Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Third Sunday of Easter
April Is Child Abuse Prevention Month

Mother_of_God_of_the_Passion



We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Our Lady of Africa, pray for us and for the Muslims"
 
Algeria, the former Kingdom of Numidia, was evangelized in the 2nd century. Already deeply Romanized, this region of North Africa had a flourishing Christian community. The conversion of Constantine the Great, Emperor of Rome, in the 3rd century, increased the influence of the Church there.

At the time of the Muslim invasion in the 7th century, the Church of North Africa was one of the biggest communities of the Latin Church in the world. Algerian soil was covered with basilicas and other Christian shrines.

The Arab invasion and the spread of Islam, starting in the 7th century, were done by force.
Within a few centuries, the Church of Africa was decimated.
It was not until the French conquered Algeria in 1830 that the Church was reestablished.

An ancient land of Christianity and martyrs entrusted to Our Lady of Africa (also known as Our Lady of the Atlas), Algeria has never ceased to respect the Virgin Mary. When the Basilica of Our Lady of Africa was built in Algiers, this intercessory prayer was inscribed above the altar:
"Our Lady of Africa, pray for us and for the Muslims." It has never been erased…


CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2014

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary  .

44 James son of Zebedee one of the Twelve Apostles 1st Apostles died as a martyr
      Angels with the Cross lance and the sponge.
      Eutropius sent by Pope Saint Clement (100) as 1st bishop Saintes evangelized inhabitants
      Icon of the Mother of God "Of the Passion" angels with the Cross lance and the sponge.

320 Basil, Bishop of Amasea Hieromartyr encouraged  comforted the Christians suffering persecution by pagans
 328  St. Alexander I, 19th Pope
; Departure of; See of St. Mark.
 686-693 Erconwald of London bishop miracles at grave reported (until the 16th century) miracles recorded touching his couch OSB
 855 Amator priest (Amateur), Peter monk & Louis lay friend preachers martyred by Saracens MM (RM)
1109 Saint Nikita former Recluse of the Kiev Caves healing of many people
1429 St. Louis von Bruck Martyred boy example of the pervasive anti-Semitism of the medieval period
1572 St. Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572 Catholic Reformation leader taught theology philosophy 16 years excessive zeal as grand inquisitor devoted to the religious life published Roman Catechism revised Roman Breviary and Roman Missal organized Battle of Lepanto

1590 St. Gerard Miles Martyr of England with Blessed Francis Dickinson
1618 Bl. Mary of the Incarnation contemplative prayer frequent ecstasies often saying "The Kingdom of God is within you" received the stigmata reserved regarding mystical illuminations and always very humble responsible for at least 10,000 conversions first Carmel established in Paris OCD Widow (AC)


April 30 - Our Lady of Africa (Algiers, 1876) - 2000:
Canonization of Sister Faustina

That man is truly humble who converts humiliation into humility. -- St. Bernard
                 
The Angelus Comes Straight From Saint Luke
"In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph, of the House of David, and the virgin's name was Mary (Lk 1:26). "Rejoice, full of grace! The Lord is with you!" (Lk 1:28). "Of all women you are the most blessed, and blessed is the fruit of your womb"
 (Lk 1:42).
Many Catholics still do not know this prayer by heart. Then why not memorize it and say it at least once a day at noon? It would be a beautiful gift to the Blessed Mother during the month of May, in thanksgiving for her graces!
Saint Louis de Montfort, also, wrote that every time we recite the Angelus, Mary feels the same joy as the one she felt when she received the visit of the Archangel Gabriel in Nazareth.

April 30 – Our Lady of Africa (Algiers, Algeria, 1876) - Saint Clement the Hymnographer 
 
Our Lady of Africa watches over Algeria
The first bishop of Algiers, Bishop Dupuch, who was installed in 1838, went to France on a visit in 1840 (…). On March 12, 1840, he stopped at Ferrandière in Lyons to preside over a general and extraordinary assembly of the Children of Mary, of the Institute of the Sacred Heart. Their Congregation made a pledge to donate for Algiers a statue that he would choose.

When he visited the Ladies of the Sacred Heart on rue de Varenne in Paris, the bishop noticed outside in their yard a statue of the "Virgo Fidelis" by Bouchardon, which he greatly liked. Thankfully, the mold still existed, so it didn't take long to have an exact replica made for him. On May 5, 1840, the Children of Mary from Ferrandière offered it to Bishop Dupuch. (…).

In 1856, after consulting a special committee, the new bishop of Algiers, Msgr Pavy, gave the statue the name of Our Lady of Africa. On September 20, 1857, the statue was placed in a temporary chapel awaiting the construction of the future Basilica of Our Lady of Africa, which began in February 1858 (…).

A few years later, Bishop Lavigerie asked Pope Pius IX the favor of crowning Our Lady of Africa.
This took place on April 30, 1876, when she received a precious diadem on her head.
 Jacques Casier M. Afr (d. 1998)  www.mafrome.org


Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

“Can a mother forget her infant be without tenderness for the child of her womb?
Even should she forget I will never forget you!” (49: 15).
     St. Joseph Cottolengo, pray that we may always trust bravely in God's assistance! Father Robert F. McNamara
  44 James son of Zebedee one of the Twelve Apostles 1st Apostles died as a martyr
      Angels with the Cross lance and the sponge.
      Eutropius sent by Pope Saint Clement (100) as 1st bishop Saintes evangelized inhabitants
      Icon of the Mother of God "Of the Passion" angels with the Cross lance and the sponge.
 130 Qurinus von Neuss ein Tribun sei mit seiner Tochter Balbina von Papst Alexander getauft
       St. Aphrodisius An Egyptian priest martyr of Alexandria with 30 members of his parish
 250 St. Maximus Martyr in Ephesus ordered sacrifice to goddess Diana refused
 250 Sophia of Fermo maiden venerated there in the cathedral VM (RM)
 259 St. Marianus lector Martyr of Lambesa Numidia with James deacon & companions strengthened by a dream of his triumphant martyrdom to come
        St. Isaac (Ishaq), of Hourin
Departure of. (Coptic)
 320 Basil, Bishop of Amasea Hieromartyr encouraged  comforted the Christians suffering persecution by pagans
 328  St. Alexander I, 19th Pope
; Departure of; See of St. Mark.
 397 St. Lawrence of Novara Martyred priest aided St. Gaudentius bishop of Novara, Italy
4th v. St. Donatus Bishop of Euraea in Epirus sanctity praised by Greek writers
5th v. Hoilde "A virgin who was blotted out of existence and found again"
 536 St. Pomponius Bishop of Naples steadfast in opposition to the Arian creed
 569 St. Desideratus Hermit at Gourdon revered in the region eremetical life
6th v. St. Cynwl hermit noted for his austere life
 686-693 Erconwald of London bishop miracles at grave were reported (until the 16th century) miracles recorded touching his couch OSB B (RM)
 783 Blessed Hildegard aid to religious  patroness of the sick Empress (AC)
 807 Swithbert the Younger missionaries in Germany bishop B (AC)
 819  St. Mark II, 49th Pope of the See of St. Mark
Departure of. (Coptic)
 851 St. Michael II, 53rd Pope of the See of St. Mark
Departure of. (Coptic)
 855 Amator priest (Amateur), Peter monk & Louis lay friend preachers martyred by Saracens MM (RM)
 982 St. Forannan Irish bishop of Domhnach-Mor went to Belgium in response to a dream
1100 Genistus of Beaulieu killed by his nephew OSB M (AC)
1109 Saint Nikita former Recluse of the Kiev Caves healing of many people
1127 Gualfardus a saddler; 
Famous for miracles during his life, St Gualfardus became even more famous for them after his death. those around him regarded him as a saint hermit in the Camaldolese priory of San Salvatore OSB (AC)
1173 St. Aimo monk mystical experiences charitable kindness nursed victims of plagues with limitless devotion
1131 St. Adjutor distinguished himself in the First Crusade abbey of Tiron confessor recluse
Sanctæ Catharínæ Senénsis Vírginis, ex tértio Ordine sancti Domínici, quæ ad cæléstem Sponsum transívit prídie hujus diéi.
1429 St. Louis von Bruck Martyred boy example of the pervasive anti-Semitism of the medieval period
1572 St. Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572 Catholic Reformation leader taught theology philosophy 16 years excessive zeal
as grand inquisitor wholeheartedly devoted to the religious life published Roman Catechism revised Roman Breviary and Roman Missal organized Battle of Lepanto
1590 Bl. Miles Gerard Martyr of England
1590 Bl. Francis Dickenson English convert martyr
1590 St. Gerard Miles Martyr of England with Blessed Francis Dickinson
1618 Bl. Mary of the Incarnation contemplative prayer frequent ecstasies often saying "The Kingdom of God is within
you"received the stigmata reserved regarding mystical illuminations and always very humble responsible for at least 10,000 conversions first Carmel established in Paris OCD Widow (AC)
 1625 Blessed Benedict of Urbino lawyer Capuchin effective preacher OFM Cap. (AC)
 1672 Blessed Marie of the Incarnation Martin, OSU (AC)
 1721 Argyra The holy New Martyr lived in Proussa, Bithynia jailed for her Christianity 17 years tortured endured all with great courage and patience
 1842 St. Joseph Cottolengo opened home/hospital for sick poor Piccola Casa became a great medical institution founded Daughters of Compassion Daughters of the Good Shepherd Hermits of the Holy Rosary Priests of the Holy Trinity
1922 Pandita Mary Ramabai ihr Werk leiten und den elenden Frauen Indiens helfen.
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is general and binds all the followers of Christ.
"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him"
(Psalm 21:28)

44 Apostle James son of Zebedee brother of St John the Theologian one of the Twelve Apostles 1st Apostles died as a martyr
He and his brother, St John, were called to be Apostles by our Lord Jesus Christ, Who called them the "Sons of Thunder" (Mark 3:17).
It was this James, with John and Peter, who witnessed the Raising of the Daughter of Jairus, the Lord's Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, and His agony in the Garden of Gethsemane.

St James, after the Descent of the Holy Spirit, preached in Spain and in other lands, and then he returned to Jerusalem. He openly and boldly preached Jesus Christ as the Savior of the world, and he denounced the Pharisees and the Scribes with the words of Holy Scripture, reproaching them for their malice of heart and unbelief.

The Jews could not prevail against St James, and so they hired the sorcerer Hermogenes to dispute with the apostle and refute his arguments that Christ was the promised Messiah Who had come into the world. The sorcerer sent to the apostle his pupil Philip, who was converted to belief in ChriSt Then Germogenes himself became persuaded of the power of God, he burned his books of magic, accepted holy Baptism and became a true follower of Christ.

The Jews persuaded Herod Agrippa (40-44) to arrest the Apostle James and sentence him to death (Acts 12:1-2). Eusebius provides some of the details of the saint's execution (CHURCH HISTORY II, 9). St James calmly heard the death sentence and continued to bear witness to Christ. One of the false witnesses, whose name was Josiah, was struck by the courage of St James. He came to believe in Jesus Christ as the Messiah. When they led the apostle forth to execution, Josiah fell at his feet, repenting of his sin and asking forgiveness. The apostle embraced him, gave him a kiss and said, "Peace and forgiveness to you." Then Josiah confessed his faith in Christ before everyone, and he was beheaded with St James in the year 44 at Jerusalem.
St James was the first of the Apostles to die as a martyr.
Apostel Jakobus Zebedäus (der Ältere) Orthodoxe Kirche: 30. April Katholische, Anglikanische und Evangelische Kirche: 25. Juli
Jakobus Major Jakobus der Ältere

Ikonenzentrum Saweljew

Das Neue Testament nennt mehrere Apostel des Namens Jakobus und die orthodoxe Kirche unterscheidet Jakobus den Jüngeren und Jakobus den Herrenbruder. Aber auch Jakobus der Jüngere und Jakobus der Ältere werden hier und da verwechselt.

Jakobus Zebedäus, der Bruder des Johannes und Sohn des Zebedäus und der Salome gehörte zu den Jüngern, die Jesus als erste am Galiläischen Meer berief (Mt. 4, 18 ff.). Da er vor Jakobus Alphäus berufen wurde, wird er der Ältere (major) genannt. Diese Bezeichnung sagt also nichts über das Alter des Jakobus aus. Er geörte zu den vier Jüngern des innersten Kreises um Jesus. Nach der Himmelfahrt wirkte er wohl in Jerusalem und erlitt als erster der Apostel 44 den Märtyrertod (Apg. 12). Einige Legenden berichten, er habe in Spanien das Evangelium verkündet. Vielleicht soll so untermauert werden, daß sich seine Gebeine in Santiago di Compostella befinden. Hierher wurden die Gebeine im 7. Jahrhundert gebracht, als Araber Jerusaelm erobert hatten.

Ursprünglich hatten Jakobus und Johannes ihren gemeinsamen Festtag am 27. Dezember. Später feierte die katholische Kirche seinen Tag am 1. Mai. Im 6. Jahrhundert wurde der Tag dann auf den 25. Juli gelegt (vgl. Jakobus den Jüngeren).
Icon of the Mother of God "Of the Passion" angels with the Cross lance and the sponge.
The icon received its name because on either side of the Mother of God are two angels with the implements of the Lord's suffering: the Cross, the lance, and the sponge.

There was a certain pious woman, Katherine, who began to suffer seizures and madness after her marriage. She ran off into the forest and attempted suicide more than once.

In a moment of clarity she prayed to the Mother of God and vowed that if she were healed, she would enter a monastery. After recovering her health, she only remembered her vow after a long time. Afraid and mentally afflicted, she took to her bed. Three times the Most Holy Theotokos appeared to her, commanding the sick woman to go to Nizhni-Novgorod and to buy Her icon from the iconographer Gregory.

After she had done this, Katherine received healing. From that time on, miracles have occurred from this icon. The Feast day of this icon is on August 13, commemorating its transfer from the village of Palitsa to Moscow in 1641. A church was built at the place where it was met at the Tver gates, and in 1654, the Strastna monastery was built.

The icon is also commemorated on April 30, and on the sixth Sunday after Pascha (the Sunday of the Blind Man) in memory of the miracles which occurred on this day. Other "Passion" icons of the Mother of God have been glorified in the Moscow church of the Conception of St. Anna, and also in the village of Enkaeva in Tambov diocese.
Eutropius sent by Pope Saint Clement (100) as first bishop in Saintes evangelized inhabitants BM (RM)
Apud Sántonas, in Gállia, beáti Eutrópii, Epíscopi et Mártyris, qui, a sancto Cleménte Papa, órdinis pontificális grátia consecrátus, in Gálliam diréctus est, ibíque, perácta diu prædicatióne, tandem, ob Christi testimónium, collíso cápite, victor occúbuit
   At Saintes in France, blessed Eutropius, bishop and martyr, who was consecrated bishop and sent to France by St. Clement.  After preaching for many years, he had his skull crushed for bearing testimony to Christ, and thus gained victory by his death.
3rd v. ST EUTROPIUS, BISHOP OP SAINTES, MARTYR   
The town of Saintes in south-west France honours as its first bishop St Eutropius, who was sent from Rome in the third century to evangelize the inhabitants and who suffered martyrdom either at their hands or by order of the Roman authorities. The story locally told is that St Eutropius accompanied St Denis to France to share his apostolic labours. The people of Saintes, to whom he preached, expelled him from their city, and he went to live in a cell on a neighbouring rock where he gave himself to prayer and to instructing those who would listen. Amongst others he converted and baptized the Roman governor’s daughter, Eustella. When the girl’s father discovered that she was a Christian he drove her from his house, and charged the butchers of Saintes to slay Eutropius. Eustella found him dead with his skull split by an axe, and she buried his remains in his cell. 
In the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, will be found what purports to be an early Latin life of St Eutropius, but no reliance can be placed upon it. St Gregory of Tours, however, in his Gloria Martyrum, ch. 55, bears witness to the translation of the saint’s relics in the sixth century, as does Venantius Fortunatus. Cf. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, p. 538; and Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxix (1951), pp. 55—66. Both Gregory and Venantius seem to have written the name “Eutropis”.

Eutropius is honored as the first bishop of Saintes, in southwest France. He was sent by Pope Saint Clement(100) to evangelized the inhabitants. Aides of the Roman governor split his head open with an axe. He was buried by Eustella, the governor's daughter. Alleged to have accompanied Saint Dionysius (Bishop of Corinth about 170) to Paris. Since these dates are widely separated only one could possibly be true (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
130 Qurinus von Neuss ein Tribun Quirinius sei mit seiner Tochter Balbina von Papst Alexander getauft.
Katholische Kirche: 30. März und 30. April (Köln translatio)

Das römische Martyrologium berichtet, ein Tribun Quirinius sei mit seiner Tochter Balbina von Papst Alexander getauft und unter Kaiser Hadrian (um 130) hingerichtet worden. Mit anderen Märtyrern wurde er in der Praetextatuskatakombe bestattet. Seine Gebeine wurden (um 1000 ?) in das Benediktinerinnenstift in Neuß übertragen. Quirinus ist einer der vier Marschälle und Patron der Stadt Neuss
St. Aphrodisius An Egyptian priest martyr of Alexandria with thirty members of his parish.
Alexandríæ sanctórum Mártyrum Aphrodísii Presbyteri, et aliórum trigínta.
    At Alexandria, the holy martyrs Aphrodisius, a priest, and thirty martyrs.
Aphrodisius was a priest who was arrested for being a Christian. He died with thirty members of his parish.
Aphrodisius and Companions MM (RM). Aphrodisius, an Egyptian priest, was martyred at Alexandria with thirty members of his flock (Benedictines).
250 St. Maximus Martyr in Ephesus ordered sacrifice to goddess Diana refused
Ephesi sancti Máximi Mártyris, qui in persecutióne Décii coronátus est.
   At Ephesus, the martyr St. Maximus, who received his crown during the persecution of Decius.


in Asia Minor, modern Turkey. When the edict condemning Christians was announced by the Emperor Trajanus Decius, Maximus, a local merchant, presented himself to the local judge. Ordered to sacrifice to the goddess Diana, Maximus refused and was tortured and stoned to death on May 14. His Acta are still extant.

Maximus of Ephesus M (RM) Died May 14, c. 251. Maximus, a citizen of Ephesus, was a merchant by profession. On the publication of the edict of Decius against the Christians in 250, he presented himself to Proconsul Optimus as a Christian and was martyred. His proconsular Acta are still state that when Optimus asked his name and state in life, Maximus responded: "I am born free, but am the slave of Jesus Christ."
Optimus: "What is your profession?"
Maximus: "I am a plebeian, and live by my dealings."
Optimus: "Are you a Christian?"
Maximus: "Yes, I am, though a sinner."
Optimus: "Have not you been informed of the edicts that are lately arrived?"
Maximus: "What edicts, and what are their contents?"
Optimus: "That all the Christians forsake their superstition, acknowledge the true prince whom all obey, and adore his gods."
Maximus: "I have been told of that impious edict, and it is the occasion of my appearing abroad."
Optimus: "As then you are apprised of the edicts, sacrifice to the gods."
Maximus: "I sacrifice to none but that God to whom alone I have sacrificed from my youth, the remembrance of which affords me great comfort."
Optimus: "Sacrifice as you value your life: if you refuse to obey, you shall expire in torments."
Maximus: "This has ever been the object of my desires: it was on this very account that I appeared in public, to have an opportunity offered me of being speedily delivered out of this miserable life, to possess that which is eternal."

Then the proconsul commanded him to be beaten, and in the meantime said to him, "Sacrifice, Maximus, and you shall be no longer tormented."
Maximus: "Sufferings for the name of Christ are not torments, but comfortable unctions; but if I depart from his precepts contained in the Gospel, then real and eternal torments would be my portion."
Next, Optimus ordered him to be stretched on the rack, and while he was tortured, said to him, "Renounce, wretch, your obstinate folly, and sacrifice to save your life."
Maximus: "I shall save it if I do not sacrifice; I shall lose it if I do. Neither your clubs, nor your our iron hooks, nor your fire, give me any pain, because the grace of Jesus Christ dwells in me, which will deliver me out of your hands to put me in possession of the happiness of the saints, who have already, in this same conflict, triumphed over your cruelty. It is by their prayers I obtain this courage and strength which you see in me."
Optimus: "I command that Maximus, for refusing to obey the sacred edicts, be stoned to death, to serve for an example of error to all Christians."
Saint Maximus was immediately seized by the executioners and carried outside the city walls, where they stoned him to death.
 The Greeks honor him on May 14; the Roman Martyrology today (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
The Holy Martyr Maximus suffered for his faith in Christ, and was run through with a sword. {oca}
250 Sophia of Fermo maiden venerated there in the cathedral VM (RM).
Firmi, in Picéno, sanctæ Sophíæ, Vírginis et Mártyris.
    At Ferno in Piceno, St. Sophia, virgin and martyr.
Sophia, a maiden of Fermo in central Italy, was martyred under Decius.
She is still venerated there, where her head is displayed in a rich reliquary in the cathedral (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
259 St. Marianus lector Martyr of Lambesa Numidia with James deacon & companions strengthened by a dream of his triumphant martyrdom to come
Lambésæ, in Numídia, natális sanctórum Mártyrum Mariáni Lectóris, et Jacóbi Diáconi.  Horum prior, cum infestatiónes jamprídem Deciánæ persecutiónis in confessióne Christi vicísset, íterum cum claríssimo colléga tentus est; et ambo, post dira et exquisíta supplícia, mirabíliter divínis revelatiónibus secúndo confortáti, novíssime, cum multis áliis, gládio consummáti sunt.
     At Lambesa in Numidia, the birthday of the holy martyrs Marian, a lector, and James, a deacon.  The former, after having successfully endured many trials for the confession of Christ in the persecution of Decius, was again arrested with his noble companions, and both were subjected to severe and cruel torments, during which they were twice miraculously comforted by heaven, but finally fell by the sword along with many others.


259 SS. MARIAN and JAMES, Martyrs
These two martyrs suffered during the persecution of Valerian at Lambesa in Numidia. Marian (Marianus) was a reader, James a deacon, and they were arrested at Cirta (modern Constantine in Algeria) and put to torture. Marian was treated with special savagery, apparently because he was suspected of being a deacon too. He told the writer of his acta that, falling asleep after his torments, he had a dream in which he was invited up to the scaffold by St Cyprian, who had suffered at Carthage in the previous year. James also had a vision of his approaching triumph.
After being interviewed by the governor they were sent to Lambesa, some eighty miles away, where they were sentenced to death. The scene of their martyrdom was a hollow in a river valley, where “the high ground on either side served for seats as in a theatre”. So many others were put to death at the same time that they were drawn up in rows for execution, so that “the blade of the impious murderer might behead the faithful, one after another, in a rush of fury”. Before his turn came, Marian spoke with the voice of prophecy of the avenging misfortunes that would come upon the slaughterers of the righteous; and his dead body was embraced and kissed by his mother, “rightly named Mary, blessed both in son and name.” The Passion of SS. Marian and James and their fellows is an authentic document of great interest, written by one who shared their imprisonment. The ancient Calendar of Carthage commemorates them on May 6, but the Roman Martyrology, following the “Hieronymianum”, names them on April 30; other martyrs mentioned in the passio, e.g. SS. Agapius and Secundinus, are named on the previous day. The cathedral of Gubbio in Umbria is dedicated in honour of SS. Marian and James, and claims to have their relics.
The passio is printed by Ruinart in his Acta sincere and by Gebhardt in Acta martyrum selecta; see also P. Franchi de Cavalieri in Studi e Testi (1900). There is an English translation in H. C. H. Owen, Some Authentic Acts of the Early Martyrs (1927).
The Acta of their martyrdom are extant.
Marian, James & Companions MM (RM) Died in Africa, May 6, 259. Marian, a lector, and James, a deacon, were thrown into prison at Cirta (Constantine in Algeria) during the persecution of Valerian. They were savagely tortured to persuade them to apostatize, but each was strengthened by a dream of his triumphant martyrdom to come.

They were put to death at the military town of Lambaesis (Lambesa) in Numidia, with others victims so numerous that they were drawn up in rows and the executioner passed down the ranks striking off heads, 'in a rush of fury.' Marian and James are known from an authentic, touching account written by a man who shared their imprisonment but was later released (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia). In art, Marian is shown hung up by his thumbs with weights on this feet (Roeder).
Departure of St. Isaac (Ishaq), of Hourin. (Coptic).

On this day the holy father Anba Isaac (Ishaq) departed. He was born in the city of Hourin - Shabas, from unblemished parents. His father's name was Abraham, and his mother's name was Susannah. His mother departed when he was a child, and his father, shortly after, married another wife. In those days there was a famine, and his step-mother hated him. She only gave him a little bread, which he gave to the shepherds that he worked with. He fasted until sunset, although he was only five years old. When his father knew that, he went to see him to inquire into that. Knowing the matter, before his father came to him, he tied up three pieces of mud in his cloak, so that his father might think when he saw them from far that they were bread. When his father came and unrolled the cloak, he found three pieces of bread. The shepherds who were present testified that the boy had given them all what he had of bread, and others saw him tieing the pieces of mud in his cloak. His father marvelled and glorified God.

When Isaac grew up, he went and became a monk with a righteous man whose name was Elias, and he lived with him for many years. After the departure of Anba Elias, he went to the mount of Barnug and lived with an old man whose name was Anba Zacharias. His father went about everywhere trying to find him. When he found his son living with St. Zacharias, he asked him to return with him. His teacher Anba Zacharias advised him to obey his father and return with him.

He returned and stayed until his father's departure. He distributed all what his father left him to the poor and needy. He then built for himself a place out side the city, where he dwelt there alone. He went on asceticism and worship until he departed in peace.

They buried him in his place of worship, and the place was forgotten. After many years, God willed to reveal his body, and a great light appeared above his grave, which was seen by reapers for three consecutive days. The believers came, took his body, laid it on a camel, and journeyed with it until they came to a place between Horein and Nashrat. The camel stopped, knelt down, and would not get up again. They knew that this was the Lord's Will and they built a church for him in that place where they placed the body with great honor.  His prayers be with us. Amen.
320 Basil, Bishop of Amasea Hieromartyr encouraged and comforted the Christians suffering persecution by the pagans
Lived at the beginning of the fourth century in the Pontine city of Amasea. He encouraged and comforted the Christians suffering persecution by the pagans.
During this time the Eastern part of the Roman Empire was ruled by Licinius (311-324),
brother-in-law of the holy emperor Constantine the Great (May 21).
Licinius deceitfully signed St Constantine's Edict of Milan (313), which granted religious toleration to Christians, but he hated them and continued to persecute them.

328  Departure of St. Alexander I, 19th Pope of the See of St. Mark.
On this day also of the year 44 A.M. (April 17th., 328 A.D.) the holy father Pope Alexander (Alexandros), 19th Pope of the See of St. Mark, departed.

This Pope was born in the city of Alexandria from Christian parents, and he grew up in serving the church. Pope Maximus ordained him a reader, Pope Theonas ordained him a deacon. Pope Peter (Petros the Seal of the Martyrs) ordained him a priest, and he was virgin and chaste.

When the time of Pope Petros (Peter) martyrdom drew near, Alexander and father Archelaus, who became Patriarch before him, went to him in prison, and asked him to lift the excommunication from Arius. Anba Petros excommunicated Arius again in their presence, and informed them that the Lord Christ had appeared to him and ordered him not to receive him again and that father Archelaus will be Patriarch after him and after Abba Archelaus, Pope Alexander will be ordained. He commanded that to the priests of Alexandria and ordered them not to accept Arius, and to have no fellowship with him.

When Pope Archelaus sat on the Chair and received Arius, he only lived for six months and died. When Pope Alexandros sat, the lay leaders came and asked him to receive Arius, but he refused and added curses to what were already upon him. He told them: "Pope Petros had commanded Pope Archelaus and myself to do that, and when Pope Archelaus had received Arius, God speedily removed him from his office."

Pope Alexander expelled Arius from the country. Arius went to Emperor Constantine and complained of the unjust treatment of this Pope. Emperor Constantine assembled the Ecumenical Council of the Three Hundred and Eighteen in the city of Nicea. The council was presided by Pope Alexander. He debated with Arius and revealed his denial of Christ, then excommunicated him and those who follow his belief.

Alexander, along with the rest of the fathers, uttered the Creed, and drew up the Canon, the Law, and the Statutes that are still in the hands of Christians until this day. After he put down regulations for Lent and the feast of Easter, he returned to his Chair, victorious and triumphant. He shepherded his flock with the best of
387 St. Donatus Bishop of Euraea in Epirus sanctity praised by Greek writers miracle of the water healer
Evóreæ, in Epíro, sancti Donáti Epíscopi, qui, témpore Theodósii Imperatóris, exímia sanctitáte refúlsit.
    At Evorea in Epirus, St. Donatus, a bishop, who was eminent for sanctity in the time of Emperor Theodosius.

Donatos Orthodoxe Kirche: 30. April
Donatos lebte während der Herrschaft von Kaiser Theodosius dem Großen (370-397) und war Bischof von Eureia. In der Nähe der Stadt befand sich eine Quelle mit giftigem Wasser. Donatos reinigte die Quelle, indem er eine große Schlange, die in ihr lebte, tötete. Donatos vollbrachte weitere Wunder, unter anderem heilte er die Tochter des Kaisers. Er starb um 387.

Donatus of Euraea B (RM) Late 4th century. The sanctity of Bishop Donatus of Euraea, Epirus (Albania), was recorded by Sozomen and other Greek writers (Benedictines).

Saint Donatus lived during the reign of the holy Emperor Theodosius the Great (379-397) and was bishop of the city of Euroea (in Albania). Not far from this city, in the vicinity of Soreia, was a brackish spring of water. When the saint learned of this, he went with clergy to the spring and cast out a monstrous serpent, which died. The saint prayed, he blessed the spring and drank the water without harm. Seeing this miracle, the people glorified God.

Another time, St Donatus prayed and brought forth water from a dry and rocky place, and during a drought he entreated the Lord to send rain to the parched land.

The daughter of the holy Emperor Theodosius fell terribly ill and was afflicted by an unclean spirit. St Donatus came to the palace, and as soon as he arrived the devil left and the sick woman was healed.

A certain man, shortly before his death, repaid a loan to a money-lender. The creditor tried to extort the money a second time from the dead man's widow. The saint resurrected the dead man, who told where and when the loan had been repaid. After obtaining a receipt from the creditor, the man fell asleep in the Lord.
St Donatus reposed in peace about the year 387.
397 St. Lawrence of Novara Martyred priest aided St. Gaudentius bishop of Novara, Italy
Nováriæ sancti Lauréntii Presbyteri, et puerórum Mártyrum, quos ille suscéperat educándos.
    At Novara, the martyrdom of the holy priest Laurence, and some boys whom he was teaching.
He was martyred with a group of children whom he was instructing in the faith.
Laurence of Novara & Companions MM (RM) Laurence came from the west, either from Spain or France. He is said to have assisted Bishop Saint Gaudentius of Novara (418) in the Piedmont. He was put to death with a group of children whom he was catechizing (Benedictines).
5th v. Hoilde "A virgin who was blotted out of existence and found again" (Hou).
5th century. "A virgin who was blotted out of existence and found again" (Encyclopedia).
536 St. Pomponius Bishop of Naples steadfast in opposition to the Arian creed .
Neápoli, in Campánia, sancti Pompónii Epíscopi.
    At Naples in Campania, St. Pomponius, bishop.
During the reign of the powerful Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great who dominated Italy. As Theodoric was a devoted Arian, Pomponius faced some pressure from the Goths but was steadfast in his opposition to the Arian creed.

Pomponius of Naples B (RM) Pomponius was bishop of Naples from 508 to 536. He was a strong opponent of Arianism, then under the patronage of the Gothic king Theodoric (Benedictines).
569 St. Desideratus Hermit at Gourdon revered in the region eremetical life .
near Chalon-sur-Saone, in France. Details of his eremetical life are not known, but he was revered in the region.
Desideratus of Gourdon, Hermit (AC) A French solitary who lived at Gourdon, near Châlon-sur-Saîne (Benedictines).
6th v. St. Cynwl hermit noted for his austere life 6th century .
A hermit, the brother of St. Deinoil, noted for his austere life in southern Wales. Several churches in the region were dedicated to Cynwl.

Cynwl of Wales, Hermit (AC) 6th century. Cynwl, the brother of Saint Deiniol (Daniel), was the first bishop of Bangor. He lived an austere life in northern Wales. Many churches have been dedicated to his honor (Benedictines).
686-693 Erconwald of London bishop miracles at grave were reported (until the 16th century) miracles recorded touching his couch OSB B (RM)
Londíni, in Anglia, sancti Erconváldi Epíscopi, qui multis miráculis cláruit.
    At London in England, St. Erkenwald, a bishop celebrated for many miracles.
(also known as Erkenwald) Born in East Anglia; died at Barking, April 30, c. 686-693; second feast day on May 13.
Erconwald is reputed to have been of royal blood, son of Annas or Offa. In 675, Saint Theodore of Canterbury appointed Erconwald bishop of the East Saxons with his see in London and extending over Essex and Middlesex. His episcopate was the most important in that diocese between that of Saint Mellitus(624) and Saint Dunstan(909- 988).

His shrine in Saint Paul's Cathedral was a much visited pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages, where miracles were reported until the 16th century, but little is known of his life except that he founded a monastery at Chertsey in Surrey, which he governed, and a convent at Barking in Essex to which he appointed as abbess his sister, Ethelburga(647).
Erconwald took some part in the reconciliation of Saint Theodore with Saint Wilfrid
In Saint Bede's (673-735) time, miracles were recorded as a result of touching the couch used by Erconwald in his later years. At his death, Erconwald's relics were claimed by Barking, Chertsey, and London; he was finally buried in Saint Paul's Cathedral in London, which he had enlarged. The relics escaped the fire of 1087 and were placed in the crypt. November 14, 1148, they were translated to a new shrine behind the high altar, from where they were again moved on February 1, 1326 (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer)
Erconwald is portrayed in art as a bishop in a small 'chariot' (the Saxon equivalent of a bath chair) in which he travelled because of his gout. Sometimes there is a woman touching it or he may be shown with Saint Ethelburga of Barking (Roeder).
(634-709).
 Erconwald is invoked against gout (Roeder).
783 Blessed Hildegard aid to religious  patroness of the sick Empress (AC).
783 BD HILDEGARD, MATRON

HISTORY has but little to tell us about Bd Hildegard, the girl of seventeen whom Charlemagne married after his repudiation of the Lombard princess Hermengard.  Even her parentage is uncertain, although she was probably connected with the dukes of Swabia. She is said to have been extremely beautiful, and as good as she was fair. Of her nine children, one became Louis the Debonair and three preceded her. Hildegard was very friendly with St Boniface’s kinswoman, the abbess St Lioba. She died in 783 at Thionville (Diedenhofen) on the Moselle, and her relics were subsequently translated to the abbey of Kempten in Swabia, of which she had been a benefactress. Hildegard was greatly revered during her lifetime, and her shrine was a place of pilgrimage.

The legendary or fictitious element is very conspicuous in the life of Hildegard printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, and the story cannot be trusted wherever it goes beyond the data furnished in the chronicles and other sources. Hildegard, of course, figures to some extent in all the modern lives of Charlemagne.

Died in Thionville (Diedenhofen), France, in 783. Said to have been the daughter of the duke of Swabia, Hildegard was known for her aid to religious and was much venerated at the time of her death. She was just 17 when Charlemagne put Hermengard aside and made her his second wife in 771. She had nine children during their 12- year marriage. She is said to have had a special fondness for Saint Lioba (742-814). Her tomb is at Kempten Abbey, of which she is considered the foundress (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia). Hildegard, who is generally shown with Charlemagne or as an empress tending the sick, is the patroness of the sick (Roeder).
807 Swithbert the Younger missionaries in Germany bishop B (AC).

Born in England; Swithbert may have been a Benedictine monk. He joined the missionaries in Germany and eventually became bishop of Werden in Westphalia (Benedictines).
819  Departure of St. Mark 11, 49th Pope of the See of St. Mark.

On this day also, of the year 535 A.M. (April 17th., 819 A.D.), the blessed father Pope Mark (Marcus), 49th Pope of the See of St. Mark, departed.

This Pope was from Alexandria, and he a was chaste, learned, and honorable man. Pope John ordained him a deacon, and he was an eloquent speaker. His voice was sweet and all those who heard him rejoiced in him. The Pope handed him the administration of the papal place, and he did nothing without his advice. When Pope John put on him the garb of monks in the monastery, one of the elder monks shouted saying:
 "This deacon whose name is Mark shall, rightly and fittingly sit upon the throne of his father Mark, the Evangelist."
When pope John departed, the bishops unanimously agreed to choose him Patriarch. He fled to the desert, but they caught up with him, brought him back, and enthroned him Patriarch on the 2nd day of Amshir, 515 A.M. (January 26th., 799 A.D.).

He tended to the churches needs, and restored those that were in a ruinous state. He returned many of the heretics to the Orthodox faith, healed many of the sick, and cast out, of many of them, devils. He told them: "What had happened to you was because you dared to partake of the Holy Mysteries with irreverence, so keep yourselves henceforward from the evil words that come out of your mouth."

In his days, the Muslim Arabs conquered the Greek Isles, captured many of their women and children, brought them to Alexandria, and started to sell them. The Pope gathered money from the believers, and beside the funds of the monasteries that he had, he was able to pay three thousand Dinars to save and free them. He wrote for them bills of manumission and set them free. He provided those who wished to return to their country with whatever they needed, and those who wished to stay, he gave them in marriage and protected them. He took thought for the church of the Redeemer in Alexandria and restored it, but some evil men burned it, so he restored it again.

When the Lord willed to give him rest, he became sick. He prayed the Divine Liturgy and partook of the Holy Mysteries. He bade the bishops that were present farewell and departed in peace after staying on the Chair 20 years, 2 months and 21 days.

His prayers be with us. Amen.
851 Departure of St. Michael 11, 53rd Pope of the See of St. Mark.
On this day also, of the year 567 A.M. (April 17th., 851 A.D.), the holy father Pope Michael (Khail), 53rd Pope of Alexandria, departed.  This father was a righteous monk, and he was ordained hegumen for the monastery of the saint Abba John. Because of his good conduct, they chose him Patriarch, and he was enthroned in the 24th day of Hatour 566 A.M. (November 20th., 849 A.D.).
When the Holy Fast came, he went to the desert of Scetis to keep the fast there. He remembered his earlier life in the wilderness, so he asked God with tears and supplication saying: "O God, you know how much I love solitary life and I have no aptitude for the position that I am in." The Lord accepted his petition and he departed in peace after the feast of Passover. He stayed on the Chair one year, four months and twenty-eight days.  His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.
855 Amator priest (Amateur), Peter monk & Louis lay friend preachers martyred by Saracens MM (RM).
Córdubæ, in Hispánia, sanctórum Mártyrum Amatóris Presbyteri, Petri Mónachi, et Ludovíci.
    At Cordova in Spain, the holy martyrs Amator, a priest, Peter, a monk, and Louis.
Amator was born at Martos near Cordova, where he studied and was ordained a priest. He together with Peter, a monk, and Louis, their lay friend, were preachers who were arrested by the Saracens in a clean sweep of evangelists in Cordova (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
982 St. Forannan Irish bishop of Domhnach-Mor went to Belgium in response to a dream.
982 ST FORANNAN, ABBOT
THE abbey of Waulsort on the Meuse must have been closely connected with Ireland in its early days, for several of its abbots came to it from that country, including St Maccallan, St Cadroe and St Forannan, who occupied for a time the Irish bishopric of Domhnach-Mor, a diocese or monastery which has not hitherto been identified. He is said to have been led to abandon his native land by a dream, in which an angel showed him a beautiful valley that was to be his home. With twelve companions he left Ireland and made his way to the mouth of the river Meuse, up which he sailed as far as Waulsort. In this beautiful spot, which charms the tourist who takes the river trip between Namur and Givet, the saint recognized the Vallis Decora of his vision. He was hospitably received by the monks there.
He appears to have been appointed abbot of Waulsort in 962. Business connected with his monastery afterwards took him to Rome, and on his way back he stayed for a time at the abbey of Gorze in Lorraine. His object appears to have been to obtain training for himself and his companions in the Rule of St Benedict, with a view to reforming the discipline of Waulsort, which had become relaxed. St Forannan raised his abbey to great sanctity and glory, and obtained from the Christian princes the privilege of the Truce of God, which gave security of life and limb to all bona-fide pilgrims to Waulsort on the annual festival and during its octave.
There is quite a lengthy life printed both by Mabillon and in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii. See also O’Hanlon, LIS., vol. iv, pp. 552 seq., and Gougaud, Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity, pp. 37, 83—84, and Les saints irlandais hors d ‘Irlande, p. 103.

Ireland, no longer listed as a diocese. With twelve companions he went to Belgium and founded an abbey at Waulsort, on the Meuse River, becoming abbot in 962. Forannan introduced the Benedictine rule to Waulsort. Forannan went to Belgium in response to a dream.

Forannan, Abbot (AC) died 982. A Benedictine bishop, Saint Forannan followed a dream and left Ireland to join a community at the abbey of Waulsort on the Meuse in Belgium.
The year of his arrival (962), he was elected its abbot, perhaps because Otto I of Germany had chartered it as an Irish abbey over which an Irish monk was to rule in perpetuity as long as there was one in the community. He spent some time at Gorze studying the monastic observance established by Saint John in order to introduce it at Waulsort, which he did most successfully. The community attracted so many postulants that Forannan had to negotiate the annexation of the neighboring Hastiers Abbey. Waulsort became a sanctuary for pilgrims (Attwater2, Benedictines, D'Arcy, Gougaud, Encyclopedia, O'Hanlon).
1100 Genistus of Beaulieu killed by his nephew OSB M (AC).
The Benedictine monk Genistus of Beaulieu, Limousin, diocese of Limoges, was killed by his nephew at Aynac-en-Quercy. He is venerated as a martyr and as patron of Aynac (Benedictines).
1109 Saint Nikita former Recluse of the Kiev Caves healing of many people
Fell asleep in the Lord in 1109, after serving as Bishop of Novgorod for thirteen years.

Bishop Nikita was glorified as a saint during the reign of Tsar Ivan Vasilievich, and his holy relics, dressed in full vestments, were uncovered on April 30, 1558. That day was marked by the healing of many people. His relics now rest in the cathedral of the holy Apostle Philip in Novgorod.

St Nikita of Novgorod is also commemorated on January 31, the day of his repose, and on May 14.


1127 Gualfardus a saddler; Famous for miracles during his life, St Gualfardus became even more famous for them after his death. those around him regarded him as a saint hermit in the Camaldolese priory of San Salvatore OSB (AC)
1127 ST GUALFARDUS or WOLFHARD
ABOUT the year 1096 there arrived at Verona, in the train of a party of German merchants, a saddler from Augsburg called Gualfardus (Wolfhard), who took up his abode in the city. All that he earned by his trade, apart from what was necessary for bare subsistence, he gave to the poor, and he led so holy a life that he was regarded with veneration. Shocked to find himself treated as a saint, he secretly left Verona to seek a spot where he could serve God unobserved by men.
   In a forest on the river Adige he lived as a hermit for years, until he was recognized by some boatmen whose vessel ran aground near his hut. The Veronese induced him to return into their midst and he eventually became a hermit-monk of the Camaldolese priory of the Holy Redeemer. There he spent the last ten years of his life. Famous for miracles during his life, St Gualfardus became even more famous for them after his death.

No other source of information seems available beside the short Latin life printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii.

(also known as Wolfhard) Born in Augsburg, Germany; feast day formerly on May 11. Saint Gualfardus was a saddler, who plied his trade in Verona, Italy, until those around him began to regard him as a saint. Then he retired to live as a hermit in the Camaldolese priory of San Salvatore near Verona (Benedictines). In art, Gualfardus is a Benedictine hermit with a stone coffin near him (Roeder). He is venerated in Augsburg, Germany, and Verona, Italy, and, because of his profession, is the patron of saddlers (Roeder).
1131 St. Adjutor distinguished himself in the First Crusade abbey of Tiron confessor recluse.

A Norman lord, master of Vernonsur-Seine, who distinguished himself in the First Crusade. He was captured by the Muslims during the campaign but managed to escape from slavery. He returned to France and entered the abbey of Tiron. There he became a recluse, remaining recollected until his death of April 30.

St. Ajutre or Adjoutr, confessor. He was a Norman gentleman, who, upon motives of holy zeal and piety, followed the Christian standards in the holy war in the East. Being taken by the Saracens he suffered great hardships and torments, but nothing shook his constancy in the confession of his faith, or in the exercises of his religious duties. Having recovered his liberty, he returned home, whereupon, having consecrated himself and his estate to God, he led an anchoretical life at Vernon upon the Seine, in the assiduous practices of penance and fervent prayer. He consummated his sacrifice by a happy death on the 30th of April, in 1131, and is commemorated on this day in the new accurate Martyrology of Evreux, and in the calendars of many other churches in Normandy.

Adjutor of Vernon, OSB Hermit (AC) (also known as Ajutre, Adjoutr, Ayutre) Died at Tiron, France, on April 30, 1131. Adjutor, a Norman knight and lord of Vernon-sur-Seine, participated in the First Crusade in 1095, was captured by the Islamics. While in prison he suffered many hardships and torments because he refused to abandon the faith. Finally, he escaped from prison. Consecrating himself and his estate to God upon his return to France, he became a monk at Tiron Abbey, where he led the life of a recluse during his final years (Benedictines, Delaney, Husenbeth). In art, Saint Adjutor is a crusader recluse with a chain or bird near him. Sometimes he may be shown throwing part of his chain over a precipice (Roeder). He is venerated in Vernon-sur-Seine. He is the patron of swimmers and invoked against drowning (Roeder).
1173 St. Aimo monk mystical experiences charitable kindness nursed victims of plagues with limitless devotion.

born near Rennes, France, in a turbulent era. Aimo entered the Benedictine monastery of Savigny, in the modern region of Normandy. There he took care of two monks of the community afflicted with leprosy. Perhaps because of his fearless charity in nursing these unfortunates, Aimo was thought to be a leper as well. He served as a lay brother in the community until his superiors realized that he did not have the dreaded disease. He was then chosen for the priesthood and ordained. Aimo is remembered not only for his charitable kindness but for his recorded mystical experiences.

Aimo of Savigny, OSB (AC) (also known as Aymon, Aimon, Hamon) Born in the diocese of Rennes; died 1173. Aimo joined the abbey of Savigny (Avranches), Normandy, and was falsely suspected of having leprosy. In order to avoid being sent away, he offered to serve two religious who were actually lepers. Afterwards he was professed, ordained, and appointed to various offices. He nursed the victims of plagues with limitless devotion, perhaps because of the trials he had undergone. Aimo was also favored with mystical experiences (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Sanctæ Catharínæ Senénsis Vírginis, ex tértio Ordine sancti Domínici, quæ ad cæléstem Sponsum transívit prídie hujus diéi.
    St. Catherine of Siena, virgin of the Third Order of St. Dominic, who on the previous day went to her heavenly Spouse.
  1380 ST CATHERINE OF SIENA, VIRGIN
ST Catherine was born in Siena on the feast of the Annunciation 1347, she and a twin sister who did not long survive her birth being the youngest of twenty-five children. Their father, Giacomo Benincasa, a well-to-do dyer, lived with his wife Lapa, daughter of a now forgotten poet, in the spacious house which the piety of the Sienese has preserved almost intact to the present day. Catherine as a little girl is described as having been very merry, and sometimes on her way up or downstairs she used to kneel on every step to repeat a Hail Mary. She was only six years old when she had the remarkable mystical experience which may be said to have sealed her vocation. In the company of her brother Stephen she was returning from a visit to her married sister Bonaventura when she suddenly came to a dead stop, standing as though spellbound in the road, with her eyes gazing up into the sky, utterly oblivious to the repeated calls of the boy who, having walked on ahead, had turned round to find that she was not following. Only after he had gone back and had seized her by the hand did she wake up as from a dream. “Oh!” she cried, “if you had seen what I saw you would not have done that!” Then she burst into tears because the vision had faded—a vision in which she had beheld our Lord seated in glory with St Peter, St Paul and St John. The Saviour had smiled upon the child: He had extended His hand to bless her . . . and from that moment Catherine was entirely His. In vain did her shrewish mother seek to inspire her with the interests common to girls of her age: she cared but for prayer and solitude, only mingling with other children in order to lead them to share her own devotion.

When she had reached the age of twelve, her parents urged her to devote more care to her personal appearance. In order to please her mother and Bonaventura she submitted for a time to have her hair dressed and to be decked out in the fashion, but she soon repented of her concession. Uncompromisingly she now declared that she would never marry, and as her parents still persisted in trying to find her a husband she cut off her golden-brown hair—her chief beauty. The family, roused to indignation, tried to overcome her resolution by petty persecution. She was harried and scolded from morning to night, set to do all the menial work of the house, and because she was known to love privacy she was never allowed to be alone, even her little bedroom being taken from her. All these trials she bore with patience which nothing could ever ruffle.
Long afterwards, in her treatise on divine Providence, more commonly known as “The Dialogue”, she said that God had taught her to build in her soul a refuge in which she could dwell so peacefully that no storm or tribulation could ever really disturb her. At last her father realized that further opposition was useless, and Catherine was allowed to lead the life to which she felt called. In the small room now ceded for her use, a cell-like apartment which she kept shuttered and dimly lighted, she gave herself up to prayer and fasting, took the discipline and slept upon boards. With some difficulty she obtained what she had ardently desired—permission to receive the habit of a Dominican tertiary, and after her admission she still further increased her mortifications, in accordance with the spirit of that then rigorously penitential rule.
Sometimes now Catherine was favoured by celestial visions and consolations, but often she was subjected to fierce trials. Loathsome forms and enticing figures presented themselves to her imagination, whilst the most degrading temptations assailed her. She passed through long intervals of desolation, during which God would appear to have abandoned her altogether. “Oh Lord, where wert thou when my heart was so sorely vexed with foul and hateful temptations?” she asked our Lord, as He manifested himself once more to her after a series of such trials.
“Daughter”, He replied, “I was in thy heart, fortifying thee by my grace”; and He assured her that He would from thenceforth be with her more openly, because the time of her probation was drawing to a close. On Shrove Tuesday, 1366, while Siena was keeping carnival, she was praying in her room when the Saviour appeared to her again, accompanied by His blessed Mother and a crowd of the heavenly host. Taking the girl’s hand, our Lady held it up to her Son who placed a ring upon it and espoused Catherine to Himself, bidding her to be of good courage, for she was now armed with faith to overcome the assaults of the enemy. The ring remained visible to her though invisible to others. This spiritual betrothal marked the end of the years of solitude and preparation. Very shortly afterwards, it was revealed to Catherine that she must now go forth into the world to promote the salvation of her neighbour, and she began gradually to mix again with her fellow creatures. Like the other tertiaries she undertook to nurse in the hospitals, and she always chose for preference the cases from which they were apt to shrink. Amongst these was a woman afflicted with a repulsive form of cancer and a leper called Tecca— both of whom rewarded her loving care by ingratitude, abusing her to her face and spreading scandal about her behind her back. In the end, however, they were won by her devotion.

“I desire to become more closely united to thee through charity towards thy neighbour”, our Lord had said, and Catherine's public life in no way interfered with her union with Him. Bd Raymund of Capua tells us that the only difference it made was that “God began from that time to manifest Himself to her, not merely when she was alone, as formerly, but when she was in public”. Often in the family circle, oftener still in church after she had made her communion, she was rapt in prolonged ecstasy, and whilst at prayer she was seen by many persons upraised from the ground. Gradually there gathered round her a band of friends and disciples-her Fellowship or Family, all of whom called her “Mamma”. Prominent amongst them were her Dominican confessors, Thomas delia Fonte and Bartholomew Dominici, the Augustinian Father Tantucci, Matthew Cenni, rector of the Misericordia hospital, Andrew Vanni, the artist to whom posterity is indebted for the loveliest of all the pictures of the saint, the aristocratic young poet Neri di Landoccio dei Pagliaresi, her own sister-in-law Lisa Colombini, the noble widow Alessia Saracini, the English William Flete, an Austin hermit, and the aged recluse Father Santi, popularly known as “the Saint”, who frequently left his solitude to be near Catherine because, to quote his own words, he found greater peace of mind and perseverance in virtue by following her than he had ever found in his cell. The tenderest affection bound the holy woman to those whom she regarded as her spiritual family-children given to her by God that she might lead them to perfection. She not only read their thoughts, but she frequently knew their temptations when they were absent, and it was to keep in touch with them that she seems to have dictated her earliest letters.
As may be readily supposed, public opinion in Siena was sharply divided about Catherine, especially at this period. Although many acclaimed her as a saint, some dubbed her a fanatic, whilst others loudly denounced her as a hypocrite, even some of her own order. It may have been in consequence of accusations made against her that she was summoned to Florence, to appear before the chapter general of the Dominicans. If any charges were made, they were certainly disproved, and shortly afterwards the new lector to Siena, Bd Raymund of Capua, was appointed her confessor. Their association was a happy one for both. The learned Dominican became not only her director but in a great measure her disciple, whilst she obtained through him the support of the order. In later life he was to be the master general of the Dominicans and the biographer of his spiritual daughter.
Catherine's return to Siena almost coincided with the outbreak of a terrible epidemic of plague, during the course of which she devoted herself to relieving the sufferers, as did also the rest of her circle. “Never did she appear more admirable than at this time”, wrote Thomas Caffarini, who had known her from her early girlhood. “She was always with the plague-stricken: she prepared them for death; she buried them with her own hands. I myself witnessed the joy with which she nursed them and the wonderful efficacy of her words, which wrought many conversions.” Amongst those who owed their recovery to her were Bd Raymund himself, Matthew Cenni, Father Santi and Father Bartholomew, all of whom had contracted the disease through tending others. But Catherine's care for the dying was not confined to the sick. She made it a regular practice to visit in prison those condemned to execution, in order that she might lead them to make  their peace with God. A young Perugian knight, Nicholas di Toldo, sentenced to death for speaking lightly of the Sienese government, was the best-known example, vividly related in the best-known of the saint's letters. At her persuasion he made his confession, assisted at Mass and received the Lord's Body. The night before execution Catherine comforted and encouraged him as he leaned his head upon her breast. And on the morrow she was at the scaffold; and Nicholas, seeing her pray for him, laughed with joy, and as he murmured “Jesus and Catherine” she received his severed head into her hands.  “Then I saw God-and-man, as one sees the brightness of the sun, receiving that soul in the fire of His divine love.”
Such things as these, coupled with her reputation for holiness and wonders, had by this time won for her a unique place in the estimation of her fellow citizens, many of whom proudly called her “La Beata Popolana” and resorted to her in their various difficulties. So numerous were the cases of conscience with which she dealt that three Dominicans were specially charged to hear the confessions of those who were induced by her to amend their lives. Moreover, because of her success in healing feuds, she was constantly being called upon to arbitrate at a time when every man's hand seemed to be against his neighbour. It was partly no doubt with a view to turning the belligerent energies of Christendom from fratricidal struggles that Catherine was moved to throw herself energetically into Pope Gregory Xl's appeal for another crusade to wrest the Holy Sepulchre from the Turks. Her efforts in this direction brought her into direct correspondence with the pontiff himself.
   In February 1375 she accepted an invitation to visit Pisa, where she was welcomed with enthusiasm and where her very presence brought about a· religious revival. She had only been in the city a few days when she had another of those great spiritual experiences which appear to have preluded new developments in her career. After making her communion in the little church of St Christina, she had been looking at the crucifix, rapt in meditation, when suddenly there seemed to come from it five blood-red rays which pierced her hands, feet and heart, causing such acute pain that she swooned. The wounds remained as stigmata, apparent to herself alone during her life, but clearly visible after her death.
She was still at Pisa when she received word that the people of Florence and Perugia had entered into a league against the Holy See and its French legates; and Bologna, Viterbo, Ancona, together with other cities, not without provocation from the mismanagement of papal officials, promptly rallied to the insurgents. That Lucca as well as Pisa and Siena held back for a time was largely due to the untiring efforts of Catherine, who paid a special visit to Lucca besides writing numerous letters of exhortation to all three towns. From Avignon, after an unsuccessful appeal to the Florentines, Pope Gregory despatched his legate Cardinal Robert of Geneva with an army, and laid Florence under an interdict.* [* In this unhappy business the pope hired the services and force of the English freebooter, John Hawkwood. ]
 This ban soon entailed such serious effects upon the city that its rulers in alarm sent to Siena, to accept Catherine's offer to become their mediatrix with the Holy See. Always ready to act as peacemaker, she promptly set out for Florence. The magistrates promised she should be followed to Avignon by their ambassadors, but these gentlemen set out only after a protracted delay. Catherine arrived at Avignon on June 18, 1376, and soon had a conference with Pope Gregory, to whom she had already written six times, " in an intolerably dictatorial tone, a little sweetened with expressions of her perfect Christian deference.” But the Florentines proved fickle and insincere; their ambassadors disclaimed Catherine, and the pope's peace terms were so severe that nothing could be done.
     Although the immediate purpose of her visit to Avignon had thus failed, Catherine's efforts in another direction were crowned with success. Many of the religious, social and political troubles under which Europe was groaning were to a great degree attributable to the fact that for seventy-four years the popes had been absent from Rome, living in Avignon, where the curia had become almost entirely French. It was a state of things deplored by all earnest Christians outside France, and the greatest men of the age had remonstrated against it in vain.
     Gregory XI had indeed himself proposed to transfer his residence to the Holy City, but had been deterred by the opposition of his French cardinals. Since Catherine in her previous letters had urged his return to Rome, it was only natural that the pope should talk with her on the subject when they came face to face. “Fulfil what you have promised”, was her reply-recalling to him, it is said, a vow which he had never disclosed to any human being. Gregory decided to act without loss of time. On September 13, 1376, he started from Avignon to travel by water to Rome, Catherine and her friends leaving the city on the same day to return overland to Siena. The two parties met again, almost accidentally, in Genoa, where Catherine was detained by the illness of two of her secretaries, Neri di Landoccio and Stephen Maconi, a young Sienese nobleman whom she had converted and who had become the most ardent of her followers, and perhaps the most beloved except Alessia.
   It was a month before she was back in Siena, from whence she continued to write to Pope Gregory, exhorting him to contribute by all means possible to the peace of Italy. By his special desire she went again to Florence, still rent by factions and obstinate in its disobedience. There she remained for some time, amidst daily murders and confiscations, in danger of her life but ever undaunted, even when swords were drawn against her. Finally she did indeed establish peace with the Holy See, although not during Gregory's reign, but in that of his successor.

After this memorable reconciliation the saint returned to Siena where, as Raymund of Capua tells us, " she occupied herself actively in the composition of a book which she dictated under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost".
This was the very celebrated mystical work, written in four treatises, known as the " Dialogue of St Catherine ". That she was favoured with some infused knowledge had indeed already been made clear on several occasions-in Siena, at Avignon and in Genoa-when learned theologians had plied her with hard questions, and had retired disconcerted with the wisdom of her replies. Her health had long since become so seriously impaired that she was never free from pain: yet her emaciated face habitually bore a happy and even smiling expression, and her personal charm was as winning as ever.

But within two years of the ending of the papal “captivity” at Avignon began the scandal of the great schism which followed the death of Gregory XI in 1378, when Urban VI was chosen in Rome and a rival pope was set up in Avignon by certain cardinals who declared Urban's election illegal. Christendom was divided into two camps, and Catherine wore herself out in her efforts to obtain for Urban the recognition which was his due. Letter after letter she addressed to the princes and leaders of the various European countries. To Urban himself she continued to write, sometimes to urge him to bear up under his trials, sometimes admonishing him to abate a harshness which was alienating even his supporters. Far from resenting her reproof, the pope told her to come to Rome that he might profit by her advice and assistance. In obedience to the call she took up her residence in the City, labouring indefatigably by her prayers, exhortations and letters to gain fresh adherents to the true pontiff.

Her life, however, was almost ended. Early in 1380 she had a strange seizure, when a visible presentment of the ship of the Church seemed to crush her to the earth and she offered herself a victim for it. After this she never really recovered. On April 21 there supervened a paralytic stroke which disabled her from the waist downwards, and eight days later, at the age of thirty-three, St Catherine of Siena passed away in the arms of Alessia Saracini.*[* The date of Catherine's birth, and therefore her age, was questioned by Robert Fawtier. On this point, see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xl (1922), pp. 365-411].

Besides the Dialogue mentioned above, about 400 of St Catherine's letters are still extant, many of them of great interest and historical value, and all of them remarkable for the beauty of their diction; they are addressed to popes and princes, priests and soldiers, religious and men and women in the world, and are indeed “the most complete expression, of Catherine's many-sided personality”. Those, especially, addressed to Gregory XI show a remarkable combination of deep respect, outspokenness and familiarity- “my sweet babbo” she calls the pontiff. Catherine has been called “the greatest woman in Christendom”, and her spiritual significance can hardly be overrated; but it is perhaps open to question whether she had as much political and social influence as is sometimes attributed to her. As Father B. de Gaiffier has written: “It is Catherine's devotion to the cause of Christ's Church that makes her such a noble figure”. That Church canonized her in 1461.
Nearly all the more painstaking English biographers of St Catherine-for example, Mother Frances Raphael Drane (1887), Professor E. G. Gardner (1907), and Alice Curtayne -discuss the question of sources in some detail. The most important materials for her life are supplied by the Legenda Major of Bd Raymund of Capua, her confessor; the Supplementum by Thomas Caffarini; the Legenda Minor, which is also Caffarini's; the Processus Contestationum super sanctitatem et doctrinam Catharinae de Senis; and the Miracoli. There is also, of course, the great collection of Catherine's letters, with regard to which both the dating and the determination of the primitive text is often a matter of great difficulty, as well as many other documents of considerable, if minor, importance. Some little commotion was caused by the extremely drastic criticism to which these sources were subjected by Dr Robert Fawtier. Many of his strictures appeared in the form of articles or contributions to the proceedings of learned societies, and he himself re-edited some of the less familiar texts, e.g. the Legenda Minor, but the most notable points of attack are set out in two larger volumes under the common title, Sainte Catherine de Sienne: Essai de critique des sources. The earlier volume deals with the Sources hagiographiques (1921), the later with Les reuvres de Ste Catherine (1930). Criticisms of Dr Fawtier's many useful comments will be found in the appendix to Alice Curtayne's Saint Catherine of Siena (1929), an excellent book, where an essay of Fr Taurisano is reprinted in the original Italian. Cf. also the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlix (1930), pp. 448-451. Other useful contributions are those of J. Joergensen, Sainte Catherine de Sienne (Eng. trans., 1938); E. de Santis Rosmini, Santa Caterina da Siena (1930); and F. Valli, L'injanzia e la puerizia di S. Caterina (1931). Among more recent books must be mentioned N. M. Denis-Boulet, La carrière politique de ste Catherine de Sienne (1939); M. de la Bedoyère, Catherine, Saint of Siena (1946); and a full popular life in Italian by Fr Taurisano (1948). La double experience de Catherine Benincasa (1948), by R. Fawtier and L. Canet, is a full statement from a different approach. Canon J. Leclercq's Ste Catherine de Sienne (1922) still retains its worth. There is an English edition of the Dialogue by Algar Thorold. There is an excellent concise account of certain problems connected with St Catherine's life, by Fr M. H. Laurent, in DHG., vol. xi, cc. 1517-1521. For the sources of the Dialogue, consult A. Grion, Santa Caterina da Siena: Dottrina efonti (1953). For other recent works, see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxix (1951), pp. 182-191.
1429 St. Louis von Bruck Martyred boy example of the pervasive anti-Semitism of the medieval period.

sometimes listed as Ludwig. He was born in Ravensburg, Germany, to Swiss parents. Louis was reportedly murdered on Easter by Jews of the region. This account is considered an example of the pervasive anti-Semitism of the medieval period.

Louis von Bruck M (AC) (also known as Ludwig) Born in Ravensburg, Swabia, Germany; Ludwig is another of the boy martyrs claimed to have been martyred by Jews at Easter (Benedictines).
1572 St. Pius V, {SEE MAY 5th )}Pope from 1566-1572 Catholic Reformation leader taught theology philosophy 16 years excessive zeal as grand inquisitor wholeheartedly devoted to the religious life published Roman Catechism revised Roman Breviary and Roman Missal organized Battle of Lepanto commission to revise the Vulgate new edition of Thomas Aquinas Lepanto  pope had knowledge of the victory through miraculous means

One of the foremost leaders of the Catholic Reformation. Born Antonio Ghislieri in Bosco, Italy, to a poor family, he labored as a shepherd until the age of fourteen and then joined the Dominicans, being ordained in 1528. Called Brother Michele, he studied at Bologna and Genoa, and then taught theology and philosophy for sixteen years before holding the posts of master of novices and prior for several Dominican houses.
Named inquisitor for Como and Bergamo, he was so capable in the fulfillment of his office that by 1551, and at the urging of the powerful Cardinal Carafa, he was named by Pope Julius III commissary general of the Inquisition. In 1555, Carafa was elected Pope Paul IV and was responsible for Ghislieri’s swift rise as a bishop of Nepi and Sutri in 1556, cardinal in 1557, and grand inquisitor in 1558.

While out of favor for a time under Pope Pius IV who disliked his reputation for excessive zeal, Ghislieri was unanimously elected a pope in succession to Pius on January 7, 1566.
As pope, Pius saw his main objective as the continuation of the massive program of reform for the Church, in particular the full implementation of the decrees of the Council of Trent. He published the Roman Catechism, the revised Roman Breviary, and the Roman Missal; he also declared Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church, commanded a new edition of the works of Thomas Aquinas, and created a commission to revise the Vulgate.

The decrees of Trent were published throughout all Catholic lands, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and the New World, and the pontiff insisted on their strict adherence. In 1571, Pius created the Congregation of the Index to give strength to the Church’s resistance to Protestant and heretical writings, and he used the Inquisition to prevent any Protestant ideas from gaining a foot hold in Italy.

In dealing with the threat of the Ottoman Turks who were advancing steadily across the Mediterranean, Pius organized a formidable alliance between Venice and Spain, culminating in the Battle of Lepanto, which was a complete and shattering triumph over the Turks. The day of the victory was declared the Feast Day of Our Lady of Victory in recognition of Our Lady’s intercession in answer to the saying of the Rosary all over Catholic Europe.

Pius also spurred the reforms of the Church by example.
He insisted upon wearing his coarse Dominican robes, even beneath the magnificent vestments worn by the popes, and was wholeheartedly devoted to the religious life. His reign was blemished only by the continuing oppression of the Inquisition; the often brutal treatment of the Jews of Rome; and the ill advised decision to excommunicate Queen Elizabeth I of England in February 1570, an act which also declared her deposed and which only worsened the plight of English Catholics. These were overshadowed in the view of later generations by his contributions to the Catholic Reformation. Pope Clement beatified him on May 1, 1672, and Pope Clement XI canonized him on May 22, 1712.

Pius V, OP Pope (RM) (also known as Michael Ghislieri) Born in Bosco (near Alessandria), Italy, on January 17, 1504; died May 1, 1572; canonized in 1712; feast day formerly on May 5. People who know nothing else about Pius V are quite apt to remember him as the Pope of the Rosary, recalling his remarkable connection with the Battle of Lepanto.

Antonio Michael was born into the distinguished but impoverished Ghisleri. His parents could not afford to educate their alert little boy, who seemed far too talented to be a shepherd. One day, as he was minding his father's small flock, two Dominicans came along the road and fell into conversation with him. Recognizing immediately that he was both virtuous and intelligent, they obtained permission from his parents to take the child with them and educate him. He left home at age 12 and did not return until his ordination many years later. After a preliminary course of studies, he received the Dominican habit at the priory of Voghera at age 14 and, as a novice, was sent to Lombardy. Here, for the first time, he met the well-organized forces of heresy which he was to combat so successfully in later years. After his ordination in 1528, he went home to say his first Mass, and he found that Bosco had been razed by the French. There was nothing left to tell him if his parents were alive or dead. He finally found them, however, in a nearby town. After he said Mass, he returned to a career that would keep him far from home for the rest of his life. He began as a lector in theology and philosophy for 16 years.

Then he served as novice-master, than as prior of several convents, Michael proved to be a wise and charitable administrator. He was made inquisitor at Como, Italy, where many of his religious brethren had died as martyrs to the heretics. By the time of Michael's appointment there, the heretics' chief weapon was the printed word; they smuggled books in from Switzerland, causing untold harm by spreading them in northern Italy. The new inquisitor set himself to fight this wicked traffic, and it was not the fault of the heretics that he did not follow his brethren to martyrdom. They ambushed him several times and laid a number of complicated plots to kill him, but only succeeded in making him determined to explain the situation more fully to the pope in Rome.

He arrived in Rome on Christmas Eve, tired, cold, and hungry, and here it was not the heretics that caused him pain, but his own brothers in Christ. The prior of Santa Sabina saw fit to be sarcastic and inhospitable to the unimportant looking friar, who said he was from Lombardy. The pope knew very well who he was, however, and immediately gave him the commission of working with the heretics in the Roman prisons.

He was a true father to these unfortunates, and he brought many of them back to the faith. One of his most appealing converts was a young Franciscan, a converted Jew of a wealthy family, who had lapsed into heresy through pride in his writing. Michael proceeded to straighten out his thinking, to give him the Dominican habit, and to assure him of his personal patronage, thus securing for the Church a splendid Scripture scholar and writer.

In 1556, Michael was chosen bishop of Nepi and Sutri. The next year he was named inquisitor general against the Protestants in Italy and Spain and was appointed cardinal, in order, as he said, that irons should be riveted to his feet to prevent him from creeping back into the peace of the cloister. In 1559, Pope Pius IV made him bishop of the war-depleted Piedmont see of Mondovi, to which he soon brought order. Insofar as possible, Michael continued to adhere to the Dominican Rule.

He constantly opposed nepotism. Michael opposed Pius IV's attempt to make 13-year-old Ferdinand de'Medici a cardinal, and defeated the attempt of Emperor Maximilian II of Germany to abolish clerical celibacy.

January 7, 1565, when the papal chair was vacant following the death of Pius IV, the cardinals, chiefly through the influence of Saint Charles Borromeo(1538-1584) elected Cardinal Ghislieri pope. With great grief, he accepted the office and chose the name Pius V. Charles Borromeo had backed Michael during the election, trusting that he would act as a much-needed reformer.
 
His judgment proved true: on Pius's coronation, the money usually distributed to the crowds was given to the hospitals and the poor, and money for a banquet for the cardinals and other dignitaries was given to poor convents. When someone criticized this, he observed that God would judge us more on our charity to the poor than on our good manners to the rich. Such an attitude was bound to make enemies in high places, but it endeared him to the poor, and it gave right-thinking men the hope that here was a man of integrity, and one who could help to reform the clergy and make a firm stand against the Lutheran heresy.
 
Pope Saint Pius V

There were massive problems of immediate urgency during the brief reign of Pius V. From within, the peace of the Church was disturbed by the several heresies of Luther, Calvin, and the Lombards, and by the need for clerical reform. In addition, England was tottering on the brink of a break with Rome. The Netherlands were trying to break away from Spain and had embraced Protestantism. The missions across the sea needed attention. And all through the Mediterranean countries, the Turkish were ravaging Christian cities, creeping closer to world conquest. In the six years of his reign, Pope Pius V had to deal with all these questions--any one of which was enough to occupy his entire time.
One of Pius's first actions was to demand that bishops should live in their dioceses and parish priests in their parishes. His efforts at regulating his see embraced issues ranging from the abolition of bullfighting, bear-baiting and prostitution, to cleaning out the Roman curia and eliminating nepotism, to cutting down the activities of bandits. He insisted that Sunday must be hallowed. Once a month he held a special court for anyone who felt they had been treated unjustly. He also brought in shipments of corn during a famine at his own expense.

In his personal life he continued to be a devout mendicant friar; as pope he set himself to enforce the decrees of the Council of Trent with energy and effect. The catechism ordered by the Council of Trent was completed during his rule (1566), and he ordered translations made. The breviary reformed (1568) and missal (1570). He also commissioned the best edition to date of the writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1159); it was he who made Thomas a Doctor of the Church in 1567.

His was a rigorous character; he made full use of the Inquisition and his methods of combatting Protestantism were ruthless. Pius had hoped to convert Queen Elizabeth of England. The unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots enjoyed his sympathy and encouragement. He sent reassuring letters to her, and once, at a time when no priest was allowed to go near her, he granted her special permission to receive Holy Communion by sending her a tiny pyx that contained consecrated Hosts. It was he who finally had to pronounce excommunication on Elizabeth of England in 1570, after he had given her every possible chance of repentance.

Pius V had a high estimate of papal power in secular matters, though sometimes showing little talent for dealing with them. When he excommunicated Elizabeth I, he absolved her subjects of the allegiance to her as queen. This served only to endanger the Catholics in her realm, however, and many were accused of treason and martyred. (It is interesting to note that Elizabeth II visited Pope John XXIII at the Vatican on Pius V's original feast day, May 5, nearly four centuries later.) That he also came into conflict with Philip II of Spain shows with what consistency he applied his principles.

He encouraged the new society founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) and established the Jesuits in the Gregorian University. He consecrated three Jesuit bishops for India, gave Saint Francis Borgia (1510-1572) his greatest cooperation, and helped to finance missionaries to China and Japan. He built the church of Our Lady of the Angels for the Franciscans and helped Saint Philip Neri (1515-1595) in his establishment of the Oratory. Probably the act for which he will be longest remembered in his leadership at the time of the Battle of Lepanto.

In 1565, the Knights of Saint John defended Malta against a tremendous attack by the Turkish fleet and lost nearly every fighting man in the fortress. It was the pope who sent encouragement and money with which to rebuild their battered city. The pope called for a crusade among the Christian nations and appointed a leader who would be acceptable to all. He ordered the Forty Hours Devotion to be held in Rome, and he encouraged all to say the Rosary.

When the Christian fleet sailed out to meet the enemy, every man on board had received the sacraments, and all were saying the Rosary. The fleet was small, and numerically it was no match for the Turkish fleet, which so far had never met defeat. They met in the Bay of Lepanto on Sunday morning, October 7, 1565. After a day of bitter fighting, and, on the part of the Christians, miraculous help, the Turkish fleet--what was left of it--fled in disgrace, broken and defeated, its power crushed forever.

Before the victorious fleet returned to Rome, the pope had knowledge of the victory through miraculous means. He proclaimed a period of thanksgiving; he placed the invocation, "Mary, Help of Christians" in the Litany of Loreto and established the feast in commemoration of the victory. It was almost the last act of his momentous career for he fell victim to a painful illness that killed him in less than a year. He was attempting to form an alliance of the Italian cities, France, Poland, and other Christian nations of Europe to march against the Turks when he died. He is enshrined at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.

Although he was criticized for 'wanting to turn Rome into a monastery,' Saint Pius had the respect of the Roman people, who knew his personal goodness and concern for everybody's welfare. He gave large sums to the poor, lived a life of austerity and piety, and personally visited the sick in hospitals. Pius V is remembered as one of the most important popes of the Counter Reformation (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Dorcy, White).

In art, he is shown reciting a rosary; or with a fleet in the distance; or with the feet of a crucifix withdrawn as he tried to kiss them (White).

April 30, 2007 St. Pius V (1504-1572) 
This is the pope whose job was to implement the historic Council of Trent. If we think recent popes have had difficulties in implementing Vatican Council II, Pius V had even greater problems after that historic council more than four centuries ago.

During his papacy (1566-1572), Pius V was faced with the almost overwhelming responsibility of getting a shattered and scattered Church back on its feet. The family of God had been shaken by corruption, by the Reformation, by the constant threat of Turkish invasion and by the bloody bickering of the young nation-states. In 1545 a previous pope convened the Council of Trent in an attempt to deal with all these pressing problems. Off and on over 18 years, the Church Fathers discussed, condemned, affirmed and decided upon a course of action. The Council closed in 1563.

Pius V was elected in 1566 and was charged with the task of implementing the sweeping reforms called for by the Council. He ordered the founding of seminaries for the proper training of priests. He published a new missal, a new breviary, a new catechism and established the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine (CCD) classes for the young. Pius zealously enforced legislation against abuses in the Church. He patiently served the sick and the poor by building hospitals, providing food for the hungry and giving money customarily used for the papal banquets to poor Roman converts. His decision to keep wearing his Dominican habit led to the custom of the pope wearing a white cassock.

In striving to reform both Church and state, Pius encountered vehement opposition from England's Queen Elizabeth and the Roman Emperor Maximilian II. Problems in France and in the Netherlands also hindered Pius's hopes for a Europe united against the Turks. Only at the last minute was he able to organize a fleet which won a decisive victory in the Gulf of Lepanto, off Greece, on October 7, 1571.

Pius's ceaseless papal quest for a renewal of the Church was grounded in his personal life as a Dominican friar. He spent long hours with his God in prayer, fasted rigorously, deprived himself of many customary papal luxuries and faithfully observed the Dominican Rule and its spirit.

Comment:  In their personal lives and in their actions as popes, Pius V and Paul VI (d. 1978) both led the family of God in the process of interiorizing and implementing the new birth called for by the Spirit in major Councils. With zeal and patience, Pius and Paul pursued the changes urged by the Council Fathers. Like Pius and Paul, we too are called to constant change of heart and life.

Quote: "In this universal assembly, in this privileged point of time and space, there converge together the past, the present, and the future. The past: for here, gathered in this spot, we have the Church of Christ with her tradition, her history, her Councils, her doctors, her saints; the present: we are taking leave of one another to go out toward the world of today with its miseries, its sufferings, its sins, but also with its prodigious accomplishments, values, and virtues; and the future is here in the urgent appeal of the peoples of the world for more justice, in their will for peace, in their conscious or unconscious thirst for a higher life, that life precisely which the Church of Christ can give and wishes to give to them" (from Pope Paul's closing message at Vatican II).
1590 Bl. Miles Gerard Martyr of England.
Born near Wigan, England, he studied for the priest­hood at Reims and was ordained in 1583 . Miles was martyred at Rochester and was beatified in 1929.
1590 Bl. Francis Dickenson English convert martyr.
He was born in Yorkshire, England, and was a convert to the Church. After being ordained at Reims, France, in 1589, he returned to England and was promptly arrested. Francis was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Rochester. He was beatified in 1929.
1590 St. Gerard Miles Martyr of England with Blessed Francis Dickinson.
1590 BB. FRANCIS DICKENSON AND MILES GERARD, MARTYRS
NATIVES respectively of Yorkshire and of Lancashire, Francis Dickenson and Miles Gerard crossed over to France to be educated for the priesthood in the Douai college at Rheims. In 1589, six years after Gerard’s ordination, they were despatched on the English mission, but the ship on which they embarked was wrecked, passengers as well as crew being cast up on the Kentish coast. Either on suspicion or on information, Dickenson and Gerard were promptly arrested and cast into prison. Brought up for trial, they were condemned to death as traitors for the offence of coming to England as priests. They suffered martyrdom together at Rochester, on April 13 or 30, 1590.
See Challoner, MMP., p. 162. There is further interesting information in the state papers which preserve a record of the examinations of these two martyrs. See Catholic Record Society Publications, vol. v, pp. 171—173 and cf. Pollen, Acts of English Martyrs, pp. 314--315.

He was born in Lancashire, England, and went to Douai and Reims where he was ordained in 1583. Returning from England, he was arrested when the ship that he and Francis were using wrecked at Kent. They were arrested and hanged, drawn, and quartered at Rochester in April. They were beatified in 1929.

Blesseds Francis Dickenson and Miles Gerard MM (AC) Died at Rochester, England, 1590; beatified 1929. Francis Dickenson was born in Yorkshire and converted to Catholicism. He was educated for the priesthood at Rheims, France, ordained in 1589, and sent to the English mission, where he was martyred the following year at Rochester together with Father Gerard.
 
Miles Gerard served as a priest for a few years more than did Fr. Dickenson, perhaps because he used an alias, William Richardson. He was born near Wigan and taught school before studying for the priesthood and being ordained at Rheims in 1583 (Attwater2, Benedictines). 
1618 Bl. Mary of the Incarnation contemplative prayer frequent ecstasies often saying "The Kingdom of God is within you"received the stigmata reserved regarding mystical illuminations and always very humble responsible for at least 10,000 conversions first Carmel established in Paris OCD Widow (AC)

(also known as Madame Barbé Acarie) Born in Paris, France, in 1566; died 1618; feast day formerly April 18; beatified in 1791.
Some people wonder why God does not intervene more in the affairs of our troubled world. Perhaps He would, if there were more men and women who responded to their vocations to be saints. Nevertheless, it is wondrously amusing to see how Almighty God will insist on getting things done His way, through all sorts of individuals who unknowingly aid in the completion of his design. Barbara Avrillot, generally called Barbe, was born for a particular work to be done. Her mother, doctors and some clergy tried to put obstacles in her way, but God overcame them all.

This saintly French woman was born to well-bred Catholic parents. In fact, her father became a priest after her mother's death. Due to politics, her father lost his property. Her mother was harsh and often violent to her, so she became a timid, frightened child. Barbe was educated in a convent and wanted to be a nun, but her mother insisted on her marriage at age 16 to Pierre Acarie, formerly a King's Councillor; thus, history generally remembers Barbe as the beautiful Madame Acarie.

Pierre was a hot-headed adventurer, indolent, and critical. He censored his wife's reading and asked her confessor for a supply of books she should read on the spiritual life. This worked on behalf of God's plan by opening a new world of mystical reality to her. She was especially impressed with one sentence, "Too greedy is he for whom God does not suffice." These words transformed her whole being at age 22. She became gayer, more decisive and efficient in the management of her household. At once she reached the heights of contemplative prayer and had frequent ecstasies. These ecstasies did not sap her strength or ruin her health, nor did they interfere with her bearing six children.

Madame Acarie found it impossible to read spiritual and mystical books without immediately falling into ecstasy, so she had someone read them to her. The presence of another person generally kept her on the natural plane. As she advanced toward perfection, she gained better control over her inner life and ecstatic seizures became more infrequent. She also received the stigmata.

Her mystical life was passive, rather than active; God seized her without effort on her part. Vocal prayer, like reading, was difficult. She was very reserved regarding her mystical illuminations and always very humble.

Pierre Acarie, perhaps chagrined at his wife's spiritual progress and renown as a mystic, began studying pious books. Part II of God's plan. He had the writings of Blessed Angela de Foligno (1260-1309) translated into French for his wife, but she refused to read them. His pride hurt, he tried to make life uncomfortable for her at home and to malign her to the priests.

She never neglected her household duties. Her husband's recklessness soon reduced the family to poverty. He was always prey to get rich quick schemes. For political reasons, he was exiled (comfortably) for four years by Henry IV. Barbe used these years of independence to save her house and rehabilitate her husband's reputation. She acted on his behalf as an attorney in a legal suit and he was exonerated.

Barbe took a deep interest in her children's education, and personally trained their characters. She hated falsehood. She also did her best to combat vanity in her children. She taught her three daughters to carry themselves well and dress fashionably, for she did not want to force them into a convent. All three girls became Carmelites, and two of her sons became priests.

The grace she drew from contemplation directed and guided her in all her manifold beneficent activities and in raising her children. Her second daughter, known in religion as Marguerite du Saint- Sacrement, is regarded by the Abbé Brémond as the ideal Carmelite.

Mssr Gauthier, Councillor of State, and an intimate friend, during her canonization process said she was responsible for at least 10,000 conversions. "All who approached her were impressed by her genuine spirituality, and felt that in talking with her they were coming very close to God Himself." Therefore, she "liberated grace" in countless men and women, including many priests.

While her husband was in exile, she inspired women who often gathered in her home to form the Congrégation de Sainte- Geneviève to enable them to live a holy life in common and instruct little girls. This congregation prepared France for its first Carmelite and Ursuline houses, as most of its members joined these two new orders.

Barbe was led to write to Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582) because of a vision she had of her, who told Barbe in the vision to confer with the proper authorities for the needed permission to bring the order to France. A second vision of Saint Teresa told her later to now proceed without delay. Barbe summoned her group and was joined by the visiting Saint Francis de Sales (1567-1622) who also fell under the spell of her sanctity. The first Carmel was established in Paris in 1606; within nine years, six more were established around France.

While she was still living with her husband, Barbe personally selected and trained many women who became Carmelites. She even counselled Carmelite superiors--ordinarily women religious do not willingly defer to a married woman; however, she had a high degree of discernment of spirits. Her home became a center for religious activity. Her husband was a troublesome interloper, and vented his irritation (probably jealousy).

Pierre Acarie died in 1613; then Barbe joined the Carmelites, but only as a lay sister, taking the name of Marie of the Incarnation. She lived in the convent of Amiens, then in Pontoise, where she died. Barbe radiated with God's love and often said, "The Kingdom of God is within you" (Benedictines, S. Delany).
1625 Blessed Benedict of Urbino lawyer Capuchin effective preacher OFM Cap. (AC).
1625 BD BENEDICT OF URBINO
THE father of Benedict of Urbino was a member of the princely family of the Passionei, and his mother was Magdalen Cibó. The little boy, Martin by name, lost both his parents before he was seven, but he was left in charge of guardians who brought him up carefully. In the University of Perugia, where he studied philosophy, as well as at Padua, where he graduated in jurisprudence, he was known as a young man of exemplary conduct. After taking his doctor’s degree he went to Rome, but finding no satisfaction in the legal career which he had chosen he decided to seek admission to the Capuchin friary at Fossombrone. This was not readily conceded on account of the opposition of his relations, but the habit was bestowed upon him at Fano in 1584. It was then that he took the name of Benedict. Even then his difficulties were by no means ended. During his novitiate he became so ill that it seemed as though he would have to leave, and although he made a good recovery it was thought that he was too delicate to be professed. That he was eventually allowed to take the vows was due entirely to the novice-master, who emphasized the extraordinary piety of the young neophyte.
Friar Benedict was for three years specially attached to the vicar general, St Laurence of Brindisi, to accompany him on his visitations in Austria and Bohemia. The missionary sermons which Benedict preached at that time brought about many conversions amongst heretics and lax Catholics. He had a great zeal for the care of God’s house, and would sometimes, even when he was a superior, take a broom and sweep out the church. He frequently preached on the passion of our Lord, upon which he meditated daily for an hour, lying on the ground with his face to the earth, and his most ardent desire was that every heart should be consumed with the fire of love which Christ came on earth to kindle. In the year 1625 he set forth in very severe weather to preach the Lenten sermons at Sassocorbaro, although he was in very poor health. He began his course on Ash Wednesday, but was too ill  to proceed. He was therefore taken back to Fossombrone, where he died on April 30.
One of Bd Benedict’s favourite sayings was: “He that hopes and trusts in God can never be lost”. He was beatified in 1867.
More than one account of his life was published in 1867, e.g. those by Eusebio a Monte­santo and Pellegrino da Forli; a later book is that of Eugenio de Potenza (1920). Cf. also Ernest-Marie de Beaulieu, Liber Memorialis O.M.Cap. (1928), pp. 258—260; and Léon, Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. ii, pp. 147--150.

Born at Urbino, Italy; died at Fossombrone, Italy, 1625; beatified in 1867. Born into the de'Passionei family, Benedict was a lawyer in his home town before joining the Capuchins at Fano in 1584. His previous training, complemented by his faith, made him an effective preacher. He was the companion of Saint Laurence of Brindisi(1559- 1619) whom he followed to Austria and Bohemia (Attwater2, Benedictines).
1672 Blessed Marie of the Incarnation Martin, OSU (AC).

Born in Tours, France, on October 28, 1599; died in Quebec, Canada, on April 30, 1672; beatified in 1980 by John Paul II. There appears to be two beatae of the same name on this day. This Marie of the Incarnation had a very different beginning than did Mme Acarie, though she also had her roots in France.
Marie Guyard was the daughter of a baker and married a silk manufacturer named Claude Martin when she was 17. The couple had one son before Claude died two years later. Marie became a bookkeeper for her brother-in-law.

In 1629, Marie joined the Ursulines at Tours and took the name Marie of the Incarnation. Ten years later she was sent to Canada, where she laid the foundation for the first Ursuline convent in Quebec in 1641. She rebuilt the convent after fire destroyed it in 1650. As part of her apostolate, she compiled dictionaries in Algonquin and Iroquois and taught the Indians until her death.

Like Mme Acarie, Marie experienced mystical visions. She also suffered periods of spiritual aridity about which she wrote. Her letters give a valuable account of life in Quebec in 1639-71 (Delaney).
1721 Argyra The holy New Martyr lived in Proussa, Bithynia jailed for her Christianity 17 years tortured endured all with great courage and patience

She came from a pious family. She was a beautiful and virtuous woman. When she was eighteen, she married a pious Christian, and they moved into a neighborhood inhabited by many Moslems.

After only a few days, she was approached by a Turkish neighbor, the son of the Cadi (magistrate). He boldly declared his love for her, and tried to convert her to his religion. She rejected his advances, saying that she would rather die than be married to a Moslem. She did not tell her husband, fearing that he would go after the Turk and then be punished for it.

The Moslem brought her to trial and testified that she had assented to his advances, but then had laughed and said she was only joking. His lies were corroborated by false witnesses, and Argyra was sent to prison.

The saint's husband, hoping to get her a fair trial, appealed to Constantinople. There the accuser repeated his lies before the judge. St Argyra said that she was a Christian, and that she would never deny Christ. The judge ordered her to be flogged, then sentenced her to life in prison.

She was often taken from her cell, interrogated, beaten, then returned to prison. This continued for seventeen years. The saint was also insulted and tormented by the Moslem women who were incarcerated for their evil deeds. The Evil One incited them to annoy St Argyra with these torments and afflictions, but she endured all these things with great courage and patience.

According to the testimony of many Christian women who were in prison with her, she humbled her body through fasting. Her heart was filled with such love for Christ that she regarded her hardships as comforts.

A pious Christian named Manolis Kiourtzibasis sent her word that he would try to have her released, but St Argyra would not consent to this. She completed her earthly pilgrimage in the prison, receiving the crown of martyrdom on April 5, 1721.

After a few years her body was exhumed, and was found to be whole and incorrupt, emitting an ineffable fragrance. Pious priests and laymen took her body to the church of St Paraskeve on April 30, 1735 with the permission of Patriarch Paisius II.

Her relics remain there to this day, where they are venerated by Orthodox Christians from all walks of life, to the glory of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

St Argyra's name comes from the Greek word for silver (argyre). THE NEW MARTYR ARGYRA 1688-1721 by P. Philippidou (which also contains a Service to the saint) was published in Constantinople in 1912.
1842 St. Joseph Cottolengo opened home/hospital for sick poor Piccola Casa became a great medical institution founded Daughters of Compassion Daughters of the Good Shepherd Hermits of the Holy Rosary Priests of the Holy Trinity
Chérii, apud Augústam Taurinórum, sancti Joséphi Benedícti Cottoléngo, Confessóris, Parvæ Domus a Divína Providéntia Fundatóris, summa in Deum confidéntia et caritáte in páuperes insígnis, quem Pius Papa Undécimus Sanctórum fastis adscrípsit.
    At Chieri, near Turin, St. Joseph Cottolengo, confessor, founder of the Little House of Divine Providence, full of trust in God and remarkable for his charity toward the poor, whom Pope Pius XI enrolled among the saints.

Joseph was born at Bra, near Turin, Italy. He was ordained and engaged in pastoral work. When a woman he attended died from lack of medical facilities for the poor in Turin, he opened a small home for the sick poor. When it began to expand, he organized the volunteers who had been manning it into the Brothers of St. Vincent and the Daughters of St. Vincent (Vincentian Sisters).
When cholera broke out in 1831, the hospital was closed, but he moved it just outside the city at Valdocco and continued ministering to the stricken. The hospital grew and he expanded his activities to helping the aged, the deaf, blind, crippled, insane, and wayward girls until his Piccola Casa became a great medical institution. To minister to these unfortunates, he founded the Daughters of Compassion, the Daughters of the Good Shepherd, the Hermits of the Holy Rosary, and the Priests of the Holy Trinity. Weakened by typhoid he had contracted, he died at Chieri, Italy, and was canonized in 1934.

(1786-1842)
     One day in 1827 Father Joseph Cottolengo was called upon to give the last sacraments to a young Frenchwoman who had taken ill in the city of Turin, Italy, while en route back to France with her family. Amazed at the fact that this foreign woman was dying uncared for in a slum - the only place in which she could find lodging - Cottolengo learned that there was no institution in the whole city where emergency medical care could be obtained.
     Father Joseph was a great devotee of the needy of any sort. Whenever he saw that aid was necessary, he dropped everything else until provision had been made. In this case, he at once rented five rooms in a house to serve as an emergency hospital. A good local woman supplied some beds, a doctor and a pharmacist offered their services, and soon he had five patients under care. What proved the need of such an institution was the way that the hospital grew. As more rooms were added, Father Cottolengo gathered and organized a permanent nursing staff of men and women. He called the men the Brothers of St. Vincent. The women he formed into a nursing order of nuns, the Vincentian Sisters.
     This “Volta Rossa” hospital suffered a brief setback in 1831. A cholera epidemic broke out, and the city authorities, fearing that the hospital would become a breeding ground for the disease, shut it down. Canon Cottolengo kept his cool, and simply planned to move the hospital to other quarters. Meanwhile, his nurses took care of the cholera victims in their own homes.
     The place to which the hospital was moved in 1832 was Valdocco, suburban to Turin. Not only did the transplanted emergency hospital thrive in its new locale; there soon sprang up alongside it a number of auxiliary institutions called into being by additional human needs. There was a nursing school, a building for epileptics, and others for deaf-mutes, the blind, orphans, homeless kids, prostitutes, the aged, and the mentally retarded (“My good boys and girls”, he affectionately termed his retarded children.) In the end, he had a vast complex of charitable homes.
     The most remarkable part of this “Little House of Divine Providence” is that the founder actually did leave the management completely in God's hands. He kept no books, no accounts. What he got he forthwith spent, never investing it as a cautionary or prudential measure. He even refused to put his center under royal patronage as a security, and would allow no endowments. Whenever a need arose, therefore, he trusted that the God who had allowed it to arise would provide funds to deal with it.
     Some would think it a folly to start and maintain institutions without knowing where the funds were coming from. But St. Joseph Cottolengo did know where they were coming from. If he had no source of money, he had a battery of people praying for it - various organizations and religious orders that he had founded especially to storm heaven for aid. His center was not called the Little House of Divine Providence in vain. He really did challenge God to provide for the good works. And God never failed him.
     Most of this saint's institutions continue to flourish today. That says something, doesn't it, about the wisdom of trusting in a heavenly Father? Remember, it was He who once said to His people through Isaiah: “Can a mother forget her infant be without tenderness for the child of her womb? Even should she forget I will never forget you!” (49: 15).
St. Joseph Cottolengo, pray that we may always trust bravely in God's assistance!-- Father Robert F. McNamara
1922 Pandita Mary Ramabai i ihr Werk leiten und den elenden Frauen Indiens helfen.
Anglikanische Kirche: 30. April Evangelische Kirche: 5. April

Ramabai Sarasvati, Tochter eines gelehrten Brahmanen, wurde 1858 im Distrikt Mangalur geboren. Ihr Vater stand einer Frau das gleiche Recht zur geistigen Bildung zu wie einem Mann und lehrte sie die indische Weisheit und die Philosophie der Veden. Mit 16 Jahren war sie gegen alle herrschende Sitte noch unverheiratet, als ihre Eltern bei der großen Hungersnot alle Habe verloren und an Hungertyphus starben. Pandita Ramabais Bruder fand in Kalkutta eine Stellung als Lehrer und Pandita Ramabai wurde zur Vorkämpferin der indischen Frauenbewegung. Sie wies in Vorträgen aus den heiligen Büchern nach, daß die übliche Kinderheirat und das Elend der Witwen nicht im Einklang mit der alten Weisheitslehre stünden. Die gelehrten Brahmanen Kalkuttas verliehen ihr den Titel Pandita (Professor). Sie heiratete einen Juristen, der nach kurzer Ehe starb. Um ihre Aufgabe besser durchführen zu können, ging sie mit ihrer Tochter nach England und hielt hier Vorträge über das Elend der indischen Frauen und schrieb ein Buch 'Die Hindufrau höherer Kasten'. In Fulham lernte sie die Schwestern vom Kreuz kennen und beschloß, Jesus nachzufolgen.
Michaelis 1883 ließ sie sich und ihre Tochter taufen. Die zahlreichen Spenden aus Europa und Amerika ermöglichten es ihr, in Puna ein Waisenheim für Kinderwitwen einzurichten, in dem sie mit 40 bis 60 Witwen zusammenlebte. Als 1897 eine Hungersnot ausbrach, die auch die Mittel des Staates überforderte, half Pandita Ramabai, wo sie konnte. Zweihundert Mädchen und Frauen, die sie vor dem Hungertod bewahren konnte, siedelte sie auf ihrem Land in Kelagon an. In den drei Jahren der Hungersnot sammelte sie insgesamt 1.200 Menschen ein, die in dem Dorf 'Mukti' (Stätte der Rettung) eine neue Heimat fanden. Das Dorf hatte schließlich fast 2.000 Bewohner, die in handwerklichen und landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben arbeiten konnten. Ihre Tochter arbeitete als Lehrerin in ihrem Haus in Puna.
Die von Pandita Ramabai ausgebildeten Lehrerinnen und Krankenpflegerinnen waren in Indien sehr angesehen und begehrt. 1904 gründete sie außerdem eine Bibelschule um Missionarinnen auszubilden. 1905 kam es zu einer Erweckung unter den Bewohnern, über 1.000 von ihnen ließen sich taufen. Bis zu ihrem Tod am 5.4.1922 konnte Pandita Ramabai ihr Werk leiten und den elenden Frauen Indiens helfen.


Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR APRIL
Young People. 
That young people may respond generously to their vocations and seriously consider
offering themselves to God in the priesthood or consecrated life.


ABORTION IS A MORAL OUTRAGE
Marian spirituality: all are invited.
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Third Sunday of Easter
April Is Child Abuse Prevention Month

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
 
                                                                                     
     
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
  Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;

May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 01
120 -132 St. Theodora Roman martyr sister of  Saint Hermes aid and care to her brother in prison.  At Rome, the passion of St. Theodora, sister of the illustrious martyr Hermes.  She underwent martyrdom in the time of Emperor Adrian, under the judge Aurelian, and was buried at the side of her brother, on the Salarian Way, a short distance from the city.
According to the Acta of Pope St. Alexander (r 105-115), she was the sister of  Saint Hermes and was martyred some time after her brother. She had given aid and care to her brother during his difficult time in prison.
The council and the delegates from Grenoble severally and collectively appear to have looked on Canon Hugh as the one man who was capable of dealing with the disorders complained of; but though unanimously elected it was with the greatest reluctance that he consented to accept the office. The legate himself conferred on him holy orders up to the priesthood, and took him to Rome that he might receive consecration from the pope.
1132 St. Hugh of Grenoble Benedictine bishop amazing modesty took upon himself all sins of others the cross he carried was heavy laden holy and redemptive great reputation for miracles.   The kindness of the reception he met emboldened the young bishop elect to consult St Gregory VII about temptations to blasphemy which sometimes beset him, causing him great distress and, as he considered, rendering him unfit for the high office to which he was called. The pontiff reassured him, explaining that God permitted these trials to purify him and render him a more fitting instrument for the divine purposes. These particular temptations continued to assault him until his last illness, but he never yielded to them in any way.
The Countess Matilda gave the twenty-eight-year-old bishop his crozier and some books, including the De officiis ministrorum of St Ambrose and a psalter to which were appended the commentaries of St Augustine. Immediately after his consecration. St Hugh hurried off to his diocese, but he was appalled by the state of his flock. The gravest sins were committed without shame; simony and usury were rampant; the clergy openly flouted the obligation to celibacy; the people were uninstructed; laymen had seized church property and the see was almost penniless. It was indeed a herculean task that lay before the saint.
  For two years he laboured unremittingly to redress abuses by preaching, by denunciations, by rigorous fasts and by constant prayer. The excellent results he was obtaining were patent to all but to himself: he only saw his failures and blamed his own incompetence. Discouraged, he quietly withdrew to the Cluniac abbey of Chaise-Dieu, where he received the Benedictine habit. He did not remain there long, for Pope Gregory commanded him to resume his pastoral charge and return to Grenoble.
A short time before his death he lost his memory for everything but prayer, and would recite the psalter or the Lord’s Prayer without intermission.
During his 52-year episcopacy, Hugh vainly tendered his resignation to each pope--Gregory VII, Gelasius II, Calixtus II, Honorius II, Innocent II, and others--and they refused him because of his outstanding ability. He never ceased imploring them to release him from the duties of his episcopal office up to the day of his death. During his last, painful illness he was tormented by headaches and stomach disorders that resulted from his long fasts and vigils, yet never complained.
St Hugh died on April 1, 1132, two months before attaining the age of eighty, having been a bishop for fifty-two years.  Pope Innocent II canonized him two years later.
1194 Hugh of Bonnevaux possessed singular powers of discernment and exorcism OSB Cistercian, Abbot (AC).
The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.”
IN one of his letters St Bernard of Clairvaux mentions with great praise a novice called Hugh, who had renounced considerable riches and entered the abbey of Mézières at a very early age against the wishes of his relations. He was nephew to St Hugh of Grenoble. Once, when greatly troubled by temptations and longings to return to the world, he entered a church to pray for light and help. As he raised his eyes to the altar, he beheld above it a figure which he recognized to be that of our Lady, and then, beside her, appeared the form of her divine Son. The Mother of Mercy, with a look of great kindness, addressed him, saying, “Bear yourself like a man and let your heart be comforted in the Lord; rest assured that you will be troubled no more by these temptations.” Hugh afterwards gave himself up to such severe penances that his health broke down and he seemed to be losing his memory. He owed his recovery to the wise common-sense of St Bernard, who ordered him off to the infirmary with instructions that he should be properly tended and allowed to speak to anyone he liked.

Not long afterwards he was made abbot of Bonnevaux, and in Hugh’s care the abbey became very flourishing. It was noted that the abbot could read men’s thoughts and was quick to detect any evil spirit which had access to the minds of his brethren. The stories that have come down to us testify to his powers of divination and exorcism. Like so many of the great monastic luminaries, both men and women, Hugh did not confine his interests to his own house or even to his order. Moved by what he felt to be divine inspiration he went to Venice in 1177, there to act as mediator between Pope Alexander III and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. To him is due the credit of negotiating between them a peace which has become historic. St Hugh died in 1194, and his ancient cultus was approved in 1907.
1220 Jacqueline V Hermit recluse in Sicily reprimanded Pope Innocent III
1245 ST GILBERT, BISHOP OF CAITHNESS “Three maxims which I have always tried to observe I now commend to you: first, never to hurt anyone and, if injured, never to seek revenge secondly, to bear patiently whatever suffering God may inflict, remembering that He chastises every son whom He receives; and finally to obey those in authority so as not to be a stumbling-block to others.”
1849 BD LUDOVIC PAVONI, FOUNDER OF THE SONS OF MARY IMMACULATE OF BRESCIA.  THIS forerunner of St John Bosco in the education and care of boys, especially the orphaned and neglected, was born at Brescia in Lombardy in 1784. His parents were Alexander Pavoni and Lelia Pontecarali, and the family was of noble descent, with a sufficiency of property to maintain its position. Ludovic while still young showed a serious disposition; his sister Paolina said of him that “Ludovic was always a good religious youngster, while I was always a scamp”; and as a youth he already outlined his vocation when, during summer holidays at Alfianello, he played with the peasants’ children and taught them the catechism. On another occasion he threw his shirt out of the window to a beggar shivering in the street below. He had a taste and some capacity for the fine arts and might have become a painter or an architect, but probably nobody was surprised when he decided to study for the priesthood. This he did under the Dominicans (all the Lombard seminaries were closed in consequence of the revolution), and he was ordained priest in 1807.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 02
 469 St. Abundius Greek priest bishop noted theologian obvious intellect and holiness attended Councils of Chalcedon and Milan.   He became the bishop of Como, Italy, and attended the Council of Constantinople in 450. As a result of his obvious intellect and holiness, he was sent by Pope St. Leo I the Great to the Emperor Theodosius II as an envoy of the Holy See. His mission led to the and to the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Council of Milan in 452. Abundius served as the pope's representative in such councils, clearly stating the Church's role and concerns.
6th v. St. Musa Virgin child of Rome; a great mystic, visions and ecstasies, reported by St. Gregory I the Great

 952 Anba Macarius, the Fifty-Ninth Pope of Alexandria; The Departure of.  On this day also of the year 668 A.M. (May 20th. 952 A.D.) St. Macarius the fifty ninth Pope of Alexandria, departed. He was born in the city of Shoubra. He rejected the world since his youth and he desired the monastic life. He went to the monastery of St. Macarius at the wilderness of Sheahat (Scetis). He lived in virtues and good conduct made him worthy to be chosen a Patriarch, and a successor for Pope Cosma. He was enthroned on the first of Baramouda 648 A.M. (March 27th. 932 A.D.).

When he went forth from Alexandria going to visit the monasteries in the desert of Scetis according to the custom of his predecessors, he passed by his home town to visit his mother who was a righteous woman. When his mother heard that he had arrived she did not go out to meet him. When he had come to the house, he found her sitting down weaving and she did not greet him or paid attention to him. He thought that she did not know him. He told her: "Don't you know that I am your son Macarius who was elevated to a great position and became a head for a great nation?" She answered him with tears in her eyes: "I did not ignore you and I know what became of you, but I would have rather seen you dead than seen you as a Patriarch. Before, you were responsible only for your own soul but now your are responsible about the souls of all your flock: Now remember you are in danger and it is difficult to escape it." She said that and went on weaving as she did before.

The father the Patriarch left her sad, and attended to his office with delegant and care. He instructed his people with preaching and sermons. He did not touch any of the church revenue, and did not lay his hand on any one without people consent. He commanded the bishops and the priests to watch their flock and to protect them with homilies and admonitions. He sat on the throne of St. Mark twenty years in peace and tranquility, then departed in peace.
May his prayers be with us and Glory be to God forever. Amen

At Tours in France, St. Francis of Paula, founder of the Order of Minims.  Because he was renowned for virtues and miracles, he was inscribed among the saints by Pope Leo X.   ST FRANCIS was born about the year 1416 at Paola, a small town in Calabria. His parents were humble, industrious people who made it their chief aim to love and to serve God. As they were still childless after several years of married life, they prayed earnestly for a son, and when at last a boy was born to them, they named him after St Francis of Assisi, whose intercession they had specially sought.

In his thirteenth year he was placed in the Franciscan friary at San Marco, where he learnt to read and where he laid the foundation of the austere life which he ever afterwards led; although he had not professed the rule of the order, he seemed even at that tender age to outstrip the religious themselves in a scrupulous observance of its requirements. After spending a year there he accompanied his parents on a pilgrimage which included Assisi and Rome. Upon his return to Paola, with their consent, he retired first to a place about half a mile from the town, and afterwards to a more remote seclusion by the sea, where he occupied a cave. He was scarcely fifteen years old. Before he was twenty, he was joined by two other men. The neighbours built them three cells and a chapel in which they sang the divine praises and in which Mass was offered for them by a priest from the nearest church.

Besides the gift of miracles St Francis was endowed with that of prophecy, and long afterwards, writing to Pope Leo X for the canonization of St Francis, the Bishop of Grenoble (uncle to Bayard, the “Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche”) wrote, “Most holy Father, he revealed to me many things which were known only to God and to myself”. Pope Paul II sent one of his chamberlains into Calabria to inquire about the truth of the wonderful things that were reported of the saint. Upon seeing a visitor approach, St Francis, who was busy with the masons over the construction of his church, left his work to greet him. The envoy attempted to kiss his hand, but this Francis would not allow; he protested that it was for him to kiss the hands which for some thirty years had been sanctified by offering the holy Sacrifice. The chamberlain, surprised that Francis should know how long he, a stranger, had been a priest, did not disclose his mission, but asked to speak with him and was led within the enclosure. Here he expatiated eloquently on the dangers of singularity, and censured Francis’s way of life as too austere for human nature. The saint attempted humbly to vindicate his rule and then, to prove what the grace of God would enable single-minded men to bear, he lifted out of the fire some burning coals and held them for some time in his hands unscathed. It may be noted that there is record of several similar examples of his immunity from the effects of fire. The chamberlain returned full of veneration for the holy man, and the new order received the sanction of the Holy See in 1474. At that time the community was composed of uneducated men, with only one priest. They were then called Hermits of St Francis of Assisi, and it was not until 1492 that their name was changed to that of “Minims”, at the desire of the founder, who wished his followers to be reckoned as the least (minimi) in the household of God.
St Francis passed twenty-five years in France, and died there. On Palm Sunday 1507 he fell ill, and on Maundy Thursday assembled his brethren and exhorted them to the love of God, to charity and to a strict observance of all the duties of their rule. Then he received viaticum barefoot with a rope round his neck, according to the custom of his order. He died on the following day, Good Friday, being then ninety-one years of age. His canonization took place in 1519.  Besides the rule which St Francis drew up for his friars, with a correctorium or method of enjoining penances and a ceremonial, he also composed a rule for nuns, and regulations for a third order of persons living in the world. Today the number of members of the Order of Minims is considerably reduced they are mostly found in Italy.
1815 BD LEOPOLD OF GAICHE founded house for missioners and preachers could retire for their annual retreat other brethren and friends of the order could come for spiritual refreshment; numerous miracles reported at his grave.   When in 1808 Napoleon invaded Rome and imprisoned Pope Pius VII, religious houses were suppressed and their occupants turned out. Bd Leopold, a venerable old man of seventy-seven, was obliged to abandon his beloved convent, and with three of his brethren to live in a miserable hut in Spoleto. While there he acted as assistant to a parish priest, but afterwards he had charge of an entire parish whose pastor had been driven out by the French. Then he was himself imprisoned for refusing to take an oath which he considered unlawful. His imprisonment, however, was of short duration, for we soon find him giving missions once more. His fame was enhanced by his prophetical powers and by strange phenomena which attended him: for example, when he was preaching his head often appeared to his congregation as though it were crowned with thorns.
With the fall of Napoleon, Bd Leopold hurried back to Monte Luco, where he set about trying to establish things as they had been before but he only survived for a few months, dying on April 15, 1815, in his eighty-third year. The numerous miracles reported to have taken place at his grave caused the speedy introduction of the process of his beatification, which reached a favourable conclusion in 1893.

1839 St. Dominic Tuoc 3rd order Dominican martyr native of Vietnam.  Arrested and tortured, he died in prison. Dominic was a native of Vietnam. He was canonized in 1988.  Blessed Dominic Tuoc M, OP Tert. (AC) Born in Tonkin; died 1839; beatified in 1900. Saint Dominic was a priest of the third order of Dominicans, who died of his wounds in prison (Benedictines).
1968 The Apparition of the Pure Lady the Virgin in the church of Zeiton.  On the eve of this day of the year 1684 A.M. which coincide with tuesday the 2nd. of April 1968 A.D., during the papacy of Pope Kyrellos VI, the hundred sixteenth Pope of Alexandria, our Lady and the pride of our faith started to transfigure in luminous spiritual forms in and around the domes of the church dedicated to her immaculate name in Zeiton, a suburb of Cairo.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 03
127 Sixtus I, Pope survived as pope for about 10 years before being killed by the Roman authorities
Tauroménii, in Sicília, sancti Pancrátii Epíscopi
.  At Rome, the birthday of blessed Pope Sixtus the First, martyr, who ruled the Church with distinction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, and finally in the reign of Antoninus Pius he gladly accepted temporal death in order to gain Christ for himself.  (also known as Xystus)  ST XYSTUS I succeeded Pope St Alexander I about the end of the reign of Trajan, and governed the Church for some ten years at a period when the papal dignity was the common prelude to martyrdom. In all the old martyrologies he is honoured as a martyr, but we have no particulars about his life or death. He was by birth a Roman, his father’s house in the ancient Via Lata having occupied, it is supposed, the site now covered by the church of St Mary-in-Broad-Street. The Liber Pontificalis credits him with having laid down as ordinances that none but the clergy should touch the sacred vessels, and that the people should join in when the priest had intoned the Sanctus at Mass. The Sixtus mentioned in the canon of the Mass was probably not this pope but St Sixtus II, whose martyrdom was more widely famous.
1253 St. Richard of Wyche Ph.D. Priest missionary bishop denounced nepotism, insisted on strict clerical discipline, ever generous to poor and needy Many miracles healing recorded during  lifetime more after death. Richard was deep in the hearts of his people, the sort of saint that anyone can recognize by his simplicity, holiness, and endless charity to the poorRichard Backedine B (RM) (also known as Richard of Wyche, of Droitwich, of Chichester, of Burford)
Born at Droitwich (formerly called Wyche), Worchestershire, England, in 1197; died at Dover, England, 1253; canonized 1262 (Urban IV 1261-64 ).
 
  In 1244 Ralph Neville, bishop of Chichester, died, and Henry III, by putting pressure on the canons, obtained the election of Robert Passelewe, a worthless man who, according to Matthew Paris, “had obtained the king’s favour in a wonderful degree by an unjust inquisition by which he added some thousands of marks to the royal treasury.”
The archbishop refused to confirm the election and called a chapter of his suffragans who declared the previous election invalid, and chose Richard, the primate’s nominee, to fill the vacant see. Upon hearing the news, King Henry was violently enraged: he kept in his own hands all the temporalities and forbade the admission of St Richard to any barony or secular possession attached to his see. In vain did the bishop elect himself approach the monarch on two separate occasions: he could obtain neither the confirmation of his election nor the restoration of the revenues to which he was entitled. At last both he and the king carried the case to Pope Innocent IV, who was presiding over the Council of Lyons, and he decided in favour of St Richard, whom he consecrated himself on March 5, 1245.
Landing once more in England the new bishop was met by the news that the king, far from giving up the temporalities, had forbidden anyone to lend St Richard money or even to give him houseroom. At Chichester he found the palace gates closed against him: those who would gladly have helped him feared the sovereign’s anger, and it seemed as though he would have to wander about his diocese a homeless outcast. However, a good priest, Simon of Tarring, opened his house to him, and Richard, as Bocking informs us, “took shelter under this hospitable roof, sharing the meals of a stranger, warming his feet at another man’s hearth”.

"Thanks be to Thee, my Lord Jesus Christ For all the benefits Thou hast given me, For all the pains and insults Which Thou has borne for me.  O most merciful Redeemer, Friend, and Brother, May I know Thee more clearly, Love Thee more dearly, Follow Thee more nearly, Day by day. Amen." --Saint Richard of Chichester.
1271 Blessed John of Penna priest founding several Franciscan houses  visions gift of prophecywon all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light OFM (AC) .   Born at Penna San Giovanni (near Fermo), Ancona, Italy, c. 1193; died at Recanati, Italy, April 3, 1271; cultus approved 1806 by Pope Pius VII. Blessed John joined the Franciscans at Recanati about 1213, was ordained a priest, and was sent to France, where he worked for about 25 years in Provence, founding several Franciscan houses. About 1242, he returned to Italy, where he spent his last 30 years mainly in retirement, although he did serve as guardian several times. He experienced visions and had the gift of prophecy, but was also afflicted with extended periods of spiritual aridity. His life is described in chapter 45 of The Little Flowers of Saint Francis (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney).  

1271 BD JOHN OF PENNA won all hearts by his exemplary life as well as by his kindly and courteous manners; aridity and a painful lingering illness; spiritual consolations  assurance that he accomplished his purgatory on earth his cell was illuminated with a celestial light

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States incorrupt.   St. Benedict of San Philadelphio (Or BENEDICT THE MOOR) Born at San Philadelphio or San Fradello, a village of the Diocese of Messina in Sicily, in 1526; d. 4 April, 1589. The parents of St. Benedict were slaves from Ethiopia who were, nevertheless, pious Christians. On account of their faithfulness their master freed Benedict, the first-born child. From his earliest years Benedict was very religious and while still very young he joined a newly formed association of hermits. When Pope Pius IV dissolved the association, Benedict, called from his origin Æthiops or Niger, entered the Reformed Recollects of the Franciscan Order. Owing to his virtues he was made superior of the monastery of Santa Maria de Jesus at Palermo three years after his entrance, although he was only a lay brother. He reformed the monastery and ruled it with great success until his death. He was pronounced Blessed in 1743 and was canonized in 1807. His feast is celebrated 3 April.






Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 04
Thus there began to develop a special bond between this Mother and the Church.
For the infant Church was the fruit of the Cross and Resurrection of her Son.
Mary, who from the beginning had given herself without reserve to the person and work of her Son, could not but pour out upon the Church, from the very beginning, her maternal self-giving. After her Son's departure, her motherhood remains in the Church as maternal mediation: interceding for all her children, the Mother cooperates in the saving work of her Son, the Redeemer of the world.   Holy Father John Paul II    Redemptoris Mater #40

The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin  April 4 - Our Lady of Seven Sorrows (1897) - Francisco of Fatima (d. 1919)
1. The prophecy of Simeon. (Lk 2: 34, 35) 2. The flight into Egypt. (Mt 2:13-14) 3. The loss of the Child Jesus in the temple. (Lk 3: 43-45)  4. The meeting of Jesus and Mary on the Way of the Cross.  5. The Crucifixion.  6. The taking down of the Body of Jesus from the Cross.  7. The burial of Jesus.
"And Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary his mother: 'Behold this child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be contradicted; and thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed" (Lk 2: 34-35).

 636 St. Isidore of Seville Doctor of the Church In a unique move, he made sure that all branches of knowledge including the arts and medicine were taught in the seminaries. At Seville in Spain, St. Isidore, bishop, confessor, and doctor of the Church.  He was conspicuous for sanctity and learning, and had brightened all Spain by his zeal for the Catholic faith and his observance of Church discipline.  Isidore of Seville B, Doctor (RM) Born at Cartagena, Spain, c. 560; died in Seville, Spain, in April 4, 636; canonized by Pope Clement VIII in 1598; and declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Innocent XIII in 1722. Saint Isidore was born into a noble Hispano-Roman family, which also produced SS. Leander, Fulgentius, and Florentina. Their father was Severian, a Roman from Cartagena, who was closely connected to the Visigothic kings. Though Isidore became one of the most erudite men of his age, as a boy he hated his studies, perhaps because his elder brother, Saint Leander, who taught him, was a strict task master.
The more we are afflicted in this world, the greater is our assurance in the next;
the more we sorrow in the present, the greater will be our joy in the future.
- St. Isidore of Seville
 863 Saint Joseph the Hymnographer, "the sweet-voiced nightingale of the Church,".  At that time the Roman bishops were in communion with the Eastern Church, and Pope Leo III, who was not under the dominion of the Byzantine Emperor, was able to render great help to the Orthodox. The Orthodox monks chose St Joseph as a steadfast and eloquent messenger to the Pope. St Gregory blessed him to journey to Rome and to report on the plight of the Church of Constantinople, the atrocities of the iconoclasts, and the dangers threatening Orthodoxy. 

Born in Sicily in 816 into a pious Christian family. His parents, Plotinos and Agatha, moved to the Peloponnesos to save themselves from barbarian invasions. When he was fifteen, St Joseph went to Thessalonica and entered the monastery of Latomos. He was distinguished by his piety, his love for work, his meekness, and he gained the good will of all the brethren of the monastery. He was later ordained as a priest.

1589 St. Bendict the Black Franciscan lay brother superior obscure and humble cook holiness reputation for miracles patron of African-Americans in the United States.   1589 ST BENEDICT THE BLACK His face when he was in chapel often shone with an unearthly light, and food seemed to multiply miraculously under his hands; reputation for sanctity and miracles;   Beatified 15 May 1743 by Pope Benedict XIV
Canonized 24 May 1807 by Pope Pius VIII

  BENEDICT was born in a village near Messina in Sicily. His parents were good Christians, but African slaves of a rich landowner whose name (Manasseri) they bore, according to the prevalent custom. Christopher’s master had made him foreman over his other servants and had promised that his eldest son, Benedict, should be free. The baby grew up such a sweet-tempered, devout child that when he was only ten years old he was called “The Holy Black” (Ii moro santo), a nickname which clung to him all his life. One day, when he was about twenty-one, he was grossly insulted by some neighbours, who taunted him with his colour and the status of his parents. There happened to be passing at the time a young man called Lanzi, who had retired from the world with a few companions to live the life of a hermit in imitation of St Francis of Assisi. He was greatly impressed by the gentleness of Benedict’s replies and, addressing the mockers, he said, “You make fun of this poor black man now; but I can tell you that ere long you will hear great things of him”. Soon afterwards, at Lanzi’s invitation, Benedict sold his few possessions and went to join the solitaries.
1726 The Departure of Pope Peter VI, the One Hundred and Fourth Pope of Alexandria.  On this day also the church commemorates the departure of Pope Peter VI (Petros), the one hundred and fourth Patriarch in the year 1442 A.M. (April 2nd., 1726 A.D.). This blessed father and spiritual angel was the son of pure and Christian parents from the city of Assiut. They raised him well, educated him with ecclesiastic subjects and manners and he excelled in them. His name was Mourgan, but later on he became known by the name Peter El-Assuity. The grace of God was on him since his young age, and when he came to the age of maturity, he forsook the world and what in it, and longed to the monastic life. He went to the monastery of the great St. Antonios in the mount of El-Arabah, he dwelt there, became a monk and put on the monastic garb. He exerted himself in worship, and when he achieved the ascetic life, purity, righteousness, and humility, the fathers the monks chose him to be a priest. They took him against his will to Cairo, and he was ordained a priest, for the monastery of the great Saint Anba Paula the first hermit, among others, by the hand of Pope Yoannis El-Toukhy (103), in the church of the Lady the Virgin in Haret El-Roum. He increased in virtues and he became well known among the people.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 05
 647 Ethelburga of Lyminge founded an abbey at Lyminge abbess.  ST ETHELBURGA was the daughter of St Augustine’s convert, King Ethelbert of Kent and of his wife Bertha. Ethelburga, also called Tata, was given in marriage to Edwin, the pagan king of Northumbria, and St Paulinus, one of St Augustine’s companions, accompanied her as chaplain. Although Edwin was well affected towards Christianity, he hesitated so long before accepting the faith that Pope Boniface V wrote expressly to Ethelburga, urging her to do her utmost to bring about his conversion. But it was not until 627 that Edwin himself received baptism. During the rest of his reign, Christianity made progress throughout Northumbria, encouraged as it was by the royal couple, but when Edwin had been killed at Hatfield Chase, his pagan adversaries overran the land. The queen and St Paulinus found themselves obliged to return to Kent where Ethelburga founded the abbey of Lyminge, which she ruled until her death.
1095 Saint Gerald of Sauve-Majeure monk cellarer of abbey Corbie; founded, directed, Benedictine Abbey of Grande -Sauveabbot  author of a hagiology.  Feeling that all he could do for God was to minister to others, he undertook, in honour of the Holy Trinity, the care of three poor men whom he looked after. His abbot chose him as companion to go with him to Rome, where he hoped the sufferer might be cured. Together they visited the tombs of the Apostles, and at the hands of St Leo IX Gerald was ordained priest. But from time to time the terrible headaches recurred, until one day when—at the intercession, he was convinced, of St Adelard, whose life he had written— the pains left him as suddenly as they had come, never to trouble him again. After this, in thanksgiving he redoubled his prayers and mortifications. In a vision he beheld our Lord come down from the crucifix towards him, he felt Him place His hand on his head, and heard Him say, “Son, be comforted in the Lord and in the power of His might”. A pilgrimage to Jerusalem was another source of inspiration and consolation.
1258 Blessed Juliana of Mount Cornillon visions in which Jesus pointed out that there was no feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament OSA V (AC).  The years passed and Juliana became a nun at Mount Cornillon; but she was unknown, without influence and in no position to do anything in the matter of the desired feast. Then in 1225 she was elected prioress and began to speak about what she felt to be her mission to some of her friends, notably to Bd Eva, a recluse who lived beside St Martin’s church on the opposite bank of the river, and to a saintly woman, Isabel of Huy, whom she had received into her community. Encouraged no doubt by the support of these two, she opened her heart to a learned canon of St Martin’s, John of Lausanne, asking him to consult theologians as to the propriety of such a feast. James Pantaleon (afterwards Pope Urban IV), Hugh of St Cher, the Dominican prior provincial, Bishop Guy of Cambrai, chancellor of the University of Paris, with other learned men, were approached, and decided that there was no theological or canonical objection to the institution of a festival in honour of the Blessed Sacrament.
Juliana’s great mission was carried on and completed by her old friend Eva, the recluse of St Martin’s. After the elevation to the papacy of Urban IV, who as James Pantaleon had been one of Juliana’s earliest supporters, Eva, through the bishop of Liege, begged him to sanction the new feast of the Blessed Sacrament. He did so; and afterwards, in recognition of the part she had taken, he sent her his bull of authorization together with the beautiful office for Corpus Christi which St Thomas Aquinas had composed at his desire. The bull was confirmed in 1312 by the Council of Vienne under Pope Clement V, and the celebration of the feast of Corpus Christi has from that time become of universal obligation throughout the Western church, and most Catholics of the Eastern rite have adopted it too. The observance of a feast in honour of Bd Juliana was allowed by the Holy See in 1869.

1574 St. Catherine Thomas Orphan strange phenomena mystical experiences visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine gifts of visions and prophecy In the monastery at Palma, in the diocese of Majorca, the birthday of St. Catherine Thomas, Canoness Regular of the Order of St. Augustine, whom Pope Pius XI, in the fiftieth year of his priesthood, placed among the number of virgin saints.  Felt a call to the religious life at age 15, but her confessor convinced her to wait a little. Domestic servant in Palma where she learned to read and write. Joined the Canonesses of Saint Augustine at Saint Mary Magdalen convent at Palma. Subjected to many strange phenomena and mystical experiences including visits from angels, Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Catherine. Had the gifts of visions and prophecy. Assaulted spiritually and physically by dark powers, she sometimes went into ecstatic trances for days at a time; her wounds from this abuse were treated by Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian. During her last years she was almost continually in ecstasy. Foretold the date of her death. Born 1 May 1533 at Valldemossa, Mallorca, Spain Died    5 April 1574 at Saint Mary Magdalen convent, Palma, Spain of natural causes
1419 St. Vincent Ferrer Patron of Builders Dominican at 19 simply "going through the world preaching Christ,"
 eloquent and fiery preacher St Vincent declared himself to be the angel of the Judgement foretold by St John (Apoc. xiv 6). As some of his hearers began to protest, he summoned the bearers who were carrying a dead woman to her burial and adjured the corpse to testify to the truth of his words. The body was seen to revive for a moment to give the confirmation required, and then to close its eyes once more in death. It is almost unnecessary to add that the saint laid no claim to the nature of a celestial being, but only to the angelic office of a messenger or herald—believing, as he did, that he was the instrument chosen by God to announce the impending end of the world.
In 1405 St Vincent was in Genoa, from whence he reached a port from which he could sail for Flanders. Amongst other reforms he induced the Ligurian ladies to modify their fantastic head-dress—“the greatest of all his marvellous deeds”, as one of his biographers avers. In the Netherlands he wrought so many miracles that an hour was set apart every day for the healing of the sick. It has also been supposed that he visited England, Scotland and Ireland, but of this there is no shadow of proof. Although we know from the saint himself that beyond his native language he had learnt only some Latin and a little Hebrew, yet he would seem to have possessed the gift of tongues, for we have it on the authority of reliable writers that all his hearers, French, Germans, Italians and the rest, understood every word he spoke, and that his voice carried so well that it could be clearly heard at enormous distances. It is impossible here to follow him in all his wanderings. In fact he pursued no definite order, but visited and revisited places as the spirit moved him or as he was requested. In 1407 he returned to Spain. That terrible scandal had begun in 1378 when, upon the death of Gregory XI, sixteen of the twenty-three cardinals had hastily elected Urban VI in deference to the popular cry for an Italian pope. Under the plea that they had been terrorized, they then, with the other cardinals, held a conclave at which they elected Cardinal Robert of Geneva, a Frenchman. He took the name of Clement VII and ruled at Avignon, whilst Urban reigned in Rome. St Vincent Ferrer, who had been amongst those who recognized Clement, naturally upon his death accepted as pope his successor, Peter de Luna or Benedict XIII as he was called, who summoned the Dominican to his side. [* Because of their anomalous position this Clement VII and Benedict XIII are not referred to as antipopes but as “called popes in their obedience”.]
1744 Blessed Crescentia Höss, OFM Tert. blessed by celestial visions V (AC).   Her life for the next few years was to be one of humiliations and persecution, for the superioress and the older nuns could not forget that she had come to them penniless. They taunted her with being a beggar, gave her the most disagreeable work, and then called her a hypocrite. At first she had a little cell, but that was taken away to be given to a novice who had brought money. For three years she had to beg first one sister and then another to allow her to sleep on the floor of her cell: then she was allowed a damp dark little corner of her own. Taking all humiliations as her due, Crescentia refused the sympathy of some of the younger nuns when they exclaimed at the treatment meted out to her. In time, however, another superioress was appointed, who had more charity and discrimination. In time the nuns recognized that they had a saint amongst them and eventually chose her as novice mistress and finally as superioress. She had many visions and ecstasies, besides a mystical experience of the sufferings of our Lord which lasted every Friday from nine until three, culminating often in complete unconsciousness. On the other hand she suffered greatly from the assaults of the powers of evil.
Unkindly criticism of others Crescentia always repressed, invariably defending the absent. Stern to herself, she yet said to her daughters, “The practices most pleasing to God are those which He himself imposes—to bear meekly and patiently the adversities which He sends or which our neighbours inflict on us”. Gradually her influence spread beyond the walls of her convent, and people who came to consult her went away impressed by her wisdom and spoke of her to others: leaders in church and state visited the weaver’s daughter or corresponded with her, and to this day her tomb is visited by pilgrims. Pope Leo XIII beatified her in 1900.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 06
432 Celestine I Pope treatise against semi-Pelagianism
Born in Campania, Italy; died at Rome, July 27, 432; feast day formerly on July 27 and/or August 1. Saint Celestine was a deacon in Rome when he was elected pope on September 20, 422, to succeed Saint Boniface. He was a staunch supporter of Saint Germanus of Auxerre in the fight against Pelagianism, and a friend of Saint Augustine with whom he corresponded, and which demonstrates that the bishop of Rome was the central authority even at that early date.
Benedict_XVI_Patriarch_Bartholomew
582 Eutychius of Constantinople worked many miracles; healings; opposed Justinian's interference; vigorously denounced Aphthartodocetism [asartodoketai] or "imperishability" which taught that the flesh of Christ, before His death on the Cross and Resurrection, was imperishable and not capable of suffering.  ALTHOUGH the name of this Eutychius is not commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, and although his career belongs more to church history than to hagiography, still he has always been honoured as a saint among the Greeks (and at Venice, which claims his relics), and he set a noble example of resistance to the Emperor Justinian’s pretensions to figure as arbiter in theological matters. Thus, through his prayer the wife of a devout man, Androgenes, who had given birth only to dead infants, now gave birth to two sons who lived to maturity. Two deaf-mutes received the gift of speech; and two grievously ill children were restored to health. The saint healed a cancerous ulcer on the hand of an artist. The saint also healed another artist, anointing his diseased hand with oil and making over it the Sign of the Cross.
The saint healed not only bodily, but also spiritual afflictions: he banished the devil out of a girl that had kept her from Holy Communion; he expelled a demon from a youth who had fled from a monastery (after which the youth returned to his monastery); he healed a drunken leper, who stopped drinking after being cleansed of his leprosy.
During the Persian invasion of Amasea and its widespread devastation, they distributed grain to the hungry from the monastery granaries on the saint's orders, and by his prayers, the stores of grain at the monastery were not depleted.
St Eutychius received from God the gift of prophecy. He revealed the names of two of Emperor Justinian's successors: Justin (565-578) and Tiberias (578-582).
885 Saint Methodius, Archbishop of Moravia Life found May 11, when commemorated with Cyril, Teacher of Slavs. In Moravia, the birthday of St. Methodius, bishop and confessor.  Together with his brother, the bishop St. Cyril, whose birthday was the 14th of February, he converted many of the Slav races and their rulers to the faith of Christ.  Their feast is celebrated on the 7th day of July. 
These brothers, natives of Thessalonika, are venerated as the apostles of the Southern Slavs and the fathers of Slavonic literary culture.      The characters now called "cyrillic ", from which are derived the present Russian, Serbian and Bulgarian letters, were invented from the Greek capitals, perhaps by the followers of St Cyril ; the" glagolitic " alphabet, formerly wrongly attributed to St Jerome, in which the Slav-Roman liturgical books of certain Yugoslav Catholics are printed, may be that prepared for this occasion by Cyril himself, or, according to the legend, directly revealed by God.* {* Like so much to do with these brothers, the history of these alphabets is a matter of debate.  The southern Slavonic of SS. Cyril and Methodius is to this day the liturgical language of the Russians, Ukrainians, Serbs and Bulgars, whether Orthodox or Catholic.}

  In 863 the two brothers set out with a number of assistants and came to the court of Rostislav; they were well received and at once got to work.  The position was very difficult. The new missionaries made free use of the vernacular in their preaching and ministrations, and this made immediate appeal to the local people. To the German clergy this was objectionable, and their opposition was strengthened when the Emperor Louis the German forced Rostislav to take an oath of fealty to him.  The Byzantine missionaries, armed with their pericopes from the Scriptures and liturgical hymns in Slavonic, pursued their way with much success, but were soon handicapped by their lack of a bishop to ordain more priests.
The German prelate, the bishop of Passau, would not do it, and Cyril therefore determined to seek help elsewhere, presumably from Constantinople whence he came.

On their way the brothers arrived in Venice. It was at a bad moment. Photius at Constantinople had incurred excommunication; the East was under suspicion the proteges of the Eastern emperor and their liturgical use of a new tongue were vehemently criticized.  One source says that the pope, St Nicholas I, sent for the strangers.  In any case, to Rome they came, bringing with them the alleged relics of Pope St Clement, which St Cyril had recovered when in the Crimea on his way back from the Khazars.
Pope Nicholas in the meantime had died, but his successor, Adrian II, warmly welcomed the bearers of so great a gift.  He examined their cause, and he gave judgement: Cyril and Methodius were to receive episcopal consecration, their neophytes were to be ordained, the use of the liturgy in Slavonic was approved.  Although in the office of the Western church both brothers are referred to as bishops, it is far from certain that Cyril was in fact consecrated.  For while still in Rome he died, on February 14, 869.
1203 St. William of Eskilsoe reforming the canons life of prayer and austere mortification never approached the altar without watering it with his tears, offering himself to God in the spirit of adoration and sacrifice.   ON this day the Roman Martyrology mentions the death in Denmark of St William, “famous for his life and miracles”. He was born about 1125 at Saint-Germain, Crépy-en-Valois, and became a canon of the collegiate church of St Genevieve in Paris. In 1148 Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, carrying out the wishes of the pope, Bd Eugenius III, established canons regular in this church, and William was one of those who accepted a more austere and regular life with enthusiasm.
Peter was born at Verona, Italy, in 1205. Both of his parents were Catharists, a heresy that denied God created the material world. Even so, Peter was educated at a Catholic school and later at the University of Bologna. While in Bologna, Peter was accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic. He developed into a great preacher, and was well known for his inspiring sermons in the Lombardy region. In addition, around the year 1234, he was appointed by Pope Gregory IX as inquisitor of Northern Italy, where many Catharists lived. Peter's preaching attracted large crowds, but as inquisitor he made many enemies.

1252 St. Peter of Verona inquisitor inspiring sermons martyr accepted into the Dominican Order by St. Dominic
Medioláni pássio sancti Petri, ex Ordine Prædicatórum, Mártyris, qui ab hæréticis, ob fidem cathólicam, interémptus est.  Ipsíus tamen festívitas recólitur tértio Kaléndas Maji.
       At Milan, the passion of St. Peter, a martyr belonging to the Order of Preachers, who was slain by the heretics for his Catholic faith.  His feast, however, is kept on the 29th of April.
 1252  St Peter Of Verona, Martyr; Having received the habit from St Dominic himself;  Once, as he knelt before the crucifix, he exclaimed, “Lord, thou knowest that I am not guilty. Why dost thou permit me to be falsely accused?” The reply came, “And I, Peter, what did I do to deserve my passion and death?” Rebuked yet consoled, the friar regained courage.

St Peter Martyr was born at Verona in 1205 of parents who belonged to the sect of the Cathari, a heresy which closely resembled that of the Albigenses and included amongst its tenets a denial that the material world had been created by God. The child was sent to a Catholic school, in spite of the remon­strances of an uncle who discovered by questioning the little boy that he had not only learnt the Apostles’ Creed, but was prepared stoutly to maintain in the orthodox sense the article “Creator of Heaven and earth”.

1744 St. Crescentia Hoess, humble, crippled; wise enough to balance worldly skills with acumen in spiritual matters; heads of State and Church both sought her advice.  Conditions improved four years later when a new superior was elected who realized her virtue. Crescentia herself was appointed mistress of novices. She so won the love and respect of the sisters that, upon the death of the superior, Crescentia herself was unanimously elected to that position. Under her the financial state of the convent improved and her reputation in spiritual matters spread. She was soon being consulted by princes and princesses as well as by bishops and cardinals seeking her advice. And yet, a true daughter of Francis, she remained ever humble.

Bodily afflictions and pain were always with her. First it was headaches and toothaches. Then she lost the ability to walk, her hands and feet gradually becoming so crippled that her body curled up into a fetal position. In the spirit of Francis she cried out, "Oh, you bodily members, praise God that he has given you the capacity to suffer." Despite her sufferings she was filled with peace and joy as she died on Easter Sunday in 1744.
She was beatified in 1900 and canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2001.  Comment:    Although she grew up in poverty and willingly embraced it in her vocation, Crescentia had a good head for business. Under her able administration, her convent regained financial stability. Too often we think of good money management as, at best, a less-than-holy gift. But Crescentia was wise enough to balance her worldly skills with such acumen in spiritual matters that heads of State and Church both sought her advice.
1857 St. Paul Tinh native Vietnamese priest martyr.   Born in Vietnam, he was converted to the Catholic faith and was ordained a priest. Seized by anti-Catholic forces, Paul was beheaded. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1988.
Blessed Paul Tinh M (AC) Born in Trinh-ha, Tonkin (Vietnam); died 1857; beatified in 1909. Paul became a priest and was beheaded at Son-tay in West Tonkin (Benedictines).

1896 Blessed Zefirino Agostini first priority to develop relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of joy and power to do good.   Born in Verona, Italy, September 24, 1813; died there on April 6, 1896; beatified October 24, 1998.
Blessed Zefirino was the elder son of the physician Antonio Agostini and his wife Angela Frattini. Upon the death of the pious Antonio, the two boys were raised by their mother with a gentleness and wisdom that left its mark on the souls of her children and led Zefirino to his priestly vocation. Following his ordination on March 11, 1837, at the hands of Bishop Grasser of Verona, Zefirino was assigned to the poor parish of Saint Nazarius, where he had been baptized on September 28, 1813. The first eight years he had responsibility for teaching the catechism and running the recreational program for boys. In 1845, he was named pastor. Although the parish was large and poor, Father Agostini never allowed his fatherly heart to be overcome by its problems. He knew that his first priority was to develop his relationship with God through personal prayer because God was the source of his joy and power to do good. God filled Father Agostini with apostolic zeal. He established an after-school program for girls and catechetical instruction for their mothers. To inspire women, he held up the ideal of Saint Angela Merici and celebrated her feast. Three young women followed that inspiration and devoted themselves to the neediest in the community.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 07
180 Saint Hegesippus Father of Church History Jewish convert {Eusebius drew heavily on his writings for  Ecclesiastical History (Book I  through  Book X)}.   IT is as the reputed Father of Church History that St Hegesippus is chiefly remembered to-day. By birth a Jew, and a member of the church of Jerusalem, he travelled to Rome, and there spent nearly twenty years, from the pontificate of St Anicetus to that of St Eleutherius.  At Rome, St. Hegesippus, who lived close to the time of the apostles.  He came to Rome while Anicetus was pope, and remained until the time of Eleutherius.  He wrote a history of the Church, from the Passion of our Lord to his own time, in a simple style, to make clear the character of those whose life he imitated.
In 277 he returned to the East, where he died in extreme old age, probably at Jerusalem. In the course of his travels, he seems to have visited the principal Christian centres in the West as well as in the East, and he noted with satisfaction that, although disturbances had been caused by individual heretics, hitherto no episcopal see or particular church had fallen into error:
everywhere he had found the unity of the faith as it had been delivered by our Lord to the saints. Unfortunately only a few chapters remain of the five books which he wrote on the history of the Church from the passion of our Lord down to his own time, but the work was highly esteemed by Eusebius and others, who drew largely upon it. He was a man filled with the spirit of the apostles and with a love of humility “which”, says St Jerome, “he expressed by the simplicity of his style”. St Hegesippus is named in the Roman Martyrology to-day.

345 Saint Aphraates Persian hermit  convert struggle against Arian heresy oldest extant Church document in Syria; miracles.  In Syria, in the time of Valens, St. Aphraates, an anchoret, who defended the Catholic faith against the Arians by the power of miracles.  Aphraates is sometimes identified as the bishop of the monastery of Mar Mattai, near Mosul Mesopotamia. Possibly a martyr, he is believed to have written a many-volumed defense of the faith called the Demonstrations, which is the oldest extant document of the Church in Syria. Aphraates is often referred to as "the Persian Sage."
According to the Bollandists, followed by Alban Butler, we owe our knowledge of the history of St Aphraates to Theodoret, who recalled how, as a boy, he had been taken by his mother to visit the saint and how Aphraates had opened his door to bless them, promising to intercede with God on their behalf. In his later years Theodoret continued to invoke that intercession, believing that it had become even more potent since the holy man had gone to God.
As the Arians had taken possession of their churches, the faithful were reduced to worshipping beside the river Orontes or in the large open space outside the city which was used for military exercises. One day, as St Aphraates was hurrying along the road which led from the city to this parade-ground, he was stopped by order of the emperor, who happened to be standing in the portico of his palace which overlooked the road. Valens inquired whither he was going: “To pray for the world and the emperor”, replied the recluse. The monarch then asked him how it happened that one dressed as a monk was gadding about far away from his cell. To this Aphraates answered with a parable: “If I were a maiden secluded in my father’s house, and saw it take fire, would you recommend me to sit still and let it burn? It is not I who am to blame, but rather you who have kindled the flames which I am striving to extinguish. We are doing nothing contrary to our profession when we gather together and nourish the adherents of the true faith.”
The emperor made no reply, but one of his servants reviled the venerable man, whom he threatened to kill. Shortly afterwards the same attendant was accidentally scalded to death, which so terrified the superstitious Valens that he refused to listen to the Arians when they tried to persuade him to banish St Aphraates. He was also greatly impressed by the miracles wrought by the hermit, who not only healed men and women but also—or at least so it was reported—cured the emperor’s favourite horse.

1078 Blessed Eberhard of Schaeffhausen protected and built convents OSB Monk (PC).   Born 1018; Pious prince Eberhard III, count of Nellenburg, was the husband of the pious Itta and a relative of both Pope Saint Leo IX and the emperor Saint Henry II.
Eberhard and Itta protected and built convents into which each was to retire later, including the Benedictine abbey of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, in 1050, where Eberhard retired (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

1140 St. Aibert Benedictine ascetic monk 23 years then recluse; two Masses each day, one for living, second for dead.   St Aybert’s holiness began to attract visitors, who found themselves greatly helped by his spiritual advice and made him known to others. Bishops and laymen, grand ladies and canonesses, scholars and humble peasants flocked to him in such numbers that Bishop Burchard of Cambrai promoted him to the priesthood, providing him with a chapel beside his cell. Moreover Pope Innocent II granted him leave to absolve reserved cases—a right which he only exercised in exceptional circumstances. God crowned Aybert’s long penance with a happy death in the eightieth year of his age.
One phase of Aybert’s devotional practice is of great interest in its bearing on the controversy concerning the origin of the rosary. It is recorded that the saint used to repeat the Ave Maria fifty times in succession, accompanying each Ave with a prostration. A mention in the same context of his habit of dividing his recitation of the whole psalter into fifties makes the allusion still more significant.

1241 St. Herman Joseph Praemonstratensian and mystic visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph  b. 1150 German. Born in Cologne, he demonstrated at an early age a tendency toward mystical experiences, episodes which made him well known and deeply respected through much of Germany. He subsequently entered the Praemonstratensians at Steinfeld, Germany, where he was ordained. Herman experienced visions of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, and authored a number of mystical writings. Long considered a saint, he was given an equivalent canonization by Pope Pius XII in 1958. AMONGST the German mystics of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, special interest attaches to Bd Herman Joseph, not so much for his writings as for his visions, which were later a source of inspiration even to poets and painters. Herman, to give him his baptismal name, was born in Cologne, and lived from his seventh year until his death in extreme old age apparently in continual intercourse with the denizens of Heaven. As a little boy he would enter a church and converse familiarly with our Lady and the Holy Child, as he knelt before their statue. Once, indeed, when he offered them an apple he had the joy of seeing the hand of the Madonna extended to accept it. Sometimes he was uplifted to another plane and permitted to play with the Infant Saviour and the angels; and on one bitter winter’s day when he came to church barefoot, his parents being very poor, a kindly voice, which he took to be that of the Mother of Mercy, bade him look under a stone near by and he would find money wherewith to buy shoes. He looked, and the coins were there.
At no time robust, Bd Herman Joseph’s health became seriously affected by his fasts and austerities. Severe headaches attacked him, and his digestion became so impaired that he ate nothing and seemed a living skeleton. However, God granted him a reprieve from suffering towards the end, prolonging his life for nine years, and this was the period of his chief literary output. He had been sent in 1241 to the Cistercian nuns at Hoven for Passiontide and Easter when he was taken ill with fever from which he never recovered. The process of Herman’s canonization was introduced but never completed; his cultus, however, has been authoritatively sanctioned.
1410 Bl. Ursulina mystic accustomed to visions and ecstasies tried to end the scandals of the "Babylonian Captivity".  A vision which was vouchsafed to her on Easter day decided her purpose. With two companions, besides her mother who accompanied her on all her subsequent travels, the girl made the toilsome journey over the Alps and succeeded in obtaining an audience with Clement more than once. Her efforts to persuade him proving fruitless, she went back to Parma, but almost immediately proceeded to Rome where she delivered a similar message to the true pope, Boniface IX. He received her graciously and appears to have encouraged her to make another attempt to win over his rival. Thereupon she undertook a second expedition to Avignon, with no better success than before. Indeed this time she was separated from her mother, was accused of sorcery, and narrowly escaped a trial. Another journey to Rome was followed by a somewhat perilous pilgrimage to the Holy Land. If she and her mother had hoped to settle down in Parma on their return they were doomed to disappointment, for civil war broke out in the city and they were expelled. They made their way to Bologna and then to Verona, which Bd Ursulina seems to have made her home until her death at the age of thirty-five.
1595 St. Henry Walpole Jesuit missionary 1/40 Martyrs of England and Wales
1595 Bl. Alexander Rawlins Martyr missionary fervent Catholicism

1595 BDs. ALEXANDER RAWLINS and HENRY WALPOLE, MARTYRS
beatified in 1929
ALEXANDER RAWLINS, secular priest, and Henry Walpole, Jesuit, who suffered martyrdom together in 1595, were men of good family, born, the one on the borders of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, and the other in Norfolk. Whereas Rawlins seems to have gone directly to the English College at Rheims to prepare to receive holy orders, Walpole, who was intended for the law, continued his education at Cambridge and then took chambers at Gray’s Inn. Realizing that he was becoming an object of suspicion to the authorities and feeling himself called to the priesthood, he proceeded to Rheims and then to Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus. After taking his final vows, he was sent on missions, first to Lorraine and then to the Netherlands, where he was captured by Calvinists and imprisoned for a year. Upon being liberated, he asked to be allowed to go to England, but he was sent to teach in English seminaries at Seville and Valladolid. After another mission to Flanders, the long-desired permission was accorded, and he set out for England, landing at Flamborough Head on December 4, 1593. Within twenty-four hours he was arrested and was taken prisoner to York.
1606 Bl. Edward Oldcorne Jesuit & Ralph Ashley Jesuit lay- brother English martyrs alleged involve Gunpowder Plot.  He was born in York, England, and ordained in Rome. In 1587, he became a Jesuit. Returning to England, Edward worked in the Midlands from 1588 to 1606. He was then condemned to death at Worcester for alleged coinplicity in the Gunpowder Plot He was beatified in 1929.
1719 ST JOHN BAPTIST DE LA SALLE, FOUNDER OF THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS.  At Rouen, the birthday of St. John Baptist de la Salle, priest and confessor.  He was prominent in the education of youth, especially those who were poor, for which he was acclaimed both by religious and civil society.  He was the founder of the Society of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.  Pius XII, Supreme Pontiff, declared him patron of all those who teach children and young people.  His feast is celebrated on the 15th of May.
But in 1679 he met a layman, Adrian Nyel, who had come to Rheims with the idea of opening a school for poor boys. Canon de La Salle gave him every encouragement, and, somewhat prematurely, two schools were started. Gradually the young canon became more and more drawn into the work and grew interested in the seven masters who taught in these schools. He rented a house for them, fed them from his own table, and tried to instil into them the high educational ideals which were gradually taking shape in his own mind. In 1681, though their uncouth manners repelled him, he decided to invite them to live in his own home that he might have them under his constant supervision. The result must have been a great disappointment. Not only did two of his brothers indignantly leave his house—a step he may have anticipated, for “ushers” were then ranked with pot-boys and hucksters—but five of the schoolmasters soon took their departure, unable or unwilling to submit to a discipline for which they had never bargained. The reformer waited, and his patience was rewarded. Other men of a better type presented themselves, and these formed the nucleus of what was to prove a new congregation. To house them the saint gave up his paternal home, and moved with them to more suitable premises in the Rue Neuve. As the movement became known, requests began to come in from outside for schoolmasters trained on the new method, and de La Salle found his time fully engrossed. Partly for that reason, and partly because he realized the contrast his disciples drew between his assured official income and their own uncertain position, he decided to give up his canonry. This he did.
Elsewhere the institute had been steadily developing. As early as 1700 Brother Drolin had been sent to found a school in Rome, and in France schools were started at Avignon, at Calais, in Languedoc, in Provence, at Rouen, and at Dijon. In 1705 the novitiate was transferred to St Yon in Rouen. There a boarding-school was opened, and an establishment for troublesome boys, which afterwards developed into a reformatory-school. From these beginnings grew the present world-wide organization, the largest teaching-order of the Church, working from primary schools to university-colleges. In 1717 the founder decided finally to resign; from that moment he would give no orders, and lived like the humblest of the brothers. He taught novices and boarders, for whom he wrote several books, including a method of mental prayer. St John Baptist lived at an important period in the history of spirituality in France, and he came under the influence of Bérulle, Olier and the so-called French “school” of de Rancé and of the Jesuits, his friends Canon Nicholas Roland and the Minim friar Nicholas Barré being specially influential. On the negative side he was distinguished by his strong opposition to Jansenism, illustrated positively by his advocacy of frequent and even daily communion. In Lent, 1719 St John Baptist suffered a good deal from asthma and rheumatism, but would give up none of his habitual austerities. Then he met with an accident, and gradually grew weaker. He passed away on Good Friday, April 7, 1719 in the sixty-eighth year of his age.
The example of St John Baptist de la Salle may well lead everyone of us to ask himself: “What have I done to help and to encourage this most necessary and divine work? What sacrifices am I prepared to make that the Christian education of our children may be carried on in spite of all the hindrances and hostilities which beset it?” The Church has shown her appreciation of the character of this man, a thinker and initiator of the first importance in the history of education, by canonizing him in 1900, and giving his feast to the whole Western church; and in 1950 Pope Pius XII declared him the heavenly patron of all school-teachers.
1919 Blessed Josaphata Micheline Hordashevska .  A native of Lviv in Ukraine, Josaphata Michaelina Hordashevska became a nun at age 18. Co-founder with Father Kyrylo Seletsky of the first female congregation of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, she devoted herself to caring for the sick, teaching the Catechism, and maintaining impoverished churches. Diagnosed with bone cancer, from which she endured terrible pain, she died at age 49. She was beatified in June 2001 in Lviv by Saint John Paul II.

The Congregation of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate lives out its special calling to serve others by following the example of the Virgin Mary—Handmaid of the Lord—Mary is also Servant of all humanity. Our Lady went speedily to assist Elizabeth; she intervened with simplicity at Cana; she courageously stood at the foot of the Cross where she received us as her children from the arms of her Son; with confidence, in union with the Apostles in the Upper Room, she prayed for the Church. As servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate try to answer God’s call, as He invites us to collaborate with him in the work of Salvation by serving other.  nominis.cef.fr

1925 St Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow Apostle to America led austere and chaste life; kindest of the Russian hierarchs "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake." t was extremely painful and hard for the Patriarch's loving, responsive heart to endure all the Church's misfortunes. Upheavals in and outside the church, the Renovationist schism, his primatial labors, his concern for the organization and tranquility of Church life, sleepless nights and heavy thoughts, his confinement that lasted more than a year, the spiteful and wicked baiting of his enemies, and the unrelenting criticism sometimes even from the Orthodox, combined to undermine his strength and health.
In 1924, Patriarch Tikhon began to feel unwell. He checked into a hospital, but would leave it on Sundays and Feast Days in order to conduct services. On Sunday, April 5, 1925, he served his last Liturgy, and died two days later. On March 25/April 7, 1925 the Patriarch received Metropolitan Peter and had a long talk with him. In the evening, the Patriarch slept a little, then he woke up and asked what time it was. When he was told it was 11:45 P.M., he made the Sign of the Cross twice and said, "Glory to Thee, O Lord, glory to Thee." He did not have time to cross himself a third time.
Almost a million people came to say farewell to the Patriarch. The large cathedral of the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow could not contain the crowd, which overflowed the monastery property into the square and adjacent streets. St Tikhon, the eleventh Patriarch of Moscow, was primate of the Russian Church for seven and a half years.
On September 26/October 9, 1989, the Council of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church glorified Patriarch Tikhon and numbered him among the saints. For nearly seventy years, St Tikhon's relics were believed lost, but in February 1992, they were discovered in a concealed place in the Donskoy Monastery.

It would be difficult to imagine the Russian Orthodox Church without Patriarch Tikhon during those years. He did so much for the Church and for the strengthening of the Faith itself during those difficult years of trial. Perhaps the saint's own words can best sum up his life: "May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 08
St_Rufus_Apostle_St_Celestine_Pope_of_Rome_St_Agabos
This icon portrays three scenes:
1) The central and main scene is from Matthew 28:2-4: "And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. His appearance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow. And for fear of him the guards trembled and became like dead men."
2) The scene in the left bottom corner is from Matthew 28:5-7: "But the angel said to the women, "Do not be afraid; for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. he is not here; for he has risen, as he said. Come, see the place where He lay. Then go quickly and tell his disciples that he has risen from the dead, and behold, he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him. Lo, I have told you."
3) The scene in the bottom right corner is from John 20:16-17: "Jesus said to her, "Do not hold me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brethren and say to them, I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God."
DATE COMPLETED: 1991 DONATED BY: Emile Kouri, brothers & sisters (in memory of their father Abdallah Chahine Kouri)  MELKITES -- Saints Peter & Paul Parish 1161 North River Road Ottawa, Ontario K1K 3W5


The spiritually avaricious are those who can never have enough of embracing and seeking after countless exercises of piety, hoping thereby to attain perfection all that much sooner, they say. They do this as though perfection consisted in the multitude of things we do and not in the perfection with which we do them! I have already said this very often, but it is necessary to repeat it: God has not placed perfection in the multiplicity of acts we perform to please Him, but only in the way we perform them, which is simply to do the little we do according to our vocation, in love, by love, and for love. -- St. Francis de Sales

1st v. TORQUATUS AND HIS COMPANIONS, MARTYRS.   THE first Christian missionaries to attempt the evangelization of Spain are said to have been seven holy men who had been specially commissioned by St Peter and St Paul, and sent forth for that purpose.
According to the legend the party kept together until they reached Guadix in Granada, where they encamped in a field whilst their servants went into the town to buy food. The inhabitants, however, came out to attack them, and followed them to the river. A miraculously erected stone bridge enabled the Christians to escape, but it collapsed when their pursuers attempted to cross it. Afterwards the missionaries separated, each one selecting a different district in which he laboured and was made bishop. Torquatus chose Guadix as the field of his labours, and is honoured on this day in association with his companions, all six of whom, however, have also special feasts of their own.
St Torquatus and the other bishops appear to have suffered martyrdom.
  Saints Herodion (Rodion), Agabus, Asyncritus, Rufus, Phlegon and Hermes are among the Seventy Apostles, chosen by Christ and sent out by Him to preach All these disciples for their intrepid service to Christ underwent fierce sufferings and were found worthy of a martyr's crown.   The commemoration of Saints Herodian, Asyncritus, and Phlegon who are mentioned by blessed Paul the Apostle in his Letter to the Romans.
The holy Apostle Herodion was a relative of St Paul, and his companion on many journeys. When Christianity had spread to the Balkan Peninsula, the Apostles Peter and Paul established St Herodion as Bishop of Patara. St Herodion zealously preached the Word of God and converted many of the Greek pagans and Jews to Christianity.
Enraged by the preaching of the disciple, the idol-worshippers and Jews with one accord fell upon St Herodion, and they began to beat him with sticks and pelt him with stones.
One of the mob struck him with a knife, and the saint fell down. But when the murderers were gone, the Lord restored him to health unharmed.
After this, St Herodion continued to accompany the Apostle Paul for years afterward.
When the holy Apostle Peter was crucified (+ c. 67),
St Herodion and St Olympos were beheaded by the sword at the same time.
 170 St. Dionysius of Corinth Bishop of Corinth, Greece, famed for his letters commemorated the martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul.    At Corinth, Bishop St. Denis, who instructed not only the people of his own city and province by the learning and charm with which he preached the word of God, but also the bishops of other cities and provinces by the letters  he wrote to them.  His devotion to the Roman Pontiffs was such that he was accustomed to read their letters publicly in the church on Sundays. 
He lived in the time of Marcus Antoninus Verus{161-166} [161-180--Marcus Aurelius] and Lucius Aurelius Commodus{180-192}.
432 Saint Celestine Pope of Rome (422-432) zealous champion of Orthodoxy virtuous life theologian authority denounced the Nestorian heresy.   He lived during the reign of the holy Emperor Theodosius the Younger (408-450). He received an excellent education, and he knew philosophy well, but most of all he studied the Holy Scripture and pondered over theological questions.
The virtuous life of the saint and his authority as a theologian won him the general esteem and love of the clergy and people.

After the death of St Boniface (418-422), St Celestine was chosen to be the Bishop of Rome.
During this time, the heresy of Nestorius emerged. At a local Council in Rome in 430, St Celestine denounced this heresy and condemned Nestorius as a heretic. After the Council, St Celestine wrote a letter to St Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria (January 18), stating that if Nestorius did not renounce his false teachings after ten days, then he should be deposed and excommunicated.
St Celestine also sent a series of letters to other churches, Constantinople and Antioch, in which he unmasked and denounced the Nestorian heresy.
For two years after the Council, St Celestine proclaimed the true teaching about Christ the God-Man, and he died in peace on April 6, 432.
1095 St. Walter of Pontoise continued to live a life of mortification, spending entire nights in prayer establishing the foundation of a convent in honor of Mary at Bertaucourt.  IN studying the lives of the saints, we not infrequently meet with men and women whose lifelong aspiration it is to serve God in solitude, but who are recalled again and again by the voice of an authority which they dare not gainsay, and are forced to shoulder responsibilities from which they shrink, in a world from which they fain would flee. Such a saint was Walter (Gautier) of Pontoise. A Picard by birth, he received a liberal education at various centres of learning and became a popular professor of philosophy and rhetoric. Then he entered the abbey of Rebais-en-Brie, and was afterwards compelled by King Philip I to become the first abbot of a new monastery near Pontoise. Although, in accordance with the custom of the time, he received his investiture from the sovereign, the new abbot placed his hand not under but over that of the king, and said it is from God, not from your Majesty, that I accept the charge of this church .

His courageous words, far from offending Philip, won his approval; but the very honour in which he was held by persons in high office was a source of anxiety to Walter, and some time later he fled secretly from Pontoise and took refuge at Cluny, then under the rule of St Hugh, hoping there to lead a hidden life. His refuge was, however, discovered by his monks, who fetched him back to Pontoise. From the cares of office he would retire occasionally to a grotto in the abbey grounds, hoping for a little solitude; but his visitors followed him there, and he took to flight once more. This time he buried himself in a hermitage on an island in the Loire, but again he was forced to return.

            Some time later, St Walter went to Rome, where he requested St Gregory VII to relieve him of his burden. Instead of doing so, the pope told him to use the talents God had bestowed upon him, and bade him resume his charge. From that time Walter resigned himself to his fate. The mortifications he would have wished to practise in solitude were more than compensated for by the persecutions he had to undergo in consequence of his fearless opposition to simony and to evil-living
among the secular clergy ; there was even one occasion when he was mobbed, beaten and thrown into prison, but his friends procured his release. In spite of advancing age he never relaxed but rather increased the austerity of his habits ; he rarely sat down in church, but when his aged limbs would no longer support him, he leant upon his pastoral staff. After the other monks had retired at the close of the night offices, he would remain behind, lost in contemplation, until he sank to the ground, where in the morning he would sometimes be found lying helpless.
         His last public effort was to found, in honour of our Lady, a convent for women at Bertaucourt. He succeeded in building a church with a small house, but the community was not actually established there until after his death, which occurred on Good Friday 1095.

1816 St. Julie Billiart vision of crucified Lord with group wearing habits of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur which she founded great love for Jesus in the Eucharist carried on this mission of teaching throughout her life although occasionally paralyzed and sick most of the time.  THE origin of the Institute of Notre Dame was once described by Cardinal Sterckx as a breath of the apostolic spirit upon the heart of a woman who knew how to believe and how to love” . That woman was Bd Mary Rose Julia Billiart. She came of a family of fairly well-to-do peasant farmers, who also owned a little shop at Cuvilly in Picardy, where she was born in 1751. Reading and writing she learnt from her uncle, the village schoolmaster, but her special delight was in religious instruction and the things of God. By the time she was seven, she was in the habit of explaining the catechism to other children less intelligent than herself. The parish priest encouraged these good instincts, and allowed her to make her first communion at the age of nine-—a rare privilege in those days. He also permitted her to take a vow of chastity when shc was fourteen. Although Julia had to work very hard, especially after heavy losses had impoverished her family, yet she always found time to visit the sick, to teach the ignorant and to pray. Indeed, she had already begun to earn the title by which she was afterwards known, “The Saint of Cuvilly.
      Suddenly a complete change came over her hitherto active existence. As the result of shock caused by the firing of a gun through a window at her father, beside whom she was sitting, there came upon her a mysterious illness, attended with great pain, which gradually deprived her of the use of her limbs. Thus reduced to the condition of an invalid, she lived a life of even closer union with God, continuing on her sick-bed to catechize the children, to give wonderfully wise spiritual advice to visitors, and to urge all to practise frequent communion. “ Qu’il est bon le hon Dieu ! was a saying of hers long remembered and often quoted. In 1790, when the curé of Cuvilly was superseded by a so-called constitutional priest who had taken the oath prescribed by the revolutionary authorities, it was mainly Julia’s influence which induced the people to boycott the schismatic intruder. For that reason and because she was known to have helped to find hiding-places for fugitive priests, she became specially obnoxious to the Jacobins, who went so far as to threaten to burn her alive. She was with difficulty smuggled out of the house, hidden in a haycart, and taken to Compiègne, where she was hunted from one lodging to another until at last one day they heard her exclaim, “Dear Lord, will you not find me a corner in Paradise, since there is no room for me on earth?
In 1815, Mother taxed her ever poor health by nursing the wounded and feeding the starving left from the battle of Waterloo. For the last three months of her life, she again suffered much. She died peacefully on April 8, 1816 at 64 years of age. Julie was beatified on May 13, 1906, and was canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1969.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 09
1st v. St. Mary Cleophas Mother of St. James the Less and Joseph, wife of Cleophas. She was one of the “Three Marys” who served Jesus and was present at the Crucifixion, accompanied Mary Magdalen to the tomb of Christ.  TO Mary of Cleophas whose name stands first in the Roman Martyrology on this day no general liturgical recognition is accorded, though her feast is kept by the Passionists, and by the Latins in Palestine. She seems to have been the wife of one Cleophas, who may or may not be identical with the Cleophas who is named as one of the two disciples who went to Emmaus on the day of our Lord’s resurrection.
Her identity among the various Marys mentioned by the evangelists is a matter of discussion among biblical commentators. The martyrology contents itself with saying that “Blessed John the Evangelist calls [her] sister of the most holy Mary, Mother of God, and relates that she stood with her by the cross of Jesus”. But it is possible that the sister of the mother of Jesus mentioned (John xix 25) was in fact a fourth, unnamed, woman.
Round the name of Mary of Cleophas all sorts of legendary excrescences gathered in later days. She was said to have travelled to Spain with St James the Greater, to have died at Ciudad Rodrigo, and to have been venerated with great honour at Compostela. On the other hand another extravagant legend connects her with the coming of SS. Lazarus, Mary Magdalen and Martha to Provence, and her body was believed to repose at Saintes-Maries near the mouth of the Rhone.

1st century. Mary of Cleophas, the 'other Mary,' followed our Lord to Calvary (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25) and saw Him after His Resurrection (Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10). She was the mother of James the Younger, Joseph (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40), Simon, and Jude; wife of Cleophas (John 19:25); and sister of the Blessed Virgin (John 19:25).
1140 St. Gaucherius hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women.  St Gaucherius was only eighteen when he abandoned the world to live the solitary life. He was born at Meulan-sur-Seine, where he received a good and religious education. His director sent him to his own master, Humbert, one of the canons of Limoges, who happened to be staying in the neighbourhood. That wise man not only encouraged the youth, but offered to assist him in carrying out his heart’s desire by taking him back to the Limousin district which was suitable for the life of retirement which he was contemplating. After spending a night in prayer at the tomb of St Leonard of Limoges, Gaucherius and a friend called Germond struck out into the wild forest region which stretched away for miles without any human habitation. In a particularly remote and inaccessible spot, they constructed a hermitage, and there they lived for several years unknown and forgotten. But gradually, as knowledge of the hermits’ holy life spread, cells sprang up round about to accommodate disciples and visitors. Many holy men were trained in this community, which became known as Aureil.   Born 1060.  Also known as Walter, abbot founder and friend of St. Stephen of Grandmont. He was born in Meulan sur Seine, France, and became a hermit in the forest of Limoges with a companion, Germond. Attracting disciples even though he was only eighteen, Gaucherius founded St. John’s Monastery at Aureilfor and a convent for women.  Died April 9, 1140; canonized by Pope Celestine III. His spiritual vocation led him to found and govern two monasteries in the Limousin region: Saint John at Aureil for Augustinian canons regular and Saint Stephen of Grandmont at Muret. He fell from a horse and died at the age of 80 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
1322 Bl. Thomas of Tolentino preach in the difficult regions of Armenia and Persia (modern Iran) set out for China beheaded at Thame in Hindustan.   From the time he had entered, the Order of Friars Minor in early youth, Thomas had been known as a truly apostolic man, and when the ruler of Armenia sent to ask the Minorite minister-general for some priests to fortify true religion in his realm, Thomas was chosen for the mission with four of his brethren. Their labours were blessed with success, many schismatics being reconciled and infidels converted. Armenia, however, was being seriously threatened by the Saracens, and Thomas came back to Europe to solicit help from Pope Nicholas IV and the kings of England and France.
Although he duly returned to the Armenian mission with twelve other Franciscans, Thomas subsequently travelled farther afield to Persia. Again he was recalled or sent back to Italy, but this time it was to report to Pope Clement V with a view to a further advance into Tartary and China. His embassy resulted in the nomination of an ecclesiastical hierarchy consisting of John of Monte Corvino as archbishop and papal legate for the East, with seven Franciscans as suffragans. In the meantime Bd Thomas had returned to the field of his labours, full of zeal for the conversion of India and China. He appears to have been making for Ceylon and Cathay, but the ship was driven by contrary winds to Salsette Island, near Bombay. Thomas was seized by the Saracens with several of his brethren and imprisoned. After being scourged and exposed to the burning rays of the sun, the holy man was beheaded. Bd Odoric of Pordenone afterwards recovered his body and translated it to Xaitou. The cultus was approved in 1894.

1331 Blessed John of Vespignano  devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence.  Born at Vespignano (diocese of Florence), Italy; cultus approved by Pius VII. During the civil wars, John devoted himself to works of charity among the refugees who flocked to Florence (Benedictines).
1374 Blessed Antony of Pavoni  consistent poverty of Antony's life & example of Christian virtue combatting heresies of Lombards OP.   Born in Savigliano, Italy, in 1326; died in Turino, Italy, in 1374; beatified in 1868. Antony was obviously martyred for the faith, yet it took more than 500 years before he was even beatified. He is still not canonized. Antony grew up to be a pious, intelligent youth. At 15, he was received into the monastery of Savigliano, was ordained in 1351, and almost immediately was engaged in combatting the heresies of the Lombards.
Pope Urban V, in 1360, appointed him inquisitor-general of Lombardy and Genoa, making him one of the youngest men ever to hold that office. It was a difficult and dangerous job for a young priest of 34. Besides being practically a death sentence to any man who held the office, it carried with it the necessity of arguing with the men most learned in a twisted and subtle heresy.  Antony worked untiringly in his native city, and his apostolate lasted 14 years. During this time, he accomplished a great deal by his preaching, and even more by his example of Christian virtue. He was elected prior of Savigliano, in 1368, and given the task of building a new abbey. This he accomplished without any criticism of its luxury--a charge that heretics were always anxious to make against any Catholic builders.
At Rome, the transferring of the body of St. Monica, mother of the bishop St. Augustine.  It was brought from Ostia to Rome, under the Sovereign Pontiff, Martin V, and buried with due honours in the church of St. Augustine.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 10
6th v. BC.  Apud Babylónem sancti Ezechiélis Prophétæ, qui, a Júdice pópuli Israël, quod eum de cultu idolórum argúeret, interféctus, in sepúlcro Sem et Arpháxad, Abrahæ progenitórum.    At Babylon, the prophet Ezechiel, who was put to death by a{n apostatized judge} of the people of Israel because he reproved him for worshipping idols.  He was buried in the sepulchre of Sem and Arphaxad, ancestors of Abraham.  Many people{ early Christians } were in the habit of going to his tomb to pray.
Ezekiel, Prophet (RM) (also known as Ezechiel).  Ezekiel is one of the four major prophets of the Old Testament. Tradition says that he was put to death, while in captivity in Babylon, by one of the Jewish judges who had apostatized, and that he was buried there in the tomb of Shem. He grave was a site of pilgrimage for the early Christians (Benedictines, Encyclopedia). Raphael painted this Vision of Ezekiel.
VII B.C. The Holy Prophetess Oldama (Huldah) lived in the first half profesied  to Josiah he would not see the Woe
She foretold to the 16 year old king of Judah reigning at Jerusalem, Josiah, that for his humility the Lord would put him with his forefathers and he would be at peace in the grave, and his eyes would not see all the woe, which the Lord would bring upon the land (4 (2) Kings 22: 14-20; 2 Chron. 34: 28).
Martyrdom of St. James the Apostle Brother of St. John the Apostle.   copticchurch.net  On this day, St. James the Apostle, the son of Zebedee, and the brother of St. John, the Apostle, was martyred. After he had preached the Gospel in Judea and Samaria, he went to Spain. He preached the Gospel there, and its people believed in the Lord Christ. He returned to Jerusalem and pursued his ministry.
He always advised his flock to give alms to the poor, the needy, and the weak. They accused him before Herod who called him and asked him: "Are you the one that instigating the people not to give the taxes to Caesar but to give it to the poor and the churches?" Then he smote him with the sword, cutting off his head, and St. James received the crown of martyrdom.
Clement of Alexandria, from the fathers of the second century, said: "The soldier that seized the Saint, when he saw his courage, he realized that there must be a better life and asked the Saint for his forgiveness. Then the soldier confessed Christianity and received the crown of martyrdom (Acts 12:1,2) along with the Apostle in the year 44 A.D."
Because Herod saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to seize Peter also. So when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four squads of soldiers to keep him, intending to bring him before the people after Passover. (Acts 12:3-4)
So on a set day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat on his throne and gave an oration to them. And the people kept shouting, "The voice of a god and not of a man!" Then immediately an angel of the Lord struck him because he did not give glory to God. And he was eaten by worms and died. (Acts 12:21-23)
As of the body of St. James, the believers took it, shrouded it, and buried it by the Temple. It was said that the body of St. James was translated to Spain, where James the elder considered to be its Apostle.
His prayers be with us and Glory be to our God forever. Amen.
115 Martyrs of Rome Saint Alexander while imprisoned he preached to criminals they converted and baptized     At Rome, the birthday of many holy martyrs, whom Pope St. Alexander baptized while he was in prison.  The prefect Aurelian had them all put in an old ship, taken to the deep sea, and drowned with stones tied to their necks
While Pope Saint Alexander was imprisoned in a public jail in Rome, he preached to the criminals he found there. They were converted and baptized. Later, the criminals were taken to Ostia and put on board an old boat which was then sent out to sea and scuttled. (Benedictines).
1028 St. Fulbert Bishop of Chartres France poet scholar aided Cluniac Reform defended monasticism orthodoxy.  WE learn from St Fulbert of Chartres himself that he was of humble extraction, but we know little of his early years beyond the fact that he was born in Italy and spent his boyhood there. He was later on a student in Rheims and must have been one of its most distinguished scholars, for when the celebrated Gerbert, who taught him mathematics and philosophy, was raised to the papacy under the title of Pope Silvester II, he summoned Fulbert to his side. When another pope succeeded, Fulbert returned to France, where Bishop Odo of Chartres bestowed upon him a canonry and appointed him chancellor. Moreover, the cathedral schools of Chartres were placed under his care, and he soon made them the greatest educational centre in France, attracting pupils from Germany, Italy and England.
Like most of the more eminent churchmen of his century he was an outspoken opponent of simony and of bestowing ecclesiastical endowments upon laymen. After an episcopate of nearly twenty-two years, he died on April 10, 1029. The writings of St Fulbert include a number of letters, a brief penitential, nine sermons, a collection of passages from the Bible dealing with the Trinity, the Incarnation and the Eucharist, and also some hymns and proses.
1460 Bl. Anthony Neyrot Dominican martyr in Tunis modem Tunisia.  Disaster followed disaster. He lost all faith in Christianity and began to translate the Koran. He was adopted by the king, married a Turkish lady of high rank, and was given the freedom of the city.  Into the false paradise came the news of the death of Saint Antoninus. Love for his old master stirred in Antony a yearning for the Truth he had abandoned. He resolved to return to the Christian faith, although it meant certain death.  In order that his return might be as public as his denial had been, he waited until the king returning in triumph from a victory over the Christians, had a public procession. Having confessed and made his private reconciliation with God, Antony, clothed in a Dominican habit, at that moment mounted the palace steps where all could see him.  In a loud voice he proclaimed his faith, and his sorrow at having denied it. The king at first disbelieved his ears, then he became angry. Failing to change the mind of the young man, he commanded that he be stoned to death.  Antony died under a shower of stones, proclaiming to the last his faith and his sorrow. It was Holy Thursday, 1460. His body was recovered at great expense from the Islamics and returned to Rivoli, where his tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage. Many miracles were performed there, and, until very recently, an annual procession was held at his shrine. In the procession, all the present-day members of his family, dressed in black, walked proudly behind the statue of Blessed Antony (Benedictines, Dorcy, Encyclopedia). ANTONY NEYROT was born at Rivoli in Piedmont, and entered the Dominican priory of San Marco in Florence, then under the direction of St Antoninus. After being professed he was sent to one of the houses of the order in Sicily. Between Naples and Sicily his ship was boarded by pirates, who carried him to Tunis, where he was sold as a slave. He succeeded in obtaining his freedom, but only to fall into a worse captivity, for the study of the Koran led him to abjure his faith and to become a Mohammedan. For several months he had practised the religion of the false prophet when his eyes were suddenly opened, in consequence, it is said, of a vision he had of St Antoninus. Smitten with contrition, he at once sent away his wife, did penance, and resumed the daily recitation of the office. Then he went before the ruler of Tunis in his friar’s habit and, in the presence of a great crowd, openly renounced his heresy and proclaimed the religion of Jesus Christ as the one true faith. Arguments, promises and threats were employed without being able to shake him. Eventually he was condemned to death, and perished by stoning and by sword cuts as he knelt in prayer with hands upraised. His body was given over to the flames, but portions of his relics which remained unconsumed were sold to Genoese merchants, who took them back to Italy. The cultus of Bd Antony was approved in 1767.
1479 Blessed Mark Fantucci preached throughout Italy, Istria, and Dalmatia. He also visited the friars in Austria, Poland, Russia, and the Levant OFM.  AMONGST the Franciscan leaders of the fifteenth century a special place must be assigned to Bd Mark Fantucci of Bologna, to whom was mainly due the preservation of the Observance as a separate body when it seemed on the point of being compulsorily merged into the Conventual branch. After having received an excellent education to fit him for the good position and large fortune to which he was left sole heir, he had given up all his worldly advantages at the age of twenty-six to receive the habit of St Francis. Three years after his profession, he was chosen guardian of Monte Colombo, the spot where St Francis had received the rule of his order. So successful was he in converting sinners that he was given permission to preach outside his province by St John Capistran, then vicar general of the Observants in Italy.
Having served twice as minister provincial, Bd Mark was elected vicar general in succession to Capistran, and showed himself zealous in enforcing strict observance of the rule the various reforms he brought about all tended to revive the spirit of the founder, After the taking of Constantinople so many Franciscans had been enslaved by the Turks, that Mark wrote to all his provincials urging them to appeal for alms to ransom the captives but in answer to a request for instructions how to act in the danger zone, he sent word to, Franciscan missionaries in places threatened by victorious Islam bidding them remain boldly at their posts and to face what might betide.

He was able to execute a long-cherished plan to form a convent of Poor Clares in Bologna.
St Catherine of Bologna came with some of her nuns from Ferrara to establish it, and found in Bd Mark one who could give her all the assistance she needed. He visited as commissary all the friaries in Candia, Rhodes and Palestine, and on his return to Italy he was elected vicar general for the second time. Never sparing himself he undertook long and tiring expeditions to Bosnia, Dalmatia, Austria and Poland, often travelling long distances on foot. Pope Paul II wished to make him a cardinal, but he fled to Sicily to avoid being forced to accept an honour from which he shrank.
The next pope, Sixtus IV, formed a project which was even less acceptable, for he had set his heart upon uniting all Franciscans into one body, without requiring any reform from the Conventuals. At a meeting convened to settle the matter, Bd Mark used all his eloquence to defeat the proposal, but apparently in vain. At last, in tears, throwing down the book of the rule at the pope’s feet, he exclaimed, “Oh my Seraphic Father, defend your own rule, since I, miserable man that I am, cannot defend it”; and thereupon left the hall. The gesture accomplished what argument had failed to do; the assembly broke up without arriving at a decision, and the scheme fell through. In 1479, white delivering a Lenten mission in Piacenza, Bd Mark was taken ill and died at the convent of the Observance outside the city. His cultus was confirmed in 1868.

1625 St. Michael de Sanctis life of exemplary fervor devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament his ecstacies during Mass many miracles After his death at 35.  Michael de los Santos was born in Catalonia, Spain around 1591. At the age of six he informed his parents that he was going to be a monk. Moreover, he imitated St. Francis of Assisi to such a great extent that he had to be restrained. After the death of his parents, Michael served as an apprentice to a merchant. However, he continued to lead a life of exemplary fervor and devotion, and in 1603, he joined the Trinitarian Friars at Barcelona, taking his vows at St. Lambert's monastery in Saragosa in 1607. Shortly thereafter, Michael expressed a desire to join the reformed group of Trinitarians and was given permission to do so. He went to the Novitiate at Madrid and, after studies at Seville and Salamanca, he was ordained a priest and twice served as Superior of the house in Valladolid.
His confreres considered him to be a saint, especially because of his devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament and his ecstacies during Mass. After his death at the age of thirty-five on April 10, 1625 many miracles were attributed to him. He was canonized in 1862 by Pope Pius IX. St. Michael de Sanctis is noted in the Roman Martyrology as being "remarkable for innocence of life, wonderful penitence, and love for God." He seemed from his earliest years to have been selected for a life of great holiness, and he never wavered in his great love of God or his vocation.
As our young people look for direction in a world that seems not to care, St. Michael stands out as worthy of imitation as well as of the prayers of both young and old alike.
Michael of Sanctis, O. Trin. (RM) (also known as Michael of the Saints) Born at Vich, Catalonia, Spain, in 1591; died at Valladolid, Spain, in 1625; canonized in 1862. Saint Michael joined the calced Trinitarians at Barcelona in 1603, and took his vows at Saragossa in 1607. That same year he migrated to the discalced branch of the order and renewed his vows at Alcalá. After his ordination he was twice superior at Valladolid. He was one of the greatest apostles of the order in the 17th century,

1835 Saint Madelaine was an orphan taught catechism and nursed the sick in Verona, Venice, Milan, and China Order of the Daughters of Charity.  Wealth and privilege did nothing to prevent today’s saint from following her calling to serve Christ in the poor. Nor did the protests of her relatives, concerned that such work was beneath her.
Born in northern Italy in 1774, Magdalen knew her mind—and spoke it. At age 15 she announced she wished to become a nun. After trying out her vocation with the cloistered Carmelites, she realized her desire was to serve the needy without restriction. For years she worked among the poor and sick in hospitals and in their homes and among delinquent and abandoned girls.
In her mid-twenties Magdalen began offering lodging to poor girls in her own home. In time she opened a school, which offered practical training and religious instruction. As other women joined her in the work, the new Congregation of the Daughters of Charity emerged. Over time, houses were opened throughout Italy.
Members of the new religious congregation focused on the educational and spiritual needs of women. Magdalen also founded a smaller congregation for priests and brothers. Both groups continue to this day.
She died in 1835. Pope John Paul II canonized her in 1988.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 11
The history of Our Lady of Pochaev begins in 1198, only about two centuries after Christianity:  became institutionalized following the conversion of St. Vladimir.  In this year a monk ascended Mount Pochaev in order to pray.  After beginning his prayers a pillar of fire appeared to him and to some shepherds that happened to be nearby.  The flames withdrew to reveal the Blessed Virgin.  The apparition of the Virgin Mary left behind a footprint, from which a spring of water flowed.  This first event would lead to many other supernatural events through the special dedication of the Blessed Virgin to this region
Many of these miracles are the result of the veneration of the icon of our Lady of Pochaev [see above].  It first arrived in the region as a gift of Metropolitan Neophit to Anna Hoyska, an important patron of the Church, in 1559.  The icon shows our Lady, wearing a crown, and holding the infant Jesus.  In her other hand “she holds the end of her veil.”  This being a 'tenderness' icon, Jesus and Mary’s face touch, while Jesus gives a blessing with his hand.  To Mary’s right are the prophet Elijah and Saint Myrna, while to her left are St. Stephen and the Reverend Abraymey.  Mary’s face is described as being “beautiful but sad.”   The icon itself is 29 x23 cm, and made out of red pitched cypress.  The origin of the icon remains a mystery.
  63. St. Domnio Possibly first bishop of Salona and one of 72 disciples of Christ sent to Dalmatia, a region in Croatia, by St. Peter.  The Hieromartyr Antipas, a disciple of the holy Apostle John the Theologian (September 26), was bishop of the Church of Pergamum during the reign of the emperor Nero (54-68).   During these times, everyone who would not offer sacrifice to the idols lived under threat of either exile or execution by order of the emperor. On the island of Patmos (in the Aegean Sea) the holy Apostle John the Theologian was imprisoned, he to whom the Lord revealed the future judgment of the world and of Holy Church.
"And to the angel of the Church of Pergamum write: the words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. I know where you live, where the throne of Satan is, and you cleave unto My Name, and have not renounced My faith, even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwells" (Rev 2:12-13).
  67 Sts. Processus and Martinian pagans guards at Mamertine prison in Rome  accepted holy Baptism from Peter.  The Holy Martyrs Processus and Martinian were pagans and they served as guards at the Mamertine prison in Rome.  State criminals were held in this prison, among them some Christians. Watching the Christian prisoners and listening to their preaching, Processus and Martinian gradually came to the knowledge of the Savior. When the holy Apostle Peter was locked up at the Mamertine prison, Processus and Martinian came to believe in Christ. They accepted holy Baptism from the apostle and released him from prison.
461 Pope St. Leo I (the Great)     St. Leo the First, pope and confessor, who was surnamed the Great.  His birthday falls on the 10th of November. (Reigned 440-461).
ST LEO THE GREAT, POPE AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH
THE sagacity of Leo I, his successful defence of the Catholic faith against heresy, as well as his political intervention with Attila the Hun and Genseric the Vandal, raised the prestige of the Holy See to unprecedented heights and earned for him the title of “the Great”, a distinction accorded by posterity to only two other popes, St Gregory I and St Nicholas I. The Church has honoured St Leo by including him amongst her doctors on the strength of his masterly expositions of Christian doctrine, many extracts from which are incorporated in the Breviary lessons.
St Leo’s family was probably Tuscan, but he seems to have been born in Rome, as he always speaks of it as his “patria”. Of his early years and of the date of his ordination to the priesthood there are no records. It is clear from his writings that he received a good education, although it did not include Greek. We hear of him first as deacon under St Celestine I and then under Sixtus III, occupying a position so important that St Cyril wrote directly to him, and Cassian dedicated to him his treatise against Nestorius. Moreover, in 440, when the quarrels between the two imperial generals, Aetius and Albinus, threatened to leave Gaul at the mercy of the barbarians, Leo was sent to make peace between them.
At the time of the death of Pope Sixtus III he was still in Gaul, whither a deputation was sent to announce to him his election to the chair of St Peter.
Immediately after his consecration on September 29, 440, he began to display his exceptional powers as a pastor and ruler. Preaching was at that time mainly confined to bishops, and he set about it systematically, instructing the faithful of Rome whom he purposed to make a pattern for other churches. In the ninety-six genuine sermons which have come down to us, we find him laying stress on alms-giving and other social aspects of Christian life, as well as expounding Catholic doctrines—especially that of the Incarnation. Some idea of the extraordinary vigilance of the holy pontiff over the Church and its necessities in every part of the empire can be gathered from the 143 letters written by him, and the 30 letters written to him, which have fortunately been preserved. About the period that he was dealing with the Manichaeans in Rome, he was writing to the Bishop of Aquileia advising him how to deal with Pelagianism, which had made a reappearance in his diocese.

1079 St. Stanislaus ordained  at Szczepanow near Cracow noted for preaching sought after spiritual adviser martyred by cruel King.  Stanislaus was born of noble parents on July 26th at Szczepanow near Cracow, Poland. He was educated at Gnesen and was ordained there. He was given a canonry by Bishop Lampert Zula of Cracow, who made him his preacher, and soon he became noted for his preaching. He became a much sought after spiritual adviser. He was successful in his reforming efforts, and in 1072 was named Bishop of Cracow. He incurred the enmity of King Boleslaus the Bold when he denounced the King's cruelties and injustices and especially his kidnapping of the beautiful wife of a nobleman. When Stanislaus excommunicated the King and stopped services at the Cathedral when Boleslaus entered, Boleslaus himself killed Stanislaus while the Bishop was saying Mass in a chapel outside the city on April 11.
Stanislaus has long been the symbol of Polish nationhood. He was canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1253 and is the principle patron of Cracow.
1146  The Departure of the holy father Anba Michael, the Seventy First Pope of the See of St. Mark. {Coptic church}.  On this day also of the year 862 A.M. (March 29th. 1146 A.D.) the holy father Pope Michael, the seventy first Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, departed. He longed to the pure life since his young age so he became a monk in the monastery of St. Macarius. He lived in the desert until he was an old man, in a good pleasing life to God.
When Pope Gabriel (70) departed, the bishops, the priests and the lay leaders spent three month searching for who was best suited to succeed him. A monk from the monastery of St. Macarius, called Yoannis Ebn Kedran, came forward nominating himself supported in that by Anba Yacoub, bishop of Lekanah, Anba Christodolus, bishop of Fowa, and Anba Michael, bishop of Tanta.
1771 St. Mary Margaret d'Youville Foundress of the Sisters of Charity directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community.  Grey Nuns of Canada.
She was born at Varennes, Quebec, and was baptized Marie Marguerite Dufrost de Ia Jemmerais.
After being educated by the Ursulines, she was married to Francois d’Youville in 1722, becoming a widow eight years later. Mary Margaret worked to support herself and her children, aiding the Confraternity of the Holy Family as well. In 1737, she founded the Sisters of Charity, the Grey Nuns, with three companions. A formal declaration took place in 1745, and two years later she became directress of Montreal’s General Hospital, operated by her community. The Grey Nuns expanded to the United States, Africa, and South America. Mary Margaret died in Montreal on December 23. She was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1990.
1903 St. Gemma Galgani stigmata many mystical experiences and special graces Gemma was miraculously cured by the Venerable Passionist Gabriel Possenti.   THE short life of this saint, who was born at Camigliano in Tuscany in 1878, and died at Lucca at the age of twenty-five, was in one sense uneventful. It is a story of very fervent piety, charity and continuous suffering. These sufferings were caused partly by ill-health, partly by the poverty into which her family fell, partly by the scoffing of those who took offence at her practices of devotion, ecstasies and other phenomena, partly by what she believed to be the physical assaults of the Devil. But she had the consolation of constant communion with our Lord, who spoke to her as if He were corporeally present, and she also met with much kindness from the Giannini family, who in her last years after her father’s death treated her almost as an adopted daughter.

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 12
336 St. Julius elected Pope to succeed Pope St. Mark on February 6, 337 built several basilicas and churches in Rome declared that Athanasius was the rightful bishop of Alexandria and reinstated him.    THE name of Pope St Julius stands in the Roman Martyrology to-day with the notice that he laboured much for the Catholic faith against the Arians. He was the son of a Roman citizen named Rusticus, and succeeded Pope St Mark in 337. In the following year St Athanasius, who had been exiled at the instance of the Arians, returned to his see of Alexandria, but found himself opposed by an Arian or semi-Arian hierarch whose intrusion had been obtained by Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia. In response to the request of the followers of Eusebius, Pope Julius convoked a synod to examine into the matter, but the very people who had asked for the council refrained from attending it. The case of St Athanasius was, however, very carefully examined in their absence and the letter, which the pope subsequently sent to the Eusebian bishops in the East has been characterized by Tillemont as “one of the finest monuments of ecclesiastical’ antiquity”, and by Monsignor Batiffol as “a model of weightiness, wisdom and charity”. Calmly and impartially he meets their accusations one by one and refutes them. Towards the end he states the procedure they ought to have followed. “Are you not aware that it is customary that we should first be written to, that from hence what is just may be defined whereas you expect us to approve condemnations in which we had no part. This is not according to the precepts of Paul or the tradition of the fathers. All this is strange and new. Allow me to speak as I do: I write what I write in the common interest, and what I now signify is what we have received from the blessed apostle Peter.”
The council at Sardica (Sofia) convened in 342 by the emperors of the East and West, vindicated St Athanasius, and endorsed the statement, previously made by St Julius, that any bishop deposed by a synod of his province has a right to appeal to the bishop of Rome. Nevertheless it was not until the year 346 that St Athanasius was able to return to Alexandria. On his way thither he passed through Rome, where he was cordially received by Pope Julius, who wrote a touching letter to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, congratulating them on the return of their holy bishop, picturing the reception they would give him, and praying for God’s blessing on them and on their children.
St Julius built several churches in Rome, notably the Basilica Julia, now the church of the Twelve Apostles, and the basilica of St Valentine in the Flaminian Way. He died on April 12, 352. His body was buried at first in the cemetery of Calepodius, but was afterwards translated to Santa Maria in Trastevere which he had enlarged and beautified.

 371 St. Zeno Bishop of Verona, Italy, opponent of Arianism promoted discipline among clergy in liturgical life built cathedral founded convent wrote extensively on virgin birth of Christ.   From a panegyric he delivered on St Arcadius, a Mauretanian martyr, it has been conjectured that St Zeno was born in Africa; and from the excellent flowing Latin of his writings and from the quotations he makes from Virgil, it is evident that he received a good classical education. He seems to have been made bishop of Verona in 362. We gather a number of interesting particulars about him and about his people from a collection of his tractatus, short familiar discourses delivered to his flock. We learn that he baptized every year a great number of pagans, and that he exerted himself with zeal and success against the Arians, who had been emboldened by the favours they had enjoyed under the Emperor Constantius. When he had in a great measure purged the church of Verona from heresy and heathenism, his flock increased to an extent which necessitated the building of a large basilica. Contributions flowed in freely from the citizens, whose habitual liberality had become so great that their houses were always open to poor strangers, whilst none of their fellow citizens ever had occasion to apply for relief, so promptly were their wants forestalled. Their bishop congratulated them upon thus laying up for themselves treasure in Heaven.
After the battle of Adrianople in 378, when the Goths defeated Valens with terrible slaughter, the barbarians made numerous captives in the neighbouring provinces of Illyricum and Thrace. It appears to have been on this occasion that, through the bountiful charity of the inhabitants of Verona, many of the prisoners were ransomed from slavery, some rescued from a cruel death, and others freed from hard labour. Though this probably occurred after the death of St Zeno, the self-sacrifice of the townsmen may be traced to his inspiring zeal and example.

 372 St. Sabas & 50 others Goth converted to Christianity lector in Targoviste Romania martyr in the area of modern Romania by pagan Goths.   THE Goth’s in the third century swarmed over the Danube and established themselves in the Roman provinces of Dacia and Moesia, making expeditions from time to time into Asia Minor, especially into Galatia and Cappadocia, from which they brought back Christian slaves, priests and lay people. These prisoners soon began to make converts amongst their conquerors, with the result that Christian churches were founded. In 370 the ruler of one section of the Goths raised a persecution against his Christian subjects, out of revenge, it is supposed, for a declaration of war launched against him by the Roman emperor. The Greeks commemorate fifty-one Gothic martyrs, the most famous of whom were St Sabas and St Nicetas. Sabas, who had been converted to Christianity in early youth, acted as cantor or lector to the priest Sansala. When, at the outset of the persecution, the magistrates ordered the Christians to eat meat sacrificed to idols, certain pagans, who had Christian relations whom they wished to save, persuaded the officials to give them meat which had not been offered to idols. Sabas loudly denounced this ambiguous proceeding:  not only did he himself refuse to eat, but he declared that those who consented to do so had betrayed the faith. Some of the Christians applauded him, but others were so much displeased that they obliged him to withdraw from the town. He was, however, soon allowed to return. The following year, when the persecution broke out again, some of the principal inhabitants offered to swear that there were no Christians in the town. As they were about to take the oath, Sabas presented himself and said, “Let no one swear for me : I am a Christian!” The officer asked the bystanders how much he was worth, and, upon learning that he had nothing but the clothes he wore, contemptuously released him, remarking, “Such a fellow can do us neither good nor harm”.
 560 Isaak der Syrer/Isaak vom Monte Luco Er kam (auf der Flucht vor den Monophysiten?) aus Syrien nach Spoleto (Italien). St Isaac the Syrian lived during the mid-sixth century. He came to the Italian city of Spoleto from Syria. The saint asked permission of the church wardens to remain in the temple, and he prayed in it for two and a half days. One of the church wardens began to reproach him with hypocrisy and struck him on the cheek. Then the punishment of God came upon the church warden. The devil threw him down at the feet of the saint and cried out, "Isaac, cast me out!" Just as the saint bent over the man, the unclean spirit fled.
News of this quickly spread throughout the city. People began to flock to the saint, offering him help and the means to build a monastery. The humble monk refused all this. He left the city and settled in a desolate place, where he built a small cell. Disciples gathered around the ascetic, and so a monastery was formed.
When his disciples asked the Elder why he had declined the gifts, he replied, "A monk who acquires possessions is no longer a monk."
St Isaac was endowed with the gift of clairvoyance. St Gregory Dialogus (March 12) speaks of this in his "Dialogues About the Lives and Miracles of the Italian Fathers." Once, St Isaac bade the monks to leave their spades in the garden for the night, and in the morning he asked them to prepare food for the workers. Some robbers, equal to the number of spades, had come to rob the monastery, but the power of God forced them to abandon their evil intent. They took the spades and began to work. When the monks arrived in the garden, all the ground had been dug up. The saint greeted the toilers and invited them to refresh themselves with food. Then he admonished them to stop their thievery, and gave them permission to come openly and pick the fruits of the monastery garden.
Another time, two almost naked men came to the saint and asked him for clothing. He told them to wait a bit, and sent a monk into the forest. In the hollow of a tree he found the fine clothes the travelers had hidden in order to to deceive the holy igumen. The monk brought back the clothes, and St Isaac gave them to the wanderers. Seeing that their fraud was exposed, they fell into great distress and shame.
It happened that a certain man sent his servant to the saint with two beehives. The servant hid one of these hives along the way. The saint said to the servant, "I accept the gift, but be careful when you go back for the beehive that you hid. Poisonous snakes have entered into it. If you stretch forth your hand, they will bite you."
Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to succeed Pope Theodore I; died at Cherson in the present peninsulas of Krym, 16 Sept., 655, after a reign of 6 years, one month and twenty six days, having ordained eleven priests, five deacons and thirty-three bishops. 5 July is the date commonly given for his election, but 21 July (given by Lobkowitz, "Statistik der Papste" Freiburg, 1905) seems to correspond better with the date of his death and reign (Duchesne "Lib. Pont.", I, 336); his feast is on 12 November.The Greeks honor him on 13 April and 15 September, the Muscovites on 14 April. In the hymns of the Office the Greeks style him infallibilis fidei magister because he was the successor of St. Peter in the See of Rome (Nilles, "Calendarium Manuale", Innsbruck, 1896, I, 336).
 655 Martin I, Pope died in the Crimea great intellect and charity the last pope to die a martyr M (RM).   Martin, one of the noblest figures in a long line of Roman pontiffs (Hodgkin, "Italy", VI, 268) was, according to his biographer Theodore (Mai, "Spicil. Rom.", IV 293) of noble birth, a great student, of commanding intelligence, of profound learning, and of great charity to the poor. Piazza, II 45 7 states that he belonged to the order of St. Basil. He governed the Church at a time when the leaders of the Monothelite heresy, supported by the emperor, were making most strenuous efforts to spread their tenets in the East and West. Pope Theodore had sent Martin as apocrysiary to Constantinople to make arrangements for canonical deposition of the heretical patriarch, Pyrrhus. After his election, Martin had himself consecrated without waiting for the imperial confirmation, and soon called a council in the Lateran at which one hundred and five bishops met. Five sessions were held on 5, 8, 17, 119 and 31 Oct., 649 (Hefele, "Conciliengeschichte", III, 190). The "Ecthesis" of Heraclius and the "Typus" of Constans II were rejected; nominal excommunication was passed against Sergius, Pyrrus, and Paul of Constantinople, Cyrus of Alexandria and Theodore of Phran in Arabia; twenty canons were enacted defining the Catholic doctrine on the two wills of Christ. The decrees signed by the pope and the assembled bishops were sent to the other bishops and the faithful of the world together with an encyclical of Martin. The Acts with a Greek translation were also sent to the Emperor Constans II.
11th v. 13th v. SS. ALFERIUS AND OTHERS, ABBOTS OF LA CAVA St Alferius, the founder of the abbey, although his immediate successors, Leo I of Lucca, Peter I of Polycastro and Constabilis of Castelabbate were all saints; whilst eight later abbots, Simeon, Falco, Marinus, Benincasa, Peter II, Balsamus, Leonard and Leo II all received the title of Blessed.  OF the holy abbots of La Cava who are honoured upon April 12, November 16 and other dates a special notice can only be given here of St Alferius, the founder of the abbey, although his immediate successors, Leo I of Lucca, Peter I of Polycastro and Constabilis of Castelabbate were all saints; whilst eight later abbots, Simeon, Falco, Marinus, Benincasa, Peter II, Balsamus, Leonard and Leo II all received the title of Blessed.
Alferius belonged to the Pappacarboni family which was descended from the ancient Lombard princes. Sent by Gisulf, duke of Salerno, as ambassador to the French court, he fell dangerously ill, and vowed that if he should regain his health he would embrace the religious life. Upon his recovery he entered the abbey of Cluny, then under the rule of St Odilo, but was recalled by the duke of Salerno, who wished him to reform the monasteries in the principality. The task appeared beyond his power, and he retired about the year 1011 to a lonely spot, picturesquely situated in the mountainous region about three miles north-west of Salerno, where he was soon joined by disciples. Of these he would only accept twelve—at any rate at first—but they formed the nucleus around which gradually grew the abbey of La Cava which afterwards attained to great celebrity. Alferius is said to have lived to the age of 120 and to have died on Maundy Thursday, alone in his cell, after he had celebrated Mass and washed the feet of his brethren. Only a very few years after his death there were, in south Italy and Sicily, over 30 abbeys and churches dependent upon La Cava and 3000 monks. Amongst his disciples had been Desiderius, who subsequently became Pope Victor III and a beatus.  The cultus of the sainted abbots of La Cava was confirmed in 1893, that of the beati in 1928.

1495 BD ANGELO OF CHIVASSO; He always been humble: even as vicar general he would only wear the cast-off habits of others and delighted in doing the lowliest work. Now he begged to he allowed to go and beg for the poor; Franciscan friary of the Observance at Genoa.   Bd Angelo’s superiors soon realized that they had in him a recruit of exceptional merit as well as of great missionary zeal, and it was not long before he was admitted to the priesthood. At once he embarked upon a strenuous evangelistic campaign. Full of eloquence and zeal, he made his way into remote villages in the Piedmontese mountains and valleys, regardless of weather and of the roughness of the way. The poor he greatly loved: he sought them out, visited them in sickness, and would often beg on their behalf. He helped them in many ways, notably by encouraging the introduction of monti di pietà to save them from the clutches of money-lenders. His penitents, however, were not confined to the poor. St Catherine of Genoa consulted him, and Charles I, Duke of Savoy, chose him to be his confessor. His so-called Summa Angelica, a book of moral theology which he wrote, was much used. Bd Angelo filled a number of offices, and as superior he was extremely zealous in preserving the purity of the rule; his outstanding capabilities caused him to be three times re-elected vicar general.
When, after the taking of Otranto by the fleet of Mohammed II, Pope Sixtus IV appealed for recruits to fight the threatening forces of Islam, the Observants proved themselves specially zealous in rousing the people to meet the crisis, but it was Bd Angelo who always chose the places of greatest danger for his activities. Moreover, when in 1491, at the age of eighty, he had accepted the office of commissary apostolic to evangelize the Waldensians in the Piedmontese valleys, he displayed a fervour and intrepidity which were rewarded by a surprising measure of success. Many heretics as well as lapsed Catholics were brought back to the faith, so that Pope Innocent VIII wished to raise him to the episcopate, but he could not be induced to consent.
At last, in 1493, Bd Angelo was able to lay down office and to prepare his soul for death. He had always been humble: even as vicar general he would only wear the cast-off habits of others and delighted in doing the lowliest work. Now he begged to he allowed to go and beg for the poor. His last two years were spent at the convent of Cuneo in Piedmont where he died at the age of 84. His cultus was approved in 1753.

1920 St. Teresa of Los Andes; Carmelite nun, Chile’s first saint. (1900-1920) 
One needn’t live a long life to leave a deep imprint. Teresa of Los Andes is proof of that.
As a young girl growing up in Santiago, Chile, in the early 1900s, she read an autobiography of a French-born saint—Therese, popularly known as the Little Flower. The experience deepened her desire to serve God and clarified the path she would follow. At age 19 she became a Carmelite nun, taking the name of Teresa.

The convent offered the simple lifestyle Teresa desired and the joy of living in a community of women completely devoted to God. She focused her days on prayer and sacrifice. “I am God’s, ” she wrote in her diary. “He created me and is my beginning and my end. ”
Toward the end of her short life, Teresa began an apostolate of letter-writing, sharing her thoughts on the spiritual life with many people. At age 20 she contracted typhus and quickly took her final vows. She died a short time later, during Holy Week.
Teresa remains popular with the estimated 100,000 pilgrims who visit her shrine in Los Andes each year. She is Chile’s first saint.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 13
The Prophet Ezekiel ("God is strong") was the son of Buzi and a priest by rank.
He was taken captive and brought to Babylon during the reign of Jechonias.
In the fifth year of this captivity, about 594 or 593 B.C., he began to prophesy.

Having prophesied for about twenty-eight years, he was murdered, it is said, by the tribe of Gad, because he reproached them for their idolatry.

His book of prophecy, divided into forty-eight chapters, is ranked third among the greater Prophets. It is richly filled with mystical imagery and marvelous prophetic visions and allegories, of which the dread Chariot of Cherubim described in the first Chapter is the most famous; in the "gate that was shut," through which the Lord alone entered, he darkly foretold of the Word's Incarnation from the Virgin (44:1-3); through the "dry bones" that came to life again (37:1-14), he prophesied both of the restoration of captive Israel, and the general resurrection of our race.
656 Pope Saint Martin I martyred for defending dual nature of Jesus died at Kherson Crimea last pope die a martyr. Martin I, Pope M (RM) Born in Todi in Umbria, Italy; died in the Crimea, September 16, 655; feast day was previously November 12 (November 10 in York); the Eastern Church celebrates his feast on September 20.

Martin became a deacon in Rome. He displayed a great intellect and charity, was sent by Pope Theodore I as nuncio (apocrisiarius) to Constantinople, and was elected pope in 649 to succeed Theodore I. At once, he convened the council at the Lateran that condemned Monothelitism (the denial that Christ had a human will), the Typos--the edict of the reigning Emperor Constans II, which favored it, and Heraclius's Ekethesis. Although he was supported by the bishops of Africa, England, and Spain, the imperial wrath fell upon the pontiff who was arrested by Constans and taken to Constantinople in 653.
     When Martin I became pope in 649, Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine empire and the patriarch of Constantinople was the most influential Church leader in the eastern Christian world. The struggles that existed within the Church at that time were magnified by the close cooperation of emperor and patriarch.

A teaching, strongly supported in the East, held that Christ had no human will. Twice emperors had officially favored this position, Heraclius by publishing a formula of faith and Constans II by silencing the issue of one or two wills in Christ.
Shortly after assuming the office of the papacy (which he did without first being confirmed by the emperor), Martin held a council at the Lateran in which the imperial documents were censured, and in which the patriarch of Constantinople and two of his predecessors were condemned. Constans II, in response, tried first to turn bishops and people against the pope.
Comment:  The real significance of the word martyr comes not from the dying but from the witnessing, which the word means in its derivation. People who are willing to give up everything, their most precious possessions, their very lives, put a supreme value on the cause or belief for which they sacrifice. Martyrdom, dying for the faith, is an incidental extreme to which some have had to go to manifest their belief in Christ. A living faith, a life that exemplifies Christ's teaching throughout, and that in spite of difficulties, is required of all Christians. Martin might have temporized; he might have sought means to ease his lot, to make some accommodations with the civil rulers.
Quote:   The breviary of the Orthodox Church pays tribute to Martin: “Glorious definer of the Orthodox Faith...sacred chief of divine dogmas, unstained by error...true reprover of heresy...foundation of bishops, pillar of the Orthodox faith, teacher of religion.... Thou didst adorn the divine see of Peter, and since from this divine Rock, thou didst immovably defend the Church, so now thou art glorified with him.”

Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 14
 190 St. Tiburtius Martyr with Valerian and Maximus     At Rome, on the Appian Way, the birthday of the holy martyrs Tiburtius, Valerian, and Maximus, who suffered in the time of Emperor Alexander and the prefect Almachius.  The first two were converted to Christ by the exhortations of blessed Cecilia, and baptized by Pope St. Urban.  They were beaten with clubs, then beheaded for the sake of the true faith.  Maximus, who had been the prefect's chamberlain, was touched by their constancy, and confirmed by the vision of an angel, believed in Christ, and was scourged with leaded whips until he died.
   564 St. Abundius Confessor sacrist St. Peter's in Rome humble many graces spiritual gifts   At Rome, St. Abundius, sacristan of the church of St. Peter.
Abundius served in St. Peter's in Rome. Pope St. Gregory I the Great wrote of his life, which was filled with many graces and spiritual gifts.

 655 Saint Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome native of the Tuscany convened Lateran Council at Rome condemn Monothelite heresy last martyred Pope.  He received a fine education and entered into the clergy of the Roman Church. After the death of Pope Theodore I (642-649), Martin was chosen to succeed him.
At this time the peace of the Church was disturbed by the Monothelite heresy (the false doctrine that in Christ there is only one will. He has a divine, and a human will).
"Even if they cripple me, I will not have relations with the Church of Constantinople while it remains in its evil doctrines." The torturers were astonished at the confessor's boldness, and they commuted his death sentence to exile at Cherson in the Crimea.
There the saint died, exhausted by sickness, hunger and deprivations on September 16, 655. He was buried outside the city in the Blachernae church of the Most Holy Theotokos, and later the relics of the holy confessor Martin were transferred to Rome.
The Monothelite heresy was condemned at the Sixth Ecumenical Council in 680.
1120 BD LANVINUS Carthusian monk, came to Rome and obtained from Pope Paschal a bull to protect the houses of the Carthusians from molestation. IN 1893 Pope Leo XIII confirmed the cultus of a Carthusian monk, Bd Lanvinus, {20 February, 1878; 20 July, 1903; Pope Leo XIII } who though little known to the world at large has always been held high in honour in his own order. He was a Norman by birth who seems to have made his way south to the Grande Chartreuse about the year 1090, and thence accompanied St Bruno to Calabria. When the holy founder died there in 1101, Lanvinus was elected to succeed him in the government of the two charterhouses which the order at that time possessed in the south of Italy. Some little difference of opinion had preceded this election, and we possess more than one letter addressed to the new superior by Pope Paschal II, {Pope Paschal II Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 Jan., 1118. }congratulating the brethren on this peaceful solution and admonishing them not to presume too much upon the austerity of their rule, but ever to seek perfect concord and union with God.
In 1102 Lanvinus was summoned to Rome to attend a synod. Other letters of the same pontiff were despatched to him in 1104 commending his zeal in carrying out the pope’s injunctions, and entrusting to his care a difficult negotiation which concerned one of the bishops of that province. In 1105 he was further appointed visitor of all monastic houses in Calabria and charged with the duty of restoring strict discipline; while eight years later he again came to Rome and obtained from Pope Paschal a bull to protect the houses of the Carthusians from molestation. He died greatly revered on April 11, 1120, but his feast is kept in the order on this day.

1124 Caradoc of Llandaff Abbot monk musician reputation for holiness miracles quieted wildest beasts healer incorrupt (AC).  As a young man St Caradoc lived at the court of Rhys ap Tewdwr, prince of South Wales, where he occupied the honourable post of harper. One day he fell into disgrace with his master who blamed him for the loss of two favourite greyhounds and threatened to kill him. Thus brought to realize the folly of trusting in the favour of earthly princes, Caradoc resolved from henceforth to give his services only to the King of kings. He accordingly abandoned the court and repaired to Llandaff, where he received the tonsure from the bishop who sent him to serve in the church of St Teilo. Afterwards he spent some years as a hermit near the abandoned church of St Cenydd in Gower and then retired with some companions to the still more remote solitude of an island off the coast of Pembroke. Here they suffered from Norse raiders, and St Caradoc eventually settled in St Ismael’s cell at Haroldston, of which he was given charge. Like so many other solitaries Caradoc had unusual power over the lower animals, illustrated on one occasion by his mastering a pack of hounds “by a gentle movement of his hand”, when they were quite out of the owner’s control.
St Caradoc was buried with great honour in the cathedral church of St David, where the remains of his shrine may be seen.
A still extant letter of Pope Innocent III directs certain abbots to make inquiry into the life and miracles of this Welsh hermit.
1246 St. Peter Gonzalez Dominican evangelized protector of captive Muslims and cared for sailors.   St. Peter Gonzales Peter Gonzales, also known as St. Elmo or St. Telmo, was born to a Castilian family of nobility. He was educated by his uncle, the Bishop of Astorga, named canon of the local cathedral, famous for his penances and mortifications, joined the Dominican Order, preached and made chaplain of the court of King St. Ferdinand III. He converted and influenced the soldiers of his country, evangelized, and died on Easter Sunday. He was canonized by Pope Benedict XIV in 1741. Peter evangelized throughout his country and all along the coast. He had a special fondness for sailors. He used to visit them aboard their ships, preaching the Gospel and praying for their needs.
1433 St. Lydwine heroically accepted plight as will of God offered her sufferings for humanity's sins Jesus Christ confided in her She experienced mystical gifts, including supernatural visions of heaven, hell, purgatory, apparitions of Christ, and the stigmata Patron of sickness & skaters.  About the year 1407 she began to have ecstasies and mystical visions. While her body lay in prolonged cataleptic trances, her spirit communed with our Lord, with the saints, and with her guardian angel, or it would visit the holy places of Rome and Palestine or else churches near at hand. Now she would help our Lord to carry His cross on Calvary, now she would witness the pains of purgatory and would be given a foretaste of the joys of Heaven.
Two points are emphasized by her biographers: never, in all her raptures, did she lose sight of her vocation, and always those spiritual privileges were followed by increase of suffering. Acclaimed as she was even then as a saint, she was not destined to escape detraction, which came in a very painful form.
 The biography of Bd Lydwina compiled by John Brugman has been printed, both in its first and latest form, by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii; and they have also given extracts from the memoir by Thomas a Kempis. John Gerlac’s narrative is in Dutch and was first printed at Delft in 1487. Full bibliographical details are provided in the excellent little volume Sainte Lydwine contributed by Hubert Meuffels to the series “Les Saints” (1925). This is by far the best popular life, and it corrects in many details the extravagances and inaccuracies of Huysmans’ Saints Lydwine de Schiedam which has gone through so many editions. There are several other lives of less value. That by Thomas a Kempis has been translated into English by Dom Vincent Scully (1912), with a useful introduction. In this introduction may be found a translation of the striking official document drawn up in 1421 by the municipality of Schiedam attesting among other things that “within the seven years last passed she (Lydwina) has used no food or drink at all nor does use any at present”. Although she is quite commonly called Saint Lydwina, she has never been officially canonized, but her cultus was formally confirmed by Pope Leo XIII in 1890.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 15
The Departure of the Righteous Joachim, The Lord Christ Grandfather.
On this day the righteous Joachim (Yonakhir - Zadok) departed. He was the father of St. Mary, the Theotokos, the mother of God incarnate. He was of the seed of David, and of the tribe of Judah, for he was the son of Jotham, the son of Lazarus, the son of Eldad who ascended up in genealogy to Solomon the king, the son of David whom God promised that his seed should reign over the children of Israel for ever.
The wife of this righteous man, Hannah was barren, and both of them prayed and entreated God continually to give them a child. Having accepted their petition He gave them a good and sweet fruit, which satisfied all the men of the world, and removed from them the bitterness of servitude, and He made Joachim worthy to be called the father of the Lord Christ in regard of His marvelous and wondrous Incarnation. After God had pleased him with the birth of our Lady, his heart was rejoiced and he offered his offerings, and the shame had been removed from him, he departed in peace when the Virgin was three years old.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.

  100 Holy Martyr Sukhios and 16 Gruzian (Georgian) Companions new names: to the eldest -- Sukhios (replacing his old name Bagadras), and  companions Andrew, Anastasias, Talale, Theodorites, Juhirodion, Jordan, Kondrates, Lukian, Mimnenos, Nerangios, Polyeuktos, James, Phoki, Domentian, Victor and Zosima.
The holy remains of the martyrs remained undecayed and unburied until the time of the IV Century, when they were placed in graves and consigned to earth by local Christians (the names of the holy martyrs were found written on a cliff).
The holy PriestMartyr Gregory, Enlightener of Armenia (+ c. 335, Comm. 30 September), built a church on this spot and established a monastery. And afterwards, a curative spring of water was discovered there.( shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) see map close to Yerevan {Even when Agathangelos describes well-known events, he borrows from the Bible. Diocletian's persecution of the Church is talked about completely in Bible images, with no reference to any actual events. Gregory is nourished in the terrible pit as Elijah was; Drtad's bestial transformation recalls that of Nebuchadnezzar. There are also countless references to liturgical and patristic writings, and it is unfortunate that we modern readers miss so many of these. Agathangelos presumed on the part of his readers an intimate familiarity with the Scriptures, Liturgy, and spiritual writings that most of us today simply do not possess.
Agathangelos had a purpose in mind as he wrote about Gregory. That purpose is reflected in some of the differences in emphasis between Agathangelos' work about the saint and the work of others. For example, Movses Khorenatsi gives us much more detail about Gregory's origins, and tries to tie him to the first enlightener, Thaddeus. In general, he gives more detail about all aspects of Gregory's life than Agathangelos does. But Agathangelos is not interested in establishing an apostolic tie for Gregory, or presenting his life in detail. His purpose is mainly to enhance Gregory's role as the first bishop, first church builder, and first establisher of a hierarchy in the Armenian Church. He wants to show the importance of the hierarchical structure of the Church, and emphasize the authority of the patriarch's position, and this he does by tying both to the great saint so highly venerated in the Church.
Central to this effort is Agathangelos' description of Gregory's vision of the burial place of the martyrs. Gregory is shown a golden base where the cathedral at Vagharshapat (later Etchmiadzin) is to be built. Thus Agathangelos establishes divine foundation for cathedral and for church leaders who reside there ­ so again, he makes a case for the "rightness" of the hierarchs and the hierarchical structure of the Church.}
 679 St. Hunna devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg.
Called “the Holy Washerwoman,” a noblewoman who devoted herself to the poor of Strasbourg, France. The daughter of a duke and wife of Huno of Hunnaweyer, she even washed the poor's clothes, hence her name. She was canonized in 1520 by Pope Leo X.





Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 16
   460 St. Turibius of Astorga Bishop stern disciplinarian opponent of the heretical Priscillianist  At Paléntia, St. Turibius, bishop of Astorga.  With the aid of Pope St. Leo, he drove out of Spain completely the Priscillian heresy.  He went to rest in the Lord with a great renown for miracles.   St Turibius became bishop of Astorga when the errors of the Priscillianists were gaining many adherents in various parts of Spain. Based on forged apostolic writings, this heresy was a subtle form of Manichaeism which seems to have attracted both laymen and clergy: even Dictinus, the previous bishop of Astorga, is said at one time to have defended its teachings. St Turibius, on the other hand, came forward as an uncompromising champion of the Catholic faith. Not only did he boldly expose and denounce the new doctrines, but he took strong action against the leaders of the movement. He then appealed for support to Pope St Leo the Great, to whom he sent a report of the measures he was adopting. Leo in reply wrote a long epistle in which he categorically condemned the tenets of the Priscillianists. Mainly as a result of the efforts of St Turibius, thus backed by the authority of Rome, the spread of this heresy was checked, and the bishop was able to devote his energies to the enforcement of discipline amongst his clergy and the reform of morals amongst his people. His death occurred about the year 450.
900 St. Lambert of Saragossa servant Martyred by his Saracen master in Spain.   Lambert of Saragossa M (RM); cultus promoted by Pope Hadrian VI. Saint Lambert was a servant who was killed near Saragossa, Spain, by his Saracen master during the Moorish occupation (Benedictines).
1116 Magnus of Orkney Magnus stood against wanton violence and racism against foreigners).  Died on Igilsay Island, Norway, Earl Magnus Erlendsson of Norway, son of Erling, ruled over half the Orkney Islands. He was killed by his cousin Haakon, who ruled over the other half.   Magnus is venerated as the protector of Scotland and a martyr, even though as a young man he participated in the Viking raids on Scotland. .  After King Magnus Barefoot bad been killed in battle against the Irish, his son Sigurd allowed Haakon to return to the Orkneys, of which he wished to be the sole ruler. But Magnus, whose brother Erlend had also been slain, gathered a body of men and proceeded to his native country, where he vindicated his right to share in the government of the islands. Although the two cousins could unite against a common foe, disputes often arose between them. At last Haakon, whose overbearing spirit could no longer brook a rival, invited Magnus to meet him with a few followers on the island of Egilsay, under pretext of cementing a lasting peace. Magnus unsuspectingly complied, but was overpowered by a large band of men brought by Haakon and was treacherously slain, refusing to resist. The cathedral of Kirkwall, where he was buried (and where what seem to have been his bones were found in 1919, and many other churches have been dedicated in honour of St Magnus, who was regarded as a martyr, in spite of the fact that he was murdered on political rather than on religious grounds. He is said to have appeared to Robert Bruce with a promise of victory, on the eve of Bannockburn, and his feast is still observed in the diocese of Aberdeen.
1378 The Nun Theodora of Nizhegorod, in the world Anastasia (Vassa) entered the Nizhegorod Zachat'ev monastery attained the gift of humility and love.   The daughter of the Tver' boyar-noble Ioann and his spouse Anna. She was born in the year 1331. At 12 years of age they gave her in marriage to the Nizhegorod prince Andrei Konstantinovich. after 12 years of childless married life, the prince died, having accepted monasticism (+ 2 June 1365). The holy princess continued to live in the world for another four years, and then she set free her servants, distributed off her substance and entered the Nizhegorod Zachat'ev monastery. She was tonsured by Sainted Dionysii, afterwards the archbishop of Suzdal' (+ 1385, Comm. 15 October and 26 June).
In monastic life the saint often went without food for a day or two, and sometimes even five; her nights she spent in tearful prayers, and on her body she wore an hairshirt. She attained the gift of humility and love and she bore every abuse without malice. The example of the strict life of the Nun Theodora attracted others also: in her common-life monastery were tonsured princesses and boyaresses, and in all there about 100 sisters. The Nun Theodora died in the year 1378.

1783 St. Benedict Joseph Labré "the Beggar of Rome," a pilgrim recluse devoted to the Blessed Sacrament miracles soaring over the ground, as well as bilocation, is frequently attested in Benedict's case.  1783 St. Benedict Joseph Labré "the Beggar of Rome," a pilgrim recluse devoted to the Blessed Sacrament miracles soaring over the ground, as well as bilocation, is frequently attested in Benedict's case
Romæ natális sancti Benedícti-Joséphi Labre Confessóris, qui contémptu sui et extrémæ voluntáriæ paupertátis laude exstitit insígnis.
    At Rome, the birthday of St. Benedict Joseph Labre, confessor, who was famed for his contempt of self and his great voluntary poverty. miraculous multiplication of bread for some poor people and by the healing of a confirmed invalid. “God’s will be done”, he said, as he took a final farewell of the Cistercians of Septfons in 1770.
Benedict now determined to go on pilgrimage to Rome, walking all the way and living on alms. He set out accordingly, staying among other places at Ars, where he met Mr Vianney, father of the future curé. Having crossed the Alps into Italy, he wrote from Piedmont a touching letter to his parents—the last they ever received from him. In it he apologized for the uneasiness he may have caused them and announced his intention of trying to enter an Italian monastery. This he does not appear to have done, for his true vocation began to dawn upon him. Not by shutting himself up in any cloister was he to abandon the world, but by obeying the counsels of perfection without turning his back on the world. Literally and in spirit he must follow the example of our Lord and so many of His saints. With this object in view he embarked upon a life of pilgrimages which led him to the principal shrines in western Europe. Oblivious of wind and weather, he travelled everywhere on foot, carrying neither purse nor scrip nor yet provisions for the way. Often he slept in the open air upon the bare ground; at best he took his rest in a shed or a garret, for he could rarely be induced to accept a bed. He wished to be homeless like his Master. He saluted no man by the way unless specially moved to do so, he seldom opened his lips except to acknowledge or distribute to others the alms which he had received.


1879 St. Bernadette Mary appeared to Bernadette 18 times and spoke with her above a rose  bush in a grotto  called Massabielle dressed in blue and white with a rosary of ivory and gold.    In the city of Nevers in France, St. Mary Bernard Soubirous of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity, also called the Christian Institute.  She was favoured with frequent apparitions and conversations at Lourdes with Mary Immaculate, the Mother of God.  In 1933 her name was added to the roll of holy virgins by Pope Pius XI.   St. Bernadette Soubirous 1879 Famed visionary of Lourdes, baptized Mary Bernard. She was born in Lourdes, France, on January 7, 1844, the daughter of Francis and Louise Soubirous. Bernadette, a severe asthma sufferer, lived in abject poverty. On February 11, 1858, she was granted a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in a cave on the banks of the Gave River near Lourdes. She was placed in consider able jeopardy when she reported the vision, and crowds gathered when she had futher visits from the Virgin, from February 18 of that year through March 4.  The civil authorities tried to frighten Bernadette into recanting her accounts, but she remained faithful to the vision.

  On February 25, a spring emerged from the cave and the waters were discovered to be of a miraculous nature, capable of healing the sick and lame. On March 25, Bernadette announced that the vision stated that she was the Immaculate Conception, and that a church should be erected on the site. Thus, she lived out her self-effacing life, dying at the age of 35 as did Saint Benedict Labre. The events of 1858 resulted in Lourdes becoming one of the most important pilgrim shrines in the history of Christendom, ending with the consecration of the basilica in 1876. But Saint Bernadette took no part in these developments; nor was it for her visions that she was canonized, but for the humble simplicity and religious trust that characterized her whole life (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Sandhurst, Schamoni, Trochu, Walsh, White).
Saint Bernadette is the patron saint of shepherds (White).


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 17
Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I) the Fifty Fifth Patriarch commemoration of Wonder took place on his hand  (Coptic)
Tuesday of St Thomas week we remember those Orthodox Christians from all ages who have died in faith, and in the hope of resurrection. On this day also a great sign was made manifest through our holy father Pope Sinuthius (Shenouda I) the fifty fifth Pope of Alexandria. This Pope went to the desert of Scetis in order to fast the Holy Lent with the fathers the monks. On Palm Sunday many Arabs came to the desert of Scetis to plunder the monasteries. They stood on the rock east of the church of St. Macarius. Their swords were drawn in their hands ready to kill and steal. The bishops and the monks gathered together and decided to leave the desert before the Holy Feast of Resurrection (Easter) and they took counsel with Pope Shenouda who told them; "As for me I will not leave the desert until I complete the Pascal week. On Maundy Thursday the situation became worse.
The Pope took his staff that had the sign of the cross on it and he wanted to go out to meet the Arabs saying: "It is better for me to die with the people of God" but they prevented him from going out, but instead, he strengthened and comforted them. Then he went forth to meet the Arabs with his staff in his hand. When they saw him, they retreated and fled away as if they were pursued by an army of soldiers and from this day onwards they never came back to do any harm.
The prayers of this father be with us and glory be to God forever. Amen.
There are indications of this commemoration in the sermons of the Fathers of the Church.
St John Chrysostom, for example, mentions it in his homily "On the Cemetery and the Cross."
In pre-Revolutionary Russia bars remained closed and alcoholic beverages were not sold until this Day of Rejoicing so that the joy people felt would be because of the Resurrection, and not an artificial joy brought on by alcohol.
Today the Church remembers its faithful members at Liturgy, and kollyva is offered in remembrance of those who have fallen asleep.
Priests visit cemeteries to bless the graves of Orthodox Christians, and to share the paschal joy with the departed.
It is also customary to give alms to the poor on this day.

   At Rome, St. Anicetus, pope and martyr, who received the palm of martyrdom in the persecution of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Verus.
155-166 St. Anicetus pope a Syrian from Emesa actively opposed Marcionism and Gnosticism.  165 ST ANICETUS, POPE AND MARTYR
ST ANICETUS was raised to the chair of St Peter in the latter part of the reign of the Emperor Antoninus Pius. He is styled a martyr in the Roman and other martyrologies and, if he did not actually shed his blood for the faith, he at least purchased the title of martyr by the sufferings and trials he endured. His efforts appear to have been specially directed to combating the errors of Valentine and Marcion and to protecting his flock from heresy. It was whilst he was pope that St Polycarp, the great bishop of Smyrna, came to Rome in connection with the controversy about the date of Easter. The conference which took place led to no settlement, but, to quote the words of Eusebius, “the bonds of charity were not broken”. St Anicetus is said to have been a Syrian.

350  Innocent of Tortona priest for remaining steadfast to the Christian faith B (RM).   THE parents of St Innocent at Tortona in the north of Italy, although they were Christians living in times of persecution, were by imperial licence exempted from molestation. The exemption granted to the parents did not extend to the children, and after the death of his father and mother Innocent was summoned to appear before the magistrates. As the young man steadfastly refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was tortured and sentenced to perish at the stake. During the night before his execution he had a dream of his father, who bade him go at once to Rome, where he would find safety. He awoke to find his guards fast asleep, and easily succeeded in making his escape. Upon his arrival in Rome he was kindly received by Pope St Miltiades.
Pope St Silvester
raised him to the diaconate, and after the accession of the Emperor Constantine he was sent back to Tortona as bishop. During the twenty-eight years of his episcopate he showed great zeal in spreading the faith, in building churches, and in converting pagan temples into Christian sanctuaries.
We owe these details to a late and quite untrustworthy life of St Innocent which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. ii. But Father F. Savio has shown in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xv (1896), pp. 377—384, that the saint really existed, and that there are germs of truth in the legend, though the story is a fiction. See on the other hand the brochure of Canon V. Loge (1913) to which Fr Savio subsequently replied.
Departure of St. Zosimus (Zocima). On this day in the middle of the fifth century the ascetic father and the struggling monk Abba Zocima the priest, departed (Coptic).  The custom of those monks during the Holy Lent, was that after they had fasted the first weak they partook the Holy Communion, then they left the monastery singing the twenty six psalm, and at the end of it, they prayed together. Then the abbot blessed them and they bed farewell to each other. Then they dispersed in the desert of Jordan and each of them carried out his spiritual fight by himself. St. Zosimus used to go out with them each year wondering in the desert asking God to show him who was more perfect than him.
As he was wondering about he met Mary the Egyptian (Coptic). He learned from her about her life history and the reason for her wondering in the desert. She asked him to visit her after one year to give her the Holy Mysteries. He came to her in the next year and gave her the Holy Communion. In the year after he revisited her again but he found her had departed and he buried her and told the monks of the monastery concerning her strife. After he had lived ninety nine years he departed in peace.  May his prayers be with us. Amen.

 435 Saint Acacius, Bishop of Melitene support of Orthodoxy wonderworker made rain, checked flood, stopped dome from collapse 3rd Ecumenical Council 431 defended Orthodox teaching of 2 Natures (Divine /Human) of the Savior His seedless Birth from Most Holy Virgin Mother of God.  He wisely governed his diocese. By his firm faith, humility and deeds, the saint acquired the gift of wonderworking. Once, during a dry summer, the saint celebrated Liturgy in an open field, suddenly the wine in the Holy Chalice was mixed by the falling rain, which fell throughout the land.
He prayed during a flood, and the advancing river turned away and did not rise higher than the stone which he had placed at the riverbank. On one of the islands of the River Azar, despite the opposition of the pagans, the saint built a temple in honor of the Most Holy Theotokos. The builders of the church either through carelessness or through malice, were not careful in building the dome. During the Liturgy the dome was ready to collapse. The people rushed out of the church in terror. But the saint halted their flight saying, "The Lord is the defender of my life, of whom shall I be afraid?" (Ps. 26/27:1). The dome remained suspended in the air. Only when the services were ended, and the saint was the last one to emerge from the church, did the dome collapse, causing harm to no one. After this, the church was rebuilt.
St Acacius participated in the Third Ecumenical Council (431) and he defended the Orthodox teaching of the Two Natures (Divine and Human) of the Savior, and of His seedless Birth from the Most Holy Virgin Mother of God.
St Acacius peacefully fell asleep in the Lord around the year 435. He should not be confused with St Acacius the Confessor (March 31), who was also a bishop of Melitene.
During Alberic's reign, the new order received definitive approval from Pope Pascal II and was placed under the protection of the Holy See.
The Benedictines of Cîteaux received a white habit and made their solemn professions on March 21, 1098, Passion Sunday.

1134 Stephen Harding one of the founders of the Cistercians  OSB Cist. Abbot (RM).  At Citeaux in France, St. Stephen, abbot, who was first to live in the Cistercian desert and who joyfully welcomed St. Bernard and his companions when they came to him.
Born probably in Sherborne, Dorsetshire, England; died at Cîteaux, France, March 28; canonized in 1623; his feast is celebrated on July 16 among the Cistercians..  Stephen assisted at the death of Alberic on January 26, 1109. Alberic was the first of the trio to prepare a meeting place for them with God. Stephen missed Alberic, his friend, his "companion in arms," his "general in the battles of the Lord," in the time that they were placed "in the front line of the battle." Stephen's character and temperament are well expressed in this military language.
In the following year, on March 21, 1110, there was a second departure for eternity. Robert died. Stephen was the sole survivor of the three. This vouched-safe, original Cistercian, however, was not to conform in all points with the Benedictine prototype because he was to become the champion of the most absolute poverty with an almost Franciscan insistence. With the death of Alberic, Stephen found himself elected abbot of Cîteaux against his will.
1419 Blessed Clare Gambacorta both devout and penitential Poor Clares OP Widow (AC).   (also known as Thora or Theodora of Pisa) Born in Venice(?), Italy, in 1362; beatified by Pope Pius VIII in 1830. At last Peter Gambacorta relented, and not only allowed his daughter to enter the Dominican priory of Holy Cross, but promised to build another house of the order. She now became associated with Mary Mancini, also a widow, and destined like herself to be raised to the altars of the Church. The teaching of St Catherine of Siena strongly influenced the two women who, when they were transferred to Gambacorta’s new foundation in 1382, succeeded in inaugurating observance of their rule in its primitive austerity. This house, in which Bd Clare was at first sub-prioress and then prioress, became the training centre for many saintly women who afterwards carried the reform movement to other Italian cities. To this day, enclosed Dominican nuns are often spoken of in Italy as “Sisters of Pisa”. They led a contemplative life of prayer, manual work and study: “Never forget”, said Bd Clare’s director, “that in our order very few have become saints who were not likewise scholars.”   Bd Clare was a great sufferer towards the close of her life, and as she lay on her death-bed with outstretched arms, she was heard to murmur, “My Jesus, here I am upon the cross”. Just before she died, however, her face was illuminated with a radiant smile and she blessed her daughters absent as well as present. She had reached the age of fifty-seven years. Her cultus was confirmed in 1830.


Popes and other important Saints mentioned in articles of Saints today April 18
 185  St. Apollonius the Apologist Roman senator Martyr whose Apologia or defense of the faith is considered one of the most priceless documents of the early Church.   THE Emperor Marcus Aurelius had persecuted the Christians on principle, but his son Commodus, who succeeded him about the year 180, although a vicious man, showed himself not unfavourably disposed towards them. During the cessation of active persecution under his reign, the number of the faithful greatly increased, many men of rank enlisting themselves under the banner of the cross. Amongst these was a Roman senator called Apollonius, who was well versed in philosophy as well as in the Holy Scriptures. In the midst of the peace which the Church was enjoying, he was denounced as a Christian by one of his own slaves to Perennis, the praetorian prefect. The laws against the Christians had not been repealed and, although the slave was promptly put to death as an informer, Perennis called upon Apollonius to renounce his religion. As the saint refused, the prefect referred him to the judgement of the Roman senate. In their presence the martyr who, possibly on account of his learning and social position, seems to have been treated with a certain exceptional consideration, debated with Perennis and boldly gave an account of his faith. As Apollonius persisted in his refusal to offer sacrifice, he was condemned and decapitated; another, less probable, account tells us that he was put to death by having his legs crushed.
When the senator refused to apostatize, the case was remanded to the Senate, where a remarkable dialogue took place between Perennis and Apollonius. Because of his influence in society, those judging him paid close attention to his defense of Christianity, which is recorded in the Roman Martyrology.

"Are you bent on dying?" asked Perennis.
"No," said Apollinius, "I enjoy life; but love of life does not make me afraid to die. There is waiting for me something better: eternal life, given to the person who has lived well on earth."
Apollinius pointed out that everyone must die and that it was better to die for the sake of true belief and the true God than to die of some ordinary disease because a martyr becomes the seed of new Christians. He argued that Christianity is superior by its concepts of death and life: death is a natural necessity which has nothing frightening about it, while the true life is the life of the soul.  He explained that paganism is futile because idols are human artefacts without life, automony, reason, or virtue. Saint Apollinius then took the opportunity to give the whole court a reasoned apology of his Christian faith, which is a moving, direct summary of the entire Christian creed. Above all, he reasoned, Christianity surpasses paganism through the salvific work of Jesus Christ, the revealing Word of God and teacher of moral life, who became man to destroy sin by his death. Apollonius continued that Christ's death was prophesied both by Scripture and by Plato.
639 St. Laserian monk abbot Bishop papal legate brother of St. Goban ordained priest by Saint Gregory the Great.  
THE early history of St Laisren is very uncertain in view of the discrepancy between the various accounts which have come down to us. He is said to have spent several years at Iona, and then to have proceeded to Rome where he received ordination from Pope St Gregory the Great. We next find him at Leighlin, on the banks of the Barrow, in a monastery presided over by its founder, St Goban. At a synod held at White Fields in the immediate vicinity, St Laisren was foremost in upholding the Roman date for keeping Easter as against the Columban usage still widely prevalent in Ireland. The conference, which was conducted with great courtesy on both sides, could come to no conclusion, and it was decided to send St Laisren with a deputation to refer the matter to the pope. On this second visit to Rome, the saint was consecrated bishop by Honorius and appointed papal legate for Ireland. In this capacity he would seem to have succeeded in practically settling the paschal controversy as far as the south of Ireland was concerned.