Friday  Saints of this Day September  01  Kaléndis Septémbris  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!
RDeo grátias. R.  Thanks be to God.

 Pope Francis calls on everyone to be “protectors of creation, protectors of God’s plan inscribed in nature,
protectors of one another and of the environment.”
 Pope Francis

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Please help save the unborn they are the future for the world
It is a great poverty that a child must die so that you may live as you wish -- Mother Teresa

Saving babies, healing moms and dads, 'The Gospel of Life

Give as if every pasture in the mountains of Ireland belonged to you. -- Saint Aidan
 
It Is a Mortal Sin When Children Don't Visit Their Elderly Parents.

True charity consists in putting up with all one's neighbor's faults,
never being surprised by his weakness, and being inspired by the least of his virtues. -- St Therese of Lisieux


  It Makes No Sense Not To Believe In GOD 
Every Christian must be a living book wherein one can read the teaching of the gospel
 Saints of this Day September  01  Kaléndis Septémbris  

Pope Francis  PRAYER INTENTIONS FOR  September 2016
Universal:   Centrality of the Human Person
That each may contribute to the common good and to the building of a society that places the human person at the center
.
Evangelization:   Mission to Evangelize
That by participating in the Sacraments and meditating on Scripture, Christians may become more aware of their mission to evangelize
.

Before introduction of the Julian calendar, Rome began New Year September 1.
According to Holy Tradition, Christ entered the synagogue on September 1 to announce His mission to mankind (Luke 4:16-22). Quoting Isaiah 61:1-2), the Savior proclaimed, "The spirit of the Lord is upon me; because He has anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; He has sent me to proclaim release to captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord…"
This scene is depicted in a Vatican manuscript (Vatican, Biblioteca. Cod. Gr. 1613, p.1).
12th -11th -B.C. St. Joshua and St. Gideon Israelites, Old Testament patriarch and judge
St. Anna the Prophetess whose sanctity is revealed in the Gospel.
St. Sixtus, disciple of the blessed apostle Peter, who consecrated him first bishop
at Rheims in France.  He received the crown of martyrdom under Nero
       St. Priscus, martyr, who was formerly one of the disciples of Christ.
 118 St. Terentian Bishop of Todi, in Umbria Italy; martyr
380 Holy Martyr Aithalas the Deacon death by stoning for confessing Christ by Persian emperor Sapor II
 490 St. Victorious Bishop of Le Mans a disciple of St. Martin of Tours originally
 520 St. Constantius Bishop of Aquino
; renowned for the gift of prophecy. many virtues;
543-615 'St Columbanus Was Privileged Channel of God’s Grace'
670? ST FIACRE sometimes miraculously restored to health those that were sick.
700 ST DRITHELM visions of afterlife when separated from his body
1367 BD JOAN SODERINI, VIRGIN her tomb at once became a place of pilgrimage.
1490 St. Beatrice da Silva Meneses foundress
1588 BD HUGH MORE, MARTYR reconciled with the Church by Father Thomas Stephenson, s.j.
1855 Bl. Michael Ghebre Vincentian martyr of Ethiopia


12th -11th -B.C. St. Joshua and St. Gideon; Israelites, Old Testament patriarch and judge,
In Palæstína sanctórum Jósue et Gedeónis.    In Palestine, the Saints Joshua and Gideon.
Saint Joshua (Jesus), the son of Navi, was leader of the Israelites after the death of the Prophet Moses. He was born in Egypt around 1654 B.C. and succeeded Moses when he was eighty-five. He ruled the Israelites for twenty-five years.

Joshua conquered the Promised Land, and led the Hebrew nation into it. The Lord worked a great miracle through Joshua. He stopped the Jordan from flowing, allowing the Israelites to cross over on foot as if on dry land (Joshua 3).
St Michael, the Leader of the Heavenly Hosts, appeared to Joshua (Joshua 5:13-15).
The walls of Jericho fell down by themselves after the Ark of the Covenant was carried around the city for seven days (Joshua 6:20). Finally, during a battle with the enemy, Joshua, by God's will, halted the motion of the sun (Joshua 10:13) and prolonged the day until victory was won.

After the end of the war, Joshua divided the Promised Land among the Twelve Tribes of Israel. He died at 110 years of age (1544 B.C.), commanding the nation to preserve the Law of Moses. All these events are recounted in the Book of Joshua, the sixth book of the Old Testament.
St. Anna the Prophetess whose sanctity is revealed in the Gospel.
Hierosólymis beátæ Annæ Prophetíssæ, cujus sanctitátem sermo Evangélicus prodit.
    At Jerusalem, blessed Anna, prophetess, whose sanctity is revealed in the Gospel.
A widow and seeress, described in St. Luke's Gospel.
Simeon_and_Anna in the temple.
Rhemis, in Gállia, sancti Xysti, qui fuit primus ejúsdem civitátis Epíscopus.
   
St. Sixtus, disciple of the blessed apostle Peter, who consecrated him the first bishop at Rheims in France.  He received the crown of martyrdom under Nero.
Cápuæ, via Aquária, sancti Prisci Mártyris, qui fuit unus de antíquis Christi discípulis.
    At Capua, on the Via Aquaria, St. Priscus, martyr, who was formerly one of the disciples of Christ.

118 St. Terentian Bishop of Todi, in Umbria, Italy and martyr.
Tudérti, in Umbria, sancti Terentiáni, Epíscopi et Mártyris; qui, sub Hadriáno Imperatóre, Lætiáni Procónsulis jussu, equúleo et scorpiónibus cruciátus est, ac demum, abscíssa lingua, cápitis damnátus martyrium complévit.
    At Todi in Umbria, St. Terentian, bishop and martyr.  Under Emperor Hadrian, by order of the proconsul Laetian, he was racked, scourged with whips set with metal, and finally having had his tongue cut out, he ended his martyrdom by undergoing capital punishment.
While serving as bishop of Todi, in Umbria, Italy, he was arrested during the persecutions under Emperor Hadrian. He was tortured by having his tongue cut out and then being beheaded.
3rd v. St. Verena Hermitess Originally from Egypt; spent her remaining days as a hermite in a cave near Zurich
Ad Aquas Duras, in Constantiénsi Germániæ território, sanctæ Verénæ Vírginis.
    In Baden, in the province of Constance, St. Verena, virgin.
Supposedly a relative of St. Victor the Theban Legion. She went to Rhaetia (modern Switzerland) to find him. She settled there at a site called Solothurn, but spent her remaining days as a hermite in a cave near Zurich.

Sentiáni, in fínibus Apúliæ, pássio sanctórum Donáti et altérius Felícis; qui, sanctórum Bonifátii et Theclæ fílii, a Valeriáno Júdice, sub Maximiáno Imperatóre, jussi sunt, post vária torménta, cápite præcídi hodiérna die, in qua et festívitas aliórum ex duódecim frátribus, quorum natális respectívis diébus ágitur, institúta est celebrári.  Ipsórum vero duódecim fratrum córpora Benevéntum póstea transláta sunt, ibíque honorífice asserváta.
    At Sentiano, in the district of Apulia, the passion of Saints Donatus and a second Felix who were the sons of Saints Boniface and Thecla.  After they had endured various torments under the judge Valerian in the reign of Emperor Maximian, they were condemned to be beheaded on this day.  Today also is kept the festival of the others of the Twelve Holy Brethren, whose birthdays are noted in their proper place.  The bodies of these Twelve Holy Brethren were later translated to Benevento where they are honourably enshrined.

332 St. Ammon a deacon in Thrace, now in the southern Balkans; Martyr who died with 40 young women converts
Heracléæ, in Thrácia, sancti Ammónis Diáconi, et sanctárum quadragínta Vírginum, quas ille erudívit in fide, et, sub Licínio tyránno, ad martyrii glóriam secum perdúxit.
    At Heraclea, under the tyrant Licinius, St. Ammon, deacon, and forty holy virgins whom he instructed in the faith and led with him to the glory of martyrdom.

Saint Ammoun the Deacon was from Adrianopolis in Macedonia, and instructed forty holy virgins in the Christian Faith. They were captured by Baudos the governor, and were tortured because they would not offer sacrifice to idols.

The holy martyrs endured many cruel torments, which were intended to force them to renounce Christ and worship idols. Later, they were sent to Heraklea in Thrace to appear before the tyrant Licinius. The valiant martyrs remained unshakeable, however.

St Ammoun and eight of the virgins were beheaded, ten virgins were burned, six of them died after heated metal balls were put into their mouths, six were stabbed with knives, and the rest were struck in the mouth and stabbed in the heart with swords.

Ammon was a deacon in Thrace, now in the southern Balkans. Under the persecutions of Emperor Licinius, he and forty of his converts died. St. Ammon was singled out and slain by having a red hot poker placed on his head.

The 40 Holy Virgins and Saint Ammoun the Deacon, were from Adrianopolis in Macedonia. Deacon Ammoun was their guide in Christian Faith. They were captured by Baudos the governor, and were tortured because they would not offer sacrifice to idols.

The holy martyrs endured many cruel torments, which were intended to force them to renounce Christ and worship idols. Later, they were sent to Heraklea in Thrace to appear before the tyrant Licinius. The valiant martyrs remained unshakeable, however.

St Ammoun and eight of the virgins were beheaded, ten virgins were burned, six of them died after heated metal balls were put into their mouths, six were stabbed with knives, the rest were struck in the mouth and stabbed in the heart with swords.
380 The Holy Martyr Aithalas the Deacon, by order of the Persian emperor Sapor II, was put to death by stoning for confessing Christ.
Cápuæ sancti Prisci Epíscopi, qui unus fuit ex illis Sacerdótibus, qui, in persecutióne Wandalórum, ob fidem cathólicam várie afflícti et vetústæ navi impósiti, ex Africa ad Campániæ líttora pervenérunt, et Christiánam religiónem, in iis locis dispérsi diversísque Ecclésiis præfécti, mirífice propagárunt.  Ipsíus autem fuérunt sócii Castrénsis, cujus dies natális tértio Idus Februárii recólitur, Támmarus, Rósius, Heráclius, Secundínus, Adjútor, Marcus, Augústus, Elpídius, Cánion et Vindónius.
    5th v. St. Priscus, bishop.  He was one of those priests
At Capua, who were subjected to various trials for the Catholic faith during the persecution of the Vandals.  Being put in an old ship on the coast of Africa, they reached the shores of Campania, and separating, they were placed at the head of various churches, and thus greatly extended the Christian religion.  The companions of Priscus were Castrensis, whose birthday is mentioned on the 11th of February, Tammarius, Rosius, Heraclius, Secundinus, Adjutor, Mark, Augustus, Elpidius, Canion, and Vindonius.
6th v. St. Agia Widow also called Aja and Aye
She is reported as being the sainted mother of St. Lupus of Sens.
St. Nivard Archbishop of Reims brother in law of the Frankish king Childeric II of Austrasia. He restored Hautvilliers Abbey and enshrined there.
5th v. Saint Martha and her husband Sisotion were the parents of St Simeon the Stylite.
She lived in Cilicia of Asia Minor during the fourth and fifth centuries, and came from a poor family. She and her husband Sisotion were the parents of St Simeon the Stylite.

At the age of eighteen, Simeon received the monastic tonsure without his parents' knowledge. Many years later, Martha came to the saint's pillar in order to see him. Simeon sent word to her not to come, for if they were worthy, they would see each other in the life to come. Martha insisted on seeing him, and he had someone tell her to wait for a while in silence. St Martha agreed to this, and waited at the foot of the hill where her son's pillar stood. There she departed to the Lord.

When he heard that his mother had died, St Simeon ordered that her body be brought to the foot of his pillar. He prayed over his mother's body for some time shedding many tears, and witnesses said that a smile appeared on St Martha's face.

459 Saint Simeon the Stylite received monastic tonsure devoted himself to feats of strictest abstinence, unceasing prayer; 80 years in arduous monastic feats, 47 years upon the pillar
Born in the Cappadocian village of Sisan of Christian parents, Sisotian and Martha. At thirteen he began to tend his father's flock of sheep, devoting himself attentively. and with love to this, his first obedience.

Once, after he heard the Beatitudes in church, he was struck by their profundity. Not trusting to his own immature judgment, he turned therefore with his questions to an experienced Elder. The Elder readily explained to the boy the meaning of what he had heard. The seed fell on good soil, and it strengthened his resolve to serve God.

When Simeon was eighteen, he received monastic tonsure and devoted himself to feats of the strictest abstinence and unceasing prayer. His zeal, beyond the strength of the other monastic brethren, so alarmed the igumen that he told Simeon that to either moderate his ascetic deeds or leave the monastery.

St Simeon then withdrew from the monastery and lived in an empty well in the nearby mountains, where he was able to carry out his austere struggles unhindered. After some time, angels appeared in a dream to the igumen, who commanded him to bring back Simeon to the monastery.

The monk, however, did not long remain at the monastery. After a short while he settled into a stony cave, situated not far from the village of Galanissa, and he dwelt there for three years, all the while perfecting himself in monastic feats. Once, he decided to spent the entire forty days of Great Lent without food or drink. With the help of God, the monk endured this strict fast. From that time he abstained from food completely during the entire period of the Great Lent, even from bread and water. For twenty days he prayed while standing, and for twenty days while sitting, so as not to permit the corporeal powers to relax.

A whole crowd of people began to throng to the place of his efforts, wanting to receive healing from sickness and to hear a word of Christian edification. Shunning worldly glory and striving again to find his lost solitude, the monk chose a previously unknown mode of asceticism. He went up a pillar six to eight feet high, and settled upon it in a little cell, devoting himself to intense prayer and fasting.

Reports of St Simeon reached the highest church hierarchy and the imperial court. Patriarch Domninos II (441-448) of Antioch visited the monk, celebrated Divine Liturgy on the pillar and communed the ascetic with the Holy Mysteries.

Elders living in the desert heard about St Simeon, who had chosen a new and strange form of ascetic striving. Wanting to test the new ascetic and determine whether his extreme ascetic feats were pleasing to God, they sent messengers to him, who in the name of these desert fathers were to bid St Simeon to come down from the pillar.

In the case of disobedience they were to forcibly drag him to the ground. But if he was willing to submit, they were to leave him on his pillar. St Simeon displayed complete obedience and deep Christian humility. The monks told him to stay where he was, asking God to be his helper.

St Simeon endured many temptations, and he invariably gained the victory over them. He relied not on his own weak powers, but on the Lord Himself, Who always came to help him. The monk gradually increased the height of the pillar on which he stood. His final pillar was 80 feet in height. Around him a double wall was raised, which hindered the unruly crowd of people from coming too close and disturbing his prayerful concentration.

Women, in general, were not permitted beyond the wall. The saint did not make an exception even for his own mother, who after long and unsuccessful searches finally succeeded in finding her lost son. He would not see her, saying, "If we are worthy, we shall see one another in the life to come." St Martha submitted to this, remaining at the foot of the pillar in silence and prayer, where she finally died. St Simeon asked that her coffin be brought to him. He reverently bid farewell to his dead mother, and a joyful smile appeared on her face.

St Simeon spent 80 years in arduous monastic feats, 47 years of which he stood upon the pillar. God granted him to accomplish in such unusual conditions an indeed apostolic service. Many pagans accepted Baptism, struck by the moral staunchness and bodily strength which the Lord bestowed upon His servant.

The first one to learn of the death of the saint was his close disciple Anthony. Concerned that his teacher had not appeared to the people for three days, he went up on the pillar and found the dead body stooped over at prayer. Patriarch Martyrius of Antioch performed the funeral before a huge throng of clergy and people. They buried him near his pillar. At the place of his ascetic deeds, Anthony established a monastery, upon which rested the special blessing of St Simeon.
We pray to St Simeon for the return to the Church of those who have forsaken Her, or have been separated from Her.
490 St. Victorious Bishop of Le Mans a disciple of St. Martin of Tours originally.
Apud Cenómanos, in Gállia, sancti Victórii Epíscopi.    At Le Mans in France, St. Victorinus, bishop.
France, from circa 435. He was a disciple of St. Martin of Tours originally.
520 St. Constantius Bishop of Aquino; renowned for the gift of prophecy. many virtues;  mentioned by Pope St. Gregory the Great in his Dialogues.
Apud Aquínum sancti Constántii Epíscopi, prophetíæ dono multísque virtútibus clari.
    At Aquino, St. Constantius, a bishop renowned for the gift of prophecy and many virtues.
In Italy, mentioned by Pope St. Gregory the Great in his Dialogues.
543-615 'St Columbanus Was Privileged Channel of God’s Grace'
Cardinal Parolin Sends Papal Letter for 1400th Anniversary of Irish Missionary's Death
By Deborah Castellano Lubov Vatican City, August 31, 2015 (ZENIT.org)

“Saint Columbanus, who according to Benedict XVI we can truly consider one of the ‘Fathers of Europe,’ was convinced that there can be fraternity in the heart of Europe between people only if a civilization exists that is open to God.”

This statement was made by Pope Francis in a letter that Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Pietro Parolin, sent on Francis' behalf for the 18th International Meeting of the Columbanus Community, on the 1400th anniversary of the death of the saint. It was sent to Bishop Gianni Ambrosio of Piacenza-Bobbio, Italy.

Born in 543, Columbanus was a well-educated, Irish missionary who became a celebrated monk and founded several monasteries known for their strictness throughout Europe.  He left writings and a monastic Rule which emphasized obedience, silence, poverty, humility, and chastity. Recalling that Saint Columbanus died in Bobbio on Nov. 23, 615, the Holy Father sent his best wishes and greetings to the bishop, diocese, and all those participating in the meeting.


"Irish by family and formation, Columbanus always cherished the European idea of his ecclesial commitment," the papal note began, referring to a letter the missionary had written to Pope Gregory the Great in 600 AD, in which he made direct reference to the task of all Christians to collaborate so that the different peoples of the continent would live in peace and unity."

After thirty years in the monastery, the cardinal recalled, Columbanus "carried out the ascetic ideal typical" of the Irish communities, that of the perenigratio pro Christo.

The missionary, the Pontiff's letter stated, "became a pilgrim in Continental Europe, with the intention to have the light of the Gospel rediscovered in some European regions then de-Christianized after the immigration of peoples of the North East."

"Saint Columbanus was a privileged channel of God’s grace, attracting crowds of pilgrims and penitents, and receiving in the many new Monasteries very many youths, who embraced his Regula monachorum. Convinced, as he was, that grace is the specific help that providence gives to every human creature that receives the love of God in his existence, he was the intrepid diffuser of Confession, Sacrament of a personal nature, to be repeated in everyone’s life, as irreplaceable means for a serious path of conversion."

The nations which the now-saint evangelized and attracted many to Christ, he underscored, were many. Columbanus' monasteries, he also added, became "beacons of spiritual, intellectual and social radiation," such as Bangor in Ireland, Annegrey and Luxeuil in France, Sankt Gallen in Switzerland, the Bregen region in Germany, and Bobbio.

Cardinal Parolin reminded those gathered that Pope Francis expresses his earnest appreciation of the many pastoral and cultural initiatives, invokes the heavenly intercession of Saint Columbanus for the journey of the whole ecclesial community of which he is patron and for the peoples of Europe,  and imparts a heartfelt Apostolic Blessing.

545 St. Regulus Martyr Originally from Africa  martyred by the Ostrogoths under their Arian king Totila.
Populónii, in Túscia, sancti Réguli Mártyris, qui ex Africa illuc venit, ibíque, sub Tótila, martyrium consummávit.
    At Piombino in Tuscany, St. Regulus, martyr, who went thither from Africa, and consummated his martyrdom under Totila.
forced to depart his native land during the persecutions of orthodox Christians by the Arian Vandals. He lived in the region of Tuscany, Italy, but was eventually martyred by the Ostrogoths under their Arian king Totila.
623 St. Lupus of Sens Bishop of Sens France; while he stood at the holy altar in the presence of the clergy, a gem fell from heaven into the consecrated chalice which he was using.
Apud Sénonas beáti Lupi, Epíscopi et Confessóris; de quo refértur quod quadam die, præsénte Clero, dum sacris altáribus adstáret, lapsa est cælitus gemma in ejus cálicem sanctum.
    At Sens, St. Lupus, bishop and confessor, of whom it is related that on a certain day, while he stood at the holy altar in the presence of the clergy, a gem fell from heaven into the consecrated chalice which he was using.
Succeeding St. Anthony in that see in 609. Lupus was slandered by a courtier, Farulf, and by an abbot, Medegislus, and was exiled. The Merovingian king Clotaire II realized that Lupus was the victim of slander. The people of the region also knew, and a mob killed Abbot Medegislus for his lies. Lupus returned to Sens. In some accounts he is called Leu.

623 ST LUPUS, OR LEU, BISHOP OF SENS
         HAVING succeeded St Artemius in the bishopric of Sens, Lupus distinguished himself by the most zealous discharge of every pastoral duty, and showed that, as no dignity could inspire him with pride, so no application to public employment could divert him from constant attention to God. When the safety of his country demanded his assistance he was active in maintaining public order, and after the death of King Thierry II he supported his son Sigebert to the utmost of his power.
     Afterwards Clotaire became master of Burgundy and sent the Duke Farulf thither to take care of his affairs. This minister proceeded against St Lupus, who when Sens was besieged had escaped the swords of Clotaire only by ringing the church bell and thereby frightening them off. The bishop neglected the precaution of buying his safety from Farulf, who accused him falsely to the king, and was seconded in his calumnies by Medegislus, abbot of Saint-Remi at Sens, whose aim it was to supplant St Lupus in his see. The wages of the success of this unscrupulous prelate was that the people of Sens broke into his church and there slew him.
   Clotaire, being deceived by the slanderers, banished St Lupus to Auséne, a village not far from Lyons. The holy bishop on his arrival found that the people of the country worshipped false gods. By restoring sight to a blind man he converted the governor, and baptized him with several other pagans in the armies of the Franks.
In the meantime St Winebald, abbot of Troyes, and the citizens of Sens asked King Clotaire to recall St Lupus. That prince realized the injury he had done the man, and the slanders of his accusers. He therefore sent for St Lupus to ask his forgiveness, and sent him back to his church. The saint never showed the least resentment against his enemies, and by the evenness of temper with which he bore his disgrace gave the highest mark of heroism and virtue.

Among the marvels told of this saint is that one day while singing Mass a precious stone dropped miraculously into the chalice. This is referred to in the Roman Martyrology, with the guarded word refertur, “it is reported”
, which is certainly called for when we consider how easily a jewel might become detached from a vestment.
         Nevertheless it was kept as a relic in the treasury of the cathedral of Sens, where also was preserved the archbishop’s episcopal ring, one of the many in legend that were dropped into water and recovered in the belly of a fish. St Lupus died in the year 623.
         The earliest Latin biography of St Lupus of Sens has been critically edited in MGH.,
         Scriptores Merov., vol. iv, pp. 176—178. B. Krusch assigns it no higher date than the ninth
         century and thinks it historically unreliable. See, however, G. Vielhaber in Analecta
         Bollandiana, vol. xxvi (1907), pp. 43—44; and cf. H. Bouvier, Histoire de l’Eglise de Sens,
         vol. i, pp. 101—106, with Duchesne, Fastes É
piscapaux, vol. ii, p. 392.
THE TWELVE BROTHERS, MARTYRS (DATE UNKNOWN)
THE twelve martyred brothers mentioned in the Roman Martyrology on this day were, according to their legend, natives of Hadrumetum in proconsular Africa and the children of SS. Boniface and Thecla, whose passion is commemorated on August 30. They were seized at Hadrumetum, brought to Carthage and tortured, and then sent into Italy chained together by the neck as they refused to apostatize.
         Four of them, Honoratus, Fortunatus, Arontius and Savinian, were put to death by beheading at Potenza on August 27 ; Septiminus, Januarius and Felix at Venosa on the 28th; Vitalis, Sator and Repositus at Velleiano on the 29th; and another Felix and Donatus at Sentiano on September 1.

These martyrs of Apulia were not in fact related to one another nor to SS. Boniface and Thecla, and were probably not Africans. But after their relics had been taken up by the Duke Arechis, in the year 760, and enshrined in the church of St Sophia at Benevento, they became associated together in the general mind and the story grew up that they were brothers from across the seas.
           What purports to be a brief history of these martyrs will be found in the Acta Sanctorum,
         September, vol. i ; but for an adequate investigation of the composition of this group we
         must have recourse to CMH., pp. 471—472 and 480-482. Cf. also Lanzoni, Le diocesi
         d’Italia
, pp. 285—288.  
      
670? ST FIACRE sometimes miraculously restored to health those that were sick.
ST FIACRE (Fiachra) is not mentioned in the earlier Irish calendars, but it is said that he was born in Ireland and that he sailed over into France in quest of closer solitude, in which he might devote himself to God, unknown to the world. He arrived at Meaux, where St Faro, who was the bishop of that city, gave him a solitary dwelling in a forest which was his own patrimony, called Breuil, in the province of Brie. There is a legend that St Faro offered him as much land as he could turn up in a day, and that St Fiacre instead of driving his furrow with a plough turned the top of the soil with the point of his staff.

The anchorite cleared the ground of trees and briers, made himself a cell with a garden, built an oratory in honour of the Blessed Virgin, and made a hospice for travellers which developed into the village of Saint-Fiacre in Seine-et-Marne. Many resorted to him for advice, and the poor for relief. His charity moved him to attend cheerfully those that came to consult him and in his hospice he entertained all comers, serving them with his own hands, and he sometimes miraculously restored to health those that were sick. He never suffered any woman to enter the enclosure of his hermitage, and St Fiacre extended the prohibition even to his chapel several rather ill-natured legends profess to account for it. Others tell us that those who attempted to transgress were punished by visible judgements, and that, for example, in 1620 a lady of Paris, who claimed to be above this rule, going into the oratory, became distracted upon the spot and never recovered her senses; whereas Anne of Austria, Queen of France, was content to offer up her prayers outside the door, amongst the other pilgrims.
   The fame of St Fiacre’s miracles of healing continued after his death and crowds visited his shrine for centuries.
Mgr Séguier, Bishop of Meaux in 1649, and John de Châtillon, Count of Blois, gave testimony of their own relief. Anne of Austria attributed to the mediation of this saint the recovery of Louis XIII at Lyons, where he had been dangerously ill: in thanksgiving for which she made on foot a pilgrimage to the shrine in 1641. She also sent to his shrine a token in acknowledgement of his intervention in the birth of her son, Louis XIV. Before that king underwent a severe operation, Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux, began a novena of prayers at Saint-Fiacre to ask the divine blessing. His relics at Meaux are still resorted to and he is invoked against all sorts of physical ills, including venereal disease.


He is also a patron saint of gardeners and of the cab-drivers of Paris. French cabs are called fiacres because the first establishment to let coaches on hire, in the middle of the seventeenth century, was in the rue Saint-Martin, near the hotel Saint-Fiacre, in Paris. St Fiacre’s feast is kept in some dioceses of France, and throughout Ireland on this date.
          There is a Latin life of some length printed in the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. vi, but
         it is difficult to judge of its historical value. See also Gougaud, Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity,
         pp. 135—137; L. Pfleger in Zeitschnft f. die Geschichte des Oberrheins (1918), pp. 153—173
         J.   F. Kenney, Sources . . Ireland, vol. i, p. 493; and Bä
chtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des
         deutschcn Aberglaubens
, vol. iii.
694 ST SEBBE sanctified his soul by penance, alms-deeds and prayer
         THIS prince, in the year 664, which was remarkable for a terrible pestilence, began to reign over the East Saxons, who inhabited the country which now comprises Essex, Middlesex and part of Hertfordshire; he was co-king of this region with Sighere, who, fearing that the plague was a token of the wrath of the gods whom he had abandoned, apostatized to their worship again, with many of his people.
Thereupon a bishop, Jaruman, came from Mercia to show them the error of their ways. On the authority of a priest that was with him, St Bede says he was a very discreet, religious and good man, and was successful in his mission. In it the bishop had the support of Sebbe, who was by his wise government the father of his people, who sanctified his soul by penance, alms-deeds and prayer, so that many said he was more suited by disposition to be a bishop than a king.
   When he had reigned for thirty years, he resigned his crown, which he had long desired to do in order to be more at liberty to prepare himself for his last hour; but his queen had resolutely refused to agree to a separation and was only won over at last by the ill-health of her husband, which presaged that his death was not far off.

St Sebbe received the monastic habit from Waldhere, successor of St Erconwald in the bishopric of London, whom he charged with the distribution of his personal estate among the poor. “ When the aforesaid sickness increased upon him”, says St Bede, “and he perceived the day of his death to be drawing near, being a man of royal disposition he began to apprehend lest, when under pain and the approach of death, he might be guilty of anything unworthy of his person, either in words or any movement of his limbs. Wherefore, calling to him the said bishop of London, in which city he then was, he asked him that none might be present at his death besides the bishop himself and two attendants.” Shortly after, this truly royal man died, and was buried against the north wall of old St Paul’s. He is named in the Roman Martyrology on August 29, having been added thereto by Cardinal Baronius in the sixteenth century, and his feast is kept in the diocese of Brentwood on September
           All that we know of St Sebbe is derived from Bede, Eccl. Hist., bk iii, ch. 30, and bk iv,
         ch. ii. There would seem to be no trace of liturgical cultus until modern times.

700 ST DRITHELM visions of afterlife when separated from his body
         ST Bede in the fifth book of his Ecclesiastical History relates what he calls “a memorable miracle, like to those of former days”.
   It concerns a man called Drithelm, who was a householder in Northumbria and a person of virtuous life, father of a God-fearing family. Somewhere about the year 693 he was seized with an illness and one evening appeared to be dead, but the next morning he suddenly sat up, to the fear of those mourning around his body, who all fled except his wife.  To her he said: “Be not afraid, for I am now truly risen from death and allowed again to live among men. But hereafter I am not to live as I have been wont but rather in a very different manner.” He then went to pray in the church of the village and afterwards returned to his house where he made a division of his goods, one-third to his wife, one-third to his children, and the remaining third to the poor. He then made his way to King Aldfrid and told him his story, and at the king’s request St Ethelwald, who was then abbot of Melrose, tonsured Drithelm and admitted him among his monks.
           Now the things which Drithelm had seen, and which
“ he would not tell to tepid persons and such as lived negligently, but only to those who, being feared with the dread of Hell or delighted with the hope of heavenly joys, would make use of his words to advance in religion”,
were these After he was dead he had been met by one with a shining countenance and bright garments who led him towards the north-east, where sunrise is at midsummer. There was a great valley, whereof one side was burning with flames and the other frozen with ice and snow, and everywhere were men’s souls which seemed to be tossed from one side to the other as it were by a storm. Drithelm thought that this might be Hell, but his guide said it was not so and led him on till they came to a great fiery pit, on the edge of which Drithelm was left alone. The souls of folk were cast about in this pit and Drithelm could discern a priest, a layman, and a woman; cries and lamentations and a horrible stench rose from the flames, and evil spirits of repulsive aspect were about to push Drithelm in. But his guide appeared again and led him forward, now towards the south-east, to the quarter where the sun rises in winter, and they came out into an atmosphere of clear light where there was an endless unpierced wall. He found himself on the top of this wall, and within was a large and delighful field, “so full of fragrant flowers that the smell of their sweetness at once dispelled the stink of the dark furnace, which had pierced me through and through”.

         In this field were innumerable men and women, clothed in white and rejoicing together in groups, so that Drithelm thought that perhaps this was the kingdom of Heaven. But his guide said: “ This is not the kingdom of Heaven as you suppose.” Then they went yet further and came to a place of light and singing and delight, beside which the first field was dull and bleak, and Drithelm was hoping that they would enter into that place, when his guide suddenly stopped, turned round, and led him back by the way they had come to the first field.
           Here he turned to Drithelm and said : “ The valley of flames and cutting cold is the place where are tried the souls of those who have delayed to repent and confess their sins, but have done so at the point of death. And they shall be delivered at the day of Judgement, and some before then because of the prayers and alms-deeds and Masses of the living. The fiery and stinking pit which you saw is the mouth of Hell, into which whosoever is cast shall not be delivered for all eternity. This flowery place, in which you see these beautiful young people so shining and merry, is that into which are received for a space the souls who depart the body in good works But are not so perfect that they may at once he taken into Heaven. Whoever leave life perfect in thought, word, and deed are called at once into the kingdom of Heaven, of which you heard the singing, smelled the fragrance, and saw the light. As for you, who are now to return to your body and live among men again, if you will try nicely to examine your actions and direct your speech and behaviour in righteousness and simplicity, you shall have a place among the blessed souls. For when I left you for a white it was to learn what was to be your doom.”
Then Drithelm, fearing to ask any more questions, found himself living and among men once more.
           St Drithelm lived for the rest of his days in a cell on the banks of the Tweed, into the freezing waters of which he would sometimes cast himself by way of penance, and stand reciting his office with ice floating around him. At which some would say: “It is wonderful, Brother Drithelm that you can stand such cold.” And he, being a man “of much simplicity and indifferent wit”, would reply simply, “I have seen greater cold.” Or if they said, “It is strange how you can endure such hardship”, he would answer, “I have seen greater hardship.”
         In such ways he continued to mortify his body till the day of his death and forwarded the salvation of many by his words and example. One such was a priest and monk called Hemgils, of whom St Bede wrote: “He is still living, and leading a solitary life in Ireland where he supports his declining years with coarse bread and cold water. He often went to Drithelm and heard of him all the particulars of what he had seen when separated from his body; by whose relations we also came to the knowledge of the few particulars which we have briefly set down.”
There has been no known cultus of St Drithelm, but Alcuin refers to him in his poem on the saints of the church of York. Bishop Challoner mentions him under this date in his Memorials of Ancient British Piety.
           We know little of Drithelm beyond what is contained in Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica
         (see Plummer’s edition and notes) but Abbot Aelfric devotes a homily to the vision (ed.
         B. Thorpe, vol. ii, pp. 348—3 56). Cf. also St John Seymour, Irish Visions of the Other World
         (1930), especially pp. 154—156.       

St. Lythan Titular saint of two churches in Wales
He is sometimes listed as Llythaothaw and Thaw.

St. Vincent & Laetus Two Spanish martyrs
In Hispániæ sanctórum Mártyrum Vincéntii et Læti.    In Spain, the holy martyrs Vincent and Laetus.
They are possibly synonymous with St. Vincent, patron of Dax, Gascony, France, and St. Laetus, a deacon to St. Vincent. Traditionally, they are venerated in Toledo.
The Miasena Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos was trhrown into Lake Zagura in the ninth century in an effort to save it from  the iconoclasts. After a long time, the wonderworking icon emerged from the water unharmed and was brought to the Miasena Monastery.

1231 BB. JOHN OF PERUGIA AND PETER OF SASSOFERRATO, MARTYRS miracles reported at their tomb
         AMONG the Friars Minor whom St Francis of Assisi sent into Spain to preach the gospel to the Moors were Brother John, a priest of Perugia, and Brother Peter, a lay-brother from Sassoferrato in Piceno. These two friars established themselves at Teruel in Aragon, living in cells near the church of St Bartholomew, and there for some time prepared themselves for their apostolate. Their poverty and lowliness won the love and attention of the people of the place, and their lives and preaching bore much fruit. They then went on to Valencia, which was completely under the dominion of the Moors, and took up their quarters quietly at the church of the Holy Sepulchre. But directly the friars attempted to preach in public the Mohammedans turned against them they were arrested and brought before the  emir. He asked what had brought them to Valencia, and Bd John replied that they came to convert the Moors from the errors of Islam. They were then offered the usual alternatives of apostasy or death, and when they chose death were condemned to be beheaded. The sentence was carried out then and there in the emir’s garden, the martyrs praying aloud for the conversion of their persecutor. This was on August 29, 1231.
           Seven years later James I the Conqueror, King of Aragon, drove the Moors from Valencia with the help of his English and other mercenaries, and in accordance with the martyrs’ prayer the emir became a Christian. He gave his house to the Franciscans for a friary, saying to them “While I was an unbeliever I killed your brethren from Teruel, and I want to make reparation for my crime. Here, then, is my house at your disposal, consecrated already by the blood of martyrs.” The bodies of BB. John and Peter had been taken to Teruel, where miracles were reported at their tomb, and so a church was erected at the new friary at Valencia in their honour. They were beatified in 1783.
           An account of these martyrs is given in the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. vi, where their
         story is reproduced as told by St Antoninus of Florence. An older narrative of the martyr-
         dom has been printed in the Analecta Franciscana, vol. iii, pp. 186—187. See also Léon,
         Auréole Séraphique
(Eng. trans.), vol. iii, pp. 96—97.
1490  St. Beatrice da Silva Meneses founderss
Beatrice was born in Ceuta, Portugal, in 1424. She was the daughter of the Count of Viana, and the sister of St. Amedeus of Portugal. In Portugal, Beatrice is known as Brites. Raised in the household of Princess Isabel, Beatrice went to Spain with her when Isable married John II of Castile. Evenually, she tired of court life and entered the Cistercian convent at Toledo.

In 1484, Beatrice founded the Congregation of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The groups first house was the castle of Galliana, a gift from Queen Isabel. Beatrice died at Toledo on September 1, 1490 and was canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1976.

In his own wisdom, God calls each individual to a particular vocation. The life of St. Beatrice reminds us of how important it is for us to be always open to God's designs in our regard, and to pray that his will be done
.
St. Fiacre Patron of Gardeners and Cab-drivers
St. Fiacre (Fiachra) is not mentioned in the earlier Irish calendars, but it is said that he was born in Ireland and that he sailed over into France in quest of closer solitude, in which he might devote himself to God, unknown to the world. He arrived at Meaux, where Saint Faro, who was the bishop of that city, gave him a solitary dwelling in a forest which was his own patrimony, called Breuil, in the province of Brie. There is a legend that St. Faro offered him as much land as he could turn up in a day, and that St. Fiacre, instead of driving his furrow with a plough, turned the top of the soil with the point of his staff. The anchorite cleared the ground of trees and briers, made himself a cell with a garden, built an oratory in honor of the Blessed Virgin, and made a hospice for travelers which developed into the village of Saint-Fiacre in Seine-et-Marne.
Many resorted to him for advice, and the poor, for relief. His charity moved him to attend cheerfully those that came to consult him; and in his hospice he entertained all comers, serving them with his own hands, and sometimes miraculously restored to health those that were sick. He never allowed any woman to enter the enclosure of his hermitage, and Saint Fiacre extended the prohibition even to his chapel; several rather ill-natured legends profess to account for it. Others tell us that those who attempted to transgress, were punished by visible judgements, and that, for example, in 1620 a lady of Paris, who claimed to be above this rule, going into the oratory, became distracted upon the spot and never recovered her senses; whereas Anne of Austria, Queen of France, was content to offer up her prayers outside the door, amongst the other pilgrims.

The fame of Saint Fiacre's miracles of healing continued after his death and crowds visited his shrine for centuries. Mgr. Seguier, Bishop of Meaux in 1649, and John de Chatillon, Count of Blois, gave testimony of their own relief. Anne of Austr ia attributed to the meditation of this saint, the recovery of Louis XIII at Lyons, where he had been dangerously ill; in thanksgiving for which she made, on foot, a pilgrimage to the shrine in 1641. She also sent to his shrine, a token in acknowledgement of his intervention in the birth of her son, Louis XIV. Before that king underwent a severe operation, Bossuet, bishop of Meaux, began a novena of prayers at Saint-Fiacre to ask the divine blessing. His relics at Meaux are still resorted to, and he is invoked against all sorts of physical ills, including venereal disease. He is also a patron saint of gardeners and of cab-drivers of Paris. French cabs are called fiacres because the first establishment to let coaches on hire, in the middle of the seventeenth century, was in the Rue Saint-Martin, near the hotel Saint-Fiacre, in Paris. Saint Fiacre's feast is kept in some dioceses of France, and throughout Ireland on this date. Many miracles were claimed through his working the land and interceding for others
.
There is a Latin life of some length printed in the Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. vi, but it is difficult to judge of its historical value. See also Gougaud, Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity, pp. 135—137; L. Pfleger in Zeitschrift f. die Geschichte des Oberrheins (1918), pp. 153—173; J. F. Kenney, Sources...Ireland, vol. i, p. 493; and Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. iii.
724 St. Giles Abbot; longed for a hidden life; spent many years in solitude conversing only with God in Nimes; France; the highest repute for sanctity and miracles; His cult spread rapidly far and wide throughout Europe in the Middle Ages, as is witnessed by the numberless churches and monasteries dedicated to him in France, Germany, Poland, Hungary, and the British Isles; by the numerous manuscripts in prose and verse commemorating his virtues and miracles; and especially by the vast concourse of pilgrims who from all Europe flocked to his shrine. (Patron of Physically Disabled)
In província Narbonénsi sancti Ægídii, Abbátis et Confessóris, cujus nómine est appellátum óppidum, quod póstea crevit in loco, ubi ipse monastérium eréxerat et mortális vitæ cursum absólverat.
    In the province of Narbonne, St. Giles, abbot and confessor.  A town which later arose in the place where he had built his monastery and where he died was named after him.

ST GILES, ABBOT (DATE UNKNOWN)
THE legend of St Giles (Aegidius), one of the most famous of the middle ages, is derived from a biography written in the tenth century. According to this he was an Athenian by birth, and during his youth cured a sick beggar by giving him his own cloak, after the manner of St Martin.

Giles dreaded temporal prosperity and the applause of men which, after the death of his parents, was showered on him because of the liberality of his alms and his miracles. He therefore took ship for the west, landed at Marseilles, and, after passing two years with St Caesarius at Arles, eventually made his hermitage in a wood near the mouth of the Rhóne. In this solitude he was for some time nourished with the milk of a hind, which was eventually pursued by a certain king of the Goths, Flavius, who was hunting in the forest. The beast took refuge with St Giles in his cave, and the hounds gave up their chase on the following day the hind was found again and the same thing happened ; and again on the third day, when the king had brought with him a bishop to watch the peculiar behaviour of his hounds. This time one of the huntsmen shot an arrow at a venture into the bushes which screened the cave, and when they had forced their way through they found Giles, wounded by the arrow, sitting with the hind between his knees. Flavius and the bishop approached and asked the hermit to give an account of himself, and when they heard his story they begged his pardon and promised to send physicians to attend him. Giles begged them to leave him alone and refused all the gifts they pressed upon him.
           King Flavius continued frequently to visit St Giles, who eventually asked him to devote his proffered alms to founding a monastery; the king agreed to do provided Giles would become its first abbot. In due course the monastery was built near the cave, a community gathered round, and the reputation of the monks and of their abbot reached the ears of Charles, King of France (whom medieval romancers identified as Charlemagne).
Giles was sent for to the court at Orleans, where the king consulted him on spiritual matters but was ashamed to name a grievous sin that was on his conscience. On the following Sunday, when the holy man was celebrating Mass according to custom and praying to God for the king during the canon, an angel of the Lord appeared to him and laid on the altar a scroll on which was written the sin which the king had committed, and which further said that he would be forgiven at Giles intercession, provided he did penance and desisted from that sin in the future. . . . When Mass was ended Giles gave the scroll to the king to read, who fell at the saint’s feet, begging him to intercede with the Lord for him. And so the man of the Lord commended him to God in prayer and gently admonished him to refrain from that sin in the future.”
         St Giles then returned to his monastery and afterwards went to Rome to commend his monks to the Holy See. The pope granted them many privileges and made a present of two carved doors of cedar-wood to emphasize his trust in divine providence St Giles threw these doors into the Tiber, and they safely preceded him to France. After being warned of his approaching end in a dream, he died on a Sunday, September 1, “leaving the world sadder for his bodily absence but giving joy in Heaven by his happy arrival”.
           This and other medieval accounts of St Giles, our sole source of information, are utterly untrustworthy some of their statements are obviously self-contradictory and anachronistic, and the legend is associated with certain papal bulls which are known to be forgeries made in the interests of the monastery of Saint-Gilles in Provence.

The most that is known of St Giles is that he may have been a hermit or monk near the mouth of the Rhóne in the sixth or eighth century, and that his relics were claimed by the famous monastery that bore his name. The story of the hind is told of several saints, of whom Giles is the best known, and for many centuries he was one of the most popular of saints. He is numbered among the Fourteen Holy Helpers (the only one of them who is not a martyr) and his tomb at his monastery became a place of pilgrimage of the first importance, contributing much to the medieval prosperity of the town of Saint-Gilles, which was, however, badly damaged by the crusade against the Albigensians in the thirteenth century. Other crusaders named another town Saint-Gilles (now Sinjil), on the borders of Benjamin and Ephraim, and his cult spread throughout western Europe; England had so many as 160 parish churches dedicated in his honour, and he was invoked as the patron of cripples, beggars and blacksmiths. John Lydgate, monk of Bury in the fifteenth century, invokes him as

        
                   Gracious Giles, of poor folk chief patron,
                    Medicine to sick in their distress,
                   To all needy shield and protection,
                    Refuge to wretches, their damage to redress,
                    Folk that were dead restoring to quickness.
        
           The text of the Latin life of St Giles is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. i,
         and another recension In the Analecta Bollandiana, vol. viii (1889), pp. 103—120. There is
         also a metrical version and an adaptation in old French. For these last consult the careful
         study of Miss E. C. Jones, Saint Gilles essai d’histoire Iitteraire (1914). For the folklore
         which has gathered round the name of St Giles see Bachtold-Staubli, Handwerterbuch des
         deutschen Aberglaubens
, vol. i, pp. 212 seq., and, for the treatment in art, Kü
nstle, Ikonographie,
         vol. ii, pp. 32—34 this saint’s distinctive emblem, as might he expected, is a hind with an
         arrow. For English readers an excellent account of St Giles and his cultus is provided in
         F. Entrain, Saint Giles (1928). See also F. Eoulard, Saint Gilles (1933) and A. Fliche,
         Aigues-Mortes et Saint-Gilles (1950). Pope Benedict XIV’s commission projected the removal
         of this feast from the general calendar.


St. Giles is said to have been a seventh century Athenian of noble birth. His piety and learning made him so conspicuous and an object of such admiration in his own country that, dreading praise and longing for a hidden life, he left his home and sailed for France. At first he took up his abode in a wilderness near the mouth of the Rhone river, afterward near the river Gard, and, finally, in the diocese of Nimes.

He spent many years in solitude conversing only with God. The fame of his miracles became so great that his reputation spread throughout France. He was highly esteemed by the French king, but he could not be prevailed upon to forsake his solitude. He admitted several disciples, however, to share it with him. He founded a monastery, and established an excellent discipline therein. In succeeding ages it embraced the rule of St. Benedict. St. Giles died probably in the beginning of the eighth century, about the year 724.

St. Giles (Latin Ægidius.)

An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage about the middle of the seventh century. Early in life he devoted himself exclusively to spiritual things, but, finding his noble birth and high repute for sanctity in his native land an obstacle to his perfection, he passed over to Gaul, where he established himself first in a wilderness near the mouth of the Rhone and later by the River Gard. But here again the fame of his sanctity drew multitudes to him, so he withdrew to a dense forest near Nîmes, where in the greatest solitude he spent many years, his sole companion being a hind. This last retreat was finally discovered by the king's hunters, who had pursued the hind to its place of refuge. The king [who according to the legend was Wamba (or Flavius?), King of the Visigoths, but who must have been a Frank, since the Franks had expelled the Visigoths from the neighbourhood of Nîmes almost a century and a half earlier] conceived a high esteem for solitary, and would have heaped every honour upon him; but the humility of the saint was proof against all temptations. He consented, however, to receive thenceforth some disciples, and built a monastery in his valley, which he placed under the rule of St. Benedict. Here he died in the early part of the eighth century, with the highest repute for sanctity and miracles.

His cult spread rapidly far and wide throughout Europe in the Middle Ages, as is witnessed by the numberless churches and monasteries dedicated to him in France, Germany, Poland, Hungary, and the British Isles; by the numerous manuscripts in prose and verse commemorating his virtues and miracles; and especially by the vast concourse of pilgrims who from all Europe flocked to his shrine. In 1562 the relics of the saint were secretly transferred to Toulouse to save them from the hideous excesses of the Huguenots who were then ravaging France, and the pilgrimage in consequence declined.
   With the restoration of a great part of the relics to the church of St. Giles in 1862, and discovery of his former tomb there in 1865, the pilgrimages have recommenced. Besides the city of St-Gilles, which sprang up around the abbey, nineteen other cities bear his name, St-Gilles, Toulouse, and a multitude of French cities, Antwerp, Bridges, and Tournai in Belgium, Cologne and Bamberg, in Germany, Prague and Gran in Austria-Hungary, Rome and Bologna in Italy, possess celebrated relics of St. Giles. In medieval art he is a frequent subject, being always depicted with his symbol, the hind. His feast is kept on 1 September. On this day there are also commemorated another St. Giles, an Italian hermit of the tenth century (Acta SS., XLI, 305), and a Blessed Giles, d. about 1203, a Cistercian abbot of Castaneda in the Diocese of Astorga, Spain (op. cit. XLI, 308).

St. Giles  (d. 710?)
Despite the fact that much about St. Giles is shrouded in mystery, we can say that he was one of the most popular saints in the Middle Ages. Likely, he was born in the first half of the 7th century in southeastern France. That is where he built a monastery that became a popular stopping-off point for pilgrims making their way to Compostela in Spain and the Holy Land.

In England, many ancient churches and hospitals were dedicated to Giles. One of the sections of the city of Brussels is named after him. In Germany, Giles was included among the so-called 14 Holy Helpers, a popular group of saints to whom people prayed, especially for recovery from disease and for strength at the hour of death. Also among the 14 were Sts. Christopher, Barbara and Blase. Interestingly, Giles was the only non-martyr among them. Devotion to the "Holy Helpers" was especially strong in parts of Germany and in Hungary and Sweden. Such devotion made his popularity spread. Giles was soon invoked as the patron of the poor and the disabled.
The pilgrimage center that once drew so many fell into disrepair some centuries after Giles' death.
1367 BD JOAN SODERINI, VIRGIN her tomb at once became a place of pilgrimage.
   THE Soderini were a noble family of Florence and Bd Joan was born in that city in the year 1301. From a very early age she showed herself remarkably good and devoted to God, so much so that when she told her governess, Felicia Tonia, that she knew by a revelation that she, Felicia, would shortly die, she is said to have been believed, and the governess began to look around for a successor to take charge of her pupil. As soon as she was adolescent Joan’s parents arranged a marriage for her, but the child protested and they, not too well pleased, for she was their only child, reluctantly gave their consent to her becoming a nun. At this time St Juliana Falconieri was organizing the Servite third order regular (“ Mantellate”) in Florence, and Joan elected to join this new community. She was soon distinguished by her corporal austerities and perseverance in prayer, but at the same time was active in the work of the house and the care of the sick who came to it for attention and medicine. She voluntarily undertook the most distasteful tasks, and endeared herself to her sisters by her equability and cheerfulness. Joan was visited with hard trials and grievous temptations which she triumphed over, attaining by her faithfulness to a certain gift of prophecy. She was the constant personal attendant of St Juliana during her last long illness, when she was almost continually sick and could digest no food.

To Bd Joan is attributed the first discovery of the image of a crucifix, alleged to have been found imprinted on the chest of St Juliana after her death. She survived her beloved prioress for twenty-six years and succeeded her in the government of the community, which she sought to direct according to the example and wishes of St Juliana. Bd Joan died on September 1, 1367, and was buried in the Annunziata at Florence, where her tomb at once became a place of pilgrimage. In 1828 Count Soderini, a relative of Joan, petitioned Pope Leo XII for confirmation of this cultus, which was duly granted.

           See the Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. xii, pp. 398-404; and also A. Giani, Annales
         Ordinis Sevorum
, vol. i, pp. 320—321.
1588 BD HUGH MORE, MARTYR reconciled with the Church by Father Thomas Stephenson, s.j.
         BD HUGH MORE was one of the first group of London Martyrs of 1588 (August 28).  He is accorded a separate feast today in the diocese of Nottingham, because he was born within the borders of what is now that diocese, at Grantham in 1563.
He was brought up a Protestant and educated at Broadgates Hall, Oxford, from whence he passed to Gray’s Inn. Having been reconciled with the Church by Father Thomas Stephenson, s.j., he went abroad to Rheims, where for a time he studied at the seminary. Upon returning home he was arrested, and arraigned for his reconciliation. He could have saved himself by conforming to the law of attendance at the established church, but this he refused to do; he was accordingly hanged in Lincoln’s Inn Fields on August 28, 1588. This young layman was only twenty-five years old, one of the several young gentlemen referred to by Father Ribadeneira in his appendix to Sander’s De Schismate anglicano whose death strongly pleaded for the cause for which they died
         See MMP., p. 136; Burton and Pollen, LEM., vol. i.
1855 Bl. Michael Ghebre Vincentian martyr of Ethiopia
also listed as Mikael Gabra. A native of that country, Michael became a Catholic in 1844 - converted by a Vincentian - and was ordained in 1851. Theodore II, the Negus of Ethiopia, launched a persecution of Catholics in 1855. Michael and four companions were arrested. Michael was dragged from place to place and died from abuse in prison on August 28. He was beatified in 1926
.

1855 BD GABRA MICHAEL, MARTYR
         AFTER Bd Justin de Jacobis arrived in Ethiopia in 1839 it was not long before he came to know Abba Gabra Michael.* * Gabra Mika’el. i.e. Servant of Michael cf. the Scottish Gilmichael .
The name is sometimes found in a French form, Michel Ghèbrè.
Abba Gabra Michael a monk of the dissident Church of Ethiopia, a man some fifty years old who was renowned for his holiness and learning, and who was also suspected of an inclination towards Catholicity, which his fellow monks stigmatized as a taint of Arianism. Gabra Michael was not a priest, but he had studied as deeply in theology as conditions in his church allowed, going from monastery to monastery, teaching and learning. The deputation from Ethiopia to Egypt and Rome, of which Gabra Michael was a member and which Bd Justin accompanied, has been described under July 31 ; and following that experience, and much talk with Father Justin, Gabra Michael eventually in 1844 was received into the visible membership of the Catholic Church.
           The learned Abyssinian was a most valuable auxiliary for Father de Jacobis, especially in the training of native aspirants for the priesthood. Together they drew up a catechism of Christian doctrine adapted to local needs and translated a work of moral theology into Amharic, and established a college of which Gabra Michael was put in charge. This was an opportunity for Abuna Salama, head of the dissident Church, to stir up feeling against
the Franks  which led to the ruler banishing their two leaders, who took refuge in the island of Massawa. Here Mgr Massaia consecrated Father de Jacobis bishop; he returned secretly to the scene of his mission, and his first episcopal act was to ordain Gabra Michael to the priesthood in 1851. There followed a brief period of almost startlingly successful work among the dissidents. But then came the revolt of Kassa and his seizure of the Ethiopian crown as Theodore II, and persecution flared up again.
           Gabra Michael and four of his fellow countrymen were thrown into prison and threatened with torture in order to make them apostatize. They refused ; and at intervals over a period of nine months they were dragged from their filthy cell into the presence of Theodore and his metropolitan, Salama, to be browbeaten and cajoled and each time when they stood firm they were lashed with a giraffe’s tail (whose hair is like steel wire) and otherwise tortured. “In matters of faith”, said Gabra Michael to Salama, I cannot be other then opposed to you. But so far as Christian charity is concerned I think I have never done you anything but good”—and indeed it was due to his intervention that Salama had been exiled instead of executed some years before. In March 1855 Theodore set out on an expedition against the ruler of Shoa, Gabra Michael was taken with him in chains, and on May 31 a last attempt was made to induce him to submit to the king by repudiating the true faith. He refused and was condemned to death.
Among those present was the British consul, Walter Chichele Plowden, who had supported Theodore in his usurpation; he now came forward with others and begged a reprieve for Gabra Michael, which was granted but he was to be a prisoner for life. By the mouth of a friend he sent a message to the other prisoners at Gondar “ Be steadfast to death in your faith. I have no hope of seeing you again on this earth. If they kill me, I shall die testifying to my faith ; if they spare me, I shall go on preaching it.” For three more months, decrepit with age and ill-treatment, Gabra Michael was dragged in chains from place to place in the train of the king ; he caught cholera and recovered, giving away his pittance of food to other sufferers and earning the esteem even of his guards ; at last on August 28, 1855 he lay down by the side of the road and died. His guards gently removed his chains and buried his body; and Bd Gabra Michael was beatified as a martyr in 1926.
           There is a French life of this martyr by J. B. Coulbeaux (1902), and one in Italian by E.
         Cassinari (1926). See also the sketch by G. Goyau in The Golden Legend Overseas (1931)
         and the Book of Eastern Saints (1938), by D. Attwater, pp. 136—141. Cf. bibliography of
         Bd Justin de Jacobis, July 31.

THE TWELVE BROTHERS, MARTYRS (DATE UNKNOWN)
THE twelve martyred brothers mentioned in the Roman Martyrology on this day were, according to their legend, natives of Hadrumetum in proconsular Africa and the children of SS. Boniface and Thecla, whose passion is commemorated on August 30. They were seized at Hadrumetum, brought to Carthage and tortured, and then sent into Italy chained together by the neck as they refused to apostatize.
         Four of them, Honoratus, Fortunatus, Arontius and Savinian, were put to death by beheading at Potenza on August 27 ; Septiminus, Januarius and Felix at Venosa on the 28th; Vitalis, Sator and Repositus at Velleiano on the 29th; and another Felix and Donatus at Sentiano on September 1.

These martyrs of Apulia were not in fact related to one another nor to SS. Boniface and Thecla, and were probably not Africans. But after their relics had been taken up by the Duke Arechis, in the year 760, and enshrined in the church of St Sophia at Benevento, they became associated together in the general mind and the story grew up that they were brothers from across the seas.
           What purports to be a brief history of these martyrs will be found in the Acta Sanctorum,
         September, vol. i ; but for an adequate investigation of the composition of this group we
         must have recourse to CMH., pp. 471—472 and 480-482. Cf. also Lanzoni, Le diocesi
         d’Italia
, pp. 285—288.