Peter Damian wrote unceasingly from his cell, on purgatory, the Eucharist, other theological and ascetical topics, and poetry.
His Latin verse is among the very best of the Middle Ages, especially that in honor of Pope Saint Gregory,
which begins "Anglorum iam Apostolus."
Peter never considered his learning something of which to boast. He said what counted was worship God, not write about Him.
What use was it to construct a grammatically correct sentence containing the word 'God,' if you could not pray to him properly.
   Tuesday  Saints of Day February  21 Nono Kaléndas Mártii.  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

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The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us that a life of Christian perfection is not impossible.

He causes his prayers to be of more avail to himself, who offers them also for others.
-- Pope St. Gregory the Great

The Kozelshchansk Icon of the Mother of God

Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus,"
Mary is acclaimed by
Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and
 even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here

Acts of the Apostles
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

February 21 – St Peter Damian, Doctor of the Church (d. 1072)
– 6th Apparition of Lourdes (France)  
Even if you have sold your soul to the devil, you will be converted if…  
If you say the Rosary faithfully until death, I do assure you that, in spite of the gravity of your sins "you shall receive a never fading crown of glory."  
Even if you are on the brink of damnation, even if you have one foot in Hell, even if you have sold your soul to the devil as sorcerers who practice black magic do, and even if you are a heretic as obstinate as a devil, sooner or later you will be converted and will amend your life and save your soul, if—and mark well what I say—if you say the Holy Rosary devoutly every day until death for the purpose of knowing the truth and obtaining contrition and pardon for your sins.   Saint Louis de Montfort  In The Secret of the Rosary - Red Rose, For Sinners

February 21 - 6th Apparition in Lourdes (France, 1858)  Saint Bernadette's Silence (IV)
In fact the crowd was larger than the day before, despite an early morning start. One hundred people filled the area between grotto and the river Gave. As Bernadette returned, a group of women accosted her and said that the priest Father Pene wanted to see her.
After the office of Vespers, the field guard Callet grabbed Bernadette by the hood and told her to follow him. Bernadette replied, "Yes sir, wherever you want."
In the Commissioner's office she was asked a lot of vivid, direct, and often unexpected questions. Bernadette responded clearly, briefly, never exceeding the question at hand, completely unemotional, sometimes answering after a slight hesitation for thought, but always replying with confidence. She spoke even more clearly since she was talking about the essential: the apparition.
Adapted from Father René Laurentin, Bernadette vous parle (Bernadette Speaks), Mediaspaul, 1972, p. 59
  379 Irene Spanish Sister of Pope Saint Damasus
2nd v St. Felix of Metz Third bishop of Metz, France
In Sicília natális sanctórum Mártyrum septuagínta novem, qui sub Diocletiáno, per divérsa torménta, confessiónis suæ corónam percípere meruérunt.
337 Saint Eustathius Archbishop of Antioch (323-331) learned theologian struggled zealously for Orthodox Faith purity
344 Daniel and Verda tortured in Persia MM (AC) 
434 St. Verulus and Companions in North Africa by Arian Vandals
452 St. Severian Bishop martyr of Scythopolis in Galilee orthodox Christian
606 St. Paterius monk from Rome bishop of Brescia prolific writer on Biblical subjects
633 Saint Zacharias Patriarch of Jerusalem Chosroes looted Jerusalem exiled and returned from captivity
640 Bl. Pepin of Landen Frankish mayor of the palace, duke of Brabant, and the chief political figure
676 St. Gundebert Frankish Benedictine bishop of Sens, France
677 Germanus & Randoald, OSB MM (AC)
689 St. Avitus II of Clermont Bishop and defender of the Church 
695 St. Valerius Abbot of the Isidorian revival
743 St. Peter the Scribe Martyr Christian scribe in Palestine
795 Saint Timothy of Symbola Italian  gift of healing sick casting out unclean spirits
805 George of Amastris B (AC) Born at Kromna near Amastris on the Black Sea
1072 Peter Damian brilliant teacher writer  transcribing manuscripts , B Doctor (RM)
1210 Blessed Nicholas of Vangadizza great helper to holy souls, OSB Cam. (AC)
1562 Robert Southwell 1/40 martyrs of England and Wales SJ M (RM)
1794 Blessed Noel Pinot continued to minister to his flock.M (AC)

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion,
and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

February 21 – 6th apparition of Lourdes (France) - Saint Peter Damian  
"Pray for sinners and for this very troubled world"
 On that first Sunday of Lent of 1858, around 6 am, the area around the Grotto of Lourdes was filled with hundreds of onlookers. Among them was a medical doctor named Dr. Dozous.

The doctor closely observed Bernadette Soubirous, the young visionary of Lourdes, during a thirty-minute ecstasy, but could not detect any "nervous excitement." He said: "After I let go of her arm, Bernadette took a few steps towards the upper side of the grotto, and then I saw her face, which until that moment had shown the most perfect bliss, turn sad. Two tears fell from her eyes and rolled down her cheeks... when she had finished her prayers, I asked her what had happened during that long vision.
She replied:

"The Lady’s eyes left me and turned to a distant point above my head. When her eyes turned back to me, she said: ‘Pray for sinners and for this very troubled world.’ I was quickly reassured by the expression of goodness and serenity that came back to her face, and immediately after that she left."
This was the Virgin Mary’s main intention on that first Sunday of Lent—to pray and to have others pray for sinners.
The Kozelshchansk Icon of the Mother of God
glorified in the late nineteenth century, though older than that. This icon is of Italian origin and was brought to Russia by one of Empress Elizabeth's (1741-1761) maids of honor, who was Italian. The owner of the icon married a records clerk of the Zaporozhsky-Cossack army, Siromakh. So, the icon went to the Ukraine with them.

During the nineteenth century it belonged to the family of Count Vladimir Kapnist, and was one of their sacred possessions. The icon was in the village of Kozelschina, Poltava governance. During Cheesefare Week in the year 1880, Maria, the daughter of V. I. Kapnist, dislocated some bones in her foot. The local doctor said the problem was not serious. Dr. Grube, a noted surgeon in Kharkov, agreed with the diagnosis, and he applied a plaster cast to Maria's foot. He also prescribed hot baths and iron supplements. To lessen the discomfort of the foot while walking, a special shoe was made with metal bands that went around the girl's leg. Lent passed, but the girl did not feel any relief.

After Pascha, Maria's other foot became twisted. Then both shoulders and her left hip became dislocated, and she developed pain in her spine. The doctor advised Count Kapnist to take his daughter immediately to the Caucasus for the curative mineral waters and mountain air. The journey to the Caucasus and the curative treatments caused even greater affliction. The girl lost all feeling in her hands and feet, and did not even feel pinches.

Because of the advanced degree of the illness, and since therapy was not helping, they were compelled to return home.  In the month of October, the father journeyed with his sick daughter to Moscow. Here he consulted specialists, who declared that they could do nothing for Maria.
The parents and the sick girl began to despair. However, an unexpected opportunity for help from a foreign professor presented itself. Since it would be some while before his arrival in Moscow, the sick girl asked to return home. The Count sent her back to the village, and his wife promised to bring their daughter back to Moscow when he received news of the the professor's arrival. On February 21, 1881, they received a telegram saying that the professor had arrived in Moscow.

On the day before the appointment, Maria's mother suggested that she pray before the family icon of the Mother of God. She said to her daughter, "Masha [a diminutive form of Maria], tomorrow we go to Moscow. Take the icon, let us clean its cover and pray to the Most Holy Theotokos that your infirmity be cured."

The girl, who had no confidence in earthly physicians, placed all her hope in God. This icon had long been known as wonderworking. According to Tradition, young women would pray before it to have a happy family. It was also the custom to clean the cover of the icon, and the one praying would wipe it with cotton or linen.

Pressing the holy icon to her bosom, the sick girl, with the help of her mother, cleaned it and poured out all her sorrow and despair of soul to the Mother of God. All at once, she felt the strength return to her body and she cried out loudly, "Mama! Mama! I can feel my legs! I can feel my hands!" She tore off the metal braces and bandages and began to walk about the room, while continuing to hold the icon of the Mother of God in her hands.

The parish priest was summoned at once and celebrated a service of Thanksgiving before the icon. The joyous event quickly became known throughout all the surrounding villages. The Countess and Maria went to Moscow and took with them the holy icon of the Mother of God. News of the healing quickly spread about Moscow and people began to throng to the hotel, and then to the church, where they had brought the icon.

The icon continued to work several more healings. When the family returned home to Kozelschina, people had already heard about the miracles of the Kozelschansk icon of the Mother of God in Moscow, and many came to venerate the icon. It was no longer possible to keep the icon at home, so by the order of Archbishop John of Poltava, the icon was transferred to a temporary chapel on April 23, 1881. Every day from early morning, services of Thanksgiving and Akathists were served before the icon.

In 1882 a chapel was built on the grounds of the estate, and then a church. decision of the Holy Synod on March 1, 1885 a women's monastery was established, and on February 17, 1891 it was dedicated to the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos.

At present, the Kozelschansk Icon is in the Krasnogorsk Protection women's monastery (Kiev diocese). In the lower left corner of the icon is a table with a cup and a spoon. It is believed that this symbolizes the Mother of God as a "bowl for mixing the wine of joy" (Akathist, Ikos 11). A Service and an Akathist have been composed for the Kozelschansk Icon.
379 Irene Spanish Sister of Pope Saint Damasus (Encyclopedia). Irene was the sister of Pope Saint Damasus I (c. 304-384). She and her devout mother Laurentia are said to have often spent whole nights in the catacombs of Rome.
2nd v  St. Felix of Metz Third bishop of Metz, France
Metis, in Gállia, sancti Felícis Epíscopi.  At Metz in France, St. Felix, bishop.
He is believed to have ruled that see for more than four decades.
Saint Felix is described as the third bishop of Metz.
He is said to have occupied that cathedra for over 40 years in the immediate post-Apostolic age (Benedictines).

In Sicília natális sanctórum Mártyrum septuagínta novem, qui sub Diocletiáno, per divérsa torménta, confessiónis suæ corónam percípere meruérunt.
In Sicily, in the reign of Diocletian, the birthday of 79 holy martyrs, who, by reason of various tortures for their confession of faith, deserved to receive an immortal crown

337 Saint Eustathius, Archbishop of Antioch (323-331); learned theologian, struggled zealously for Orthodox Faith purity
Born in Side, Pamphylia 324 Bishop of Beroea (modern Aleppo), and enjoyed the love and esteem of the people, and at the request of his flock he was elevated by the Fathers of the First Ecumenical Council (325) to the See of Antioch.
St Eustathius was a learned theologian, and was also distinguished by his broad knowledge in secular sciences. When the heresy of Arius began to spread in the East (Arianism denied the consubstantiality of the Son of God with the Father), St Eustathius struggled zealously for the purity of the Orthodox Faith through his words and his writings.
The First Ecumenical Council was convened in the year 325 by the holy God-crowned Emperor Constantine the Great (306-337). The first to preside over this Council was St Eustathius.

The Council condemned the heretical teachings of Arius and incorporated the Orthodox confession into the Symbol of Faith (the Nicene Creed).

But the mad Arius, as St Eustathius called him, refused to renounce his errors. He and those who shared his opinion were excommunicated from the Church by the Council.
Among bishops who signed the Nicene Symbol of Faith were some who sympathized with the heresy of Arius, but signed the Acts of the Council through fear of excommunication.

After the Council, his enemies plotted against St Eustathius. With great cunning they gained his consent to convene a local Council at Antioch. Having bribed a certain profligate woman, they persuaded her to appear at the Council with an infant at her breast, and falsely declare that St Eustathius was the father of the infant.  The Arians declared St Eustathius deposed, violating the Apostolic Rule that accusations against the clergy must be substantiated by two witnesses. Without a trial he was sent off into exile in Thrace. But the lie was soon unmasked: the woman repented after falling grievously ill. She summoned the clergy, and in the presence of many people, she confessed her sin.

St Constantine the Great died around this time, and his son Constantius (337-361), who shared the heretical views of Arius and favored the Arian bishops, succeeded his father on the throne.
Even in exile, St Eustathius struggled for Orthodoxy with the same zeal. He died in exile, in the city of Philippi or Trajanopolis, in the year 337.

Convened in the year 381 at Constaninople, the Second Ecumenical Council confirmed the Orthodox Symbol of Faith, which St Eustathius had so vigorously defended. The Arian heresy was once again anthematized.
In the year 482 the relics of St Eustathius were reverently transferred from Philippi to Antioch, to the great joy of the Antioch people, who had not ceased to honor and love their patriarch.
St Eustathius was esteemed by the great hierarchs of the fourth century, Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Athanasius of Alexandria, Epiphanius of Cyprus, Anastasius of Sinai, and Jerome of Stridonia.
The renowned church historian Bishop Theodoret of Cyrrhus calls St Eustathius a pillar of the Church and a man of piety, of equal stature with St Athanasius of Alexandria and the other bishops at the forefront of the struggle for Orthodoxy.

344 Daniel and Verda tortured in Persia MM (AC)
Daniel was a priest; Verda a woman. The two were arrested and tortured in Persia during the persecution of King Shapur II. They are highly venerated in the East (Benedictines, Encyclopedia)
434 St. Verulus and Companions in North Africa by Arian Vandals
 Adruméti, in Africa, sanctórum Mártyrum Véruli, Secundíni, Sirícii, Felícis, Sérvuli, Saturníni, Fortunáti et aliórum séxdecim, qui in persecutióne Wandálica, ob cathólicæ fídei confessiónem, martyrio coronáti sunt.
       At Adrumetum in Africa, during the persecution of the Vandals, the holy martyrs, Verulus, Secundinus, Siricius, Felix, Servulus, Saturninus, Fortunatus, and sixteen others, who were crowned with martyrdom for professing the Catholic faith.
According to the pre-1970 Roman Martyrology, a group of martyrs in North Africa who were probably executed for their orthodoxy by the Arian Vandals, who were then in control of the region. Hadrumetum was the most likely place of their executions, and the number of martyrs may have been twenty-six.
Verulus, Secundinus, and Companions (RM). Verulus, Secundinus, Siricius, Felix, Servulus, Saturninus, Fortunatus, and 19 companions were martyred in northern Africa at Hadrumetum. The Roman Martyrology lists them as suffering during the Vandal persecution but it is unclear that this is true (Benedictines).

452-453 St. Severian Bishop martyr of Scythopolis in Galilee orthodox Christian
 Scythópoli, in Palæstína, sancti Severiáni, Epíscopi et Mártyris, qui, Eutychiánis acérrime se oppónens, gládio perémptus est.
At Scythopolis in Palestine, St. Severian, bishop and martyr, who was beheaded by the Eutychians because he opposed them so zealously.

IN the year 451 the fourth general council was called at Chalcedon to pronounce upon the Eutychian or monophysite heresy which was spreading very rapidly in the Eastern portion of the Church.
Dioceses were being split into factions which, in some cases, elected rival bishops and refused communion to their opponents. The decision of the council, which totally condemned the heresy, was accepted at once by a great proportion of the Palestinian monks, but there were many exceptions. At the head of these was Theodosius, a violent and unscrupulous man who obtained sufficient following to enable him to expel Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, and to gain possession of the see for himself. He then raised so cruel a persecution in Jerusalem that he filled the city with blood, as we learn from a letter of the Emperor Marcian. At the head of a band of soldiers he then proceeded to carry desolation over the country, although in certain places he met with oppo­nents who had the courage to stand firm in their orthodoxy. Of these no one showed more determination than Severian, Bishop of Scythopolis, who received as his reward the crown of martyrdom. The soldiers seized him, dragged him out of the city, and then put him to death.
See the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii and Hefele-Leclercq, Conciles, vol. ii. In the course of a paragraph on the Holy Land, Butler refers to the dissensions and jealousies there of those who call themselves Christians, and adds “We have ceased to think that it is the will of God that we should win back the Holy Land by the sword, but we may well pray earnestly that its inhabitants may be united to the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, and that peace and goodwill may prevail amongst those to whom is committed the custody of the Holy Places.”
He attended the Council of Chalcedon (451) and took part in the complete triumph of the orthodox Christian cause against the heretics of the era.
On his return home he was assassinated by a group of heretics at the command of Emperor Theodosius II.

Severian of Scythopolis BM (RM) bishop of Scythiopolis in Galilee who, on his return from the Council of Chalcedon, which condemned the Eutychian heresy, was murdered by the Eutychian heretics with the connivance of Empress Eudoxia.
While the decrees of the council had been accepted by most of the monks of Palestine, the Eutychian monk Theodosius, a man with an explosive temper, did not. With the help of Eudoxia, Theodosius and his monks managed to have Patriarch Juvenal of Jerusalem exiled and himself consecrated as bishop. Thereafter, Theodosius began to persecute the orthodox Christians. Saint Severianus, like many other Christians before him and at that time, resisted Juvenal and received the crown of martyrdom. He was seized by soldiers, dragged from the city, and murdered.
His vita was written by a monk named Cyril the monk (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
606 St. Paterius monk from Rome bishop of Brescia prolific writer on Biblical subjects
Bríxiæ sancti Patérii Epíscopi.   A
t Brescia, St. Paterius, bishop.
in Lombardy, Italy. He was reputedly a good friend of Pope St. Gregory I the Great and was the author of numerous works on the Bible.

Paterius of Brescia B (RM) Died 606. Paterius, a Roman monk, was a disciple and friend of Pope Saint Gregory the Great. He was a notary in the Roman Church, who was raised to the see of Brescia, Lombardy. Paterius was a prolific writer on Biblical subjects (Benedictines).

633 St Zachariah Patriarch of Jerusalem
Commemorated on February 21
Saint Zacharias, Patriarch of Jerusalem, lived from the end of the sixth to the early seventh centuries. He became Patriarch of Jerusalem in 609. In the year 614 the Persian emperor Chosroes fell upon Jerusalem, looted it, and led many Christians into captivity, including St Zacharias.
Chosroes also captured the Life-Creating Cross of Christ. During the invasion, as many as 90,000 Christians perished.
 Afterwards Chosroes was compelled to sue for peace with the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (610-641). The Cross of the Lord was returned to Jerusalem. The Christian captives who remained alive also were returned, among them Patriarch Zacharias, who died peacefully in the year 633.

640 Bl. Pepin of Landen Frankish mayor of the palace, duke of Brabant, and the chief political figure
during the reigns of the Frankish kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I, and Sigebert TI .

The husband of Blessed Itta; he was a close ally of Bishop Arnulf of Metz with whom he overthrew Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia. He was soon appointed mayor of the palace for his role. Following an incident in which he reprimanded King Dagobert I for his adulterous life, he was exiled from the court and went into retirement near Aquitaine. Recalled to serve as tutor to Dagobert’s three year old son, Pepin once more became the chief figure of the kingdom until his death. Pepin earned a reputation for defending the interests of the Church, promoting the spread of Christianity, and working to have only truly worthy bishops appointed to Frankish sees. While never canonized, he is listed as a saint in some old martyrologies.
He was an ancestor of Charlemagne; his grandson, Pepin of Heristal, founded the Carolingian dynasty.
PEPIN OF LANDEN was never canonized, although his name appears as a saint in some of the old martyrologies. The wisest statesman of his time, he was mayor of the palace to Kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I and Sigebert III, and was prac­tically ruler of their dominions. He was the grandfather of Pepin of Herstal, great-grandfather of Charles Martel, and the ancestor of the Carolingian dynasty. He has been well described as a “lover of peace, the constant defender of truth and justice, a true friend to all the servants of God, the terror of the wicked, the father of his country, the zealous and humble defender of religion”. He associated with himself as counsellors two wise and holy bishops, St Arnulf of Metz and St Cunibert of Cologne, and though a most faithful minister to the king, he considered himself equally the servant of the people.

First and foremost he always placed his duty to the King of kings, and when King Dagobert, forgetful of the principles which had been instilled into him in his youth, gave himself up to a vicious life, Pepin boldly rebuked him and never ceased to show his disapproval until he became sincerely penitent. Dagobert, before his death in 638, had appointed Pepin tutor to his three-year-old son Sigebert, who under his guidance became himself a saint and one of the most blessed amongst the French kings. Pepin protected the Christian communities of the north against the invasions of the Slays, worked hard for the spread of the Christian faith, and chose only virtuous and learned men to fill the bishoprics.

His wife was Bd Itta, or Iduberga, by whom he had one son, Grimoald, and two daughters, St Gertrude and St Begga. Pepin died in 646 and was buried at Landen, but his body was translated to Nivelles, where it lies in the same tomb as that of his wife and close to the altar of St Gertrude. For many centuries their relics were carried every year in the Rogationtide processions at Nivelles.

There is a eulogistic ninth-century Life of Pepin which has been printed in large part by the Bollandists, Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, and there are many references to him in the lives of St Gertrude of Nivelles. See also DCB., vol. iv, pp. 398—399.
Blessed Pepin of Landen (AC) (also known as Pippin) Died February 21, c. 646. Pepin was, perhaps, the most important, powerful person in the empire during his age. As duke of Brabant and mayor of the palace (first minister) of kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I, and Sigebert III, he determined much of the policy of the Franks. Pepin, the ancestor of the Carolingian dynasty of French kings, was the husband of Blessed Itta and father Grimoald, of Saint Gertrude of Nivelles and Saint Begga. He is described as "a lover of peace and the constant defender of truth and justice," though it may not seem that way at first glance.

Pepin and Bishop Arnulf of Metz aided King Clotaire II of Neustria in overthrowing Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia in 613. In recognition of the important roles they played, Clotaire appointed them mayors of the palace to rule Austrasia for Clotaire's son Dagobert I from 623. When Pepin rebuked Dagobert (who had succeeded his father about 629) for his licentious life, Dagobert discharged him and he retired to Aquitaine. Dagobert still respected him enough to appoint him tutor of his three-year-old son Sigebert before his death in 638, and Pepin returned and ruled the kingdom until his own death the following year.

Pepin worked to spread the faith throughout the kingdom, defended Christian towns from Slavic invaders, and chose responsible men to fill vacant sees. The marriage of his daughter, Begga, and Bishop Arnulf's son, Segislius, produced Pepin of Herstal, the first of the Carolingian dynasty in France. Pepin of Landen was buried at Landen, but his relics were later translated to Nivelle, where they are now enshrined with those of his wife and daughter Gertrude. Here is feast is kept. Pepin was never canonized but is listed as a saint in some of the old Belgic martyrologies and a litany published by the authority of the archbishop of Mechlin (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

676 St. Gundebert Frankish Benedictine bishop of Sens, France
and founder of the abbey of Senores. He is also called Gondelbert or Gumbert.
Gundebert of Senones, OSB B (AC) (also known as Gombert, Gumbert, Gondelbert).
The Frankish Bishop Saint Gundebert abandoned the episcopacy of Sens for a more perfect life as a hermit in the Vosges, where he founded the abbey of Senones c. 660 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

677 Germanus & Randoald, OSB MM (AC) (also known as Germain & Rancald or Randaut)
Born in Trier (Tregraveves), Palatinate, Germany. Germanus, son of a rich senator, was an orphan raised by Bishop Modoard. At age 17, Germanus disposed of his property and entered Saint Romaric's monastery governed by Saint Arnulf of Metz at Romberg in the Vosges Mountains (Remiremont). Arnulf encouraged the young man to grow in holiness, and he did. Germanus, in turn, encouraged his younger brother Numerian to forsake the world and enter the double monastery, too.

From Remiremont he migrated to Luxeuil under its third abbot Saint Waldebert, who introduced the Benedictine Rule into the abbey. He later became abbot of the Granfel (Münsterthal) Monastery in the Val Moutier, which had been founded by Duke Gondo of Alsace.
Germanus became a pioneer in reconstruction, road-building, dedication to the poor and under- privileged.
This last was his downfall.

Gondo's successor, Boniface (Catihe), daily oppressed both the monks and poor inhabitants. The holy abbot, while bearing private injuries silently, often pleaded the cause of the poor. The duke laid waste to their lands, destroyed their harvests, and took away the means needed to eke out their poor subsistence. Germanus went out to meet Boniface as he was ravaging their lands and plundering their houses at the head of a troop of soldiers. Germanus begged Boniface to spare a distressed and innocent people. The duke promised to stop, but his soldiers took up the killing, burning, and plundering again while the saint prayed in the church of St. Maurice.
The soldiers had long awaited an opportunity to expunge the inconvenient abbot who often denounced their ravaging of the poor. When Germanus and Randoald, his prior, were on their way back to Granfel, the soldiers captured, stripped, and pierced them with swords as the martyrs prayed. Their relics were deposited at Granfel, and were exposed in a rich shrine till the Reformation, when they were translated to Telsberg, or Delmont. Their acta were written by a contemporary priest, Babolen (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

Germanus is pictured as a Benedictine abbot holding a lance. Sometimes Randoald, his prior, is with him. Germanus may also be shown with a poor man at his feet (because he was murdered by the duke for interceding for the poor) or with a book, palm, and crozier. Germanus is venerated in Trier, Remiremont, Luxeuil, and Granfel (Roeder).

ST GERMANUS was brought up almost from the cradle by Modoard, Bishop of Trier. At the age of seventeen he asked permission to retire from the world, but Modoard hesitated, telling him that, as his parents were dead, he ought to obtain the king’s consent. The young man, however, decided the matter for himself, and, after giving away all his possessions to the poor, started off with three other youths to seek St Arnulf, whose example had fired them: that holy man had resigned the bishopric of Metz to live as a hermit. Arnulf received them affectionately and, after keeping them with him for some time, suggested that they should enter the monastery which he and St Romaric had founded at Romberg. Germanus first sent two of his companions to fetch his brother Numerian, who was a mere child, and together they entered the monastery which was situated in the Vosges Moun­tains and was afterwards known as Remiremont.

St Germanus subsequently passed on with his brother and other monks to the abbey of Luxeuil, then governed by St Walbert. When Duke Gondo was founding the monastery of Granfel in what is now the Val Moutier, Walbert, to whom he applied for an abbot, could find none worthier than Germanus, who was accordingly appointed.
     The Münsterthal, or Val Moutier, is a grand mountain pass through which runs the old Roman road, but at that time it was blocked by fallen rocks and could not be used. St, Germanus cleared it and widened the entrance to the valley. Afterwards two other monasteries were also placed under his charge, those of St Ursitz and of St Paul Zu-Werd, but he continued to live chiefly at Granfel. Duke Cathic, or Boniface, who succeeded Gondo, inherited no share of his kindly religious spirit, and oppressed the monks and the poor inhabitants with violence and extortion. One day when he was plundering their houses at the head of a band of soldiers, Germanus went out to plead for the poor sufferers. The duke listened to him and promised to desist: but, while the abbot was praying in the church of St Maurice, the soldiers began again to burn and to destroy. St Germanus, finding that remonstrance was useless, started back for the monastery with his prior Randoald, but they were overtaken by the soldiers, who stripped and killed them.

The facts are recorded in a contemporary life by the monk Bobolenus,. which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, and by Mabillon.
689 St. Avitus II of Clermont Bishop defender of the Church
He was appointed bishop of Clermont, France, in 676.
Avitus II of Clermont B (AC). Bishop of Clermont, Auvergne, France, from 676 until his death, Avitus was succeeded by his younger brother, Saint Bonet.
Avitus was one of the great bishops of his age in the development of ecclesiastic training (Benedictines).
695 St. Valerius Abbot of the Isidorian revival
Born in Astorga, Spain, he entered the monastery of San Pedro de Montes and eventually became abbot there. He was the author of several ascetical works and was the last of the great educational champions following the ideals of St. Isidore of Seville.
Valerius of Astorga, OSB Abbot (AC) Born in Astorga, Spain. Saint Valerius, monk and later abbot of San Pedro del Montes monastery, is the representative of the revival wrought by Saint Isidore. Several of his ascetical writings have survived (Benedictines).

743 St. Peter the Scribe Martyr Christian scribe in Palestine
 Damásci sancti Petri Maviméni, qui, cum díceret Arábibus quibúsdam, ad se ægrótum veniéntibus: « Omnis qui fidem Christiánam cathólicam non ampléctitur, damnátus est, sicut et Máhumet, pseudoprophéta vester », ab illis est necatus.
       At Damascus, St. Peter Mavimenus, who was killed by some Arabs who visited him in his sickness, because he said to them: "Whoever does not embrace the Christian and Catholic faith is lost, like your false prophet Mohammed."
Peter was caught in the Islamic invasion of the region and was ultimately murdered by the Arab conquerors from Damascus.
Peter the Scribe M (RM) (also known as Peter Mavimenus). Saint Peter was a scribe (chartularius) in Majuma, Palestine, where he was executed for his faith by the Arab sheik of Damascus (Benedictines).
795 Saint Timothy of Symbola Italian  gift of healing sick casting out unclean spirits
He became a monk at a young age and pursued asceticism at a monastery called "Symbola," in Asia Minor near Mount Olympus. At that time Theoctistus was the archimandrite of the monastery. St Timothy was the disciple of Theoctistus and also of St Platon of the Studion Monastery (April 5).

Attaining a high degree of spiritual perfection, he received from God the gift of healing the sick and casting out unclean spirits. He spent many years as a hermit, roaming the wilderness, the mountains and forests, both day and night offering up prayer to the Lord God. He died at a great old age, in the year 795.
805 George of Amastris B (AC) Born at Kromna near Amastris on the Black Sea
 Saint George was a hermit on Mount Sirik, then a monk of Bonyssa, and finally bishop of Amastris.
He successfully defended his episcopal city during the Saracen attacks (Benedictines).
EARLY in the ninth century there lived at Cromna, near Amastris on the Black Sea, a couple, Theodosius and Megetho, who had long been childless, but upon whom in answer to prayer God bestowed a son, whom they named George. They nearly lost him when he was three years old, as he fell into the fire whilst at play and was very severely burnt. He recovered, however—miraculously as it was believed— although both hands and one foot remained permanently scarred. He grew up a youth of such singular goodness that he was the wonder of all who knew him. In due time he studied for the priesthood and his ordination was attended by crowds who had watched him grow up or who knew him by reputation. He soon decided that he must aim at complete detachment from the world and retired into the desert of Mount Sirik, where he met with an aged anchorite who undertook to train him for the hermitical life. They remained together until the old man was at the point of death, when he advised George not to remain there alone, but to go to the monastery of Bonyssa. When George presented himself he was at once accepted, although a complete stranger, and the monks received him like an old friend. They had no reason to regret it, for George soon showed himself to be remarkable even among that company of saints.

In the meantime the people of Amastris had not forgotten him, and when their bishop died they elected George to fill his place and sent to the monastery to tell him of their decision. George, however, refused to accept the office, and the deputation then carried him off by force to Constantinople to the patriarch St Tarasius, who at once recognized him. Years before, on the eve of his consecration, George had taken part in the solemn singing of the night office. It was usual at the close of such services for the choir to be given a small fee, but George had steadfastly refused to accept anything, and this had greatly impressed Tarasius, who now declared himself ready to consecrate him. The emperor, on the other hand, had a candidate of his own, but St Tarasius said that George had been properly elected and he would only yield so far as to nominate the two candidates and to tell the clergy and people of Amastris to proceed to a new election. Their choice again fell on George, who was duly consecrated and was received by his people with acclamation. He proved himself a true father to his people and as wise as he was pious. It was a time when the country was subject to attacks from the Saracens. On the eve of one of these, the farmers and country folk were advised to take refuge within the city walls, but they could not be convinced of their danger nor would they quit their homes. St George accordingly went round in person from farm to farm explaining the matter and urging the people to seek a safe refuge. They listened to him and obeyed. When the enemy came, they found the city strongly garrisoned, and, recognizing that their own numbers were insufficient to take it by storm, they abandoned the attack and retired.

See the I Sanctorum, February, vol. iii but the complete Greek text has been pub­lished in modern times by V. Vasilievsky in Analecta byzantinorussica, vol. iii, 1893, pp. 1—73, where he discusses the whole history of the saint in a valuable introduction.
Saint George, Bishop of Amastris, was from the city of Kromna, near the city of Amastris close to the Black Sea. His pious and illustrious parents Theodore and Migethusa gave him a fine spiritual and secular education. St George withdrew to the mountains of Syriki in Asia Minor, where he embraced monasticism and began to lead a strict ascetic life under the guidance of a hermit.

After the death of his Elder, St George moved to a monastery in Bonissa, and there continued with his efforts. After the death of the bishop of the city of Amastris, St George was chosen bishop by the clergy and the people, and he was consecrated at Constantinople by Patriarch Tarasius (February 25). Arriving in Amastris, St George instructed his flock, he adorned several churches, was a defender of widows and orphans, fed the poor, and in everything he gave example of a God-pleasing life.

By the power of his prayer he repelled the Saracens who were ravaging the countryside from the city of Amastris. He also delivered from death Amastrian merchants wrongfully condemned in the city of Trebizon.

St George died peacefully in the midst of his flock on March 3, 805 during the reign of the emperor Nicephorus I (802-811).

1072 Peter Damian brilliant teacher writer  transcribing manuscripts , B Doctor (RM)
Born in Ravenna, Italy, 1001; died at Faenza, Italy, February 22, 1072; declared Doctor of the Church in 1828.
"Here they live in endless being: Passingness hath passed away: Here they bloom, they thrive, they flourish, For decayed is all decay."
    --Saint Peter Damian from his Hymn on the Glory of Paradise.

Saint Peter Damian (born 1007, Ravenna—died Feb. 22, 1072, Faenze; feast day February 21) Italian cardinal and Doctor of the Church. He was prior of Fonte Avellana in the Apennines before being named a cardinal in 1057. A leading monastic reformer and ascetic, he played an important role in the promotion of apostolic poverty and in support of papal reformers who sought to enforce clerical celibacy and abolish simony. He defended Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II and reconciled Alexander with the city of Ravenna. He was also sent as a papal legate to resolve disputes in Milan and Cluny, Burgundy, and he played a key role in the formulation of the papal election decree of 1059.

The parents of this brilliant teacher and writer died shortly after his birth. Peter's elder brother used the young lad as an unpaid servant until another brother, Damian, found Peter tending pigs and rescued him, sending him to be educated at Faenza and Parma. This brother was a priest and Peter took his Christian name--Damian--as his own surname.
Peter Damian responded readily to his teachers and became proficient enough in grammar, rhetoric, and law that he later taught at Ravenna.

 He began to practice austerities by himself, gave liberal alms, seldom went without some poor persons at his table, and took pleasure in serving them with his own hands. But he longed to do more for his Lord. The Lord answered his prayer by sending two religious of Fonte Avellana to visit his home. They told him much about their way of life. So, at age 34 (1035) he became a Benedictine monk at Fonte Avellana, a monastery founded 20 years earlier by Blessed Rudolph.
The brothers of Fonte Avellana lived as hermits in bare cells, utterly disciplined and given to constant study of the Bible. Their regimen was so austere that, for a time, Peter's health broke down. Nevertheless, Peter became a model monk who occupied himself by studying Scripture and patristic theology, and transcribing manuscripts. He was elected prior of this small, poor community in 1043. Others were attracted to imitate his life, and Peter founded five more religious houses for them.
He became famous for his uncompromising attitude toward worldliness and denunciations of simony and clerical marriage.

In 1057, Peter was named cardinal-bishop of Ostia by Pope Stephen IX. His fame spread as he took a leading role in the Gregorian Reform. In 1059, he participated in the Lateran synod that proclaimed the right of the cardinals alone to elect future bishops of Rome. After a brief time as bishop, with the permission of Pope Alexander II (which previously had been denied by Nicholas II) and under the condition that he continue to serve the Holy See as needed, Peter returned to his cell. There he wrote unceasingly, on purgatory, the Eucharist, and other theological and ascetical topics, but he also wrote poetry. While his Latin verse is among the very best of the Middle Ages, especially that in honor of Pope Saint Gregory, which begins "Anglorum iam Apostolus," Peter Damian never considered his learning something of which to boast. What counted, he said, was to worship God, not to write about Him. What use was it to construct a grammatically correct sentence containing the word 'God,' if you could not pray to him properly.

In his ideas about monasticism, the saint always looked back to the example of the early desert monks. Although he regarded the monastic life as inferior to eremitic life, he advocated regular canoical life for cathedral clergy, and was a precursor of the devotional development to the Passion of Christ. In some respects he was not unlike the highly-critical Saint Jerome in character, fervor, and impatience. Although he was kind to his monks and indulgent to penitents, his writings reveal his severity. It may seem odd to us that Peter Damian reproved the bishop of Florence for playing a single game of chess, or objected strenuously to monks seating themselves as they chanted the Divine Office. His onslaught on clerical misconduct is called The Gomorrah Book. But the austerities he prescribed for others, he practiced himself. When not employed in prayer or work, he made wooden spoons and other utensils to get his hands from idleness.

Peter also continued the work of ecclesiastical reform. He opposed the antipopes, especially Honorius II. And he went on missions for the pope--once even managing to persuade the king of Germany not to divorce his wife, Bertha. When Henry, archbishop of Ravenna, had been excommunicated for grievous enormities, Peter was sent by Alexander II as legate to settle the troubles. When he arrived at Ravenna, he found the bishop had died and brought his accomplices to repentance. Peter died at Faenza on route back to from Ravenna, which he had just reconciled with the Holy See. His vita was written by his disciple John of Lodi. Although he was never formally canonized, local cults arose at his death, and, in 1828, Pope Leo XII extended his feast to the Universal Church (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Blum, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Walsh, White).

 February 21, 2010 St. Peter Damian 1007-1072  
Maybe because he was orphaned and had been treated shabbily by one of his brothers, Peter Damian was very good to the poor. It was the ordinary thing for him to have a poor person or two with him at table and he liked to minister personally to their needs.  Peter escaped poverty and the neglect of his own brother when his other brother, who was archpriest of Ravenna, took him under his wing. His brother sent him to good schools and Peter became a professor.
Already in those days Peter was very strict with himself. He wore a hair shirt under his clothes, fasted rigorously and spent many hours in prayer. Soon, he decided to leave his teaching and give himself completely to prayer with the Benedictines of the reform of St. Romuald at Fonte Avellana. They lived two monks to a hermitage. Peter was so eager to pray and slept so little that he soon suffered from severe insomnia. He found he had to use some prudence in taking care of himself. When he was not praying, he stu died the Bible.
The abbot commanded that when he died Peter should succeed him. Abbot Peter founded five other hermitages. He encouraged his brothers in a life of prayer and solitude and wanted nothing more for himself. The Holy See periodically called on him, however, to be a peacemaker or troubleshooter, between two abbeys in dispute or a cleric or government official in some disagreement with Rome.

Finally, Pope Stephen IX made Peter the cardinal-bishop of Ostia. He worked hard to wipe out simony, and encouraged his priests to observe celibacy and urged even the diocesan clergy to live together and maintain scheduled prayer and religious observance. He wished to restore primitive discipline among religious and priests, warning against needless travel, violations of poverty and too comfortable living. He even wrote to the bishop of Besancon, complaining that the canons there sat down when they were singing the psalms in the Divine Office.
He wrote many letters. Some 170 are extant. We also have 53 of his sermons and seven lives, or biographies, that he wrote. He preferred examples and stories rather than theory in his writings. The liturgical offices he wrote are evidence of his talent as a stylist in Latin.
He asked often to be allowed to retire as cardinal-bishop of Ostia, and finally Alexander II consented. Peter was happy to become once again just a monk, but he was still called to serve as a papal legate. When returning from such an assignment in Ravenna, he was overcome by a fever. With the monks gathered around him saying the Divine Office, he died on February 22, 1072.
In 1828 he was declared a Doctor of the Church.
Comment:  Peter was a reformer and if he were alive today would no doubt encourage the renewal started by Vatican II. He would also applaud the greater emphasis on prayer that is shown by the growing number of priests, religious and laypersons who gather regularly for prayer, as well as the special houses of prayer recently established by many religious communities.
Quote:  “...Let us faithfully transmit to posterity the example of virtue which we have received from our forefathers” (St. Peter Damian).
In art, Saint Peter is portrayed as a cardinal archbishop holding a birch and a book. Sometimes he may be shown (1) as a bishop with the cardinal's hat above his head or by his side, (2) as an old hermit, dead in a cave, lying on a stone slab with a crucifix on his breast; books, miter, cardinal's hat, and angels near him (Roeder), or (3) praying before a cross with a miter and cardinal's hat on the ground (White).
1210 Blessed Nicholas of Vangadizza great helper to holy souls, OSB Cam. (AC).
Nicholas, a Camaldolese monk and priest at Vangadizza abbey, was a great helper to holy souls (Benedictines).

1562 Robert Southwell 1/40 martyrs of England and Wales SJ M (RM)
Born at Horsham Saint Faith's, Norfolk, England, in 1561 or 1562; died at Tyburn, London, England, February 21, 1595; beatified in 1929; canonized on October 25, 1970, by Pope Paul VI as one of the 40 representative martyrs of England and Wales.
IT is a commonly received dogma of literary criticism that a poet should be studied in relation to his times, occupation and general background. It is nevertheless usually possible, and rewarding, to consider a given writer in the light of his writings, rather than vice versa. But Robert Southwell is one of the exceptions: he was not first and foremost a poet; he was first and foremost a man, a priest, a missionary and a martyr.

He was born in or about 1561 at Horsham Saint Faith in Norfolk, being related through his mother with the Sussex Shelleys, so that there was a remote connection between the two poets, Shelley and Southwell. He was sent to school at Douay, where he was a pupil of the famous Leonard Lessius, and so made his first contact with the Society of Jesus. He then studied in Paris, under Thomas Darbyshire, who had been archdeacon of Essex in Queen Mary’s time, and when he was hardly seventeen decided that he wanted to be a Jesuit himself. At first he was refused on account of his youth, and his grief at this refusal prompted the earliest of his writing that has come down to us. However, in the autumn of 1578 he was admitted to the novitiate in Rome. He eventually was made prefect of studies in the Venerable English College, and was ordained priest in 1584. Two years later, with Father Henry Garnet, he was sent on the English mission.

Father Southwell’s active career as a missionary lasted for six years. In 1587 he became chaplain at the London house of Anne, Countess of Arundel, and so became acquainted with her husband, Ed Philip Howard, who was then in the Tower.* [* It was to console him on the death of his half-sister, Lady Margaret Sackville, that Southwell wrote his Triumphs over Death]

In spite of the necessary secrecy of his movements, Southwell became well-known, and was effective in his work particularly on account of his gentle, quiet disposition; he held aloof from all political and ecclesiastical intrigue and controversy and was concerned solely with the carrying out of his priestly duties. In 1592 he was arrested by the infamous Topcliffe at Uxenden Hall, Harrow: he had been betrayed by a daughter of the house.

In a vain attempt to elicit information about his fellow Catholics, Bd Robert was examined under terrible torture at least nine times in the house of Topcliffe himself (who had boasted to the queen, “I never did take so weighty a man, if he be rightly used”), and other times elsewhere. After nearly three years in the Gatehouse and the Tower he appealed to Cecil that he should be either tried or given at least some liberty. The appeal was successful. He was brought to trial, and condemned for his priesthood. On February 21, 1595 he was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, the awed bystanders insisting that he should not be cut down until he was dead. Bd Robert Southwell was only thirty-three years old.

This is, in brief outline, what is known of Southwell’s life. But we may go a little further and fill in some of the gaps, concerning both himself and his circum­stances, by a short consideration of his writings. As mentioned above, the first thing that we have is a prose lament when he was refused admittance to the Society of Jesus. Foley, in his Records of the English Province, S.J., says that Bd Robert wavered for a time between the Jesuits and the Carthusians—an enlightening fact when we consider the difference of life offered by these alternatives. When he had finally decided to become a Jesuit and was refused—temporarily—he wrote:

“Alas where am I, and where shall I be? A wanderer in a dry and parched land...These favours are not communicated to aliens, they are the privileges of souls admitted to the inner chamber of the King now feeding on the spiritual delights of Paradise, then nesting upon the couch of love they take a repose that transcendeth all delights.”
We possess many of his writings from the period of his novitiate, and they show he had a clear idea of the pains, duties and joys of a member of the Society of Jesus:
“Thou also, delighting in its possession [of the Jesuit life], how inflamed should not be thy love of God How grateful for so high a favour . . . How great a perfection is required in a religious of the Society, who should ever be ready at a moment’s notice for any part of the world and for any kind of people, be they heretics, Turks, pagans or barbarians... Hence we should reflect upon the virtues necessary for a life among the Indians...Like­wise for him who may be cast by the heretics into chains, macerated by hunger and thirst, tempted by a thousand solicitations, tortured by the rack and various tor­ments. These should always live with the enemy, keep him ever in sight, engage in continual combat, yet never yield or be overcome.”

There could hardly be a better expression of the attitude of mind necessary in the Jesuit missionary. And Southwell learnt well the lesson of obedience, he took it into his mind and made it part of himself, passing it on to others by example and in his writing he had learnt true humility. “Remembering that the rule enjoins thee to esteem all in thy heart as thy superior, striving to acknowledge God in each one, as in His image.”

Bd Robert seems to have felt from the beginning that his part would be that of the martyr. He knew very well the conditions in which his fellow Jesuits lived and worked, in England and elsewhere; at Rome he would hear many reports of those trials and sufferings. He heard of the execution of Bd Edmund Campion, the first English Jesuit martyr, and presumably read the eye-witness account, a sufficiently disturbing document if one is aware that oneself may soon be running the danger of a similar death. But Southwell’s letter on the subject to Father Persons carries (under its disguise of a merchant’s business communication) a note rather of exultation: “He [Campion] has had the start of you in loading his vessel with English wares and has successfully returned to the desired port. Day by day we are looking forward to something similar of you.” His letter from Calais to the father general of his order, Father Aquaviva, written before setting out for England in 1586, expresses his desire for the martyr’s crown, and gives a glimpse of the writer’s sensitiveness and normal human frailty: Nor do I so much dread the tortures as look forward to the crown. The flesh indeed is weak and profiteth nothing. Yea, while pondering these things it even recoils.” He was no thick­ skinned adventurer embarking on an exciting and profitable expedition, any more than he was a story-book saint saved from human suffering by angelic helpers; rather was he a man of deep feeling, moved by his love to give up all to God, even his life: not without moments of fear and disturbance, but those powerless to move him permanently because of the strength of his will, which relied not on itself but on God’s grace.

For the life of a Jesuit missionary in England in the late sixteenth century we have Father John Gerard’s autobiography, telling of toil and struggle, journeyings in disguise and secret meetings, hair-breadth escapes, final capture and imprison­ment, often torture and sometimes escape.* [*Gerard mentions Southwell several times once in connection with a secret conference of missionaries in Warwickshire, which was very nearly followed by capture another time, as learning from him [Gerard] the sporting jargon needed for easy conversation with the gentry. See Father Philip Caraman’s edition of the autobiography, John Gerard (1951).]

After a period of this restless life Father Southwell became chaplain to Lady Arundel, and it was then that he pro­duced his two important prose works, Mary Magdalen’s Funeral Tears and the Epistle of Comfort, both directed to the comfort and encouragement of his fellow Catholics. We have no evidence of the date of any of his poems: he had a certain amount of spare time then, and a great deal more during the years of imprisonment, and we may assume that he was composing during either, or more probably both, of these periods.

If the poet comes a long way behind the priest and the missionary, this does not mean that Bd Robert’s poetry is apart from his life : quite the contrary. His short carefully-constructed lyrics in their intensity and fervour are an expression, in a small compass and sometimes a stumbling manner, of his qualities of mind and soul; and these qualities are best realized by an examination of that life which both conditioned and expressed them. The mixture of courage and sensitiveness; the lyrical faith in God and love of the beauty of His works, in the midst of the worser brutalities of the age; the strange contrast of the holy and peace-loving man evading the law by means of dark hiding-places and cunning disguises, as if he were a dangerous criminal: these are reflected vividly in the poetry. We find also the stern asceticism and devotion to a “military” discipline necessary for the work he was called to do; the renunciation of all worldly pleasures inspired, not by a morbid desire to choke the natural feelings, but by an irresistible impulse to give up all things for the sake of one, “the pearl of great price”:  the eternal Christian paradox of “having nothing yet possessing all things”. The essential paradox in the fundamental truths of Christianity is the source and inspiration of Southwell’s poetry. “New Prince, New Pomp”, as its name implies, reveals the contradictory values brought into the world by the new Prince whose court is a stable. In the “Lauda Sion Salvatorem” he translates—with conspicuous success in a difficult verse-form——St Thomas Aquinas’s great hymn, with all its emphasis on the seeming contradiction between faith and sense, reason and revelation. The apparent simplicity of dogma, possessing on closer study this apparent contradiction, which again reveals such depths of meaning, richness of interpretation, such complementary truths, was admirably suited to Southwell’s genius.

It was natural that Bd Robert should write in the popular manner of his day (whatever other reasons he might have had for doing so), and the particular “con­ceited’ style of the late sixteenth century was well suited to the emphasis he placed on the paradoxical aspect of his faith and the feelings aroused by it within himself:

I live, but such a life as ever dies
I die, but such a death as never ends;
My death to end my dying life denies,
And life my living death no whit amends.
He has been compared to Sir Philip Sidney, both for his fondness of the conceit and his general style, and we may remember that Sidney had a great influence on the young poets of his time. But the comparison has also been made for their common intensity, warmth and personal feeling. This is true so far as it goes yet it is the more interesting for the differences it reveals. Sidney was the perfect example of the ideal gentleman of his day—and Southwell was not that: he was a hunted and hated Jesuit, suspect of treason. Nevertheless Sidney would probably have got on well with Southwell, for they were both men of cultured intellect, lively, sweet-tempered and of great personal integrity: in Father Garnet’s words, “Our dear Father Southwell ... being at once prudent, pious, meek, and exceedingly winning”; and again, “What a famous man and how much beloved was Father Southwell.”

Bd Robert’s poetry tends to be short, compact and intensely expressed. Carefully designed and made indeed, but never polished—nothing so urbane as that— intellect from turning lyrical beauty into the bitterness of loveless fanaticism, yet with many felicitous phrases, among many a maze of words and ideas. These more complicated tangles are not found in the very best of his lyrics the famous “Burning Babe” has conceits enough, but the reader is never lost in them. The most moving of all his poems, “The Virgin Mary to Christ on the Cross”, is simple and direct, with very little conceit, and that not too startling.

Robert Southwell was the poet of the lyric his fire, energy and passion, com­bined with a severe discipline imposed not only by his vocation but also by his own will, found its best expression in a few lines heavily laden with meaning and emotion, carefully controlled by the power and acuteness of his understanding. His two long works are a less rewarding study, the “Fourfold Meditation on the Four Last Things” (a doubt has been cast on its authorship) and “St Peter’s Complaint”.

But whatever their quality, these poems show again in what their writer was most deeply interested: in the hard facts of the four last things in the life of every man in the way that man’s sin has wounded the love of God, the repentance He wishes to draw from the hearts of men, and in what happens if man does not repent. In the preface to his poems we find Southwell bewailing that the great gift of poetry is being put to such an unworthy use in the profane writings of so many of his contemporaries. He states his purpose of using the popular poetic style for his own—that is, for the divine—purpose “to weave a new web in their own loom”.

We can look back to the years when, as study-master at the English College in Rome, he applied himself to the study of his own tongue; ultimately it was for this, to be able to fight the enemy with his own weapons. And this style was an excellent weapon, for whereas in profane poetry words would be twisted and turned to make strange meanings for the sake of wit or cleverness, in the sacred, without losing any of the intellectual dexterity, the conceit could be seen to carry with it the most profound religious teaching, partly because of the nature of the doctrine, partly because of Southwell’s own skill.

The poems achieved an almost immediate popularity, for the manner, if nothing else, appealed to the general public to his fellow Catholics they were precious “spiritual reading” cast in a form familiar and easy to them. He knew and expressed for them how they were feeling, for whom life was indeed—

A wandering course to doubtful rest…a maze of countless straying ways. 

They were experiencing the frailty of present happiness and the worthlessness of worldly pleasures of which Southwell wrote; and they needed the comfort he brought in his triumphal acclamation of the Christian’s salvation, of the mercy and love of God, the words of spiritual joy uttered in the midst of suffering, and not least in translations of the songs of the Church’s worship and meditations upon the life of her Lord. The omission from these last of any meditation on the Resurrection shows how he had fixed his attention on Christ’s life, suffering and death, seeing and feeling all too acutely the parallel between that Passion and the lives of himself and his fellow Catholics.

“Love is not ruled with reason, but with love. It neither regardeth what can be nor what shall be done, but only what itself desireth to do. No difficulty can stay it, no impossibility appal it” (Mary Magdalen’s Funeral Tears). It was with this outlook that Bd Robert Southwell lived worked and died; it is this that permeates his poetry, preventing the fierceness of his faith and the acuteness of hisand does not forbid us to seek flowers; but he tells us to seek them in Heaven.

The fullest and standard work on Bd Robert Southwell, who shares the literary laurels of the English Jesuit province with Gerard Manley Hopkins, is Janelle’s Robert Southwell the Writer (1935) a third of the book is devoted to his life and there is a full bibliography. The best edition of his works is still that of Grosart (1872). There are articles by Father Thurston in The Month for February and March 1895, September 1905, and others, and in the Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. xiv, pp. 164—165. Challoner in MMP. describes the scene on the scaffold, and gives the text of two letters from Southwell to a friend in Rome, as well as a translation of a manuscript account of his trial kept at Saint-Omer. See also Lee in DNB. Foley’s REPSJ., vol. i Catholic Record Society’s publications, vol. v Child in the Cambridge History of English Literature, vol. iv and Hood’s The Book of Robert Southwell (1926). Trotman’s edition of the Triumphs over Death, with the Epistle to His Father and two other letters (1914) includes a sketch of the martyr’s life, and some notes and speculations of which Janelle says they “are partly inaccurate and sometimes absurd”. Bd Robert’s feast is observed by the Society of Jesus. For R. C. Bald’s edition of the Humble Supplication to Her Majesty (1953), see Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lxxii (1952), p. 301. A new study of Southwell by Fr Christopher Devlin is announced (1955).

The Church has been built on the blood of martyrs--the living stones. Before there were cathedrals, there were the catacombs; since then objects of value have been piled about our altars, but the most precious is contained beneath each altar in the mandatory "tomb"--the shrine with the relics of a martyr--and upon the tomb the chalice with the precious Blood of Christ. We would do well to recall the many previous Masses that were celebrated in haste and secrecy--for us, like the martyrs, each Mass might be the viaticum. Receive the Source of Life with joy, attention, and thanksgiving.

When King Henry VIII could not induce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, to allow their marriage to be declared invalid because she was his brother's widow, Henry declared himself head of the Church in England. He persuaded the Parliament to declare that it was high treason for anyone to deny Henry's right to this title. On this account monasteries were closed and Church property confiscated--both real and monetary, including the innumerable foundations designed to maintain schools for the people, who were largely illiterate. A long procession of saints and beati were executed under Henry VIII.

(Of course, we should always remember that Roman Catholics are not alone in being persecuted. While the English kings and queens hanged and quartered Catholics, Protestants were burned in France and Spain. There was the difference that Protestants in Spain and France were trying to destroy the ancient traditions of the people, while Catholicism in England did not show itself incompatible with the order of society.)

Robert Southwell's lineage included most of the country gentry of Suffolk and Norfolk, but his father Richard was born on the wrong side of the sheets though his grandfather, also Richard, did eventually marry Robert's grandmother, a poor relation of his first wife.

Richard Southwell, Sr., had been a courtier to Henry VIII and received his share of the booty from the pillaging of monasteries, including the ancient Benedictine priory of Horsham Saint Faith. Richard changed his political and religious affiliations a few times during the reigns of Edward and Mary of Scotland. The saint's father had married Queen Elizabeth's governess; thus, Richard Senior's grandson Robert was born in the old Benedictine priory.

Robert is the mystic among the English martyrs, though circumstances made him a man of action and bold adventure. Fire, sweetness, purity, and gentleness were features of Robert Southwell's nature.

Once as a child, he was stolen by gypsies, who were numerous in the great woods surrounding Saint Faith's. His nurse found him again. Robert referred to this misadventure often. "What had I remained with the gipsy? How abject, how void of all knowledge and reverence of God! In what shameful vices, in how great danger of infamy, in how certain danger of an unhappy death and eternal punishment!" On his return to England as a missionary, the first person he visited was his old nurse, whom he tried to lead back to the Roman Catholic Church.

His father sent him to Douai to be educated by the Jesuits, either because he was a Catholic at that time or because of the reputation of the order's schools. There Robert met John Cotton, who later operated a safehouse in London.

Robert was inspired with intense enthusiasm for the Society of Jesus and begged entry at once, though he was too young. He was bitterly disappointed, but on the feast of Saint Faith (fortuitously on October 17, 1578) he was received into the order in Rome as a novice. He spent his novitiate in Tournai, but took his vows and, in 1584, was ordained to the priesthood in Rome, where for a time he was prefect in the English College.

At this time he began to attract a good deal of attention by his poems. He corresponded with Mr. Parsons, the leader of the Jesuit mission in England. He was worried that many who had been faithful Catholics were now sliding into the Church of England to avoid the fine for every service from which they absented themselves. Many families held out until they were financially ruined; then they would attempt to make their way to the continent and live on alms.

Though Robert Southwell knew how his journey to England would end, with Father Henry Garnet, he returned in 1586 to serve among those Catholics who were still willing to venture life and welfare by hearing a Mass and receiving the Sacraments. Before his departure he wrote to the general of hte Jesuits, Claudius Acquaviva, "I address you, my Father, from the threshold of death, imploring the aid of your prayers . . . that I may either escape the death of the body for further use, or endure it with courage."

Most of the remaining Catholics were to be found in the countryside. Most were content to long for better days and hope that a priest could be smuggled into their sickroom before their deaths. On the other hand, among the actively militant there was a wonderful cohesion and a mutual helpfulness and affection that recalled the days of the primitive Church. But thes little congregations that assembled before dawn in a secret room of some remote manor house never knew if a traitor might be in their midst.

Southwell rode about the countryside in disguise, saying Mass, hearing confessions, celebrating marriages, baptizing, re-admitting apostates, giving the Sacraments to the dying. He even managed to visit Catholics in prison and say Mass there. Time after time he miraculously managed to elude his pursuers.

Much of Southwell's correspondence during this period has been preserved and provides many insights into the events and attitudes of hte period. These were hard times. In one letter he requests permission to consecrate chalices and altar slabs (usually reserved to the bishop)--so much had been taken away in the constant searching of the homes of Catholics that such things were becoming scarce.

His letters home also reveal Robert's anxiety about the salvation of his father and one of his brothers, Thomas. The soul of the poet is evident when he writes his brother: "Shrine not any longer a dead soul in a living body: bail reason out of senses' prison, that after so long a bondage in sin, you may enjoy your former liberty in God's Church, and free your thought from servile awe of uncertain perils. . . . Weigh with yourself at how easy a price you rate God, Whom you are content to sell for hte use of your substance. . . . Look if you can upon a crucifix without blushing; do not but count the five wounds of Christ once over without a bleeding conscience."

Thomas was won back to the faith and died in exile in the Netherlands. His father died in prison after Robert's martyrdom, but it is unknown whether he, too, suffered for the faith.

As chronicled in Robert's letters, the persecution intensified after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Captured Catholics used their trials in defense of the faith. Robert tried to remain at large for as long as possible by adopting disguises and using the alias of Mr. Cotton--a poor, unkempt, and socially awkward young man.

Robert was a priest in London from 1584 to 1592. About 1590, Robert Southwell became chaplain to Anne, countess of Arundel, wife of the imprisoned Saint Philip Howard, who was being told lies about her now-faithful husband. To Southwell, Earl Philip wrote from prison that his greatest sorrow was that he would never see his wife again. "I call Our Lord to witness that as no sin grieves me so much as my offenses to that party [Anne], so no worldly things makes me loather to depart hence than that I cannot live to make that party satisfaction, according to my most ardent and affectionate desire. Afflictio dat intellectum (affliction gives understanding)."

During the time that Fr. Southwell was concealed in Arundel House in London, he corresponded with Philip Howard because of their mutual affection for Anne Dacre and because of their shared faith and shared interest in poetry. Southwell holds a place in English literature as a religious poet. Ben Jonson remarked to Drummond that "Southwell was hanged, yet so he [Jonson] had written that piece of his 'The Burning Babe' he would have been content to destroy many of his." Many of Southwell's poems, apologetic tracts, and devotional books were published on a private printing press installed at Arundel House.

At Arundel House, the soon-to-be martyr also found himself often lost in mystical experiences that are later revealed in his poetry. There is an unforgettable power in his poetic image of Christ as the unwearied God throughout eternity supporting the earth on His fingertip and enclosing all creation in the hollow of His hand, but Who, in His humanity, breaks down and falls beneath the weight of a single person's sin.

Robert Southwell was betrayed by Anne Bellamy. After giving her absolution during her confinement with a family in Holborn, he told her that he would offer Mass in the secret room in her father Richard's home in Harrow on June 20, 1592. She reported this to Richard Topcliffe, one of the most notorious for hunting down priests. Robert Southwell was arrested while still wearing his vestments. Southwell was immediately tortured upon arrival at Topcliffe's Westminster home--for two days he was hung up by the wrists against a wall, so that he could barely touch the floor with the tips of his toes.

When he was at the point of death, his tormentors revived him, hung him up again, and prodded him to reveal the names of other priests and for information to condemn Lady Arundel. All he would confess was that he was a Jesuit priest. He gave no information, not even the color of the horse on which he had riden, that would allow them to find other Catholics. Southwell's steadfastness led several of the witnesses, including the Treasurer Sir Robert Cecil, to whisper that he must indeed be a saint.

He was taken from Topcliffe's house to a filthy cell in the Gatehouse and left for a month. His father, seeing him covered with lice, begged the queen to treat his son as the gentleman he was. She obliged by having Southwell moved to a cleaner cell and permitting his father to send him clean clothes and other necessities, including a Bible and the writings of Saint Bernard.

Robert Southwell was moved to the Tower of London, where he was imprisoned for three years and tortured 13 times (according to Cecil). Many of his poems on death, including "Saint Peter's Complaint," were written in the Tower. Not once was he given the opportunity to confess his sins or say Mass.

He was allowed only one visit--from his sister. Communication with Saint Philip Howard was limited to notes smuggled between their cells. Because Arundel's dog would sometimes follow the warder into Southwell's cell, the lieutenant of the Tower mocked that he supposed the dog had gone to get the priest's blessing. Howard replied, "Marry! it is no news for irrational creatures to seek blessings at the hands of holy men. Saint Jerome writes how those lions which had digged with their paws Saint Paul the Hermit's grave stood after waiting with their eyes upon Saint Antony expecting his blessing."

Finally, Southwell entreated Cecil to bring him to trial or permit him visitors. To which Cecil answered, "if he was in so much haste to be hanged, he should quickly have his desire." Shortly thereafter he was taken to Newgate Prison and placed in the underground dungeon called Limbo before being brought to trial at Westminster on February 20, 1595. He was condemned for being a priest. When the Lord Chief Justice Popham offered the services of an Anglican priest to prepare him for death, he declined saying that the grace ofGod would be more than sufficient for him.

Like many martyrs before him, Southwell drew the admiration of the crowds because he walked as though he whole being were filled with happiness at the prospect of being executed the next day. On the morrow, the tall, slight man of light brown hair and beard was taken to the "Tyburn Tree," a gallows, where the custom was for the condemned to be drive underneath the gallows in a cart, a rope secured around his neck, and the cart driven from under him. According to the sentence, the culprit would hang until he was dead or cut down before reaching that point.

Standing in the cart, Father Southwell began preaching on Romans 14: "Whether we live, we live unto the Lord: or whether we die, we die unto the Lord. Therefore, whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord's. . . . I am brought hither to perform the last act of this miserable life, and . . . I do most humbly desire at the hands of Almighty God for our Savior Jesus' sake, that He would vouchsafe to pardon and forgive all my sins. . . ." He acknowledged that he was a Catholic priest and declared that he never intended harm or evil against the queen, but always prayed for her. He end with "In manus tuas, Domine (into Your hands, Lord), I commend my spirit." Contrary to the sentence, he was dead before he was cut down and quartered (Benedictines, Delaney, Undset).
1794 Blessed Noel Pinot continued to minister to his flock. M (AC) also known as Natalis)
Born at Angers, France, in 1747; beatified in 1926. Noel was ordained a priest in 1771 and labored as a parish priest in Louroux-Béconnais until the outbreak of the French Revolution. When he refused to take the oath recognizing the civil constitution of the clergy, he was ousted from his parish, but continued to minister to his flock. At first he was secretive about this ministry. Then he grew bolder. In 1794, he was captured when vested for Mass and guillotined--still wearing his priestly vestments (Benedictines).
THE fact that the cause of Bd Noel was introduced by itself and dealt with inde­pendently of the other martyrs of the French Revolution gives him a certain distinction amongst those who suffered for their faith during the Reign of Terror. He was a simple parish-priest who had been born at Angers in 1747, and had made only the ordinary studies of the secular clergy. After serving as vicaire in one or two churches, and distinguishing himself by his devotion to the sick when in charge of an hospital for incurables, he was in 1788 appointed curé in the little town of Louroux-Béconnais, where his zeal and devotion were attended by abundant fruit in the moral reformation of his parishioners.

In 1790 the Constituent Assembly forced upon King Louis XVI the measure known as the “Civil Constitution of the Clergy”, which struck at the fundamental principles of Catholic Church government and which required every priest to take an unlawful oath denounced by the Holy See. Like many other good priests, the Abbé Pinot refused to take this oath. He was arrested, and by a tribunal at Angers was sentenced to be deprived of his cure for two years. This, however, did not deter him from exercising his ministry in secret, and he was energetic in bringing back to better dispositions many priests who had not shown the same firmness as himself. When the revolt in Vendée gained some temporary success, he openly took possession of his parish again to the great joy of his flock, and even when the arms of the Republic prevailed in that region he continued his pastoral work in defiance of civil and military authority. For some time he was successful in evading the attempts persistently made to effect his capture, but at last he was betrayed by a man to whom he had shown great kindness. He was seized when actually vested for Mass and was dragged in his chasuble through the streets amid the jeers of the rabble and the soldiery. During the twelve days he was kept in prison, he was very roughly treated, and upon his reiterated refusal to take the oath he was sentenced off-hand to the guillotine. On February 21, 1794, he was led out to death still wearing the priestly vestments in which he had been arrested, and on the way to offer his final sacrifice he is said to have repeated aloud the words which the priest recites at the foot of the altar in beginning Mass Introibo ad altare Dei\...“I will enter unto the altar of God, to God who giveth joy to my youth.” Bd Noel Pinot was beatified in 1926 -- Pius XI 1922-1939.

All the essential facts will be found rehearsed in the decrees published in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. xi (1959), pp. 86—88, and vol. xviii (1926), pp. 425—428. See also A. Crosnier, Le b. Noel Pinot (1926).

Mary's Divine Motherhood
   Tuesday  Saints of Day February  21 Nono Kaléndas Mártii.  
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  February 2017
Comfort for the Afflicted
That all those who are afflicted, especially the poor, refugees,
and marginalized, may find welcome and comfort in our communities.
Marian spirituality: all are invited.

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;

March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.

Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas

                    We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.
Saints of February 01 mention with Popes
865 St. Ansgar (b. 801) The “apostle of the north” (Scandinavia) had enough frustrations to become a saint—and he did. He became a Benedictine at Corbie, France, where he had been educated. Three years later, when the king of Denmark became a convert, Ansgar went to that country for three years of missionary work, without noticeable success. Sweden asked for Christian missionaries, and he went there, suffering capture by pirates and other hardships on the way. Less than two years later he was recalled, to become abbot of New Corbie (Corvey) and bishop of Hamburg. The pope made him legate for the Scandinavian missions. Funds for the northern apostolate stopped with Emperor Louis’s death. After 13 years’ work in Hamburg, Ansgar saw it burned to the ground by invading Northmen; Sweden and Denmark returned to paganism.
He directed new apostolic activities in the North, traveling to Denmark and being instrumental in the conversion of another king. By the strange device of casting lots, the king of Sweden allowed the Christian missionaries to return.  Ansgar’s biographers remark that he was an extraordinary preacher, a humble and ascetical priest. He was devoted to the poor and the sick, imitating the Lord in washing their feet and waiting on them at table. He died peacefully at Bremen, Germany, without achieving his wish to be a martyr.
Sweden became pagan again after his death, and remained so until the coming of missionaries two centuries later.

1645 St Henry Morse Jesuit fought off the plague returned several times to England ministering.  Born in Broome, Suffolk, England, in 1595; died at Tyburn, England, February 1, 1645; beatified in 1929; canonized in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
Saint Henry, like so many saints of his period in the British Isles, was a convert to Catholicism. He was a member of the country gentry, who studied at Cambridge then finished his study of law at Barnard's Inn, London. In 1614, he professed the Catholic faith at Douai. When he returned to England to settle an inheritance, he was arrested for his faith and spent the next four years in New Prison in Southwark. He was released in 1618 when a general amnesty was proclaimed by King James.

Saints of February 02 mention with Popes
  St. Cornelius sent for Peter First bishop of Caesarea.  1st century. Palestine, who was originally a centurion in the Italica cohort of the Roman legion in the area. Cornelius had a vision instructing him to send for St. Peter, who came to his home and baptized him, as described in Acts, chapter ten.
619 St. Lawrence of Canterbury Benedictine Archbishop scourged by St. Peter physical scars.  England, sent there by Pope St. Gregory I the Great. A Benedictine, Lawrence accompanied St. Augustine to Canterbury in 597 and succeeded him as archbishop in 604.  When the Britons lapsed into pagan customs, Lawrence planned to return to France, but in a dream he was rebuked by St. Peter for abandoning his flock. He remained in his see and converted the local ruler King Edbald to the faith. He died in Canterbury on February 2. Lawrence is commemorated in the Irish Stowe Missal and is reported to have been scourged by St. Peter in his dream, carrying the physical scars on his back.
1365 Blessed Peter Cambiano Dominican martyr.   Born in Chieri, Piedmont, Italy, in 1320; died February 2, 1365; beatified in 1856.
Peter Cambiano's father was a city councillor and his mother was of nobility. They were virtuous and careful parents, and they gave their little son a good education, especially in religion. Peter responded to all their care and became a fine student, as well as a pious and likeable child.
Peter was drawn to the Dominicans by devotion to the rosary. Our Lady of the Rosary was the special patroness of the Piedmont region, and he had a personal devotion to her. At 16, therefore, he presented himself at the convent in Piedmont and asked for the habit.       The inquisition had been set up to deal with these people in Lombardy before the death of Peter Martyr, a century before. So well did young Peter of Ruffia carryout the work of preaching among them that the order sent him to Rome to obtain higher degrees. The pope, impressed both by his talent and his family name, appointed him inquisitor-general of the Piedmont. This was a coveted appointment; to a Dominican it meant practically sure martyrdom and a carrying on of a proud tradition.
1640 St. Joan de Lestonnac Foundress many miracles different kinds occurred at her tomb.   After her children were raised, she entered the Cistercian monastery at Toulouse. Joan was forced to leave the Cistercians when she became afflicted with poor health.
She returned to Bordeaux with the idea of forming a new congregation, and several young girls joined her as novices. They ministered to victims of a plague that struck Bordeaux, and they were determined to counteract the evils of heresy promulgated by Calvinism. Thus was formed the Congregation of the Religious of Notre Dame of Bordeaux. In 1608, Joan and her companions received the religious habit from the Archbishop of Bordeaux. Joan was elected superior in 1610, and many miracles occurred at her tomb. She was canonized in 1949 by Pope Pius XII.

Saints of February 03 mention with Popes
Gregory IV (827-44) # 102
Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a Roman and the son of John. Before his election to the papacy he was the Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of St. Mark, which he adorned with mosaics yet visible. For his piety and learning he was ordained priest by Paschal I. This man, of distinguished appearance and high birth, was raised to the chair of Peter, despite his protestations of unfitness, mainly buy the instrumentality of the secular nobility of Rome who were then securing a preponderating influence in papal elections. But the representatives in Rome of the Emperor Louis the Pious would not allow him to be consecrated until his election had been approved by their master. This interference caused such delay that it was not, seemingly, till about March, 828, that he began to govern the Church.
576 St. Lawrence of Spoleto Bishop “the Illuminator.” miracle worker  of Spoleto, Italy, also called “the Illuminator.” He was a Syrian, forced to leave his homeland in 514 because of Arian persecution. He went to Rome and was ordained by Pope St. Hormisdas. He then preached in Umbria and founded a monastery in Spoleto. Named bishop of Spoleto, Lawrence was rejected as a foreigner until the city’s gates miraculously opened for his entrance.
He is called “the Illuminator” because of his ability to cure physical and spiritual blindness. After two decades, Lawrence resigned to found the Farfa Abbey near Rome.
865 St. Ansgar 1st Archbishop of Hamburg & Bremen missionary first Christian church in Sweden Patron of Scandinavia  At Bremen, St. Ansgar, bishop of Hamburg and later of Bremen, who converted the Swedes and the Danes to the faith of Christ.  He was appointed Apostolic Delegate of all the North by Pope Gregory IV.
Ansgar was born of a noble family near Amiens. He became a monk at Old Corbie monastery in Picardy and later at New Corbie in Westphalia. He accompanied King Harold to Denmark when the exiled King returned to his native land and engaged in missionary work there. Ansgar's success caused King Bjorn of Sweden to invite him to that country, and he built the first Christian Church in Sweden. He became Abbot of New Corbie and first Archbishop of Hamburg about 831, and Pope Gregory IV appointed him Legate to the Scandinavian countries. He labored at his missionary works for the next fourteen years but saw all he had accomplished destroyed when invading pagan Northmen in 845 destroyed Hamburg and overran the Scandinavian countries, which lapsed into paganism.
1331 Bl. Odoric of Pordenone Franciscan missionary to Mongol Great Khan in Peking miracles performed . Born Odoric Mattiussi at Villanova, near Pordenone, Italy, he entered the Franciscans in 1300 and became a hermit. After several years, he took to preaching in the region of Udine, northern Italy, attracting huge crowds through his eloquence. In 1316 he set out for the Far East, journeying through China and finally reaching the court of the Mongol Great Khan in Peking. From 1322 to 1328 he wandered throughout China and Tibet, finally returning to the West in 1330 where he made a report to the pope at Avignon and dictated an account of his travels. He died before he could find missionaries to return with him to the East. His cult was approved in 1755 owing to the reports of miracles he performed while preaching among the Chinese.
1450 Blessed Matthew of Girgenti .  Matthew became a Conventual Franciscan in his hometown. Then he turned to the Observants and worked zealously under Saint Bernardino of Siena, with whom he became close friends as they travelled together on Bernardino's preaching missions. He himself gained a reputation as a great preacher. Pope Eugene IV forced him to accept the bishopric of Girgenti. Once he accepted it as God's will, he set about reforming the see. As a result of the opposition the changes raised, he resigned the see. Then he was refused admittance to the friary he himself had founded because he was deemed to be too much of a firebrand. Matthew died in a Franciscan friary at Palermo (Attwater2, Benedictines).

Saints of February 04 mention with Popes
1373 St. Andrew Corsini Carmelite gifts of prophecy, miracles papal legate Apostle of Florence miracles at  death.  He was born in Florence on November 30, 1302, a member of the powerful Corsini family. Wild in his youth, Andrew was converted to a holy life by his mother and became a Carmelite monk. He studied in Paris and Avignon, France, returning to his birthplace. There he became known as the Apostle of Florence. He was called a prophet and miracle worker. Named as the bishop of Fiesole in 1349, Andrew fled the honor but was forced to accept the office, which he held for twelve years. He was sent by Pope Urban V to Bologna to settle disputes between the nobles and commoners, a mission he performed well. Andrew died in Fiesole on January 6, 1373. So many miracles took place at his death that Pope Eugenius IV permitted the immediate opening of his cause.
On Rabanus Maurus “A Truly Extraordinary Personality of the Latin West
784-856 Blessed Maurus Magnentius Rabanus; monk; celebrated theological and pedagogical writer Wrote Veni, Creator Spiritus.  A truly extraordinary personality of the Latin West: the monk Rabanus Maurus. Together with men such as Isidore of Seville, the Venerable Bede and Ambrose Auperto, already spoken in previous catechesis, [Rabanus Maurus] knew how to stay in contact with the great culture of the ancient scholars and the Christian fathers during the centuries of the High Middle Ages.
For this reason, Rabanus Maurus concentrated his attention above all on the liturgy, as the synthesis of all the dimension of our perception of reality. This intuition of Rabanus Maurus makes him extraordinarily relevant to our times. He also left the famous “Carmina” proposals to be used above all in liturgical celebrations. In fact, Rabanus' interest for the liturgy can be entirely taken for granted given that before all, he was a monk. Nevertheless, he did not dedicate himself to the art of poetry as an end in itself, but rather he used art and whatever other type of knowledge to go deeper in the Word of God. Because of this, he tried with all his might and rigor to introduce to his contemporaries, but above all to the ministers (bishops, priests and deacons), to the understanding of the profound theological and spiritual significance of all the elements of the liturgical celebration.

1505 St. Joan of Valois Order of the Annunciation that she founded holiness and spiritual testament.  At Bourges in Aquitaine, St. Jane de Valois, Queen of France, foundress of the Order of Sisters of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, renowned for her piety and singular devotion to the Cross, whom Pope Pius XII added to the catalogue of saints.
1693 St. John de Britto Jesuit martyr in India. In Marava Kingdom in India, St. John de Britto, priest of the Society of Jesus, who having converted many infidels to the faith, was gloriously crowned with martyrdom.
He was a native of Lisbon, Portugal, was dedicated at birth to St. Francis Xavier, and was a noble friend of King Pedro. He entered the Jesuits at the age of fifteen. In his effort to promote conversions among the native Indian people as a missionary to Goa, he wandered through Malabar and other regions and even adopted the customs and dress of the Brahmin caste which gave him access to the noble classes. In 1683, John had to leave India but returned in 1691. Arrested, tortured, and commanded to leave India, he refused and was put to death. Pope Pius XII canonized him in 1947.

Saints of February 05 mention with Popes
1005 Saint Fingen of Metz Abbot restoring old abbeys.  Saint Fingen, a celebrated Irish abbot, migrated to the kingdom of Lothaire, where he acquired a reputation for restoring old abbeys. One of them, Saint Symphorien's, was given over to him about 991 by Bishop Saint Adalbero and an Irish community. At the insistence of the dowager Empress Saint Adelaide, Pope John XVII issued a charter that declared that only Irish monks would administer the abbey as long as they could be found. She obtained a similar charter from Otto III in 992.
1597 St. Leo Karasuma Martyr of Japan Korean Franciscan tertiary.  At Nagasaki in Japan, the passion of twenty-six martyrs.  Three priests, one cleric, and two lay brothers were members of the Order of Friars Minor; one cleric was of the Society of Jesus, and seventeen belonged to the Third Order of St. Francis.  All of them, placed upon crosses for the Catholic faith, and pierced with lances, gloriously died in praising God and preaching that same faith.  Their names were added to the roll of saints by Pope Pius IX.
who served the Franciscan mission, Louis was crucified at Nagasaki, Japan, with twenty-five companions. He was canonized in 1867.

Saints of February 06 mention with Popes
891 Saint Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, "the Church's far-gleaming beacon," The Synod of 861 was called to end the unrest, at which the deposition of Ignatius and the installation of Photius as patriarch were confirmed. Pope Nicholas I, whose envoys were present at this council, hoped that by recognizing Photius as patriarch he could subordinate him to his power. When the new patriarch proved unsubmissive, Nicholas anathematized Photius at a Roman council.
Until the end of his life St Photius was a firm opponent of papal intrigues and designs upon the Orthodox Church of the East.
In 864, Bulgaria voluntarily converted to Christianity. The Bulgarian prince Boris was baptized by Patriarch Photius himself. Later, St Photius sent an archbishop and priests to baptize the Bulgarian people. In 865, Sts Cyril and Methodius were sent to preach Christ in the Slavonic language.  lived during the ninth century, and came from a family of zealous Christians.   His father Sergius died as a martyr in defense of holy icons.
1597 Philip of Jesus martyred in Japan patron of Mexico City  Born in Mexico City, Mexico, May 1, 1571; died in Nagasaki, Japan, 1597; beatified by Pope Urban VIII; canonized by Pope Pius IX in 1862; feast day formerly February 5. The life of Saint Philip points again to the importance of the domestic church--the family. Early in life Saint Philip ignored the pious teachings of his immigrant Spanish family, but eventually he entered the Reformed Franciscan Convent of Santa Barbara at Puebla, Mexico--and soon exited the novitiate in 1589. Grieved at the inconstancy of his son, Philip's father sent him on a business trip to the Philippines.

Saints of February 07 mention with Popes
ST THEODORE OF HERACLEA, MARTYR (No DATE?).  The differentiation of two separate Theodores seems to have occurred somewhat earlier than Father Delehaye supposes. An Armenian homily which F. C. Conybeare believes to be of the fourth century already regards them as distinct and Mgr Wilpert has reproduced a mosaic which Pope Felix IV (526—530) set up in the church of St Theodore on the Palatine, in which our Saviour is represented seated, while St Peter on one side presents to Him one St Theodore and St Paul on the other side presents another.

550 St. Tressan Irish missionary spread the faith in Gaul.   Tressan worked there as a swineherd, but he was ordained to the priesthood by Saint Remigius, who provided the siblings with suitable retreats from which they could spread the faith. Tressan became curate of Mareuil-sur-Marne, and the patron saint of Avenay in Champagne. His cultus is strong and has been continuous in the area of Rheims. More than 1,000 years after his death, Pope Clement VIII and Archbishop Philip of Rheims authorized the publishing of an Office for his feast (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Encyclopedia, Fitzpatrick, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).
1027 ST ROMUALD, ABBOT FOUNDER OF THE CAMALDOLESE BENEDICTINES.    Romuald seems to have spent the next thirty years wandering about Italy, founding hermitages and monasteries. He stayed three years in a cell near that house which he had founded at Parenzo. Here he labored for a time under great spiritual dryness, but suddenly, one day, as he was reciting the words of the Psalmist, I will give thee understanding and will instruct thee “, he was visited by God with an extraordinary light and a spirit of compunction which from that time never left him.
He wrote an exposition of the Psalms full of admirable thoughts, he often foretold things to come, and he gave counsel inspired by heavenly wisdom to all who came to consult him. He had always longed for martyrdom, and at last obtained the pope’s licence to preach the gospel in Hungary; but he was stricken with a grievous illness as soon as he set foot in the country, and as the malady returned each time he attempted to proceed, he concluded it was a plain indication of God’s will in the matter and he accordingly returned to Italy, though some of his associates went on and preached the faith to the Magyars.
1447 St. Colette Poor Clare 17 established monasteries  .   After four years of prayer and penance in this cell, she left it. With the approval and encouragement of the pope, she joined the Poor Clares and reintroduced the primitive Rule of St. Clare in the 17 monasteries she established. Her sisters were known for their poverty—they rejected any fixed income—and for their perpetual fast. Colette’s reform movement spread to other countries and is still thriving today. Colette was canonized in 1807.

Saints of February 08 mention with Popes
485 Martyrs of Constantinople community of monks of Saint Dius  .  At Constantinople, the birthday of the holy martyrs, monks of the monastery of Dius.  While bringing the letter of Pope St. Felix against Acacius, they were barbarously killed for their defence of the Catholic faith.
The community of monks of Saint Dius martyred at the time of the Acacian schism ( first significant break between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Catholic Church) for their fidelity to the Holy See (Benedictines).  Monophysites believed that Christ had only one nature: divine. But orthodox belief held that Christ had two natures: both divine and human expressed at the Council of Chalcedon, an ecumenical council held in 451.

1124 Stephen (Etienne) of Grandmont (of Muret) God give Stephen ability read hearts: deacon austere life little food/sleep for 46 years conversions many obstinate sinners.  At Muret, near Limoges, the birthday of the abbot St. Stephen, founder of the order of Grandmont, celebrated for his virtues and miracles.,
Born in Thiers, Auvergne, France, 1046; died 1124; canonized by Pope Clement III in 1189 at the request of King Henry II of England.
1213 John of Matha hermit first Mass celebrated: vision of angel clothed in white with a red and blue cross on his breast. The angel placed his hands on the heads of two slaves, who knelt beside him.   Pope Innocent III had experienced a similar vision Redemption of Captives (the Trinitarians).     St. John of Matha, priest and confessor, founder of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity for the redemption of captives, who went to repose in the Lord on the 17th of December. (RM) Born in Fauçon, Provence, France, June 23, 1160 (or June 24, 1169, according to Husenbeth, or 1154 per Tabor); died in Rome, Italy, December 17, 1213; cultus approved in 1655 and 1694.
1270 Jacoba de Settesoli She joined the third order of Saint Francis buried in same crypt.  Jacqueline, friend of Saint Francis of Assisi, was born into a noble Italian family descended from the Norman knights who invaded Sicily. She married well to Gratien Frangipani, a family renowned for its charity.  When Jacqueline was about 22 (1212), Saint Francis came to Rome for an audience with the pope. While there, he preached so well that he became famous. When Jacqueline heard Francis praise poverty that opens wide the doors of the Kingdom of Heaven, she realized that charity is not dealt with as one would deal with a servant, and that charity is not a fact, but a state. The next day, Jacqueline sought Francis's direction.   Francis told her to return home, she could not abandon her family. "A perfect life can be lived anywhere. Poverty is everywhere. Charity is everywhere. It is where you are that counts. You have a husband and two children. That is a beautiful frame for a holy life."
And, so, Jacqueline joined the third order of Saint Francis; and because she was masculine and energetic she was nicknamed "Brother Jacoba."
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani devoted himself to poor and suffering special call to help orphans founded orphanages shelter for prostitutes.      At Somascha, in the district of Bergamo, the birthday of St. Jerome Emilian, confessor, who was the founder of the Congregation of Somascha.  Illustrious both during his life and after death for many miracles, he was inscribed in the roll of the saints by Pope Clement XIII.  Pope Pius XI chose and declared him to be the heavenly patron of orphans and abandoned children.  His feast is celebrated on the 20th of July.  b: 1481
Jerome Emiliani lay chained in the dark dirty dungeon. Only a short time before he had been a military commander for Venice in charge of a fortress. He didn't care much about God because he didn't need him -- he had his own strength and the strength of his soldiers and weapons. When Venice's enemies, the League of Cambrai, captured the fortress, he was dragged off and imprisoned. There in the dungeon, Jerome decided to get rid of the chains that bound him. He let go of his worldly attachments and embraced God.
1947 St. Josephine Bakhita slave her spirit was always free c. 1868 .  During his homily at her canonization Mass in St. Peter's Square, Pope John Paul II said that in St. Josephine Bakhita, "We find a shining advocate of genuine emancipation. The history of her life inspires not passive acceptance but the firm resolve to work effectively to free girls and women from oppression and violence, and to return them to their dignity in the full exercise of their rights."

Saints of February 09 mention with Popes
444 ST CYRIL, ARCHBISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH.  ST CYRIL has been called the Doctor of the Incarnation, as St Augustine was styled the Doctor of Divine Grace in the great intercession of the Syrian and Maronite Mass he is commemorated as “a tower of truth and interpreter of the Word of God made flesh”. He was declared a doctor of the Universal Church in 1882  and at the fifteenth centenary of his death in 1944 Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical letter, “Orientalis ecclesiae”, on “this light of Christian wisdom and valiant hero of the apostolate.
    The great devotion of this saint to the Blessed Sacrament is manifest from the frequency with which he emphasizes the effects it produces upon those who receive it worthily. Indeed, he says that by holy communion we are made concorporeal with Christ. And it must surely be difficult for those who profess to hold the same faith as that defined in the first six general councils to shut their eyes to the vigour and conviction with which St Cyril before the year 431 affirmed his Eucharistic doctrine. In a letter to Nestorius, which received the general and formal assent of the fathers at Ephesus, he had written:  Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of
            God, that is, Jesus Christ, and confessing His resurrection from the dead and
            ascent into Heaven, we celebrate the bloodless sacrifice in our churches and
            thus approach the mystic blessings, and are sanctified by partaking of the holy
            flesh and the precious blood of Christ the Saviour of us all. And we receive
            it, not as common flesh (God forbid), nor as the flesh of a man sanctified and
            associated with the Word according to the unity of merit, or as having a divine
            indwelling, but as really the life-giving and very flesh of the Word Himself
            (Migne, PG., lxxvii, xii).
            And he wrote to Calosyrius, Bishop of Arsinoë:
              I hear that they say that the sacramental consecration does not avail for
            hallowing if a portion of it be kept to another day. In saying so they are crazy.
            For Christ is not altered, nor will His holy body be changed; but the power
            of the consecration and the life-giving grace still remain in it (Migne, PG.,
            lxxvi, 1073).
           Our knowledge of St Cyril is derived principally from his own writings and from the church historians Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret. The view of his life and work presented by Butler is the traditional view, and we are not here directly concerned with the discussions which, owing mainly to the discovery of the work known as The Bazaar of Heracleides, have since been devoted to the character of Nestorius and his teaching.
566 Bishop Sabinus of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia   .  At Canossa in Apulia, St. Sabinus, bishop and confessor.  Blessed Pope Gregory tells that he was endowed with the spirit of prophecy and the power of miracles.  After he had become blind, when a cup of poison was offered to him by a servant who was bribed, he knew it by divine instinct.  He, however, declared that God would punish the one who had bribed the servant, and, making the sign of the cross, he drank the poison without anxiety and without harmful effect.
Bishop Sabinus of the now-destroyed city of Canosa (Canusium) in Apulia was a friend of Saint Benedict. Pope Saint Agapitus I entrusted him with an embassy to Emperor Justinian (535-536). He is the patron saint of Bari, where his relics are now enshrined (Benedictines).
1088 Blessed Marianus Scotus extraordinarily gifted at producing manuscripts.   In 1078, he founded and became the abbot of the abbey of Saint Peter in Regensburg. Having successfully taken charge of the church and abbey attached to it for the task of copying manuscripts, other Irish monks were attracted to the mission. The abbey expanded to the point that, within 10 years, plans were made for another such monastery. In this way, Muirdach originated the congregation of 12 "Scottish," that is, Irish monasteries in southern Germany. (The reason for the term "Scottish" is that it was used from the time of the Romans for the Irish. Even 200 years after the establishment of the Scottish monarchy, the term was commonly used for things Irish. Although Scottish monks pressured Pope Leo XIII, who did permit them in 1515 to take possession of Saint James in Regensburg and the abbeys at Constanz and Erfurt. In Germany, the 12 are still known as the Schottenklöster. )
1430 Bl. Alvarez of Córdoba Dominican Confessor preacher born in Cordoba.  
When the antipope Benedict XIII came on the scene in 1394-1423, Alvarez opposed him successfully. Alvarez died about 1430. Blessed Alvarez is probably best remembered as a builder of churches and convents, an activity which was symbolic of the work he did in the souls of those among whom he preached. He founded, in one place, a convent to shelter a famous image of Our Lady, which had been discovered in a miraculous manner. Near Cordova he built the famous convent of Scala Coeli, a haven of regular observance. It had great influence for many years. His building enterprises were often aided by the angels, who, during the night, carried wood and stones to spots convenient for the workmen.The austerities of Alvarez were all the more remarkable in that they were not performed by a hermit, but by a man of action. He spent the night in prayer, as Saint Dominic had done; he wore a hairshirt and a penitential chain; and he begged alms in the streets of Cordova for the building of his churches, despite the fact that he had great favor at court and could have obtained all the money he needed from the queen. He had a deep devotion to the Passion, and had scenes of the Lord's sufferings made into small oratories in the garden of Scala Coeli.
1537 St. Jerome Emiliani b. 1481? in 1928 Pius Xl named him the patron of orphans and abandoned children.        At Somascha, in the district of Bergamo, the birthday of St. Jerome Emilian, confessor, who was the founder of the Congregation of Somascha.  Illustrious both during his life and after death for many miracles, he was inscribed in the roll of the saints by Pope Clement XIII.  Pope Pius XI chose and declared him to be the heavenly patron of orphans and abandoned children.  His feast is celebrated on the 20th of July.  b: 1481. Around 1532 Jerome and two other priests established a congregation dedicated to the care of orphans and the education of youth. Jerome died in 1537 from a disease he caugh t while tending the sick. He was canonized in 1767.
1910 St. Michael Cordero Ecuadorian de La Salle Brother first native vocation there.  Michael of Ecuador (RM) (also known as Miguel of Ecuador and Miguel or Francisco Febres Cordero Muñoz)
Born at Cuenca, Ecuador, on November 7, 1854; died near Barcelona, Spain, on February 9, 1910; beatified with fellow Christian Brother Mutien-Marie by Pope Paul VI on October 30, 1977; canonized by Pope John Paul II on April 7, 1984 (the feast of the order's founder).
  "The heart is rich when it is content, and it is always content when its desires are set upon God." --Saint Miguel of Ecuador.

Saints of February 10 mention with Popes
304 Soteris of Rome the Aureli family martyred for Jesus   . Also at Rome, on the Appian Way, St. Soter, virgin and martyr, descended of a noble family, but as St. Ambrose mentions, for the love of Christ she set at naught the consular and other dignitaries of her people.  Upon her refusal to sacrifice to the gods, she was for a long time cruelly scourged.  She overcame these and various other torments, then was struck with the sword; and joyfully went to her heavenly spouse. Two passages of St Ambrose for our knowledge of this martyr. He speaks of her In his De virginibus, iii, 7, and in his Exhortatio virginis, c. 12. At the same time we know from the Hieronymianum” that she was
         originally buried at Rome on the Via Appia. One of the catacombs, the location of which
         it is difficult to determine, afterwards bore her name. Her body was later on translated by
         Pope Sergius II to the church of San Martino di Monti. See the Acta Sanctorum, February,
         vol. ii, and the
mische Quartalschrift, 1905, pp. 50—63 and 105—133.
1157 St. William of Maleval Hermit licentious military life conversion of heart  gift of working miracles and  prophecy In Stábulo Rhodis, in territorio Senénsi, sancti Guiliélmi Eremítæ.  At Malavalle, near Siena, St. William, hermit.  A native of France, he led a dissolute early and maritial life but underwent a conversion through a pilgrimage to Rome, where he was forced to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land (at the command of Pope Eugenius Ill, r. 1145-1153). Upon his return, he lived as a hermit and then became head of a monastery near Pisa. As he failed to bring about serious reforms among the monks there or on Monte Pruno (Bruno), he departed and once more took up the life of a hermit near Siena. Attracting a group of followers, the hermits received papal sanction. They later developed into the Hermits of St. William (the Gulielmites) until absorbed into the Augustinian Canons. In his later years, William was noted for his gifts of prophecy and miracles.
William of Maleval, OSB Hermit (RM) (also known as William of Malval or Malvalla) Born in France; died at Maleval, Italy, February 10, 1157; canonized by Innocent III in 1202. After carefree years of licentious military life, William experienced a conversion of heart of which we are told nothing. The first real piece of information we have is that the penitent Frenchman made a pilgrimage to the tombs of the apostles at Rome. Here he begged Pope Eugenius III for pardon and to set him on a course of penance for his sins. Eugenius enjoined him to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1145. William followed his counsel and spent eight years on the journey, returning to Italy a changed man.
1960 Blessed Aloysius Stepinac, Cardinal demonstrating the importance of faith, charity and virtue.   (also known as Louis or Alojzije of Zagreb) Born at Brezaric near Krasic, Croatia, on May 8, 1898; died at Krasic, on February 10, 1960; beatified on October 3, 1998, by Pope John Paul II at the Marian shrine of Marija Bistrica.  Aloysius Stepinac, the eighth of 12 children of a peasant family, was always the special object of his mother's prayers to he might be ordained. In 1916, he was conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian army and fought on the Italian front until he was taken prisoner. Upon his return to civilian life in 1919, Stepinac entered the University of Zagreb to study agriculture, but soon recognized his call to the priesthood. In 1924, he was sent to Rome for his seminary studies leading to his ordination on October 26, 1930.
He returned to Zagreb in July 1931 with doctorates in theology and philosophy.
Soon afterwards, Stepinac was chosen to become secretary to Archbishop Antun Bauer. On June 24, 1934, he was nominated as coadjutor to the Archbishop of Zagreb. After this nomination, Stepinac stated: "I love my Croatian people and for their benefit I am ready to give everything, as well as I am ready to give everything for the Catholic Church." After Bauer's death on December 7, 1937, Stepinac became the Archbishop of Zagreb. He took as his motto, "In You, O Lord, I take refuge!" (Psalm 31:1), which was the inspiration for his service to the Church.
During the Second World War, Stepinac never turned his back on the refugees, or the persecuted.

Saints of February 11 mention with Popes
350 St. Lucius Martyred bishop of Adrianople opposed Arianism.  Lucius BM and Companions MM (RM) Died 350. Lucius, who succeeded Eutropius as bishop of Adrianople, was driven from his see to Gaul for having opposed Arianism. He played a leading role in the Council of Sardica in 347. Under the protection of Pope Saint Julius I, he returned to Adrianople, but refused to be in communion with the Arian bishops condemned at Sardica. On this account he was arrested and died in prison. A group of his faithful Catholics, who had been siezed with him, were beheaded by order of the Emperor Constantius (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson).
6th v Saint Gobnata (meaning Honey Bee) of Ballyvourney the angels spoke of 9 deer gift of healing, and there is a story of how she kept the plague from Ballyvourney.  The round stone associated with her is still preserved. Several leading families of Munster have a traditional devotion to this best-known and revered local saint. The devotion of the O'Sullivan Beare family may have been the reason that Pope Clement VIII honored Gobnata in 1601 by indulgencing a pilgrimage to her shrine and, in 1602, by authorizing a Proper Mass on her feast. About that time the chieftains of Ireland were making a final struggle for independence and the entire clan migrated to the North having dedicated their fortunes to Gobnata in a mass pilgrimage that included O'Sullivan Beare, his fighting men, and their women, children, and servants (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague, Neeson, O'Hanlon, Sullivan).
608 St. Desiderius martyred Bishop of Vienne  France, murdered by the Frankish queen Brunhildis and her followers, and is revered as a martyr. Born at Autun, he is also called Didier. As bishop, he attacked Queen Brunhildis for immorality. She accused him of paganism, but he was cleared by Pope St. Gregory the Great. Desiderius was then banished from his see. He was slain upon his return four years later at Saint-Didier-sur-Chalaronne.
731 Gregory II, 89th Pope educated at the Lateran  restore clerical discipline, fought heresies  helped restore and rebuild churches (including Saint Paul-Outside-the-Walls), hospitals, and monasteries, including Monte Cassino under Petrona The outstanding concern of his pontificate was his difficulties with Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (RM).   Born in Rome, Italy; sometimes celebrated also on February 13. The 89th pope, Saint Gregory, became involved in church affairs in his youth, was educated at the Lateran, became a subdeacon under Pope Saint Sergius, served as treasurer and librarian of the Church under four popes, and became widely known for his learning and wisdom.
In 710, now a deacon, he distinguished himself in his replies to Emperor Justinian when he accompanied Pope Constantine to Constantinople to oppose the Council of Trullo canon that had declared the patriarchate of Constantinople independent of Rome and helped to secure Justinian's acknowledgment of papal supremacy.
On May 19, 715, Gregory was elected pope to succeed Constantine, put into effect a program to restore clerical discipline, fought heresies, began to rebuild the walls around Rome as a defense against the Saracens, and helped restore and rebuild churches (including Saint Paul-Outside-the-Walls), hospitals, and monasteries, including Monte Cassino under Petronax, which had been destroyed by Lombards about 150 years previously.
 He sent missionaries into Germany, among them Saint Corbinian and Saint Boniface in 719, whom he consecrated bishop.
824 St. Paschal elected as the 94th pope on the day Pope Stephen IV (V) died, January 25, 817.  Paschal was the son of Bonosus, a Roman. He studied at the Lateran, was named head of St. Stephen's monastery, which housed pilgrims to Rome, and was elected Pope to succeed Pope Stephen IV (V) on the day Stephen died, January 25, 817. Emperor Louis the Pious agreed to respect papal jurisdiction, but when Louis' son Lothair I came to Rome in 823 to be consecrated king, he broke the pact by presiding at a trial involving a group of nobles opposing the Pope. When the two papal officials who had testified for the nobles were found blinded and murdered, Paschal was accused of the crime. He denied any complicity but refused to surrender the murderers, who were members of his household, declaring that the two dead officials were traitors and the secular authorities had no jurisdiction in the case. The result was the Constitution of Lothair, severely restricting papal judicial and police powers in Italy.
Paschal was unsuccessful in attempts to end the iconoclast heresy of Emperor Leo V, encouraged SS. Nicephorous and Theodore Studites in Constantinople to resist iconoclasm, and gave refuge to the many Greek monks who fled to Rome to escape persecution from the iconoclasts.
Paschal built and redecorated many churches in Rome and transferred many relics from the catacombs to churches in the city. Although listed in the Roman Martyrology, he has never been formally canonized.

Saints of February 12 mention with Popes
381 St. Meletius of Antioch Patriarch of Antioch presided Great Council of Constantinople, in 381 .  In 374, the situation was further complicated when Pope Damasus recognized Paulinus as archbishop, appointed him papal legate in the East, and Saint Jerome allowed himself to be ordained a priest by Paulinus. In 378, the death of the avidly pro-Arian Valens led to the restoration of the banished bishops by Emperor Gratian, and Meletius was reinstated. He was unable to reach an agreement with Paulinus before his death in Constantinople in May while presiding at the third General Council of Constantinople. His funeral was attended by all the fathers of the council and the faithful of the city.
Saint Gregory of Nyssa delivered his funeral panegyric (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Walsh).
Saint Meletius, Archbishop of Antioch, was Bishop of Sebaste in Armenia (ca. 357), and afterwards he was summoned to Antioch by the emperor Constantius to help combat the Arian heresy, and was appointed to that See.
St Meletius struggled zealously against the Arian error, but through the intrigues of the heretics he was thrice deposed from his cathedra. Constantius had become surrounded by the Arians and had accepted their position. In all this St Meletius was distinguished by an extraordinary gentleness, and he constantly led his flock by the example of his own virtue and kindly disposition, supposing that the seeds of the true teaching sprout more readily on such soil.
St Meletius was the one who ordained the future hierarch St Basil the Great as deacon. St Meletius also baptized and encouraged another of the greatest luminaries of Orthodoxy, St John Chrysostom, who later eulogized his former archpastor.
After Constantius, the throne was occupied by Julian the Apostate, and the saint again was expelled, having to hide himself in secret places for his safety. Returning under the emperor Jovian in the year 363, St Meletius wrote his theological treatise, "Exposition of the Faith," which facilitated the conversion of many of the Arians to Orthodoxy.
900 St. Benedict Revelli Benedictine bishop monk of Santa Maria dei Fonte .  Benedict Revelli, OSB B (AC) Died c. 900; cultus confirmed by Pope Gregory XVI. Benedict is said to have been a Benedictine monk of Santa Maria dei Fonti, and then a hermit on the island of Gallinaria in the Gulf of Genoa. In 870, he was chosen bishop of Albenga towards the western end of the Ligurian Riviera (Benedictines).

1584 Bl. Thomas Hemerford English martyr priest native of Dorsetshire .   IT was the name of Thomas Hemerford, with his companions, that distinguished and identified the cause of all the second group of English and Welsh martyrs (beatified in 1929) while that cause was under consideration in Rome. But actually, of the four secular priests who suffered at Tyburn on February 12, 1584, he is the one of whom least is known.  He was born somewhere in Dorsetshire and was educated at St John’s College and Hart Hall in the University of Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor of law in 1575. He went abroad to Rheims, and thence to the English College at Rome, being ordained priest in 1583 by Bishop GoIdwell of St Asaph, the last bishop of the old hierarchy. A few weeks later he left Rome for the English mission, but shortly after landing he was arrested, tried for his priesthood and sentenced to death. For six days before execution he lay loaded with fetters in Newgate jail, and then met the savagery of hanging, drawing and quartering with calm fortitude. Bd Thomas was a man “of moderate stature, a blackish beard, stern countenance, and yet of a playful temper, most amiable in conversation, and in every respect exemplary”. There suffered with him BD. JAMES FENN, JOHN NUTTER and JOHN MUNDEN, and GEORGE HAYDOCK.These four martyrs, together with the Venerable George Haydock, were all condemned and put to death ostensibly for high treason. What contemporaries thought is shown by the chronicler Stow, when he writes that their treason con­sisted “in being made priests beyond the seas and by the pope’s authority”. And that was the view that the Church took when she beatified them among the other English martyrs in 1929.
1584 St. James Feun, Blessed  English Martyr in Born in Somerset
1584 Bl. John Nutter & John Munden English martyrs 

Saints of February 13 mention with Popes

590 St Stephen of Rieti Abbot admirable sanctity despised all things for the love of heaven extreme poverty privation of all conveniences of life In his agony angels seen surrounding him conducting soul to bliss .  Pope St Gregory the Great in his writings speaks several times of this holy man “whose speech was so rude, but his life so cultured”, and he quotes an instance of his patience. Prompted by the Devil, a wicked man burnt down his barns with the corn that constituted the whole means of subsistence of the abbot and his household. “Alas,” cried the monks, “alas, for what has come upon you!” “Nay,” replied the abbot, “say rather, ‘Alas, for what has come upon him that did this deed’, for no harm has befallen me.” St Gregory also relates that eye­witnesses testified that they saw angels standing beside the saint on his death-bed ,and that these angels afterwards carried his soul to bliss—whereupon the watchers were so awe-stricken that they could not remain beside his dead body.

616 ST LICINIUS, OR LESIN, BISHOP OF ANGERS by the example of his severe and holy life and by miracles which were wrought through him he succeeded in winning the hearts of the most hardened and in making daily conquests of souls for God.. There is, however, no reason to doubt the existence of St Licinius or his episcopate or the reverence in which he was held. Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux (vol. ii, p. 354), while treating the life as a very suspicious document, points out that a letter was written to Licinius in 601 by Pope Gregory the Great and that he is also mentioned in the will of St Bertram, Bishop of Le Mans, which is dated March 27, 616.
1237 Blessed JORDAN of Saxony noted for his charity to the poor from an early age  brought Saint Albert the Great into the Order  Spiritual director of Blessed Diana d'Andalo.   A noted and powerful preacher; one of his sermons brought Saint Albert the Great into the Order. Wrote a biography of Saint Dominic. His writings on Dominic and the early days of the Order are still considered a primary sources. Spiritual director of Blessed Diana d'Andalo.
Born c.1190 at Padberg Castle, diocese of Paderborn, Westphalia, old Saxony; rumoured to have been born in Palestine while his parents were on a pilgrimage, and named after the River Jordan, but this is apparently aprochryphal
drowned 1237 in a shipwreck off the coast of Syria while on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land
Beatified 1825 (cultus confirmed) by Pope Leo XII

1589 St. Catherine de Ricci miracles the "Ecstacy of the Passion" she was mystically scourged & crowned with thorns.  Her patience and healing impressed her sisters. While still very young, Catherine was chosen to serve the community as novice- mistress, then sub-prioress, and, at age 30, she was appointed prioress in perpetuity, despite her intense mystical life of prayer and penance. She managed the material details of running a large household were well, and became known as a kind and considerate superior. Catherine was particularly gentle with the sick. Troubled people, both within the convent and in the town, came to her for advice and prayer, and her participation in the Passion exerted a great influence for good among all who saw it. Three future popes (Cardinals Cervini later known as Pope Marcellus II, Alexander de Medici (Pope Leo XI), and Aldobrandini (Pope Clement VIII)) were among the thousands who flocked to the convent to beseech her intercession.
1812 St. Giles Mary of St. Joseph “Consoler of Naples.” served 53 years at St. Paschal’s Hospice in Naples various roles cook porter most often as official beggar for that community.  People often become arrogant and power hungry when they try to live a lie, for example, when they forget their own sinfulness and ignore the gifts God has given to other people. Giles had a healthy sense of his own sinfulness—not paralyzing but not superficial either. He invited men and women to recognize their own gifts and to live out their dignity as people made in God’s divine image. Knowing someone like Giles can help us on our own spiritual journey.
Quote:  In his homily at the canonization of Giles, Pope John Paul II said that the spiritual journey of Giles reflected “the humility of the Incarnation and the gratuitousness of the Eucharist” (L'Osservatore Romano 1996, volume 23, number 1).

Saints of February 14 mention with Popes
269 Valentine of Terni Valentine patron of beekeepers engaged couples travellers youth.  Valentine was a holy priest in Rome, who, with St Marius and his family, assisted the martyrs in the persecution under Claudius II. He was appre­hended, and sent by the emperor to the prefect of Rome, who, on finding all his promises to make him renounce his faith ineffectual, commanded him to be beaten with clubs, and afterwards to be beheaded, which was executed on February 14, about the year 270. Pope Julius I is said to have built a church near Ponte Mole to his memory, which for a long time gave name to the gate now called Porta del Popolo, formerly Porta Valentini. The greatest part of his relics are now in the church of St Praxedes His name is celebrated as that of an illustrious martyr in the sacramentary of St Gregory, the Roman Missal of Thomasius, in the calendar of F. Fronto and that of Allatius, in Bede, Usuard, Ado, Notker and all other martyrologies on this day. To abolish the heathen’s lewd superstitious custom of boys drawing the names of girls, in honour of their goddess Februata Juno, on the 15th of this month, several zealous pastors substituted the names of saints in billets given on this day.
869 Sts. Cyril and Methodius.  The holy brothers were then summoned to Rome at the invitation of the Roman Pope. Pope Adrian received them with great honor, since they brought with them the relics of the Hieromartyr Clement. Sickly by nature and in poor health, St Cyril soon fell ill from his many labors, and after taking the schema, he died in the year 869 at the age of forty-two. Before his death, he expressed his wish for his brother to continue the Christian enlightenment of the Slavs. St Cyril was buried in the Roman church of St Clement, whose own relics also rest there, brought to Italy from Cherson by the Enlighteners of the Slavs.
1325 Blessed Angelus of Gualdo Camaldolese lay-brother lived 40 years a hermit walled up in his cell OSB Cam. (AC).  In early life he made many pilgrimages, travelling in particular barefoot from Italy to St James of Compostela in Spain. On his return he offered himself as a lay-brother to the Camaldolese monks, but after a very short time received permission to lead a solitary life according to his desire. In this vocation he faithfully persisted for nearly forty years. When he died on January 25, 1325 it is said that the church bells in the neighbouring district rang of themselves: the people scoured the country to discover the cause, and coming to his little cell they found him dead, kneeling in the attitude of prayer. The miracles wrought at his tomb brought many to do him honour, and Pope Leo XII approved the cultus in 1825.

Saints of February 15 mention with Popes
695 St. Decorosus 30 years Bishop of Capua, Italy Council of Rome in 680 .  He attended the Council of Rome in 680 in the reign of Pope St. Agatho.. (The council, attended in the beginning by 100 bishops, later by 174, was opened 7 Nov., 680, in a domed hall (trullus) of the imperial palace and was presided over by the (three) papal legates who brought to the council a long dogmatic letter of Pope Agatho and another of similar import from a Roman synod held in the spring of 680. )
1045 ST SIGFRID, BISHOP OF Växjö: a spring bore Sigfrid’s name was the channel of many miracles.  After a time, St Sigfrid entrusted the care of his diocese to these three and set off to carry the light of the gospel into more distant provinces. During his absence, a troop, partly out of hatred for Christianity and partly for booty, plundered the church of VaxjO and murdered Unaman and his brothers, burying their bodies in a forest and placing their heads in a box which they sank in a pond. The heads were duly recovered and placed in a shrine, on which occasion, we are told, the three heads spoke. The king resolved to put the murderers to death, but St Sigfrid induced him to spare their lives. Olaf compelled them, however, to pay a heavy fine which he wished to bestow on the saint, who refused to accept a farthing of it, notwithstanding his extreme poverty and the difficulties with which he had to contend in rebuilding his church. He had inherited in an heroic degree the spirit of the apostles, and preached the gospel also in Denmark. Sigfrid is said, but doubtfully, to have been canonized by Pope Adrian IV, the Englishman who had himself laboured zealously for the propagation of the faith in the North over one hundred years after St Sigfrid. The Swedes honour St Sigfrid as their apostle.
1237 Bl. Jordan of Saxony thousand novices to the Dominicans established new foundations Germany and Switzerland
It was a sermon of Jordan’s that decided Albertus Magnus to enter the order.  Blessed Jordan of Saxony, OP (AC) Born in Germany, 1190; died 1237; cultus confirmed in 1828.
Men prayed for strength to resist Jordan's burning eloquence, and mothers hid their sons when Master Jordan came to town. Students and masters warned each other of the fatal magnetism of his sermons. The sweetness of his character and the holiness of his life shone through his most casual words in a flame that drew youth irresistibly to the ideal to which he had dedicated his own life. In his 16 years of preaching, Jordan is said to have drawn more than a thousand novices to the Dominican Order, among whom were two future popes, two canonized saints (e.g., Albert the Great), numerous beati, and countless intellectual lights of his dazzling century.
1682 St. Claude la Colombière special day for the Jesuits spiritual companion, St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. This is a special day for the Jesuits, who claim today’s saint as one of their own. It’s also a special day for people who have a special devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus—a devotion Claude la Colombière promoted, along with his friend and spiritual companion, St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. The emphasis on God’s love for all was an antidote to the rigorous moralism of the Jansenists, who were popular at the time.
     Claude showed remarkable preaching skills long before his ordination in 1675. Two months later he was made superior of a small Jesuit residence in Burgundy. It was there he first encountered Margaret Mary Alacoque. For many years after he served as her confessor.
     He was next sent to England to serve as confessor to the Duchess of York. He preached by both words and by the example of his holy life, converting a number of Protestants. Tensions arose against Catholics and Claude, rumored to be part of a plot against the king, was imprisoned. He was ultimately banished, but by then his health had been ruined. He died in 1682.
Pope John Paul the Second canonized Claude la Colombière in 1992.

Saints of February 16 mention with Popes
305 St. Juliana of Cumae Christian virgin martyred for the faith refused Roman prefect marriage.   Only after Juliana's death, thanks to the renewed efforts of Bl.  Eva, was the feastday of Corpus Christi accepted by the Latin Rite of the Church.  The pope who authorized the festival was none other than James Pantaleon, now Pope Urban IV, who had earlier confirmed Juliana's inquiry whether such a feast was feasible.  Urban commissioned St. Thomas Aquinas to compose the office of the feastday.  Aquinas's beautiful composition included those ever-popular Eucharistic hymns: the "Lauda Sion", the "Pange Lingua", the "O Salutaris", and the "Tantum Ergo." This feast was long a holy day of obligation.
When miracles were reported in connection with Juliana's tomb, she came to be venerated as a saint.  A local feast in her honor was allowed by Pius IX in 1869, but her feastday has not yet been extended to the whole church.
Thanks to St. Juliana's reverence for the Holy Eucharist, the dark line on the moon of her vision was eliminated.
May we imitate her in our love--and respect--for the real Eucharistic presence of Christ in our tabernacles.
--Father Robert F. McNamara
1189 St. Gilbert of Sempringham priest shared wealth with the poor miracles wrought at his tomb built 13 monasteries (9 were double).  ST GILBERT was born at Sempringham in Lincolnshire, and in due course was ordained priest. For some time he taught in a free school, but the advowson of the parsonages of Sempringham and Terrington being in the gift of his father, he was presented by him to the united livings in 1123. He gave the revenues of them to the poor, reserving only a small sum for bare necessaries. By his care, his parishioners were led to sanctity of life, and he drew up a rule for seven young women who lived in strict enclosure in a house adjoining the parish church of St Andrew at Sempringham. This foundation grew, and Gilbert found it necessary to add first lay-sisters and then lay-brothers to work the nuns’ land. In 1147 he went to Citeaux to ask the abbot to take over the foundation. This the Cistercians were unable to do, and Gilbert was encouraged by Pope Eugenius III to carry on the work himself. Finally Gilbert added a fourth element, of canons regular, as chaplains to the nuns.
1468 BD EUSTOCHIUM OF MESSINA, VIRGIN authority of her virtues was increased by fame of her miracles—the sick being healed even by the kerchief which had been bathed by her tears of penitence. She died at the age of thirty-five.  After eleven years spent at Basico, Bd Eustochium felt that she desired a stricter rule, and Pope Callistus III allowed her to found another convent to follow the first rule of St Francis under the Observants. In 1458—1459 her mother and sister built the convent which was called Maidens’ Hill (Monte Vergine). There she received, amongst others, her sister and her niece Paula, who was only eleven years of age. The foundation passed through many trials during its early years. When Eustochium became thirty—the legal age—she was elected abbess and gathered around her crowds of fervent souls. The authority of her virtues was increased by the fame of her miracles—the sick being healed even by the kerchief which had been bathed by her tears of penitence. She died at the age of thirty-five, her cultus being subsequently approved in 1782.
1940 St. Philip Siphong 7 Thai Catholics martyred for the faith "white-robed army of martyrs."    On October 22, 1989, Pope John Paul II formally beatified the seven Thai Catholics.  Deeply touched by their fidelity, the pope said that Blessed Philip ("the great tree" as he was called at Songkhon) exemplified the missionary zeal that is incumbent upon all of us by virtue of our baptism.  He quoted Sister Agnes' letter to the policeman: "We rejoice in giving back to God the life that He has given us.... We beseech you to open to us the doors of heaven… You are acting according to the orders of men, but we act according to the commandments of God." Sentiments like these, said John Paul II, resembled those of the Christian martyrs of antiquity.  Indeed, their very names were those of ancient saints: Agnes, Lucy, Agatha, Cecilia, Bibiana....
The Blessed Martyrs of Thailand, in "giving back to God the life that He had given them", were therefore contemporary soldiers in the age-old "white-robed army of martyrs." - -Father Robert R McNamara

Saints of February 17 mention with Popes
603   St. Fintan Abbot  .  In the monastery of Cluainedhech in Ireland, St. Fintan, abbot.
Fintan was a hermit in Clonenagh, Leix, Ireland. When disciples gathered around his hermitage he became their abbot.
A wonder worker, Fintan was known for clairvoyance, prophecies, and miracles. He also performed very austere penances.
603 ST FINTAN OF CLONEENAGH, ABBOT even in his boyhood he possessed the gift of prophecy and of a knowledge of distant events.  
IN a tractate preserved in the Book of Leinster St Fintan is presented as an Irish counterpart of St Benedict, and there can be no question as to the high repute in which his monastery of Cloneenagh in Leix was held by his contemporaries. An early litany speaks of “the monks of Fintan, descendant of Eochaid, who ate nothing but herbs of the earth and water; there is not room to enumerate them by reason of their multitude”. Quite in accord with this is a gloss in the Félire of Oengus: “Generous Fintan never consumed during his time aught save the bread of woody barley and muddy water of clay.” The Latin life bears out this description of extreme asceticism, which indeed St Canice of Aghaboe thought excessive and protested against.

Seven Founders of the Order of Servites (RM) 13th century; canonized in 1887 by Pope Leo XIII.
1233 7 Founders of the Order of Servites On the Feast of the Assumption the 7 single vision to withdraw from world forming new society within the Church devoted to prayer and solitudeIn 1233 seven wealthy councilors of the city of Florence, who had previously joined the Laudesi (Praisers), gave up the pleasures of this world in order to devote themselves to God through particular devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Their previous lives had been by no means lax or undisciplined, even though Florence was then a city filled with factions and immorality, and infected by the Cathar heresy (the belief that the body was evil and we are the souls of angels inserted by Satan into human bodies). Under the direction of James of Poggibonsi, who was the chaplain of the Laudesi and a man of great holiness and spiritual insight, they came to recognize the call to renunciation.
On the Feast of the Assumption, 1233, the seven had a single inspiration or vision to withdraw from the world to form a new society within the Church devoted to prayer and solitude.
1302 BD ANDREW OF ANAGNI was held in great veneration both in life and after death for the miracles he was believed to work.   IN the Franciscan supplement to the Roman Martyrology this servant of God is described as “Beatus Andreas de Comitibus”; but it would seem that the more accurate form of his name is Andrea dei Conti di Segni (Andrew of the Counts of Segni). In Mazzara he is called Andrea d’Anagni, from his birthplace. As we learn from these designations he was of noble family, nephew of the Roland Conti who became Pope Alexander IV and a near kinsman of another native of Anagni, Benedict Gaetani, Pope Boniface VIII.

Laying aside all thought of worldly advancement he gave himself to the Order of Friars Minor, in which he remained a simple brother, not even aspiring to the priesthood.

Saints of February 18 mention with Popes
107 St. Simon or Simeon father was Cleophas St. Joseph's brother. Mother was our Lady's sister 8 yrs older than Jesus.  At Jerusalem, the birthday of St. Simeon, bishop and martyr, who is said to have been the son of Cleophas, and a relative of the Saviour according to the flesh.  He was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem after St. James, the cousin of our Lord.  In the persecution of Trajan, after having endured many torments, his martyrdom was completed.  All who were present, even the judge himself, were astonished that a man one hundred and twenty years of age could bear the torment of crucifixion with such fortitude and constancy.
In St. Matthew's Gospel, we read of St. Simon or Simeon who is described as one of our Lord's brethren or kinsmen.
449 St. Flavian of Constantinople martyr Patriarch succeeding St. Proclus cum fidem cathólicam Ephesi propugnáret.    At Constantinople, St. Flavian, bishop, who, for having defended the Catholic faith at Ephesus, was attacked with slaps and kicks by the faction of the impious Dioscorus, and then driven into exile where he died within three days. The abbot, in his excessive zeal against Nestorius’s heresy of two distinct persons in Christ, had rushed to the other extreme and, denying that our Lord had two distinct natures after the Incarnation, was the protagonist of the monophysite heresy. In a synod held by St Flavian in 448, Eutyches was accused of this error by Eusebius of Dorylaeum, and the opinion was there condemned as heretical, Eutyches being cited to appear before the council to give an account of his faith. He eventually did so, and was deposed and excommunicated. Whereupon he declared that he appealed to the bishops of Rome, Egypt and Jerusalem; and he addressed a letter to St Leo I in which he complained of the way he had been treated and stated his case. But the pope was not misled. In a carefully-worded letter to Flavian, famous in ecclesiastical history as his “Tome” or “Dogmatic Letter”, Leo set out the orthodox faith upon the principal points in dispute.
1455 Blessed John of Fiesole patron of Christian artists  .   The patron of Christian artists was born around 1400 in a village overlooking Florence. He took up painting as a young boy and studied under the watchful eye of a local painting master. He joined the Dominicans at about age 20, taking the name Fra Giovanni. He eventually came to be known as Fra Angelico, perhaps a tribute to his own angelic qualities or maybe the devotional tone of his works.
1594 Bl. William Harrington priest Martyr of England.  Blessed William Harrington M (AC) Born at Mount Saint John, Felixkirk, Yorkshire, England; died at Tyburn, 1594; beatified in 1929. William was educated and ordained in 1592 at Rheims. He was only 27 when he was hanged, drawn, and quartered for his priesthood (Benedictines).
1601 Bl. John Pibush English martyr solely for his priesthood .   born in Thirsk, Yorkshire. He went to Reims and was ordained in 1587. Returning to England in 1589, John was arrested at Gloucestershire in 1593 and kept in prison in London. He escaped but was recaptured and then tried and condemned. He was executed at Southwark. His beatification took place in 1929.
        Bl. Martin Martyr of China native
        Blessed Agnes De martyred native cradle Christian VM (AC)
1855 Blessed Andrew Nam-Thung native catechist of Cochin-China M (AC)
1858 St. Agatha Lin Chinese martyr
1862 Blessed John Peter French missionary priest & Martin native catechist MM (AC)

Saints of February 19 mention with Popes
295 Gabinus of Rome Pope Caius brother father of Saint Suzanne M (RM) .  Saint Gabinus was a Roman Christian, brother of Pope Caius and father of the beautiful Saint Suzanne. He also seems to have been related to Emperor Diocletian. Gabinus was ordained a priest and died as a martyr of starvation under Diocletian.
682 St. Barbatus Bishop Benevento innocence, simplicity, and purity of heart .  In 680, Barbatus assisted in a council called by Pope Agatho at Rome and the following year attended the Sixth General Council held at Constantinople against the Monothelites. He died shortly after the council about age 70. He is honored as one of the chief patrons of Benevento (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).
1350 St. Conrad of Piacenza reputation for holiness.  Conrad of Piacenza, OFM Tert. (AC) Born in 1290; died 1351 or 1354; cultus approved with the title of saint by Paul III. One day while hunting he ordered attendants to set fire to some brush in order to flush out the game. The fire spread to nearby fields and to a large forest. Conrad fled. An innocent peasant was imprisoned, tortured to confess and condemned to death. Conrad confessed his guilt, saved the man’s life and paid for the damaged property. Soon after this event, Conrad and his wife agreed to separate: she to a Poor Clare monastery and he to a group of hermits following the Third Order Rule. His reputation for holiness, however, spread quickly. Since his many visitors destroyed his solitude, Conrad went to a more remote spot in Sicily where he lived 36 years as a hermit, praying for himself and for the rest of the world.  Prayer and penance were his answer to the temptations that beset him. Conrad died kneeling before a crucifix. He was canonized in 1625.
1400 + St. Alvarez confessor Queen Catherine adviser tutor King John II teaching preaching asceticism holiness The Bishop of Syracuse himself visited him, and it was told afterwards that while his attendants were preparing to unpack the provisions they had brought, the bishop had asked St Conrad with a smile whether he had nothing to offer his visitors. The holy man replied that he would go and look in his cell, from which he emerged carrying became a favourite shrine at which many miraculous cures took place. He is more particularly invoked for ruptures on account of the large number of people who owed their recovery from hernia to his intercession. The cultus of St Conrad has been approved by three popes.
He became known for his preaching prowess in Spain and Italy, was confessor and adviser of Queen Catherine, John of Gaunt's daughter, and tutor of King John II in his youth.
He reformed the court, and then left the court to found a monastery near Cordova. There the Escalaceli (ladder of heaven) that he built became a center of religious devotion. He successfully led the opposition to antipope Benedict XII (Peter de Luna), and by the time of his death was famous all over Spain for his teaching, preaching, asceticism, and holiness. His cult was confirmed in 1741.

1862  Bl. Lucy Martyr of China Catholic schoolteacher She was a Catholic schoolteacher in China, where she was beheaded. Lucy was beatified in 1909.

Saints of February 20 mention with Popes
1920 Blessed Jacinta & Francisco Marto Between May 13 and October 13, 1917, three children, Portuguese shepherds The Church is always very cautious about endorsing alleged apparitions, but it has seen benefits from people changing their lives because of the message of Our Lady of Fatima. Prayer for sinners, devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and praying the rosary—all these reinforce the Good News Jesus came to preach.
Quote:  In his homily at their beatification, Pope John Paul II recalled that shortly before Francisco died, Jacinta said to him, “Give my greetings to Our Lord and to Our Lady and tell them that I am enduring everything they want for the conversion of sinners.”

Saints of February 21 mention with Popes
379 Irene Spanish Sister of Pope Saint Damasus ;  Irene was the sister of Pope Saint Damasus I (c. 304-384). She and her devout mother Laurentia are said to have often spent whole nights in the catacombs of Rome.
606 St. Paterius monk from Rome bishop of Brescia prolific writer on Biblical subjects.  Paterius of Brescia B (RM)  Paterius, a Roman monk, was a disciple and friend of Pope Saint Gregory the Great. He was a notary in the Roman Church, who was raised to the see of Brescia, Lombardy. Paterius was a prolific writer on Biblical subjects (Benedictines).
1072 Peter Damian brilliant teacher writer  transcribing manuscripts , B Doctor (RM).  Saint Peter Damian (born 1007, Ravenna—died Feb. 22, 1072, Faenze; feast day February 21) Italian cardinal and Doctor of the Church. He was prior of Fonte Avellana in the Apennines before being named a cardinal in 1057. A leading monastic reformer and ascetic, he played an important role in the promotion of apostolic poverty and in support of papal reformers who sought to enforce clerical celibacy and abolish simony. He defended Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II and reconciled Alexander with the city of Ravenna. He was also sent as a papal legate to resolve disputes in Milan and Cluny, Burgundy, and he played a key role in the formulation of the papal election decree of 1059. In 1828 he was declared a Doctor of the Church.
1562 Robert Southwell 1/40 martyrs of England and Wales SJ M (RM) .  Born at Horsham Saint Faith's, Norfolk, England, in 1561 or 1562; died at Tyburn, London, England, February 21, 1595; beatified in 1929; canonized on October 25, 1970, by Pope Paul VI as one of the 40 representative martyrs of England and Wales.
1794 Blessed Noel Pinot continued to minister to his flock.M (AC).  During the twelve days he was kept in prison, he was very roughly treated, and upon his reiterated refusal to take the oath he was sentenced off-hand to the guillotine. On February 21, 1794, he was led out to death still wearing the priestly vestments in which he had been arrested, and on the way to offer his final sacrifice he is said to have repeated aloud the words which the priest recites at the foot of the altar in beginning Mass Introibo ad altare Dei\...“I will enter unto the altar of God, to God who giveth joy to my youth.” Bd Noel Pinot was beatified in 1926 -- Pius XI 1922-1939.

Saints of February 22 mention with Popes

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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart