Tuesday  Saints of this Day October  25 Septimo Kaléndas Novémbris  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!  (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Six Canonized on Feast of Christ the King Nov 23 2014

CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2014

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary


40 days For Life September - November
40 days for Life Day 27
As we pray for the end of abortion, let us pray for the expansion of the pregnancy help center movement worldwide.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world
It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
October 25
I am not my own; I have given myself to Jesus. He must be my only love. The state of helpless poverty that may befall me if I do not marry does not frighten me. All I need is a little food and a few pieces of clothing. With the work of my hands I shall always earn what is necessary and what is left over I'll give to my relatives and to the poor. If I should become sick and unable to work, then I shall be like the Lord on the cross. He will have mercy on me and help me, I am sure.  -- Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha
The eyes of all hope in Thee, O Lord; and Thou givest them meat in due season.
Thou openest Thy hand, and fillest every living creature with blessing. -- Psalm cxliv. 15,16

34 St. Tabitha  good deeds and almsgiving raised from the dead by St. Peter.
Widow of Joppa (in modern Israel), who was mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (9:36-42) as one who was completely occupied with good deeds and almsgiving. She fell ill and died and was raised from the dead by St. Peter.
75 St. Fronto and George:  Bishops and apostles of Perigreux and Le Puy  Many miracles attribute Petragóricis, in Gállia,
 At Perigueux in France, St. Fronto, who was made bishop by the blessed apostle Peter.  Along with a priest named George, he converted to Christ a large number of people of that place, and, renowned for miracles, rested in peace.

250 St. Minias Martyred for making converts; soldier of Florence
269 Saints Theodosius, Lucius, Mark & Peter & 50 martyred soldiers MM (RM).
3rd v. St. Cyrinus Roman martyr; mentioned in the acta of Saint Marcellinus, pope and martyr
286 Saints Crispin & Crispinian patrons of shoemakers cobblers leatherworkers
283 St. Daria Chrysanthus & others martyred converted a number of Romans
303 Saint  Protus priest and Januarius deacon worked in Sardinia for the Pope
304 Martyrs with Pope Saint Marcellinus, Claudius, Cyrinus (Quirinus) & Antoninus
351 Saints Martyrius subdeacon and Marcian chorister martyred by arians
410 Saint Gaudentius of Brescia 387 consecrated by Saint Ambrose 10 sermons survive friend of John Chrysostom B (RM)
465 St. Lupus of Bayeux Bishop of Bayeux
535 St. Hilary Bishop of Mende hermit monk southern France.
584 St. Dulcardus Hermit at Saint-Doulchard
670 St. Hildemarca Benedictine abbess head monastery
675 St. Goeznoveus Cornish born Bishop of Quimper
715 St. Fructus A hermit brother & sis­ter slain by Moors
1087 Blessed Theodoric of Saint-Herbert, OSB Abbot
1272 Bd Christopher of Romagnola; personal disciple of St Francis of Assisi; parish priest who joined Friars Minor; distinguished for bodily austerities and devotion to the lepers;
1330 Blessed Albert of Sassoferrato monk of Santa Croce di Tripozzo OSB Cam.
1447 BD THOMAS OF FLORENCE; a Franciscan lay brother; the gift of miracles;
1492 BD BALTHASAR OF CHIAVARI; vision of our Lady and was miraculously sheltered from a heavy fall of snow; When he could not walk he had himself carried into church in order to assist at Mass and the choir offices and to hear the confessions of the faithful
1497 BD THADDEUS, BISHOP OF CORK AND CLOYNE; his tomb, and the popular cultus of Bd Thaddeus, encouraged by many miracles, was thus begun. Bishops Richelmy of Ivrea and Cailaghan of Cork having co-operated in the for­warding of his cause, the cultus was confirmed in 1895. His feast is kept in the dioceses of Ivrea, Ross, Cork and Cloyne.
1584 BD RICHARD GWYN, MARTYR;
1739-1822 Blessed Antônio de Sant’Anna Galvão.
        Forty Martyrs of England and Wales (RM)


34 St. Tabitha  good deeds and almsgiving raised from the dead by St. Peter.
Widow of Joppa (in modern Israel), who was mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (9:36-42) as one who was completely occupied with good deeds and almsgiving. She fell ill and died and was raised from the dead by St. Peter. Tabitha is sometimes called Dorcas.
Tabitha (Dorcas), Widow (AC) 1st century. The widow Tabitha of Joppa believed in Jesus Christ. She was raised from the dead by Saint Peter (Acts 9:36- 43).

75 St. Fronto and George:  Bishops and apostles of Perigreux and Le Puy  Many miracles attribute Petragóricis, in Gállia, sancti Frontónis, qui, a beáto Petro Apóstolo Epíscopus ordinátus, cum Geórgio Presbytero magnam illíus gentis multitúdinem convértit ad Christum, et miráculis clarus, in pace quiévit.
 At Perigueux in France, St. Fronto, who was made bishop by the blessed apostle Peter.  Along with a priest named George, he converted to Christ a large number of people of that place, and, renowned for miracles, rested in peace.

THOUGH no doubt these two saints really existed and were early apostles of Périgord, their legends seem to have been fabricated or altered with the object of giving an apostolic origin to the see of Périgueux. Pronto, it is said, was of the tribe of Juda and was born in Lycaonia. He was converted by the testimony of our Lord’s miracles, was baptized by St Peter, and became one of the Seventy-two. He accompanied St Peter to Antioch and Rome, and was sent thence with the priest George to preach to the Gauls. On the way George died, but, like St Maternus of Trier and St Martial of Limoges, he was brought to life again by the touch of St Peter’s staff.

St Fronto preached with conspicuous success, and several fantastic miracles and inconsistent particulars are given of his mission. His centre was at Périgueux, whereof he is venerated as the first bishop. Later legends import into his life an incident recorded of quite another St Fronto, who was a hermit in the Nitrian desert. St George evangelized the Velay and is accounted the first bishop of Le Puy.

In the earliest known form of the legend, St Fronto is not described as born in Lycaonia, but at Leuquais in the Dordogne, not very far from the Périgueux he was destined to evangelize. The extravagances and anachronisms are much the same as those in the legend just summarized, but there are signs that the earlier compiler did use some historical material, and a seventh-century Life of St Géry undoubtedly speaks of a tomb of St Pronto venerated in Périgueux at that date.

The Benedictines of Paris in their Vies des saints, vol. x (1952), have reprinted the following pleasing anecdote. It occurs in the prolegomena to André Lavertujon’s edition of the Chronicle of Sulpicius Sevens. Mr Lavertujon tells us that he learned to read from a Histoire de S. Front, and goes on: What struck us most among the extraordinary happenings of St Fronto’s life was this: Fronto was banished by the proconsul Squirius to a wilderness near Périgueux, and would there have died of hunger had not the fierce Roman been struck with remorse and sent him food, loaded on to seventy camels (for the holy man had companions). We were entranced and inflated by these camels walking about the banks of our Dordogne, and asked, ‘Monsieur l’Abbé, why aren’t there any camels here now’—‘Because we no longer deserve them’, was the reply.”

The pages devoted to this legend in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. xi, may be said to have been superseded by the very careful examination of the documents in the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xlviii (1930), pp. 324—360, “La Vie ancienne de St Front”, by M. Coens. He there edits the text of an earlier legend of St Fronto, already recognized as more primitive by Mgr Duchesne (see Fastes, Épiscopaux, vol. ii, pp. 130-134).
Southern France. Nothing can be documented about their labors, but tra­dition states that Fronto was a convert from Judaism, baptized by St. Peter. He was with Peter in Rome and in Antioch, and was sent with George to France. George became the bishop of Le Puy, and Fronto ruled Perigreux. Many miracles are attributed to Fronto.
St. Front as the first Bishop of Périgueux; St. Peter is said to have sent him to this town with the St. George to whom later traditions assign the foundation of the church of Le Puy.

75 St. Fronto baptized by Peter one of 72 disciples bishop Gaul 1st. century,
According to legend he was born in Lycaonia and became a follower of Christ, was baptized by Peter, and became one of the seventy-two disciples. He is said to have accompanied St. Peter to Antioch and Rome, from where he was sent with a priest, George to convert the GAULS. He is supposed to have become the first bishop of Perigueux and George the first bishop of Le Puy, both in France.

Fronto and George B (RM) 1st century. An early missionary to Périgord (Perigueux), France, Fronto's legend has him born in Lycaonia, of the tribe of Judah. He became a follower of Jesus, was baptized by Peter, and was one of the 72 disciples commissioned by Christ. He was with Peter in Antioch and Rome, whence he and a priest named George were sent to preach to the Gauls.  Fronto made his center at Périgord, of which he is considered the first bishop, and was most successful in his missionary activities, as was George, who is considered the first bishop of Le Puy. Another legend has Fronto born at Leucuais in the Dordogne near Périgord. All kinds of miracles were attributed to him in these legends (Benedictines, Delaney).
250 St. Minias Martyred for making converts soldier of Florence
Floréntiæ pássio beáti Miniátis mílitis, qui, sub Décio Príncipe, pro fide Christi egrégie certans, nóbili martyrio coronátur.
 At Florence, St. Minias, a soldier, who fought valorously for the faith of Christ and was gloriously crowned with martyrdom during the reign of Decius
 
Italy, sometimes called Miniato. He was martyred for making converts in the reign of Emperor Trajanus Decius. An abbey near Florence bears his name.

Minias (Miniato) of Florence M (RM) Died in Florence, Italy, c. 250. Saint Minias, a soldier stationed at Florence, spread the faith among his comrades, and for this was martyred under Decius (Benedictines). Florentine tradition relates that Minias was a merchant from the East, whom the popular imagination turned into an Armenian prince, who became a Christian and made a penitential pilgrimage to Rome. Thereafter, he is said to have moved to Florence, where he became a victim of the Decian persecutions. It is said that, because of his royal heritage, he was offered many inducements to apostatize, but rejected them all. Thereupon, he was executed close to the present Piazza della Signora.

According to a tradition set down by the chronicler Giovanni Villani, Minias picked up his severed head “and set it again on his trunk, and on his feet passed over the Arno, and went up the hill where now stands his church. At that time the Mons Fiorentinus was crowded with pagan temples, and a little oratory dedicated to Saint Peter (Jepson).

In art he is represented as a young prince holding a crown; crowned with a rod and palm; crowned with a lily, rod and palm; or carrying his severed head (Roeder). He is venerated in Florence, where the city's most beautiful and venerable church, begun by Saint Hildebrand in 1013 with monies donated by Emperor Henry II for the good of his soul, is dedicated to Minias. His relics rest in a lovely crypt. The mosaic on the facade of the church shows Saint Minias holding what appears to be a sextant as he stands on one side of the Pantocrator with the Blessed Virgin on the other (Jepson).
269 Saints Theodosius, Lucius, Mark & Peter & 50 martyred soldiers MM (RM).
Romæ natális sanctórum quadragínta sex mílitum, qui, simul baptizáti a sancto Dionysio Papa, mox Cláudii Imperatóris jussu decolláti sunt, ac via Salária sepúlti; ubi et álii Mártyres centum vigínti et unus pósiti sunt, inter quos fuérunt quátuor mílites Christi, scílicet Theodósius, Lúcius, Marcus et Petrus.
 Also at Rome, the birthday of forty-six holy soldiers, who were baptized at the same time by Pope Denis, and soon after beheaded by order of Emperor Claudius.  They were buried on the Salarian Way with one hundred and twenty-one other martyrs.  Among them are named four soldiers of Christ: Theodosius, Lucius, Mark, and Peter.

They belonged to a group of fifty soldiers martyred in Rome under Claudius (Benedictines).
3rd v.St. Cyrinus Roman martyr; mentioned in the acta of Saint Marcellinus, pope and martyr.
mentioned in the Acts of St. Marcellinus.
Cyrinus of Rome M (RM) 3rd century. Saint Cyrinus, a Roman martyr under Diocletian, is mentioned in the acta of Saint Marcellinus, pope and martyr (Benedictines).

286 Saints Crispin & Crispinian patrons of shoemakers cobblers leatherworkers.
Suessióne, in Gálliis, sanctórum Mártyrum Crispíni et Crispiniáni, nobílium Romanórum, qui, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, sub Rictiováro Præside, post immánia torménta gládio trucidáti, corónam martyrii sunt consecúti; quorum córpora póstea Romam deláta fuérunt, atque in Ecclésia sancti Lauréntii in Pane et Perna honorífice tumuláta.
 At Soissons in France, in the persecution of Diocletian, the holy martyrs Crispin and Crispinian, noble Romans.  Under Governor Rictiovarus, after horrible torments, they were put to the sword, and thus obtained the crown of martyrdom.  Their bodies were afterwards conveyed to Rome and entombed with due honours in the church of St. Lawrence in Panisperna.

The names of these two martyrs were famous throughout northern Europe in the middle ages, but are today known in England chiefly from the great speech which Shakespeare puts into the mouth of King Henry V on the eve of Agincourt (Henry V, act iv, scene 3). Their very late passio unfortunately cannot be relied on. It says that they came from Rome to preach the faith in Gaul toward the middle of the third century, together with St Quintinus and others. Fixing their residence at Soissons, they instructed many in the faith of Christ, which they preached during the day; and, in imitation of St Paul, worked with their hands at night making shoes, though they are said to have been nobly born (and brothers).

The infidels listened to their instructions and were astonished at the example of their lives, and the effect was the conversion of many to the Christian faith. They had continued this employment several years when, the Emperor Maximian coming into Gaul, a complaint was lodged against them. He, perhaps as much to gratify their accusers as to indulge his own superstition and cruelty, gave orders that they should be taken before Rictiovarus, an implacable enemy of Christians (if, in fact, he was an historical person). He subjected them to various torments and in vain tried to kill them by drowning and boiling; this so infuriated him that he took his own life by jumping into the fire prepared for them. Thereupon Maximian commanded that they be beheaded, and this was done.

Later a church was built over their tomb, and St Eligius the Smith embellished their shrine. SS. Crispin and Crispinian are supposed to have plied their trade without taking payment unless it was offered and thereby disposed men to listen to the gospel. They are the traditional patrons of shoemakers, cobblers and other workers in leather.

The Roman Martyrology says that the relics of these martyrs were translated from Soissons to the church of St Laurence in Panisperna at Rome. Nothing is certainly known about them, and it is possible—even more likely—that the reverse is the truth: that SS. Crispin and Crispinian were Roman martyrs whose relics were brought to Soissons and so started a local cultus.

The local tradition which associates these martyrs with the little port of Faver­sham in Kent is not mentioned by Alban Butler, though it must have been well known in his day, for it is still remembered. They are said to have fled thither to escape the persecution, and followed their trade of shoemaking at a house on the site of the Swan Inn, at the lower end of Preston Street, “near the Cross Well”. A Mr Southouse, writing about the year 1670, says that in his time this house had “considerable visits paid to it by the foreigners of that gentle calling”, so it looks as if the tradition was also known abroad. There was an altar dedicated in honour of SS. Crispin and Crispinian in the parish church of St Mary of Charity.

From the example of the saints it appears how foolish is the pretence of many Christians who imagine that the care of a family, the business of a farm or a shop, the attention which they are obliged to give to their secular profession, are im­pediments which excuse them from aiming at perfection. Such, indeed, they make them; but this is altogether owing to their own sloth and weakness. Many saints have made these very occupations the means of their perfection. St Paul made tents SS. Crispin and Crispinian were shoemakers; the Blessed Virgin was taken up with the care of her cottage Christ Himself worked with His reputed father; and those who renounced all commerce with the world to devote them­selves totally to the contemplation of heavenly things made mats and baskets, tilled the earth, or copied and bound books. Opportunities for every kind of good work never fail in any circumstances; and the means of sanctification may be practised in every state of life.

The Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. xi, print the passio and supply a very full commentary. The historical fact of the martyrdom seems sufficiently guaranteed by the entry on this day in the “Hieronymianum”, in “Galiis civitate Sessionis Crispini et Crispiniani”. Cf. Delehaye, Étude stir le légendier romain, pp. 126—129, 132—135, and CMH., pp. 337—338, 570—571 and Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. iii, pp. 141-152.

Unreliable legend had Crispin and Crispinian, noble Roman brothers who with St. Quintinus, went to Gaul to preach the gospel and settled at Soissons. They were most successful in convert work during the day and worked as shoemakers at night. By order of Emperor Maximian, who was visiting in Gaul, they were haled before Rictiovarus (whose position is unknown and even his existence is doubted by scholars), a hater of Christians, who subjected them to torture; when unsuccessful in trying to kill them, he committed suicide whereupon Maximian had the two brothers beheaded. They are the patrons of shoemakers, cobblers, and leatherworkers.
 
Crispin and Crispinian MM (RM)  There is a tradition that they were born of a noble Roman family in the 3rd century and went to preach in Gaul (Soissons) with Saint Quintinius and a number of other missionaries. According to this tradition they adopted the trade of shoemakers because they had left all their possessions behind them in Rome, or mainly as a disguise since Christians were still being persecuted in Gaul. It seems more probable that they were natives of Noviodunum (Soissons) and followed their trade as a matter of course.

Like Saint Paul, they preached by day and worked with their hands by night. Many conversions were attributed to them, for they preached not only by word of mouth but also by setting an example of charity and generosity, providing the poor with shoes for nothing and indeed taking no payment unless it was offered. Their martyrdom took place at a time when the Emperor Maximian was travelling through Gaul. Crispin and Crispinian were accused and the Emperor ordered them to be taken before Rictiovarus who (if he really existed) was a fanatical persecutor of Christians. The two brothers were subjected to a number of brutal tortures; they were immersed in water, molten lead, and boiling water. However they survived them all, and it is said that Rictiovarus became so furious at this that he jumped into the fire that had been prepared for them and killed himself (or other traditions say he drowned himself). Finally, on the orders of Maximian, the brothers were beheaded.

The truth may well be that they were Roman martyrs whose relics were brought to Soissons and enshrined there. These martyrs are particularly venerated in Soissons, France, where there was a church in their honor in the 6th century.  Tradition has it that a church was built over their tomb and their shrine was embellished by Saint Eligius the Smith, who was also one of the most popular saints of the Middle Ages. See the references to Crispin and Crispinian in Shakespeare's Henry V, Act 4, Scene 3.

Their cult spread through many countries, and there is a legend that they settled for a while at Faversham, Kent, on the south coast of England, when they fled from persecution. Formerly, there was an altar in Faversham bearing their names in the parish church.  To this day they are recognized as the patron of shoe-makers, cobblers, and leather-workers (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia). Their emblem in art is a shoe or a last (Roeder).
283 St. Daria Chrysanthus & others martyred converted a number of Romans
Romæ sanctórum Mártyrum Chrysánthi et Daríæ uxóris, qui, post multas, quas sub Celeríno Præfécto pro Christo sustinuérunt, passiónes, a Numeriáno Imperatóre jussi sunt via Salária in Arenário depóni, atque vivéntes illic terra et lapídibus óbrui.

 At Rome, the holy martyrs Chrysanthus and his wife Daria.  After many sufferings endured for Christ under the prefect Celerinus, they were ordered by Emperor Numerian to be thrown into a sandpit on the Salarian Way, where, being still alive, were covered with earth and stones

SS. CHRYSANTHUS AND Maria, MARTYRS
In the United States of America the feast of St Isidore is celebrated this day. See Vol. II, p. 323 of Butlers Lives of the Saints.

The evidence of their early veneration at Rome attests that these martyrs were actual persons who gave their lives for Christ, but their passio is a fanciful compilation of much later date. It says that Chrysanthus was the son of a patrician named Polemius, who came with his father from Alexandria to Rome in the reign of Numerian. He was instructed in the faith and baptized by a priest called Carpophorus. On discovering this, Polemius was indignant and subjected his son to the blandishments of five young women, hoping that he would lose his chastity and with it his new religion. When this device failed, Polemius proposed a marriage between Chrysanthus and a certain Dana, a priestess of Minerva.
   How this was to be brought about is not explained, but Dana proved acceptable to Chrysanthus, he converted her, and they entered into a virginal union. Between them they made a number of converts in Roman society, and were denounced and committed to the charge of the tribune Claudius. He handed Chrysanthus over to a company of soldiers, with instructions to make him sacrifice to Hercules by any means that they chose. They subjected him to a number of torments, under which he remained so constant that the tribune himself was constrained to confess Christ, and with him his wife Hilaria and their two sons. The soldiers likewise followed their example, and by order of the emperor all were slain together except Hilaria, who was seized later while praying at their tomb.
St Claudius and his companions are commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on December 3.
   Dana in the meanwhile had been consigned to a brothel, where she was defended from harm by a lion, which escaped for the purpose from the amphitheatre. To get rid of the beast the house had to be set on fire, and then the girl with her husband was taken before Numerian himself. They were condemned to death, and were stoned and buried alive in an old sandpit on the Via Salaria Nova. On the anniversary of their passion some of the faithful met together in this pit, and while they were praying in the crypt where the martyrs were buried emissaries of the emperor closed up the entrance with rocks and earth, so that they were all entombed. These are the SS. Diodorus the priest, Marianus the deacon and their fellows commemorated on December 1.
The statement that SS Chrysanthus and Dana were stoned and buried in a sandpit may be true. Later their tomb, with the bones of the other martyrs, was discovered, and St Gregory of Tours has left a hearsay description of the shrine that was made of it, but without naming the martyrs. In the ninth century the alleged relics of SS. Chrysanthus and Dana were translated to Prüm in Rhenish Prussia and four years later to Münstereifel, where they still are. The tomb was in the neighbourhood of the Coemeterium Thrasonis on the New Salarian Way, where are a number of ancient sand-pits.

There is both a Latin and a Greek text of this legend. Both are printed in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. xi. An exceptionally full discussion of the historical data will be found in Delehaye’s CMH., under August 12, on which day these martyrs are there specially commemorated, but their names also recur on December 20, and in this connection Delehaye points out that the assignment of their feast in the Roman Martyrology to October 25 seems to be due to a statement made in an account of a translation of their relics that October 25 was not only the date of the translation but the actual day of their martyrdom. The marble calendar of Naples (c. 850) seems to confirm this. Pope St Damasus is recorded to have written an inscription for their tomb, but that which was at one time attributed to him must certainly be of later date. See further, J. P. Kirsch, Festkalender (1924), pp. 90-93 and DAC., vol. iii, cc. 1560-1568.

There is very little known about them. Chrysanthus was an Egyptian, son of a Patrician, Polemius. He was brought to Rome from Alexandria during the reign of Numerian, and despite the objections of his father, who had brought him to Rome, was baptized by a priest named Carpophorus. Chrysanthus refused is father's attempts to get him married, finally married Daria, a Greek and a priestess of Minerva, converted her, and convinced her to live with him in chastity. When they converted a number of Romans, Chrysanthus was denounced as a Christian to Claudius, the tribune. Chrysanthus' attitude under torture so impressed Claudius that he and his wife, Hilaria, two sons, and seventy of his soldiers became Christians, whereupon the Emperor had them all killed. Daria was sent to a brothel, where she was defended by a lion, brought before Numerian, who ordered her execution, and was stoned and then buried alive. When several followers of Daria and Chrysanthus were found praying at their crypt, among them Diodorus, a priest, and Marianus, a deacon, they were all entombed alive.

Chrysanthus and Daria MM (RM)  Chrysanthus and Daria were certainly early martyrs, buried on the New Salarian Way outside Rome, but their popular and much-discussed legend could be a romance.  According to it, Chrysanthus was a young Alexandrian in Rome, whose father tried to wean him from Christianity by means of the blandishments of a Greek priestess of Minerva, Daria. Instead he converted her and they entered into a virginal marriage.  The couple was distinguished in Rome for their zealous profession and practice of the Christian faith. They in turn brought about many conversions, including a company of soldiers who were all beheaded.  They were themselves martyred under Numerian and Carinus by being buried alive in a sand-pit on the Salarian Way. While Christians were praying at their tomb, the emperor ordered its entrance to be blocked up and the worshippers were left there to perish (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).  In art they are depicted as husband and wife with an axe and a torch. Sometimes they are pictured buried alive; in Parma with SS Philip and James Major (Roeder). These patrons of governors are venerated at Parma, Reggio, Salzburg, and Siena (Roeder).
303 Saint  Protus priest and Januarius deacon worked in Sardinia for the Pope   MM (RM)
Túrribus, in Sardínia, sanctórum Mártyrum Proti Presbyteri, et Januárii Diáconi, qui, a sancto Cajo Papa ad eam ínsulam missi, ibídem, témpore Diocletiáni, sub Bárbaro Præside, consummáti sunt.
 At Sassari in Sardinia, the holy martyrs Protus, a priest, and Januarius, a deacon, who were sent to that island Pope St. Caius, and were martyred in the time of Diocletian under the governor Barbarus.
 
Protus, a priest, and Januarius, a deacon, were sent by the pope to work in Sardinia, where they were beheaded at Porto Torres, not far from Sassari, in the persecution of Diocletian (Benedictines).
304 Martyrs with Pope Saint Marcellinus, Claudius, Cyrinus (Quirinus) & Antoninus MM (RM)
Claudius, Cyrinus, and Antoninus are named on this day as having been beheaded together with Pope Saint Marcellinus (Benedictines)
.
351 Saints Martyrius subdeacon and Marcian chorister martyred by arians MM (RM)
 Constantinópoli pássio sanctórum Martyrii Subdiáconi, et Marciáni Cantóris, qui ab hæréticis, sub Constántio Imperatóre, necáti sunt.
 At Constantinople, the martyrdom of the Saints Martyrius, subdeacon, and Marcian, a cantor, who were slain by the heretics during the reign of Emperor Constantius.

Martyrius, a subdeacon, and Marcian, a chorister, were martyred at Constantinople under the Arian patriarch Macedonius on a trumped-up charge of sedition (Benedictines)
.
465 St. Lupus of Bayeux Bishop of Bayeux.
France. No details of his life are available.
Lupus of Bayeux B (AC). The aged bishop Saint Lupus of Bayeux is said to have ruled that diocese about the year 465 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
410 Saint Gaudentius of Brescia 387 consecrated by Saint Ambrose 10 sermons survive friend of John Chrysostom B (RM)
Bríxiæ natális sancti Gaudéntii Epíscopi, eruditióne et sanctitáte conspícui.
 At Brescia, the birthday of St. Gaudentius, bishop, distinguished for his learning and holiness.

GAUDENTIUS seems to have been educated under St Philastrius, Bishop of Brescia, whom he styles his “father”. His reputation was very high and he travelled to Jerusalem, partly on pilgrimage and partly hoping by his absence to be forgotten at home. In this, however, he was mistaken. At Caesarea in Cappadocia he met with the sisters and nieces of St Basil, who bestowed on him relics of the Forty Martyrs, knowing that he would honour those sacred pledges as they had honoured them.

During his absence St Philastrius died, and the clergy and people of Brescia chose Gaudentius for their bishop: they bound themselves by an oath to receive no other for their pastor. St Gaudentius only yielded to the threat of refusal of communion by the Eastern bishops if he refused to obey. St Ambrose consecrated him about the year 387; the sermon, which he preached on that occasion, expresses the humility with which his youth and inexperience inspired him.

The church of Brescia soon found how great a treasure it possessed in so holy a pastor. A certain nobleman named Benevolus, who had been disgraced by the Empress Justina because he refused to draw up an edict in favour of the Arians, had retired to Brescia, and being hindered by sickness from attending the Easter sermons of Gaudentius, requested that he would commit them to writing for his use. By this means were preserved ten out of the twenty-one sermons of the saint which are extant. In the second, which he made for the neophytes at their coming from the font on Holy Saturday, he explained to them the mysteries which he could not expound in presence of the catechumens, especially the Blessed Eucharist, of which he says: “The Creator and Lord of Nature, who brings the bread out of the ground, makes also of bread His own body; because He has promised, and is able to perform it. And He who made wine of water, converts wine into His own blood.”

Gaudentius in the preface to his discourses warns the reader against pirated editions of them. He built a church at Brescia, which he named the “Assembly of the Saints”, and to the dedication of which he invited many bishops and in their presence made the seventeenth sermon of those that are extant. In it he says that he had deposited in this church relics of the Apostles and others, affirming that a portion of a martyr’s relics is in virtue and efficacy the same as the whole. “Therefore”, he says, “that we may be succored by the patronage of so many saints, let us come and supplicate with an entire confidence and earnest desire, that by their interceding we may deserve to obtain all things we ask, magnifying Christ our Lord, the giver of so great grace.”

In 405, St Gaudentius was deputed with two others by Pope St Innocent I and the Emperor Honorius to go into the East to defend the cause of St John Chrysostom before Arcadius, for which Chrysostom sent him a letter of thanks.
The deputies were ill received, and imprisoned in Thrace their papers were forcibly taken from them, and bribes were offered if they would declare themselves in communion with the bishop who had supplanted St John Chrysostom. St Paul is said to have appeared in a vision to one of their deacons to encourage them. They eventually arrived back safely in Italy, though it is supposed their enemies intended them to be cast away at sea, for they were put on a most unseaworthy vessel. St Gaudentius seems to have died about the year 410, and Rufinus styled him “the glory of the doctors of the age wherein he lives”. He is honoured on this day in the Roman Martyrology, which mentions on October 14 another ST Gaudentius. He was the first bishop of Rimini, and may have been martyred by the Arians in the year 359. The Canons Regular of the Lateran keeps his feast.

There seems to be no formal biography of St Gaudentius, but from contemporary allusions and letters a tolerably full account is furnished in the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. xi. The activities of the saint have occasionally been made the subject of contributions to the local ecclesiastical journal, Brixia sacra, e.g. vol. vi and vol. vii (1915—16). See also Lanzoni, Diocesi d’Italia (1927), vol. ii, pp. 963—965 and the Journal of Theological Studies, vol. xii (1914), pp. 593—596. For the discourses, see A. Glueck, Sti Gaudentii . . . tractatus (1936).

Saint Gaudentius was apparently educated under Saint Philastrius, bishop of Brescia, Italy, and considered him his spiritual father.  He made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem hoping to escape the attention his reputation has gained him at home, and then became a monk at Caesarea in Cappadocia. During this time, Saint Philastrius died, and the clergy and people of Brescia chose Gaudentius to succeed him, overruling his objections. He was consecrated by his friend, Saint Ambrose of Milan, c. 387.
A nobleman named Benevolus, who had been disgraced by Empress Justina because he failed to support the Arians, had retired to Brescia. Due to ill health, he was unable to attend Gaudentius's Easter sermons, and he asked Gaudentius to write them down. For this reason, ten of the saint's sermons survive.
Saint Gaudentius is remembered, however, chiefly in connection with Saint John Chrysostom. After Chrysostom was banished for the second time in 404, the Western emperor, Honorius wrote on his behalf to Emperor Arcadius at Constantinople.
The letter, with another form Pope Saint Innocent I, was carried by a deputation, of which Gaudentius was a principal member. They were stopped by officials outside Constantinople and ordered to give up the letters, and when they refused to deliver them to anyone but Arcadius in person they were taken from them by force.
Then a vain attempt was made to bribe the deputation to recognize Chrysostom's intruded successor as archbishop. Gaudentius saw that their mission was hopeless, and at his request they were eventually allowed to go back home.

They were shipped on a vessel so unseaworthy that it had to be left at Lampsacus. Chrysostom sent a letter of thanks for their efforts to Saint Gaudentius and the others, a rather stiff and cool missive which suggests it was written by a secretary rather than by the warm-hearted John.
Rufinus (who wrote one of the first ecclesiastical histories) had a high opinion of Saint Gaudentius as a teacher, but only a few homilies have survived (Attwater, White).
535 St. Hilary Bishop of Mende hermit monk southern France.
Gavális, in Gállia, sancti Hilárii Epíscopi.   At Javoux in France, St. Hilary, bishop.
He started as a hermit on the banks of the Tarn River. Before being consecrated bishop, Hilary was a monk at Lerins.
Hilary of Mende B (RM) Born in Mende (Gavallus), France; died 535. Saint Hilary was baptized as an adult. He became a hermit on the banks of the Tarn, monk of Lérins, and finally bishop of Mende (Benedictines).
584 St. Dulcardus Hermit at Saint-Doulchard.
 France. He was originally a monk at Micy in Orleans.
Dulcardus of Micy, Hermit (AC). Saint Dulcardus, a monk of Micy (Saint-Mesmin) in Orléans, became a hermit near Bourges, where now stands the village of Saint-Doulchard (Cher) (Benedictines).

670 St. Hildemarca Benedictine abbess head monastery.
invited by St. Wandrille to head his monastery in
Fécamp, France. She had been a nun at St. Eulalia in Bordeaux.
Hildemarca of Fécamp OSB Abbess (AC). A nun of Saint Eulalia at Bordeaux, France, who was invited by Saint Wandrille to govern his new monastery at Fécamp (Benedictines).

675 St. Goeznoveus Cornish born Bishop of Quimper.
France. He was brother of St. Maughan.
Goeznoveus (Gouernou) B (AC) Born in Cornwall; Bishop Saint Goeznoveus of Quimper, Brittany, brother of Saint Maughan, founded a monastery near Brest, where he died (Benedictines).

715 St. Fructus A hermit brother & sis­ter slain by Moors.
in Spain. He and his brother, Valentine, and sister, Engratia, lived in Sepulvida, Spain. When Valentine and Engratia were slain, Fructus became a hermit. All three are patrons of Segovia. 

Fructus (Frutos), Valentine & Engratia HH (AC). Two brothers and their sister who were living at Sepulveda in Old Castile at the time of one of the Saracen raids. Valentine and Engratia were killed by the Moors, but Frutos escaped and died a hermit. They are now venerated as the patron saints of Segovia, Spain, where their relics are enshrined (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
1087 Blessed Theodoric of Saint-Herbert, OSB Abbot (AC)
Educated at Maubeuge, Theodoric became a Benedictine at Lobbes. In 1055, he was appointed to be abbot of Saint-Hubert in the Ardennes. Here and at neighboring abbeys of Stavelot- Malmédy he successfully introduced Cluniac observance (Benedictines)
.

1272 Bd Christopher of Romagnola; personal disciple of St Francis of Assisi; parish priest who joined Friars Minor; distinguished for bodily austerities and devotion to the lepers;

Bd Christopher (often called “of Cahors”) was a personal disciple of St Francis of Assisi. He was a parish priest in the diocese of Cesena, and when about forty years of age he resigned his benefice and joined the newly formed order of Friars Minor, among whom he was distinguished for his bodily austerities and his devotion to the lepers. He was eventually sent into France where he preached against the Albigensians and established his order at Cahors, among other places. He died here in 1272, at a great age, and his cultus was approved in 1905.

The Bollandists on October 31 relegate this holy friar among the praetermissi on the ground that no sufficient evidence had then been produced for his continued cultus. The decree of confirmation, which includes some biographical details, may be read in the Analecta Ecclesiastica for 1905, p. 206. There is a life by Bernard of Besse in the Analecta Franciscana, vol. iii, pp. 161—173. See also the biography by Leopold de Chérancé (1907).

1330 Blessed Albert of Sassoferrato monk of Santa Croce di Tripozzo OSB Cam. (AC)
Died August 7, 1330; cultus confirmed 1837. Albert was a monk of Santa Croce di Tripozzo before the Camaldolese took over the house (Benedictines)
.

1447 BD THOMAS OF FLORENCE; a Franciscan lay brother; the gift of miracles; Many urged that Bd Thomas should be canonized with St Bernardino of Siena, whose cause was then in process. To prevent the delay that would have resulted, St John of Capistrano, it is said, went to Thomas’s tomb at Rieti and commanded him in the name of holy obedience to cease his miracles until the canonization of Bernardino should be achieved. They stopped for three years, but Bd Thomas has never been canonized. His cultus was approved in 1771.

THOMAS BELLACCI, a native of Florence, was a Franciscan lay brother, who as a young man had led a wild and disorderly life. Realization of the futility of it all and the wise words of a friend wrought a change in him and he was accepted—with some trepidation, for his excesses were notorious—by the friars of the Observance at Fiesole. But his penitence equaled his former sinfulness, and in time, for all he was a lay brother, he was made master of novices, whom he trained in the strictest ways of the Observance.

When in 1414 Friar John of Stroncone went to spread the reform in the kingdom of Naples he took Bd Thomas with him. He laboured there for some six years, strengthened with the gift of miracles, and then, authorized by Pope Martin V, he undertook, in company with Bd Antony of Stron­cone, to oppose the heretical Fraticelli in Tuscany. While engaged in this cam­paign he made a number of new foundations, over which St Bernardino gave him authority, his own headquarters being at the friary of Scarlino. Here he established a custom of going in procession after the night office to a neighbouring wood, where each friar had a little shelter of boughs and shrubs wherein they remained for a time in prayer.

As a result of the “reunion council” at Florence in 1439, Friar Albert of Sarzana was sent as papal legate to the Syrian Jacobites and other dissidents of the East, and he took Thomas with him, although he was in his seventieth year. From Persia Albert commissioned him to go with three other friars into Ethiopia. Three times on their way the Turks, who treated them with great cruelty, seized them. But Bd Thomas insisted on preaching to the Mohammedans, and eventually they had to be ransomed by Pope Eugenius IV, just before their captors were going to put them to death. Bd Thomas could not get over that God had refused the proffered sacrifice of his life, and in 1447, aged as he was, he set out for Rome to ask permission to go again to the East. But at Rieti he was taken ill, and died there on October 31.  Many urged that Bd Thomas should be canonized with St Bernardino of Siena, whose cause was then in process. To prevent the delay that would have resulted, St John of Capistrano, it is said, went to Thomas’s tomb at Rieti and commanded him in the name of holy obedience to cease his miracles until the canonization of Bernardino should be achieved. They stopped for three years, but Bd Thomas has never been canonized. His cultus was approved in 1771.

See Wadding, Annales Minorum; Mazzara, Leggendario francescano and the summary in Léon, L’Auréole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), Vol. iv.

1492 BD BALTHASAR OF CHIAVARI; vision of our Lady and was miraculously sheltered from a heavy fall of snow; When he could not walk he had himself carried into church in order to assist at Mass and the choir offices and to hear the confessions of the faithful

BALTHASAR RAVASCHIERI was born at Chiavari on the Gulf of Genoa about the year 1420. He joined the Friars Minor of the Observance, and in due course was professed and ordained. Balthasar was a friend and fellow-preacher with Bd Bernardino of Feltre, and joined enthusiastically and successfully in his missions, but his activities were cut short by ill health.  When he could not walk he had himself carried into church in order to assist at Mass and the choir offices and to hear the confessions of the faithful who came to him in crowds. He also used to be taken into the woods and left there for long periods of meditation and reading, and here he had a vision of our Lady and was miraculously sheltered from a heavy fall of snow. This double marvel was commemorated in the sixteenth century by an inscription cut in stone, and in 1678 was recorded in the archives of the town of Chiavari. Bd Balthasar died on October 17, 1492, at Binasco, and his cultus was confirmed in 1930.

Though we have a certain amount of evidence regarding the later cultus of this beatus, very little can be stated with certainty about the facts of his life. See the Archivum Fran­ciscanum Historicum, vol. ii (1909), p. 523. What little is known has been gathered together in the small volume of Fr Bernardino da Carasco, I1 b. Baldassare Ravaschieri (1930).

1497 BD THADDEUS, BISHOP OF CORK AND CLOYNE; his tomb, and the popular cultus of Bd Thaddeus, encouraged by many miracles, was thus begun. Bishops Richelmy of Ivrea and Cailaghan of Cork having co-operated in the for­warding of his cause, the cultus was confirmed in 1895. His feast is kept in the dioceses of Ivrea, Ross, Cork and Cloyne.

OF the early life of this bishop, the only Irishman beatified between the canonization of Lorcan O’Toole in 1228 and the beatification of Oliver Plunket in 1920, very little is known. He belonged to the royal MacCarthys in the part of Munster later known as the Desmond country, his father being lord of Muskerry and his mother a daughter of FitzMaurice, lord of Kerry; Thaddeus (Tadhg) was a baptismal name in this house for seven hundred years. He is said to have begun his studies with the Friars Minor of Kilcrea and to have then gone abroad, and he seems to have been in Rome when, in 1482 at the age of twenty-seven, he was appointed bishop of Ross by Pope Sixtus IV. Three years later when Henry Tudor became ruler of the three kingdoms, the Yorkist Geraldines made a determined effort to have their own representative in the see of Ross. Ever since the appointment of Thaddeus MacCarthy there had been a rival claimant in the person of Hugh O’Driscoll, his predecessor’s auxiliary, and it was now alleged that Thaddeus had intruded himself under false pretences, with other charges added. The earl of Desmond seized the temporalities of the see, and its bishop took refuge at the Cistercian abbey near Parma, which was given him in commendam by the bishop of Clogher. By the machinations of the FitzGeralds Thaddeus was in 1488 declared suspended by the Holy See, and he set off to Rome to plead his cause in person. After two years of investigation and delay Pope Innocent VIII confirmed the bishopric of Ross to Hugh, but nominated Thaddeus to the united dioceses of Cork and Cloyne, then vacant.

When Bd Thaddeus arrived, he found his cathedral closed against him and the see’s endowments in the hands of the FitzGeralds, Barrys and others. In vain he endeavoured to assert his canonical rights and to obtain peaceful control of his charge: there was nothing for it but to go again to Rome and appeal to the Holy See. The pope condemned the tyrants and provided Thaddeus with letters to the earl of Kildare, then lord deputy of Ireland, to the heads of the bishop’s own clan, and to others, exhorting them to protect and aid his just cause. With these Bd Thaddeus set out for home as a pilgrim on foot, and in the evening of October 24, 1497, reached Ivrea, at the foot of the Alps, where he stayed at the hospice of the canons regular of St Bernard of Montjoux. The next morning he was found dead in his bed.

When an examination of his luggage showed who the dead pilgrim was, the matter was reported to the bishop of Ivrea, who ordered that he should be buried with the utmost solemnity. The story of the episcopal pilgrim travelling incognito and on foot soon got around, and the cathedral was crowded with people from the neighbourhood who came to the funeral. They continued to visit the tomb, and the popular cultus of Bd Thaddeus, encouraged by many miracles, was thus begun. Bishops Richelmy of Ivrea and Cailaghan of Cork having co-operated in the for­warding of his cause, the cultus was confirmed in 1895. His feast is kept in the dioceses of Ivrea, Ross, Cork and Cloyne.

Not very much seems to be known concerning this beatus. In the Irish Ecclesiastical Record for 1896 the lessons sanctioned for the office of his festival are printed, pp. 859—861. The decree confirming the cultus may be read in the Analecta Ecclesiastica, vol. iii (1895), p. 456. It gives very little biographical detail, but dwells principally on the miracles worked at the shrine at Ivrea. Cf. V. Berardi, Italy and Ireland in the Middle Ages (1950).

1584 BD RICHARD GWYN, MARTYR;  FOR forty years after the dissolution of the monasteries Wales remained a stronghold of the Catholic faith; many of the great families and most of the common people were faithful to it. But soon after the missionary priests began to arrive from the continent, Queen Elizabeth and her ministers set themselves to stamp out the religion by cutting off the channels of sacramental grace and closing the mouths of those who should preach the word of God. In Wales the first victim of this campaign was a layman, Richard Gwyn (alias White). He was born at Llanidloes in Montgomeryshire in 1537, and was brought up a Protestant. On leaving St John’s College, Cambridge, he went to Overton in Flintshire and opened a school.

Some time after he became a Catholic, and his absence from Protestant worship drawing suspicion on himself, he left Overton with his family for Erbistock. In 1579, being in Wrexham, he was recognized by the vicar (an apostate), denounced, and arrested.

FOR forty years after the dissolution of the monasteries Wales remained a stronghold of the Catholic faith; many of the great families and most of the common people were faithful to it. But soon after the missionary priests began to arrive from the continent, Queen Elizabeth and her ministers set themselves to stamp out the religion by cutting off the channels of sacramental grace and closing the mouths of those who should preach the word of God. In Wales the first victim of this campaign was a layman, Richard Gwyn (alias White). He was born at Llanidloes in Montgomeryshire in 1537, and was brought up a Protestant. On leaving St John’s College, Cambridge, he went to Overton in Flintshire and opened a school.

Some time after he became a Catholic, and his absence from Protestant worship drawing suspicion on himself, he left Overton with his family for Erbistock. In 1579, being in Wrexham, he was recognized by the vicar (an apostate), denounced, and arrested. He managed to escape. But in June 1580, the Privy Council directed the Protestant bishops to be more vigilant in their dealings with Catholic recusants, especially “all schoolmasters, public and private”. Accordingly, in the very next month, Richard Gwyn was seized and brought before a magistrate, who sent him to Ruthin gaol. At the Michaelmas assizes he was offered his liberty if he would conform, and on refusal was returned to prison, to be kept in irons. At the May assizes he was ordered taken by force to the Protestant church, where he interrupted the preacher by vigorously clanking his chains. He was then put in the stocks from 10 a.m. till 8 p.m., “vexed all the time with a rabble of ministers”. One of them claimed that he had the power of the keys as much as St Peter; but he also had a conspicuously red nose, and Gwyn retorted in exas­peration, “There is this difference, namely, that whereas St Peter received the keys of the kingdom of Heaven you appear to have received those of the beer-cellar!”

He was indicted for brawling in church and fined the equivalent of £800, and brought up again in September and fined £1680 in modern money for not having attended church during the seven months he had been in gaol. The judge asked him what means he had to pay these absurd fines. “I have somewhat towards it”, he replied. “How much?” “Sixpence”, said Gwyn. He appeared at three more assizes and was then sent with three other recusants and a Jesuit, Father John Bennet, senior, before the Council of the Marches, which had them tortured at Bewdley, Ludlow and Bridgnorth to try and get the names of other Catholics.

   In October 1584 Bd Richard appeared at his eighth assizes, at Wrexham, with two others, Hughes and Morris, and was indicted for treason, in that he was alleged to have tried to reconcile one Lewis Gronow to the Church of Rome and to have maintained the supremacy of the pope. He denied ever speaking with Gronow, and the man afterwards made a public declaration that his evidence and that of the other two witnesses was false and paid for at the instigation of the vicar of Wrexham and another zealot. The jury summoned had refused to appear, so another was impaneled on the spot. The members asked the judge whom they were to convict and whom to acquit! Accordingly Gwyn and Hughes were sentenced to death (Hughes was afterwards reprieved) and Morris released. Mrs. Gwyn was brought into court with her baby and warned not to imitate her husband. She rounded on the sheriff. “If you lack blood”, she said, “you may take my life as well as my husband’s. If you will give the witnesses a little bribe they will give evidence against me too!” Bd Richard was executed on October 15, 1584, a very wet day, at Wrexham (now the see of the Catholic diocese of Menevia, Mynyw). The crowd called for him to be allowed to die before disemboweling, but the sheriff (himself an apostate) refused, and the martyr shrieked out in his agony, “0 Duw gwyn, pa beth ydyw hwn?” “Holy God, what is this?” “An execution for the Queen’s Majesty”, said an official. “Iesu, trugarha wrthyf” “Jesus, have mercy on me!” exclaimed Bd Richard, and his head was struck off.

During his four years of imprisonment Gwyn wrote in Welsh a number of religious poems (not “carols”, as they are generally called), calling on his country­men to keep to “yr hen Fam”, the old Mother Church, and describing with a bitterness that was unhappily excusable the new religion and its ministers. He was beatified in 1929, and his feast is kept in the diocese of Menevia on this date.
It is under the name of White (a translation of the Welsh “Gwyn”) that Challoner gives an account of this martyr in MM?., pp. 102-105. See also Burton and Pollen, LEM., vol. i, pp. 127—144; and T. P. Ellis, The Catholic Martyrs of Wales (1933), pp. 18-33. For his poetical compositions in Welsh, consult the publications of the Catholic Record Society, vol. v, pp. 90-99.
1739-1822 Blessed Antônio de Sant’Anna Galvão.
God’s plan in a person’s life often takes unexpected turns which become life-giving through cooperation with God’s grace.
Born in Guarantingueta near São Paulo (Brazil), Antônio attended the Jesuit seminary in Belem but later decided to become a Franciscan friar.
Invested in 1760, he made final profession the following year and was ordained in 1762.
   In São Paulo, he served as preacher, confessor and porter. Within a few years he was appointed confessor to the Recollects of St. Teresa, a group of nuns in that city. He and Sister Helena Maria of the Holy Spirit founded a new community of sisters under the patronage of Our Lady of the Conception of Divine Providence. Sister Helena Maria’s premature death the next year left Father Antônio responsible for the new congregation, especially for building a convent and church adequate for their growing numbers.
   He served as novice master for the friars in Macacu and as guardian of St. Francis Friary in São Paulo. He founded St. Clare Friary in Sorocaba. With the permission of his provincial and the bishop, he spent his last days at the "Recolhimento de Nossa Senhora da Luz," the convent of the sisters’ congregation he had helped establish.
He was beatified in Rome on October 25, 1998.
Comment:    Holy women and men cannot help calling our attention to God, to God’s creation and to all the people whom God loves. The lives of holy people are so oriented toward God that this has become their definition of "normal." Do people see my life or yours as a living sign of God’s steadfast love? What might have to change for that to happen?
Quote:    During the beatification homily, Pope John Paul II quoted from the Second Letter to Timothy (4:17), "The Lord stood by me and gave me strength to proclaim the word fully," and then said that Antônio "fulfilled his religious consecration by dedicating himself with love and devotion to the afflicted, the suffering and the slaves of his era in Brazil." The pope continued, "His authentically Franciscan faith, evangelically lived and apostolically spent in serving his neighbor, will be an encouragement to imitate this ‘man of peace and charity.’"
1822 Blessed Antônio de Sant’Anna Galvão ‘man of peace and charity.’ founded St. Clare Friary b.1739.
God’s plan in a person’s life often takes unexpected turns which become life-giving through cooperation with God’s grace.
Born in Guarantingueta near São Paulo (Brazil), Antônio attended the Jesuit seminary in Belem but later decided to become a Franciscan friar.
Invested in 1760, he made final profession the following year and was ordained in 1762. In São Paulo, he served as preacher, confessor and porter. Within a few years he was appointed confessor to the Recollects of St. Teresa, a group of nuns in that city. He and Sister Helena Maria of the Holy Spirit founded a new community of sisters under the patronage of Our Lady of the Conception of Divine Providence. Sister Helena Maria’s premature death the next year left Father Antônio responsible for the new congregation, especially for building a convent and church adequate for their growing numbers.
He served as novice master for the friars in Macacu and as guardian of St. Francis Friary in São Paulo. He founded St. Clare Friary in Sorocaba. With the permission of his provincial and the bishop, he spent his last days at the “Recolhimento de Nossa Senhora da Luz, the convent of the sisters’ congregation he had helped establish.
He was beatified in Rome on October 25, 1998.
Comment:   Holy women and men cannot help calling our attention to God, to God’s creation and to all the people whom God loves. The lives of holy people are so oriented toward God that this has become their definition of normal. Do people see my life or yours as a living sign of God’s steadfast love? What might have to change for that to happen?
Quote:  During the beatification homily, Pope John Paul II quoted from the Second Letter to Timothy (4:17), The Lord stood by me and gave me strength to proclaim the word fully, and then said that Antônio fulfilled his religious consecration by dedicating himself with love and devotion to the afflicted, the suffering and the slaves of his era in Brazil. The pope continued, His authentically Franciscan faith, evangelically lived and apostolically spent in serving his neighbor, will be an encouragement to imitate this ‘man of peace and charity.’
Forty Martyrs of England and Wales (RM)
Died 16th and 17th centuries; canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970. Each of the individual saints has his own feast day in addition to the corporate one today. The dates vary in the diocesan calendars of England and Wales. The forty are only a small portion of the many martyrs of the period whose causes have been promoted. All suffered for continuing to profess the Catholic faith following King Henry VIII's promulgation of the Act of Supremacy, which declared that the king of England was the head of the Church of England.

Most of them were hanged, drawn, and quartered--a barbaric execution, which meant that the individual was hanged upon a gallows, but cut down before losing consciousness. While still alive--and conscious, they were then ripped up, eviscerated, and the hangman groped about among the entrails until he found the heart--which he tore out and showed to the people before throwing it on a fire (Undset).

The list below gives very basic details. More information is given on the individual feast day listed.
Alban Bartholomew Roe--Benedictine priest (born in Suffolk; died at Tyburn, 1642) (f.d. January 21).
Alexander Briant--priest (born in Somerset, England; died at Tyburn, 1851) (f.d. December 1).
Ambrose Edward Barlow--Benedictine priest (born in Manchester, England, 1585; died at Lancaster, 1641) (f.d. September 10).
Anne Higham Line--widow, for harboring priests (born at Dunmow, Essex, England; died at Tyburn, 1601) (f.d. February 27).
Augustine Webster--Carthusian priest (died at Tyburn, 1535) (f.d. May 4).
Cuthbert Mayne--Priest (born in Youlston, Devonshire, England, 1544; died at Launceston, 1577) (f.d. November 30).
David Lewis--Jesuit priest, (born at Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, Wales, in 1616; died at Usk 1679) (f.d. August 27).
(Brian) Edmund Arrowsmith--Jesuit priest (born Haydock, England, 1584; died at Lancaster in 1628) (f.d. August 28).
Edmund Campion--Jesuit priest (born in London, England, c. 1540; died at Tyburn, 1581) (f.d. December 1).
Edmund Jennings (Genings, Gennings)-- priest (born at Lichfield, England, in 1567; died at Tyburn 1591) (f.d. December 10).
Eustace White--priest (born at Louth, Lincolnshire, England; died at Tyburn, 1591) (f.d. December 10).
Henry Morse--Jesuit priest (born at Broome, Suffolk, England, in 1595; died at Tyburn, 1645) (f.d. February 1).
Henry Walpole--Jesuit priest (born at Docking, Norfolk, England, 1558; died at York in 1595) (f.d. April 7).
John Almond--priest (born at Allerton, near Liverpool, England, 1577; died at Tyburn, 1612) (f.d. December 5).
John Boste--priest (born in Dufton, Westmorland, England, c. 1544; died at Dryburn near Durham, 1594) (f.d. July 24).
John Houghton--Carthusian priest (born in Essex, England, in 1487; died at Tyburn, 1535) (f.d. May 4).
John Jones (alias Buckley)--Friar Observant (born in Clynog Fawr, Carnavonshire, Wales; died at Southwark, London, in 1598) (f.d. July 12).
John Kemble--priest (born at Saint Weonard's, Herefordshire, England, in 1599; died at Hereford in 1679) (f.d. August 22).
John Lloyd--priest, Welshman (born in Brecknockshire, Wales; died in Cardiff, Wales, in 1679) (f.d. July 22).
John Paine (Payne)--priest (born at Peterborough, England; died at Chelmsford, 1582) (f.d. April 2).
John Plessington (a.k.a. William Pleasington)--priest (born at Dimples Hall, Lancashire, England; died at Barrowshill, Boughton outside Chester, England, 1679) (f.d. July 19).

John Rigby--household retainer of the Huddleston family (born near Wigan, Lancashire, England, c. 1570; died at Southwark in 1601) (f.d. June 21).
John Roberts--Benedictine priest, Welshman (born near Trawsfynydd Merionethshire, Wales, in 1577; died at Tyburn, 1610) (f.d. December 10).
John Southworth--priest (born in Lancashire, England, in 1592; died at Tyburn 1654) (f.d. June 28).
John Stone--Augustinian friar (born in Canterbury, England; died at Canterbury, c. 1539) (f.d. December 27).
John Wall--Franciscan priest (born in Lancashire, England, 1620; died at Redhill, Worcester, in 1679) (f.d. August 22).
Luke Kirby--priest (born at Bedale, Yorkshire, England; died at Tyburn, 1582) (f.d. May 30).
Margaret Middleton Clitherow--wife, mother, and school mistress (born in York, England, c. 1555; died at York in 1586) (f.d. March 25).
Margaret Ward--gentlewoman who engineered a priest's escape from jail (born in Congleton, Cheshire, England; died at Tyburn in 1588) (f.d. August 30).
Nicholas Owen--Jesuit laybrother (born at Oxford, England; died in the Tower of London in 1606) (f.d. March 2).
Philip Evans--Jesuit priest, (born in Monmouthshire, Wales, in 1645; died in Cardiff, Wales, in 1679) (f.d. July 22).
Philip Howard--Earl of Arundel and Surrey (born in 1557; died in the Tower of London, believed to have been poisoned, 1595) (f.d. October 19).
Polydore Plasden--priest (born in London, England; died at Tyburn, in 1591) (f.d. December 10).
Ralph Sherwin--priest (born at Rodsley, Derbyshire, England; died at Tyburn, 1851) (f.d. December 1).
Richard Gwyn--poet and schoolmaster; protomartyr of Wales (born at Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, Wales, in 1537; died at Wrexham, Wales, in 1584) (f.d. October 17).

Richard Reynolds--Brigittine priest (born in Devon, England, c. 1490; died Tyburn in 1535) (f.d. May 4).
Robert Lawrence--Carthusian priest (died at Tyburn in 1535) (f.d. May 4).
Robert Southwell--Jesuit priest (born at Horsham Saint, Norfolk, England, c. 1561; died at Tyburn in 1595) (f.d. February 21).
Swithun Wells--schoolmaster (born at Bambridge, Hampshire, England, in 1536; died at Gray's Inn Fields, London, 1591) (f.d. December 10). Mrs. Wells was also condemned to death, but was reprieved and died in prison, 1600).
Thomas Garnet--Jesuit priest (born at Southwark, England; died at Tyburn, in 1608) (f.d. June 23).


 Tuesday  Saints of this Day October  25 Septimo Kaléndas Novémbris   40 days for Life Day 27
Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  October 2016
Universal:   Universal: Journalists
That journalists, in carrying out their work, may always be motivated by respect for truth and a strong sense of ethics.
Evangelization:  Evangelization: World Mission Day
That World Mission Day may renew within all Christian communities the joy of the Gospel and the responsibility to announce it.

God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!    (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)
                      

                                                                           
       40 days for Life Day 27
40 Days for Life  11,000+ saved lives in 2015
We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'

"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book
wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.