Mary the Mother of Jesus
Feast of Our Lady of Aparecida, Patroness of Brazil
 Wednesday   Saints_of_this_Day May11 Quinto Idus Maji.  
CAUSES OF SAINTS April  2016



 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life.

Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


The saints are a “cloud of witnesses over our head”,
showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

SS PHILIP AND JAMES (see May 1)

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List

Acts of the Apostles

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary  .

66 St Evellius of Pisa  counsellor to Nero convert upon witnessing patience of martyrs M (RM)
1st v. St Jason Departure of 1/70 disciples accompanied St. Paul Acts 17:9 ordained bishop by St. Paul

 330   CONSTANTINOPLE  was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos
 600 St Asaph of Wales founded the church of Llanasa in Flintshire favorite pupil of Saint David B (RM)
603 St Comgall Abbot warrior as a young man priest founder he taught Saint Columban (AC)
 885 Sts Cyril and Methodius, Equals Apostles, Slavs Enlighteners discovered relics Clement, Pope
1049 St. Odilo of Cluny Benedictine Abbot austerities sold Church treasures to feed poor during famine
1156 Bl Peter the Venerable Cluny Abbot “the Venerable” holiness wisdom suggest Koran translate to Latin convert Muslims
1325 St Nikodim, Archbishop of Serbia, hegumen of Khilendaria monastery 1316 translated to Slavonic
1537 Bl. John of RochesteCarthusian martyr with Blessed James Walworth refused Oath of Supremacy
1672 St Joseph The Hieromartyr First Metropolitan of Astrakhan relics glorified by miracles

1716 St. Francis Jerome Jesuit miracles, attribute numerous cures to intercession of Saint Cyrus (Jan 31)
1781 Saint Ignatius of Laconi Capuchin questor for 40 years as a child  found daily at church doors before dawn waiting in prayer to be opened levitation in prayer gifts of prophecy and miracles of healing

May 11 – Madonna di San Luca (Bologna, Italy) – Nuestra Señora de la Paz (Antipolo, Philippines)
 
Because Mary is our mother, she teaches us how to love
Because Mary is our mother, devotion to her teaches us to be authentic sons and daughters: to love truly, without limit; to be simple, without the complications which come from selfishly thinking only about ourselves; to be happy, knowing that nothing can destroy our hope.
"The beginning of the way, at the end of which you will find yourself completely carried away by love for Jesus, is a trusting love for Mary." I wrote that many years ago, in the introduction to a short book on the Rosary, and since then I have often experienced the truth of those words.
 
 Saint José Maria Escriva
In Christ is Passing By www.escrivaworks.org


Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

May 11 - Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage (Philippines, 1626)     
  The Philippines is a Predominantly Marian Country
On March 25, 1626, Don Juan Niño de Tabora left the shores of Mexico aboard the galleon El Almirante, to make a voyage to the Philippines. On this trip, Governor Tabora brought along the brown image of our Blessed Virgin Mother. For three months, the El Almirante safely braved the dangers of the stormy seas and a fire aboard the ship, arriving in the ports of Manila on July 18, 1626. Governor Tabora, realizing that the galleon's safe and successful journey was due to the presence of the image of the Blessed Virgin on board the ship, called for the solemn celebration of the image's arrival. Amidst pageantry and fireworks, the religious procession started from the Church of San Ignacio, the Jesuit Church in Intramuros, up to the Manila Catholic Cathedral, which became the first house of the Blessed Virgin's image. It is said that because of the events surrounding the safe voyage of the El Almirante, the Blessed Virgin was named Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buenviaje.  

A Filipino once wrote: "The Philippines is a predominantly Marian country. Everywhere there are tangible expressions of the great commitment of our people to the Mother of God. It can be argued that the devotion to Our Lady was a decisive factor in the rapid spread of Christianity in the Philippines. As early as the 17th century, the Filipinos, with their emotional temperament, rapidly earned the love of Our Lady, and this opened the way for the general acceptance of the truths of the Catholic faith."
Adapted from a passage by: J. Riou, S.J., in The Devotion to Our Lady in the Philippines
(Le culte de la Sainte Vierge aux Philippines, in Maria - etudes sur la Vierge Marie - Tome V).

May 11 - PENTECOST
The Holy Spirit is the Uncreated “Immaculate Conception”
In Lourdes, Bernadette asked the Virgin Mary her name and she replied: “I am the Immaculate Conception.”
By her luminous words, Mary expressed that she was not only conceived immaculately but that she actually was the Immaculate Conception. It is like the difference between something white and whiteness itself, or something perfect and perfection.

(...) The Holy Spirit is the uncreated Immaculate Conception. (...) The third person of the Trinity is not embodied as we all know and our word “spouse” is insufficient to express the relationship between the Immaculate and the Holy Spirit. It can be said that the Immaculate Conception is in a sense “the incarnation of the Holy Spirit.”
Saint Maximilian Kolbe
MAY 11  330   Constantinople was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos
"The goodness of one man spread and infected many others with holiness, including many of his kinsmen." 
603 Saint Comgall
Constantine prepared for the new task with fasting and prayer
With help of his brother Methodius disciples Gorazd, Clement, Sava, Naum and Angelyar.

He devised a Slavonic alphabet and translated the books which were necessary for the celebration of the divine services:
the Gospel, Epistles, Psalter, and collected services, into the Slavic tongue.
This occurred in the year 863. -- 
885 Sts Cyril and Methodius
He was, it is said, 'a lamb when he talks and a lion when he preaches.'
In search of sinners he penetrated into prisons brothels galleys

continued his missions in hamlets back lanes street corners converted 20 Turkish prisoners on a Spanish galley. 
1716 
Saint Francis Jerome
"We shall pray to God, that He will turn away the plagues from us, and preserve us from all ill,
from hail and drought, fire and pestilence, and from the fury of our enemies;
to give us favorable seasons,
 fertile land , good weather and health, that we may have peace and tranquility, and obtain pardon for our sins."
Thus, out of that night of fire and storm came the custom of Rogationtide
solémnes ante Ascensiónem Dómini triduánas in ea urbe Litanías instítuit -- 475  St. Mamertius Archbishop of Vienne
  66 St Evellius of Pisa  counsellor to Nero convert upon witnessing patience of martyrs M (RM)
1st v. St Jason Departure of one of the 70 disciples accompanied St. Paul Acts 17:9 ordained bishop by St. Paul over Tarsus God performed through him many miracles and signs
 251 St Anastasius VII Martyr convert to Christ tribune in the Roman army martyred w/family & servants
 295 St Mocius a presbyter in Macedonia in the city of Amphipolis miracles from God created Christians from pagans seeing them
 300 St. Anastasius VI of Lérida (AC) Patron saint of Lerida, Spain
 303 St Anthimus Priest and martyr of Rome led the Church in Rome converting many
 304 St Sisinius, Diocletius, & Florentius stoned to death at the same time as the better known Roman priest, Anthimus  304 St Maximus Martyr of Rome with Bassus and Fabius
 305 St. Otimus Departure of the Priest martyred God revealed many miracles in Church where he was buried after persecutions ceased
 330   CONSTANTINOPLE  was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos
 420 St Principia of Rome one of the holy women a Roman virginV (AC)
 475 St Mamertius Archbishop of Vienne originator of the penitential practice of abrogation days known for his learning
 485 St Possessor of Verdun Bishop Franks, Vandals, Goths, and others affected his flock  B (AC)
5th v. St. Tudy Abbot eremetic native of Brittany disciple of St. Brioc preached in Cornwall
       Bl Julian Cesarello de Valle venerated there OFM (AC)
 600 St Asaph of Wales founded the church of Llanasa in Flintshire favorite pupil of Saint David B (RM)

 
603 St Comgall Abbot warrior as a young man priest founder he taught Saint Columban (AC)
7th v. St Lua of Killaloe founder refuge on Friar's Island, County Tipperary pilgrim's destination even in the 20th century gave name to ancient town of Killaloe (Church of Lua)
  646 St Sophronius Relics were buried in the Far Caves of the Kiev Caves monastery
 678 St. Walbert father of Saints Waldetrudis and Alegundis and husband of St. Bertilia
       St Credan a hogherder lived exemplary he was esteemed a saint (AC)
 760 St. Gangulphus Martyred; hermit prominent in Burgundian courtier until retiring a recluse
 866 St Fremund of Dunstable  Anglo-Saxon hermit relics many miracles are recorded M (AC)

 
885 Sts Cyril and Methodius, Equals of the Apostles, Enlighteners of the Slavs miraculously discovered the relics of the hieromartyr Clement, Pope of Rome
  994 St Majolus Benedictine abbot abbey of Cluny friend of emperors and popes
 994 ST MAJOLUS, OR MAYEUL, ABBOT OF CLUNY
1000 St Illuminatus of San Severino Benedictine monk of the abbey of San Mariano  OSB (RM)
1010 St Ansfrid of Utrecht knight in service of Emperors Otto III and Henry II  built convent of Thorn OSB B (AC)
1049 St. Odilo of Cluny Benedictine Abbot beloved throughout Europe for deep austerities concern for poor sold Church treasures to feed poor during famine
1070 St. Walter Augustinian abbot for thirty-eight years of L'Esterp famed as confessor  had an ardent zeal for souls:  Walter is repeatedly referred to by the chroniclers of that age as a man of outstanding holiness, whose undertakings were marvellously blessed by Heaven
1156 Bl Peter the Venerable Abbot of Cluny “the Venerable” owing to his holiness and wisdom suggestion the Koran be  translated into Latin to assist conversions of Muslims
1230 Illuminatus disciple of Saint Francis of Assisi OFM (AC)
1279 Bl Albert of Bergamo Dominican tertiary pious farmer miracle worker to benefit others
1300 Bl Vivaldus nursed Bartholomew for twenty years, OFM Tert. (AC)
1325 St Nikodim, Archbishop of Serbia, hegumen of Khilendaria monastery; bishop in 1316 translated into Slavonic ordered use in Serbia the Typikon (Ustav) of Saint Sava the Sanctified, of Jerusalem; wonderworking relics
1378 Pope Gabriel IV Departure of, the 86th. Patriarch of Alexandria.
1426 Bl Benincasa of Montechiello Servite hermit OSM (AC)
1490 Bl Aloysius Rabata Carmelite friar of Randazzo monastery Sicily OC (AC)
1505 BD LADISLAUS OF GIELNIOW
1537  Bl. John of Rochester Carthusian martyr of England with Blessed James Walworth refused the Oath of Supremacy
1672 St Joseph The Hieromartyr First Metropolitan of Astrakhan relics glorified by miracles
1716 St. Francis Jerome famous Jesuit preacher credited with miracles, attributing numerous cures to the intercession of Saint Cyrus (Jan 31) From the outset his preaching attracted huge congregations and was rewarded by such excellent results that he was set to train other missionaries. In the provinces he conducted at least 100 missions, but the people of Naples would never allow him to be long absent from their city. Wherever he went, men and women hung upon his lips and crowded to his confessional; and it was confidently asserted that at least four hundred hardened sinners were annually reclaimed through his efforts. He would visit the prisons, the hospitals and even the galleys, in one of which—a Spanish one—he brought to the faith twenty Turkish prisoners. Moreover, he did not hesitate to track down sinners to the very haunts of vice, in which it sometimes happened that he was very roughly handled. Often he would preach in the streets—occasionally on the spur of the moment.
1771 Bl Christesia from Egrisi west Georgia withdrew to the Monastery of St. John the Baptist in the Davit - Gareji Wilderness bright light appeared before him to light the way
1781 Saint Ignatius of Laconi Capuchin questor 40 years as child  found daily at church doors before dawn waiting in prayer to be opened levitation in prayer gifts of prophecy miracles of healing (AC)
1847 Bl. Matthew Gam Vietnamese martyr transported Catholic priests of the Paris Foreign Missions Society from Singapore to Vietnam

May 11 - Feast of Our Lady of Aparecida, Patroness of Brazil Jesus Will Reign Through Mary (V)
My heart has dictated with special joy all that I have written to show that the Blessed Virgin Mary has been unknown up till now. This is one of the reasons why Jesus Christ is not known as He should be.
If the knowledge and the reign of Jesus Christ will certainly come into the world, it can only be a necessary consequence of the knowledge and the reign of the Blessed Virgin,
who gave Jesus to the world the first time and will establish His reign in the world the second time.
Saint Louis Grignion de Montfort Treatise on True Devotion of the Virgin Mary #13


May 11 – Our Lady of Aparecida, patroness of Brazil  
 
The day fishermen caught a statue in their net 
 
The national shrine of Our Lady in Aparecida, Sao Paulo (Brazil), is the country’s principle shrine, with 7 million pilgrims each year visiting from all over the world. The Basilica of the Immaculate Conception is the second largest basilica in the world and Our Lady of Aparecida also is the patron saint of Brazil.

The story goes that in October of 1717, three fishermen, accustomed to cast their nets in the waters of the Paraiba River, hauled in a decapitated statue. The three cast their net again and they brought in a head that, at first glance, seemed to belong to the statue of a Black Madonna that turned out to be Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception. Tradition tells that once it was put back together, the Virgin aparecida ("who appeared" without explanation) became incredibly heavy, making it impossible to move.

Our Lady of Aparecida is the patron saint of future mothers and newborns, rivers and seas. Aparecida is, among other things, where a workers pilgrimage that takes place every year on the national holiday of Brazil—September 7th. Indeed, Our Lady of Aparecida is in the heart of every Brazilian.
 
MDN Team  See: www.marypages.com

 
1055-1057 Pope Victor II  granted ST WALTER OF L’ESTERP special faculties for dealing with penitents—including the right to excommunicate and to restore to communion so great was his reputation for converting sinners.
1055-157 Pope Victor II  With untiring zeal he combated, like his predecessor, against simony and clerical concubinage. Being well supported by the emperor, he often succeeded where Leo IX had failed. On Pentecost Sunday, June 4, 1055, he held a large synod at Florence, in presence of the emperor and 120 bishops, where former decrees against simony and incontinence were confirmed and several offending bishops deposed. To King Ferdinand of Spain he sent messengers with threats of excommunication if he should continue in his refusal to acknowledge Henry III as Roman Emperor. Ferdinand submitted to the papal demands. Before the emperor returned to Germany he transferred to the pope the duchies of Spoleto and Camerino. Early in 1056 Victor II sent Hildebrand back to France to resume his labours against simony and concubinage, which he had begun under Leo IX. He appointed the archbishops Raimbaud of Arles and Pontius of Aix papal legates to battle against the same vices in Southern France.


66 Saint Evellius of Pisa  counsellor to Nero convert upon witnessing patience of martyrs M (RM)
Ibídem sancti Evéllii Mártyris, qui, cum esset de família Nerónis, ad passiónem sancti Torpétis in Christum crédidit, pro quo et decollátus est.
       In the same place, St. Evelius, martyr, who belonged to the household of Nero.  By witnessing the martyrdom of St. Torpes, he also believed in Christ, and for him was beheaded.

Saint Evellius, reportedly a counsellor to Nero, converted to Christianity upon witnessing the patience of the martyrs. He was himself martyred at Pisa, Italy
(Benedictines).
Departure of St. Jason, one of the Seventy disciples accompanied St. Paul Acts 17:9) ordained bishop by St. Paul over Tarsus God performed through him many miracles and signs
On this day St. Jason, one of the seventy disciples who were chosen by the Lord, departed. He ministered with the disciples before the passion of the Savior, and performed many signs and wonders. Then he was supported by the grace and power on the day of Pentecost.

He was born in Tarsus, and was the first to believe from this city. He accompanied St. Paul on his evangelical missions, and journeyed with him to many countries. He was arrested with St. Paul and Silas in Thesalonica, and when they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go. (Acts 17:9)
He was ordained bishop by St. Paul over Tarsus where he shepherded the church of Christ with the best of care. He preached the Gospel also in the city of Korkiras, many believed on his hands and he baptized them. He built for them a church in the name of St. Stephen the Archdeacon.
When the Governor of the city knew about this, he arrested him and imprisoned him. He met seven thieves in the prison, taught them the faith and baptized them. They confessed their faith in the Lord Christ openly before the Governor who put them in a caldron filled with tar and sulphur, they departed and were granted the crown of martyrdom.
Then, the Governor brought St. Jason from the prison, and tortured him with much torture but he was not harmed. The daughter of the Governor watched this torture from her window and she believed in the Lord Christ, the God of St. Jason. She took off her jewelry and ornaments and distributed them among the poor, and confessed that she was Christian and believed in the God of Jason. Her father became angry, he threw her in prison, and ordered to throw arrows at her. She gave up her pure spirit in the hand of Christ whom she loved.
The Governor sent St. Jason to one of the islands to be tortured there. He took a boat with some soldiers to this island, and God drowned them all and saved St. Jason, who continued to teach and preach for many years until another Governor was installed. The new Governor brought him and the Christians who were with him, and tortured them much. When the Governor saw that his torture did not harm their bodies, he and all those in his city also believed in the Lord Christ Who only Has the power to protect His chosen one. The Saint baptized them all, taught them the commandments of the Gospel, and built for them churches.
God performed through him many miracles and signs. He departed in a good old age. May his prayers be with us. Amen.
251 St. Anastasius VII Martyr convert to Christ tribune in the Roman army martyred w/family & servants Theopista, Esodes, Aradius, Calistus, Felix, Euphemia und Primitiva
He was a tribune in the Roman army in the reign of Decius. Forced to torture Christians as part of the imperial persecution of the faithful, Anastasius was impressed by their courage and loyalty. He became a convert, and when his Christian faith was discovered he and his family, as well as all of his servants, were beheaded.
Anastasius and Companions MM (RM) Died 251. We honor two SS Anastasius today. This one was a tribune in the army of Emperor Decius. He converted to Christianity upon witnessing the courage of the martyrs he tortured to death in his capacity as tribune. A few days after his conversion, he was arrested and beheaded with all his family and servants. Their relics now lie in Camerino, Italy
(Benedictines).
295 Saint Mocius a presbyter in Macedonia in the city of Amphipolis miracles from God created Christians from pagans seeing them
Mokios  Orthodoxe Kirche: 11. Mai  Katholische Kirche: 13. Mai

Mokios_and_Argyros_of_Seleuneia
During a persecution against Christians under the emperor Diocletian (284-305), St Mocius exhorted pagans assembled for the pagan festival of Dionysus (Bacchus), to abandon iniquity and the vile customs, which accompanied this celebration. He urged them to repent and be converted to the Lord Jesus Christ, and be cleansed through holy Baptism.
The saint was brought to trial before the governor of Laodicea.

When threatened with torture, he replied, "My death for Christ is a great accomplishment for me." St Mocius was subjected to torture, which he bore with marvelous endurance, and did not cease to denounce the idol-worshippers.
Taken to the pagan temple of Dionysus, the saint shattered the idols when he called upon Jesus Christ.

After this he was put into a red-hot oven, where he remained unharmed, but the flames coming out of the oven scorched the governor.
Again the commander subjected St Mocius to fierce torture, which he endured with the help of God. He was given to wild beasts to be eaten, but they did not touch him. The lions lay down at his feet. The people, seeing such miracles, urged that the saint be set free. The governor ordered the saint to be sent to the city of Perinth, and from there to Byzantium, where St Mocius was executed.

Before his death he gave thanks to the Lord for giving him the strength to persevere to the very end. His last words were, "Lord, receive my spirit in peace." Then he was beheaded. St Mocius died about the year 295. Emperor Constantine built a church in honor of the hieromartyr Mocius and transferred his holy passion-bearing relics into it.

Mokios  Orthodoxe Kirche: 11. Mai  Katholische Kirche: 13. Mai
Mokios lebte unter Kaiser Diokletian (284-305) in Amphipolis (Mazedonien). Während eines Dionysosfestes rief er die Heiden auf, sich zu bekehren. Er wurde daraufhin gefangengenommen und gefoltert. Da er alle Folterungen unbeschadet überstand, sandte ihn der Gouverneur nach Konstantinopel. Hier wurde Mokios um 295 (oder 304) geköpft. Kaiser Konstantin ließ eine Kirche zu seiner Ehre erbauen und seine Gebeine dort beisetzen.
303 St. Anthimus Priest rescued by an angel then martyr of Rome led the Church in Rome converting many
Romæ, via Salária, natális beáti Anthimi Presbyteri, qui, post virtútum  et prædicatiónis insígnia, in persecutióne Diocletiáni, in Tíberim præcipitátus, et ab Angelo exínde eréptus, oratório próprio restitútus est; deínde, cápite punítus, victor migrávit ad cælos.
     At Rome, on the Salarian Way, the birthday of blessed Anthimus, priest, who, after having distinguished himself by his virtues and preaching, was cast into the Tiber during the persecution of Diocletian.  He was rescued by an angel and restored to his oratory.  Afterwards he was beheaded, and went victoriously to heaven.

Anthimus is not well known. He is reported to have led the Church in Rome, converting many. One of his converts, a Roman prefect, brought Anthimus to the attention of the authorities. He was arrested and condemned to death by drowning. Miraculously saved, Anthimus escaped briefly but was recaptured and beheaded.
Saint Anthimus, a Roman priest, is said to have converted the pagan husband of a Christian matron named Lucina, who was well-known for her charity to imprisoned Christians. Saint Anthimus was thrown into the Tiber, miraculously rescued by an angel, later recaptured, and beheaded
(Benedictines).
304 Sisinius, Diocletius, & Florentius stoned to death at the same time as the better known Roman priest, Saint Anthimus MM (RM)
Auximi, in Picéno, sanctórum Mártyrum Sisínii Diáconi, Dioclétii et Floréntii, discipulórum sancti Anthimi Presbyteri; qui, sub Diocletiáno, lapídibus óbruti, martyrium complevérunt.
      At Osimo in Piceno, the holy martyrs Sisinius, a deacon, Diocletius and Florentius, disciples of the priest St. Anthimus, whose martyrdom was completed under Diocletian by their being stoned.
 
Died at Osimo, near Ancona, Italy. These three suffered martyrdom under Diocletian. They were stoned to death at the same time as the better known Roman priest, Saint Anthimus
(Benedictines).
304 St. Maximus Martyr of Rome with Bassus and Fabius
Item Romæ sanctórum Mártyrum Máximi, Bassi et Fábii; qui sub Diocletiáno, via Salária, cæsi sunt.
      Also at Rome, on the Salarian Way, the holy martyrs Maximus, Bassus, and Fabius, who were put to death during the reign of Diocletian.
 
No details of their sufferings under Emperor Diocletian are available
Maximus, Bassus, and Fabius MM (RM) Died 304. Romans martryed under Diocletian
(Benedictines).
305 St. Otimus Departure of the Priest martyred; God revealed many miracles in Church where he was buried after persecutions ceased
On this day also, St. Otimus the priest was martyred. He was born in Fowwa, and because of his righteousness, he was ordained a priest for his city. He taught and confirmed the faithful in the faith. Afterwards, he moved to mount Ansena. When Emperor Diocletian incited the persecution against the Christians, the account of this Saint reached Arianus the governor of Ansena. He brought him and offered him to worship the idols, and the Saint did not hearken to his orders. He tortured him much, but the Lord strengthened him. When the Governor became weary of his torturing, he ordered him to be burned. He was burned and received the crown of martyrdom.

His body was taken by a God fearing priest, who shrouded the body and hid it in a place until the end of the time of persecution. They built him a church where God revealed many miracles. It is believed that his body still exists in the city of Kalabsha near El-Santa. May his prayers be with us.
Amen.
330 CONSTANTINOPLE  was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos
In 324 the holy Emperor Constantine (May 21) decided that the imperial capital had to be closer to the Eastern provinces, and yet have direct communication with the West. The city of Byzantium fulfilled these requirements, and on November 8, 324 the site of the new capital was consecrated.
Tradition tells us that the Emperor was tracing the boundaries of the city with a spear, when his courtiers became astonished by the magnitude of the new dimensions of the capital. "Lord," they asked, "how long will you keep going?"
Constantine replied, "I shall keep going until the one who walks ahead of me stops."

Then they understood that the emperor was being guided by some divine power. There is an iconographic sketch by Rallis Kopsides showing an angel of the Lord going before St Constantine as he traces the new boundaries of the city.
Construction of the main buildings was begun in 325, and pagan monuments from Rome, Athens, and other cities were used to beautify the new capital. The need for the new city is partially explained by the changing requirements of government, the Germanic invasion of the West, and commercial benefits, but the new city was also to be a Christian capital. For this, a new foundation was required.
In 330, the work had progressed to the point where it was possible for Constantine to dedicate the new capital. The dedication took place on May 11, followed by forty days of joyous celebration. Christian Constantinople was placed under the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos, and overshadowed pagan Byzantium.
St Constantine was the first Emperor to submit voluntarily to Christ, and Constantinople became the symbol of a Christian Empire which lasted for a thousand years.
300 St. Anastasius VI of Lérida (AC) Patron saint of Lerida, Spain
Cameríni sanctórum Mártyrum Anastásii et Sociórum; qui, in persecutióne Décii, sub Antíocho Prǽside, cæsi sunt.
    At Camerino, the holy martyrs Anastasius and his companions who were killed in the persecution of Decius, under the governor Antiochus.

Patron saint of Lerida, Spain. Anastasius' life is not documented, though he could have been any one of the martyred men of that name venerated by the Church.
Leridans, however, believe that their patron was born in the city.
Anastasius of Lérida (AC)  The people of Lérida, Spain, insist that their patron was a native of this Catalonian town. It is, however, unknown with which of the many Anastasii martyrs he should be identified (Benedictines). Saint Anastasius represented as young man hung on a gibbet pierced with arrows. He is venerated at Lérida, Spain (Roeder).
420 Saint Principia of Rome one of the holy women a Roman virginV (AC)
Saint Principia was one of the holy women, a Roman virgin, who surrounded Saint Marcella(Died August 410. Saint Marcella met Saint Athanasius when she was a child).
 475  St. Mamertius Archbishop of Vienne originator of the penitential practice of abrogation days known for his learning
Viénnæ, in Gállia, sancti Mamérti Epíscopi, qui, ob imminéntem cladem, solémnes ante Ascensiónem Dómini triduánas in ea urbe Litanías instítuit; quem ritum póstea universális Ecclésia recípiens comprobávit.
            At Vienne in France, St. Mamertus, bishop, who, to avert an impending calamity, instituted in that city the three days' Litanies immediately before the Ascension of our Lord.  This rite was afterwards received and approved by the universal Church.
 
475 ST MAMERTUS, BISHOP OF VIENNE his institution of the penitential processions on what we now call the Rogation Days, the three days preceding the feast of the Ascension

WE do not know much about the life of St Mamertus. He was the elder brother of Claudian, the poet, author of De statu animae, whom he ordained priest, and both brothers seem to have enjoyed a deserved reputation for learning as well as piety. In 463 trouble arose in connection with the consecration of a bishop to the see of Die, which Pope St Leo I not long before had transferred from the province of Vienne to that of Arles. It was complained to Pope St Hilarus that Mamertus, without justification, had consecrated a new bishop for Die. A council of bishops was held at Arles to inquire into the matter and a report was sent to Rome. Though Hilarus wrote rather severely and declared that Mamertus deserved to be deposed for his usurpation, no change was, in fact, made, and the new bishop of Die was allowed to retain his see after confirmation from Arles. Somewhat later than this we learn that Mamertus translated to Vienne the remains of the martyr Ferreolus, who had been put to death in that part of the country a century or two earlier. But that which more than anything else has made the name of St Mamertus well known in ecclesiastical history is his institution of the penitential processions on what we now call the Rogation Days, the three days preceding the feast of the Ascension. These are the Litaniae Snores, which in the time of Pope St Leo III (795—816) were adopted in Rome itself, Frankish influence, under the Emperor Charlemagne, thus making itself felt throughout the whole of western Christendom.
That St Mamertus was the real author of the Rogation processions is proved by an abundance of early testimony. We have a letter addressed to him by St Sidonius Apollinaris, in which he speaks of these supplications which the bishop had instituted and which had proved so efficacious a remedy in the panic which had seized upon the populace. He enlarges at the same time on the courage this shepherd of his people had shown by standing his ground when others were taking to flight. St Avitus, who himself became bishop of Vienne only fifteen years after Mamertus’s death, and who as a child had received baptism at his hands, preached a homily, still preserved to us, on one of the occasions when the Rogation processions came round. From him we learn in some detail of the tribulations with which the country had been afflicted at the time of their institution. He speaks of earthquake, of repeated conflagrations and of the wild deer taking refuge in the busy haunts of men. Very naturally, according to the ideas of the period, St Mamertus had interpreted these calamities as the judgement of God upon the sins of the people, and the remedy he proposed was entirely of a penitential character. He obliged all to fast, and to join in a long procession of young and old during which many psalms were sung. The example set at Vienne was almost immediately followed in other parts of France, and in time became universal in the West. At the first Council of Orleans, held in 511, the twenty-seventh decree prescribes that all churches are to celebrate these Rogation days before the feast of the Ascension. A strict fast is to be kept on all three days as in the time of Lent, and no work is to be done, even by those of servile condition, in order that they may be free to be present in church and take part in the processions in particular all clerics who absent themselves from these offices are to be punished as the bishop may direct. From the writings of contemporaries, or of such historians as St Gregory of Tours, it is clear that Mamertus was looked upon not only as a holy and self-sacrificing pastor of souls, but also as a leader who possessed both tact and courage. St Avitus in his homily is full of admiration for the sound judgement he displayed in reconciling both the secular officials and the people to an observance which imposed so heavy a tax upon their good will.
In the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii, nearly all the early references to St Mamertus will be found collected. As to the Rogation Days, see K. A. Kellner, Heortology, pp. 189—594 but Edmund Bishop does well to point out (Liturgica Historica, pp. 128—130) that we must be on our guard against attaching to the word “litanies” as used in connection with the Rogations, the meaning which it bears now. “So far as I can read”, he says, “there is no indication whatever that litanies were at the first institution sung on these three days at all.” “In a word” he adds, “so far as the original testimonies go, the substance of the devotion of the Rogations was psalm-singing, with, perhaps, the prayers or collects which in some quarters accompanied the singing of psalms.” Cf. also Abbot Cabrol’s article “Litanies”, in DAC., as well as what has previously been said herein under February 2 (Candlemas) and April 25 (St Mark).

France, from 461 until his death, the originator of the penitential practice of abrogation days. This practice is marked by processions and Psalms for the three days preceding the feast of the Ascension. Mamertius, also listed as Mamertus, was known for his learning.

475 Mamertus of Vienne B (RM) (also known as Mamertius, Mammertus)  Mamertus of Vienne was responsible for the litanies and processions that once marked the Rogation days of spring, the three days before Ascension Day when solemn intercession was made for God's blessing on the crops and other fruit of the earth. "Bless all farmers in all their labors, and grant such seasonable weather that they may gather the fruits of the earth and ever rejoice in Your goodness, to the praise of Your holy Name."
Mamertus, the elder brother of the poet Claudian, lived in France, was known for his erudition, and was bishop of Vienne from 461 to 475. In 463, he was censured by Rome for consecrating, without the authority to do so, a new bishop of Die, which had been transferred to the jurisdiction of Arles; but no papal action seems to have been taken in the matter.
During his episcopate the Goths invaded Gaul. The countryside never seemed free from the perils of the enemy, as well as from natural dangers of pestilence, forest fires, and prowling wolves and bears, and when every night brought its unknown fears and each day was threatened with calamity.
During this period of catastrophe, Mamertus spent his days prostrate before the altar beseeching God to help his stricken people and tirelessly visiting his flock to comfort them in their distress. As a result of his prolonged vigils, he conceived the idea of an annual procession and litany, called a Rogation, to take place every spring, in which the whole community would together intercede with God to have mercy on His people and to bless their crops throughout the year.
He made this decision one Easter night as he watched before the altar, when there came through the windows of the darkened church the lurid reflection of flames from a fresh fire threatening to overwhelm Vienne. In that hour of fearful conflagration, for it was the worst of all the fires the village had known, he prayed to God to have pity. When he next preached to his flock, he set forth his plan.
"We shall pray to God," he said, "that He will turn away the plagues from us, and preserve us from all ill, from hail and drought, fire and pestilence, and from the fury of our enemies; to give us favorable seasons, that our land may be fertile, good weather and good health, and that we may have peace and tranquility, and obtain pardon for our sins."
Thus, out of that night of fire and storm came the custom of Rogationtide (Benedictines, Delaney, Gill).
In art, Saint Mamertius is shown as an archbishop walking in a procession with a lighted candle because he was the originator of Rogation Days (Roeder).
485 Possessor of Verdun Bishop Franks, Vandals, Goths, and others affected his flock  B (AC)
Possessor, magistrate of Verdun, was consecrated its bishop in 470. He and his flock were greatly affected by the barbarian invasions as they passed through in waves: Franks, Vandals, Goths, and other
(Benedictines).
5th v. St. Tudy 5th century Abbot eremetic native of Brittany disciple of St. Brioc preached in Cornwall
also called Tegwin and Tudinus. A native of Brittany, France, he became a disciple of St. Brioc and embraced the eremetical life. Eventually, he served as abbot of a community of monks near Landevennec, Brittany. Later, he journeyed to England and preached in
Cornwall.
Blessed Julian Cesarello de Valle venerated there OFM (AC)
cultus approved in 1910. Not much is known of Julian except that he was born and died in Valle in Istria, where he is venerated
(Benedictines).
600 Asaph of Wales founded the church of Llanasa in Flintshire favorite pupil of Saint David, virtues and miracles B (RM) feast day formerly on May 1.
7th v.    ST ASAPH, BISHOP
WHEN St Kentigern returned to Glasgow from Llanelwy in Denbighshire (if indeed he was ever there), he is said to have left that monastery in charge of St Asaph. Of this Asaph very little is known, though there is evidence that he was an important person in North Wales, cousin of St Deiniol and St Tysilio and grandson of Pabo Post Prydyn, “the prop of Pictland”. When the Normans developed an episcopal see at Llanelwy, St Asaph was claimed as the successor of its first bishop, St Kentigern, and the see has ever since been known by his name. The second recorded bishop of the diocese of St Asaph was Geoffrey of Monmouth, in whose History of the Kings of Britain there is no mention of Llanelwy or any ancient see there.
What, if anything, Asaph actually had to do with Llanelwy is not certainly known: Llanasa in Flintshire may have been the principal scene of his activity. The Red Book of Asaph, said to have been originally compiled early in the four­teenth century, refers to “the charm of his conversation, the symmetry, vigour and grace of his body, the holiness and virtue of his heart, and the witness of his miracles”.
Unexpectedly enough, St Asaph’s name figures in the Roman Martyrology on May 1, where “Elwy” is stated to be in England. His feast is observed to-day in the diocese of Menevia. The Bollandists, in their brief account of this saint (Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, p. 84) draw mainly on the legends in the Aberdeen Breviary. See A. P. Forbes, KSS., pp. 271—272; LBS., vol. i, pp. 177—185; and A. W. Wade-Evans, Welsh Christian Origins (1934), pp. 191—194.

The small town of Saint Asaph in northern Wales was once the scene of a busy and thriving monastery of Llanelwy founded by Saint Kentigern of Scotland by the riverside. Kentigern was probably built it after returning from a visit to Saint David. With him was Asaph, his favorite pupil, whom he left behind at Llanelwy as abbot to consolidate his work. Others say that it was Saint Asaph who founded the abbey after having been trained by Kentigern--the truth is shrouded by time. There is, however, certainty that Saint Asaph founded the church of Llanasa in Flintshire.
An interesting account exists of Llanelwy's establishment. "There were assembled in this monastery no fewer than 995 brethren, who all lived under monastic discipline, serving God in great continence." A third of these, who were illiterate, tilled the ground and herded the cattle; a third were occupied with domestic tasks inside the monastery; and the remainder, who were educated men, said the daily offices and performed other religious duties.
A distinctive feature was its unbroken continuity of worship, for, like the Sleepless Ones, the monks of Llanelwy divided themselves into groups and maintained an unceasing vigil. "When one company had finished the divine service in the church, another presently entered, and began it anew; and these having ended, a third immediately succeeded them." So that by this means prayer was offered up in the church without intermission, and the praises of God were ever in their mouths."
Among them, we are told, "was one named Asaph, more particularly illustrious for his descent and his beauty, who from his childhood shone forth brightly, both with virtues and miracles. He daily endeavored to imitate his master, Saint Kentigern, in all sanctity and abstinence; and to him the man of God bore ever a special affection, insomuch that to his prudence he committed the care of the monastery." A later medieval writer penned about Asaph's "charm of manners, grace of body, holiness of heart, and witness of miracles." Still little is actually known about him.
The story has been handed down to us that one bitter night in winter when Kentigern, as was his custom, had been standing in the cold river reciting from the Psalter, and had crawled back to his cell, frozen and exhausted, Asaph ran to fetch hot coals to warm him. Finding no pan, however, and being in great haste, fearing that the shivering abbot might die, he raked the glowing coals into the skirt of his monk's habit, and ran with them, at great risk and discomfort, and cast them on the hearth of the saint.
That story is typical of his spirit, for he was devoted both to his master and to the welfare of his monks. We are not surprised that Kentigern, with every confidence, left the monastery in his care. Under Asaph's leadership it flourished, and when Asaph was made bishop, it became the seat of his diocese. The goodness of one man spread and infected many others with holiness, including many of his kinsmen, e.g., Deiniol (September 11) and Tysilo (November 8). Today on the banks of the River Elwy stands the cathedral that bears his name
(Attwater, Benedictines, Gill).
603 Comgall Abbot ; warrior as a young man, priest, founder, he taught Saint Columban (AC)
603 ST COMGALL, ABBOT OF BANGOR
ST COMGALL, one of the founders of Irish monasticism, was born in Ulster about the year 517, and spent some years under the direction of St Fintan in the monastery of Cluain Eidnech or Cloneenagh at the foot of the Slieve Bloom range. He was ordained priest by a certain Bishop Lugid, who is said to have deterred him from dedicating himself to missionary work in Britain. For a time he retired to an island in Lough Erne where he and some companions practised such austerities that seven of them died of hunger and cold. In response to the remonstrances of Bishop Lugid, Comgall relaxed his rule for his disciples, though not for himself. Emerging from his retreat, he founded the great abbey of Bennchor, or Bangor, which became the largest and most famous monastery in Ireland. No less than three thousand monks are said to have lived under the government of St Comgall at Bangor and in its daughter houses.
The holiest men of the age sought the friendship of the Abbot of Bangor and great saints owed their training to him—notably St Columban, who afterwards carried the tradition of Bangor to France and Italy. St Comgall seems to have carried out his early missionary aspirations by accompanying St Colmcille on an expedition to Inverness, where they preached the Gospel to a Pictish chieftain called Brude, and he is stated to have founded a monastery in a place called the Land of Heth (Tiree). St Comgall continued to rule Bangor until his death, although during the last years of his life he endured terrible sufferings, apparently as the result of his great austerities. He also became totally deaf. He died in 603, and his feast is kept throughout Ireland.
A curious alphabetical hymn in honour of the saint (“Hymnus sancti Comgalli abbatis nostri”) occurs in the Bangor Antiphonary. The D stanza runs thus:
Doctus in Dei legibus: divinis dictionibus,
Ditatus sanctis opibus, Deo semper placentibus,
Dedicatus in moribus Dei Stephanus hagius
Docebat sic et caeteros Dicta docta operibus.

The date of this manuscript can be accurately fixed as between A.D. 680 and 691. One living word of St Comgall’s seems to have been preserved in a gloss upon the Félire of Oengus; in reference to the death of his confessor, he remarked: “My soul-friend has died and I am headless, and ye, too, are headless, for a man without a soul-friend is a body without a head”.

There is a Latin life of St Comgall which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii, and also in C. Plummer’s VSH., vol. ii, pp. 3—21. The rule attributed to St Comgall, or what purports to be a metrical version of it, has been edited by J. Strachan in the periodical Eriu, vol. (1904), pp. 191—208. See also J. Ryan, Irish Monasticism (1931), and Dom Gougaud, Christianity in Celtic Lands (1933), in both of which works many references to St Comgall and his monks will be found in the index. In Forbes, KSS., there is a lengthy account of St Comgall (pp. 308—31) drawn largely from the legends of the Aberdeen Breviary. See also Analecta Bollandiana, vol. lii (1934), pp. 343—356. For the hymn referred to, see Henry Bradshaw Society publications, vol. ii (1895), pp. 6—19 and notes.

Born in Ulster, Ireland, c. 517; died at Bangor, Ireland, in 603; some list his feast as May 10. It is said that Comgall was a warrior as a young man, but that he studied under Saint Fintan at Cluain Eidnech Monastery, was ordained a priest before he was 40, and with several companions became a hermit in Lough Erne. The rule he imposed was so severe that seven of them died.
He left the island and founded a monastery at Bangor (Bennchor) on the south shore of Lake Belfast, where he taught Saint Columban and a band of monks who evangelized Central Europe. Two other of his monks actively evangelized Scotland, Saint Moluag of Lismore in Argyll and Saint Maelrubha of Applecross in Ross. In time, it became the most famous monastery in Ireland, and Comgall is reported to have ruled over some 8,000 monks there and in houses founded from Bangor. Bangor was one of the principal religious centers of Ireland until it was destroyed by the Danes in 823.
Comgall went to Scotland for a time, where he lived in a monastery on the island of Tiree. He also accompanied Saint Columba on a missionary trip to Inverness to evangelize the Picts. There he founded a monastery at Land of Heth. The manuscript called the Bangor Antiphonary, written there less than a century after Saint Comgall's death, contains a long hymn in his praise. Comgall died after years of suffering resultant from his austerities (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
In art, Saint Comgall's emblem is a fish. Usually he is portrayed as an abbot holding a stone, to whom an angel brings a fish
(Roeder).
7th v. Saint Lua of Killaloe founder His refuge on Friar's Island, County Tipperary a pilgrim's destination even in the 20th century gave his name to the ancient town of Killaloe (Church of Lua) (AC) Died 7th century
Saint Lua gave his name to the ancient town of Killaloe (Church of Lua). He is said to have been born of noble parents in Limerick, and educated at Bangor and Clonard. He founded a church and school on the River Shannon, where one of his pupils was the future Bishop Flannan, who succeeded Lua as abbot.
His refuge on Friar's Island, County Tipperary, was a pilgrim's destination even in the 20th century--until a power dam raised the level of the Shannon in 1929 and submerged the island. Lua's chapel had been removed, its stones numbered, and reassembled on the former site of Brian Boru's palace overlooking the Shannon.
A legend relates that the horse's hoof-prints in the rock of Friar's Island were those of Saint Patrick's beast--left when the apostle of Ireland was forced to leap one-eighth of a mile from one shore to the other to escape hostile pagans. His charger rose to the challenge and landed with such force on the island that his hoof prints sank deep into the rock
(D'Arcy, Montague).
646 Saint Sophronius Relics were buried in the Far Caves of the Kiev Caves monastery. In the Canon to the monks of the Far Caves the saint's solitary ascetical struggles are mentioned. He was deemed worthy to hear angels singing. The memory of St Sophronius is also celebrated on March 11.
646 Saint Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem From his youth he was distinguished for his piety and his love for classical studies proficient in philosophy of monasticism
Born in Damascus around 560. From his youth he was distinguished for his piety and his love for classical studies. He was especially proficient in philosophy, and so he was known as Sophronius the Wise.
The future hierarch, however, sought the true philosophy of monasticism, and conversations with the desert-dwellers.

He arrived in Jerusalem at the monastery of St Theodosius, and there he became close with the hieromonk John Moschus, becoming his spiritual son and submitting himself to him in obedience. They visited several monasteries, writing down the lives and spiritual wisdom of the ascetics they met. From these notes emerged their renowned book, the LEIMONARION or SPIRITUAL MEADOW, which was highly esteemed at the Seventh Ecumenical Council.
To save themselves from the devastating incursions of the Persians, Sts John and Sophronius left Palestine and went to Antioch, and from there they went to Egypt. In Egypt, St Sophronius became seriously ill. During this time he decided to become a monk and was tonsured by St John Moschus.
After St Sophronius recovered his health, they both decided to remain in Alexandria. There they were received by the holy Patriarch John the Merciful (November 12), to whom they rendered great aid in the struggle against the Monophysite heresy. At Alexandria St Sophronius had an affliction of the eyes, and he turned with prayer and faith to the holy Unmercenaries Cyrus and John (January 31), and he received healing in a church named for them. In gratitude, St Sophronius then wrote the Lives of these holy Unmercenaries.
When the barbarians began to threaten Alexandria, Patriarch John, accompanied by Sts Sophronius and John Moschus, set out for Constantinople, but he died along the way. Sts John Moschus and Sophronius then set out for Rome with eighteen other monks. St John Moschus died at Rome. His body was taken to Jerusalem by St Sophronius and buried at the monastery of St Theodosius.
In the year 628, Patriarch Zacharias of Jerusalem (609-633) returned from his captivity in Persia. After his death, the patriarchal throne was occupied for two years by St Modestus (December 18). After the death of St Modestus, St Sophronius was chosen Patriarch.
St Sophronius toiled much for the welfare of the Jerusalem Church as its primate (634-644).  Toward the end of his life, St Sophronius and his flock lived through a two year siege of Jerusalem by the Moslems. Worn down by hunger, the Christians finally agreed to open the city gates, on the condition that the enemy spare the holy places. But this condition was not fulfilled, and St Sophronius died in grief over the desecration of the Christian holy places.
Written works by Patriarch Sophronius have come down to us in the area of dogmatics, and likewise his "Excursus on the Liturgy," the Life of St Mary of Egypt (April 1), and also about 950 troparia and stikheras from Pascha to the Ascension.  While still a hieromonk, St Sophronius reviewed and made corrections to the Rule of the monastery of St Sava the Sanctified (December 5).
The saint's three Odes Canons for the Holy Forty Day Great Fast are included in the the contemporary Lenten Triodion.
678 St. Walbert  vow of continence; father of Saints Waldetrudis and Alegundis and husband of St. Bertilia
Duke of Lorraine, France count of Hainault Belgium also called Vaubert. He was the father of Saints Waldetrudis and Alegundis and husband of St. Bertilia.
Walbert of Hainault (AC) (also known as Vaubert). Walbert, duke of Lorraine and count of Hainhault, is someone about whom we need to know more. He was the husband of Saint Bertilia, with whom he took a vow of continence. He is also the father of Saints Waldetrudis, the mother of four more saints, and Aldegundis
(Benedictines).
Saint Credan a hogherder lived exemplary he was esteemed a saint (AC)
(also known as Credus, Credanus)
Evidence of the existence of this obscure saint from Cornwall can be found in Counties Moyne and Wicklow in Ireland, as well as in the church of Sancreed, which he founded. According to Roscarrock, he "killed by misfortune his own father, with which he was so moved as abandoning the world he became a hogherd, and lived so exemplary as he was after esteemed a saint"
(Farmer).
760 St. Gangulphus Martyred hermit prominent in Burgundian courtier until retiring a recluse
Varénnis, in Gállia, sancti Gangúlfi Mártyris.  At Varennes in France, St. Gangulphus, martyr
760 ST GENGULF, OR GENGOUL
ST GENGULF was a Burgundian knight, so greatly beloved by Pepin the Short, at that time mayor of the palace, that he used to sleep in the great man’s tent during his campaigns. Gengulf is said to have been married to a woman of rank in whom for a long time he trusted, but she proved scandalously unfaithful to him. Finding remonstrances and appeals useless, he quietly withdrew from her to a castle of his at Avallon (the birthplace of St Hugh of Lincoln, between Auxerre and Autun), after making suitable provision for her maintenance. There he spent his time in penitential exercises and his money in alms. He died—so the legend avers—from a wound inflicted by his wife’s lover who, at her instigation, broke in upon him one night to murder him as he lay in bed. The fame of St Gengulf afterwards spread to Holland, Belgium and Savoy as the result of the distribution of his relics and the miracles with which he was credited.

The short biography printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii, seems to be largely fabulous; it has been critically edited by W. Levison in MGH., Scriptores Merov., vol. vii, pp. 142 seq. The famous nun Hroswitha of Gandersheim, at the close of the tenth century, wrote an account of the martyrdom in elegiac verse (see Winterfeld’s edition of her works, 1902, pp. 32 seq.). The cultus of St Gengulf was widespread both in France and Germany.  For the folk-lore which has gathered round his name see Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. iii, pp. 289—290.

He was a Burgundian of France, who was prominent in the court until retiring to become a recluse. He was slain by a lover of his wife.
Gangulphus of Burgundy M (RM) (also known as Gengoul, Gangulf). Saint Gangulf was a Burgundian courtier, who retired to live the life of a hermit and was killed by his wife's paramour (Benedictines). In art, Gangulf is pictured as a Burgundian knight with a fountain springing under his sword. He holds a shield with a cross.
He may also hold the spear with which he was murdered. He is invoked by husbands unhappily married
(Roeder).
866 Fremund of Dunstable  Anglo-Saxon hermit relics many miracles are recorded M (AC)
An unreliable, possibly fictitious account, relates that Fremund was related to King Offa of Mercia and King Edmund of East Anglia. Although Fremund was an Anglo-Saxon hermit, he was a possible claimant to the throne of Mercia. Therefore, he was killed by his kinsman Oswy with the help of the Danish invaders who had also murdered King Edmund. He is honored as a martyr. His relics were first enshrined at at Offchurch in Warwickshire and later (1212) translated to Dunstable, where many miracles are recorded. Cropredy in Oxonshire also claimed his relics. His feast is recorded in three medieval calendars including that of Syon Abbey
(Benedictines, Farmer).
885 Saints Cyril and Methodius, Equals of the Apostles, Enlighteners of the Slavs miraculously discovered the relics of the hieromartyr Clement, Pope of Rome
Orthodoxe Kirche: 14. Februar und 11.Mai (mit Methodius) Katholische, Anglikanische und Evangelische Kirche: 14. Februar (mit Methodius)

St Methodius came from an illustrious and pious family living in the Greek city of Thessalonica. St Methodius was the oldest of seven brothers, St Constantine [Cyril was his monastic name] was the youngest. At first St Methodius was in the military and was governor in one of the Slavic principalities dependent on the Byzantine Empire, probably Bulgaria, which made it possible for him to learn the Slavic language.
After living there for about ten years, St Methodius later received monastic tonsure at one of the monasteries on Mount Olympus (Asia Minor).

St Constantine distinguished himself by his great aptitude, and he studied with the emperor Michael under the finest teachers in Constantinople, including St Photius, the future Patriarch of Constantinople (February 6). St Constantine studied all the sciences of his time, and also knew several languages. He also studied the works of St Gregory the Theologian. Because of his keen mind and penetrating intellect, St Constantine was called "Philosopher" (wise). Upon the completion of his education, St Constantine was ordained to the holy priesthood and was apppriest
Discovered there, he returned to Constantinople, where he was appointed as instructor in philosophy. The young Constantine's wisdom and faith were so great that he won a debate with Ananias, the leader of the heretical iconclasts . After this victory Constantine was sent by the emperor to discuss the Holy Trinity with the Saracens, and again he gained the victory. When he returned, St Constantine went to his brother St Methodius on Olympus, spending his time in unceasing prayer and reading the works of the holy Fathers.
The emperor soon summoned both of the holy brothers from the monastery and sent them to preach the Gospel to the Khazars. Along the way they stayed in the city of Korsun, making preparations for their missionary activity. There the holy brothers miraculously discovered the relics of the hieromartyr Clement, Pope of Rome (November 25).

There in Korsun St Constantine found a Gospel and Psalter written in Russian letters [i.e. Slavonic], and a man speaking the Slavic tongue, and he learned from this man how to read and speak this language. After this, the holy brothers went to the Khazars, where they won a debate with Jews and Moslems by preaching the Gospel. On the way home, the brothers again visited Korsun and, taking up the relics of St Clement, they returned to Constantinople. St Constantine remained in the capital, but St Methodius was made igumen of the small Polychronion monastery near Mount Olympus, where he lived a life of asceticism as before.  Soon messengers came to the emperor from the Moravian prince Rostislav, who was under pressure from German bishops, with a request to send teachers to Moravia who would be able to preach in the Slavic tongue. The emperor summoned St Constantine and said to him, "You must go there, but it would be better if no one knows about this."

St Constantine prepared for the new task with fasting and prayer. With the help of his brother St Methodius and the disciples Gorazd, Clement, Sava, Naum and Angelyar, he devised a Slavonic alphabet and translated the books which were necessary for the celebration of the divine services: the Gospel, Epistles, Psalter, and collected services, into the Slavic tongue. This occurred in the year 863.
    After completing the translation, the holy brothers went to Moravia, where they were received with great honor, and they began to teach the services in the Slavic language. This aroused the malice of the German bishops, who celebrated divine services in the Moravian churches in Latin. They rose up against the holy brothers, convinced that divine services must be done in one of three languages: Hebrew, Greek or Latin.
St Constantine said, "You only recognize three languages in which God may be glorified. But David sang, 'Praise the Lord, all nations, praise the Lord all peoples (Ps 116/117:1).' And the Gospel of St Matthew (28:18) says, 'Go and teach all nations....'" The German bishops were humiliated, but they became bitter and complained to Rome.
The holy brothers were summoned to Rome for a decision on this matter. Taking with them the relics of St Clement, Sts Constantine and Methodius set off to Rome. Knowing that the holy brothers were bringing these relics with them, Pope Adrian met them along the way with his clergy. The holy brothers were greeted with honor, the Pope gave permission to have divine services in the Slavonic language, and he ordered the books translated by the brothers to be placed in the Latin churches, and to serve the Liturgy in the Slavonic language.
At Rome St Constantine fell ill, and the Lord revealed to him his approaching death. He was tonsured into the monastic schema with the name of Cyril. On February 14, 869, fifty days after receiving the schema, St Cyril died at the age of forty-two.
St Cyril commanded his brother St Methodius to continue with their task of enlightening the Slavic peoples with the light of the true Faith. St Methodius entreated the Pope to send the body of his brother for burial in their native land, but the Pope ordered the relics of St Cyril to be placed in the church of St Clement, where miracles began to occur from them.

After the death of St Cyril, the Pope sent St Methodius to Pannonia, after consecrating him as Archbishop of Moravia and Pannonia, on the ancient throne of St Andronicus (July 30). In Pannonia St Methodius and his disciples continued to distribute services books written in the Slavonic language. This again aroused the wrath of the German bishops. They arrested and tried St Methodius, who was sent in chains to Swabia, where he endured many sufferings for two and a half years.

After being set free by order of Pope John VIII of Rome, and restored to his archdiocese, St Methodius continued to preach the Gospel among the Slavs. He baptized the Czech prince Borivoi and his wife Ludmilla (September 16), and also one of the Polish princes. The German bishops began to persecute the saint for a third time, because he did not accept the erroneous teaching about the procession of the Holy Spirit from both the Father and the Son. St Methodius was summoned to Rome, but he justified himself before the Pope, and preserved the Orthodox teaching in its purity, and was sent again to the capital of Moravia, Velehrad.

Here in the remaining years of his life St Methodius, assisted by two of his former pupils, translated the entire Old Testament into Slavonic, except for the Book of Maccabbees, and even the Nomocanon (Rule of the holy Fathers) and Paterikon (book of the holy Fathers).
Sensing the nearness of death, St Methodius designated one of his students, Gorazd, as a worthy successor to himself. The holy bishop predicted the day of his death and died on April 6, 885 when he was about sixty years old. The saint's burial service was chanted in three languages, Slavonic, Greek, and Latin. He was buried in the cathedral church of Velehrad.
Cyrillus von Saloniki  
Orthodoxe Kirche: 14. Februar und 11.Mai (mit Methodius) Katholische, Anglikanische und Evangelische Kirche: 14. Februar (mit Methodius)
Kyrillos
Ikonenzentrum Saweljew Cyrillus wurde um 826 in Saloniki in Griechenland geboren. Er hieß eigentlich Konstantinos, den Namen Cyrillos nahme er erst kurz vor seinem Tode an. Gemeinsam mit seinem Bruder Methodius wurde er von seinem Lehrer Patriarch Photios um 860 an das Schwarze Meer gesandt, um unter den Slawen zu missionieren (vgl. auch Niederlegung des Kleides in Blacherna).
862 wurde ihnen auf Wunsch des Fürsten Rotislaw Mähren als Missionsgebiet zugewiesen. Hier führten sie die slawische Sprache ein und Cyrillus entwickelte eigene Schriftzeichen für die slawische Sprache (allerdings nicht die erst später entstandene kyrillische Schrift). Er übersetzte auch die Bibel ins Slawische. Cyrillus wurde so zum Begründer der slawischen Literatur. Papst Hadrian sagte den Brüdern 868 die Anerkennung des Slawischen als liturgische Sprache zu. Cyrillus starb kurz darauf am 14.2.869 in Rom.
994 ST MAJOLUS, OR MAYEUL, ABBOT OF CLUNY
PROVENCE in the early part of the tenth century suffered terribly from the incursions of the Saracens, and St Majolus, who at an early age was left heir to large estates near Riez, was obliged to take refuge with relatives who lived at Mâcon, in Burgundy. There he received the tonsure and a canonry from his uncle Bishop Berno, by whom he was afterwards sent to Lyons to study philosophy under a celebrated master, Antony, abbot of L’Isle Barbe. Upon his return to Mâcon he was made archdeacon, although he was still young, and when the see of Besançon fell vacant he was selected to fill it. To avoid being forcibly consecrated to a dignity for which he felt himself unfitted, he fled to the abbey of Cluny, to which his father had been a benefactor. There he received the habit and was appointed by Abbot Aymard librarian and procurator. In this double capacity he not only had direction of the studies and care of the treasury, but he also conducted all important business outside the monastery. In the course of the various journeys he was obliged to make, he won golden opinions for his humility and wisdom. As St Berno,*[* Berno was not then an uncommon name, and it may be well to point out that Berno, abbot of Cluny, was quite a different person from the Berno, bishop of Mâcon, mentioned before.]
The first abbot of Cluny, had chosen St Odo to be his coadjutor, and St Odo in his turn had selected Aymard, so Aymard, when he lost his sight, raised St Majolus to the dignity of joint abbot.
His wisdom and virtue gained him the respect of the great men of the age. The Emperor Otto the Great placed entire confidence in him and gave him supervision over all the monasteries in Germany and other parts of the empire. The Empress St Adelaide and her son Otto II had no less esteem for the holy abbot, who succeeded in reconciling them when they were at variance. By virtue of the privileges bestowed upon the congregation of which he was the head, Majolus was able to reform a great number of monasteries, many of which adopted the Cluniac life. Otto II was anxious that he should be chosen pope, but could not overcome his opposition; to all that could be urged he replied that he knew how little fitted he was to fill so high an office and how different his manners were from those of the Romans. A man of great scholarship, he did much to foster learning. Three years before his death he appointed St Odilo his coadjutor, and from that time gave himself up to the exercises of penance and contemplation. He could not, however, disregard the express request of Hugh Capet King of France, that he would undertake a journey to settle reforms in the abbey of St Denis, near Paris. On the way thither he fell ill and died at the abbey of Souvigny on May 11, 994. At his funeral in the church of St Peter at Souvigny, the king of France himself was present.

There is abundant material for the life of St Majolus. Three separate biographies of early date are printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii, a compendious account of which is furnished in BHL., nn. 5577—5587. Upon the complicated problem of the relations of these lives a valuable note was contributed by L. Traube to the Neues Archlv. . . ., vol. xvii (1892), pp. 402—407. See also J. H. Pignot, Histoire de l’Ordre de Cluny, vol. i, pp. 236—303 E. Sackur, Die Cluniacenser, vol. i, pp. 205—256; S. Hilpisch, Geschichte des Ben. Mönchtums, pp. 570 seq. A hymn written by St Odilo on St Majolus has been printed by Dom G. Morin in the Revue Bénédictine, vol. xxxviii (1926), pp. 56—57. See also Zimmermann, Kalendarium Benedictinum, vol. ii, pp. 171-173.
994 St. Majolus Benedictine  bishop of Besancon abbot abbey of Cluny friend of emperors and popes refused the Papal See
Apud Silviníacum, in Gállia, deposítio sancti Majóli, Abbátis Cluniacénsis, cujus vita sanctis méritis fuit præclára.
        At Souvigny in France, the death of St. Maieul, abbot of Cluny, whose life was distinguished for merits and sanctity.
Also called Maieul. He was born at Avignon, France. A Saracen invasion in the region of his estate near Rietz forced him to go to Macon, Burgundy, and then to Lyons, where he received the rank of arch-deacon and then became bishop of Besancon. In order to escape from this position, Majolus entered the Benedictine abbey of Cluny.
He became abbot there in 965. and he reformed monastic institutions for Emperor Otto the Great. He supposedly refused positions of honor, including the papacy. Majolus mediated a dispute between Empress St. Adelaide and her son, Otto II. In 991, Majolus named St. Odilo his coadjutor and retired to a life of prayer.

He died on the way to reform St. Denis Abbey, near Paris, at the request of King Hugh Capet.

Majolus of Cluny, OSB Abbot (RM) (also known as Maieul, Mayeule) Born at Avignon, France, c. 906; died at Souvigny, on May 11, 994.
Invading Saracens forced Saint Majolus to flee his large estates near Rietz to relatives at Mâcon. His uncle, Bishop Berno, gave him a canonry and then sent Saint Majolus to study at Lyons under Abbot Antony l'Isle Barbe. Upon his return and while still very young, he was chosen to be archdeacon of Mâcon.

He was offered the bishopric of Besançon, but declined in order to join the monks of Cluny.

In 954, shortly after his profession, he was named abbot-coadjutor to the blind abbot, Saint Aymard. In 965, he succeeded as head of the Cluniac congregation, which grew and spread through Western Europe during his tenure. Emperor Otto the Great entrusted the monasteries of Germany to him and Majolus reformed many of them.
Majolus was a man of distinguished presence, devoted to learning and the monastic life, and a peace-maker: He settled a disagreement between Empress Saint Adelaide and her son, Emperor Otto II. Once Majolus was captured by Saracens as he crossed the Saint Bernard Pass, and ransomed by the monks of Cluny for a thousand pounds of silver. Majolus, friend of emperors and popes, was several times offered and refused to be made pope, preferring to remain a monk. In 991, he appointed Saint Odilo as his coadjutor and devoted himself to prayer and penance. He died while on his way to make a visitation of the abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris at the request of King Hugh Capet
(Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Gill).
1000 Illuminatus of San Severino Benedictine monk of the abbey of San Mariano  OSB (RM)
A Benedictine monk of the abbey of San Mariano in his home town of San Severino in the Marches of Ancona
(Benedictines).
1010 Ansfrid of Utrecht knight in service of Emperors Otto III and Henry II  built convent of Thorn OSB B (AC)
(also known as Ansfridus)  feast day formerly May 3.
1010 ST ANSFRID, BISHOP OF UTRECHT
IN early life St Ansfrid was a warrior, noted for his success in suppressing brigands and pirates, and for this reason high in the favour of the Emperors Otto III and Henry II. He was count of Brabant and when the see of Utrecht fell vacant at the death of Bishop Baldwin the emperor suggested that he should be appointed to succeed him. In spite of his opposition he was consecrated bishop in 994. He founded a convent for nuns at Thorn near Roermond and the abbey of Hohorst, or Heiligenberg, to which he retired when blindness came upon him. It was there also he died. At the time of his burial a number of citizens of Utrecht came to Heiligenberg; seizing their opportunity when the people of the neighbourhood were busily engaged in extinguishing a conflagration which had broken out at that moment (perhaps not accidentally) they took possession of the venerated remains and carried them off. When the Heiligen monks discovered their loss, a fierce pursuit was on the point of taking place, but the Abbess of Thorn by her prayerful entreaties succeeded in preventing the threatened rescue by force of arms. St Ansfrid accordingly was peacefully interred in his own episcopal cathedral at Utrecht.

What is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, as a fragmentary life of St Ansfrid is in reality merely an extract from the De diversitate temporum of the Benedictine monk Albert of St Symphorian at Metz. He was a contemporary who wrote in 1022, and though he does not tell us very much, the substance of what he says is trustworthy.

Count Ansfridus of Brabant was a knight in the service of Emperors Otto III and Henry II. In 992, he built the convent of Thorn for his daughter and wife, and wanted to become a monk himself.
His plans were foiled when he was appointed archbishop of Utrecht. In that role, he founded the Benedictine abbey of Hohorst (Heiligenberg). It was not until he was afflicted with blindness that he could realize his dream of becoming a monk. He died in Heiligenberg Abbey
(Benedictines).
1049  St. Odilo of Cluny Benedictine Abbot beloved throughout Europe for deep austerities concem for poor sold Church treasures to feed poor during famine
b.  962 A member of a noble family in Auvergne, France, he entered the Benedictine monastery of Cluny about 990 and received election as abbot in 994. He was beloved and respected throughout Europe for his deep austerities and his concem for the poor.
In 1006, he even sold treasures of the Church to feed the poor during a famine. Through his efforts, the monasteries belonging to Cluny increased from thirty seven to sixty five. He also helped bring about the Truce of God and the feast of All Soul’s Day, and was a trusted advisor to popes and kings.
He was devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to the Incarnation. Fulbert of Chartres called him Archangelus Monachorum, Archangel of Monks. Odilo died on January 1 while touring his monasteries.
Majolus of Cluny, OSB Abbot (RM) also known as Maieul, Mayeule)  Born at Avignon, France, c. 906; died at Souvigny, on May 11, 994. Invading Saracens forced Saint Majolus to flee his large estates near Rietz to relatives at Mâcon. His uncle, Bishop Berno, gave him a canonry and then sent Saint Majolus to study at Lyons under Abbot Antony l'Isle Barbe. Upon his return and while still very young, he was chosen to be archdeacon of Mâcon. He was offered the bishopric of Besançon, but declined in order to join the monks of Cluny. In 954, shortly after his profession, he was named abbot-coadjutor to the blind abbot, Saint Aymard. In 965, he succeeded as head of the Cluniac congregation, which grew and spread through Western Europe during his tenure. Emperor Otto the Great entrusted the monasteries of Germany to him and Majolus reformed many of them. Majolus was a man of distinguished presence, devoted to learning and the monastic life, and a peace-maker: He settled a disagreement between Empress Saint Adelaide and her son, Emperor Otto II. Once Majolus was captured by Saracens as he crossed the Saint Bernard Pass, and ransomed by the monks of Cluny for a thousand pounds of silver. Majolus, friend of emperors and popes, was several times offered and refused to be made pope, preferring to remain a monk. In 991, he appointed Saint Odilo as his coadjutor and devoted himself to prayer and penance. He died while on his way to make a visitation of the abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris at the request of King Hugh Capet
(Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Gill).
1070 St. Walter Augustinian abbot for thirty-eight years of L'Esterp famed as confessor also gentle
in the region of Limousin France
1070 ST WALTER OF L’ESTERP, ABBOT had an ardent zeal for souls:  Walter is repeatedly referred to by the chroniclers of that age as a man of outstanding holiness, whose undertakings were marvellously blessed by Heaven
ST WALTER (Gautier) was born at the castle of Conflans on the Vienne, the chief seat of his family, which was one of the foremost in Aquitaine. For his education he was sent to the Augustinian canons at Dorat where he had Bd Israel as his master and where he received the habit. The ill-will of an unreasonable superior led him to retire to Conflans, but he was soon afterwards elected abbot of L’Esterp, a position he held for thirty-eight years. He had an ardent zeal for souls, and his influence spread far beyond the walls of his monastery. So great was his reputation for converting sinners that Pope Victor II granted him special faculties for dealing with penitents—including the right to excommunicate and to restore to communion. For the last seven years of his life he was blind, but he continued his activities until his death.
His biographer tells us that while yet a young monk St Walter made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, in the course of which journey rumour seems to have credited him with some remarkable miracles. Driven to land on a desolate shore, he and his companions had nothing to eat, but a strange bird flew over them and dropped at his feet a fish which was so large that Walter by himself could not even lift it from the ground. This gentle saint’s compassion for human infirmity and error was unbounded; and when his companions, absorbed in external tasks, forgot that a day was Friday and had prepared a meal of meat, he not only allowed them to eat it, saying that they might Count on the indulgence of the great St Martin whose feast it was, but he set them the example by partaking of it himself. One of the company, scandalized and rigorist, hotly denounced this concession, but immediately after lost the whole sum of money he was carrying in his purse, a calamity which the writer treats as a divine rebuke to his self-righteousness. What is certain is that Abbot Walter is repeatedly referred to by the chroniclers of that age as a man of outstanding holiness, whose undertakings were marvellously blessed by Heaven.

The biography, ascribed to the famous Bishop Marbod, who was a contemporary, is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii.
He was born to a noble family in Conflans Castle in Aquitaine, and studied under the Augustinians at Dorat, where he entered a monastery. Then when he returned to Conflans Castle, he was elected the abbot of L'Esterp. He held the post for thirty-eight years and was famed as a confessor.
Walter of L'Esterp, OSA Abbot (AC). Walter was abbot of L'Esterp Abbey in Limousin, France for 38 years until his death. Even when he went blind in 1062, the saint's fellow-monks begged him to continue in office. So wise were his judgments that Pope Victor II granted the abbot the power even to excommunicate those whom he considered were insufficiently penitent for their sins.
Yet he was also gentle. One day the monks of L'Esterp to a man forgot that it was Friday and cooked meat for their midday meal. When they remembered the rule about abstaining from meat on the day that Christ was crucified, they were horrified. Walter told them that they would be forgiven. To show that he genuinely believed this, he himself sat down and ate some meat, which relieved them greatly (Benedictines, Bentley).
1156 Bl. Peter the Venerable Abbot of Cluny “the Venerable” owing to his holiness and wisdom suggestion the Koran be translated into Latin to assist conversions of Muslims
Also known as Peter of Montboissier and called “the Venerable” owing to his holiness and wisdom. Born into a French noble family, he entered the Congregation of Cluny and held a number of posts in several houses until his election in 1122 as eighth abbot of Cluny.
Peter brought a variety of reforms to the educational system of the order and to its finances, using two general chapters to win approval of his constitution. His support of education caused a controversy with his friend St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who desired the monastic life to be of prayer and labor:
On behalf of his order, Peter traveled extensively, going six times to Rome and to England and Spain.
In between these journeys, Peter retired to a hermitage to pray and study. To assist the conversions of Muslims, Peter made the then unprecedented suggestion that the Koran be translated into Latin.
He also authored treatises against the heretical priest Peter de Bruys and the Jews, as well as poems and sermons; his writings reveal a deep knowledge of Scripture. Peter also gave sanctuary to Peter Ahelard after his condemnation by the Council of Sens in 1140. While never formally canonized, he has long been venerated as a blessed.
1230 Illuminatus disciple of Saint Francis of Assisi OFM (AC)Apud Septempedános, in Picéno, sancti Illumináti Confessóris.
    At San Severino in Piceno, St. Illuminatus, confessor.
This saint is often confused with Illuminatus of San Severino Benedictine monk. He is said to have been a disciple of Saint Francis of Assisi (Benedictines).
1279 Bl. Albert of Bergamo Dominican tertiary pious farmer miracle worker to benefit others
1279 BD ALBERT OF BERGAMO
BD ALBERT OF BERGAMO was a peasant farmer who lived an exemplary life amongst his neighbours in the Valle d’Ogna and became a Dominican tertiary. Though married he had no children, and he had much to bear from a shrewish wife, as well as from other relations who resented his liberality to the poor. In later life he went on pilgrimages to Rome and Jerusalem and is said to have visited Compostela eight times, always supporting himself on the way by the work of his hands. Eventually he settled in Cremona, where he became closely associated with another holy man, Bd Homobonus, and where he died in the year 1279. He was famous in Cremona for his miracles. Some of the wonders which he is said to have worked in his lifetime are certainly of a very remarkable and unusual character. For example, in the Short Lives of Dominican Saints, edited by Fr John Proctor, o.p., we read:
“One day he was carrying a barrel of wine to the house of a poor woman, when it accidentally slipped from his shoulder and broke to pieces on the road. ‘King of Glory, come to my assistance’, exclaimed the holy man, according to his wont in all difficulties. Then he gathered up the broken pieces of wood, adjusted them in
their proper places, and collected the spilt wine in his hands so that not a drop was lost.”
In the Prato edition of the Opera Omnia of Pope Benedict XIV, vol. vi (1842), pp. 35—36, will be found a summary of the evidence presented to establish the fact of the immemorial cultus paid to Bd Albert of Bergamo. The documents submitted at that time were printed for the Congregation of Rites, and the decree of confirmation is dated May 9, 1748. See also the Année Dominicaine (1891), pp. 375—385. A short notice of Bd Albert will also be found in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii.

Albert was a farmer living near Bergamo, Italy, where he became a Dominican Third Order member. Married, he was a champion of the poor in his hometown of Ogna. Sometime in his adult life, Albert went on a pilgrimage to the famous shrine at Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
He also visited Rome and Jerusalem, perilous journeys in his era. After his pilgrimages, Albert settled in Cremona, Italy, where he became known for his piety and for his many miraculous works to benefit others.
1300 Blessed Vivaldus nursed Bartholomew for twenty years, OFM Tert. (AC)
(also known as Ubaldo, Gualdo); cultus confirmed in 1909.
1300     BD VIVALDO
VIVALDO, or Ubaldo, was a disciple and fellow townsman of Bd Bartolo of San Gemignano whom he nursed for twenty years through a particularly distressing form of leprosy. Afterwards he lived as a solitary inside a hollow chestnut-tree at Montajone, in Tuscany. One day as a huntsman was seeking game in the mountains, his hounds discovered the hermit, who was kneeling in his retreat in an attitude of prayer, but was quite dead. It is stated that at the moment his soul passed to God the bells of Montajone began ringing of themselves and never ceased pealing until the huntsman came in with the news of the discovery of the body. Bd Vivaldo had been attached to the third order of St Francis, and the Observants built a convent on the site where he had lived and died.
The brief account printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, seems to contain all that has been recorded of Bd Vivaldo. The decree by which Pope Pius X confirmed his cultus may be read in the Analecta Ecclesiastica for 1908, p. 145, but it adds nothing material to the facts mentioned above. Neither is anything further to be learnt from the article of Father Ghilardi in the Miscellanea Storica della Valdelsa, vol. xi (1903), pp. 38—42.

The Franciscan tertiary Vivaldus is a saint in my books. He did not abandon his role model and friend Blessed Bartholomew Buonpedoni (twenty years ministering to the lepers of his region) when the latter contracted leprosy. Instead he nursed his companion for twenty years
(Benedictines).
1325 Sainted Nikodim, Archbishop of Serbia, was hegumen of the Khilendaria monastery elevated to the dignity of bishop in 1316 translated into the Slavonic language and ordered into use in Serbia the Typikon (Ustav) of Saint Sava the Sanctified, of Jerusalem  wonderworking relics
Especially noteworthy is this, that in the year 1319 he translated into the Slavonic language and ordered into use in Serbia the Typikon (Ustav) of Saint Sava the Sanctified, of Jerusalem.
Sainted Nikodim died in the year 1325.
St Nicodemus, Archbishop of Pec  (May 11)  SerbianOrthodoxChurch.net
This great hierarch was a Serb by birth. He lived in asceticism on the Holy Mountain, and was abbot of Hilandar. After the death of Sava the Third, he was chosen as archbishop of `all the Serbian lands and those bordering the sea', in 1317. He crowned King Milutin in 1321. He also translated the Jerusalem Typikon* into Serbian. In the Preface of this book he says: `Almighty God, who knows our weak-nesses, will give us spiritual strength, but only if we first make an effort.' He sincerely loved the ascetic life, and laboured to deepen it in the land of Serbia. He laboured tirelessly to uproot the Bogomil heresy and confirm the Orthodox faith. He entered into rest in the Lord in 1325 and his wonderworking relics are preserved in the monastery at Pec.
*A Typikon is a book of rubrics for the ordering of church services and of monastic life -Translator. 
 SerbianOrthodoxChurch.net* "The Prologue from Ochrid", by Bishop Nikolai Velimirovic-Lazarica Press-Birmingham 1985 4 Book Edition-Translated by Mother Maria-Dates based on old church
calendar
1378 Pope Gabriel IV Departure of, the 86th. Patriarch of Alexandria.
On this day also of the year 1094 A.M. (April 1378 A.D.), Pope Gabriel the fourth, the 86th Patriarch, departed. He was the abbot of the monastery of El-Moharrak. He sat on the apostolic throne on the 11th day of Tubah, 1086 A.M. (January 6th, 1370 A.D.).
He was a great scholar and righteous ascetic. During his time, in the year 1370 A.D., a great light appeared during the night which looked like a day light and lingered until dawn. In 1371 A.D., there was a great flood in the river Nile valley which threatened to drown all the land.
He was contemporary of El-Sultan Shabaan and El-Sultan Ali Ebn-Shabaan El Mansour. He sat on the throne for 8 years, three months, and twenty two days. He was buried beside Simeon the shoe maker.
May his prayers be with us and glory be to God forever.
Amen.
1426 Blessed Benincasa of Montechiello Servite hermit OSM (AC)
1426 BD BENINCASA
BD BENINCASA, a member of one of the great Florentine families, entered the Servite Order at a very early age and when twenty-five was permitted to embrace the life of a hermit on the mountain of Montagnata, near Siena. There he gave himself up to prayer, but was greatly tried by diabolical assaults. Through a little window he gave spiritual advice to the men who resorted to him—with women he would have no dealings—and healed the sick by the sign of the cross or by holy water. Realizing, however, that the Devil was tempting him to pride, he retired to another spot much more difficult of access. His death is said to have been announced to the people in the plain by the spontaneous ringing of the church bells and by a light which streamed from his cave.

An account of Bd Benincasa is given in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. vii, supplement. This is almost entirely based on Father A. Giani, Annales Ordinis Servorum. In the seven­teenth century the local veneration of Bd Benincasa at Montechielo, where he was buried, seems almost to have died out. This was explained at the time by the fact that a rumour was in circulation that his authentic relics had been stolen. The cultus was, however, officially sanctioned in 1829. There is a short life by L. Raffaelli (1927).

Born in Florence, Italy, 1376; cultus confirmed in 1829. Blessed Benincasa joined the Servites at Montepulciano and spent the rest of his life as a hermit, first at Montagnata near Siena and later in the almost inaccessible cave of Montechiello
(Benedictines).
1490 Blessed Aloysius Rabata Carmelite friar of Randazzo monastery Sicily OC (AC)
Born c. 1430 cultus confirmed by Gregory XVI. Blessed Aloysius was a. He died, though not immediately, from a blow on the head from an assailant whom he refused to bring to justice
(Benedictines).
1490 BD ALOYSIUS RABATA
FEW incidents seem to have marked the life of Bd Aloysius Rabata. Admitted to the Carmelite Order as a young man at Trapani, in Sicily, he was afterwards prior of the friary at Randazzo. He lived on bread and water and was remarkable for his humility, his patience and his zeal for souls. As superior he insisted upon performing such tasks as road-mending and begging for alms. He took the sins of his penitents so much to heart that when a poor man confessed to a theft for which he was unable to make restitution, his ghostly father himself approached the injured party and with tears continued to implore forgiveness until it was granted. He died from the after-effects of a blow on the head inflicted by a scoundrel whom he refused to bring to justice; he would not even disclose the identity of the perpetrator of the outrage.

A tolerably full notice is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. ii. It is mainly derived from the materials which were collected in 1533 and 1573 with a view to canonization, which never took place. The cultus was confirmed in the nineteenth century under Pope Gregory XVI.
1505     BD LADISLAUS OF GIELNIOW
ONE of the principal patrons of Poland, Galicia and Lithuania is Bd Ladislaus of Gielniow, a Pole born in the year 1440, who, after being educated in the University of Warsaw, entered the Franciscan convent of the strict observance founded in that city by St John Capistran. He was several times elected provincial and drew up a revised constitution which received the approbation of the general chapter held in Urbino in 1498. At the request of Duke Alexander, Ladislaus sent out a picked body of friars to evangelize Lithuania. Before they started he warned them that the example of personal holiness must always precede the preaching of the gospel. The mission was greatly blessed: not only were thousands of pagans baptized, but many schismatics were reconciled. Bd Ladislaus himself was an ardent missioner and a man of great eloquence, and when he became guardian at Warsaw he was in great request as a preacher. He delivered sermons in every part of Poland, and wrote both in Latin and in Polish; he also composed hymns which were sung by the people at evening services. His favourite topic was the Passion and his best-loved text, “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews”.
In 1498 Poland was in great danger: the Tartars had made a league with the Turks and were advancing with an army of 70,000 men. Ladislaus called upon the panic-stricken population to pray and to put their trust in God, who alone could deliver them. The invading army was encamped between the Pruth and the Dniester when suddenly the waters of both rose up in flood, inundating the country. This was followed by an intense frost and then by a blinding snowstorm. Thousands of the enemy’s men and horses were drowned, thousands more perished of cold, and the miserable remnant was easily defeated and almost exterminated by the Wallachian Prince Stephen. The victory was generally ascribed to the prayers of Bd Ladislaus, whose prestige was enormously enhanced. His brethren often beheld him raised from the ground in ecstasy and on the Good Friday before his death, as he was preaching to an immense congregation, he was seen to be lifted into the air and to hang there as though crucified. Afterwards when he slowly sank to the ground he was so weak that he had to be carried to the convent infirmary, where he died a month later, mourned by the whole city. He was beatified in 1586.

A very ample life, published in Latin by the Franciscan Father Vincent Morawski, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, has been reprinted in the Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i. There is also a brief account by Fr Leon in his Aureole Séraphique (Eng. trans.), vol. iv, pp. 335—337. The Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche mentions two modern writers, C. Bogdalski and K. Kantak, who in recent works dealing with the Franciscan missions in Poland have specially called attention to Bd Ladislaus. These books, however, arc written in Polish.
1537  Bl. John of Rochester Carthusian martyr of England with Blessed James Walworth refused the Oath of Supremacy
1535-1540 THE ENGLISH CARTHUSIAN MARTYRS, WITH BB. RICHARD REYNOLDS AND JOHN HAILE
To the Carthusian Order belongs the honour of having furnished the first martyr of the Tudor persecution in the person of JOHN HOUGHTON, prior of the London Charterhouse. After him, on the same day and at the same place, were martyred two other Carthusian priors, as well as JOHN HAILE, vicar of Isleworth, and a Bridgettine monk named RICHARD REYNOLDS.
John Houghton, who was a native of Essex and a graduate of Cambridge University, had been a secular priest for four years when he entered the London Charterhouse. There he spent twenty years of religious life, being conspicuous even amongst his austere brethren for his mortification, his patience and his humility. Maurice Chauncy, a fellow monk, has left us an edifying record of his heroic virtues, together with an interesting description of his person and bearing. He was short of stature, we read, graceful, venerable of countenance, modest in demeanour and winning of speech. In spite of his ardent desire to remain hidden, he was marked out for preferment, and was elected prior of the Charterhouse of Beauvale, in Nottinghamshire. Upon the death of John Batmanson a few months later, he was recalled by the unanimous vote of the brethren to become prior of the London Charterhouse, and shortly afterwards he was nominated visitor of the English province of the order.
In the summer of 1533 a royal proclamation was issued ordering the adhesion by oath of every person over the age of sixteen to the Act of Succession, which recognized Anne Boleyn as the lawful queen and her children as heirs to the throne. The cloistered monks of the Charterhouse may well have thought that, as politics were outside their province, the edict did not affect them. For about eight months they actually seem to have remained unmolested. Their great reputation, however, and the influence they wielded as directors of souls then decided King Henry and his officials to demand their assent. Royal commissioners accordingly presented themselves at the Charterhouse and questioned the superiors.In his reply, the prior, whilst disclaiming any desire or intention of interfering with the king’s affairs, admitted that he could not see how the marriage with Catherine of Aragon, properly solemnized as it had been, and for so many years unquestioned, could suddenly have become invalid. On the strength of this remark he was summarily arrested and imprisoned in the Tower with his procurator, HUMPHREY MIDDLEMORE. A month later, in deference to the decision of learned and devout men who deemed that the succession to the throne was not a cause for which they should sacrifice their lives, the two prisoners agreed to take the oath with the added proviso, “as far as the law of God permits”. Thereupon they were allowed to return to the Charterhouse, where, after a little hesitation on the part of several of the monks, the whole community made the required declaration in its modified form. During the short period of peace which followed, Houghton was under no illusion as to his future; the night before his release from the Tower it had been revealed to him in a dream that he would return within a twelvemonth and would end his days in prison.
On February i of the following year there came into force another act of Parliament—much more far-reaching than the Act of Succession. It was called the Act of Supremacy and declared it to be high treason to deny that the King was the sole and supreme head of the Church in England. That this was a very different thing from a question of mere temporal succession to the English throne, Prior Houghton fully realized. Summoning his spiritual sons to the chapter-house, he warned them that they would probably all be shortly faced with the alternative between death and apostasy. He then declared a solemn triduum, during which they were to prepare for the approaching trial; and on the third day, while their prior was celebrating the holy Mysteries, there came “a soft whisper of air, which some perceived with their bodily senses, while all experienced its sweet influence upon their hearts”.
John Houghton determined to make a personal appeal to Thomas Cromwell, the king’s chief secretary, in the hope of obtaining exemption from the oath of supremacy, or at least a mitigation of it. He took with him two priors who had come to London to consult him about the affairs of their monasteries: they were ROBERT LAWRENCE, a London monk, Houghton’s successor at Beauvale, and AUGUSTINE WEBSTER, trained at Sheen, but now prior of the charterhouse in the Isle of Axholme. Cromwell, who was aware that King Henry was greatly incensed against the Carthusians, received them roughly, and summarily cutting short Prior Houghton’s opening remarks, ordered them all three to be committed to the Tower, although Lawrence and Webster had not opened their lips. An interrogatory at the Rolls three weeks later was followed by a visit to the Tower of Cromwell himself and the king’s commissaries, bearing with them a copy of the oath. By this time the priors had been joined in their captivity by Richard Reynolds, a distinguished and learned Bridgettine monk from the monastery of Syon, whose singular holiness was reflected in the angelic beauty of his countenance. Cardinal Pole, who was his intimate friend, declared that he was the only religious in England well versed in the three languages “in which all liberal learning is comprised”. Called upon to take the oath, the prisoners said they would do so if they might add the saving clause “as far as the law of God allows”. “I admit of no condition”, was Cromwell’s reply. “Whether the law of God permits or not, you must take the oath without reservation.” This they absolutely refused to do, and they were accordingly committed for trial.
When, on April 29, they came before the court at Westminster Hall, they were accused of denying that Henry VIII was supreme head on earth of the Church of England. To this charge they made no defence, but the jury showed the utmost reluctance to condemn them, only consenting to declare them guilty of high treason when Cromwell appeared in person and terrified them into submission. Sentence of death was then passed upon the four monks and upon an aged secular priest, John Haile, vicar of Isleworth, who was accused of uttering slanderous words against the king, the queen and the council. Their execution was fixed to take place at Tyburn on May 4, every expedient being adopted to degrade them in the eyes of the populace. They were dragged to the scaffold, lying on their backs on hurdles, still wearing their habits—a thing hitherto unheard of in a Christian country. Arrived at the foot of the gallows, Bd John Houghton embraced his executioner, who craved his forgiveness, and having testified that he was suffering for conscience because he was unwilling to deny a doctrine of the Church, he met his death with the utmost fortitude. After being strung up, he was cut down and disembowelled while still alive. In fact he was conscious and still able to speak when his heart was torn out. The rest of the martyrs showed the same courage. All refused a pardon proffered at the last moment at the price of acknowledging the king’s supremacy. Special efforts had been made to break down the constancy of Bd RICHARD REYNOLDS, who, as he was the last to be executed, was obliged to witness the barbarities inflicted on his companions. Their remains were parboiled, divided, and exposed in various parts of the city, an arm of Bd John Houghton being posted over the chief entrance of his monastery.
On the very day of the execution of the priors, one of the commissaries visited the Charterhouse to interrogate and examine the three monks who had taken over the government, namely, HUMPHREY MIDDLEMORE, WILLIAM EXMEW, the late prior’s confessor, and SEBASTIAN NEWDIGATE, once a favourite courtier in the palace of Henry VIII. Their replies were deemed unsatisfactory and three weeks later they were committed to the Marshalsea prison, where for over a fortnight they were chained to columns by the neck and feet, unable to sit or lie down, and never released for a moment. Newdigate had a special trial to undergo, for King Henry came to the prison in disguise and tried to win him over. All three came up for trial on June iz, were convicted of high treason, and were executed on June 19.
No further executions took place for some time, but the monks were not left to themselves. Resident commissioners were placed over them, their books were taken away, and in the words of Maurice Chauncy, “they never knew what it was to be free from vexation for a single hour “. A monk from Sheen, who had taken the oath of supremacy, was placed over them as prior, whilst several of the most resolute of the monks were sent to other houses. Amongst these were two priests, JOHN ROCHESTER and WILLIAM WALWORTH, who were transferred to Hull. In consequence of an imprudent letter which the former addressed from there to the Duke of Norfolk, he and his brother monk were arrested, tried at York, condemned and executed on May ii, 1537, two years after the death of Bd John Houghton.
In the meantime the constant pressure brought to bear upon the London community had been gradually breaking down the constancy of the majority, and on May 18, 1537, nineteen of the monks, besides the prior, consented to take the oath. There still, however, remained a heroic minority of ten who continued staunch. Three of them were priests—THOMAS JOHNSON, RICHARD BEER and THOMAS GREEN or Greenwood; one was a deacon, JOHN DAVY, and the rest were the lay brothers ROBERT SALT, WILLIAM GREENWOOD, THOMAS REDING, THOMAS SCRYVEN, WALTER PIERSON and WILLIAM HORN. They were imprisoned in the Marshalsea, tied to posts and left to starve to death. For a time they were kept alive by the heroism of Sir Thomas More’s adopted daughter, Margaret Clement, who, after bribing the gaoler, obtained access to the prison in the disguise of a milkmaid and fed the prisoners by placing food in their mouths. The warder, however, became alarmed when the king expressed surprise that the captives were still alive, and Margaret was refused admission. One after the other the monks died of neglect and starvation, until only William Horn remained. He was removed to the Tower, where he was treated with less inhumanity, but three years later he was attainted, condemned for denying the royal supremacy, and executed at Tyburn on August 4, 1540. He was the last of the eighteen who make up the roll of the English Carthusian martyrs.
A general feast of these martyrs is kept to-day in the archdiocese of Westminster and by the Carthusians. Bd John Houghton is celebrated in the diocese of Brentwood, BB. John Rochester and William Walworth in Leeds and Middlesbrough, Bd Richard Reynolds separately in Westminster (May 14), Bd John Haile in Brentwood (May 21), and BB. Sebastian Newdigate and Humphrey Middlemore in Birmingham (June 19).

Apart from the state papers in Record Office and elsewhere, all of which are calendared in the Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic the Reign of Henry VIII, our principal authority is the narrative of Dom Maurice Chauncy, Historia aliquot nostri saeculi Martyrum. Fr Van Ortroy, in the Analecta Bollandiana, vols. vi, xiv, and xxii, has studied the slight variations in the different recensions of Chauncy’s work. The story is also retold with supplementary details by L. Hendriks, The London Charterhouse (1889), and by V. Doreau, Henri VIII et les Martyrs de la Chartreuse (1890). See also Fr. John Morris, s.j., Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, vol. i, pp. 3—29; Camm, LEM., vol. i, pp. 5—46; and E. M. Thompson, The Carthusian Order in England (1930). The same writer contributes an introduction to an unpublished manuscript of Chauncy’s, Brevis et fidelis narratio, edited by G. W. S. Curtis (1935). For Bd Richard Reynolds see A. Hamilton, The Angel of Syon (1905) and M. J. R. Fletcher, The Story of . . . Syon Abbey (1933). D. B. Christie, While the World Revolves (1932), is a popular account of Bd John Houghton. There is an admirable brief summary in R. W. Chambers, Thomas More (1935), pp. 320—332.
He was born in Terling, Essex, and became a monk in the London Charterhouse. John was implicated in Blessed James Walworth’s correspondence with the duke of Norfolk. He and James refused to take the Oath of Supremacy and were martyred at York and beatified in 1886.
Blessed James Walworth & John Rochester, O. Cart. MM (AC) Died York, England, 1537; beatified in 1886. James Walworth and John Rochester were Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse. Together they were hanged in chains at York at the command of King Henry VIII. Rochester was born at Terling, Essex
(Benedictines).
1672 Joseph The Hieromartyr First Metropolitan of Astrakhan relics glorified by miracles
Joseph  was born at Astrakhan in 1579. After becoming a monk, St Joseph was made Archimandrite of the Astrakhan Trinity monastery at the age of fifty-two.
In 1656 he was at Moscow, after which he was chosen to be Metropolitan of Astrakhan. On May 11, 1672, during an uprising of the townspeople, St Joseph suffered martyrdom at Astrakhan. This sad event was recorded in detail by two eyewitnesses, priests of the Astrakhan cathedral, Cyril and Peter.
The priests took the body of the martyr, dressed it in bishop's vestments, and placed it in a prepared grave. On the following day, after serving a Panikhida, the saint's body was taken to a chapel, and it remained unburied for nine days. The relics of the holy hierarch were placed into the grave, and were soon glorified by miracles.
St Joseph was glorified at the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church in April
1918.
1716 St. Francis Jerome famous Jesuit preacher credited with miracles, attributing numerous cures to the intercession of Saint Cyrus (Jan 31) From the outset his preaching attracted huge congregations and was rewarded by such excellent results that he was set to train other missionaries. In the provinces he conducted at least 100 missions, but the people of Naples would never allow him to be long absent from their city. Wherever he went, men and women hung upon his lips and crowded to his confessional; and it was confidently asserted that at least four hundred hardened sinners were annually reclaimed through his efforts. He would visit the prisons, the hospitals and even the galleys, in one of which—a Spanish one—he brought to the faith twenty Turkish prisoners. Moreover, he did not hesitate to track down sinners to the very haunts of vice, in which it sometimes happened that he was very roughly handled. Often he would preach in the streets—occasionally on the spur of the moment.
Neápoli, in Campánia, sancti Francísci de Hierónymo, in Tarentínæ diœcésis óppido Cryptaleárum orti, Sacerdótis e Societáte Jesu et Confessóris, exímiæ in salúte animárum procuránda caritátis et patiéntiæ viri; quem Gregórius Papa Décimus sextus in Sanctórum cánonem rétulit.
        At Naples in Campania, St. Francis of Jerome, priest of the Society of Jesus, and confessor.  He was born in the town of Grottaglia, in the diocese of Taranto.  Having been a man of great patience and zeal for the salvation of souls, he was canonized by Pope Gregory XVI.
1716 ST FRANCIS DI GIROLAMO
A BOUNDLESS zeal for the conversion of sinners and a tender love for the poor, the sick and the oppressed were the outstanding characteristics of St Francis di Girolamo, the eloquent Jesuit missioner whom the inhabitants of the Two Sicilies venerate to this day as, in a special sense, the apostle of Naples. The eldest of a family of eleven, he was born in 1642 at Grottaglie, near Taranto. After he had made his first communion, at the age of twelve, he was received into the house of some secular priests in the neighbourhood who lived a community life. The good fathers were not slow to perceive that their young charge was no ordinary boy from leaving him in charge of their church they promoted him to teaching the catechism, and he received the tonsure when he was barely sixteen. With a view to learning canon and civil law, he went to Naples in the company of a brother who desired to study under an eminent painter. In 1666 Francis was ordained priest, for which a dispensation had to be obtained as he was not yet twenty-four. For the next five years he taught at Naples in the Jesuit Collegio dei Nobili. The impression he made there upon his pupils may be gauged from the fact that the boys habitually spoke of him among themselves as “the holy priest”. At the age of twenty-eight, having overcome the opposition of his parents, he entered the Society of Jesus.
During the first year of novitiate Francis was subjected to exceptionally severe tests by his superiors, who were so completely satisfied that at its close they sent him to help the celebrated preacher Father Agnello Bruno in his mission work. From 1671 till 1674, the two priests laboured untiringly and with great success, mainly amongst the peasants of the province of Otranto. At the close of that mission Francis was recalled to Naples where he completed his theological studies and was professed. He was now appointed preacher at the Neapolitan church known as the Gesu Nuovo. It was his ardent desire to be sent to Japan, when there was talk of attempting a new missionary effort in that land which had ruthlessly exterminated every Christian teacher who landed on its shores, but he was told by his superiors that he must regard the kingdom of Naples as his India and Japan. It was, indeed, to be the scene of his untiring activities for the remaining forty years of his life.
From the outset his preaching attracted huge congregations and was rewarded by such excellent results that he was set to train other missionaries. In the provinces he conducted at least 100 missions, but the people of Naples would never allow him to be long absent from their city. Wherever he went, men and women hung upon his lips and crowded to his confessional; and it was confidently asserted that at least four hundred hardened sinners were annually reclaimed through his efforts. He would visit the prisons, the hospitals and even the galleys, in one of which—a Spanish one—he brought to the faith twenty Turkish prisoners. Moreover, he did not hesitate to track down sinners to the very haunts of vice, in which it sometimes happened that he was very roughly handled. Often he would preach in the streets—occasionally on the spur of the moment. Once, in the middle of a stormy night, he felt irresistibly moved to turn out and preach in the dark in an apparently deserted part of the town. The following day there came to his confessional a young woman who had been living a sinful life, but had been conscience-stricken when through her open window she had heard his stirring appeal of the previous evening. Amid his numerous penitents of all classes, perhaps the most remarkable was a woman, French by birth, called Mary Alvira Cassier. She had murdered her father and had afterwards served in the Spanish army, disguised as a man. Under the direction of St Francis she not only was brought to penitence, but attained to a high degree of holiness.
The effects of the preaching of the holy Jesuit were enhanced by his reputation as a wonder-worker, but he consistently disclaimed any extraordinary powers, attributing the numerous cures which attended his ministrations to the intercession of St Cyrus (January 31), for whom he had a special veneration. St Francis di Girolamo died at the age of seventy-four, after much suffering, and his remains were interred in the Jesuit church of Naples where they still lie. He was canonized in 1839.

There is a valuable report drawn up by the saint himself to acquaint his superiors with the more striking manifestations of God’s grace during fifteen years of his missionary labours. These “Brevi Notizie” have been printed by Father Boero in his book S. Francesco di Girolamo e le sue Missioni (1882). We have also two Italian lives written by fellow Jesuits who had known the saint intimately; that by Stradiotti appeared in 1719, and that by Bagnati in 1725. Among more modern contributions, the Vita di San Francesco di Girolamo, by Father degli Oddi, has been perhaps the most widely circulated, but J. Bach’s Histoire de S. François de Geronimo (1867), is the most complete. See further the convenient Raccolta di Avvenimenti singolari e Documenti autentici, collected by Canon Alfonso Muzzarelli (1806), as well as the life by C. de Bonis. In English there is a biography by A. M. Clarke which appeared in the “Quarterly Series” in 1891, and an admirable article by the Bollandist Father Van Ortroy in the Catholic Encyclopedia.

Also known as Francis de Geronimo. Born near Taranto, Italy, he was ordained in 1666 and became a Jesuit in 1670. Francis Jerome was famous as a preacher. He was canonized in 1839.

Francis di Girolama, SJ (RM) (also known as Francis Jerome) Born at Grottaglie, near Taranto, Italy, in 1642; died 1716; canonized in 1839. Francis was the oldest of 11 children. Once he had received his first communion at age 12, he was received into the house of some secular priests. Recognizing his intelligence, the fathers promoted him to teaching catechism, and he received the tonsure at 16.

He accompanied one of his brothers to Naples. While his brother wanted to study under an eminent painter, Francis went learn canon and civil law.

In 1666, he was ordained a priest under a special dispensation because he was under 24. He taught in the Jesuit Collegio dei Nobili for five years. At 28, having persuaded his family to consent, he entered the Society of Jesus. During his first year of novitiate, he was severely tested by his superiors, but he received their complete approval by the time he finished, and they sent to help the preacher Father Agnello Bruno in his mission work. For three years the two worked tirelessly and with great success, primarily among the peasants in the province of Otranto.

Francis was then recalled to Naples, finished his theological studies, and was professed.

He was appointed preacher at the church known as the Gesu Nuovo in Naples. From the start, he attracted huge crowds. He was commissioned to train other missionaries and conducted at least one hundred missions in the provinces. His very effective preaching was marked by brevity and vigor: He was, it is said, 'a lamb when he talks and a lion when he preaches.' In search of sinners he penetrated into prisons, the brothels, and the galleys, and continued his missions in hamlets, back lanes, and at street corners. He converted 20 Turkish prisoners on a Spanish galley.
One of his most interesting penitents was a Frenchwoman, Mary Alvira Cassier. She had murdered her father and served in the Spanish army, impersonating a man. Under Francis, she repented and became very devout.
He rescued many children from dangerous surroundings, opened a charitable pawnshop, and organized an association of workingmen to help the Jesuit fathers in their work.

Although Francis was credited with miracles, he disclaimed that they were due to his own powers, attributing numerous cures to the intercession of Saint Cyrus, for whom he had a special devotion. He died at age 74, after a painful illness, and at his funeral all the poor of Naples thronged around his coffin.
His remains were interred in the Jesuit Church of Naples
(Attwater, Benedictines, Walsh, White).
1771 Blessed Christesia from Egrisi in western Georgia withdrew to the Monastery of St. John the Baptist in the Davit-Gareji Wilderness bright light appeared before him to light the way
Blessed Christesia’s family was from Egrisi in western Georgia.  From his youth Christesia longed for the divine services and the solitary life, but he was forced by his master to marry, and by this marriage he begot a son. Later, when both his wife and son had died, his master insisted that he marry again, but the pious Christesia would not heed his master’s order. Instead he related the order to his spiritual father, who advised him to depart from the world and journey to the Davit-Gareji Wilderness. Deeply inspired by his spiritual father’s counsel, Christesia abandoned his possessions and his life in the world and withdrew to the Monastery of St. John the Baptist in the Davit-Gareji Wilderness.

The holy father spent many years in humble service to the Lord. He was assigned to gather firewood and bring water for the monastery, and he performed these tasks obediently and in perfect meekness. Every day he walked over four miles to fill a pitcher with water and then carried it to a small hut nearby. He hung the pitcher at the entrance to make it visible from a distance, and travelers who passed by would come to quench their thirst.

He also kept a small vegetable garden to feed the passers-by. Every Saturday he prepared kolio (a dish of wheat and honey traditionally offered to commemorate the departed) and divided it in three parts: one part commemorated the family and loved ones of those who had donated the wheat and honey; the second, the deceased fathers of the monastery; and the last, all departed Orthodox Christians.

It always disturbed St. Christesia to see his brothers and sisters at odds with one another, so when he heard that two people were quarreling, he would go and reconcile them. “My children!” he would say, “If you do not heed my words, I will leave in sorrow, and the devil, who is always resistant to peace, will rejoice and send more tribulations upon you. I came to you hungry, and I will depart hungry!” His words warmed the hearts of those whom he counseled and helped them to be reconciled with one another.

One hot evening after Vespers, St. Christesia set off on foot for a certain village. He left during twilight, and when night fell the sky was without a moon and extraordinarily dark. Before long it became difficult to walk any farther, so St. Christesia stopped to pray, and a bright light appeared before him to light the way. The divine light guided him all through the night, until he reached the village of Sartichala.

St. Christesia’s cell was poor and cramped. He slept on a bed of wooden planks that he covered in sheepskin, and instead of a pillow he rested his head on a stone. The pious ascetic wore a sheepskin coat and sandals made of bark. Whatever he received he gave to the poor. Having placed complete trust in God, he would not permit himself to worry about the morrow, nor did he bother to store up food or supplies for the harsh winter months.
Father Christesia was already advanced in age when he was tonsured a monk and given the new name Christopher. He reposed peacefully in 1771, at the age of eighty.
1781 Saint Ignatius of Laconi Capuchin questor for 40 years as a child  found daily at church doors before dawn waiting in prayer to be opened levitation in prayer gifts of prophecy and miracles of healing (AC)

Cálari, in Sardínia, sancti Ignátii a Lacóni, Confessóris, ex Ordine Minórum Capuccinórum, humilitáte, caritáte et miráculis præclári; quem Pius Papa Duodécimus Sanctórum honóribus decorávit.
              At Cagliari in Sardinia, St. Ignatius of Laconi, confessor, of the Minor Order of Capuchins, distinguished for his humility, charity and miracles.  He was accorded the honour of canonization by Pope Pius XII.
1781 ST IGNATIUS OF LACONI
LACONI is beautifully situated a little south of the middle of the island of Sardinia. Two hundred and fifty years ago it was little more than a large village, with narrow winding streets between the peasant cottages, adjoining the park and mansion of the local nobleman, the Marquis of Laconi. Living in the Via Prezzu was a man named Matthew Cadello Peis, who was married to Ann Mary Sanna Casu. They were respectable people, very hard-working and very poor, and they had three sons and six daughters. One who knew them personally said they were “a household of saints”; that, no doubt, must not be taken too literally; but one of the children, the second born, was in fact to be raised to the Church’s altars.
This boy was born on December 17, 1701. He was christened Francis Ignatius Vincent, and was known at home by his last name. Little is known of his early years, except that he was a “child of the fields”, early becoming acquainted with hard work on his father’s land. Physically, Vincent was delicate and his healthy life failed to strengthen him; all the witnesses speak of his being thin and pale. It was precisely this poor health that was the occasion of his seriously determining to “enter religion”. Vincent’s mother is said to have promised her son to St Francis of Assisi at birth, and she certainly used to speak to him of one day wearing the habit of Il Poverello. Accordingly when, being about seventeen or eighteen years old, he was taken seriously ill, he offered himself to St Francis should he recover. But on regaining his health, his father was unwilling to part with him: “We did not promise to do anything in a hurry”, said the prudent Matthew. “To-day or to-morrow, this year or later on, it all comes to the same thing. There’s no need to keep your promise at once.” But on an autumn day in 1721 something happened to strengthen Vincent’s determination. He was riding out to look at his father’s cattle when, at a rather dangerous part of the road, his horse bolted. Vincent lost control altogether and thought he would certainly be killed; but for no apparent reason the horse pulled up suddenly, and then jogged on quietly as before. In this the young man saw the finger of God.
A few days later, in spite of his father’s expostulations, Vincent made his way to Buoncammino, near Cagliari, and there asked to be admitted to the Capuchin branch of the Order of Friars Minor. After some delay he was clothed in the habit of St Francis, as Brother Ignatius, at St Benedict’s friary. It was one of those beautiful homely little houses of friars such as are still to be found in parts of Italy.
At first Brother Ignatius got on well, under the eye of a sympathetic and discerning novice-master. But his successor in office was less understanding: he suspected Brother Ignatius of insincerity, and was of the opinion that he was not physically strong enough for Franciscan life. As the end of his novitiate approached it looked as if Brother Ignatius would be rejected for profession, but he redoubled his efforts to carry out all he was called on to do: and so at the end of 1722 he was allowed to make his vows. Brother Ignatius was specially attached to St Benedict’s; but after profession he was sent for short periods to other neighbouring houses, the bigger friary, St Antony’s, at Buoncammino, Cagliari, Iglesias. It was at the last-named place that rumours of wonders began to be associated with the young laybrother, and when he was sent out to collect alms people not only gave to him but asked him to come again. Near the village of Sant’ Antioco there is a hillock called to this day Brother Ignatius’s Hill, though why is not known. From Iglesias he was sent back to Cagliari, where for fifteen years he worked in the weaving-shed. The life of a laybrother is likely in any case to be uneventful, and during this period practically nothing is known of Brother Ignatius beyond his steady progress in the love of God.
Then came a change which gave him opportunity more widely to extend this love in terms of his human fellows. He was already a “friar”; he had now to be a “brother” as well. A man of solitude and silence, working quietly within monastery walls, he had to go out into the world, travel around on foot, and commend himself and his mission to all and sundry. In 1741 he was sent out from St Antony’s at Buoncammino to quest for alms, and that proved to be the chief external occupation of the remaining forty years of his life. It is easy enough to dress up a “begging son of St Francis” in a spurious romanticism: the reality is rather different. You are liable to have the door slammed in your face, to be assailed with abuse; you are at the mercy of the weather and the miles no less than of the moods and whims of men and women. Brother Ignatius made of this humbling task a real apostolate: he was consulted by those in difficulties, he visited the sick and reproved sinners and taught the ignorant, enemies were reconciled, he took back alms to support his brethren, and God was glorified. For people loved Brother Ignatius. And outstandingly children loved him and he loved them. More than one happy mother claimed that her barrenness had been taken away through the prayers of Ignatius of Laconi.
A Capuchiness, who well remembered him coming to her home when she was seven years old, recorded that St Ignatius was of medium height, with slight features, his hair and beard white. He carried a forked stick and was upright in his gait, easy in manner, and “gentle and caressing with children”. His simplicity was truly Franciscan, and the measuredness of his speech reflected the serene calm of his mind. His daily activity was sufficiently trying, but the solitude he lacked then he found at night, when contemplation of divine things often reduced sleep to a few hours, and that on a shake-down bed with a log for pillow.
There is the testimony of an onlooker, Brother Francis Mary of Iglesias, for St Ignatius being lifted from the ground in prayer, and the account bears the stamp of accuracy: “Then it was time for the night office”, it ends, “and at the sound of the bell Brother Ignatius slowly moved down to the ground and went into choir with the others.” Numerous marvels are attributed to him, and attested in the process of beatification. Many of them were cures of ill-health, so much so that Father Emmanuel of Iglesias and others said that Brother Ignatius seemed to be the general medical practitioner of the whole neighbourhood, and the laybrother had often to protest that “I am not a doctor. What can I do?” What he did was to recommend some simple remedy, to exhort to trust in God, or to pray, “If it be God’s will, may you be healed”.
There was in Cagliari a rich and unscrupulous money-lender, named Franchino, at whose house St Ignatius deliberately never called in his quest for alms. Regarding this as a public slight, Franchino complained to the father guardian of St Antony’s, who, not knowing the reason for the omission, told Brother Ignatius to remedy it. He obeyed without argument, and came back from Franchino’s house with a sack full of food. This he brought to the guardian and poured out at his feet—when it was seen to be dripping with blood. “What is the meaning of this?” asked the guardian in astonishment. “Father guardian”, explained Brother Ignatius “this is the blood of the poor. And that is why I ask for nothing from that house.”
From the early spring of 1781, when he was in his eightieth year, the health of St Ignatius began seriously to fail, and he visited his beloved sister Mary Agnes, a Poor Clare, telling her it was the last time they would meet on earth. He took to his bed, and on May 11, at the hour of our Lord’s agony on the cross, he put his hands together, murmured, “It is the Agony!” and died. St Ignatius of Laconi was canonized in 1951.
A Vita del Ven. Fra Ignazio da Laconi, by F. Sequi, was published at Cagliari in 1870. Another, by Father G. de Dominicis, in 1929, was based on documents of the process and local research. Another, by R. Branca, appeared at Turin in 1932. The official biography, published in 1940, was written by Father Samuel of Chiaramonte and gathers ins convenient form all that is of general interest about St Ignatius; but the work is somewhat verbose, spun out and repetitive for English taste. A German Protestant minister, Joseph Fues, who was in Sardinia in 1773—76, published a series of descriptive letters (Leipzig, 1780) which contain very valuable contemporary information about Ignatius; they were translated into Italian in 1899. A life in French by Father Majella was published in Belgium in 1946.

Born in Laconi, Sardinia, in 1701; died at Cagliari, Italy, in 1781; canonized in 1951; feast day formerly May 12.  Vincent Peis' parents were of modest means, but his was not a modest devotion to God. In fact, his childlike devotion was so remarkable that he would be found daily at the church doors before dawn, waiting in prayer, for them to be opened.    
Saint Ignatius
With some difficulty he was received into the Capuchin branch of the Franciscan Order at Buoncammino (near Cagliari) in 1722 as a lay-brother, taking the name Ignatius. He passed his life doing mundane tasks and, at age 40 (1741), was entrusted with the work of questor, that is, begging for his convent at Cagliari. This office, which was his occupation for 40 years, gave him an opportunity to exercise his gentle love of children, the poor, and the sick. He travelled about on foot in all kinds of weather, meeting with refusals and contradictions but he never gave up.
   An unusual legend tells us that he would never beg alms from an unscrupulous moneylender, who complained of this neglect. The local guardian ordered Ignatius to call upon him. The saint returned with a sack of food, but when it was opened, it dripped with blood. More reliable accounts tell of his levitation in prayer and miracles of healing wrought through his intercession.
  Though he was illiterate, he loved to listen to the Gospels, especially the Passion accounts, and was favored with the gifts of prophecy and miracles. He would pass whole hours in prayer before the tabernacle. The particulars about his Christ-centered life that have survived show a determined, gentle character like those in the Little Flowers of Saint Francis. A contemporary portrait of the saint at Cagliari confirms a written description of him as medium height with slight features, a white beard and hair, upright in gait, and easy in manner
(Attwater, Benedictines, Farmer)

Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  May 2016
Universal:   “That in every country in the world, women may be honoured and respected
and that their essential contribution to society may be highly esteemed”.

Evangelization:  “That families, communities and groups may pray the Holy Rosary for evangelisation and peace”.
God Bless Mother Angelica 1923-2016
ewtnmissionaries.com

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)


 40 Days for Life  We are the defenders of true freedom.
  May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.
40 days for Life Campaign saves lives Shawn Carney Campaign Director www.40daysforlife.com
Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world

It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa
 Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life'
May our witness unveil the deception of the "pro-choice" slogan.

Jesus brings us many Blessings
 
The more we pray, the more we wish to pray. Like a fish which at first swims on the surface of the water, and afterwards plunges down, and is always going deeper; the soul plunges, dives, and loses itself in the sweetness of conversing with God. -- St. John Vianney

  Month by Month of Saintly Dedications


The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.  arras.catholique.fr


Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas


We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

Join Mary of Nazareth Project help us build the International Marian Center of Nazareth
http://www.worldpriest.com/
THE EUCHARIST, A MYSTERY TO BE BELIEVED POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
SACRAMENTUM CARITATIS OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Miracles by Century 100   200   300   400   500   600   700    800   900   1000    1100   1200   1300   1400  1500  1600  1700  1800   1900  Miracles_BLay Saints
Morning Prayer and Hymn    Meditation of the Day    Prayer for Priests    Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here
We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:
'HAVE COMPASSION ON THE HEART OF YOUR MOST HOLY MOTHER WHICH IS COVERED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT, WHILE THERE IS NO ONE TO REMOVE THEM WITH AN ACT OF REPARATION.'

THE GREAT PROMISE
Our Lady then said: 'MY DAUGHTER LOOK AT MY HEART SURROUNDED WITH THORNS WITH WHICH UNGRATEFUL MEN PIERCE IT AT EVERY MOMENT BY THEIR BLASPHEMIES AND INGRATITUDE. YOU, AT LEAST, TRY TO CONSOLE ME, AND SAY THAT I PROMISE TO ASSIST AT THE HOUR OF DEATH WITH ALL THE GRACES NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, ALL THOSE WHO, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS GO TO CONFESSION AND RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION, RECITE FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY AND KEEP ME COMPANY FOR A QUARTER OF AN HOUR WHILE MEDITATING ON MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY, WITH THE INTENTION OF MAKING REPARATION TO ME.'

The Five Reasons
Lucia once asked this question of Our Lord and received as an answer: 'MY DAUGHTER, THE MOTIVE IS SIMPLE, THERE ARE FIVE KINDS OF OFFENCES AND BLASPHEMIES UTTERED AGAINST THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: (1) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION: (2) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER VIRGINITY: (3) BLASPHEMIES AGAINST HER DIVINE MATERNITY: (4) BLASPHEMIES OF THOSE WHO OPENLY SEEK TO FOSTER IN THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN INDIFFERENCE OR EVEN HATRED FOR THIS IMMACULATE MOTHER: (5) THE OFFENCES OF THOSE WHO DIRECTLY OUTRAGE HER IN HOLY IMAGES.'
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION, (2) COMMUNION, (3) FIVE DECADES OF THE ROSARY, (4) MEDITATION ON ONE OR MORE OF THE ROSARY MYSTERIES FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, (5) TO DO ALL THESE THINGS IN THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION TO THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, and (6) TO OBSERVE ALL THESE PRACTICES ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE MONTHS.
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

Patron_Saints.html  Widowed_Saints htmIndulgences The Catholic Church in China
LINKS: Marian Shrines  
India Marian Shrine Lourdes of the East   Lourdes 1858  China Marian shrines 1995
Kenya national Marian shrine  Loreto, Italy  Marian Apparitions (over 2000Quang Tri Vietnam La Vang 1798
 
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