Tuesday Saints of this Day February  09 Quinto Idus Februárii.  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

The Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) Last Sermon

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

February 9 – Our Lady of the Castle (Fiorano, Italy, 1558) 
Rebecca is a figure of the Virgin Mary 
Some Christians do not believe that it is possible to pray to the Virgin Mary, or that she can pray for us.
Since the Scriptures are the best means of helping them, let us turn to the Scriptures.

Do you recall the story of Jacob and Esau? Esau had sold his birthright for some lentil soup.
When Isaac had grown old Rebecca wanted to obtain for her son Jacob his father's blessing. Isaac had become blind.
 Rebecca clothed her son Jacob in his brother's garments and Jacob obtained his father's blessing.
Rebecca is a figure of the Virgin Mary.

The Virgin Mary, who loves each of us as Rebecca loved Jacob, clothes us in the garments of her firstborn son, Jesus Christ. The Virgin Mary is not the source of God's grace, but her immaculate heart, burning with love of God, wholly united with the heart of Christ, desires our salvation and implores her Son Jesus Christ to clothe us with the "garment of salvation," the grace of God. That is why, like Saint John, we can make a place for Mary in our homes.
She will be an even better mother to us than Rebecca was to Jacob.
Hervé Marie Catta Taken from www.1000questions.net

February 9 - Octave of the Purification of Mary  Prayer for Women after Childbirth
Almighty and merciful God, Who didst lay upon our mother Eve the fit punishment for her disobedience that she should bear children in sorrow, I offer to Thee all the pains of my child-bearing in propitiation for my sins; and I thank Thee that, through Thy help, the fruit of my womb has been safely brought forth into the world, and reborn in Baptism.
According to the example of the Mother of Thy only-begotten Son, I also offer to Thee my child for Thy holy service, and will earnestly strive to bring it up to Thy honor. To this end give me, through the intercession of the most blessed Virgin, Thy grace; bless me and my child, and grant that we may live according to Thy will here, and hereafter may obtain everlasting happiness.
Through Jesus Christ, Thy Son, our Lord.  Amen.

O God, seeing you are so infinitely lovable, why have you given us but one heart to love you,
and this so little and so narrow? -- St. Philip Neri

Goffine's Devout Instructions of the Epistles and Gospels, Nihil Ostat, Thomas L. Kinkead, 1896,
submitted by Father Hoerstman, Saint Ignatius Church, November 1915

Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Ashura marks two historical events: the day Nuh (Noah) left the Ark,
and the day that Musa (Moses) was saved from the Egyptians by Allah
Hieromartyrs Marcellus, Philagrius and Pancratius -- disciples of the holy Apostle Peter
      Sancti Cyrílli, Epíscopi Alexandríni, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris; cujus dies natális quinto Kaléndas Februárii recensétur.  
       St. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, confessor and doctor of the Church.  His birthday was mentioned on the
Jan 28th
249 St. Apollonia martyr patron of dental diseases
elderly virgin and deaconess of Alexandria
      St. Ammon Martyr with Emilian, Lassa, and companions
260 St. Nicephorus Martyr  ready to die in place of Sapricius
362 Primus and Donatus  slain by Donatists  
       St. Alexander Martyr with St. Ammonius and thirty-eight other Christians
566 Bishop Sabinus of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia  
576 Brachio 
580 St. Teilo Welsh bishop successful as a preacher founder
590 St. Eingan Welsh prince hermit   
695 St. Ansbert Bishop chancellor serving King Clotaire III 
700 St. Cuaran An Irish bishop became a hermit on Iona
8th v. St. Cronan the Wise bishop of Ireland
760 St. Alto Hermit missionary recorded as an Irishmen 
       St. Nebridius A bishop who served at Egara, near Barcelona, Spain. That see no longer exists.
1088 Blessed Marianus Scotus extraordinarily gifted at producing manuscripts
1094 Blessed Erizzo 4th general of Vallumbrosans
1222 St. Raynald of Nocera  Benedictine bishop Born in Umbria 
1430 Bl. Alvarez of Córdoba Dominican Confessor preacher born in Cordoba
15th v Saint Nicephorus of Vazhe Lake came to St Alexander of Svir (April 17) in the year 1510
1516 Saint Gennadius of Vazhe Lake
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani b. 1481? n 1928 Pius Xl named him the patron of orphans and abandoned children.
1805 Saint Innocent of Irkutsk body commemorate the uncovering of his relics in 1805 discovered incorrupt  in 1764
1910 St. Michael Cordero Ecuadorian de Ia Salle Brother first native vocation there

"All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord;
and all the families of the nations shall worship before him"
(Psalm 21:28)
  Mary Mother of GOD

Testify to 10 Miracles; 10 Cases of Heroic Virtue; 1 Martyrdom
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh,
was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

The Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) Last Sermon
This sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. in the 'Uranah valley of Mount Arafat' (in Mecca).
After praising, and thanking Allah he said:
"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib (Prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived...
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship ALLAH, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the QURAN and my example, the SUNNAH and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O ALLAH, that I have conveyed your message to your people".

Hieromartyrs Marcellus, Philagrius and Pancratius were disciples of the holy Apostle Peter
and were made bishops by him: St Marcellus, of Sicily; Philagrius, of Cyprus, and Pancratius, of Taormina.
They were put to death for spreading the faith of Christ among the pagans.

St Marcellus, of Sicily; Philagrius, of Cyprus, and Pancratius, of Taormina. They were put to death for spreading the faith of Christ among the pagans.

The Leavetaking of the Meeting of the Lord usually falls on February 9, but may be moved if the Feast falls during the period of the Triodion. In that case, the Typikon must be consulted for information on the Leavetaking.
Usually, the entire office of the Feast is repeated except for the Entrance, festal readings, and Litya at Vespers, and the Polyeleos and festal Gospel at Matins.
The festal Antiphons are not sung at Liturgy, and the Epistle and Gospel of the day are read.

249 Saint Apollonia elderly virgin and deaconess of Alexandria
 Alexandríæ natális sanctæ Apollóniæ, Vírginis et Mártyris, cui persecutóres, sub Décio, dentes omnes primum excussérunt.  Deínde, constrúcto ac succénso rogo, iídem commináti sunt, nisi cum eis ímpia verba proférret, vivam se eam incensúros; at illa, cum páululum intra semetípsam deliberásset, repénte se de mánibus impiórum prorípuit, et in ignem, quem paráverant, majóre Sancti Spíritus flamma intus æstuans, sponte ita prosilívit, ut perterreréntur étiam ipsi crudelitátis auctóres, quod prómptior invénta esset ad mortem fémina quam persecútor ad pœnam.
       At Alexandria, in the reign of Decius, the birthday of St. Apollonia, virgin, who had all her teeth broken out by the persecutors; then, having constructed and lighted a pyre, they threatened to burn her alive unless she uttered with them certain impious words.  Deliberating a while within herself, she suddenly slipped from their grasp, and prompted by the greater fire of the Holy Ghost within her, she rushed voluntarily into the fire which they had prepared.  Those responsible for her death were struck with terror at the sight of a woman who was more willing to die than they to kill her.

    ST Dionysius of Alexandria wrote to Fabius, Bishop of Antioch, an account of the persecution of the Christians by the heathen populace of Alexandria in the last year of the reign of the Emperor Philip. The first victim of their rage was a venerable old man named Metras or Metrius, whom they tried to compel to utter blasphemies against God. When he refused, they beat him, thrust splinters of reeds into his eyes, and stoned him to death. The next person they seized was a Christian woman, called Quinta, whom they carried to one of their temples to force her to worship the idol. She addressed their false god with words of scorn which so exasperated the people that they dragged her by the heels over the cobbles, scourged and then stoned her. By this time the rioters were at the height of their fury.
         The Christians offered no resistance but betook themselves to flight, abandoning their goods without complaint because their hearts had no ties upon earth. Their constancy was so general that St Dionysius knew of none who had renounced Christ. Apollonia, an aged deaconess, was seized. With blows in the face they knocked out all her teeth, and then, kindling a great fire outside the city, they threatened to cast her into it unless she uttered certain impious words. She begged for a moment’s delay as if to consider the proposal then, to convince her persecutors that her sacrifice was perfectly voluntary, she no sooner found herself free than she leaped into the flames of her own accord. They next wreaked their fury on a holy man named Serapion and tortured him in his own house then they threw him headlong from the roof.
           We meet with churches and altars dedicated in honour of St Apollonia in most parts of the Western church, but she is not venerated in any Oriental church, though she suffered in Alexandria. To account for her action in thus anticipating her death St Augustine supposes that she acted by a particular direction of the Holy Ghost, since it would not otherwise be lawful for anyone to hasten his own end.
         She is invoked against toothache and all dental diseases, and her more common attributes in art are a pair of pincers holding a tooth, or else a golden tooth suspended on her necklace.
           The statement of St Dionysius of Alexandria is incorporated by Eusebius in his history
         (vi, ix). See also Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. ii; Kü
nstle, Ikonographie, pp. 90—93,
         where an excellent bibliography will be found dealing mainly with the representations of
         St Apollonia in art and Il martirio di S. Apollonia (1934), by G. B. Poletti, a dental surgeon.
         Cf. also an article by H. Nux in the Revue d’odontologie, vol. iii (1947), pp. 113 seq., and
         Fr M. Coens in Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxx (1952), pp. 138—159, where some recent
         bibliographical references are given. There is a dentists’ periodical in Boston, U.S.A.,
         called The Apollonian.

The account of the life of St. Apollonia was written by St. Dionysius of Alexandria (October 5) to Fabian, Bishop of Antioch in one of his letters.
Apollonia was an old woman, a deaconess, but she was brave as the other Christians. Her bishop, Saint Dionysius, who witnessed her death, described it in a letter to Fabius and preserved by Eusebius, bishop of Antioch:
When Decius became emperor in 249, he launched the greatest attack upon Christianity up to that time, becoming the first emperor to call for its total exterminaion. St Dionysius says that the persecution started at Alexandria a year before it began in other places, incited by a certain "prophet and poet of evil," who stirred up the people against the Christians.

Backed by the power of the government, the pagans massacred Christians, believing that they were serving their false gods by doing so. The "aged and excellent virgin Apollonia" was seized and struck in the face until all her teeth were knocked out. The mob built a fire outside the city and threatened to burn her alive unless she agreed to worship the idols and sacrifice to the emperor's genius.

St Apollonia asked the pagans to let go of her for a moment so that she could pray. As soon as they did, she leaped into the flames and was consumed, receiving a double crown of martyrdom and virginity. Because of the nature of her torments, she is sometimes depicted with a golden tooth hanging from a necklace, or holding a tooth in a pair of pincers.
She is invoked by those suffering from toothache.
It can never be lawful for a person by any action willfully to concur to, or hasten his own death, though many martyrs, out of a desire to lay down their lives for God, anticipated the executioners in completing their sacrifice. Rather it was a monstrous belief among the ancient Greeks and Romans that it was honorable, even heroic, to commit suicide in distress, as a remedy against temporal miseries. As Christians we believe that our lives are not our own, they belong to God. "The Lord gives and the Lord takes away. Blessed be the name of the Lord." Our lives are the greatest gift God has bestowed upon us. Whatever befalls us in this life, it takes more courage and greatness of spirit to endure sufferings patiently than to take our own lives. We see the example of Job in the Old Testament, and trust in God.

After the deaths of these four martyrs in ancient Alexandria, the rioters were in the height of their fury. Alexandria seemed like a city taken by storm. The Christians made no opposition, but betook themselves to flight, and beheld the loss of their goods with joy; for their hearts had no ties on earth. Their constancy was equal to their disinterestedness; for of all who fell into their hands, Saint Dionysius knew of none that renounced Christ. A civil war put an end to the fury of the populace, but the edict of Decius renewed it in 250. In this true story, we see the damage that can be caused by rumor.

Although altars and churches were soon dedicated to her in the West, Apollonia appears to have had no cultus in the East. Perhaps this was because she was soon confused with another Saint Apollonia who was martyred by Julian the Apostate. Of course, later artists and writers turned her into a beautiful young girl, daughter of a king, sometimes tortured by her own father by having her teeth extracted by pincers. Sometimes the story ends with the repentance of her father who vows to help those who suffer from toothache.

A quarterly publication for dentists out of Boston, Massachusetts, is called, appropriately, The Apollonian. Her feast is now celebrated only by those parishes of which she is the patroness (Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth, Tabor, White).

With good reason, Saint Apollonia is pictured holding a tooth (sometimes gold) with a pair of pincers. She may be shown after her teeth were pulled out or simply with a book and pincers. She is invoked against toothache (Roeder). If she does not have the pincers, she usually wears a necklace made of her own teeth (Bentley). She is the patron of dentists (White). There is a frescoe of her by Luini at Saronno (Tabor).
260 St. Nicephorus Martyr  ready to die in place of Sapricius Father Delehaye is absolutely right in characterizing the narrative summarized as nothing better than a pious romance.
 Antiochíæ sancti Nicéphori Mártyris, qui sub Valeriáno Imperatóre, cápite cæsus, martyrii corónam accépit.
       At Antioch, under Emperor Valerian, St. Nicephorus, martyr, who was beheaded and thus received the crown of martyrdom.
He was supposedly put to death during the persecutions under Emperor Valenan, although there is serious question about his historical existence. Tradition states that Nicephorus’ martyrdom involved a priest named Sapricius, who apostatized, which brought about Nicephorus’ death.

Nicephorus of Antioch M (RM) Died 260. Saint Nicephorus was martyred in Antioch under Valerian. The known acta may be pious fiction designed to teach the need to forgive injuries.

         THERE dwelt in Antioch a priest called Sapricius and a layman named Nicephorus, who were close friends of many years, but dissension having arisen their friendship was succeeded by bitter hatred. This continued for a time until Nicephorus, realizing the sinfulness of such animosity, resolved to seek a reconciliation. Twice he deputed some of his friends to go to Sapricius to ask his forgiveness. The priest, however, refused to be placated. Nicephorus sent a third time—but still to no purpose, Sapricius having closed his ears even to Christ who commands us to forgive as we would be forgiven. Nicephorus now went in person to his house and, owning his fault, humbly begged for pardon; but this succeeded no better.
     It was the year 260, when the persecution against the Christians suddenly began to rage under Valerian and Gallienus.  Sapricius soon after was apprehended and brought before the governor, who asked him his name. ‘‘Sapricius”, he answered. “Of what profession inquired the governor.”  I am a Christian.” Then he was asked if he was of the clergy.  “ I have the honour to be a priest”, replied Sapricius, adding, “We Christians acknowledge one Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, who is God the only and true God, who created heaven and earth. The gods of the pagans are devils.”
   The president, exasperated, gave orders for him to be tortured on the rack. This did not shake the constancy of Sapricius, who said to his tormentors, “My body is in your power, but you cannot touch my soul of which my Saviour Jesus Christ is master”. The president, seeing him so resolute, pronounced sentence : “ Sapricius, the Christian priest, who is so ridiculously certain that he will rise again, shall be delivered over to the public executioner to be beheaded, because he has condemned the edict of the emperors Sapricius seemed to receive this sentence cheerfully, and was in haste to arrive at the place of execution. Nicephorus ran to meet him and, casting himself at his feet, said, “Martyr of Jesus Christ, forgive me my offence.” Sapricius made no answer. Nicephorus waited for him in another street and again besought forgiveness, but the heart of Sapricius was more and more hardened and he would not even look at him. The soldiers jeered at Nicephorus for being so anxious for the pardon of a criminal about to die. At the place of execution, Nicephorus renewed his supplications, but all in vain. The executioner ordered Sapricius to kneel down that they might cut off his head. Sapricius asked, “Upon what account ?”—Because you will not sacrifice to the gods or obey the emperors.” The wretched man exclaimed, “Stay, friends ! Do not put me to death. I will do as you desire I am ready to sacrifice.” Nicephorus, distressed at his apostasy, exclaimed, “Brother, what are you doing? Do not renounce our master, Jesus Christ I Do not forfeit a crown you have gained by your sufferings!” But as Sapricius would pay no attention to his words, Nicephorus, weeping bitterly, said to the executioners, “I am a Christian, and believe in Jesus Christ whom this miserable man has denied: behold, I am ready to die in his stead.” All were greatly astonished, and the officers dispatched a lictor to the governor, asking what they should do. The governor replied that if Nicephorus persisted in refusing to sacrifice to the gods, he should perish; and he was accordingly executed. Thus, Nicephorus received three immortal crowns, of faith, of humility and of charity.
Although St Nicephorus is commemorated on this day in the Roman Martyrology, and though the acts have been included by Ruinart in his collection of authentic stories of martyrdoms, there can be little doubt that Father Delehaye is absolutely right in characterizing the narrative summarized above as nothing better than a pious romance. Ruinart has not in fact been quite candid in his treatment of the text which he prints. The older Greek text contains many citations from Scripture and other comments which to the discerning eye betray the purpose of edification which the author had dominantly in view. These Ruinart, following a later recension, has omitted. The whole object of the Nicephorus narrative, as Delehaye (Les passions des martyrs et les genres litéraires, 1925, p. 220) points out, is to teach the moral lesson of the forgiveness of injuries. He holds that these acts constitute a typical specimen of the “romance of the imagination”, the hero of which never existed (see Les légendes hagiographiques, 1927, pp. 109 and 113). It is true that Nicephorus has been adopted as a local saint in Istria (ib., p. 56), but he certainly did not belong there.  See the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. ii; BHL., nn. 6085, 6086 BHG., nn. 1331—1334 Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xvi (1897), p. 299.   
They tell us that Nicephorus had a long- time, close friend, a priest named Sapricius. The two had a falling out, which turned friendship into hatred. After a long time, Nicephorus reflected upon the grievousness of the sin of hatred, and resolved to seek a reconciliation. Because Sapricius would not talk to him, he asked some mutual friends to go to Sapricius to beg his pardon and promise him satisfaction for the injury done him.

The priest refused to forgive him. Again, Nicephorus tried a second and a third time to forge a reconciliation. Sapricius was inflexible. He had shut his heart to Christ's command to forgive others in order that the Father might forgive us. Finally, to no avail, Nicephorus himself went to his former friend, cast himself at Sapricius's feet, and begged forgiveness.

At that time, 260 AD, another persecution of Christians was raging. Sapricius was arrested, examined, and tortured in an attempt to make him apostatize. The words of Sapricius were commendable. Sapricius received the sentence of beheading with seeming cheerfulness. On his way to the place of execution, he was met by Nicephorus, who caste himself at the priest's feet: "Martyr of Jesus Christ, forgive me my offense." But Sapricius would not answer.

Nicephorus waited for him in another street which he was to pass through, and as soon as he saw him coming up, broke through the crowd, and falling again at his feet, begged pardon for the injury caused by frailty rather than design. This he begged by the glorious confession he had made of the divinity of Jesus Christ. Sapricius's heart was more and more hardened, and now he would not so much as look on him. The soldiers laughed at Nicephorus, saying: "I've never seen a greater fool than you who are so solicitous for the pardon of a man on the verge of execution." At the place of execution, Nicephorus redoubled his humble entreaties and supplications, but all in vain; for Sapricius continued as obstinate as ever, in refusing to forgive. At the same time the devil was working in other ways. Sapricius apostatized at the last moment. Nicephorus, taken aback, demurred, "Brother, what are you doing? Don't renounce Jesus Christ our good Master! Don't forfeit the crown you have already won by your sufferings!" But Sapricius paid no attention.

Then with tears of bitter anguish for Sapricius, Nicephorus confessed that he was a Christian and was ready to die in place of Sapricius. Everyone there was astonished. At first the officers of justice were uncertain how to proceed. Nicephorus was executed by the sword and won for himself three immortal crowns, namely, of faith, humility, and charity (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
Saint Nicephorus is usually portrayed at his martyrdom: He is either in a tub or a barrel and pierced through (Roeder).
St. Alexander Martyr with St. Ammonius and thirty-eight other Christians
 Romæ pássio sanctórum Mártyrum Alexándri et aliórum trigínta octo coronatórum.
      At Rome, the passion of the holy martyrs Alexander and thirty-eight others crowned with him.
There is some debate concerning this martyrdom, similar to one in Soli on Cyprus.

362 Primus and Donatus  slain by Donatists MM, Deacons (RM)
 In castéllo Lemelénsi, in Africa, sanctórum Mártyrum Primi et Donáti Diaconórum, qui, cum altáre in Ecclésia tutaréntur, a Donatístis occísi sunt.
       In the village of Lamelum in Africa, the holy martyrs Primus and Donatus, deacons, who were killed by the Donatists as they guarded the altar in the church.

Deacons Primus and Donatus were slain by Donatists during a struggle for control of the Church at Lavallum in northwest Africa (Benedictines).

            ST CYRIL
has been called the Doctor of the Incarnation, as St Augustine was styled the Doctor of Divine Grace in the great intercession of the Syrian and Maronite Mass he is commemorated as “a tower of truth and interpreter of the Word of God made flesh”.

Throughout his life he made it a rule never to advance any doctrine which he had not learnt from the ancient fathers, but his books against Julian the Apostate show that he had also read the profane writers. He often said himself that he neglected human eloquence, and it is certainly to be regretted that he did not cultivate a clearer style and write purer Greek.
Upon the death of his uncle Theophilus in 412, he was raised to the see of Alexandria. He began to exert his authority by causing the churches of the Novatians to be closed and their sacred vessels to be seized—an action condemned by the church historian Socrates, but we do not know his reasons and the grounds upon which he acted. He next drove out the Jews, who were numerous and who had enjoyed privileges in the city since the time of Alexander the Great. Their generally seditious attitude and several acts of violence committed by them decided him to take this step, which incensed Orestes the governor, although it was approved by the Emperor Theodosius. This unhappy disagreement with Orestes led to grievous results. Hypatia, a pagan woman of noble character, was the most influential teacher of philosophy at that time in Alexandria, and her reputation was so great that disciples flocked to her from all parts. Among these was the great Bishop Synesius, who submitted his works to her criticism. She was much respected by the governor, who used to consult her even on matters of civil administration.
  Nowhere was the populace more unruly or more prone to lawless acts of violence than in Alexandria. Acting upon a suspicion that Hypatia had incensed the governor against their bishop, the mob in 417 attacked her in the streets, pulled her out of her chariot, and tore her body in pieces—to the great grief and scandal of all good men, and especially, it may be believed, of St Cyril. Only one other fact is known to us concerning this earlier period of his episcopate. He had imbibed certain prejudices against St John Chrysostom, having been with Theophilus at the Synod of The Oak; Cyril had something of his uncle’s obstinacy, and it was no easy matter to induce him to insert Chrysostom’s name in the diptychs of the Alexandrian church.
           In the year 428 Nestorius, a priest-monk of Antioch, was made archbishop of Constantinople ; and he there taught with some of his clergy that there were two distinct persons in Christ, that of God and that of man, joined only by a moral union whereby, according to them, the Godhead dwelt in the manhood merely as its temple. Consequently he denied the Incarnation, that God was made man. He also said that the Blessed Virgin ought not to be styled the mother of God, but only of the man Christ, whose humanity was but the temple of the divinity and not a nature hypostatically assumed by the divine Person. His homilies gave great offence, and protests arose from all sides against the errors they contained. St Cyril sent him a mild expostulation, but was answered with.haughtiness and contempt. Both parties appealed to Pope St Celestine I who, after examining the doctrine in a council at Rome, condemned it and pronounced a sentence of excommunication and deposition against Nestorius unless, within ten days of receiving notice of the sentence, he publicly retracted his errors. St Cyril, who was appointed to see the sentence carried out, sent Nestorius, with his third and last summons, twelve propositions with anathemas to be signed by him as a proof of his orthodoxy.
         Nestorius, however, showed himself more obstinate than ever.*   *  It is debatable whether Nestorius in fact held all the opinions attributed to him in  any case he was hardly the originator of the heresy that bears his name.

           This occasioned the summoning of the third general council which was held at Ephesus in 431, attended by two hundred bishops with St Cyril at their head as senior bishop and Pope Celestine’s representative. Nestorius was present in the town, but refused to appear; so after his sermons had been read and other evidence received against him, his doctrines were condemned, and a sentence of excommunication and deposition was pronounced. Six days later there arrived at Ephesus Archbishop John of Antioch, with forty-one bishops who had not been able to reach Ephesus in time. They were in favour of Nestorius, although they did not share his errors, of which indeed they deemed him innocent. Instead of associating themselves with the council, they assembled by themselves and presumed to depose St Cyril, accusing him in turn of heresy. Both sides appealed to the emperor, by whose order St Cyril and Nestorius were both arrested and kept in confinement.
         When three legates arrived from Pope Celestine, the matter took another turn. After a careful consideration of what had been done, the legates confirmed the condemnation of Nestorius, approved Cyril’s conduct, and declared the sentence pronounced against him null and void. Thus he was vindicated with honour and, though the bishops of the Antiochene province continued their schism for a while, they made peace with St Cyril in 433, when they condemned Nestorius and gave a clear and orthodox declaration of their own faith. Nestorius retired to his old monastery at Antioch, but later was exiled to the Egyptian desert.
     St Cyril, who had thus triumphed over heresy by his intrepidity and courage, spent the rest of his life in maintaining the faith of the Church and in the labours of his see, until his death in 444.  The Alexandrians gave him the title of Teacher of the World, whilst Pope Celestine described him as “the generous defender of the Catholic faith” and “an apostolic man”. He was a man of strong and impulsive character, brave but sometimes over-vehement, indeed violent. Abbot Chapman has suggested that more patience and diplomacy on his part might have prevented the rise of the Nestorian Church which was for so long a power in the East. But we have to thank him for the firm and uncompromising stand he took with regard to the dogma of the Incarnation—an attitude which led to the clear statements of the great council over which he presided. Although since his day Nestorianism and Pelagianism have, from time to time and under different names, tried to rear their heads in various quarters of the world, they have never again been a real menace to the Catholic Church as a whole. We ought indeed to be grateful that we, in our generation, are left in no doubt as to what we should believe with regard to that holy mystery upon which we base our faith as Christians.

He was declared a doctor of the Universal Church in 1882  and at the fifteenth centenary of his death in 1944 Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical letter, “Orientalis ecclesiae”, on “this light of Christian wisdom and valiant hero of the apostolate
    The great devotion of this saint to the Blessed Sacrament is manifest from the frequency with which he emphasizes the effects it produces upon those who receive it worthily. Indeed, he says that by holy communion we are made concorporeal with Christ. And it must surely be difficult for those who profess to hold the same faith as that defined in the first six general councils to shut their eyes to the vigour and conviction with which St Cyril before the year 431 affirmed his Eucharistic doctrine. In a letter to Nestorius, which received the general and formal assent of the fathers at Ephesus, he had written
              Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of
            God, that is, Jesus Christ, and confessing His resurrection from the dead and
            ascent into Heaven, we celebrate the bloodless sacrifice in our churches and
            thus approach the mystic blessings, and are sanctified by partaking of the holy
            flesh and the precious blood of Christ the Saviour of us all. And we receive
            it, not as common flesh (God forbid), nor as the flesh of a man sanctified and
            associated with the Word according to the unity of merit, or as having a divine
            indwelling, but as really the life-giving and very flesh of the Word Himself
            (Migne, PG., lxxvii, xii).
            And he wrote to Calosyrius, Bishop of Arsinoë:
              I hear that they say that the sacramental consecration does not avail for
            hallowing if a portion of it be kept to another day. In saying so they are crazy.
            For Christ is not altered, nor will His holy body be changed; but the power
            of the consecration and the life-giving grace still remain in it (Migne, PG.,
            lxxvi, 1073).
           Our knowledge of St Cyril is derived principally from his own writings and from the church historians Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret. The view of his life and work presented by Butler is the traditional view, and we are not here directly concerned with the discussions which, owing mainly to the discovery of the work known as The Bazaar of Heracleides, have since been devoted to the character of Nestorius and his teaching.
      Literature connected with St Cyril is very copious. A sufficient account will be found in
         the two articles in DTC., 
Cyrille d’Alexandrie  and “Ephèse, Concile de—as well as
         in Bardenhewer’s Patrology. See also Duchesne, Histoire ancienne de l’É
glise, vol. iii (Eng.
         trans.) Abbot Chapman in the Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. iv, pp. 592—595 and A.
         Fortescue, The Greek Fathers (1908).

Saint Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria, a distinguished champion of Orthodoxy and a great teacher of the Church, came from an illustrious and pious Christian family. He studied the secular sciences, including philosophy, but most of all he strove to acquire knowledge of the Holy Scriptures and the truths of the Christian Faith. In his youth Cyril entered the monastery of Macarius in the Nitreia hills, where he stayed for six years. Theophilus (385-412), the Patriarch of Alexandria, ordained him as a deacon, numbered him among the clergy and entrusted him to preach.

Upon the death of Patriarch Theophilus, Cyril was unanimously chosen to the patriarchal throne of the Alexandrian Church. He led the struggle against the spread of the Novatian heresy in Alexandria, which taught that any Christian who had fallen away from the Church during a time of persecution, could not be received back into it.

Cyril, seeing the futility of admonishing the heretics, sought their expulsion from Alexandria. The Jews appeared a greater danger for the Church, repeatedly causing riots, accompanied by the brutal killing of Christians. The saint long contended with them. In order to wipe out the remnants of paganism, the saint cast out devils from an ancient pagan temple and built a church on the spot, and the relics of the Holy Unmercenaries Cyrus and John were transferred into it. A more difficult struggle awaited the saint with the emergence of the Nestorian heresy.

Nestorius, a presbyter of the Antiochian Church, was chosen in 428 to the see of Constantinople and there he was able to spread his heretical teaching against the dogma about the uncommingled union of two natures in the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Nestorius called the Mother of God not the Theotokos, but rather Christotokos or “Birth-giver of Christ,” implying that she gave birth not to God, but only to the man Christ. The holy Patriarch Cyril repeatedly wrote to Nestorius and pointed out his error, but Nestorius continued to persevere in it. Then the saint sent out epistles against Nestorianism to the clergy of Constantinople and to the holy emperor Theodosius the Younger (408-450), denuncing the heresy. Cyril wrote also to other Churches, to Pope Celestine and to the other Patriarchs, and even to monks of several monasteries, warning ofthe emergence of a dangerous heresy.

Nestorius started an open persecution against the Orthodox. In his presence one of his partisans, Bishop Dorotheus, pronounced an anathema against anyone who would call the Most Holy Virgin Mary the Theotokos.

Nestorius hated Cyril and brought out against him every kind of slander and fabrication, calling him a heretic. The saint continued to defend Orthodoxy with all his powers. The situation became so aggravated, that it became necessary to call an Ecumenical Council, which convened in the city of Ephesus in the year 431. At the Council 200 bishops arrived from all the Christian Churches. Nestorius, awaiting the arrival of Bishop John of Antioch and other Syrian bishops, did not agree to the opening of the Council. But the Fathers of the Council began the sessions with Cyril presiding. Having examined the teaching of Nestorius, the Council condemned him as a heretic. Nestorius did not submit to the Council, and Bishop John opened a “robber council”, which decreed Cyril a heretic. The unrest increased. By order of the emperor, Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria and Archbishop Memnon of Ephesus were locked in prison, and Nestorius was deposed.

Soon Sts Cyril and Memnon were freed, and the sessions of the Council continued. Nestorius, not submitting himself to the determinations of the Council, was deprived of priestly rank. By order of the emperor he was sent to the faraway place Sasim in the Libyan wilderness, where he died in grievous torments. His tongue, having blasphemed the Mother of God, was overtaken by punishment -- in it there developed worms. Even Bishop John of Antioch and the remaining Syrian bishops signed the decrees of the Council of Ephesus.

Cyril guided the Alexandrian Church for 32 years, and towards the end of his life the flock was cleansed of heretics. Gently and cautiously Cyril approached anyone, who by their own simpleness and lack of knowledge, fell into false wisdom. There was a certain Elder, an ascetic of profound life, who incorrectly considered the Old Testament Priest Melchizedek to be the Son of God. Cyril prayed for the Lord to reveal to the Elder the correct way to view the righteous one. After three days the Elder came to Cyril and said that the Lord had revealed to him that Melchizedek was a mere man.

Cyril learned to overcome his prejudice against the memory of the great John Chrysostom (November 13). Theophilus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, and uncle of Cyril, was an antagonist of John, and presided in a council in judgment of him. Cyril thus found himself in a circle antagonistic to John Chrysostom, and involuntarily acquired a prejudice against him. Isidore of Pelusium (February 4) repeatedly wrote to Cyril and urged him to include the name of the great Father of the Church into the diptychs of the saints, but Cyril would not agree.

Once in a dream he saw a wondrous temple, in which the Mother of God was surrounded by a host of angels and saints, in whose number was John Chrysostom. When Cyril wanted to approach the All-Holy Lady and venerate her, John Chrysostom would not let him. The Theotokos asked John to forgive Cyril for having sinned against him through ignorance. Seeing that John hesitated, the Mother of God said, “Forgive him for my sake, since he has labored much for my honor, and has glorified me among the people calling me Theotokos.” John answered, “By your intercession, Lady, I do forgive him,” and then he embraced Cyril with love.

Cyril repented that he had maintained anger against the great saint of God. Having convened all the Egyptian bishops, he celebrated a solemn feast in honor of John Chrysostom.

Cyril died in the year 444, leaving behind many works. In particular, the following ought to be mentioned: commentaries On the Gospel of Luke, On the Gospel of John, On the Epistles of the Apostle Paul to the Corinthians and to the Hebrews; also an Apologia in Defense of Christianity against the Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363). Of vast significance are his Five Books against Nestorius; a work on the Most Holy Trinity under the title Thesaurus, written against Arius and Eunomios. Also two dogmatic compositions on the Most Holy Trinity, distinguished by a precise exposition of the Orthodox teaching on the Procession of the Holy Spirit. Cyril wrote Against Anthropomorphism for several Egyptians, who through ignorance depicted God in human form. Among Cyril’s works are also The Discussions, among which is the moving and edifying Discourse on the Exodus of the Soul, inserted in the Slavonic “Following Psalter”.

Today we commemorate the repose of this great Father of the Church. He is also remembered on January 18, the date of his flight from Alexandria.

566 Bishop Sabinus of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia B (RM)
 Canúsii, in Apúlia, sancti Sabíni, Epíscopi et Confessóris; qui (ut beátus Gregórius Papa refert), prophetíæ spíritu ac miraculórum dono præditus, sibi jam cæco exhíbitum a fámulo, præmiis corrúpto, venéni póculum divino agnóvit instínctu, sed, prænuntiáta mox a Deo suménda de corruptóre vindícta signóque Crucis facto, venénum secúrus ebíbit ac nullum ex eo nocuméntum accépit.
      At Canossa in Apulia, St. Sabinus, bishop and confessor.  Blessed Pope Gregory tells that he was endowed with the spirit of prophecy and the power of miracles.  After he had become blind, when a cup of poison was offered to him by a servant who was bribed, he knew it by divine instinct.  He, however, declared that God would punish the one who had bribed the servant, and, making the sign of the cross, he drank the poison without anxiety and without harmful effect.
Bishop Sabinus of the now-destroyed city of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia was a friend of Saint Benedict. Pope Saint Agapitus I entrusted him with an embassy to Emperor Justinian (535-536). He is the patron saint of Bari, where his relics are now enshrined (Benedictines).

   THE history of St Sabinus is rather difficult to disentangle, not only because it has been overlaid with legend, but also because there are two other saints of the same name inscribed in the Acta Sanctorum on February 9 and some points in their lives are so similar that it seems as though they had been confused.
One of them was a bishop who assisted at the consecration of St Michael’s sanctuary on Monte Gargano in 493 and was buried at Atripaldo, but our saint lived later and his body was interred elsewhere. He was born at Canosa* in Apulia. * Canosa in Apulia (Canusium) is quite a different place from Canossa, not far from Parma, famous in the life of Pope St Gregory VII.

From his youth he only desired the things of God and cared nothing for money, except as a means of helping the poor which he did most generously. He became bishop of Canosa, and was on friendly terms with the most prominent men of his time, including St Benedict himself, who appears to have foretold to him that Rome would not be destroyed by Totila and the Goths.

Pope St Agapitus I sent him to the court of the Emperor Justinian to support the newly-appointed patriarch, St Mennas, against the heretic Anthimus, and he attended the council presided over by Mennas in the year 536. On his way back through Lycia, he visited the tomb of St Nicholas at Myra and saw the saint in a vision.
   In old age Sabinus lost his sight, but was endowed with great inward light and with the gift of prophecy. It is related that Totila, wishing to test it, persuaded the bishop’s cupbearer to let him proffer the drinking-cup to the blind saint. No sooner had Sabinus grasped the cup than he exclaimed, “Long live that hand
; and from thenceforth Totila and his courtiers held him to be indeed a prophet.
     Another occasion on which he displayed this power was when his archdeacon, Vindimus, who was eager to obtain the bishopric, wishing to hasten his death induced the cupbearer to put poison in the old man’s cup. St Sabinus said to the youth, “Drink it yourself!  I know what it contains”. Then, as the cupbearer started back in terror, the saint took the goblet and drained it, saying, “I will drink this, but the instigator of this crime will never be a bishop”. The poison did him no harm, but his would-be successor died that same hour, in his own house three miles away.

St Sabinus died in his fifty-second year, and his body was eventually translated to Bari, where it seems to have been forgotten for a time and rediscovered in 1901. In 1562, the marble altar under which his relics lay was overlaid with silver and an inscription engraved upon it, recording the saint’s chief actions.
           See the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. ii; the Dialogues of St Gregory, bk ii, ch. 15,
           and bk iii, ch. 5 and Ughelli-Coletus, Italia Sacra, vol. x (1722), p. 37.

580 St. Teilo Welsh bishop successful as a preacher founder
also called Eliud, Issell, Teillo, Teilou, Dub, and Theliau.
         THERE is ample evidence from the manuscript Book of St Chad, church-dedications and the like that St Teilo was a very important man in South Wales in his time, but there are no extant writings about his life till some five hundred years after his death.
   Around the year 1130 Geoffrey (Galfridus), a priest of Llandaff, composed a life of Teilo in the form of a sermon and what seems to be a longer version of this life, altered to add glory to the see of Llandaff, is contained in the Liber Landavensis.
   Stripped of obvious accretions and borrowings from the lives of other saints, we are told that Teilo was born near Penally, hard by Tenby in Pembrokeshire, and the earlier form of his name was Eliud. He was the pupil first of St Dubricius and then of one Paulinus (possibly St Paul Aurelian is meant), with whom he met St David. Teilo is then made to accompany David on his mythical visit to Jerusalem. During the yellow plague, so called “because it made everyone it attacked yellow and bloodless”, Teilo with others went abroad, the Book of Llandaff says to Brittany, where he stayed with St Samson at Dol; and they “planted a big orchard of fruit-trees, three miles long, reaching from Dol to Cai, which is still called after their names.”
      After seven years St Teilo returned to Wales, and died eventually at Llandeilo Fawr in Carmarthenshire, where (and not at Llandaff) was certainly his chief monastery and the centre of his ministry. A dispute concerning the custody of his body arose between Llandeilo, Llandaff and Penally, “on the ground of the burial-place of his fathers being there and of his hereditary rights in the place”; we need not believe the story that this was settled by the miraculous multiplication of his body to satisfy the three claims.

There is attributed to Teilo a reply to a question put by St Cadoc,
“The greatest wisdom in a man is to refrain from injuring another when it is in his power to do so.”
   In speaking of charters granted to the see of Llandaff, the Liber Landavensis mentions three in what is now Monmouthshire which are of interest. The first is the grant to Teilo by Iddon ab Ynyr, “king” of Gwent, of his house, formerly belonging to St Dubricius, at Llangarth (Llanarth), * “ with all its territory and sanctuary”. *

Llanarth is one of the few districts in Wales where the Catholic faith has never died out since the Protestant Reformation.

The second is the not far distant Lann Maur, now Llandeilo Pertholey.
The third is also close by. Here Iddon was faced by a force of marauding Saxons. He asked the aid of Teilo, who was then at Llanarth. The saint accompanied him to a hill at Cressinych by the river Trothy, where he stood and prayed to Almighty God “for His people who had been despoiled, and God gave them the victory”. In gratitude Iddon granted the place to Teilo; it is now called Llandeilo Crossenny.
   Traces of the cultus of St Teilo in place-names and church-dedications are abundant all over South Wales, and are also found in Brittany, especially at Landeleau in the diocese of Quimper. His feast is still observed in the archdiocese of Cardiff and on Caldey island.
     Teilo is one of the four saints in whose honour the cathedral of Llandaff is dedicated: the others were Peter the Apostle, Dubricius and Oudoceus. Nothing certain is known about the last named, who is reputed to have been Teilo’s nephew and successor.
The text of the Book of  Llan Dâv was reproduced and commented on in detail by J. G. Evans in 1893, and the life of St Teilo therein critically edited by J. Loth in Annales de Bretagne, t. ix and x (1593). The best summary is Canon Doble’s St Teilo (1942). See also LBS, vol. iv, pp. 226—242, and Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xiv, pp. 445 seq. For St Oudoceus (Euddogwy), see Doble’s pamphlet.
A native of Penally, Pembrokshire, Wales, he studied under Sts. Dyfrig and Dubricius. He accompanied the famed St. David of Wales to Jerusalem and was a friend and assistant to St. Samson in Brittany, France, for seven years. Returning to Wales in 554, he was quite successful as a preacher and founded and served as abbot-bishop of Llandaff monastery in Dyfed, Wales. He was buried in Llandaff Cathedral.

Teilo of Llandaff B (AC) (also known as Teilio, Teilus, Thelian, Teilan, Teilou, Dillo, Dillon, Elidius, Eliud)
Born near Penally by Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died c. 580. There is plenty of evidence, both documentary and from place names and dedications, that Saint Teilo was widely venerated in southern Wales and Brittany. (His name may be spelled Teilio, Teilus, Thelian, Teilan, Teilou, Teliou, Dillo, or Dillon.) He was undoubtedly an influential churchman, whose principal monastic foundation and center of ministry was Llandeilo Fawr in Carmarthenshire; but available information on his life is late, confused, and contradictory.

Some facts are fairly certain. Teilo was educated under Saint Dyfrig (Dubricius) and a Paulinus, possibly Paul Aurelian through whom he met Saint David (Dewi).
We are told among other things that Teilo went with Saint David and Saint Paternus on David's mythical pilgrimage to Jerusalem. It is also related that during the 'yellow plague,' so called "because it made everyone it attacked yellow and bloodless," he went to Brittany and stayed with Saint Samson at Dol. There they "planted a big orchard of fruit-trees, three miles long, reaching from Dol to Cai, which is still called after their names." After seven years Teilo went back to Wales, dying at or near Llandeilo Fawr in Carmarthenshire, the site of his chief monastery and the center of his ministry.

One of the interesting, though probably fictional, elements of his story is that his sister Anaumed went over to Armorica in 490, and upon her arrival was married to Budic, king of the Armorican Britons. Before she left her own country she promised her brother that she would consecrate her first child in a particular manner to God.

It is said that Llandeilo, Penally, and Llandaff disputed which should have his relics. Miraculously his body multiplied into three overnight so that each should have it. This is the explanation given for the three different sets of relics for Teilo.

Much of the writing about Saint Teilo was composed in the interests of the medieval see of Llandaff, which claimed him as its second bishop. About 1130, Geoffrey (Galfridus), a priest of Llandaff, composed a vita of Teilo in the form of a sermon. A longer version of this life, altered to add importance to the diocese of Llandaff, can be found in the Liber Landavensis. Teilo is co-titular of the Llandaff cathedral with Saints Peter, Dubricius, and Oudoceus (Euddogwy). The last-named was claimed as Teilo's nephew and successor at Llandaff, but it is possible that he was a fictitious character, made up from legends about other people.

The Gospels of Saint Chad (written in southwestern Mercia about 700 AD) became the property of a church of Saint Teilo; marginal notes show that in the 9th century Teilo was venerated in southern Wales as the founder of a monastery called the Familia Teliavi. The book itself was regarded as belonging to Teilo; the curse of God and the saint is invoked on those who break the agreements contained in it.

The tomb of Saint Teilo, on which oaths are taken, is in Llandaff Cathedral. It was opened in 1850. Inside it was a record of another opening in 1736: "the parson buried appear'd to be a bishop by his Pastorall Staffe and Crotcher." The staff disintegrated but the pewter crozier remained. Outside of Wales, Teilo's name is especially venerated in Landeleau (diocese of Quimper), Brittany. His feast is still observed in the archdiocese of Cardiff and on Caldey Island (Attwater, Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth, Walsh).
576 Brachio
"Hunter who got caught in the trap of a hermit" (Encyclopedia).

590 St. Eingan Welsh prince hermit  6th century
also called Anianus, Einon, and Eneon. He came from Cumberland, in Wales, the son of a chieftain. Eingan had a hermitage built at Llanengan, near Bangor

Eingan of Llanengan, Hermit (AC) (also known as Einganor Eneon, Einion, Eneon, Anianus)
6th century (died c. 590); feast day sometimes shown as April 21. The British (or Scotus) prince Saint Eingan or Eneon Bhrenin, left Cumberland for Wales, where he ended his days as a hermit at Llanengan near Bangor. He is said to have been a son of the chieftain Cunedda, whose family claims no less than 50 saints (Benedictines).

695 St. Ansbert Bishop chancellor serving King Clotaire III of France.
 In monastério Fontanéllæ, in Gállia, sancti Ansbérti, Rotomagénsis Epíscopi.
       In the monastery of Fontanelle in France, St. Ansbert, bishop of Rouen.

    ANSBERT of Chaussy was chancellor to King Clotaire III, and in that position combined the recollection of a monk with the duties of a married man and of a statesman (he was at one time engaged to St Angadrisma; cf. her on October 14).
   Later he took the monastic habit at Fontenelle under St Wandregisilus and, when that holy founder’s immediate successor, St Lambert, was made bishop of Lyons, Ansbert was appointed abbot of the famous monastery. He was confessor to King Theodoric III, with whose consent he was chosen bishop of Rouen upon the death of St Ouen in 684. By his care, good order, learning and piety flourished in his diocese; nevertheless Pepin, mayor of the palace, seemingly for some political motive, banished him upon a false accusation to the monastery of Hautmont, on the Sambre in Hainault, where he died.
A good deal of controversy has arisen over the Life of St Ansbert, the best text of which
is that edited by W. Levison in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. v, pp. 613—643. Levison
considers that the life is not what it claims to be, the work of Aigradus, a contemporary,
but that its composition must be assigned to the end of the eighth century or the beginning
of the ninth. With this verdict, as against Vacandard (Revue des Quest. Histor., vol. lxvii,
1900, pp. 600—612), the modern Bollandists agree.
See also Legris in  Analecta  Bollandianna vol. xvii (1898), Pp. 265—306;
and Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, pp. 207—208.
A noted courtier, Ansbert was named the abbot of Fontenelle in Rouen, France. There he served as confessor to one of the kings of theOstrogoths. In 684, Ansbert succeeded St. Quen as bishop of Rouen, but was caught up in the political upheavals of his time. After a time, Ansbert was exiled to Hautmont Monastery by Pepin, the mayor of the royal palace. Ansbert died in the monastery.

Ansbert of Fontenelle, OSB B (RM) (also known as Aubert) Died c. 695-700. Saint Ansbert was the chancellor of the court of Clotaire III. Apparently, he was both a married man (widowed?) and a statesman, yet he was called by God to another life. He left the court for the Fontenelle Abbey where he placed himself under its founder, Saint Wandrille. When Wandrille's successor, Saint Lambert, was raised to the see of Lyons in 678, Ansbert was chosen to be its third abbot. He governed Fontenelle and was the confessor to King Theodoric III, until he was consecrated bishop of Rouen upon the death of Saint Ouen in 684. Although piety flourished in his see with his care, wisdom, and learning, Pepin of Heristal, mayor of the palace, banished him upon a false accusation to the monastery of Hautmont at Hainault on the Sambre, where he died (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

In art, Saint Ansbert is a bishop with a chalice and the abbey of Fontenelle is behind him. He might have a scourge in his hands (Roeder).

8th v. St. Cronan the Wise bishop of Ireland.
possibly identified with St. Roman He systematized canon law in Ireland.

St. Nebridius A bishop who served at Egara, near Barcelona, Spain. That see no longer exists.
St. Ammon Martyr with Emilian, Lassa, and companions unknown
 members of the forty-four Christians who were slain in Membressa, Africa.

700 St. Cuaran An Irish bishop became a hermit on Iona
also called Curvinus or Cronan. He became a hermit on Iona, Scotland, after retiring as bishop, hoping to conceal his identity. St. Columba, however, recognized Cuaran.

760 St. Alto Hermit missionary recorded as an Irishmen or possibly an Anglo-Saxon.
ST ALTO, ABBOT (c. A.D. 760)
         This saint was a monk, probably an Irishman, who found his way into Germany, and about the year 743 established himself as a hermit in a wood near Augsburg. The fame of his holiness and missionary labours reached King Pepin, who made him a grant of land where he was living, and on which he founded a monastery at the place now known as Altomünster, in Bavaria. Its church was dedicated by St Boniface about the year 750. The abbey followed the Irish mode of life, and St Boniface wanted entirely to interdict the approach of women to its precincts and church in accordance with the strict Celtic custom. To this St Alto would not agree, though he included the well blessed by Boniface within the monks’ enclosure. After Alto’s time the monastery fell on evil days, but was restored in 1000 as a Benedictine house, and still exists as an abbey of Bridgettine nuns. Nothing further is known of St Alto; but in the midst of a barbarous nation, at that time overrun with ignorance, vice and superstition, his humility and devotion infused into many the perfect spirit of religion, and his single life was a sensible demonstration of the power of divine grace in raising vessels of weakness and corruption to a state of sanctity.
The Life of St Alto, written by Abbot Othionus in the middle of the eleventh century, is printed in the Acta Sanctorum under February 9, but the text has been re-edited in Pertz, MGH., Scriptores, vol. xv, pp. 843—846. See also M. Huber in Wissenschaft Festgabe zum Jubilaeum des hl. Korbinian (1924), pp. 14—44; and Gougaud, Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity, p. 21
He lived near Augsburg, Germany, arriving in the region circa 743. Living in a simple hut in wild lands, Alto soon achieved a reputation for holiness and austerity. Word of his good works reached King Pepin, who gave him a parcel of land near Altmunster, in modern Friesling Diocese in Bavaria. Alto cleared the land and founded an abbey. St. Boniface came in 750 to dedicate the abbey church. The monastery was ravaged by the Huns but was restored in 1000 and made a Benedictine house.The Brigittines took it over in the fifteenth century.

Alto of Altomünster, OSB, Abbot (AC) Died c. 760. Alto was an Irish monk, who crossed over into Germany about 743 and settled as a hermit in a forest near Augsburg. King Pepin, hearing of Alto's holiness, gave him the land there on which Alto founded the monastery of Altomünster in Upper Bavaria. Saint Boniface dedicated its church in 750. In 1000 AD, according to tradition, Alto appeared in a vision to the king of Bavaria and asked him to restore the abbey, which the king did. Altomünster, which has been a Brigittine abbey for five centuries, still survives (Benedictines, Montague).

Saint Alto is represented as a bishop with the Christ-child and a chalice. At times he is shown with Saint Virgilius of Salzburg or Saint Bridget (Roeder).

Raynald of Nocera, OSB B (AC) Born near Nocera, Umbria, Italy; died 1225. Saint Raynald, son of German parents, became a Benedictine monk at Fontavellana. After being promoted to the see of Nocera in 1222, he was known as the corrector of sinners, protector of the poor and sick, and friend of Saint Francis of Assisi. He is now venerated as the chief patron of Nocera (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

In art, Saint Raynald is shown as a bishop, sometimes in episcopal vestments, waylaid by robbers, with whom he prays (Roeder).

1088 Blessed Marianus Scotus extraordinarily gifted at producing manuscripts , OSB Abbot (AC)
(also known as Muirdach MacRobartaigh or Muiredach MacGroarty)

         THE actual name of Marianus Scotus was Muiredach mac Robartaigh, and he appears to have been born in Donegal. As a boy he was remarkable for his personal beauty and great strength, as well as for his piety and for the charming simplicity of his manners. His parents destined him for the priesthood and he early assumed some sort of monastic habit, but without joining any community. With several companions he set out from Ireland in the year 1067, apparently with the intention of ultimately reaching Rome. At Bamberg they were kindly received by Bishop Otto of Regensburg, and under his direction they practised the strictest conventual rule, though still seculars. After a year the bishop, convinced of their vocation, advised them to enter a religious house and they were admitted to the Benedictine monastery of Michelsburg. Though they were very cordially received by the monks, they elected, as they could not speak German, to live apart from the rest, and accordingly a cell at the foot of the mountain was made over to them. There they remained for some time, but they had not forgotten their original intention of making a pilgrimage to Rome. They told the abbot, who, knowing that it was a devout practice very popular with Irishmen, gave them his blessing and a licence to continue on their way.
    Upon arrival at Regensburg they were hospitably entertained at the convent of the Upper Monastery and here Marianus, who was a most skilful and industrious scribe, was able to make himself extremely useful to the Abbess Emma by transcribing books for her. His biographer, after speaking of the rapidity with which he wrote, adds Among all the acts which Divine Providence deigned to perform through the same person, I deem this the most worthy of praise and admiration that the holy man wrote, from beginning to end, with his own hand, the Old and New Testaments, with explanatory comments on the same books, and this he did not once or twice but repeatedly, with a view to the eternal reward—all the while clad in sorry garb, living on slender diet, attended and aided by his brethren, both in the Upper and Lower Monasteries.”

From the Upper Monastery he moved to the Lower, where a cell was made over to him and to his brethren, who used to prepare the vellum while he was writing. A remarkable incident was related about Marianus at this period. It was usual to prepare lights for him, as he did much of his work at night. One evening the woman whose duty it was to provide the lights forgot all about them. After she had gone to bed she suddenly remembered her omission and, calling some of her companions, she started to fulfil her duty.
   They came to the holy man’s cell, walking on tiptoes, and then peeped through the chinks of the door. There they saw Marianus busily writing with his right hand whilst from three fingers of his uplifted left hand there proceeded three jets of light which gave an illumination more brilliant than that of many lamps. They told the abbess, and the fame of it spread far and wide. Nevertheless, as the chronicler remarks, Marianus-—like Moses—was ever the meekest and humblest of men.
   After remaining some time in Regensburg he proposed to resume his journey to Rome, but he first asked the Holy Spirit to make it clear to him whether it was the will of God that he should go or that he should remain where he was. His prayer was answered by a dream, in which he was told to start on his journey but to remain wherever he should first see the sun rise. He therefore got up very early and went to the church of St Peter outside the walls of the town to ask God’s blessing, and, as he emerged from the building, the sun rose and he knew that he was to stay in Regensburg. Here he settled down to a life which suited his tastes and talents. He was specially remarkable for his devotion to sacred literature, and not only was he a theologian but he was also a poet. It would not be possible to give a list of all the books he transcribed or wrote probably no record was kept of the smaller books and manual psalters which, we are told, he often wrote and gave away to poor clerics and distressed widows. Early copies of at least two of his codices are still extant, and the great library in Vienna possesses a manuscript containing the Epistles of St Paul (and the apocryphal Epistle to the Laodiceans) which is quite clearly an autograph production of his. It is written in small delicate letters and has a full marginal commentary with extracts from the fathers and other theological writers—all penned in the same handwriting—and, at the end, Marianus signs, in his mother tongue, his native Christian and family names.
Father Denis, s.j., who was librarian at the close of the eighteenth century, has given an interesting description of this document.
The abbess granted to Marianus the church of St Peter and a plot of land adjoining it, and here he built a house for himself and those of his fellow-countrymen who wished to live under his direction. In 1078 a burgher named Bezelin built for the Irish, at his own expense, a monastery with a cloister. The fame of Bd Marianus soon reached his native country, and relations and friends came over to join him in fact, it was not long before his renown had spread to all parts of Ireland and disciples flocked over from every district, although the six abbots who succeeded him all hailed from the province of Ulster. This was the origin of the Scottish or Irish monasteries of the south of Germany, some of which afterwards became so celebrated.
See the Life of Marianus in the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. ii Rader, Bavaria Sancta, vol. ii, pp.227—225 and Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. vii, pp. 290 seq.
Born in Donegal, Ireland. The noble MacRobartaigh family is related to the O'Donnels, who were the hereditary keepers of the Cathach (Battle Book of Colmcille). In 1067, Muirdach set out with some companions on a pilgrimage to Rome.
En route he was induced to become a Benedictine at Michelsberg Abbey (near Bamberg), Germany. The pilgrims stopped to rest at a hostel maintained by the local convent. Its abbess, Emma, learned that Muirdach was extraordinarily gifted at producing manuscripts. Using the seemingly irresistible powers of persuasion that all nuns seem to have, he took up her suggestion and migrated to Upper Minster at Regensburg to create the literary treasures of Saint Peter's Church in Regensburg. The most famous of these are the Pauline Epistles that now reside in the Imperial Library at Vienna, Austria. The quality and quantity of his artful productions, which appear inspired by the Holy Spirit gained for him a reputation for sanctity.

In 1078, he founded and became the abbot of the abbey of Saint Peter in Regensburg. Having successfully taken charge of the church and abbey attached to it for the task of copying manuscripts, other Irish monks were attracted to the mission. The abbey expanded to the point that, within 10 years, plans were made for another such monastery. In this way, Muirdach originated the congregation of 12 "Scottish," that is, Irish monasteries in southern Germany. (The reason for the term "Scottish" is that it was used from the time of the Romans for the Irish. Even 200 years after the establishment of the Scottish monarchy, the term was commonly used for things Irish. Although Scottish monks pressured Pope Leo XIII, who did permit them in 1515 to take possession of Saint James in Regensburg and the abbeys at Constanz and Erfurt. In Germany, the 12 are still known as the Schottenklöster. )

Saint James Abbey, like the ones to follow, was established with funds sent from Ireland. They retained the character and enjoyed privileges normally granted to Irish monasteries. In the 12th century, the emperor granted to the abbot of Saint James, considered the motherhouse, the privilege of using the half-eagle on his coat of arms, the right to the title of prince, and the status of independent statehood for the entire congregation of monasteries, which included the two at Regensburg, two in Vienna, and foundations at Würzburg, Nuremberg, Constanz, Memmingen, Erfurt, Kelheim, Oels, and Schottenburg (Silesia) (Benedictines, Montague).

1094 Blessed Erizzo 4th general of Vallumbrosans, OSB Vall. Abbot (AC)
Born in Florence, Italy; cultus confirmed in 1600.
Erizzo was Saint John Gualbert's first disciple. He later became the fourth general of the Vallumbrosans (Benedictines).

1222 St. Raynald of Nocera  Benedictine bishop Born in Umbria
Italy, to parents of German stock, he entered the Benedictines and served the order in various capacities until receiving appointment as bishop of Nocera in 1222.
Owing to the excellence of his service as bishop, he is considered the patron saint of that city.

1430 Bl. Alvarez of Córdoba Dominican Confessor preacher born in Cordoba
Spain. He became a Dominican in Córdoba in 1368. There he began a career of preaching, becoming famous throughout Spain and Italy for his preaching and holiness. He was also confessor to Queen Catherine and tutor of King John II in his youth. His influence at the court was a powerful force for good until he retired to an area near Córdoba where he founded a monastery, called Esalacele, or "The Ladder of Heaven."
When the antipope Benedict XIII came on the scene in 1394-1423, Alvarez opposed him successfully. Alvarez died about 1430.

Blessed Alvarez of Cordova, OP (AC)
(also known as Albaro)
Died c. 1430; cultus confirmed in 1741. Blessed Alvarez is claimed by both Spain and Portugal. He received the habit in the convent of Saint Paul in Cordova in 1368, and had been preaching there for some time in Castile and Andalusia when Saint Vincent Ferrer began preaching in Catalonia.

Having gone to Italy and the Holy Land on a pilgrimage, Alvarez returned to Castile and preached the crusade against the infidels. He was spiritual advisor to the queen-mother of Spain, Catherine daughter of John of Gaunt, and tutor to her son John II. Alvarez had the work of preparing the people spiritually for the desperate effort to banish the Moors from Spain. He also opposed the Avignon pope Peter de Luna.

Blessed Alvarez is probably best remembered as a builder of churches and convents, an activity which was symbolic of the work he did in the souls of those among whom he preached. He founded, in one place, a convent to shelter a famous image of Our Lady, which had been discovered in a miraculous manner. Near Cordova he built the famous convent of Scala Coeli, a haven of regular observance. It had great influence for many years. His building enterprises were often aided by the angels, who, during the night, carried wood and stones to spots convenient for the workmen.

The austerities of Alvarez were all the more remarkable in that they were not performed by a hermit, but by a man of action. He spent the night in prayer, as Saint Dominic had done; he wore a hairshirt and a penitential chain; and he begged alms in the streets of Cordova for the building of his churches, despite the fact that he had great favor at court and could have obtained all the money he needed from the queen. He had a deep devotion to the Passion, and had scenes of the Lord's sufferings made into small oratories in the garden of Scala Coeli.

On one occasion, when there was no food for the community but one head of lettuce left from the night before, Blessed Alvarez called the community together in the refectory, said the customary prayers, and sent the porter to the gate. There the astonished brother found a stranger, leading a mule; the mule was loaded with bread, fish, wine, and all things needed for a good meal. The porter turned to thank the benefactor and found that he had disappeared.

At another time, Blessed Alvarez was overcome with pity at a dying man who lay untended in the street. Wrapping the man in his mantle, he started home with the sufferer, and one of the brothers asked what he was carrying. "A poor sick man," replied Alvarez. But when they opened the mantle, there was only a large crucifix in his arms. This crucifix is still preserved at Scala Coeli.

Blessed Alvarez died and was buried at Scala Coeli. An attempt wads made later to remove the relics to Cordova, but it could not be done, because violent storms began each time the journey was resumed, and stopped when the body was returned to its original resting place.

A bell in the chapel of Blessed Alvarez, in the convent of Cordova, rings of itself when anyone in the convent, or of special not in the order, is about to die (Benedictines, Dorcy).
Saint Nicephorus of Vazhe Lake came to St Alexander of Svir (April 17) in the year 1510
and was warmly received by him. In 1518 he made a visit, with the blessing of his mentor, to St Cyril of New Lake (February 4).
When Nicephorus approached New Lake, he was fatigued by his long journey and lay down in the darkness and fell asleep.
St Cyril through hastened by boat to row across the lake and awoke him. St Nicephorus spent eight days in spiritual conversation with the saint. Nicephorus then journeyed to Kiev to venerate the relics of the saints of the Caves.

Upon his return, and with the blessing of St Alexander, he settled at Vazhe Lake, where St Gennadius pursued asceticism. St Nicephorus built the Church of the Transfiguration and a monastery, where he lived until his own death.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, in the Zadne-Nikiforov wilderness, a church was built and dedicated to Sts Nicephorus and Gennadius of Vazhe Lake.
The relics of the saints were put to rest in a hidden place in the monastery they founded.
1516 Saint Gennadius of Vazhe Lake
the son of rich parents but, giving away everything, he became a disciple of St Alexander of Svir and lived with him in asceticism as a hermit by the river Svira.
Afterwards, with blessing of St Alexander, he went to Vazhe Lake, twelve versts from the Svir monastery. And here, having built a cell, he spent his solitary ascetic life with two of his disciples.

Before his death, St Gennadius told his disciple, "Here at this place shall be a church and a monastery." The holy ascetic reposed on January 8, 1516
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani b. 1481? n 1928 Pius Xl named him the patron of orphans and abandoned children.
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani devoted himself to poor and suffering special call to help orphans founded orphanages shelter for prostitutes
 Somáschæ, in território Bergoménsi, natális sancti Hierónymi Æmiliáni Confessóris, qui Congregatiónis Somáschæ Fundátor éxstitit; atque, plúribus in vita et post mortem miráculis illústris, a Cleménte Décimo tértio, Pontífice Máximo, Sanctórum fastis adscríptus est, et a Pio Papa Undécimo universális orphanórum ac derelíctæ juventútis Patrónus apud Deum eléctus et declarátus.  Ejus tamen festívitas tertiodécimo Kaléndas Augústi recólitur.
       At Somascha, in the district of Bergamo, the birthday of St. Jerome Emilian, confessor, who was the founder of the Congregation of Somascha.  Illustrious both during his life and after death for many miracles, he was inscribed in the roll of the saints by Pope Clement XIII.  Pope Pius XI chose and declared him to be the heavenly patron of orphans and abandoned children.  His feast is celebrated on the 20th of July.
  b: 1481
Jerome Emiliani lay chained in the dark dirty dungeon. Only a short time before he had been a military commander for Venice in charge of a fortress. He didn't care much about God because he didn't need him -- he had his own strength and the strength of his soldiers and weapons. When Venice's enemies, the League of Cambrai, captured the fortress, he was dragged off and imprisoned. There in the dungeon, Jerome decided to get rid of the chains that bound him. He let go of his worldly attachments and embraced God.

When he finally was able to escape, he hung his metal chains in the nearby church of Treviso -- in gratitude not only for being freed from physical prison but from his spiritual dungeon as well.

After a short time as mayor of Treviso he returned his home in Venice where he studied for the priesthood. The war may have been over but it was followed by the famine and plague war's devastation often brought. Thousands suffered in his beloved city. Jerome devoted himself to service again -- this time, not to the military but the poor and suffering around him. He felt a special call to help the orphans who had no one to care for them. All the loved ones who would have protected them and comforted them had been taken by sickness or starvation. He would become their parent, their family.

Using his own money, he rented a house for the orphans, fed them, clothed them, and educated them. Part of his education was to give them the first known catechetical teaching by question and answer. But his constant devotion to the suffering put him in danger too and he fell ill from the plague himself. When he recovered, he had the ideal excuse to back away, but instead his illness seemed to take the last links of the chain from his soul.
Once again he interpreted his suffering to be a sign of how little the ambitions of the world mattered.

He committed his whole life and all he owned to helping others. He founded orphanages in other cities, a hospital, and a shelter for prostitutes. This grew into a congregation of priests and brothers that was named after the place where they had a house: the Clerks Regular of Somascha. Although they spent time educating other young people, their primary work was always Jerome's first love -- helping orphans.

His final chains fell away when he again fell ill while taking care of the sick. He died in 1537 at the age of 56.

He is the patron saint of abandoned children and orphans.
In His Footsteps:  Become a foster parent. Millions of children need the love and care of a foster family. Contact your local Family Services agency or Catholic Charities to find out how you can help.
Prayer:  Saint Jerome Emiliani, watch over all children who are abandoned or unloved. Give us the courage to show them God's love through our care. Help us to lose the chains that keep us from living the life God intended for us. Amen

In 1531, Jerome resolved to give himself and all that he owned to God's service. He established orphanages in six Italian towns (Venice, Brescia, Bergamo, Como, and two others), a hospital in Verona, and a home for repentant prostitutes.
About 1532 with two other priests, he founded the Congregation of Somaschi (from the town of Somasca in Lombardy where they started), a society of clerks regular devoted primarily to the care and instruction of orphans, although it also instructed young children. At Somaschi he founded a seminary for those entering his congregation. Jerome is said to have been the first to teach children Christian doctrine with a question and answer technique. The society gained papal approval in 1540.

His attentive care to the poor of Somascha led them to attribute to him the gift of healing. He tried to share their lives, even working with them in the fields while talking to them of God. He continued to care for the sick, regardless of his own health, until he succumbed a second time to the plague, which killed him (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer, Sandoval, Schamoni, Walsh, White).

In art Saint Jerome's emblem is a ball and chain which are always near him. At times the chain may be in his hand, a child near him, and the Virgin and Child appearing to him, or he may be shown tending sick children or delivering a possessed child (Roeder, White). He is venerated in Somasca, Lombardy (Roeder).

A careless and irreligious soldier for the city-state of Venice, Jerome was captured in a skirmish at an outpost town and chained in a dungeon. In prison Jerome had a lot of time to think, and he gradually learned how to pray. When he escaped, he returned to Venice where he took charge of the education of his nephews—and began his own studies for the priesthood.

In the years after his ordination, events again called Jerome to a decision and a new lifestyle. Plague and famine swept northern Italy. Jerome began caring for the sick and feeding the hungry at his own expense. While serving the sick and the poor, he soon resolved to devote himself and his property solely to others, particularly to abandoned children. He founded three orphanages, a shelter for penitent prostitutes and a hospital.

Around 1532 Jerome and two other priests established a congregation dedicated to the care of orphans and the education of youth. Jerome died in 1537 from a disease he caugh t while tending the sick. He was canonized in 1767. In 1928 Pius Xl named him the patron of orphans and abandoned children.

Comment:Very often in our lives it seems to take some kind of “imprisonment” to free us from the shackles of our self-centeredness. When we’re “caught” in some situation we don’t want to be in, we finally come to know the liberating power of Another. Only then can we become another for “the imprisoned” and “the orphaned” all around us.
Quote:  “‘The father of orphans and the defender of widows is God in his holy dwelling. God gives a home to the forsaken; he leads forth prisoners to prosperity; only rebels remain in the parched land’ (Psalm 68).... We should not forget the growing number of persons who are often abandoned by their families and by the community: the old, orphans, the sick and all kinds of people who are rejected…. We must be prepared to take on new functions and new duties in every sector of human activity and espe cially in the sector of world society, if justice is really to be put into practice. Our action is to be directed above all at those men and nations which, because of various forms of oppression and because of the present character of our society, are silent, indeed voiceless, victims of injustice” (Justice in the World, 1971 World Synod of Bishops).

1805 Saint Innocent of Irkutsk body commemorate the uncovering of his relics in 1805 discovered incorrupt  in 1764
during restoration work on the Ascension monastery's Tikhvin church.
Many miracles occurred not only at Irkutsk, but also in remote places of Siberia, for those who flocked to the saint with prayer.
This moved the Most Holy Synod to uncover the relics and to glorify the saint in the year 1800.

In 1804, a feastday was established to celebrate his memory throughout all Russia on November 26, since the Icon of the Mother of God "of the Sign" is commemorated on the actual day of his repose (November 27). Today we commemorate the uncovering of his relics in 1805.
1910 St. Michael Cordero Ecuadorian de Ia Salle Brother first native vocation there
 the first native vocation there. A teacher, he was honored with membership in the great Academie Francaise. Michael died near Barcelona in Spain after teaching for many years and serving as a model of prayer and charity. In 1936, his intact body was returned to Ecuador. Pope John Paul II canonized him in 1984.

Michael of Ecuador (RM) (also known as Miguel of Ecuador and Miguel or Francisco Febres Cordero Muñoz)
Born at Cuenca, Ecuador, on November 7, 1854; died near Barcelona, Spain, on February 9, 1910; beatified with fellow Christian Brother Mutien-Marie by Pope Paul VI on October 30, 1977; canonized by Pope John Paul II on April 7, 1984 (the feast of the order's founder).
  "The heart is rich when it is content, and it is always content when its desires are set upon God." --Saint Miguel of Ecuador.

Miguel, baptized Francisco, is first person from Ecuador to be canonized. He was the grandson of León Febres Cordero, a famous general who fought for Ecuador's independence from Spain, and son of Francisco Febres Cordero Montoya, who was influential in the political affairs of the country. Francisco senior was a cultured man of charm, who was fluent in five languages and, in fact, was teaching English and French at the seminary in Cuenca at the time of the saint's birth. Undoubtedly, the son's vocation was influenced by his mother Ana Muñoz and her pious family. She was one of 19 children, five of whom became nuns and one a Jesuit priest. God established the perfect family for the cultivation of a scholar saint.

At the age of nine, Francisco became one of the first students at the school opened in Cuenca by the Christian Brothers (De LaSalle Brothers) in 1863. He could scarcely walk because of a deformity of his feet but he became a brilliant scholar.

Francisco loved the intellectual life he discovered at the school and the humble lifestyle of the brothers. Later wanted to join the order. In fact, he later wrote: "From the moment I entered the school of the Brothers, God gave me a burning desire one day to be clothed in the holy habit of the Institute. I always enjoyed being among the Brothers. . . ."

But his parents objected. They would be proud to have a priest in the family, but could not understand his desire to be a lay brother. Knowing that he had a calling to the religious life and not wishing to disappoint his parents, Francisco entered the seminary. Within a few months he fell gravely ill and was forced to return home. His mother finally agreed that he should try his vocation as a brother.

On March 24, 1868, Francisco became Miguel when he took the black and white habit of the De LaSalle Brothers at Cuenca. He taught languages (Spanish, French, and English) at his alma mater and a year later was assigned to the Beaterio at Quito. The six-year-old school had 250 pupils when he arrived and six years later had over 1,000. During this period Brother Miguel published his first of many books.

But writing and teaching secular subjects was not his primary joy-- his first love was preparing children for their first Communion. And it appears that his joy translated into learning: he was a very popular teacher. Brother Miguel saw his teaching as an apostolic vocation. He wrote: "In the miserable state of modern society, my divine Savior calls me to conquer souls, without really needing my help or without considering my absolute incapacity for any good. Can I be deaf to His voice? Can I be afraid of disappointment when He promises to be with me? Can I be so bold as to refuse this demonstration of love and gratitude? I must engage in all the works that I undertake with a spirit of love, of gratitude for the divine goodness which has been gracious enough to employ me for His glory and the salvation of souls."

Official recognition of Miguel's talents as an educator first came in the form of the appointment as a public examiner and inspector of Quito's schools. In the midst of these duties, teaching, and monastic obligations, Brother Miguel found the time to continue to be a scholar. He wrote textbooks, a catechism, poetry, and works of Christian spirituality. He gained special renown for his studies of Castilian Spanish, some of which became required texts for all schools in Ecuador. Eventually he was elected a member of the National Academy of Ecuador (1892; which included membership in the Royal Academy of Spain), the Académie Française (1900), and the Academy of Venezuela (1906).

In March 1907, he was summoned to Europe to translate more textbooks and other documents from French. The aura of civil and religious unrest in France made it urgent to translate the documents of the De LaSalle Institute into Spanish in order to ensure the continuance of the order's work outside France. Miguel fell ill soon after his arrival in April. Upon his recovery, he worked at the house on the rue de Sèvres in Paris. From Paris he wrote, "I have my room, some books, and a nearby chapel. That is complete happiness."

In July he was transferred to the motherhouse at Lembecq-lez-Hal near Brussels to continue his work and attend the generalate of his congregation in Belgium. He was allowed to stay in Europe so that he would have more time to write. When Miguel became sick in Belgium, he was sent to the institute's junior novitiate at Paremi  de Mar near Barcelona, Spain, where he taught Spanish for a few months. The outbreak of civil unrest in Barcelona on July 26, 1909, led to attacks on religious and the destruction of Church property, which caused stress for all the brothers. It resulted in Brother Miguel catching a cold in January 1910, but his condition deteriorated rapidly until he died in the presence of his religious brothers on February 9, 1910.

Brother Miguel's reputation as a teacher and scholar was matched by the renown of his holiness. A popular cultus arose shortly after his death, especially in Spanish-speaking countries. From his earliest years he had such a strong personal devotion to Jesus and the Blessed Mother that they were living presences to him. He conversed with them as easily as with his brothers.

His first biographer wrote: "Our beloved Ecuadorian Brother was certainly not gifted by heaven with that sort of plastic beauty which so easily fades with years. Although rather tall in stature, his posture became stooped quite early in his life. His countenance was dark and somewhat emaciated, prematurely furrowed with wrinkles that came from his sufferings and his practices of mortification. Even so, his facial expression reflected in some indefinable way the beauty of his soul and the interior illumination of divine grace. This reverberated through his whole being which overflowed with a certain gentleness that came from his peaceful and kindly nature. His very thin lips always bore the glimmer of a continual and gracious smile. His eyes, limpid and transparent as those of the most innocent child, sparkled with the joy and serenity that could only be due to that indescribable peace of which Scripture speaks. In sum, the serene expression in all his features gave the impression that underneath there was a calm and imperturbable spirit."

His relics were returned to Ecuador during the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and received a triumphant welcome upon their arrival in Ecuador on February 5, 1937. Within a short time, his tomb at Quito became a pilgrimage center. The government issued postage stamps in his honor and erected a monument in the public park of Quito for the centenary of his birth. At the dedication of the bronze and marble statue on June 4, 1955, 30,000 school children participated in a huge parade (Bentley, Walsh, The Scholar Saint).

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
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   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Month by Month of Saintly Dedications

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr

Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas

We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

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There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:


The Five Reasons
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005
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Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today
Pope Innocent III had experienced a similar vision. Without hesitation Innocent provided papal approval for the Order of the Most Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives (the Trinitarians), with John of Matha as superior.

1198 - 1216 Pope Innocent III;
One of the greatest popes of the Middle Ages;
a learned theologian; one of the greatest jurists of his time; held various ecclesiastical offices during short reigns of Lucius III, Urban III, Gregory VIII, and Clement III; re-established papal authority in Rome; scarcely a country in Europe over which Innocent III did not in some way or other assert supremacy he claimed for the papacy;
During his reign two great founders of the mendicant orders, St. Dominic and St. Francis, laid before him their scheme of reforming the world. Innocent was not blind to the vices of luxury and indolence which had infected many of the clergy and part of the laity.
In Dominic and Francis he recognized two mighty adversaries of these vices and he sanctioned their projects with words of encouragement.  He wrote "De quadripartita specie nuptiarum" (P. L., CCXVII, 923-968), an exposition of the fourfold marriage bond, namely, between man and wife, between Christ and the Church, between God and the just soul, between the Word and human nature - - entirely based on passages from Holy Scripture.  Popes Html link here: 

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
Gregory IV (827-44) # 102
Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a Roman and the son of John. Before his election to the papacy he was the Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of St. Mark, which he adorned with mosaics yet visible. For his piety and learning he was ordained priest by Paschal I. This man, of distinguished appearance and high birth, was raised to the chair of Peter, despite his protestations of unfitness, mainly buy the instrumentality of the secular nobility of Rome who were then securing a preponderating influence in papal elections. But the representatives in Rome of the Emperor Louis the Pious would not allow him to be consecrated until his election had been approved by their master. This interference caused such delay that it was not, seemingly, till about March, 828, that he began to govern the Church.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
Clement IX 1667-1669: 1670 St. Charles of Sezze Franciscan Pope Clement IX called Charles to his bedside for a blessing;

“IN his life the supernatural almost became the natural and the extraordinary ordinary.” These were the words of Pope Pius XI in speaking of that great lover of children, Don Bosco.

At Paris St. Thomas was honored with the friendship of the King, St. Louis, with whom he frequently dined. In 1261, Urban IV called him to Rome where he was appointed to teach, but he positively declined to accept any ecclesiastical dignity. St. Thomas not only wrote (his writings filled twenty hefty tomes characterized by brilliance of thought and lucidity of language), but he preached often and with greatest fruit. Clement IV offered him the archbishopric of Naples which he also refused. He left the great monument of his learning, the "Summa Theologica", unfinished, for on his way to the second Council of Lyons, ordered there by Gregory X, he fell sick and died at the Cistercian monastery of Fossa Nuova in 1274.
St. Thomas declared Doctor of the Church by Pope Pius V.

Romæ sancti Vitaliáni Papæ.       At Rome, St. Vitalian, pope.

Whereas in the Lord's Prayer, we are bidden to ask for 'our daily bread,' the Holy Fathers of the Church all but unanimously teach that by these words must be understood, not so much that material bread which is the support of the body, as the Eucharistic bread, which ought to be our daily food. -- Pope St. Pius X

Then in 1525, since it was a Holy Year of Jubilee, Angela Merici went as a pilgrim to Rome to gain the great jubilee indulgence. When she had an audience with the Pope Clement VII, he tried to persuade her to stay at Rome and head a congregation of nursing sisters. But she was still convinced of her calling to education work. In fact, years before, she had experienced a vision in which she saw a group of young women ascending to heaven on a ladder of light. A voice had then said:
“Take heed, Angela; before you die you will found at Brescia a company of maidens similar to those you have just seen.
     It was April 1533 that she made this prophecy come true. The Ursalines

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
Pope Gregory IX 1227-1241 , having called St Raymund to Rome in 1230, nominated him to various offices and took him likewise for his confessor, in which capacity Raymund enjoined the pope, for a penance, to receive, hear and expedite im­mediately all petitions presented by the poor. Gregory also ordered the saint to gather into one body all the scattered decrees of popes and councils since the collection made by Gratian in 1150. In three years Raymund completed his task, and the five books of the “Decretals” were confirmed by the same Pope Gregory in 1234. Down to the publication of the new Codex Juris Canonici in 1917 this compilation of St Raymund was looked upon as the best arranged part of the body of canon law, on which account the canonists usually chose it for the text of their commentaries.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints

250 St. Fabian layperson dove descended this stranger was elected Pope able built Church of Rome
Pope ST FABIAN succeeded St Antherus in the pontificate about the year 236. Eusebius relates that in an assembly of the people and clergy held to elect the new pope, a dove flew in and settled on the head of St Fabian.

Pope Paschal II 1086 St. Canute IV Martyred king of Denmark -- authorized the veneration of St Canute, though it is not easy to see upon what his claim to martyrdom rests. Aelnoth adds that the first preachers of Christianity in Denmark and Scandinavia were Englishmen, and that the Swedes were the most difficult to convert.

Pope Leo XIII 1924 Saint Joseph Sebastian Pelczar; Bishop of Przemysl in 1900 until his death in 1924.