Tuesday  Saints of this Day April 26  Sexto Kaléndas Maii  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.



 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life.

"Our Lady will be happier if we give it to that poor man"
 
Gianni and Franco’s parents lived in a poor neighborhood near the Port of Genoa. Their father spent all his money on drink. The boys roamed the streets of the city but were good kids. They were very excited about the upcoming procession of the Madonna that they loved. They were planning on lighting candles outside their windows like everyone else. But there was one problem—where would they get the money to buy candles?

Gianni had an idea. "Why don’t we find a job? We still have a day before the procession. We can earn a few liras." The next day, the two boys got up before seven o'clock and got themselves hired by the coal merchant.

With the money earned they ran to buy candles, barely noticing a beggar holding out his hand. But suddenly they stopped, and went back: "Our Lady will be happier if we give the money to that poor man." They put the liras in the hand of the beggar and then went home.

Back at the house, they saw huge candles adorning all the windows! They couldn’t believe their eyes!... Their father had found out that his sons had been loading coal and was ashamed of his conduct. He asked his boss for an advance on his salary, bought twenty candles and promised his wife to quit drinking!


Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary  .

CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2014

Mary's Divine Motherhood

April 26 – Our Lady of Perpetual Help given to the Church of the Redemptorists (Rome, Italy, 1886) 
 
She helped the Church find peace…  
During one of her apparitions, on September 15, 1876, the Blessed Virgin said to Estelle, the visionary of Pellevoisin in central France: "I will acknowledge the efforts you have made to find peace—I am not only seeking this for you, but also for the Church." How can we obtain this peace then?

Regarding the Church, Estelle understood how later. During her private audience with Pope Leo XIII on January 30, 1900, the Pope, who was well acquainted with the apparitions of Pellevoisin, asked if the Virgin Mary was satisfied with his pontificate.

Estelle replied: “Oh yes! Holy Father, she's happy, very happy. You responded to her call, and your teachings for the past 22 years have fulfilled the wishes of the Holy Virgin. You ordered the recitation of the Salve Regina, a prayer to the Mother most merciful. Then, Holy Father, you ordered the recitation of the Rosary. Finally, Holy Father, in your last encyclical, you consecrated the human race to the Sacred Heart.”

It was through his teachings on the Virgin Mary and the consecration to the Sacred Heart that Leo XIII has helped the Church find peace in these troubled times.
 
A Meditation by Father Jean-Emmanuel de Gabory
February 27, 2015


Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Remember, you will be faulted not because you are ignorant against your will but because
you neglect to seek out what it is that makes you ignorant. -- St. Augustine


91 St. Cletus Pope eminent virtue martyr canon of the Roman mass among St. Peter's 1st disciple 3rd Pope after  Linus
  304 Marcellinus Pope M (RM)

500? St. Peter of Braga Martyred bishop of Braga Portugal
1146 Blessed John of Valence canon of Lyons forced to be bishop of Valence OSB Cist. B (AC)
1218 St. Franca Visalta Benedictine Convent at 7 yr Cistercian nun foundress

1309 St Aldo Aldobrandesca she gave away all possessions ministering to sick visions and ecstasies Siena
1396 Stephen of Perm great Russian missionary bishop invented alphabet for Zyrians using for letters parts of the traditional elements of Zyrian carvings and embroidery to teach the Bible

1667 St. Pedro de San José Betancur "St. Francis of the Americas," Pedro de Betancur first saint worked and died in Guatemala.

April 26 - Our Lady of Perpetual Help is given to the church of the Redemptorists (Rome, Italy, 1886)
- Apparitions of Grouchiv (Ukraine, 17th and 20th centuries) 
 
The Statue of Fatima and the Hope of Ukraine
The makeshift tent-chapels on Maidan Square were destroyed in a fire during the riots—even though the violence was not aimed directly at the chapels.  Minutes before the fire broke out, a statue of Our Lady of Fatima had been removed for a special ceremony. As a result, the statue was preserved and is now “a sign of hope for us,” according to the local bishop.
Every day at 3 P.M., the Rosary is prayed on the square. The bishop explained that it was heartening to see the profound solidarity, without any religious discrimination between people. They all share in common whatever they have—clothes, blankets, and food—console each other and support each other spiritually. Many also donate blood.
 Bishop Stanislav Szyrokoradiuk,
Latin rite diocese of Kiev – Jitomir www.aed-france.org

 
Our Lady of Perpetual Help
The original icon of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, of Byzantine style, is one of the many icons attributed to Luke.
This image shows the Mother of God holding the Christ Child in her arms. The Child has a frightened look on His face caused by the instruments of His future passion presented to Him by the archangels Michael and Raphael.
Jesus is tucked up against His mother who presses Him on her heart and He has lost His sandal out of fear.

This icon was revered for centuries on the island of Crete. In the 15th century, the island was invaded by the Turks, but a Christian managed to get a hold of the icon and flee. When the man arrived in Rome, he fell seriously ill and asked a friend to put the icon in a church. Instead, the latter kept it and his wife hung it up in their bedroom. The Blessed Virgin appeared several times to the owner to tell him she was not happy, but man paid no heed. Then, Mary appeared to the couple's daughter and asked her to have the icon placed in a church located between the two major basilicas of St Mary Major and St John Lateran.
Following his daughter's pleas, the father finally acquiesced and the icon was installed in 1499 in the Church of St Matthew where it remained until Napoleon's army destroyed the church three hundred years later. Fortunately, the image was saved and Pope Pius IX gave it to the Redemptorists on April 26, 1866--who had the church of Saint Alphonsus rebuilt where the Church of St Matthew was formerly located. The Pope added solemnly: "Make her known! Make her loved! She will save the world!" Many miracles are attributed to this famous image, copies of which are now found throughout the world (cf. logo of "A Moment with Mary").
A prolific writer, author of several biblical commentaries, a Life of Abbot Adalhard, the well known De Corpore et Sanguine Domini, the first ever treatise on the Eucharist, commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel (12 volumes), long exposition on Psalm, and another on the Lamentations of Jeremiah, author of epistle IX of Pseudo Jerome, which is an important document in the development of the doctrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin= defended her perpetual virginity:.
91 St. Cletus Pope eminent virtue martyr canon of the Roman mass among St. Peter's 1st disciple 3rd Pope after Linus
  304 Marcellinus Pope M (RM)
  4th v. Bishop Lucidius of Verona famous for his life of prayer and study; revered for his holiness and learning B RM
  319 St. Basileus Bishop martyr of Amasea in Pontus angel found his body
 
350? ST PETER, Bishop of BRAGA
  500? St. Peter of Braga Martyred bishop of Braga Portugal
  620 Clarentius of Vienne succeeded Saint Etherius in that see B (RM)
  644 St. Trudpert Irish pilgrim Benedictine hermit
  645 St Richarius young pagan protected 2 Irish missionaries Cadoc & Frichor; fast strenuously; cry copiously for sins pray without ceasing; Abbot; 1st to work ransoming captives
  860 Paschasius Radbertus abandoned at convent asked to be forgotten simply asks for prayers to God left works dealing with the body and blood of Christ the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist (De Corpore et Sanguine Christe) commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel (12 volumes) composed treatise on the Virgin defend her perpetual virginity long exposition on Psalm 44 and another on the Lamentations of Jeremiah wrote biographies of 2 abbots -Corbie OSB Abbot (AC)
         Trecis, in Gállia, sanctæ Exsuperántiæ Vírginis.  At Troyes in France, St. Exuperantia, virgin.
1146 Blessed John of Valence canon of Lyons forced to be bishop of Valence OSB Cist. B (AC)
1218 St. Franca Visalta Benedictine Convent at 7 yr Cistercian nun foundress
1300 Blesseds Dominic & Gregory Dominican preachers died in cavein cave surrounded by lights and angelic music Miracles surrounded burials and tombs at Besians diocese of Barbastro
1309 St Aldo Aldobrandesca she gave away all possessions ministering to sick visions and ecstasies Siena
1396 Stephen of Perm great Russian missionary bishop invented alphabet for Zyrians using for letters parts of the traditional elements of Zyrian carvings and embroidery to teach the Bible
1667 St. Pedro de San José Betancur "St. Francis of the Americas," Pedro de Betancur is the first saint to have worked and died in Guatemala.
"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him"
(Psalm 21:28)

91 St. Cletus Pope eminent virtue martyr canon of the Roman mass among St. Peter's 1st disciple 3rd Pope
Romæ natális beáti Cleti, Papæ et Mártyris; qui, secúndus post Apóstolum Petrum, rexit Ecclésiam, et martyrio in persecutióne Domitiáni coronátus est.
 At Rome, the birthday of St. Cletus, the pope who governed the Church the second after the apostle St. Peter, and was crowned with martyrdom in the persecution of Domitian.
91 St. CLETUS POPE AND MARTYR
THE exact order in the succession of the earliest popes has never been satisfactorily established, and it is still a moot point whether St Cletus was the third or the fourth occupant of the chair of St Peter. The fact that he is sometimes referred to by the name of Cletus and sometimes by the Greek equivalent of Anicetus has further confused the issue. It is now, however, agreed that the names belong to the same pope, and that he died about the year 91—probably as a martyr during the reign of Domitian. Nothing else is known about him. He is named, as the third pope, in the present Canon of the Mass, and the name Anacletus has now been expunged from the list of popes in the Annuario Pontifico.

The Liber Pontificalis with Mgr Duchesne’s introduction and notes supplies the most reliable information concerning the early popes. See also Grisar, Geschicte Roms und der Päpate (Eng. trans.), §418 and 467; and B. Casper, Die älteste rom. Bischofsliste (1926). It is curious that the name of Marcellinus does not occur in the list of A.D. 354 headed “Depositio Episcoporum”; his name is omitted from the new Benedictine calendar approved in 1915.
 
St. Cletus Pope Martyr April 26 A.D. 91
St. Cletus was the third bishop of Rome, and succeeded St. Linus, which circumstance alone shows his eminent virtue among the first disciples of St. Peter in the West.
He sat twelve years, from 76 to 89. The canon of the Roman mass, (which Bossuet and all others agree to be of primitive antiquity,) Bede, and other Martyrologists, style him a martyr. He was buried near St. Linus, on the Vatican, and his relics still remain in that church.

Cletus, Pope M (RM) (also known as Anacletus) The Roman Cletus, elected pope in the year 76, was the second successor to Saint Peter after Saint Linus. Like Peter, he was fated to be a martyr. He divided Rome into 25 parishes, and was put to death under the Emperor Domitian around 91 AD. He was buried near Saint Linus on the Vatican, where his relics remain. His name is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth).
304 Marcellinus Pope M (RM)
Sancti Marcellíni, Papæ et Mártyris, cujus dies natális octávo Kaléndas Novémbris recensétur.
 St. Marcellinus, pope and martyr, whose birthday is commemorated on the 25th of October.
St Marcellinus followed St Caius in the bishopric of Rome in 296, and reigned eight years. Theodoret states that he acquired great glory in the stormy times of Diocletian’s persecution; on the other hand it was generally believed throughout the middle ages that under fierce trial he yielded up the holy books and offered incense to the gods. The legend, fostered by the Donatists, that he afterwards acknowledged his guilt at a certain Council of Sinuessa, pronouncing at the same time his own deposition, is now universally discredited, no such council having ever taken place but ancient breviaries and catalogues of popes certainly allude to the fall of Marcellinus and to his subsequent repentance crowned by martyrdom. If, as seems mote than probable, he was guilty of a temporary lapse, he expiated it by a holy death and is honoured as a saint and a martyr, though his actual martyrdom is far from certain. He was buried in the cemetery of St Priscilla which he built or enlarged.
The Liber Pontificalis with Mgr Duchesne’s introduction and notes supplies the most reliable information concerning the early popes. See also Grisar, Geschicte Roms und der Päpate (Eng. trans.), §418 and 467; and B. Casper, Die älteste rom. Bischofsliste (1926). It is curious that the name of Marcellinus does not occur in the list of A.D. 354 headed “Depositio Episcoporum”; his name is omitted from the new Benedictine calendar approved in 1915.

Born in Rome; died there on October 25, 304, his second feast day. Marcellinus was the son of Projectus. After his election to succeed Pope Saint Caius on June 30, 296, he witnessed the beginnings of Emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians. According to an ancient legend that may have been Donatist-inspired and which was included in the Roman Breviary until 1883 (since discredited), Marcellinus seems to have apostatized and surrendered the sacred books and offered incense to pagan gods but later repented. He may have died a martyr's death by beheading, but this is still very uncertain; the Liberian calendar places him among those popes who were not put to death for the faith (Benedictines, Delaney, Husenbeth).
319 St. Basileus Bishop martyr of Amasea in Pontus angel found his body
Eustas_Basil_Glaphyria

Amaséæ, in Ponto, sancti Basiléi, Epíscopi et Mártyris, qui, sub Licínio Imperatóre, illústre martyrium consummávit.  Ipsíus autem corpus, in mare projéctum, et ab Elpidíphoro, Angeli mónitu repértum, honorífice tumulátum fuit.
 At Amasea in Pontus, St. Basileus, bishop and martyr, whose illustrious martyrdom occurred under Emperor Licinius.  His body was thrown into the sea, but was found by Elpidiphorus, through the revelation of an angel, and was honorably buried.
 
The Hieromartyr Basil, Bishop of Amasea, lived at the beginning of the fourth century in the Pontine city of Amasea. He encouraged and comforted the Christians suffering persecution by the pagans. During this time the Eastern part of the Roman Empire was ruled by Licinius (311-324), the brother-in-law of the holy emperor Constantine the Great (May 21). Licinius deceitfully signed St Constantine's Edict of Milan (313), which granted religious toleration to Christians, but he hated them and continued to persecute them.

The Virgin Glaphyra. Licinius burned with passion for Glaphyra, a maidservant of his wife Constantia.
The holy virgin reported this to the empress and sought her help. Dressing her in men's attire and providing her with money, the empress Constantia sent her to Pontus in the company of a devoted servant. They told the emperor that Glaphyra had gone mad and lay near death. On her way to Armenia, St Glaphyra stopped in Amasea, where the local bishop, St Basil, gave her shelter.

At this time the saint was building a church in the city. St Glaphyra donated all the money that she had received from Constantia for its construction, and in a letter to the empress she asked her to send additional funds to complete the church. The empress fulfilled her request. However, St Glaphyra's letter fell into the hands of the emperor. The enraged Licinius ordered the governor of Amasea to send him the hierarch and the maidservant. St Glaphyra died before the edict arrived in Amasea, and St Basil was sent to the emperor. Two deacons, Parthenius and Theotimos, followed after him and lodged near the prison where the saint was held.

The pious Christian Elpidephoros bribed the jailer and each night he visited the saint with Parthenius and Theotimos. On the eve of the saint's trial, he sang Psalms and chanted, "if I should sojourn at the extremity of the sea... even there Thy hand would guide me, and Thy right hand would hold me" (Ps 138/139:9-10). These were prophetic words.

Three times he broke down in tears. The deacons were afraid that the saint would not be able to endure the coming torments, but he calmed them.

At the trial St Basil resolutely refused the emperor's offer to become a pagan priest, and so he was sentenced to death. Elpidephoros gave the soldiers money, and they allowed the saint to pray and to speak with his friends before execution. Then the saint said to the executioner, "Friend, do as you have been ordered." Calmly, he bent his neck beneath the sword.

When the martyr had been beheaded, Elpidephoros tried to ransom his relics from the soldiers. But the soldiers were afraid of the emperor and they threw the saint's body and head into the sea. After this, an angel of God appeared to Elpidephoros three times in a dream, saying, "Bishop Basil is in Sinope and awaits you."

Heeding this call, Elpidephoros and the deacons sailed to Sinope, and there they hired fishermen to lower their nets. When they lowered the net on the suggestion of the deacons Theotimos and Parthenius, they came up with nothing. Then Elpidephoros declared that he would ask them to lower the net in the name of the God Whom he worshiped. This time, the net brought up the body of St Basil. The saint's head was attached to his body once more, and only the gash on his neck indicated the blow of the sword. The relics of St Basil were taken to Amasea and buried in the church he built.

Basileus was drowned in a persecution of the Church. Tradition states that one of his disciples, Elidiphorus, was directed by an angel in finding his body and giving the martyr a Christian burial.

Basileus of Amasea BM (RM) Basileus, a zealous bishop of Amasea in Pontus, was cast into the sea under Licinius. The Roman Martyrology adds that one of his disciples, Elpidiphorus, was directed to his body by an angel which he recovered and gave Christian burial (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
350? ST PETER, Bishop of BRAGA
Brácari, in Lusitánia, sancti Petri Mártyris, qui fuit primus ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus.
    At Braga in Portugal, St. Peter, martyr, the first bishop of that city.

THE principal patron of Braga in Portugal is one of its former bishops, Peter by name, who probably lived in the fourth century and whose relics were translated in 1552 by Balthasar Limpo, archbishop of Braga, from Rates to Braga, where the body was placed in a marble tomb and the head in a silver casket. Nothing is known of his real history, but local tradition represents him to have been a disciple of St James the Greater, consecrated as the first bishop of Braga, and to have suffered martyrdom after he had baptized and had cured of leprosy the daughter of the king of the district.
It is plain that if St Peter had been a disciple of St James the Greater, he could not have died in 350; but see the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, and Florez, España Sagrada, vol. iii, pp. 404—405.
4th v. Bishop Lucidius of Verona famous for his life of prayer and study revered for his holiness and learning B (RM)
Verónæ sancti Lucídii Epíscopi.  At Verona, St. Lucidius, bishop.
Bishop Lucidius was famous for his life of prayer and study (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
620 Clarentius of Vienne succeeded Saint Etherius in that see B (RM).
Viénnæ, in Gállia, sancti Claréntii, Epíscopi et Confessóris.
 At Vienne in France, St. Clarence, bishop and confessor.
Clarentius succeeded Saint Etherius in the see of Vienne (Benedictines).
645 Richarius young pagan protected 2 Irish missionaries Cadoc & Frichor fast strenuously cry copiously for sins pray without ceasing Abbot 1st to work ransoming captives (RM)
In monastério Céntula, in Gállia, sancti Richárii, Presbyteri et Confessóris.  In the monastery of Centula in France, St. Richarius, priest and confessor.
(also known as Riquier) Born in Centula (Celles) near Amiens, France; died at Forêt- Moutier, April 26, c. 645; feast of his translation is October 9.
645 ST RICHARIUS, OR RIQUIER, ABBOT
THE town of Abbeville claims to derive its name from the abbey of St Richarius or Riquier, which once owned the land upon which the city now stands. The saint was born at Celles, near Amiens, at a period when the population of the district was still largely pagan. Two Irish priests who landed on the coast and sought to pass through the country met with a hostile reception, and would have been seriously ill-treated had not Richarius protected them. In return they gave him instruction, as a result of which he was inspired with a desire to become a priest. After a very penitential preparation he received holy orders and then made a stay of some length in England, apparently to perfect himself in the science of the saints. Upon his return to France, he began to preach with extraordinary zeal and with great success.
He strongly influenced St Adalbald and St Rictrudis, and to King Dagobert he spoke on the dangers and vanities of this world, warning him of his responsibilities.

“He who has to obey will only have to render account to God of himself”, he declared, “but he who commands will also have to answer for all his subjects”.

With increasing age came the desire to yield up the charge of the abbey he bad founded at Celles, and so Richarius withdrew to a hermitage, in which he spent the rest of his life in the company of a disciple, called Sigobard. Over this cell afterwards rose the monastery of Forest-Montiers, between Rue and Créçy.

We have two noteworthy accounts of St Riquier, the one by Alcuin, the other by Angil­ramnus; they are printed both in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, and by Mabillon. See also Corblet, Hagiographie d’Amiens, vol. iii, pp. 417—462; and MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. vii, pp. 438—453, for the rhymed vita by Hariulf.
As a young pagan, Richarius protected two Irish missionaries--Cadoc and Frichor--who were in danger from the local people. They then instructed him in the Christian faith.
From that time he began to fast strenuously, cry copiously for his sins, and pray without ceasing.

He became a priest and went to England for several years. Upon his return to France, Richarius founded an abbey in Centula in 638, afterwards called Celles, became famous preacher admonished King Dagobert and other luminaries.
The gifts he received from the wealthy he handed on to the poor. He was the first to devote himself to the work of ransoming captives. After some years as abbot he resigned and spent the rest of his life as a hermit. His relics were moved to the town now called Saint- Riquier (Somme), where a monastery was later founded. Saint Riquier appears frequently in ancient calendars and litanies. His reputation extended across the Channel: A church in Aberford, West Yorkshire, England, is dedicated to his memory (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).

645 St. Riquier priest fast strenuously cry copiously for his sins pray without ceasing 1st to devote himself to the work of ransoming captives Abbot hermit

also called Richarius. Born at Celles, near Amiens, France, he became a priest after rescuing two Irish missionaries from a murderous band of local pagans. After studying in England, he was ordained and returned home, where he founded an abbey at Celles over which he presided as abbot. He later resigned from his office and spent his remaining days as a hermit on the site of Forest Montiers Monastery. Abbeville is the modern site of Riquier’s foundation.
500? St. Peter of Braga Martyred bishop of Braga Portugal
Brácari, in Lusitánia, sancti Petri Mártyris, qui fuit primus ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus.
 At Braga in Portugal, St. Peter, martyr, the first bishop of that city
 
According to tradition, Peter had some connection with the St. James the Great while the Apostle was in Spain and that he was martyred at Braga after becoming the city’s first bishop.
Recent scholarship puts the actual date of Braga’s life and work to the fifth or sixth century.

Peter of Braga BM (RM) . Allegedly, Peter was the first bishop and martyr of Braga, Portugal. The local tradition connects him with the apostolate of Saint James the Great (Santiago) in Spain.
However, historians believe he lived in the 5th or 6th century (Benedictines).
644 St. Trudpert Irish pilgrim Benedictine hermit

The site of his original hermitage in Munstehal became a monastery. According to a discounted tradition, Trudpert was martyred.

Trudpert of Münstethal, Abbot (AC) also known as Trudbert Irish pilgrim who, upon his return from Rome, began a solitary in Münstethal. Here (or at Neumagen) some day- laborers, paid by the local lord to clear an impossible terrain to establish a foundation for Trudpert, became fed up with their hard job, killed him. Trudpert, therefore, is venerated as a martyr, though his vita is considered a legend (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
860 Paschasius Radbertus abandoned at convent asked to be forgotten simply asks for prayers to God left works dealing with the body and blood of Christ the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist (De Corpore et Sanguine Christe) commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel (12 volumes) composed treatise on the Virgin defend her perpetual virginity long exposition on Psalm 44 and another on the Lamentations of Jeremiah wrote biographies of 2 abbots-Corbie OSB Abbot (AC)

860 ST PASCHASIUS RADBERTUS, ABBOT
ST RADBERTUS was adopted, when left as a motherless babe on their doorstep, by the nuns of Notre-Dame at Soissons, who sent him to be educated by the monks of St Peter in that same city. He seems to have become engrossed in the Latin classics, and he lived for several years in the world before deciding to enter the
religious life. He received the habit at Corbie and turned his attention to sacred studies, in which he became very proficient.
   The abbot St Adalhard and his brother Wala who succeeded him made Radbertus their confidant and their travel­ling companion on their journeys, whilst he repaid their trust by devoted affection. It was he who after their death wrote the biographies of the two holy abbots. In 822 he was taken by his superiors to aid in the foundation of New Corbie in West­phalia, and during the years that he was instructor of novices he made the Corbie schools very famous.
   He assumed as a prefix the name of Paschasius in deference to the custom then prevalent amongst French men of letters of adopting a classical or scriptural name. Although Radbertus would never suffer himself to be promoted to the priesthood, yet he was elected to be abbot of Corbie—a post which he found difficult and uncongenial. Gladly at the close of seven years did he lay down his crozier to retire to the abbey of Saint-Riquier where he could write in peace. His last years, however, were spent at Corbie. St Paschasius Radbertus was a prolific writer. Amongst his works are lengthy commentaries on St Matthew and on the forty-fourth psalm, a treatise on the book of Lamentations, the two biographies already mentioned, and a famous book,
De Corpore et Sanguine Christi.

A short life of Paschasius Radbertus has been edited by Mabillon and in Pertz, MGH., Scriptores, vol. xv, pp. 452—454. See also the Acts Sanctorum, April, vol. iii. Paschasius’a eucharistic teaching has been much discussed: on this see Ernst, Die Lehre d. h. Paschasius Radbertus (1896).
Died April 26, 860. Radbertus was a monk who thought about the future, about eternity, to be sure, and equally about the time that would follow his death. He dictated a last will and testament that is considered precious. He had no possessions to bequeath. Instead, he requested only that no one write the story of his life. He asked to be forgotten, which makes him an original in a Church that forgets nothing. Radbertus simply asks for prayers to God.
 
Radbertus, who allowed himself to be called Paschasius, was probably born in Soissons, France, without a known father or mother. He was found one day on the doorstep of Notre Dame Convent in Soissons. He was a little baby who was waiting for someone to take him in. Thus, he was raised by the good sisters, educated by the monks at nearby Saint Peter's, received the Benedictine habit at an early age, and was ordained a deacon.  But he, thinking that the community was exaggerating the nature of the world, left the monastery to live his own life. He tried an easy lifestyle and was very uncomfortable with it, so, when he was about 22, he returned to the monastery of Corbie and began to pray, read, and write.

The abbot of the monastery was named Adebard (Adalard 753-827), the brother of Theodrade, the abbess who had given a home to the abandoned infant. Both of them were first cousins to Charlemagne (742-814) and belonged to the fashionable world. Being educated--Radbertus knew Greek and Hebrew--he was involved in the Carolingian Renaissance. He was sent to Saxony on his first assignment, where Charlemagne spent 30 years trying to subdue the people. Charlemagne organized 18 expeditions and beheaded 4,500 hostages in order to baptize the rest by force and in order to issue edicts, for example, mandating observance of fasts under pain of death. During this period, Radbertus and Adalard founded monasteries in Saxony.

After Charlemagne it was the turn of Louis the Pious to have recourse to Radbertus: it wasn't easy to get along with a man like Louis. He was big, strong, and trembled like a leaf; he was lost in pater nosters, and on the lookout for cosmic events.  Louis had hesitated to become a monk and to the detriment of his country, he did not follow his vocation. It was a difficult assignment to engage in missionary and political activities with a man of this kind, in perpetual conflict with his children who several times amused themselves by degrading him in public. It required an uncommon dose of common sense to attempt to calm down all these people.

Radbertus did not grow vain over his successes; although a simple deacon, in 822, he was sent to help found New Corbie in Westphalia.
Radbertus considered himself as dishwater, scrapings, or as the scum of monastic life: it is the translation of the word "Peripsema" which he used, the same word used by Paul in his splendid tirade addressed to the pride of the Corinthians.

Radbertus preached to the monks on Sundays and holidays, and gave public lectures daily on the sacred sciences.   Under his direction the schools of Corbie became famous. Among his scholars were Blessed Adalard the Younger (800-824), and Saints Anscharius (801-865), Hildemar (Died c. 700), and Odo (801-880), who were successively bishop of Beauvais.
His busy schedule never prevented him from assisting at he public office in choir, and all other general observances of the rule.
Humble though he was, Radbertus helped make the Corbie schools famous while he served there as master of novices.
He then accepted the uncomfortable position as abbot in 844. The distractions of this station made him earnestly endeavor to resign, but he could not do so until seven years later, in 851. Being freed from administrative tasks, he retired to the abbey of Saint- Riquier to finish some of his works; but after some time he returned to Corbie to die.

When Radbertus was not busy pacifying the kings of France, he was engaged in writing. He had finished a treatise on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist (De Corpore et Sanguine Christe), which raised some questions about 15 years after its initial publication.  Some took offense at certain expressions, chiefly taken from the writings of Saint Ambrose (340-397), in which the author so strongly affirmed the body of Christ present in the Eucharist to be the same flesh which was born of the Virgin Mary and nailed to the cross that they imagined Radbertus taught a heresy.

They thought he meant that Christ in the Eucharist is in the same mortal state in which he suffered, and that he understood this sacred mystery in the carnal sense of the Capharnaits.
In a letter to the Brother Frudegard at New Corbie, Radbert defended the manner in which he had expressed himself and showed his orthodoxy.
Radbertus left other works dealing with the body and blood of Christ.

His principal work is a commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel (12 volumes), which was preached before it was read. In it he refutes the errors assumed by Felix of Urgel, Claudius of Turin, Gotteschalk, and, especially, John Scotus Erigena against mystery of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

He also composed a treatise on the Virgin to defend her perpetual virginity: He was probably the author of epistle IX of Pseudo Jerome, which is an important document in the development of the doctrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin;
a long exposition on Psalm 44;
another on the Lamentations of Jeremiah, in order to practice crying over his own miseries.

In general this last is a long, detailed work, very well documented.
He also wrote biographies of two abbots of Corbie: Adalard and his brother Wala, who had been Radbertus's friend and confidant.

In subscribing to the council of Paris, in 846, he took only his own name, Radbert; but in the works which he composed after that time, he always prefixed to it that of Paschasius. This he took according to the custom which then prevailed among men of letters in France, for every one to adopt some Roman or scriptural name.

Thus, in his epitaph or panegyric on his second abbot, Wala, he styles him Arsenius.

Radbertus was buried in Saint John's Chapel. His body was translated into the great church, in 1073, by authority of the Pope Saint Gregory VII

In art, angels bring a monstrance to Paschasius Radbertus. There will be books on a table (Roeder).

Paschasius was left as an infant upon the door of Notre Dame convent in Soissons, France, and was raised by the nuns there before receiving an education from the monks of St. Peter’s, Soissons.
After entering the Benedictine monastery of Corbie under St. Adalard, he was ordained a deacon. In 822, he was sent with other monks under Adalard to establish the monastery of New Corbie in Westphalia, Germany. He served for a number of years as master of novices and headmaster at both Corbie and New Corbie and in 844 was made abbot of Corbie. Never ordained a priest and finding the office against his nature, Paschasius resigned about 849. He went to the abbey of Saint Riquier, but returned to Corbie where he eventually died. A prolific writer, he was the author of several biblical commentaries, a Life of Abbot Adalhard, and the well known De Corpore et Sanguine Domini, the first ever treatise on the Eucharist.
(1021-1085). From that time he has been honored as a saint at Corbie, and in the Gallican and Benedictine Martyrologies (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
He was also probably the author of epistle IX of Pseudo Jerome, which is an important document in the development of the doctrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin.
Trecis, in Gállia, sanctæ Exsuperántiæ Vírginis.  At Troyes in France, St. Exuperantia, virgin.
1146 Blessed John of Valence canon of Lyons forced to be bishop of Valence OSB Cist. B (AC)
1146    BD JOHN I BISHOP OF VALENCE
LYONS was the birthplace of this John, who when a young canon in the cathedral of his native city made a vow to join the community of Citeaux, but mistrust of his power of perseverance led him to seek to compound with his conscience by a pilgrimage to Compostela instead. Vocation, however, was too strong: he had a dream or vision of so terrifying a character that he set off for Citeaux in the middle of the night. He proved himself an exemplary monk, and was sent to found the abbey of Bonnevaux.

   The diocese of Valence had been suffering under an unworthy bishop called Eustace, whose extravagance and harshness had drawn upon him the reproaches of St Bernard and the excommunication of the Holy See. He nevertheless clung to office, until the exasperated people in 1141 drove him from his cathedral city. Three days later the abbot of Bonnevaux was taken off to the cathedral, where he was consecrated in spite of his strong remonstrances. The choice proved an excellent one. He was a devoted spiritual pastor and a merciful temporal ruler. When his officials sometimes complained of his leniency, he would remind them that severity had been overdone in the past and that those who are called upon to judge the evildoer might not always be able to resist if faced with his temptations. The cultus of Bd John was approved in 1901.
A life of this holy bishop, written by one Giraudus, has been printed by Martène and Durand in their Thesaurus novus anecdotorum, vol. iii, pp. 1693—1702. See also Nadal, Histoire hagiologique de Valence, pp. 273 seq., and such Cistercian historians as Manrique and Le Nain.
Born in Lyons, France; cultus approved in 1901. John, a canon of Lyons, entered Clairvaux under Saint Bernard following a pilgrimage to Compostella. In 1117, he was sent to found Bonneval (Bona Vallis) on the Loire, and proved to be an excellent abbot. In 1141, he was elevated to bishop of Valence but had to be carried by force to the altar for his consecration (Benedictines).
1218 St. Franca Visalta Benedictine Convent at 7 yrs old; Cistercian nun foundress
1218 ST FRANCA OF PIACENZA, VIRGIN AND ABBESS
FRANCA VISALTA was only seven years old when she was placed in the Benedictine convent of St Syrus at Piacenza and fourteen when she was professed. Young though she was, she had already outstripped all her sisters in obedience, devotion and self-denial. After the death of the abbess she was chosen superior, and for a short time all went well. But the zealous young abbess soon began to tighten the reins of discipline, prohibiting amongst other luxurious innovations the practice of cooking vegetables in wine. So bitter was the opposition that Franca was actually deposed in favour of the bishop’s sister, who did not share her reforming spirit.
   For years Franca had to suffer calumny and misrepresentation, as well as severe interior trials. Her one earthly solace was a young girl called Carentia who used to visit her. By her advice Carentia underwent a year’s novitiate in the Cistercian convent at Rapallo, and then persuaded her parents to build for the order a house at Montelana which she entered, while it was arranged that St Franca should be transferred from St Syrus to rule the new foundation. Later the community settled at Pittoli. They kept the Cistercian rule in all its poverty and austerity, but even that was not enough for the abbess. Night after night she would go to the chapel to spend in prayer hours which others devoted to sleep. Her daughters, marking with dismay her failing health, bade the sacristan withhold the key, but it would have required more than a key to keep her from her vigil. She died in 1218, and Pope Gregory X, Carentia’s kinsman, sanctioned her cultus for Piacenza.
In the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, are printed a letter of a contemporary Cistercian prior recounting a vision of one of his monks to whom was revealed the glory of St Franca Visalta, and also a lengthy biography by Father Bertram Recoldi, written in 1336.

Born in 1170 in Piacenza, Italy, she entered the St. Syrus Benedictine Convent at the age of seven. Later elected abbess, she was ousted because of her strictness. After several years she became abbess of a convent at Montelana, which adopted the Cistercian rule. Moving the foundation to Pittoli, she died there. She was canonized by Pope Gregory X.

Franca Visalta, OSB Cist. Abbess (AC) also known Franca of Piacenza Born in Piacenza, Italy, in 1170; died 1218; cultus confirmed with the title of saint by Gregory X. Franca was offered to God at the Benedictine convent of Saint Syrus when she was seven. At age 14, she was professed and while still very young, she became abbess. Apparently, she was overly severe, which led to her deposition. After some years she was made abbess of the Cistercian convent at Pittoli, where she exhibited a remarkable patience (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1300 Blesseds Dominic & Gregory Dominican preachers died in cavein cave surrounded by lights and angelic music Miracles surrounded burials and tombs at Besians diocese of Barbastro  OP (AC) cultus approved by Pope Pius IX in 1854.
1300 BD. DOMINIC AND GREGORY
Dominic and Gregory were two Dominican friars, living in the first century of the order, who were impelled by zeal for souls to leave their Castilian priory to preach the gospel in Aragon. Their labours lay specially in out-of-the-way districts among the hill folk inhabiting the steep southern spurs of the Pyrenees. Penniless and barefoot they went from hamlet to hamlet, giving spiritual instruction and receiving frugal hospitality. They had taken refuge under a cliff during a severe thunderstorm when a fall of rock buried them beneath it. The ringing of bells startled the inhabitants of the nearest villages, and a strange light is said to have revealed the scene of the catastrophe. The bodies of the two missionaries were recovered and buried at Besiano, where they have ever since been venerated, and their cultus was confirmed in 1854.

There is a short account of these beati in Seeböck, Die Herrlichkeit der Katholischen Kirche, p. 139, and in Procter, Lives of Dominican Saints, pp. 106—107. For a fuller biblio­graphy see Taurisano, Catalogus Hagiographicus OP., p. 23.
Very little is known about these two Dominican preachers. Their legend tells us that they evangelized the mountainous Somontano region of Moorish Spain near Barbastro, Aragon. One day they were caught in a storm as they travelled from one village to another. The storm loosed the rocks of the cave in which they had sought shelter and they were buried in a landslide. The bells of Perarúa rang out of their own accord, indicating that something remarkable was afoot, and villagers, who ventured out after the storm, found the cave surrounded by lights and angelic music. Digging into the rubble, they found the two Dominicans crushed to death. Miracles surrounded their burials and their tombs at Besians in the diocese of Barbastro, where pilgrims came to pray, especially against the danger from storms. Formerly on Rogation days, and in times of drought, their relics were carried in procession (Benedictines, Dorcy).
1309 St. Aldo (Aldobrandesca) Widow she gave away all possessions ministering to sick visions  almsdeeds and mortification and ecstasies Siena (also known as Aldobrandesca, Aude, Blanca, Bruna)
1309 BD ALDA, OR ALDOBRANDESCA, Widow won the veneration of all, and many were the cures attributed to her ministrations.

THE tomb of Bd Alda was formerly a great centre of devotion in the church of St Thomas at Siena. She was a matron of good position who, upon finding herself a childless widow, retired into a little house outside the walls of Siena. There she devoted herself to almsgiving, and by mortifications tried to fill up the chalice of the sufferings of Christ. She had many visions in which she beheld scenes in the earthly life of our Lord. Gradually she gave away all her possessions and finally she determined to sacrifice her solitude, and went to live in the hospital that she might devote herself to nursing the sick poor. She still continued to be subject to ecstasies.
   When first she was seen in a state of trance resembling catalepsy, some members of the staff were sceptical and scoffed—even going so far as to pinch her, pierce her with needles, and apply lighted candles to her hands. When she recovered consciousness she felt intense pain from the wounds thus made, but all she said to her tormentors was, “God forgive you”. The experiments were not repeated. Before her death Bd Alda won the veneration of all, and many were the cures attributed to her ministrations.

A short life was published in 1584 by C. Lombardelli this has been translated into Latin and printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii.
Born in Siena, Italy, 1249; Blessed Alda married a very pious man and lived with him in conjugal continence. Upon his death, Alda joined the third order of the Humiliati and devoted her life to almsdeeds and mortification. She is greatly honored in Siena (Benedictines).
(also known as Esperance, Exuperance) A virgin whose relics are venerated in Troyes, France. Nothing else is known about her (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

28 febbraio 1245 - Siena, 26 aprile 1309 A native of Siena, and also known as Aude and Aldobrandesca, she gave away all her possessions on the death of her husband and devoted herself to aiding the poor. She spent the last part of her life ministering to the sick in the hospital at Siena, subjecting herself to great mortifications. She experienced visions and ecstasies during her lifetime.

Nacque il 28 febbraio 1245 dal nobile Pietro Francesco Ponzi e da Agnese Bulgarini, alla quale Dio aveva mostrato in sogno di aver scelto la nascitura per sé; dopo essere stata educata e istruita con ogni cura, fu data in sposa al concittadino Bindo Bellanti, uomo «virtutibus ornatissimus», dal quale, però, non ebbe figli. Dopo la morte prematura del marito, A. vestì l'abito del Terz'Ordine degli Umiliati e si diede, ancor più di prima, a far vita penitente nella solitudine di una sua piccola proprietà, dove operò miracoli ed ebbe estasi e visioni. Passò gli ultimi anni nell'ospedale di S. Andrea, che in seguito fu detto di S. Onofrio, dedicandosi tutta al servizio dei poveri, degli infermi e dei pellegrini.
Alda morì il 26 aprile 1309 e fu sepolta nella chiesa di S. Tommaso in Siena, appartenente agli Umiliati. Le sue ossa nel 1489 furono levate da terra e poste in una parete a lato di un altare, da dove nel 1583 furono trasferite.
Il suo culto, oltre che a Siena e in altre città, ebbe molta diffusione nell'Ordine degli Umiliati.

February 28 was born 1245 from the noble Pietro Francesco Ponzi and from Agnese Bulgarini, to which God had shown in dream of to have chosen the nascitura for oneself; after to to be been educated and taught with every care, was given in bride to the fellow-citizen Bindo Bellanti, man «virtutibus ornatissimus», from which, however, not ebbe sons.  After the premature death of the husband, TO. dressed the clothing of the Terz' Order of the Humiliated and it is given, even more of first, to make life penitente in the solitude of an its small property, where operò miracles and ebbe ecstasy and sights.  It passed the last years in the hospital of S. Andrea, that later on had said of S. Onofrio, dedicating itself all to the service of the poor, of the ill and of the pilgrims.  Alda 26 April 1309 died and was buried in the church of S. Tommaso in Siena, belonging to the Humiliated.  His bone in 1489 had been easts from land and mail in a wall to side of an altar, from where in 1583 had been transferred.  Its religion, beyond that to Siena and in other town, much ebbe spread in the order of the Humiliated.

1396 Stephen of Perm great Russian missionary bishop invented alphabet for Zyrians using for letters parts of the traditional elements of Zyrian carvings and embroidery to teach the Bible B
1396 ST STEPHEN, BISHOP OF PERM
IT is related in the life of St Sergius of Radonezh that a bishop was one day travelling to Moscow and, coming level with Sergius’s monastery, but some seven miles away, he stopped on his road, bowed low in the direction of Sergius, and said, “Peace be with you, brother in God”. At the same moment St Sergius stood up in the refectory and, bowing towards the far-off road, said, “Be of good cheer, shepherd of Christ’s flock. The peace of God be always with you.” Later he explained to his brethren that the Bishop Stephen on his way to Moscow had saluted their monastery and called down blessings on them.
From their early Christian days the Russians had sent out missions to the heathen, such as the Mongols and Finns, and in the revival of this zeal during the fourteenth century the outstanding figure was this bishop St Stephen. He was a monk of Rostov, who sometime after 1370 went to preach the gospel to the Zyriane or Permiaks, a people who lived far to the east of the Volga river but south-west of the Ural mountains, among whom he had been born though himself a Russian.
St Stephen was a very worthy successor of St Cyril and St Methodius and his missionary methods are reminiscent of theirs. He believed, as his biographer tells us, that every people should worship God in its own tongue, since languages also are from God, and so one of his first undertakings was to translate the necessary parts of the liturgical services into the language of the Zyriane, and portions of the Holy Scriptures likewise. So convinced was Stephen that every people has its own peculiar contribution to make to God’s service that he would not give his converts even the Russian characters instead he invented an alphabet of letters based on details in the patterns of their embroideries and carvings. And he established schools wherein the use of this alphabet could be learned. Like other Russian missionaries St Stephen used the celebration of public worship as an initial means of attracting the heathen by its beauty and impressive solemnity. He distinguished himself not only as a missionary, but also as a champion of the downtrodden and oppressed so far away as Novgorod and Moscow.
In 1383 his work was recognized by the conferring of episcopal orders, and he became the first bishop of Perm, where he had to oppose by writing and preaching the people called Strigolniks, the first Russian dissenters, who had much in common with the Lollards and Hussites. St Stephen died at Moscow in 1396.
For bibliographical notes on Russian saints, see under St Sergius of Radonezh on September 25.
There is a large manuscript literature of Russian saints’ lives, of which the medieval ones belong to three distinct areas. Those of Kiev and the Ukraine are the earliest, and are concerned particularly with the “holy princes” and the “holy monks”. The monastery of the Caves at Kiev led in this work, and there was produced the first paterik, that is, a collection of short lives of saints concerned with one particular district or monastery. But there are extant only two detailed lives of pre-Mongol saints, viz, of St Theodosius and of St Abraham of Smolensk. After the Tartar conquest a new hagiographical “school” developed in the North, with its centres at Novgorod and further north. Its accounts are distinguished by their shortness and austerity of manner, often containing no more than is said in the proper office “hymn”. The third, Central, school grew up around Moscow
Saint Stephen the Enlightener of Perm, and Apostle to the Zyrians, was born around the year 1340 into the family of Simeon, a cleric of the Ustiug cathedral. He was greatly influenced by his pious mother Maria. Endowed with great abilities, he already displayed an unusual zeal for the service of the Church: in a single year he learned to read the Holy Books and he assisted his father in church during services, fulfilling the duty of canonarch, and also that of reader.
The young saint received monastic tonsure at the Monastery of St Gregory the Theologian at Rostov. The monastery was famed for its fine library. Since St Stephen wanted to read the holy Fathers in their original language, he studied Greek.

In his youth, when he had assisted his father in church, he frequently spoke with the Zyrian people. Now, having been immersed in the rich culture of the Church, St Stephen burned with a desire to convert the Zyrians to Christ.  To facilitate the enlightenment of the Zyrians, he compiled an alphabet of their language and translated some of the Church books. For this pious work Bishop Arsenius of Rostov (1374-1380), ordained him to the rank of hierodeacon.

Having prepared himself for missionary activity, St Stephen journeyed to Moscow (1379) to see Bishop Gerasimus of Kolomna, who then oversaw the affairs of the metropolitanate. The saint implored him, "Bless me, Master, to go into a pagan land, Perm. I want to teach the holy Faith to the unbelieving people. I am resolved either to lead them to Christ, or to lay down my life for them and for Christ." The bishop joyfully blessed him and ordained him as a hieromonk. He provided him with an antimension for the altar table, holy chrism and service books, and Great Prince Demetrius gave him a document of safe passage.

From Ustiug St Stephen made his way along the North Dvina River up to the confluence of the Vychegda into it, where settlements of the Zyrians began. The proponent of faith in Christ suffered many toils and struggles, deprivation and sorrow, living among the pagans who worshipped idols "with fire, water, trees, a stone and golden woman-figure, and shaman, and wizard, and wood."

Father Stephen was sad to see that the Zyrians continued to worship a "sacred birch tree." Immense in its thickness and height, the birch tree grew on an elevated spot. The Zyrians gathered there and brought wild animals there for sacrifice.

St Stephen's cell was not far from the birch tree. He prayed and set fire to the tree in order to end the superstition. The Zyrians, seeing that the tree had been destroyed, meant to kill him. The saint said to them, "Judge for yourselves whether or not your gods have any power, since they are not able to defend themselves from the fire. Can they be gods, when they are so powerless? They have no mind, neither can they see or hear. Your idol could not defend itself against me, a weak man. Are all your other gods so powerless? The Christian God is not like this. He sees everything, knows everything and is Almighty, since He created the whole world and foresees everything. How good He is, particularly to those who know Him! I desire only what is good for you, to bring you to the true God. He will love you and bless you, when you sincerely begin to honor Him." On the site of the "sacred birch tree," St Stephen built a church in honor of the Archangel Michael, the vanquisher of the spirits of darkness.

The newly-baptized Zyrians themselves began to remove that which they once worshiped. They cut down sacred trees, they destroyed idols, and they brought to St Stephen the rich gifts set aside for the pagan sacrifices. He told his Zyrian helper Matthew to throw everything into the fire, except the linen cloth which was used for foot wrappings.

But things came to a head among the Zyrians after St Stephen got the better of their chief priest Pama, who rose up against the spread of Christianity. The pagan priest entered into a debate with St Stephen. "Christian, you have only one God," said Pama, "but we have many helpers on the land, and in the water, granting us good hunting in the forests, and with its abundance providing food and pelts to Moscow, the Horde and faraway lands. Our gods reveal to us the magic mysteries, inaccessible to you."

St Stephen answered that the true God is one; the Almighty is one, but experience has proven that the idols are powerless. After a lengthy dispute the pagan priest Pama challenged St Stephen to pass through fire and water in a test of faith. St Stephen humbly replied, "Great is the Christian God. I accept your challenge."

Pama, however, lost his nerve and entreated the saint to save him from certain death. "You are witnesses," said St Stephen to the people "how he wished to resolve the dispute about faith by fire and water, but he does not wish to be baptized. Who has regard for Pama now? What is to be done with him?"

"Let the deceiver be put to death," the people said, "for if Pama is set free, he will make mischief for you." "No," the saint replied, "Christ has not sent me to hand anyone over to death, but to teach. Since Pama does not wish to accept the saving Faith, let his stubbornness punish him, but I will not." Pama was banished. In thanksgiving for his victory over the chief pagans, St Stephen built a church in honor of St Nicholas at Vishero. After this, the saint's preaching of Christ was more successful.

In 1383, St Stephen was consecrated Bishop of Malaya Perm [Lesser Perm]. Like a loving father he devoted himself to his flock. To encourage the newly-converted, St Stephen opened schools adjacent to the churches, where they studied the Holy Scriptures in the Permian language. The saint supervised the instructions, and taught them what they needed to know in order to become priests and deacons. St Stephen taught several of his students how to write in the Permian language. The saint built churches, in which he placed Zyrian priests, and services were conducted in the Zyrian language.

St Stephen translated the HOROLOGION [Book of Hours], the PSALTER, and other liturgical books into the Zyrian language.

During a crop failure the saint provided the Zyrians with bread. Many times he protected them from the trickery of corrupt officials, gave them alms, and defended them from the incursions of other tribes, interceding for them at Moscow. The fruit of his efforts and good deeds came in the conversion of all of Perm to Christianity. This great deed was accomplished by his strength of faith and Christian love. The life of the saint was a victory of faith over unbelief, of love and meekness over malice and impiety.

There was a touching "meeting in absence" of St Stephen of Perm with St Sergius of Radonezh, occurring in the year 1390 as St Stephen journeyed to Moscow on church business. St Stephen fervently loved the Radonezh ascetic and very much wanted to pay him a visit, but had no time to do so. Ten versts from the monastery of St Sergius, St Stephen turned in the direction of the monastery and with a bow he said, "Peace to you, my spiritual brother!"

St Sergius, who was eating a meal with the brethren, stood up, made a prayer and, bowing towards the direction where the saint rode, answered, "Hail also to you, pastor of the flock of Christ, may the peace of God be with you!"

The deep spiritual connection of St Stephen of Perm and St Sergius of Radonezh is recalled even today in a certain prayer recited each day in the trapeza.

Besides building churches, St Stephen also founded several monasteries for the Zyrians: the Savior Ulianov wilderness monastery 165 versts from Ust-Sysolsk, the Stephanov 60 versts from Ust-Sysolsk, the Ust-Vym Archangel, and the Yareng Archangel.

In the year 1395 St Stephen again went to Moscow on affairs of his flock, and died there. His body was placed in the Church of the Transfiguration in the Moscow Kremlin. The Zyrians bitterly lamented the death of their archpastor. They earnestly entreated the Moscow prince and the Metropolitan to send the body of their patron back to Perm, but Moscow did not wish to part with the relics of the saint.

The glorification of St Stephen began already at the beginning of the fiftenth century. The Life of the saint was written soon after his death. The hieromonk Pachomius the Serb composed the service to him, with the hieromonk Epiphanius the Wise, who was a disciple of St Sergius of Radonezh. He also knew St Stephen and loved to converse with him.

Born at Ust Yug in 1345; died in Moscow in 1396. In the early days of Christianity in the region, the Russian Church had sent out missionaries to preach the Gospel to the Mongols and Finns. But it wasn't until the 14th century that this zeal was revived.

Saint Stephen, one of the great Russian missionary bishops, had been born among the Zyriane people (Permiaks or Komi), who lived southwest of the Ural mountains but east of the Volga, and he longed to convert his own folk to Christianity. After about 15 years in a monastery at Rostov preparing himself for a missionary work, he set out on a preaching mission among them.

Soon Saint Stephen, a worthy successor to Saints Cyril and Methodius, realized that he needed to make a translation of the Scriptures and liturgy into their tongue. His biographer tells us that he believed that every people should worship God in its own tongue, because languages also are from God. Because the Zyrians at that time did not possess even an alphabet, and Stephen was so convinced that every people has its own peculiar contribution to make to God's service that he would not give his converts even the Russian characters. Instead, this Russian invented an alphabet for them using for letters parts of the traditional elements of Zyrian carvings and embroidery. He set up schools to teach this alphabet to his converts.

Like many other Russian missionaries, Stephen used the celebration of public worship as an initial means of attracting the heathen by its beauty and impressive solemnity. Having distinguished himself as a missionary and as a champion of the downtrodden and oppressed as far away as Novogorod and Moscow, he was recognized by being name the first bishop of Perm (now Molotov) in 1383. As bishop, he had to oppose the first Russian dissenters, known as Strigolniks, who had much in common with the Lollards and Hussites (Attwater, Bentley, Walsh).
1667 St. Pedro de San José Betancur "St. Francis of the Americas," Pedro de Betancur is the first saint to have worked and died in Guatemala.
(1626-1667)
Central America can claim its first saint with the July 30 canonization of Pedro de Betancur by Pope John Paul II in Guatemala City. Known as the "St. Francis of the Americas," Pedro de Betancur is the first saint to have worked and died in Guatemala.

Calling the new saint an “outstanding example” of Christian mercy, the Holy Father noted that St. Pedro practiced mercy “heroically with the lowliest and the most deprived.” Speaking to the estimated 500,000 Guatemalans in attendance, the Holy Father spoke of the social ills that plague the country today and of the need for change.

“Let us think of the children and young people who are homeless or deprived of an education; of abandoned women with their many needs; of the hordes of social outcasts who live in the cities; of the victims of organized crime, of prostitution or of drugs; of the sick who are neglected and the elderly who live in loneliness,” he said in his homily during the three-hour liturgy.

Pedro very much wanted to become a priest, but God had other plans for the young man born into a poor family on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Pedro was a shepherd until age 24, when he began to make his way to Guatemala, hoping to connect with a relative engaged in government service there. By the time he reached Havana, he was out of money. After working there to earn more, he got to Guatemala City the following year. When he arrived he was so destitute that he joined the bread line which the Franciscans had established.

Soon, Pedro enrolled in the local Jesuit college in hopes of studying for the priesthood. No matter how hard he tried, however, he could not master the material; he withdrew from school. In 1655 he joined the Secular Franciscan Order. Three years later he opened a hospital for the convalescent poor; a shelter for the homeless and a school for the poor soon followed. Not wanting to neglect the rich of Guatemala City, Pedro began walking through their part of town ringing a bell and inviting them to repent.

Other men came to share in Pedro's work. Soon they became the Bethlehemite Congregation, which went on to earn official papal approval after Pedro's death.

He is sometimes credited with originating the Christmas Eve posadas procession in which people representing Mary and Joseph seek a night's lodging from their neighbors. The custom soon spread to Mexico and other Central American countries.

Pedro was beatified in 1980.

Comment:    As humans, we often pride ourselves on our ability to reason. But, as Pedro’s life shows, other skills may be an even more crucial element of our humanity than a clever mind: compassion, imagination, love. Unable to master studies for the priesthood despite his efforts, Pedro responded to the needs of homeless and sick people; he provided education to the poor and salvation to the rich. He became holy—as fully human as any of us can ever be.

Quote:    Speaking of Pedro and the four others beatified with him, Pope John Paul II said: "God lavished his kindness and his mercy on them, enriching them with his grace; he loved them with a fatherly, but demanding, love, which promised only hardships and suffering. He invited and called them to heroic holiness; he tore them away from their countries of origin and sent them to other lands to proclaim the message of the gospel, in the midst of inexpressible toil and difficulties" (L'Osservatore Romano).



 Tuesday  Saints of this Day April 26  Sexto Kaléndas Maii  
   Fifth Week in Easter  Passover, April 22 -30

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798
 
Links to Related MarianWebsites  Angels and Archangels  Saints Visions of Heaven and Hell

Widowed Saints  html
Doctors_of_the_Church   Acts_Of_The_Apostles  Roman Catholic Popes  Purgatory  UniateChalcedon

Mary the Mother of Jesus Miracles_BLay Saints  Miraculous_IconMiraculous_Medal_Novena Patron Saints
Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800  1900 2000
Miracles 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000  
 
1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900 Lay Saints
The POPES HTML
Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005
 Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) Francis (2013

Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.
During his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis made this strong statement while continuing his catechesis on the family, with this and next week focusing on the elderly.  Confining this week’s address to their problematic current condition, the Holy Father said the elderly are ignored and that a society that does this is perverse.
While noting that life has been lengthened thanks to advances in medicine, he lamented that while the number of older people has multiplied, "our societies are not organized enough to make room for them, with proper respect and concrete consideration for their fragility and their dignity.”

“As long as we are young, we are led to ignore old age, as if it were a disease to be taken away. Then when we become older, especially if we are poor, sick and alone, we experience the shortcomings of a society planned on efficiency, which consequently ignores the elderly.”


He went on to quote his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI, who, when visiting a nursing home in November 2012, “used clear and prophetic words: ‘The quality of a society, I would say of a civilization, is judged also on how the elderly are treated and the place reserved for them in the common life.’"  Without a space for them, Francis highlighted, society dies.

Cultures, he decried, see the elderly as a burden who do not produce and should be discarded.
“You do not say it openly, but you do it!” he exclaimed. "Out of our fear of weakness and vulnerability, we do not tolerate and abandon the elderly," he said. “It’s sickening to see the elderly discarded. It is ugly. It’s a sin. Abandoning the elderly is a mortal sin.”
“Children who do not visit their elderly and ill parents have mortally sinned. Understand?”

The Pope expressed his dismay at children who go months without seeing a parent, or how elderly are confined to little tables in their kitchens alone, without anyone caring for them.  He noted that he observed this reality during his ministry in Buenos Aires.  Unwilling to accept limits, society, he noted, doesn’t allow elderly to participate and gives into the mentality that only the young can be useful and enjoy life.
The whole society must realize, the Pope said, the elderly contain the wisdom of the people.
The tradition of the Church, Pope Francis reaffirmed, has always supported a culture of closeness to the elderly, involving affectionately and supportively accompanying them in this final part of life.  The Church cannot, and does not want to, Francis underscored, comply with a mentality of impatience, and even less of indifference and contempt towards old age.
Sooner or later, we will all be old, he said. If we do not treat the elderly well, he stressed we will not be treated well either.
“We must awaken the collective sense of gratitude, of appreciation, of hospitality, which make them feel the elderly living part of his community.”

Concluding his address, Pope Francis noted how old age will come to all one day and reminded the faithful how much they have received from their elders. He also challenged them to not take a step back and abandon them to their fate.


The Church without Mary is an orphanage
 
Pope Francis:
Cross Not Optional, Says Benedict XVI
Reflects on Peter's "Immature" Faith CASTEL GANDOLFO, Italy, AUG. 31, 2008 (Zenit.org).-
Taking up one's cross isn't an option, it's a mission all Christians are called to, says Benedict XVI.
The Pope said this today before reciting the midday Angelus with several thousand people gathered in the courtyard of the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
Referring to the Gospel reading for today's Mass, the Holy Father reflected on the faith of Peter, which is shown to be "still immature and too much influenced by the 'mentality of this world.'”  He explained that when Christ spoke openly about how he was to "suffer much, be killed and rise again, Peter protests, saying: 'God forbid, Lord! No such thing shall ever happen to you.'"
"It is evident that the Master and the disciple follow two opposed ways of thinking," continued the Pontiff. "Peter, according to a human logic, is convinced that God would never allow his Son to end his mission dying on the cross.  "Jesus, on the contrary, knows that the Father, in his great love for men, sent him to give his life for them, and if this means the passion and the cross, it is right that such should happen."
Christ also knew that "the resurrection would be the last word," Benedict XVI added.
Serious illness
The Pope continued, "If to save us the Son of God had to suffer and die crucified, it certainly was not because of a cruel design of the heavenly Father.  "The cause of it is the gravity of the sickness of which he must cure us: an evil so serious and deadly that it will require all of his blood. 
"In fact, it is with his death and resurrection that Jesus defeated sin and death, reestablishing the lordship of God."
Popes Html link here: 
 “Where there is no honor for the elderly, there is no future for young people.” Pope Francis:
It Is a Mortal Sin When Children Don't Visit Their Elderly Parents.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today; April 26
91 St. Cletus Pope eminent virtue martyr canon of the Roman mass among St. Peter's 1st disciple 3rd Pope after Linus
304 Marcellinus Pope M (RM)

Pope Saint Gregory VII   860 Paschasius Radbertus abandoned at convent asked to be forgotten simply asks for prayers to God left works dealing with the body and blood of Christ the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist (De Corpore et Sanguine Christe) commentary on Saint Matthew's Gospel (12 volumes) composed treatise on the Virgin defend her perpetual virginity long exposition on Psalm 44 and another on the Lamentations of Jeremiah wrote biographies of 2 abbots -Corbie OSB Abbot (AC) -- Radbertus was buried in Saint John's Chapel. His body was translated into the great church, in 1073, by authority of the Pope Saint Gregory VII.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today; April 25
From that time Photius's life  891 Photius career of scholarship and public service at the imperial court legitimate patriarch of Constantinople Orthodox objection to doctrine of the Holy Spirit (Filioque) is one of difficulties between himself and Pope Saint Nicholas I and his successor Adrian II, complicated by the fluctuations of Byzantine politics--a long, complex, and often obscure struggle that is a matter of ecclesiastical history. It did not end until 879 when, Ignatius being dead, Pope John VIII recognized Photius as the legitimate patriarch of Constantinople and peace was restored between the churches.


Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today; April 24
Pope St Gregory the Great despatched  to England in 601:  624 St Mellitus of Canterbury missionary Archbishop of Canterbury from 619
Pius XII, Sovereign Pontiff, enrolled among the number of the saints at Angers in France, St. Mary Euphrasia Pelletier, virgin and foundress of the Institute of the Good Shepherd Sisters.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today; April 22
 174 Soter, Pope charity personal kindness care for persecuted condemned Montanists (RM)
 282 The Departure of the Holy Father Anba Maximus The Fifteenth Pope of Alexandria.
 296 Saint Caius, Pope Dalmatian M (RM)
167 to 175 Pope Soter and Caius, Saints and Popes
They have their feast together on 22 April, on which day they appear in most of the martyrologies, though Notker and a few others give Soter on the 21st and Caius on the 19th or 21st.

 536 Pope Agapitus I archdeacon opposed Monophysites Pope (RM) in the opinion of Pope St Gregory I he was “a trumpet of the gospel and a herald of righteousness”.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today; April 21
Pope Clement XI in 1720, 1109 Anselm of Canterbury Doctor of the Church OSB B Cur Deus Homo, the most famous treatise on the Incarnation ever written; canonized and included among the Doctors of the Church by Pope Clement XI in 1720.  An attempt to persuade Pope Urban II to depose the saint was equally futile.  After due consideration Paschal II confirmed his predecessor’s decisions, and Henry thereupon sent word to St Anselm forbidding his return if he continued recalcitrant, and pronouncing the confiscation of his revenues.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today; April 21
Pope St. Gregory the Great. -- 599 St. Anastasius XI Antioch Patriarch learning holiness comforting afflicted observed perpetual silence except for charityIn 593 Anastasius was restored to his see by Pope St. Gregory the Great.