand in blessing over the hand of the Virgin. The icon of Kadashi, closely repeated the iconographic type of the original, follows traditions of the icon-painting workshop at the Armoury Palace of the Moscow Kremlin. The choice of the marginal saints (Apostle Peter, Sergius of Radonezh, Alexius the Man of God and John the Warrior) must have depended on the donor's request miraculously appeared in summer 1383 in the environs of Novgorod. The Story of the Icon of Tikhvin (16th century) registers its four apparitions following each other, the latest on the left bank of the river Tikhvinka, where a Dormition Church was first built. Later, in 1560, the Tikhvin Monastery arose on the site. The long siege of the monastery by the Swedish army in 1613-1615 was a crucial moment in the history of the icon worship after its miraculous intercession for the besieged. The most detailed redaction of the Legend of its miracles appeared in 1658, in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich. It included for the first time the Byzantine prehistory of the holy image, which identified it with the Hodegetria of Constantinople, which miraculously left the Byzantine capital to reappear in Tikhvin. A service in commemoration of the icon, on June 26, was compiled together with the Story. The miracle-working original was in the Tikhvin Monastery for several century before 1941, when the area was occupied by nazis. Taken to Western Europe, it eventually travelled across the Atlantic, and now is at Sts. Peter and Paul's Cathedral in Chicago..
The icon is first mentioned in chronicles of the second half of the 16th century. Its worship is connected with the
As the processional image, placed behind the altar table of the Dormition Cathedral of Kolomna, the icon had a reverse image of the Dormition. There are two hollows for the relics, closed in with wax, on the bottom margin of the face side. The icon was painted for the Dormition Cathedral of Kolomna in the 1380s or 90s. The majority of experts trace it to the works of the painter of the Deesis Row of the Kremlin Annunciation Cathedral, identified as Theophanes the Greek campaigns of Ivan the Terrible against the Tartar states which had emerged on the ruins of the Golden Horde, and reminiscences of the victory over Tartars in the Battle of Kulikovo, on the river Don, in 1380. It was in the reign of Ivan the Terrible that the Moscow Prince Dimitrii Ivanovich, who commanded the battle, received his honourable surname of Donskoi, shared by the Dormition Church in Kolomna, founded by him before the battle, and the ancient icon of Our Lady in this church. Tsar Ivan took the icon in his Kazan military expedition of 1552 and, after the victory, placed it in the Annunciation Cathedral of the Kremlin. In 1591, Tsar Fedor loannovich's prayer before it preceded the miraculous deliverance of Moscow from the besieging troops of Khan Kazi Ghirei. This miracle was commemorated by the foundation of the Donskoi Monastery, which received an exact replica of the miraculous image. Many sermons and legends were composed about this image, which combined true historical facts borrowed from the 16th century chronicles with the 17th century tales of its presence on the Kulikovo battlefield (the icon was said to be presented to Prince Dimitrii by the Don cossacks during the battle). Early copies testify to the emergence of the worship in the 15th century. Its annual commemoration on August 19, with a procession to the Donskoi Monastery, was established in the mid-17th century. Our Lady of the Don represents the iconography of Tenderness — a variant close to Our Lady of Vladimir, from which it differs by the Child's bare legs, bent at the knee and resting on the Virgin's hand.
1759. From the Trinity Chapel of the Dormition Church at Apukhtinka, Moscow.
The icon copies the miracle-working Our Lady of St. Theodore from the Dormition Cathedral of Kostroma, currently in the Resurrection Church at Debri, also in Kostroma. According to its Legend, compiled in the 17th century at the earliest, holy martyr Theodore Stratilates carried the image from the Tartar-ransacked Gorodets on the Volga to Kostroma in 1239 — hence its name. Prince Vassilii of Kostroma, surnamed Kvashnya (Trough), saw the icon in a tree on a woodland hunt. Kostroma citizens were reported to see it carried across the city by a warrior resembling St. Theodore. The icon sent passing blindness on a Tartar host in the Battle of Holy Lake to grant victory to Prince Vassilii.
The icon was closely linked to the Romanov dynasty since the 17th century. It played a part in the election of Mikhail Fedorovich to the throne in Kostroma, 1613. Hence its full name, Our Lady of St. Theodore of Kostroma. It is commemorated on March 14, the day when Mikhail conceded to accept the crown, and August 15 and 16, when it was miraculously revealed. The royal dynasty spread the icon worship nation-wide.
Iconographically close to Our Lady of Vladimir, it has one spectacular feature — the Child's bare left leg. Possibly, Our Lady of Vladimir possessed the same detail before it was repainted in the 15th century.
From the Cathedral of the Ascension Convent, Moscow Kremlin.
This miraculous icon was painted on a much older board. The original icon is known from the chronicles to be
The ancient icon of the Kremlin convent, copied from the Constantinopolitan Hodegitria, is presumed to be one of the two icons brought to Russia in the 14th century by Archbishop Dionysii of Suzdal, a confessor to Princess Eudoxia, foundress of the Ascention convent. The icon was commemorated on July 7, the day of Princess Eudoxia's demise, which coincided with the feast of the Hodegitria of Blachernitissa, brought to Moscow in 1654. The icon of the Ascension Convent led religious processions on June 23 and August 26, in which Metropolitans, the Patriarch and the Grand Princes took part. The iconographic pattern of this particular image generally corresponds to the Hodegetria of Blachernai, though digressing from it in some details, for instance, the scroll which the Child holding, resting it on His knee - a detail characteristic of several copies of Our Lady of Smolensk, in particular, those of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Smolensk in the Novodevichi Convent, Moscow destroyed in the conflagration of 1482: «The icon of Hodegitria burnt in Moscow in the stone Church of the Ascension of Our Lord, a miracle-working image of Our Lady of Greek painting. It was made in the same dimensions as the miraculous icon in Constantinople which did leave its abode for the seaside on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. The fire destroyed the painting and the case alone, while the board survived, and on this board Dionysii the icon-painter hath recreated the same image.».
This mid-18th century copy repeated the waist-length Our Lady of Tolga, traditionally known as revealed at the
The protograph of the miracle-working image is preserved at the Yaroslavl Art Museum. The iconography belongs to the Tenderness type, deviating from it by the Child's posture, standing on His Mother's lap touching Her breast with the left hand. The icon of 1755 repeats the basic iconographic characteristics of the protograph, and rather closely imitates its size, though the colour scheme is thoroughly changed, which shows that the original was covered with a later painting at the time it was copied confluence of the Tolga and the Volga near Yaroslavl in 1314. The Tolga Convent was later founded on the site. According to the Legend, which appeared to the 17th century, the icon was revealed by Archbishop Tryphon of Rostov at the Tolga - Volga confluence. The archbishop suddenly woke in the dead of night to see wonderful radiance across the river. He forded the river as if a bridge had spread underfoot to see on the opposite bank a pillar of fire reaching to the sky, and an icon of Our Lady hovering in the air. His servants found a replica of this icon on a forest tree the next day. The miracle made Tryphon put off a planned journey to have a church built on the spot. A convent arose there later. The icon worship was local before the mid-17th century, which gave it a national scope. The icon is commemorated August 8. The service to it was composed in 1699.
Middle of the16th century. Moscow.
Tradition links the protograph of this icon with Prince Igor Olegovich of Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky.
His ascent to the Kievan throne in 1146 triggered off popular unrest, and the citizens called Izyaslav Mstislavich to reign. The Igor's troops were routed. He took monastic vows and entered the St. Theodore monastery at Kiev. The feudal strife went on, and led Igor to martyrdom. He was seized in his monastic cell, tormented and killed in 1147, on September 19 (his commemoration day).
Before his cruel death, the prince prayed before his cell-icon which later came to be known as Our Lady of Igor and earned the reputation of miracle working.
The icon is commemorated June 5, the day when Prince Igor's relics were buried with honours in 1150.
As late as the start of this century, the protograph — encased in gilded silver and with an inscription relating its history — was in the chapel of St. John the Divine of the Dormition Cathedral at the Kiev Cave Monastery. It is now gone, but numerous copies are available.
A reduced shoulder-length variant of the renowned Our Lady of Vladimir, most of its copies repeat the small size of the protograph, intended for a monastic cell, and closely follow the iconography of Our Lady of Vladimir.
Its iconographic composition reflects the ancient practice of copying much-worshipped icons reduced in size. This, perhaps, was how the iconography of Our Lady of Igor emerged as a miniature copy of the Constantinopolitan image before it was taken from Kiev by Prince Andrei Bogolubsky eventually to become known as Our Lady of Vladimir.
The Tretyakov collection icon closely follows the original iconography, which was characteristic of the time of Metropolitan Macarii (1542-1563), whose Novgorodian and Moscow workshops imitated old venerated icons down to the smallest iconographic detail .
From the church of St. Gregory of Neocaesarea at Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow.
The Simon Ushakov's icon was a copy from the ancient miracle-working Our Lady Eleousa of Kykkos, the best-worshipped icon of Cyprus. According to the Byzantine legend, composed in 1422, the icon appeared in the reign of Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118).
Tradition traces it to St. Luke and Egyptian Early Christian communities.
The icon was renown with the miraculous healing of the Emperor and his daughter. Alexius Comnenus sent the icon to Cyprus, keeping a precise copy to himself, and made lavish donations to monk Isaiah, who accepted the holy image and founded a monastery of Our Lady Eleousa on Mount Kykkos.
Numerous miracles known the icon was worshipped by Christians & Muslims.
The Ottoman Empire exempted the monastery from taxes for its sake.
Up to present time the image is preserved at its church in a special case. A precious veil has half-concealed the image, and no hand may lift it. Our Lady Kykkotissa was commemorated on November 12, December 26 and January 15. Its Russian worship started at early 17th century, and acquired the greatest scope in the south of the country.
The iconography of the image is close to Our Lady of the Passions. The type of Kykkotissa made an impact on the Ducento iconography of the Madonna. Unlike its protograph, the Tretyakov Gallery icon has the Child left of the Virgin, resting on Her left arm. The background is inscribed in Greek and Russian; the scroll, in Greek, «The Holy Ghost hath come upon Me, and the power of the Highest overshadowed Me». Another inscription bears the name of the Virgin in Greek, Eleousa Kykkotiss a.
The Kozmin Monastery of Dormition, founded by monk Cosmas on the Yakhren riverside, forty kilometres off Vladimir in 1482, had several icons of special worship, known as the Images of Yakhroma, or Yakhren.
At the beginning of this century one of them was reproduced by Nikodim Kondakov as the miracle-working icon of Yakhren, revealed in 1482. Now gone, it was presumably the best-worshipped image of this church. The image represents the type of Tenderness, with the Child left, His face pressed to the Virgin's. He is caressing Her chin with one hand, while the other is held down. The Child is sitting with legs crossed. One leg, the knee bent at a sharp angle, has the sole facing the viewer. The Mother is supporting the Child with one hand, and pressing him to Herself with the other, on which rests His palm held down.
The Tretyakov Gallery icon is one of the closest iconographic analogies to this miracle-working image, though the Child is portrayed to the right, as in all icons of this iconography and its variants. This monochrome icon has elongated proportions. Stylistic characteristics allow to date it to the end of the 15th century or beginning of the 16th, though its board presumably belongs to the 14th. The icon comes from Chukhcherma village which was a property of the Trinity-Sergiev Monastery, with which the Kozmin Monastery had close contacts .
According to its Legend, the icon known in Russia as Georgian was taken out of that country by Persians.
It was purchased in Persia by the agents of the merchant Grigorii Lytkin from Yaroslavl in 1622.
Instructed by a revelation, the merchant sent the icon to a monastery on the Pinega riverside, in the Russian north, known as Chernogorsky and later, Krasnogorsky. In 1654, the icon was brought to Moscow, where it found renown for miraculous healings during a plague.
In memory of these miracles, the Trinity Church at Nikitniki, where the icon stood, received a chapel consecrated to Our Lady of Georgia, for which famous Simon Ushakov painted its close replica before the original icon was taken back to the Pinega. The icon is gone, though its concise description is extant in the monastery inventory.
The feast of the icon, August 22, the day it was first brought to the monastery, was appointed in 1658. Its canon and troparion were composed in 1698.
As far as we can judge by the icon of 1707, said to repeat the original, and other copies, the iconography followed the type of Hodegitria. The Virgin, full-face, has Her head slightly turned and bent to the Child. The flaps of the maphorion part on the chest to show the chiton. She has the Child on Her left arm, with the right hand in the Deesis position in token of Her prayer to the Son. This iconographic type has close analogies among Georgian monuments of the 15th and 16th centuries .
1691. Tikhon Filatiev. Moscow. From the Nativity of the Virgin church at Golutvinsky lane, Moscow.
The Tretyakov Gallery icon repeats, with slight changes, the miraculous image of the St. Alexii Convent in Moscow — Russia's oldest and best-worshipped samples of this iconography, whose present location is unknown. The first written reference to it dates to 1757, though the convent had possessed this icon long before. Its commemoration, on April 3, appeared on the Orthodox Church calendar in the 19th century. The convent nuns sang the troparion «The Blossom of Fadeless Purity» in front of this icon.
The iconography emerged, most probably, at Mount Athos, in the 17th century, and became especially widespread in the 19th under the impact of an Athenian engraving. In Russia, the icons of Fadeless Blossom appeared in engravings since the 18th century. The Tretyakov Gallery image pertains to the oldest type, most probably ascending to an unknown Athenian icon under a certain influence of the Western iconographic tradition.
This sophisticated allegorical composition bases on the Old Testament prototypes of the Virgin, and epithets belonging to Her hymnography.
In the centre of this icon are portrayed the Virgin and Child in royal attire decorated with gold («the vestments lavishly adorned», «the attire of gold»). The temple in the background symbolises «the mansion of the King», while the throne in front of the Virgin, on which the Saviour is standing betokens Her closeness to the Heavenly Throne, while She Herself is «the throne and the palace of the King».
The sun, moon, star, censer, candle and other items round the Virgin and Child are prototypical symbols of Mary.
The flowering sceptre in Her hand reminds of another prototypical Mariological symbol in the Old Testament, the sceptre of the Tree of Jesse.
Last but not least, Mary as Virgin is tytled «The Fadeless Blossom» — hence the vases of flowers and blooming branches surrounding Her in this iconography .
The miraculous original of this copy owes its name to the 7th century tale «On the Penitence of Theophilus, Church Cellarer in the City of Adan». Theophilus prayed before the icon of the Virgin named by him «The hope of the sinners». Russia learned the tale after St. Demetrii of Rostov included it in the Great Menology compiled by him and first published in 1689 (entry for June 23). The Church tradition relates several miracles performed by icons of The Hope of Sinners in 18th century Russia. The 19th century considered the icons of St. George Church at Bolkhov and the Church of the Nativity of Christ at Palashi, Moscow, the oldest and best-known among these images. The latter, an ancient miracle-working icon, is at present in the church at Uspensky Vrazhek, Moscow.
The iconography has the following essential characteristics: the Virgin, seated, is represented about knee-length, with the Child standing on Her lap, His right arm wound round the Mother, cheek pressed to Her face. Mary's arms, encircling the Child with the fingers interlocked, represent a rather rare iconographic type. The 19th century tradition knew several lasting iconographic variants of this icon, with the Virgin's head now covered, now bared. Some variants had other positions of the arms. Sometimes there is a window on the left with a landscape in it. All these variants ascend to one of the worshipped originals whose iconographic characteristics they follow.
The service to this image was compiled in Moscow in the 19th century on the basis of general prayers to the Virgin and the Candlemas liturgy. The prayer to Our Lady the Hope of Sinners was taken from a Russian translation of the Tale of Theophilus. The icon is commemorated on February 5.
The Tretyakov Gallery icon must be an abbreviated copy of the image in the Resurrection Church at Tver, whose iconographic characteristics it repeats, with Mary's head bared and the hair hanging loose down the shoulders, and a window to the left. The image is encircled in an oval — a specific feature of this particular icon. The oval is inscribed in large lettering at the bottom: «Be brave, and I shall hearken and intercede for thee» .
18th century. Moscow. From St. Sergii Chapel, Dormition Church at Apukhtinka, Moscow.
The icon owes its name to a verse from the Kontakion 13 of the Great Akathistos inscribed in Church Slavonic on the edging of the Virgin's maphorion: «O Mother All-Glorified, the Word Most Holy Who hast brought forth all saints, accept this offering and save all who invoke Thee, Hallelujah, from all affliction and the torment to come». This iconography came to the Russian icon-painting in the 17th century. Its appearance had no connection with the worship of any particular image. The complicated iconographic interpretation was meant to demonstrate a symbolic understanding of a particular iconohymnographic theme.
The earliest portrayal of the Mother All-Glorified appeared on the sheets of the 17th century icon-painter's pattern-book. The icon represents the Virgin waist-length, in a three-quarter turn, with the hands slightly supporting the Child by the arms. His arms are raised, resting on the Virgin's breast, as if to embrace Her. This iconography often portrays the Virgin in a high royal crown, usually dressed in a reddish-brown chiton and cherry-coloured «cloudy» maphorion, symbol of Heaven, edged with the above-quoted words.
Angelic heads replace the three traditional stars on Her head and shoulders. Some Orthodox theologians interpret these angels as the old symbol of the Trinity. The 17th century might have associated this iconographic interpretation with the East, in particular, Egypt and Palestine, as reflected in the name of the icon, Of Arabia. The 19th century commemorated the icon on October 6.
The Tretyakov Gallery image has the following characteristics: Mary has no crown, and the Child is portrayed to the left — an extremely rare variant. His unusual vestment — loincloth and himation — emphasizes the theme of the Passions. In this particular icon, the himation has an unique «cloudy» shape, enveloping and supporting Christ. Of major interest are also the words which accompany the Kontakion 13 on the maphorion edging — the initial passage of the Great Akathistos Hymn: «Thou Glorious Victress Who smitest the evil, rejoice... » .