Saints of this Day April 25 Séptimo Kaléndas Maji. Luna ... The Twenty-Fifth Day of April. The ...... Day of the Moon.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.R. Deo grátias.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
|75 Mark, Evangelist according to Papias, "he had neither heard the Lord, nor ever been his disciple, but later had attended Peter, who composed his teachings to suit the needs of the moment, but did not profess to make a regular collection of the Lord's sayings. And so Mark made no mistakes; writing down the particulars just as he remembered them."(RM)|
|1st v. St Anianus Bishop St Mark shoemaker aide great fervor and virtue 150 St. Philo and Agathopodes Antiochene deacons authored Acts life and death of St. Ignatius of Antioch Evodius, Hermogenes & Callistus MM (RM) 4th v. Kebius preached conversion in Cornwall B (AC) Saturninus, Theophilus & Revocata MM (RM) 300 Theophilus of Caesarea M (RM) 312 Saturninus, Theophilus & Revocata MM (RM) 392 St. Phaebadius one of “the illustrious men” of the Church extirpated Arianism heresy 480 St. Macedonius Patriarch of Constantinople Council of Chalcedon defener 489 St. Macaille Bishop of Croghan prelate vows of St. Brigid 5th v. Mun of Lough Ree hermit another nephew of Saint Patrick B (AC) 525 Deodatus of Blois, Abbot (AC) 539 Vedast of Arras holy from childhood instrumental in the conversion of Clovis I to Christianity B (AC) 7th v. Authaire of La Ferté courtier at King Dagobert Ipalace France (AC) 7th v. Bova (Beuve, Bona) abbess & Doda rejected marriage proposals she devote to service of God OSB VV (RM) 729 Egbert of Rathemigisi Northumbrian monk of Lindisfarne OSB (RM) 737 Erminus of Lobbes practicing apostolic zeal as abbot and regional bishop OSB B (RM) 750 Saint Relindis of Eyck abbess OSB, Abbess (AC) 780 St. Mella Widow abbess Blessed Corona of Elche Benedictine nun OSB V (AC) 857 Heribald of Auxerre Benedictine monk abbot love of well-regulated lives ceremonies well-built churches 891 Photius career of scholarship and public service at the imperial court legitimate patriarch of Constantinople Orthodox objection to doctrine of the Holy Spirit 1000 St. Robert of Syracuse Benedictine abbot 1243 Blessed Boniface of Valperga monk bishop of Aosta B (PC) 1586 Bl. William Marsden priest Martyr of England1586 Bl. Robert Anderton Jesuit Cardinal theology professor notable figure Catholic Reformation defended Gallileo 1597 Philip of Jesus friar Miracles attested the power before God of these first martyrs of Japan patron of Mexico City, Mexico 1913 Blessed Giovanni Battista Piamarta (AC)|
|St. Mark (John Mark) 2nd Gospel
before year 60 Greek for Christian Gentile converts St. Paul St.
Barnabas associates (who was Mark's cousin) Patron of notaries
The second Gospel was written by St. Mark, who, in the New Testament, is sometimes called John Mark. Both he and his mother, Mary, were highly esteemed in the early Church, and his mother's house in Jerusalem served as a meeting place for Christians there.
St. Mark was associated with St. Paul and St. Barnabas (who was Mark's cousin) on their missionary journey through the island of Cyprus. Later he accompanied St. Barnabas alone. We know also that he was in Rome with St. Peter and St. Paul. Tradition ascribes to him the founding of the Church in Alexandria.
St. Mark wrote the second Gospel, probably in Rome sometime before the year 60 A.D.; he wrote it in Greek for the Gentile converts to Christianity.
Tradition tells us that St. Mark was requested by the Romans to set down the teachings of St. Peter. This seems to be confirmed by the position which St. Peter has in this Gospel. In this way the second Gospel is a record of the life of Jesus as seen through the eyes of the Prince of the Apostles.
|1st v. St Anianus Bishop
St Mark shoemaker aide
great fervor and virtue
In the apocryphal Acts of Mark, Anianus is described as the second bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. Mark states that Anianus was originally a shoemaker. Other lists refer to Anianus as a noble who was consecrated by Mark and named to succeed him.
Anianus of Alexandria B (RM) 1st century. According to Eusebius and the apocryphal acta of Saint Mark, Anianus was a shoemaker by trade. He was converted to Christianity and became a disciple of Saint Mark when he was healed of an awl wound. His fervor and virtue were so great that Mark appointed Anianus as his vicar during his absence and upon Mark's death Anianus succeeded him as bishop of Alexandria for 18 years and seven months.
Other sources have him a noble who was named bishop by Mark. Saint Epiphanius mentions a church in Alexandria built in the honor of Anianus (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
|75 Mark, Evangelist
according to Papias, "he had neither heard the Lord, nor ever been his
disciple, but later had attended Peter, who composed his teachings to
suit the needs of the moment, but did not profess to make a regular
collection of the Lord's sayings. And so Mark made no mistakes; writing
down the particulars just as he remembered them."(RM)
feast day in the East is September 23; feast of the translation of his relics to Venice is celebrated on January 31.
Among the younger figures of the New Testament is John Mark (Acts 12:25), mentioned several times in the New Testament. Of the four Gospels his is the most vivid and informal because it was probably the first recorded (AD 60-70). In some ways it is the most descriptive Gospel, yet he writes as though it had to be done quickly. Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, Asia Minor, called him the interpreter of Peter, c. 130, and said that he preached the gospel in Alexandria. An ancient tradition had the Gospel written down in Rome for Gentile Christians.
He recorded the story of Jesus as he heard it from the lips of Saint Peter. "For," according to Papias, "he had neither heard the Lord, nor ever been his disciple, but later had attended Peter, who composed his teachings to suit the needs of the moment, but did not profess to make a regular collection of the Lord's sayings. And so Mark made no mistakes; writing down the particulars just as he remembered them."
Mark's Gospel is written in awkward Greek, full of Semitic turns of phrases, cumbersome participles, and a lack of transitions. Yet Mark's simple language, stripped of rhetorical flourishes, without oratorical periods, without concern for syntax, is perhaps the clearest language through which to see best the flesh and blood of Jesus. The miracles of Jesus must have deeply affected Mark because his Gospel recounts many of them. In order to demonstrate Jesus's divinity to the Romans, Mark skillfully shows Jesus as a worker of miracles rather than Jesus fulfilling prophecies that would be unknown to his intended readers.
Saint Mark Image of Saint Mark courtesy of Saint Charles Borromeo Church
Mark's Gospel starkly sets out the demands of Jesus on his followers. Jesus had suffered, says Mark; His followers will suffer similarly.
Indeed, Jesus had explicitly warned the disciples about this. But it is also clear that those who can endure such sufferings will be greatly rewarded, for what Mark claims to be bringing is 'good news,' 'the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God,' as he states in the very first verse.
Another early historian, Eusebius, reporting the words of Saint Clement of Alexandria says that Saint Mark, a follower of Saint Peter, was asked by Roman tradesmen to compose a permanent memorial of Saint Peter's sermons, and so came to write, from his memory of them, the Gospel which bears his name.
Saint Ireneaus also tells us that Mark was Saint Peter's interpreter and mouthpiece.
Saint Mark was a cousin of Barnabas (Col. 4:10). His mother, Mary, was evidently a person of some wealth and position in Jerusalem, for her home was a center of hospitality to which the leaders of the early Church naturally gravitated.
When Saint Peter escaped from prison, he came "to the house of Mary, the mother of John whose surname was Mark; where many were gathered together praying," and it was a maid of the house, called Rhoda, who answered the door.
Mark was probably a Levite, because we know that his kinsman Barnabas was one (Acts 4:36), and perhaps a minor minister in the synagogue.
He accompanied Paul and Barnabas to Antioch in AD 44 (Acts 12:25), then to Salamis in Cyprus, and with Barnabas was on Paul's first missionary journey (Acts 13:5), but left Paul at Perga in Pamphylia and returned alone to Jerusalem (Acts 13:13).
For some reason he evidently offended Paul, who did not take him on his second missionary journey to Cilicia and Asia Minor, which was the occasion of the disagreement and separation of Paul and Barnabas (Acts 15:36-40).
Mark accompanied Barnabas to Cyprus (Acts 15:39) and then, evidently back in Paul's good graces, was with him in Rome during his first imprisonment (Col. 4:10), where he was apparently a disciple of Peter, who affectionately called him "my son, Mark" (1 Peter 5:13).
During Paul's second Roman captivity, shortly before his martyrdom, he writes to Timothy, who was at Ephesus, to "take Mark and bring him with you, for he is profitable to me for the ministry" (2 Timothy 4:11).
An early uncertain tradition, recorded by Eusebius, renders Mark the first bishop of Alexandria, but neither Papias nor Clement of Alexandria mentions it.
The tradition says that upon his arrival in Alexandria, like Paul arriving in Damascus, Mark found lodging with an inhabitant, in this case with a shoemaker. The shoemaker was also to become a saint, whose feast is celebrated today-- Anianus.
Tradition continues that Mark was martyred during the reign of Emperor Trajan or the "eighth year of Nero," and the shoemaker Anianus succeeded him as bishop.
One Easter Sunday, the uncertain tradition continues, April 24, 68, Mark was arrested. The long path of Jesus, from Gethsemani up to the palace of Anna, which Mark had not had the courage to pursue in Jerusalem, had been reserved for him, with a rope around his neck, from Alexandria up to the little port of Bucoles.
Tintoretto The Stealing of the Dead Body of St. Mark
Tintoretto, Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice Electronic image from Web Gallery of Art
He fell several times along the way. Finally, after having carried his rope all day and then for a night, and feeling it sink into his flesh, in the end he no longer desired that it be removed. He wanted to find this collar to his measure, this light yoke--and died strangled.
In the East, John Mark is believed to be a separate person who became bishop of Biblios and whose feast is celebrated on September 27.
Regardless of Papias's remarks that Mark never knew our Lord, there is speculation that he would have been acquainted with Jesus. He may have been the unnamed youth (mentioned only in Saint Mark's Gospel 14:51-52) who appeared at the time of the Betrayal, wrapped in a sheet, as if he had come straight from his bed, and who, when caught, escaped into the night (this has always been curious to me).
It is likely enough that Saint Mark, as a boy, had been drawn to the scene, but it is only a conjecture.
Other Scripture scholars note that the Last Supper may have occurred in the room reserved in Mark's mother's house for pilgrims, and that the Garden of Gethsamane belonged to the family. It would have been common enough for one of the family members or servants to sleep in the garden as a protection against thieves, which would explain the boy sleeping in the open (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Walsh, White).
By the 2nd century after Christ, Christians transferred the emblem to the four Evangelists (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) in written allusions. These became visual symbols in the 5th century. Traditionally, it is explained that the winged lion is chosen for Mark because his gospel speaks of the royal dignity of Christ, and because he begins his account of Saint John the Baptist with the "voice crying is the desert" (Appleton).
Saint Mark is the patron of Venice, to where his relics were reputedly brought in the 9th century from Alexandria. Although the original church of St. Mark in Venice was destroyed in 976, the rebuilt basilica contains both the relics and a magnificent series of mosaics on Mark's life, death, and translation. These date from the 12th-13th centuries and form a unique record (Farmer). He is also the patron of Egypt, glaziers, notaries, secretaries, and Spanish cattle breeders (for which there is no obvious explanation). He is invoked by captives (Roeder, White).The Miracle of St. Mark Freeing the Slave Tintoretto, Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice Electronic image from Web Gallery of Art
In art, Saint Mark is an evangelist with a book or scroll and a winged lion. At times he may be shown (1) with palm and book (sometimes pax tibi Marce is written on his book); (2) as a bishop with his throne decorated with lions; (3) coming to the aid of Venetian sailors; or (4) rescuing Christian slaves from the Saracens (Roeder).
The winged lion is used as Saint Mark's emblem. This is one of the four winged creatures of Ezekiel 1:10; 10:14 that were first applied by Jewish scholars to the four archangels (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel) with reference to and later used in reference to the four major prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel).
|150 St. Philo and
Antiochene deacons authored Acts life and death of St. Ignatius of
who are believed to have authored the Acts recounting the life and death of St. Ignatius of Antioch. They were deacons who assisted Ignatius and, after his martyrdom in Rome, brought back to Antioch those relics they could recover from Roman authorities.
| 480 St. Macedonius Patriarch
Constantinople Council of Chalcedon defener
He was exiled by the Arians for his defense of the Council of Chalcedon.
|300 Theophilus of Caesarea
According to the apocryphal life of Saint Dorothy, Theophilus is the lawyer who mocked her on her way to martyrdom. She sent him apples and flowers 'from the heavenly garden' and he was converted to Christianity. He himself was beheaded at Caesarea, Cappadocia, several years later, perhaps with Saturninus and Revocata (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
& Callistus MM (RM)
Date unknown. The Roman Martyrology mentions this group three times. On August 2, they are given as the three sons of Theodota, martyred at Nicaea in Bithynia. On the other two dates their martyrdom is placed at Syracuse, and in each of these places, the third name is given as Callista, indicating a sister and not a third brother. There is no passio of the martyrs of Syracuse, and it is possible that they suffered at Nicaea (Benedictines).
|4th v. Kebius preached
conversion in Cornwall B (AC)
4th century. Saint Kebius was ordained bishop by Saint Hilary(315-368) of Poitiers, and, returning into his own country, preached conversion in Cornwall (Husenbeth).
Theophilus & Revocata MM (RM)
Date unknown. A group of martyrs concerning whom neither place nor date of martyrdom is known (Benedictines).
Silvanus, Luke, and Mucius MM (RM)
Died . Bishop Silvanus of Emesa, Phoenicia, his deacon Luke, and his lector Mucius were martyred under Maximian following a long imprisonment. The Roman Martyrology identifies this Silvanus with the companion of Tyrannio (Benedictines).
|392 St. Phaebadius one of
illustrious men” of the Church extirpated Arianism heresy
Also called Fiari, bishop of Agen in Southern Gaul. He was a very well known bishop and was termed by St. Jerome one of “the illustrious men” of the Church. With his friend St. Hilary of Poitiers, he worked to extirpate the heresy of Arianism in the West.
|489 St. Macaille Bishop
Croghan prelate vows of St. Brigid
Offaly, Ireland, a disciple of St. Mel(488-490). He was one of the prelates receiving the vows of St. Brigid(450-525).
Macaille of Croghan B (AC) (also known as Macculi, Macull) If this one is confusing, it is because I am confused. The sources say that there are two bishops whose feasts fall on the same day named Macaille (the second one actually has his feast on April 27). One was a disciple of Saint Patrick, and the other was only converted by him (though the stories do not indicate that either was really a disciple, per se, of Patrick). Today's Macaille was a disciple of Saint Mel and assisted him in receiving the vow of Saint Brigid. There is a tradition that Mel erred in using the service for the consecration of a bishop, and that Macaille strongly protested. Saint Mel refused to admit he was wrong and said that it was all the will of God. This Macaille became the first bishop of Croghan, Offaly. A third gentleman, sometimes known as Saint Maccai, was also a disciple of Saint Patrick and is venerated on the isle of Bute (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth, Montague).
|5th v. Mun of Lough
Ree hermit another nephew of Saint Patrick B (AC)
5th century. Described as another nephew of Saint Patrick, who consecrated him bishop of what is now County Longford. He ended his days as a hermit on an island in Lough Ree (Benedictines).
|5th v. Dyfnan saintly son
of Welsh chieftain Brychan (AC)
One of the many saintly sons of the Welsh chieftain Brychan, Saint Dyfnan founded a church at Anglesey (Benedictines).
|525 Deodatus of Blois, Abbot
Deodatus was either a hermit or an abbot in the area of Blois. At a later period the town of Saint-Dié grew up around his cell or monastery (Benedictines).
|539 Vedast of Arras
holy from childhood instrumental in the conversion of Clovis I to
Christianity B (AC)
(also known as Foster, Gaston, Vat, Vaast, Waast)
Born in western France, died February 6, 539; other feasts at Arras are celebrated on July 15 and October 1.
When he was still very young, Vedast had left his home and led a holy life concealed from the world in the diocese of Toul, where the bishop, charmed with his virtue, consecrated him to the priesthood. Vedast, a fellow-worker with Saint Remigius in the conversion of the Franks, was instrumental in the conversion of Clovis I to Christianity.
The occasion of Clovis's conversion was a victory over the Alemanni in 496. He had already been influenced by Saint Clothilde, whom he had married four years earlier. After his victory, he was heading to Rheims to receive baptism at the hands of Remigius, but at Toul he requested the help of a priest who might instruct and prepare him for the holy sacrament as he travelled. Vedast was presented to his majesty for this purpose. When Vedast restored the sight of a blind man along the Aisne River with a prayer and the sign of the cross, Clovis was strengthened in his resolve to become a Christian and some of his courtiers converted immediately.
After being consecrated in 499 as bishop of Arras (united with Cambrai in 510) by Remigius, Vedast ruled the united sees of Arras- Cambrai for about 40 years. Upon his arrival in Arras, he restored sight to a blind man, and cured another who was lame. These miracles excited the attention, and disposed the hearts of many to open themselves to receive the Gospel. Although the region had been Christianized during the Roman occupation, the repeated incursion of Vandals and Alans had virtually destroyed any remnant of the faith. At the beginning of episcopacy, the only vestige of Christianity in his see was a ruined church. Though nearly discouraged at the ravages done to the faith, Vedast's patience, meekness, charity, and most especially prayers, allowed God to triumph over superstition and lust, and the faith was restored throughout that area.
Vedast was buried in the cathedral, but 128 years later Bishop Saint Aubertus changed a little chapel which Vedast had built in honor of St. Peter into an abbey, and translated the Vedast's relics into this new church, leaving a small portion of them in the cathedral. The great abbey of Saint Vedast was finished by Bishop Saint Vindicianus and endowed by king Theodoric or Thierry, who lies buried in the church with his wife Doda.
Many sites through Arras, Cambrai, and Belgium commemorate his name, as do three ancient church in England (in London, Norwich, and Tathwell in Lincolnshire). Although it is unlikely that Vedast ever visited England, his cultus there dates to the 10th century, which was heightened in the 12th century by the presence of Arrouaise Augustinians in the country. In England, he is sometimes known as Saint Foster, which is the derivation of that family name.
The feast of Vedast was included in the Benedictional of Saint Ethelwold, the Missal of Robert of JumiŠges, and the Leofric missal, as well as the calendars of Sarum, York, and Hereford. Blessed Alcuin wrote a vita for Vedast, as well as an Office and Mass in his honor for usage at Arras. In a letter to the monks of Arras in 769, Alcuin calls Vedast his protector (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth).
As in the stained glass image in the church of Blythburgh, Suffolk, Saint Vedast is pictured as a bishop with a wolf carrying a goose in its mouth (Roeder) (which had been rescued by Vedast for its poor owners). Other attributes include a child at his feet or a bear (Farmer). He is invoked on behalf of children who walk with difficulty, and for diseases of the eyes (Roeder).
|7th v. Authaire of
Ferté courtier at King Dagobert Ipalace France (AC)
(also known as Oye) 7th century. Saint Authaire was a courtier at the palace of King Dagobert I of France and father of Saint Ouen of Rouen. He is the patron of the village of Le- Ferté-sous-Jouarre, where he usually resided (Benedictines).
|7th v. Bova (Beuve,
& Doda rejected marriage proposals she devote to service of
God OSB VV (RM)
7th century. Saint Bova, sister of Saint Balderic (Baudry) and near relative of King Dagobert, edified the royal court and entire kingdom by her virtues. She rejected all marriage proposals because she decided to devote herself to the service of God. After her brother founded Montfauçon Abbey, in 639 he built a convent near Rheims, where Bova ruled as abbess until her death c. 680.
Her niece Doda followed in her footsteps and succeeded her as abbess. The relics of both saints were later translated to Saint Peter's Abbey in Rheims. Although their original vitae were destroyed in a fire, a later writer recorded the traditions related by the nuns in the 10th century (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
|729 Egbert of
Northumbrian monk of Lindisfarne OSB (RM)
Saint Egbert was a Northumbrian monk of Lindisfarne who migrated to Ireland and lived at Rathelmigisi (Rathmelsigi) in Connaught. In 684, he unsuccessfully tried to dissuade King Egfrith from invading Ireland. At Rathelmigisi Egbert trained several bands of monks for the German missions that included Saints Wigbert and Willibrord. When his companion Æthelhun died of the plague and he contracted it, too, Egbert vowed voluntary exile for life if he recovered. Although he wanted to join the missionaries, his vow and a vision instructing him otherwise, led Egbert to become an admirable monk on the island of Iona in Scotland. There he attempted to induce the monks to adopt Roman liturgical practices. He succeeded at last: in fact, on the day of his death, Easter was celebrated at Iona for the first time according to the Roman reckoning. Egbert's feast is found in both the Roman and Irish martyrologies and in the metrical calendar of York (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill).
|737 Erminus of Lobbes
practicing apostolic zeal as abbot and regional bishop OSB B (RM)
(also known as Ermin, Erminon) Born in Laon; Erminus given the Benedictine habit in Laon by Saint Ursmar(713) after his ordination to the priesthood. Erminus followed in Ursmar's footsteps by practicing his apostolic zeal as abbot and regional bishop of Lobbes (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
|750 Saint Relindis of
Eyck abbess OSB, Abbess (AC)
(also known as Renildis, Renula, Renule) Relindis was educated with her sister Herlindis in the Benedictine monastery of Valenciennes. She became an expert in embroidery and painting. Saint Boniface appointed her abbess of the convent of Eyck (Maaseyk) on the Meuse, which had been founded by her parents (Benedictines).
|780 St. Mella Widow abbess
She was the mother of St. Cannech and Tigernach, and lived in Connaught, Ireland. She became the abbess of DoireMelle, Leitrim
|Blessed Corona of
Benedictine nun OSB V (AC)
Date unknown. A Benedictine nun of Elche Abbey near Valencia, Spain (Benedictines).
|857 Heribald of
Auxerre Benedictine monk abbot love of well-regulated lives ceremonies
well-built churches OSB B (AC)
First as a Benedictine monk and abbot of Saint Germanus Abbey in Auxerre, then as bishop there, Saint Heribald demonstrated his love of well-regulated lives and ceremonies and well-built churches (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
|891 Photius career of
scholarship and public service at the imperial court legitimate
patriarch of Constantinople Orthodox objection to doctrine of the Holy
Born in Constantinople, c. 810; died there c. 891; canonized by the Orthodox Church. Photius, a member of a patrician family, was a man of very great ability and learning who until mid-life followed a career of scholarship and public service at the imperial court, where he was secretary of state and filled other offices. Then, in 858, Emperor Michael III banished the patriarch Ignatius, and Photius, who until then had been a layman, was made patriarch.
From that time Photius's life is one of difficulties between himself and Pope Saint Nicholas I and his successor Adrian II, complicated by the fluctuations of Byzantine politics--a long, complex, and often obscure struggle that is a matter of ecclesiastical history. It did not end until 879 when, Ignatius being dead, Pope John VIII recognized Photius as the legitimate patriarch of Constantinople and peace was restored between the churches.
For Orthodox Catholics, Saint Photius was the standard-bearer of their church in its disagreements with the pope of Rome; to Roman Catholics, he was a proud and ambitious schismatic: the relevant work of scholars over the past generation has somewhat modified partisan judgements. All agree on the virtue of his personal life and his remarkable talents, even genius, and the wide range of his intellectual aptitudes. Pope Nicholas himself referred to his 'great virtues and universal knowledge.'
Of his extensive writings the one of most general interest is the Bibliotheca or Myriobiblion, which has been translated into English and which includes descriptions and summaries of 279 books of all kinds, including extracts from works whose original text no longer exists. His Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit is important as a classical statement of Orthodox objections to the doctrine of the Holy Spirit's proceeding from the Father and the Son (Filioque) (Attwater).
|1000 St. Robert of
He headed the monastery at Syracuse, Sicily.
Boniface of Valperga monk bishop of Aosta B (PC)
Boniface, a monk of the Benedictine abbey of Fruttuaria, was chosen to be prior of the Augustinian canons regular of Saint Ursus at Aosta in 1212 and finally bishop of Aosta (1219-1243) (Benedictines).
|1586 Bl. Robert
Cardinal theology professor notable figure Catholic Reformation
Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) + Cardinal, theologian, and a notable figure in the Catholic Reformation. Born at Monte Pulciano, in Tuscany, Italy, he studied under the Jesuits and then entered the Society of Jesus in 1560. Ordained in 1570 at Louvain, Belgium, he served there as a professor of theology and became firmly convinced of the need for superior training in theology in order to defend Catholic doctrines properly against the Protestant intellectuals in Northern Europe.
He thus departed for Rome in 1576, becoming a professor of theology at the Collegium Romanum, the newly founded Jesuit school in the Eternal City. Made a cardinal in 1599 by Pope Clement VIII (r. 1592-1605), he became the archbishop of Capua in 1602. He remained a leading figure in Rome and a trusted theological advisor to the Holy See. In 1605, he was named head of the Vatican Library. Thus he took part in the controversy over Galileo called upon Church officials to declare the Copernican theory to be “false and erroneous,” while urging Galileo to abandon his defense of the theory because of the controversy it might create, most so with the Protestants.
From the time of his teaching at the Louvain, Robert was one of Catholicism’s most ardent defenders and a brilliant controversialist against the Protestants, providing a famous definition of the Catholic Church: “The one and true Church is the assembly of men, bound together by the profession of the same sacraments, under the rule of legitimate pastors, and in particular the see of the Vicar of Christ on earth, the Roman Pontiff.” Feast day: September 17.
|1586 Bl. William
Martyr of England
A native of Lancashire, he studied at Oxford and then departed the island for Reims, France, where he was ordained in 1585 with Blessed Robert Anderson. They were sent to England but were forced to land on the Isle of Wight in a storm. They were arrested, and then condemned and hanged on April 25 on Wight. Both were beatified in 1929, and share the feast.
|1597 Philip of Jesus
friar Miracles attested the power before God of these first martyrs of
Japan patron of Mexico City, Mexico OFM M (RM)
(also known as Philip de las Casas Born in Mexico City, Mexico, May 1, 1571; died in Nagasaki, Japan, 1597; beatified by Pope Urban VIII; canonized by Pope Pius IX in 1862; feast day formerly February 5.
The life of Saint Philip points again to the importance of the domestic church--the family. Early in life Saint Philip ignored the pious teachings of his immigrant Spanish family, but eventually he entered the Reformed Franciscan Convent of Santa Barbara at Puebla, Mexico--and soon exited the novitiate in 1589. Grieved at the inconstancy of his son, Philip's father sent him on a business trip to the Philippines.
Like many of us, Philip sought to escape God's love in worldly pleasures but the Hound of Heaven tracked him down. Gaining courage by prayer, Philip was again able to follow his vocation, joined the convent of Our Lady of the Angels in Manila in 1590, and took his vows in 1594. The richest cargo Philip could have sent back to Mexico couldn't have pleased his father more than the message that Philip had been professed a friar. Alonso de las Casas obtained directions from the commissary of the order that Philip should be sent to Mexico to be ordained a priest.
He embarked with other religious on the Saint Philip in July 1596 but storms shipwrecked them in Japan. Amid the storm, Philip saw over Japan a white cross, in the shape used in that country, which after a time became blood-red, and remained so for some time. It was an omen of his coming victory.
The ship's captain sent Philip and two others to the emperor to gain permission for them to continue their voyage, but they could not obtain an audience. He then continued to the Franciscan house in Macao to see if they could apply pressure. In the meantime, the pilot of the Saint Philip had excited the emperor's fears of Christians, causing him to contemplate their extermination.
In December, officers seized a number of the Franciscan fathers, including Philip, three Jesuits, and several of their young pupils. When Philip had that they were to die, he responded with joy. His left ear was cut off, and he offered the first fruit of his blood to God for the salvation of Japan.
The martyrs were taken to Nagasaki, where crosses had been erected on a high hill. When Philip was led to the one on which he was to die, he knelt down, clasped it, and exclaimed, "O happy ship! O happy galleon for Philip, lost for my gain! Loss--no loss for me, but the greatest of all gain!" He was bound to the cross, but the footrest under him gave way, so that he was strangled by the cords that bound him. While repeating the name of Jesus, he was the first of the group to die. Philip was 25. Miracles attested the power before God of these first martyrs of Japan (Benedictines, Butler, Delaney).
Saint Philip is the patron of Mexico City, Mexico.
Giovanni Battista Piamarta (AC)
Born at Brescia, Italy, November 26, 1841; died at Remedello, April 25, 1913; beatified October 12, 1997. (Coming in 2000.)