Mary Mother of GOD 15 Promises of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary
Mary's Divine Motherhood
 Wednesday Saints of this Day January  27 Sexto Kaléndas Februárii.  
Et álibi aliórum plurimórum sanctórum Mártyrum et Confessórum, atque sanctárum Vírginum.
And elsewhere in divers places, many other holy martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins.
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас! (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Our Bartholomew Family Prayer List  Here

Acts of the Apostles

Pope Benedict XVI to The Catholic Church In China {whole article here }
The saints “a cloud of witnesses over our head”, showing us life of Christian perfection is possible.

Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart
From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
How do I start the Five First Saturdays?

Whereas in the Lord's Prayer, we are bidden to ask for 'our daily bread,' the Holy Fathers of the Church all but unanimously teach that by these words must be understood, not so much that material bread which is the support of the body, as the Eucharistic bread, which ought to be our daily food. -- Pope St. Pius X

150 St. Julian of Le Mans First bishop of Le Mans
3rd v. St. Julian of Sora  Martyr of Sora Campania
303 St. Devota Virgin martyr of Corsica France

<<407 Transfer incorrupt relics of St John Chrysostom condemned by Eudoxia

       St. Avitus Martyr of Africa apostle and first bishop in the Canary Islands
      St. Datius African martyr with Reatrus and 27 companions
555 St. Marius Abbot visions
584 St. Maurus, abbot and deacon; sent to France in 543 to propagate the order of St. Benedict; favored by God with the gift of miracles:  see also January 15 510 Saint Maurus was the first disciple of St. Benedict of Nursia
610 St. Lupus of Chalons Bishop cared for the sick and poor 

8th v.
St. Gamo Benedictine abbot of Bretigny monastic expansion near Noyon, France

8th v, St. Emerius Benedictine abbot of France founder
740 St. Natalis founder of monasticism in northern Ireland disciple of St. Columba {597 St. Columba}
798 St. Candida hermitess recluse near St. Stephen of Banoles
800 St. Gamelbert Parish priest of Michaelsbuch 50 years
1022 St. Theodoric of Orleans Benedictine bishop royal counselor
1077 St. Gilduin Canon of Dol in Brittany France, who
         refused a bishopric from Pope St. Gregory VII
1540 St. Angela Merici innovative approach to education Ursulines 1st teaching order of women Saint Ursula appeared

1896 St. Enrique de Osso y Cervello Spain devotion to religious education

January 27 – Holy Mary of the Angels (Aix-en-Provence, France)
In her we see that humility and tenderness are not virtues of the weak but of the strong

Whenever we look to Mary, we come to believe once again in the revolutionary nature of love and tenderness. In her we see that humility and tenderness are not virtues of the weak but of the strong who need not treat others poorly in order to feel important themselves.

Contemplating Mary, we realize that she who praised God for “bringing down the mighty from their thrones” and “sending the rich away empty” (Lk 1:52-53) is also the one who brings a homely warmth to our pursuit of justice.
She is also the one who carefully keeps “all these things, pondering them in her heart” (Lk 2:19).

Pope Francis Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium, ("The Joy of the Gospel") § 288
January 27 - Our Lady of Life (Provence, France)
The Blessed Virgin of the Oak
In 1494, since people had noticed that doves often flew and lights shined around a certain oak tree,
Father James Buret placed a statuette of the Blessed Virgin in that oak tree. This is how the exterior shrine came to be.
One day in the chapel (built in 1515), an invalid from a nearby village was healed on the spot.
There have been many more healings in that chapel as well as spiritual enlightenment.
At Our Lady of the Oak, a large number of people have received their divine call to become priests, monks or nuns. Elisabeth de Quatrebarbes came to the chapel to seek guidance on her vocation. She clearly felt the presence of Saint Teresa of Avila behind her and perceived that she must enter the Carmel. This happened in 1617, and Saint Teresa had died in 1582.
A woman obtained the healing of her deformed child by coming to pray the Blessed Virgin in the chapel every day for a six-week period in 1621. This is an example of perseverance and faith through prayer and supplication.
It is also a sign of what Mary does: she prays for us and obtains our healing.
A Spiritual Center for the diocese of Le Mans was opened in 1978. In 1994, a new period of restoration of the site began in order to meet modern standards and requirements. Every year, around 70,000 pilgrims pass through the shrine of Our Lady of the Oak (Notre-Dame du Chene). Perhaps you will have the opportunity to visit the shrine yourself one day!

January 27 – Holy Mary of the Angels (Aix-en-Provence, France)
Everything works for the good of those who seek God
 Raised in an Anglican family, M ... held onto the same prejudices that her community had against the devotion to Mary. She did not understand how Christians could pray to the Virgin Mary. But she loved to sing…

Here is her story in her own words:
"I had a beautiful voice and was taking lessons with an Italian master. One day he made me sing an Ave Maria of his own composition. It was a true prayer to the Virgin and I sang it with my heart. It touched my mind and my imagination as well. There is something so poetic and sweet about the devotion to the Virgin Mary. In fact, it was the splendor of Catholic rites that attracted me to the Truth.

My uncle saw what was happening to me, and gave me a few books to read, chosen from those most hostile to the faith and especially those against the Blessed Virgin. One of them, entitled 'Virgin Worship’ contained horrible blasphemies against Mary.

But in another book, I found all the antiphons to the Blessed Virgin, which I found so beautiful that I made myself a kind of prayer book ... Since then, the Salve Regina has always been one of my favorite prayers."
 Mon Rosaire #486 – June 1978 Story told by Brother Albert Pfleger
In Fioretti de la Vierge Marie, Ephèse Diffusion

Called in the Gospel "the Mother of Jesus," Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as "the Mother of my Lord" (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.).
In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh,
was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly "Mother of God" (Theotokos).

Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

Mary, Daughter of Both David and Aaron? (III) - Saint Mary of the Angels (Aix-en-Provence, France)
How should we interpret the silence of these two Evangelists about the Davidic ascendance of Jesus' mother?
Shouldn't we assume that Mary was also, at least partly, of the tribe of Levi, maybe even daughter of Aaron?

This is how several mystics, like Maria Valtorta, have seen the Mother of God: as the "heir of Joachim, David, Anne and Aaron" (The Gospel as it was Revealed to Me, vol. 1 # 20). In this case Jesus himself would have a Davidic and priestly ascendance through his mother. He would gather in his person the two lines of the Messianic hope:
both the priestly one and the royal one.

Jesus is indeed King and Priest at the same time, and this confirms a Jewish tradition represented by the Essenians, who used to expect not one, but indeed two separate Messiahs: the royal Messiah who was to come first as a descendant of David and as an eschatological war Commander, assuring peace for Israel by crushing the enemies of God; this royal Messiah would then step down after his mission of peace was fulfilled to make way for the priestly Messiah, son of Aaron, ultimately clothed with the primacy of power.

Certain Jewish writings, in an attempt to intertwine these two messianic lines, affirm that the unique Messiah will be both King and Priest, both from the tribe of Judah and from that of Levi. And this would materially be the case for Jesus if one accepts the hypothesis of Mary's double Davidic and Levitic ascendance.

If this is true, why not state it plainly? The silence of our two Evangelists about the ascendance of the Virgin probably holds a deeper spiritual significance. Take Saint Luke, for instance, who always likes to insist on the Jewish roots of the different protagonists of sacred history (Elizabeth daughter of Aaron, Joseph son of David, Anne daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Asser, etc.), but who voluntarily omits several facts about the Blessed Virgin. Perhaps Luke is trying to suggest that Mary is not from any tribe in particular, because she is beyond all of them, the Mother of all human beings?

It would seem quite natural for the Mother of all not to belong to either the house of David or to the house of Levi, because she is simply "of the house of God" (cf. Eph 2: 19). She needn't receive any particular blessing like each of the twelve tribes (cf. Genesis 49), because she is "blessed among all women" and because by her fiat she represents not a tribe, but the whole human race.
Ferdinand and Isabella sent Columbus on his voyage in 1492 after they liberated Spain from occupying Muslim forces. Spain's policies then forced Jews to flee, first to Portugal, then to Amsterdam, where some sailed with Dutch merchants to South America. When Spain attacked there, they fled again and 23 refugees, on the French ship Sainte Catherine, became the first Jews to arrive in New Amsterdam in 1654. Governor Stuyvesant tried to evict them, not letting them worship outside their homes.
In 1664, New Amsterdam became New York, where the first synagogue was built in 1730.
Jewish population in colonial America grew to 2,000 in 7 synagogues from New York to Savannah.
Beginning in 1830, Ellis Island had 250,000 Jews immigrate from persecution in Bavaria.
Starting in 1881, over 2 million Jews fled Russia's pogroms to America.
By 2006, Jews comprised 2 percent of U.S. population. President Woodrow Wilson wrote: "Whereas in countries engaged in war there are 9 million Jews, the majority of whom are destitute of food, shelter, and clothing;
driven from their homes without warning...causing starvation, disease and untold suffering-
Whereas the people of the U.S. have learned with sorrow of this terrible plight, I proclaim JANUARY 27, 1916,
a day to make contributions for the aid of the stricken Jewish people to the American Red Cross."

American Minute with Bill Federer January 27

150 St. Julian of Le Mans First bishop of Le Mans

 Soræ sancti Juliáni Mártyris, qui, in persecutióne Antoníni, sub Flaviáno Præside, comprehénsus est, et, cum idolórum templum, dum ipse torquerétur, corruísset, martyrii corónam, truncáto cápite, accépit.       At Sora, St. Julian, martyr, who, being arrested in the persecution of Antoninus, was beheaded because a pagan temple had fallen to the ground while he was being tortured.
IN Alban Butler’s time a relic was preserved at the cathedral of Le Mans which was believed to be the head of St Julian. He was certainly also honoured in England, for his name occurs on this day in the calen dar of the Eadwine Psalter of Trinity College, Cambridge (before 1170), and his feast was kept throughout the southern dioceses of England where the Sarum breviary use was followed. How many of the six ancient churches in this country which were dedicated to St Julian can be referred to the bishop of Le Mans is quite uncertain, for undoubtedly some of them were built in honour of the more or less mythical saint known as Julian the Hospitaller (February 12).
We know absolutely nothing that is certain about St Julian’s life. The lessons in the Sarum breviary describe him as a noble Roman who became the first bishop of Le Mans and the apostle of that part of France, and they also attribute to him some stupendous miracles. We can only say that there is evidence in the seventh century of a chapel called basilica St. Juliani episcopi, and that in the catalogues of the bishops of Le Mans, St Julian always heads the list. A quite extravagant later legend described him as one of the seventy-two disciples of our Lord, and as identical with Simon the Leper. It is probable that the introduction of the cultus of St Julian into England was due to the fact that King Henry II, who was born at Le Mans, is said to have been baptized in the church of St Julian there and may have preserved some personal devotion to the Saint.

See Duchesne, Fastes Épiscopaux, vol. ii, pp. 309, 323, 331; the Acta Sanctorum for January 27; Arnold Forster, Studies in Church Dedications, vol. i, pp. 435—436; and especially A. Ledru, Les premiers temps de l’Église du Mans (1953). 
Italy. He was a Dalmatian who was beheaded in the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius {138-161
3rd v.
St. Julian of Sora  Martyr of Sora Campania
 Apud Cenómanos, in Gállia, deposítio sancti Juliáni, ejúsdem urbis primi Epíscopi, quem sanctus Petrus illuc ad prædicándum Evangélium misit.
       At Le Mans in France, the death of St. Julian, the first bishop of that city, who was sent there by St. Peter to preach the Gospel.

First bishop of Le Mans, France. Tradition states that he was a noble Roman. Julian performed extravagant miracles and was honored during the Middle Ages as the patron of churches in England.
303 St. Devota Virgin martyr of Corsica France who was slain on the rack. Patroness of Corsica and Monaco, her relics are in Monaco on the Riviera di Ponente.
St. Avitus Martyr of Africa apostle and first bishop in the Canary Islands.  
 In Africa sancti Avíti Mártyris.       In Africa, St. Avitus, martyr.
possibly the St. Avitus venerated in the Canary Islands as an apostle and first bishop.
5th v. St. Datius African martyr with Reatrus and 27 companions.  
 Ibídem sanctórum Mártyrum Dátii, Reátri et Sociórum, qui in persecutióne Wandálica passi sunt.       In the same country, the holy martyrs Datius, Reatrus, and their companions, who suffered in the persecution of the Vandals.
 Item sanctórum Datívi, Juliáni, Vincéntii atque aliórum vigínti septem Mártyrum.
       Also, the holy martyrs Dativus, Julian, Vincent, and twenty-seven others.
also a second Datius, with Julian, Vincent, and twenty-seven companions. They were slain by Arian Vandals {427 to 531}.
407 Transfer of the relics of St John Chrysostom condemned by Eudoxia  Feast day September 13
 Sancti Joánnis Chrysóstomi, Epíscopi Constantinopolitáni, Confessóris et Ecclésiæ Doctóris, cæléstis Oratórum sacrórum Patróni; qui décimo octávo Kaléndas Octóbris obdormívit in Dómino.  Ejus sacrum corpus, sub Theodósio junióre, hac die Constantinópolim, inde póstea Romam translátum fuit, et in Basílica Príncipis Apostolórum cónditum.
       St. John Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople, confessor and doctor of the Church, and the heavenly patron of preachers, who fell asleep in the Lord on the 14th of September.  His holy body was brought to Constantinople on this day in the reign of Theodosius the younger; it was afterwards taken to Rome and placed in the basilica of the Prince of the Apostles.

407 St John Chrysostom, Archbishop Of Constantinople And Doctor Of The Church
This incomparable teacher, on account of the fluency and sweetness of his eloquence, obtained after his death the surname of Chrysostom, or Golden Mouth. But his piety and his u
ndaunted courage are titles far more glorious, by which he may claim to be ranked among the greatest pastors of the Church. He was born about the year 347 at Antioch in Syria, the only son of Secundus, commander of the imperial troops. His mother, Anthusa, left a widow at twenty, divided her time between the care of her family and her exercises of devotion. Her example made such an impression on our saint’s master, a celebrated pagan sophist, that he could not forbear crying out, “What wonderful women are found among the Christians!”
Anthusa provided for her son the ablest masters that the empire at that time afforded. Eloquence was esteemed the highest accomplishment, and John studied that art under Libanius, the most famous orator of the age; and such was his proficiency that even in his youth he excelled his masters. Libanius being asked on his deathbed who ought to succeed him in his school, “John”, said he, “would have been my choice, had not the Christians stolen him from us.”
According to a common custom of those days young John was not baptized till he was over twenty years old, being at the time a law student. Soon after, together with his friends Basil, Theodore (afterwards bishop of Mopsuestia) and others, he attended a sort of school for monks, where they studied under Diodorus of Tarsus; and in 374 he joined one of the loosely knit communities of hermits among the mountains south of Antioch. He afterwards wrote a vivid account of their austerities and trials. He passed four years under the direction of a veteran Syrian monk, and afterwards two years in a cave as a solitary. The dampness of this abode brought on a dangerous illness, and for the recovery of his health he was obliged to return into the city in 381.
He was ordained deacon by St Meletius that very year, and received the priesthood from Bishop Flavian in 386, who at the same time constituted him his preacher, John being then about forty. He discharged the duties of the office for twelve years, supporting during that time a heavy load of responsibility as the aged bishop’s deputy. The instruction and care of the poor he regarded as the first obligation of all, and he never ceased in his sermons to recommend their cause and to impress on the people the duty of almsgiving.
    Antioch, he supposes, contained at that time one hundred thousand Christian souls and as many pagans; these he fed with the word of God, preaching several days in the week, and frequently several times on the same day.
The Emperor Theodosius I, finding himself obliged to levy a new tax on his subjects because of his war with Magnus Maximus, the Antiochenes rioted and vented their discontent on the emperor’s statue, and those of his father, Sons and late consort, breaking them to pieces. The magistrates were helpless. But as soon as the fury was over and they began to reflect on the probable consequences of their outburst, the people were seized with terror and their fears were heightened by the arrival of two officers from Constantinople to carry out the emperor’s orders for punishment. In spite of his age, Bishop Flavian set out in the worst weather of the year to implore the imperial clemency for his flock, and Theodosius was touched by his appeal an amnesty was accorded to the delinquent citizens of Antioch.
 Meanwhile St John had been delivering perhaps the most memorable series of sermons, which marked his oratorical career, the famous twenty-one homilies “On the Statutes”. They manifest in a wonderful way the sympathy between the preacher and his audience, and also his own consciousness of the power that he wielded for good. There can be no question that the Lent of 387, during which these discourses were delivered, marked a turning-point in Chrysostom’s career, and that from that time forward his oratory became, even politically, one of the great forces by which the Eastern empire was swayed. After the storm he continued his labours with unabated energy, but before very long God was pleased to call him to glorify His name upon a new stage, where He prepared for his virtue other trials and other crowns.

Nectarius, Archbishop of Constantinople, dying in 397, the Emperor Arcadius, at the suggestion of Eutropius, his chamberlain, resolved to procure the election of John to the see of that city. He therefore despatched an order to the count of the East, enjoining him to send John to Constantinople, but to do so without making the news public, lest his intended removal should cause sedition. The count repaired to Antioch, and desiring the saint to accompany him out of the city to the tombs of the martyrs, he there delivered him to an officer who, taking him into his chariot, conveyed him with all possible speed to the imperial city. Theophilus, Archbishop of Alexandria, a man of proud and turbulent spirit, had come thither to recommend a nominee of his own for the vacancy; but he had to desist from his intrigues, and he consecrated John on February 26 in 398.

When regulating his domestic concerns, the saint cut down the expenses which his predecessors had considered necessary to maintain their dignity, and these sums he applied to the relief of the poor and supported many hospitals.
His own household being settled in good order, the next thing he took in hand was the reformation of his clergy. This he forwarded by zealous exhortations and by disciplinary enactments, which, while very necessary, seem in their severity to have been lacking in tact. But to give these his endeavours their due force, he lived himself as an exact model of what he inculcated on others. The immodesty of women in their dress in that gay capital aroused him to indignation, and he showed how false and absurd was their excuse in saying that they meant no harm. Thus by his zeal and eloquence St John tamed many sinners, converting, moreover, many idolaters and heretics. His mildness towards sinners was censured by the Novatians; for he invited them to repentance with the compassion of a most tender father, and was accustomed to cry out, “If you have fallen a second time, or even a thousand times into sin, come to me, and you shall be healed”. But he was firm and severe in maintaining discipline, and to impenitent sinners he was inflexible.

One Good Friday many Christians went to the races, and on Holy Saturday crowded to the games in the stadium. The good bishop was pierced to the quick, and on Easter Sunday he preached an impassioned sermon, “Against the Games and Shows of the Theatre and Circus”. Indignation made him not so much as mention the paschal solemnity, and his exordium was a most moving appeal.

A large number of Chrysostom’s sermons still exist, and they amply support the view of many that he was the greatest preacher who ever lived. But it must be admitted that his language was at times, especially in his later years, excessively violent and provocative. As has been observed, he “sometimes almost shrieks at his delinquent empresses”; and one has a painful feeling that his invective in face of undoubted provocation from many Jews must have been partly responsible for the frequent bloody collisions between them and Christians in Antioch. Not all Chrysostom’s opponents were blameworthy men: there were undoubtedly good and earnest Christians amongst those who disagreed with him—he who became St Cyril of Alexandria among them.
Another good work, which absorbed a large share of the archbishop’s activities, was the founding of new and fervent communities of devout women. Among the holy widows who placed themselves under the direction of this great master of saints, the most illustrious, perhaps, was the truly noble St Olympias. Neither was his pastoral care confined to his own flock; he extended it to remote countries. He sent a bishop to instruct the wandering Scythians; another, an admirable man, to the Goths. Palestine, Persia and many other distant provinces felt the beneficent influence of his zeal. He was himself remarkable for an eminent spirit of prayer, and he was particularly earnest in inculcating this duty. He even exhorted the laity to rise for the midnight office together with the clergy. “Many artisans”, said he, “get up at night to labour, and soldiers keep vigil as sentries; cannot you do as much to praise God?
 Great also was the tenderness with which he discoursed on the divine love which is displayed in the holy Eucharist, and exhorted the faithful to the frequent use of that heavenly sacrament. The public concerns of the state often claimed a share in the interest and intervention of St Chrysostom, as when the chamberlain and ex-slave Eutropius fell from power in 399, on which occasion he preached a famous sermon while the hated Eutropius cowered in sanctuary beneath the altar in full view of the congregation. The bishop entreated the people to forgive a culprit whom the emperor, the chief person injured, was desirous to forgive; he asked them how they could beg of God the forgiveness of their own sins if they did not forgive one who stood in need of mercy and time for repentance.
It remained for St Chrysostom to glorify God by his sufferings, as he had already done by his labours, and, if we contemplate the mystery of the Cross with the eyes of faith, we shall find him greater in the persecutions he sustained than in all the other occurrences of his life.

His principal ecclesiastical adversary was Archbishop Theophilus of Alexandria, already mentioned, who had several grievances against his brother of Constantinople. A no less dangerous enemy was the empress Eudoxia. John was accused of referring to her as “Jezebel”, and when he had preached a sermon against the profligacy and vanity of so many women it was represented by some as an attack levelled at the empress. Knowing the sense of grievance entertained by Theophilus, Eudoxia, to be revenged for the supposed affront to herself, conspired with him to bring about Chrysostom’s deposition. Theophilus landed at Constantinople in June 403, with several Egyptian bishops; he refused to see or lodge with John; and got together a cabal of thirty-six bishops in a house at Chalcedon called The Oak. The main articles in the impeachment were: that John had deposed a deacon for beating a servant; that he had called several of his clergy reprobates; had deposed bishops outside his own province; had sold things belonging to the church; that nobody knew what became of his revenues; that he ate alone; and that he gave holy communion to persons who were not fasting—all which accusations were either false or frivolous. John held a legal council of forty bishops in the city at the same time, and refused to appear before that at The Oak. So the cabal proceeded to a sentence of deposition against him, which they sent to the Emperor Arcadius, accusing him at the same time of treason, apparently in having called the empress “Jezebel
. Thereupon the emperor issued an order for his banishment.
For three days Constantinople was in an uproar, and Chrysostom delivered a vigorous manifesto from his pulpit.
Violent storms encompass me on all sides:  yet I am without fear, because I stand upon a rock. Though the sea roar and the waves rise high, they cannot overwhelm the ship of Jesus Christ. I fear not death, which is my gain; nor banishment, for the whole earth is the Lord’s; nor the loss of goods, for I came naked into the world, and I can carry nothing out of it.
He declared that he was ready to lay down his life for his flock, and that if he suffered now, it was only because he had neglected nothing that would help towards the salvation of their souls. Then he surrendered himself, unknown to the people, and an official conducted him to Praenetum in Bithynia. But his first exile was short. The city was slightly shaken by an earthquake. This terrified the superstitious Eudoxia, and she implored Arcadius to recall John; she got leave to send a letter the same day, asking him to return and protesting her own innocence of his banishment. All the city went out to meet him, and the Bosphorus blazed with torches. Theophilus and his party fled by night.
But the fair weather did not last long. A silver statue of the empress having been erected before the great church of the Holy Wisdom, the dedication of it was celebrated with public games which, besides disturbing the liturgy, were an occasion of disorder, impropriety and superstition. St Chrysostom had often preached against licentious shows, and the very place rendered these the more inexcusable. And so, fearing lest his silence should be construed as an approbation of the abuse, he with his usual freedom and courage spoke loudly against it. The vanity of the Empress Eudoxia made her take the affront to herself, and his enemies were invited back. Theophilus dared not come, but he sent three deputies. This second cabal appealed to certain canons of an Arian council of Antioch, made to exclude St Athanasius, by which it was ordained that no bishop who had been deposed by a synod should return to his see till he was restored by another synod. Arcadius sent John an order to withdraw. He refused to forsake a church committed to him by God unless forcibly compelled to leave it. The emperor sent troops to drive the people out of the churches on Holy Saturday, and they were polluted with blood and all manner of outrages. The saint wrote to Pope St Innocent I, begging him to invalidate all that had been done, for the miscarriage of justice had been notorious. He also wrote to beg the concurrence of other bishops of the West. The pope wrote to Theophilus exhorting him to appear before a council, where sentence should be given according to the canons of Nicaea. He also addressed letters to Chrysostom, to his flock and several of his friends, in the hope of redressing these evils by a new council, as did also the Western emperor, Honorius. But Arcadius and Eudoxia found means to prevent any such assembly, the mere prospect of which filled Theophilus and other ringleaders of his faction with alarm.

Chrysostom was suffered to remain at Constantinople two months after Easter. On Thursday in Whit-week the emperor sent an order for his banishment. The holy man bade adieu to the faithful bishops, and took his leave of St Olympias and the other deaconesses, who were overwhelmed with grief. He then left the church by stealth to prevent sedition, and was conducted into Bithynia, arriving at Nicaea on June 20, 404. After his departure a fire broke out and burnt down the great church and the senate house. The cause of the conflagration was unknown, and many of the saint’s supporters were put to the torture on this account, but no discovery was ever made. The Emperor Arcadius chose Cucusus, a little place in the Taurus Mountains of Armenia, for St John’s exile. He set out from Nicaea in July, and suffered very great hardships from the heat, fatigue and the brutality of his guards. After a seventy days’ journey he arrived at Cucusus, where the good bishop of the place vied with his people in showing him every mark of kindness and respect. Some of the letters, which Chrysostom addressed from exile to St Olympias and others, have survived, and it was to her that he wrote his treatise on the theme “That no one can hurt him who does not hurt himself”.
Meanwhile Pope Innocent and the Emperor Honorius sent five bishops to Constantinople to arrange for a council, requiring that in the meantime Chrysostom should be restored to his see. But the deputies were cast into prison in Thrace, for the party of Theophilus (Eudoxia had died in childbed in October) saw that if a council were held they would inevitably be condemned. They also got an order from Arcadius that John should be taken farther away, to Pityus at the eastern end of the Black Sea, and two officers were sent to convey him thither. One of these was not altogether destitute of humanity, but the other was a ruffian who would not give his prisoner so much as a civil word. They often travelled in scorching heat, from which the now aged Chrysostom suffered intensely; and in the wettest weather they forced him out of doors and on his way. When they reached Comana in Cappadocia he was very ill, yet he was hurried a further five or six miles to the chapel of St Basiliscus. During the night there this martyr seemed to appear to John and said to him, “Courage, brother! To-morrow we shall be together.” The next day, exhausted and ill, John begged that he might stay there a little longer. No attention was paid; but when they had gone four miles, seeing that he seemed to be dying, they brought him back to the chapel. There the clergy changed his clothes, putting white garments on him, and he received the Holy Mysteries. A few hours later St John Chrysostom uttered his last words, “Glory be to God for all things”, and gave up his soul to God. It was Holy Cross day, September 14, 407.
St John’s body was taken back to Constantinople in the year 438, the Emperor Theodosius II and his sister St Pulcheria accompanying the archbishop St Proclus in the procession, begging forgiveness of the sins of their parents who had so blindly persecuted the servant of God. It was laid in the church of the Apostles on January 27, on which day Chrysostom is honoured in the West, but in the East his festival is observed principally on November 13, but also on other dates.

In the Byzantine church he is the third of the Three Holy Hierarchs and Universal Teachers, the other two being St Basil and St Gregory Nazianzen, to whom the Western church adds St Athanasius to make the four great Greek doctors; and in 1909 St Pius X declared him to be the heavenly patron of preachers of the word of God. He is commemorated in the Byzantine, Syrian, Chaldean and Maronite eucharistic liturgies, in the great intercession or elsewhere.
Our principal sources for the story of St John’s life are the Dialogue of Palladius (whom Abbot Cuthbert Butler, with the assent of nearly all recent scholars, considers to be identical with the author of the Lausiac History), the autobiographical details which may be gleaned from the homilies and letters of the saint himself, the ecclesiastical histories of Socrates and Sozomen, and the panegyric attributed to a certain Martyrius. The literature of the subject is, of course, vast. No better general account can be recommended, especially in view of its admirable setting in a background which does justice to the circumstances of the times, than that provided by Mgr Duchesne in his Histoire ancienne de l’Eglise (English trans.), vols. ii and iii; but the definitive biography is by Dom C. Baur, Der hl. Johannes Chrysostomus und seine Zeit (2 vols., 1929—1930). An English translation of the Dialogue of Palladius was published in 1925, and the Greek text, ed. P. R. Coleman-Norton, in 1928. In English at the general level mention may be made of lives by W. R. W. Stephens (1883) and D. Attwater (1939), and Dr A. Fortescue’s lively sketch in The Greek Fathers (1908). A good intro­duction to the works is (Greek) Selections from St John Chrysostom (1940), ed. Cardinal D’Alton. See also Puech, St John Chrysostom (English trans.) in the series “Les Saints” the volume of essays brought out at Rome in 1908, under the title XpveoTroaLKd, in honour of the fifteenth centenary; the article by Canon E. Venables in DCB., vol. i, pp. 518—535 and that by G. Bardy in DTC., vol viii, cc. 66o seq., where a full bibliography will be found. 
This great ecumenical teacher and hierarch died in the city of Comana in the year 407 on his way to a place of exile. He had been condemned by the intrigues of the empress Eudoxia because of his daring denunciation of the vices ruling over Constantinople. The transfer of his venerable relics was made in the year 438, thirty years after the death of the saint during the reign of Eudoxia's son emperor Theodosius II (408-450).

St John Chrysostom had the warm love and deep respect of the people, and grief over his untimely death lived on in the hearts of Christians. St John's disciple, St Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople (434-447), during services in the Church of Hagia Sophia, preached a sermon praising St John. He said, "O John, your life was filled with sorrow, but your death was glorious. Your grave is blessed and reward is great, by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus ChriSt O graced one, having conquered the bounds of time and place! Love has conquered space, unforgetting memory has annihilated the limits, and place does not hinder the miracles of the saint."

Those who were present in church, deeply touched by the words of St Proclus, did not allow him even to finish his sermon. With one accord they began to entreat the Patriarch to intercede with the emperor, so that the relics of St John might be brought back to Constantinople.

The emperor, overwhelmed by St Proclus, gave his consent and gave the order to transfer the relics of St John. But those he sent were unable to lift the holy relics until the emperor realized that he had sent men to take the saint's relics from Comana with an edict, instead of with a prayer. He wrote a letter to St John, humbly asking him to forgive his audacity, and to return to Constantinople. After the message was read at the grave of St John, they easily took up the relics, carried them onto a ship and arrived at Constantinople.

The coffin with the relics was placed in the Church of Holy Peace (Hagia Eirene). When Patriarch Proclus opened the coffin, the body of St John was found to be incorrupt. The emperor approached the coffin with tears, asking forgiveness for his mother, who had banished St John. All day and night people did not leave the coffin.

In the morning the coffin was brought to the Church of the Holy Apostles. The people cried out, "Father, take up your throne." Then Patriarch Proclus and the clergy standing by the relics saw St John open his mouth and say, "Peace be to all." Many of the sick were healed at his tomb.
The celebration of the transfer of the relics of St John Chrysostom was established in the ninth century.
555 St. Marius Abbot visions

We have no very certain information concerning St Marius, who in the Roman Martyrology appears as Maurus, while Bobacum is given as the name of the monastery which he governed. Both these designations seem to be erroneous. 

Dynamius, patrician of the Gauls who is mentioned by St.
Gregory of Tours, (l. 6, c. 11,) and who was for some time steward of the patrimony of the Roman church in Gaul, in the time of St. Gregory the Great, as appears by a letter of that pope to him, (in which he mentions that he sent him in a reliquary some of the filings of the chains of St. Peter, and of the gridiron of St. Laurence,) was the author of the lives of St. Marius and of St. Maximus of Ries.
From the fragments of the former in Bollandus, we learn that he was born at Orleans, became a monk, and after some time was chosen abbot at La-Val-Benois, in the diocese of Sisteron, in the reign of Gondebald, king of Burgundy, who died in 509.

St. Marius made a pilgrimage to St. Martin's, at Tours, and another to the tomb of St. Dionysius, near Paris, where, falling sick, he dreamed that he was restored to health by an apparition of St. Dionysius, and awaking, found himself perfectly recovered. St. Marius, according to a custom received in many monasteries before the rule of St. Bennet, in imitation of the retreat of our divine Redeemer, made it a rule to live a recluse in a forest during the forty days of Lent.
In one of these retreats, he foresaw, in a vision, the desolation which barbarians would soon after spread in Italy, and the destruction of his own monastery, which he foretold before his death, in 555.

The abbey of La-Val-Benois *being demolished, the body of the saint was translated to Forcalquier, where it is kept with honor in a famous collegiate church which bears his name, and takes the title of Concathedral with Sisteron. St. Marius is called in French St. May, or St. Mary, in Spain, St. Mere, and St. Maire, and in some places, by mistake, St. Maurus. See fragments of his life compiled by Dynamius, extant in Bollandus, with ten preliminary observations.

584 St. Maurus, abbot and deacon; sent to France in 543 to propagate the order of St. Benedict; favored by God with the gift of miracles
Son of Equitius, a nobleman of Rome, was born about the year 510 and died in 584.
When he was about twelve years old, his father placed him under the care of St. Benedict at Subiaco, to be educated in piety and learning. When he had grown up, St. Benedict chose him as his coadjutor in the government of the monastery. He was a model of perfection to all his brethren, but especially in the virtue of obedience.

St. Placid, one of his fellow disciples, the son of the senator Tertullus, going one day to draw water, fell into the lake, and was at once carried away by the current. St. Benedict saw this in spirit in his cell and bade Maurus run and draw him out.
Having asked and received the holy Father's blessing,
 Maurus hastened down to the lake, walked upon the waters, thinking he was on dry land, and dragged Placid out by the hair, without sinking in the least himself. He attributed the miracle to the command and prayers of St. Benedict; but the holy abbot, to the obedience of the disciple.

St. Maurus was sent to France in 543 to propagate the order of St. Benedict in that country. He founded the famous abbey of Glanfeuil, over which he ruled as abbot for thirty-eight years. In 581 he resigned the abbacy, built for himself a small cell near the church of St. Martin, so that in solitude and prayer he might prepare himself for his passage into eternity. After two years he fell sick sof a fever: he received the sacraments of the Church, lying on sackcloth before the altar of St. Martin, and in that posture expired on January 15, 584.

Gift of Miracles
St. Maurus was favored by God with the gift of miracles. To show in what high degree the Saint possessed the gift of miracles, it will be sufficient to cite a few examples of how he miraculously cured the sick and restored to health those who were stricken with a grievous affliction. It has already been stated, according to the testimony of Pope St. Gregory the Great, in the Second Book of his Dialogues, how when a youth, St.Maurus rescued St. Placid from drowning.

A few more examples of miracles wrought by the Saint, as related by the monk St. Faustus (Bollandists, Vol. 2), who accompanied St. Maurus to France and later wrote his life, will be given here. They were invariably wrought by means of the sign of the Cross, and the relic of the true Cross, which he had taken along to France.

When St. Maurus, at that time prior of the abbey of Monte Cassino, was returning with the brethren from gathering the harvest in the fields, he met a boy who was mute and crippled, accompanied by his parents. When the father and mother of the boy cast themselves at the feet of the Saint and implored him to cure their child of his maladies, St. Maurus, having for some time given himself to prayer, imposed upon the head of the boy his levitical stole, for he was a deacon, and made the sign of the Cross over him, saying to him: "In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity, and supported by the merits of the-most holy Father Benedict, I bid you to rise, stand upon your feet and be cured." And forthwith the boy arose, walked about, and with a loud voice praised and glorified God.

A certain Vicar, Ardenard, had been sent by Innocent, the Bishop of Mans, to Monte Cassino, in order to petition St. Benedict to send some monks to France. Arriving at a place called Vercella, the Vicar fell down headlong from a high stairway in the place where he was lodging. His body was so crushed by the fall that his life was despaired of. His right shoulder, arm and hand had so swelled with inflammation, that amputation of the arm was deemed necessary. Recourse was then had to their companion, St. Maurus, who was engaged in prayer in the oratory. Moved by the earnest supplications of his brethren, and the misery of the sick man, the Saint cast himself prostrate at the foot of the altar, pouring forth his soul in fervent prayer. Having finished praying, he took from the altar the case of relics which had been sent him by his master, St. Benedict, and went to the bedside of the sick man. Having exposed the relic of the Cross, he made the sign of the Cross over every part of the arm from the shoulder to the fingers, saying:

"O God, the Creator of all things, You ordained that Your only Son should take flesh of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit for the restoration of your people, and You deigned to heal the wounds and infirmities of our souls by the redemption accomplished upon the sacred and glorious wood of the life-giving Cross: do You also vouchsafe through this powerful sign to restore health to Your servant."

His prayer being ended, all the poisoned blood, by which the Vicar's arm had beer inflamed, began to flow off from three different places in his arm, and his arm was cured.

While continuing their journey and reaching the Alps, one of the servants, Sergius, riding on horseback, fell from his horse and struck his leg against a huge rock, and so crushed it that it was but one bruised mass. Whereupon St. Maurus went up to the unfortunate man, seized his crushed leg with his left hand, and with his right made the sign of the Cross over it, saying: "In the name of almighty God, arise and be cured," and immediately, to the joy of all, his crushed leg became whole and sound.

When St. Maurus and his little band came to the church of the holy martyrs Sts. Maurice and his companions, they entered it to pray. At the entrance of the church sat a certain man who was born blind, begging alms from those who entered and left the edifice. He had learned that Maurus, the disciple of the holy man Benedict, had arrived, the fame of his sanctity having already preceded him. When Maurus and his companions had finished their prayers and left the church, they found the blind man lying prostrate on the ground, begging and imploring the Saint to obtain for him by his prayers the light of his eyes. Maurus commanded him to rise, and pressing the fingers of his right hand upon his eyes, he imprinted on them the sign of our redemption. Thereupon the blind man instantly obtained his eyesight.

Blessing of St. Maurus
Since St. Maurus miraculously freed many persons from their bodily afflictions through the sign of the Cross and the relic of the true Cross of Christ, in many monasteries of the Order of St. Benedict from time immemorial, after the example of this miracle-worker, the custom of blessing the sick with the relic of the true Cross, has prevailed, in order to restore their health. But until recent years, there was no uniform and approved formula of blessing of the Church. There existed a number of old and new formulas, which were essentially the same, but differed from each other in many details. Some formulas were exceedingly lengthy. In the face of these facts, the Rt. Rev. Dom Maurus Wolter OSB, President of the Beuronese Congregation, petitioned Rome for an approved and authentic formula. A carefully prepared and much abbreviated formula was therefore presented to the Sacred Congregation of Rites for its approval.

This formula was approved by the Sacred Congregation for all priests and deacons, secular as well as regular clerics, to impart the blessing, provided the formula approved by the Sacred Congregation is used.

610 St. Lupus of Chalons Bishop cared for the sick and poor.
of Chalons-sur-Saone France. Pope St. Gregory the Great corresponded with him.
Lupus was a model of charity and cared for the sick and poor.

740 St. Natalis founder of monasticism in northern Ireland
and a disciple of St. Columba {597 St. Columba}, also called Naal. He served as abbot of the monasteries of Naile, Daunhinis, and Cill.
A well in that region honors his memory.

8th v, St. Emerius Benedictine abbot of France founder.  
also called Emerus. He founded St. Stephen of Banoles Abbey in Catalonia, Spain.
His mother, St. Candida, lived in a hermitage near the abbey.

798 St. Candida hermitess recluse near St. Stephen of Banoles.
Mother of St. Memerius and hermitess. A Spaniard, Candida was a recluse near St. Stephen of Banoles, an abbey close to Garona, Spain.

8th v. St. Gamo Benedictine abbot of Bretigny monastic expansion near Noyon, France.  
near Noyon, France. He aided the monastic expansion of the era and was a staunch patron of the arts.

800 St. Gamelbert Parish priest of Michaelsbuch 50 years
Germany. He went on a pilgrimage to Rome, was ordained, and served more than fifty years as a pastor. His cult was approved in 1909. 

1022 St. Theodoric of Orleans Benedictine bishop royal counselor
also listed as Theodoric II. Originally a monk in the monastery of Saint-Pierre-le-Vif, at Sens, France, he was named bishop of Orleans after a distinguished period as a royal counselor.

1077 St. Gilduin Canon of Dol in Brittany France, who refused a bishopric from Pope St. Gregory VII.  
After going to Rome to decline the honor, Gilduin died on his way home. His tomb became a popular pilgrimage destination.

1540 St. Angela Merici innovative approach to education the Ursulines first teaching order of women Saint Ursula appeared to her levitated
 Bríxiæ natális sanctæ Angelæ Meríci Vírginis, ex tértio Ordine sancti Francísci, quæ Societátem Vírginum sanctæ Ursulæ instítuit, quarum præcípuum munus esset dirígere adolescéntulas in vias Dómini.  Ejus tamen festívitas Kaléndis Júnii celebrátur.
      At Brescia, the birthday of St. Angela Merici, virgin, who belonged to the Third Order of St. Francis, and who founded the Order of the Nuns of St. Ursula, whose principal aim is to direct young girls in the ways of the Lord.  Her feast is celebrated on the 1st of June.

 St. Angela Merici (1470?-1540) 
Angela has the double distinction of founding the first teaching congregation of women in the Church and what is now called a “secular institute” of religious women.

As a young woman she became a member of the Third Order of St. Francis (now known as the Secular Franciscan Order), and lived a life of great austerity, wishing, like St. Francis, to own nothing, not even a bed. Early in life she was appalled at the ignorance among poorer children, whose parents could not or would not teach them the elements of religion. Angela’s charming manner and good looks complemented her natural qualities of leadership. Others joined her in giving regular instruction to the little girls of their neighborhood.

She was invited to live with a family in Brescia (where, she had been told in a vision, she would one day found a religious community). Her work continued and became well known.
She became the center of a group of people with similar ideals.

She eagerly took the opportunity for a trip to the Holy Land. When they had gotten as far as Crete, she was struck with blindness. Her friends wanted to return home, but she insisted on going through with the pilgrimage, and visited the sacred shrines with as much devotion and enthusiasm as if she had her sight. On the way back, while praying before a crucifix, her sight was restored at the same place where it had been lost.

At 57, she organized a group of 12 girls to help her in catechetical work. Four years later the group had increased to 28. She formed them into the Company of St. Ursula (patroness of medieval universities and venerated as a leader of women) for the purpose of re-Christianizing family life through solid Christian education of future wives and mothers. The members continued to live at home, had no special habit and took no formal vows, though the early Rule prescribed the practice of virginity, poverty and obedience. The idea of a teaching congregation of women was ne w and took time to develop. The community thus existed as a “secular institute” until some years after Angela’s death.

Comment:  As with so many saints, history is mostly concerned with their activities. But we must always presume deep Christian faith and love in one whose courage lasts a lifetime, and who can take bold new steps when human need demands.  Quote:  In a time when change is problematic to many, it may be helpful to recall a statement this great leader made to her sisters: “If according to times and needs you should be obliged to make fresh rules and change certain things, do it with prudence and good advice.”
When she was 56, Angela Merici said "No" to the Pope. She was aware that Clement VII was offering her a great honor and a great opportunity to serve when he asked her to take charge of a religious order of nursing sisters. But Angela knew that nursing was not what God had called her to do with her life.

She had just returned from a trip to the Holy Land. On the way there she had fallen ill and become blind. Nevertheless, she insisted on continuing her pilgrimage and toured the holy sites with the devotion of her heart rather than her eyes. On the way back she had recovered her sight. But this must have been a reminder to her not to shut her eyes to the needs she saw around her, not to shut her heart to God's call.

All around her hometown she saw poor girls with no education and no hope.
In the fifteenth and sixteenth century that Angela lived in, education for women was for the rich or for nuns. Angela herself had learned everything on her own. Her parents had died when she was ten and she had gone to live with an uncle. She was deeply disturbed when her sister died without receiving the sacraments. A vision reassured her that her sister was safe in God's care -- and also prompted her to dedicate her life to God.

When her uncle died, she returned to her hometown and began to notice how little education the girls had. But who would teach them? Times were much different then. Women weren't allowed to be teachers and unmarried women were not supposed to go out by themselves -- even to serve others. Nuns were the best educated women but they weren't allowed to leave their cloisters.
 There were no teaching orders of sisters like we have today.
But in the meantime, these girls grew up without education in religion or anything at all.

These girls weren't being helped by the old ways, so Angela invented a new way.
She brought together a group of unmarried women, fellow Franciscan tertiaries and other friends, who went out into the streets to gather up the girls they saw and teach them. These women had little money and no power, but were bound together by their dedication to education and commitment to Christ. Living in their own homes, they met for prayer and classes where Angela reminded them, " Reflect that in reality you have a greater need to serve [the poor] than they have of your service." They were so successful in their service that Angela was asked to bring her innovative approach to education to other cities, and impressed many people, including the pope.

Though she turned him down, perhaps the pope's request gave her the inspiration or the push to make her little group more formal. Although it was never a religious order in her lifetime, Angela's Company of Saint Ursula, or the Ursulines, was the first group of women religious to work outside the cloister and the first teaching order of women.

It took many years of frustration before Angela's radical ideas of education for all and unmarried women in service were accepted. They are commonplace to us now because people like Angela wanted to help others no matter what the cost. Angela reminds us of her approach to change: "Beware of trying to accomplish anything by force, for God has given every single person free will and desires to constrain none; he merely shows them the way, invites them and counsels them."

Saint Angela Merici reassured her Sisters who were afraid to lose her in death: "I shall continue to be more alive than I was in this life, and I shall see you better and shall love more the good deeds which I shall see you doing continually, and I shall be able to help you more." She died in 1540, at about seventy years old.
In Her Footsteps:

Take a look around you. Instead of just driving or walking without paying attention today, open your eyes to the needs you see along the way. What people do you notice who need help but who are not being helped? What are their true needs? Make a commitment to help them in some way.
Prayer: Saint Angela, you were not afraid of change. You did not let stereotypes keep you from serving. Help us to overcome our fear of change in order to follow God's call and allow others to follow theirs. Amen
Copyright (c) 1996-2000 by Terry Matz. All Rights Reserved.

     In our times, many orders of sisters have engaged in teaching. Before 1535, however, there was no religious order engaged in educational work. Nuns there were aplenty; but their role was seen as contemplative - cloistered away from the world and even from any active apostolate.
     St. Angela Merici was responsible for changing all that, by organizing the Ursuline Sisters in 1535 for the education of women. Even in colonial times this order crossed the Atlantic. St. Marie of the Incarnation brought it to Quebec, Canada, in 1639. Another French group set up a convent in New Orleans in 1727 - the first convent of nuns in the present U.S.A. It was Ursulines who established the first Catholic women's college in New York State: the College of New Rochelle (1904).
Thus we owe to St. Ursula the whole tradition of educational orders that has been so important to the American Church.

     And who was this pioneer teaching sister?
     Angela Merici was a native of Desenzano in sub-Alpine Italy. The Merici parents trained her and her sister and brother in Christian living. Unfortunately, both parents died when Angela was only ten, so she and her sister were raised by an uncle who lived at Salo.
     At thirteen, Angela had a great emotional crisis. Her sister died suddenly without the last sacraments, and Angela worried greatly about the girl's salvation. Finally, however, she was reassured in a vision - the first of many she would receive - that her sister had been saved. In her relief and gratitude, Angela now determined to dedicate her life to God's service. She joined the Third Order of Franciscans and started to live a life of great austerity, in keeping with the old tradition of the saints.
     Her uncle died when she was 22, so she returned to Desenzano. Here she became aware that many of the children were not receiving proper instruction in religion (as is so true in our own generation!). She gathered a few other women teachers and set up a school for girls. Under her capable direction, the group became successful and progressive teachers. Soon she was asked to open another school at Brescia. By now, she was not only training youngsters, but inspiring a number of prominent men and women of that worldly era to lead more Christian lives.
     Angela's own devotional life continued to develop. She was much given, for instance, to pilgrimages - that ancient and symbolic Catholic practice. She even made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land - a long, hard trip in those days. Furthermore, she became blind at Crete while en route. She spent all her time in Palestine without sight, but she was cured of her blindness on the return trip at the same place where she had lost it, on the island of Crete.
Then in 1525, since it was a Holy Year of Jubilee, Angela went as a pilgrim to Rome to gain the great jubilee indulgence. When she had an audience with the Pope Clement VII, he tried to persuade her to stay at Rome and head a congregation of nursing sisters. But she was still convinced of her calling to education work. In fact, years before, she had experienced a vision in which she saw a group of young women ascending to heaven on a ladder of light. A voice had then said:
“Take heed, Angela; before you die you will found at Brescia a company of maidens similar to those you have just seen.
     It was April 1533 that she made this prophecy come true. She chose a group of her companions for this work, and on November 25, 1535, they officially became the first Ursulines. Because they had to be an active order, they originally had no cloister, no special habit, no convents (they lived at home), and no formal vows; just a rule of poverty, chastity and obedience. In other words, they were organized much like today's “secular institutes.”
     After Angela's death, their rule was somewhat altered. But she had brought into being one of the most innovative and effective organizations of the Catholic Reformation. While the Protestant reformers were destroying the Catholic faith of many adult Christians, Angela and her imitators were already raising in firm and knowing faith the girls that would mother the next generation of Catholics.
     --Father Robert F. McNamara

Angela de'Merici, OSU V (RM)(also known as Angela of Brescia) Born in Desenzano (near Lake Garda and Brescia), Lombardy, Italy, March 21, 1470 or 1474; died in Brescia, Italy, January 27, 1540; canonized 1807; feast day formerly on May 31.

"If any person, because of his state in life, cannot do without wealth and position, let him at least keep his heart empty of the love of them." --Saint Angela Merici.
As is often the case, it was the number of burdens which Angela Merici had to endure that brought her ever closer to God and moved her to order her existemce. Recalling her life, we should thank God for every hardship He permits us and the strength He gives us to endure them. Each trial is an opportunity to trust in God, to realize His power and His movement within and around us.
Orphaned at age 10, Angela and her sister and brother were raised by their wealthy uncle, Biancozi, at Salo. In Angela's first ecstatic experience, the Blessed Mother appeared with Angela's elder sister. Thus put her mind at rest regarding the salvation of her sister, who had died suddenly without receiving the sacraments. Angela became a Franciscan tertiary at 13 and lived austerely, sometimes eating only bread, water, and vegetables once a week. From this time onward, she wished to possess nothing, not even a bed (because the Son of Man had nowhere to lay His head).

On the death of her uncle, the 20-year-old Angela returned to her hometown and began giving catechism lessons to the poor children in Desenzano. She discussed her horror at the ignorance so many children had of their religion with her friends, who were mostly tertiaries. They were eager to help if Angela could show them how. Although Angela was small of stature, she had a great spirit, charm, and beauty capable of attracting and leading others. She and her friends began to regularly and systematically teach their young, female neighbors. Angela's own success in teaching the catechism in Desenzano led to the invitation from a wealthy couple, whom she had once helped, to begin a school in Brescia.

Angela had the special gift of being able to remember everything she read. She spoke Latin well and knew the meaning of some of the hardest passages of Scripture, which led to her being sought out for counsel. In Brescia she was brought in touch with the leading families and became the center of a circle of devout men and women whom she inspired with her great ideals.

On a trip to the Holy Land, she suddenly lost her sight in Crete. She continued her trip with devotion, and on the return trip, regained her sight at the very spot where she'd lost it.

During a visit to Rome for the Holy Year 1525, Pope Clement VII asked her to take charge of a group of nursing sisters in Rome, but she declined. She told him of a vision she had experienced years before of maidens ascending to heaven on a ladder of light, which was what led her to gather young women into an informal novitiate. In the vision the holy virgins were accompanied up and down the ladder by glorious angels who played sweet music on golden harps. All wore beautiful crowns decorated with precious jewels. After a time the music stopped and the Savior Himself called her by name to create a society of women. The Holy Father gave her permission to form a community.

Shortly, thereafter, Saint Ursula appeared to her, which is why she became the community's patron. Assisting at Mass one day, Angela fell into ecstasy and was said to have levitated.

Soon after her return to Brescia, she was forced to withdraw to Cremona because war had broken out, and when Charles V was on the point of making himself master of Brescia it was essential that non-combatants leave the city. When peace again prevailed, Angela's return to Brescia was greeted with joy by the citizens who already venerated her as a prophetess and saint.

In Saint Afra's Church at Brescia on November 25, 1535, Angela and 28 younger companions bound themselves before God to devote the rest of their lives to his service, especially by the education of girls. Angela placed herself and the novices under the protection of Saint Ursula, the patroness of medieval universities and venerated as a leader of women. This was the beginning of the Company of Saint Ursula (Ursuline nuns), the first teaching order of women--a novel idea that needed time before it was accepted.

The order had no habit (members usually wore a simple black dress), took no vows, and pursued neither an enclosed nor a communal life; they worked to oversee the religious education of girls, especially among the poorer classes, and to care for the sick. The Ursulines were formally recognized by Pope Paul III four years after Angela's death (1544) and were organized into a Congregation in 1565. At the start much of the teaching was done in the children's homes: but in her conception of an uncloistered, flexible society of women Saint Angela was before her time.
She survived to direct the society for only four years.

During that time Angela was noted for her patience to her sisters and kindness in her many acts of mercy to the poor, sick, and ignorant. Soon there were 150 sisters to whom Angela addressed her wise sayings in her Counsels. As her sisters surrounded her in prayer at the hour of her death, a beautiful ray of light shone upon the saint--a sign that God was welcoming her to her eternal home. Angela died with the name of Jesus on her lips.

In 1568, Saint Charles Borromeo called the Ursulines to Milan and persuaded them to assume a cloistered communal life. In a provincial synod he explained to his suffragan bishops that he knew of no better means for the reform of their dioceses than to introduce the Ursulines into populous communities.
Later in France strict enclosure was adopted and the teaching of young girls was made the chief concern of the order. The Ursulines flourish today (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Caraman, Delaney, Farmer, Schamoni, Walsh, White).
In art Saint Angela is represented by the image of virgins ascending a ladder; or with Saint Ursula and companions appearing to her (White).
1896 St. Enrique de Osso y Cervello devotion to religious education (1840-1896).  
When Pope John Paul II made his pastoral visit to Spain in June 1993, he canonized a Spanish priest noted for his devotion to religious education: St. Enrique de Osso y Cervello.
Enrique was a native of Tarragona in Spain's Catalonia, the youngest of the three children of Jaime de Osso and Micaela Cervello, a couple very Christian and very Catalan.
When little Henry was eleven, his father sent him to Barcelona to become an apprentice to his uncle and learn a trade. Unfortunately, the lad soon fell gravely ill, and his first holy communion was administered to him as Viaticum. He did get well and returned home, detouring by the famous shrine of Our Lady of the Pillar to offer thanks for his recovery. Later he was sent to Reus, and apprenticed there to another businessman.
But a business career did not seem to be in God's plans. As Henry increased in knowledge and wisdom, he became more deeply spiritual. The death of his mother proved especially soul-searing. It moved him to make a retreat at the Benedictine monastery of Montserrat near Barcelona. There he concluded that he was called to the diocesan priesthood.
After studies in the seminary at Tortosa, and later at that of Barcelona, he was called back to the Tortosa seminary and assigned to its faculty. This was even before his ordination to the priesthood in 1867. From the outset, he was resolved to love Jesus more each day, and to make better known to all the love of God the Father.
Assigned to catechetical work in the city of Tortosa, St. Enrique applied himself to it diligently. In those days religion was under attack in Spain by anticlericals. He confronted their attacks positively by broadening religious instruction among seminarians, children and families.
It was a demanding undertaking, one that could not be accomplished without help. So in 1873 Father de Osso founded a lay catechetical organization, the Association of Young Catholic
Daughters of Mary and St. Teresa of Jesus.
In 1876 he founded the Josephine Sisterhood, the "Little Flock of the Child Jesus", and the Society of St. Teresa of Jesus, which was dedicated to Christian education for all. Christian education, he said, is the only thing that can transform society, drawing it to Christ. The Society of St. Teresa of Jesus grew rapidly, spreading into Portugal and Latin America. Unfortunately, in 1895 a misunderstanding arose between himself and the superior general of the Society of St. Teresa of Jesus. He thereupon went to Gilet, near Valencia, Spain where the Franciscan friary gave him a home. He died there on January 27, 1896.
At the outdoor Mass of canonization in Madrid, Pope John Paul told the immense crowd that he was giving to Spain and the whole world, a saint for all to imitate. St. Enrique, like Christ himself, he said, directed his apostolate of Christian instruction to people of all ages and conditions: particularly to women, for, as the saint used to say, "The world has always been what women have made it." Furthermore, the future of humanity passes by way of the family, the Pope continued. It is therefore necessary "to present authentically the ideal of the, Christian family, based on unity and fidelity in marriage, open to children, guided by love." To the young people in the audience, said John Paul, "Do not be afraid to be saints!"
The Holy Father, in conclusion, recalled that 1992 marked the 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage and the apostolate to the new world. Today, again, he said, "there is a pressing need for the new evangelization in order to renew the wealth and vitality of the Christian values in a society that shows signs of disorientation and discouragement."
The primary objective of the new evangelization, the Pope stated, is "to renew the ideal of holiness among the faithful. A holiness that is manifested in bearing witness to one's own faith, in boundless charity, in a love lived and practiced in everyday activities."
In a day in which Catholics are showing themselves increasingly ignorant about their faith, it is understandable that the Pope is mounting a campaign for a "second evangelization". And it is understandable that he should consider St. Enrique a fitting model for catechists of the 21st century. --Father Robert F. McNamara

On Death and Life
"Man Needs Eternity -- and Every Other Hope, for Him, Is All Too Brief"
Пресвятая Богородице спаси нас!
   (Santíssima Mãe de Deus, salva-nos!)

Month by Month of Saintly Dedications

The Rosary html Mary Mother of GOD -- Her Rosary Here
Mary Mother of GOD Mary's Divine Motherhood: FEASTS OF OUR LADY
     of the Virgin Mary to those who recite the Rosary

May 9 – Our Lady of the Wood (Italy, 1607) 
Months of Dedication
January is the month of the Holy Name of Jesus since 1902;
March is the month of Saint Joseph since 1855;
May, the month of Mary, is the oldest and most well-known Marian month, officially since 1724;
June is the month of the Sacred Heart since 1873;
July is the month of the Precious Blood since 1850;
August is the month of the Immaculate Heart of Mary;
September is the month of Our Lady of Sorrows since 1857;
October is the month of the Rosary since 1868;
November is the month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory since 1888;
December is the month of the Immaculate Conception.

In all, five months of the year are dedicated to Mary.
The idea of dedicating months came from Rome and promotion of the month of Mary owes much to the Jesuits.

Pray that the witness of 40 Days for Life bears abundant fruit, and that we begin again each day to storm the gates of hell until God welcomes us into the gates of heaven.

If you seek patience, you will find no better example than the cross. Great patience occurs in two ways:
either when one patiently suffers much, or when one suffers things which one is able to avoid and yet does not avoid.
Christ endured much on the cross, and did so patiently, because when he suffered he did not threaten;
he was led like a sheep to the slaughter and he did not open his mouth.-- St. Thomas Aquinas

We begin our day by seeing Christ in the consecrated bread, and throughout the day we continue to see Him in the torn bodies of our poor. We pray, that is, through our work, performing it with Jesus, for Jesus and upon Jesus.
The poor are our prayer. They carry God in them. Prayer means praying everything, praying the work.
We meet the Lord who hungers and thirsts, in the poor.....and the poor could be you or I or any person kind enough to show us his or her love and to come to our place.
Because we cannot see Christ, we cannot express our love to Him in person.
But our neighbor we can see, and we can do for him or her what we would love to do for Jesus if He were visible.
-- Mother Teresa
My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love Thee.  I beg pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not love Thee.  O most Holy trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore Thee profoundly.
 I offer Thee the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the Tabernacles of the world,  in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifference by which He is offended,
and by the infite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

I beg the conversion of poor sinners,  Amen Fatima Prayer, Angel of Peace
Mary's Divine Motherhood
Pope Francis and Pope Benedict XVI { 2013 } Catholic Church In China { article here}
1648 to1930 St. Augustine Zhao Rong and 120 Companions Christianity arrived in China by way of Syria -- 600s.
        Depending on China's relations with outside world,
Christianity for centuries was free to grow or forced to operate secretly.

How do I start the Five First Saturdays? 
Called in the Gospel “the Mother of Jesus,” Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the Mother of my Lord” (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos). 
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
“The Blessed Virgin was eternally predestined, in conjunction with the incarnation of the divine Word, to be the Mother of God. By decree of divine Providence, she served on earth as the loving mother of the divine Redeemer, an associate of unique nobility, and the Lord's humble handmaid. She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ.”
The voice of the Father is heard, the Son enters the water, and the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove.
   THE spirit and example of the world imperceptibly instil the error into the minds of many that there is a kind of middle way of going to Heaven; and so, because the world does not live up to the gospel, they bring the gospel down to the level of the world. It is not by this example that we are to measure the Christian rule, but words and life of Christ. All His followers are commanded to labour to become perfect even as our heavenly Father is perfect, and to bear His image in our hearts that we may be His children. We are obliged by the gospel to die to ourselves by fighting self-love in our hearts, by the mastery of our passions, by taking on the spirit of our Lord.
   These are the conditions under which Christ makes His promises and numbers us among His children, as is manifest from His words which the apostles have left us in their inspired writings. Here is no distinction made or foreseen between the apostles or clergy or religious and secular persons. The former, indeed, take upon themselves certain stricter obligations, as a means of accomplishing these ends more perfectly; but the law of holiness and of disengagement of the heart from the world is geeral and binds all the followers of Christ.

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We are called upon with the whole Church militant on earth to join in praising and thanking God for the grace and glory he has bestowed on his saints. At the same time we earnestly implore Him to exert His almighty power and mercy in raising us from our miseries and sins, healing the disorders of our souls and leading us by the path of repentance to the company of His saints, to which He has called us.
   They were once what we are now, travellers on earth they had the same weaknesses, which we have. We have difficulties to encounter so had the saints, and many of them far greater than we can meet with; obstacles from kings and whole nations, sometimes from the prisons, racks and swords of persecutors. Yet they surmounted these difficulties, which they made the very means of their virtue and victories. It was by the strength they received from above, not by their own, that they triumphed. But the blood of Christ was shed for us as it was for them and the grace of our Redeemer is not wanting to us; if we fail, the failure is in ourselves.
   THE saints and just, from the beginning of time and throughout the world, who have been made perfect, everlasting monuments of God’s infinite power and clemency, praise His goodness without ceasing; casting their crowns before His throne they give to Him all the glory of their triumphs: “His gifts alone in us He crowns.”
“The saints must be honored as friends of Christ and children and heirs of God, as John the theologian and evangelist says: ‘But as many as received him, he gave them the power to be made the sons of God....’ Let us carefully observe the manner of life of all the apostles, martyrs, ascetics and just men who announced the coming of the Lord. And let us emulate their faith, charity, hope, zeal, life, patience under suffering, and perseverance unto death, so that we may also share their crowns of glory” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith

Called in the Gospel the Mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as the Mother of my Lord (Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.). In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son,  the second person of the Holy Trinity.
Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly Mother of God (Theotokos).
Catechism of the Catholic Church 495, quoting the Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.
Nine First Fridays Devotion to the Sacred Heart ... From the writings of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque
On Friday during Holy Communion, He said these words to me, His unworthy slave, if I mistake not:
I promise you in the excessive mercy of my Heart that its all-powerful love will grant to all those who receive Holy Communion on nine first Fridays of consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they will not die under my displeasure or without receiving their sacraments, my divine Heart making itself their assured refuge at the last moment.
Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness.
He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation.
He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart, and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God, and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.
With regard to this promise it may be remarked: (1) that our Lord required Communion to be received on a particular day chosen by Him; (2) that the nine Fridays must be consecutive; (3) that they must be made in honor of His Sacred Heart, which means that those who make the nine Fridays must practice the devotion and must have a great love for our Lord; (4) that our Lord does not say that those who make the nine Fridays will be dispensed from any of their obligations or from exercising the vigilance necessary to lead a good life and overcome temptation; rather He implicitly promises abundant graces to those who make the nine Fridays to help them to carry out these obligations and persevere to the end; (5) that perseverance in receiving Holy Communion for nine consecutive First Firdays helps the faithful to acquire the habit of frequent Communion, which our Lord eagerly desires; and (6) that the practice of the nine Fridays is very pleasing to our Lord He promises such great reward, and all Catholics should endeavor to make nine Fridays.
How do I start the Five First Saturdays? by Fr. Tom O'Mahony.
On July 13,1917, Our Lady appeared for the third time to the three children of Fatima an showed them the vision of hell and made the now - famous thirteen prophecies. In this vision Our Lady said that 'GOD WISHES TO ESTABLISH IN THE WORLD DEVOTION to Her Immaculate Heart and that She would come TO ASK FOR THE COMMUNION OF REPARATION ON THE FIRST SATURDAYS...'  Eight years later, on December 10, 1925, Our Lady did indeed come back. She appeared (with the Child Jesus) to Lucia in the convent of the Dorothean Sisters in Pontevedra.
The Child Jesus spoke first:


The Five Reasons
From the above, it is easy to see that each of the Five Saturdays can correspond to a specific offence. By offering the graces received during each First Saturday as reparation for the offence being prayed for, the participant can hope to help remove the thorns from Our Lady's Heart.
What Do I Have To Do?
The devotion of First Saturdays, as requested by Our Lady of Fatima, carries with it the assurance of salvation. However, to derive profit from such a great promise of Our Lady, the devotion must be properly understood and duly performed.
The requirements as stipulated by Our Lady are as follows:
(1) CONFESSION: A reparative confession means that the confession should not only be good (valid and licit), but also be offered in the spirit of reparation, in this case, to Mary's Immaculate Heart. This confession may be made on the First Saturday itself or some days before or after the First Saturday within the preceding octave would suffice.
(2) COMMUNION: The communion of reparation must be sacramental duly received with the intention of making reparation. This offering, like the confession, is an interior act and so no external action to express the intention is needed.
(3) THE ROSARY: The Rosary mentioned here was indicated by the Portuguese word 'terco' which is commonly employed to denote a Rosary of five decades, since it forms a fourth of the full Rosary of 20 decades. This too must recited in a spirit of reparation.
(4) MEDITATION FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES: Here the meditation on one mystery or more is to be made without simultaneous recitation of the Rosary decade. As indicated, the meditation may be either on one mystery alone for 15 minutes, or on all 20 mysteries, spending about one minute on each mystery, or again, on two or more mysteries during the period. This can also be made before each decade spending three minutes or more in considering the mystery of the particular decade. This meditation has likewise to be made in the spirit of reparation to the Immaculate Heart.
(5) THE SPIRIT OF REPARATION: All these acts, as said above, have to be done with the intention of offering reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the offences committed against Her. Everyone who offends Her commits, so to speak, a two-fold offence, for these sins also offend her Divine Son, Christ, and so endanger our salvation. They give bad example to others and weaken the strength of society to withstand immoral onslaughts. Such devotions therefore make us consider not only the enormity of the offence against God, but also the effect of sins on human society as well as the need for undoing these social effects even when the offender repents and is converted. Further, this reparation emphasises our responsibility towards sinners who, themselves, will not pray and make reparation for their sins.
(6) FIVE CONSECUTIVE FIRST SATURDAYS: The idea of the Five First Saturdays is obviously to make us persevere in the devotional acts for these Saturdays and overcome initial difficulties. Once this is done, Our Lady knows that the person would become devoted to Her immaculate Heart and persist in practising such devotion on all First Saturdays, working thereby for personal self-reform and for the salvation of others.

Unless Russia is converted, the movement against God and for sin will continue to spread, promoting wars and persecutions, and making the attainment for peace and justice impossible for this world. One means of obtaining Russia's conversion is to practise the Fatima Message. The stakes are so great that to encourage Catholics to practise the devotion of the First Saturdays, Our Lady has assured us that She will obtain salvation for all those who observe the first Saturdays for five consecutive months in accordance with Her conditions.
At the supreme moment the departing person will be either in the state of grace or not. In either case Our Lady will be by his side. If in the state of grace, She will console and help him to resist whatever temptations the devil might put before him in his last attempt to take the person with him to hell. If not in the state of grace, Our Lady will help the person to repent in a manner agreeable to God and so benefit by the fruits of redemption and be saved.

God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea.  As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints. Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences.  Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory. Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives.  Each saint the Church honors responded to God's invitation to use his or her unique gifts.   God calls each one of us to be a saint in order to get into heavenonly saints are allowed into heaven. The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR the benefit of others.
There are over 10,000 named saints beati  from history
 and Roman Martyology Orthodox sources

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Pius IX 1846--1878 • Leo XIII 1878-1903 • Pius X 1903-1914• Benedict XV 1914-1922 • Pius XI 1922-1939 • Pius XII 1939-1958 • John XXIII 1958-1963 • Paul VI 1963 to 1978 • John Paul • John Paul II 10/16/1975-4/2/2005
 Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) Francis (2013

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints today
Romæ sancti Vitaliáni Papæ.       At Rome, St. Vitalian, pope.

Whereas in the Lord's Prayer, we are bidden to ask for 'our daily bread,' the Holy Fathers of the Church all but unanimously teach that by these words must be understood, not so much that material bread which is the support of the body, as the Eucharistic bread, which ought to be our daily food. -- Pope St. Pius X
Then in 1525, since it was a Holy Year of Jubilee, Angela Merici went as a pilgrim to Rome to gain the great jubilee indulgence. When she had an audience with the Pope Clement VII, he tried to persuade her to stay at Rome and head a congregation of nursing sisters. But she was still convinced of her calling to education work. In fact, years before, she had experienced a vision in which she saw a group of young women ascending to heaven on a ladder of light. A voice had then said:
“Take heed, Angela; before you die you will found at Brescia a company of maidens similar to those you have just seen.
     It was April 1533 that she made this prophecy come true. The Ursalines

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
Pope Gregory IX 1227-1241 , having called St Raymund to Rome in 1230, nominated him to various offices and took him likewise for his confessor, in which capacity Raymund enjoined the pope, for a penance, to receive, hear and expedite im­mediately all petitions presented by the poor. Gregory also ordered the saint to gather into one body all the scattered decrees of popes and councils since the collection made by Gratian in 1150. In three years Raymund completed his task, and the five books of the “Decretals” were confirmed by the same Pope Gregory in 1234. Down to the publication of the new Codex Juris Canonici in 1917 this compilation of St Raymund was looked upon as the best arranged part of the body of canon law, on which account the canonists usually chose it for the text of their commentaries.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints

250 St. Fabian layperson dove descended this stranger was elected Pope able built Church of Rome
Pope ST FABIAN succeeded St Antherus in the pontificate about the year 236. Eusebius relates that in an assembly of the people and clergy held to elect the new pope, a dove flew in and settled on the head of St Fabian.

Pope Paschal II 1086 St. Canute IV Martyred king of Denmark -- authorized the veneration of St Canute, though it is not easy to see upon what his claim to martyrdom rests. Aelnoth adds that the first preachers of Christianity in Denmark and Scandinavia were Englishmen, and that the Swedes were the most difficult to convert.

Pope Leo XIII 1924 Saint Joseph Sebastian Pelczar; Bishop of Przemysl in 1900 until his death in 1924. He made frequent visits to the parishes, supported the religious orders, conducted three synods, and worked for the education and religious formation of his priests.
He worked for the implentation of the social doctrine described in the writings of Pope Leo XIII.

The Church without Mary is an orphanage
 Pope Francis:
“It is very different to try and grow in the faith without Mary's help. It is something else. It is like growing in the faith, yes, but in a Church that is an orphanage. A Church without Mary is an orphanage. With Mary—she educates us, she makes us grow, she accompanies us, she touches consciences. She knows how to touch consciences, for repentance.”
Pope Francis Speech of October 25, 2014, to the Schönstatt Apostolic Movement on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of its founding

Pope Clement IX --  1670 St. Charles of Sezze Franciscan Pope Clement IX called Charles to his bedside for a blessing

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
 Romæ Invéntio sanctórum Mártyrum Diodóri Presbyteri, Mariáni Diáconi, et Sociórum; qui, sancto Stéphano Papa Ecclésiam Dei regénte, martyrium Kaléndis Decémbris sunt assecúti.
At Rome, the finding of the holy martyrs Diodorus, priest, and Marian, deacon, and their companions.  They suffered martyrdom on the 1st of December during the pontificate of Pope St. Stephen.

308-309 Pope St. Marcellus I
Romæ, via Salária, natális sancti Marcélli Primi, Papæ et Mártyris; qui, ob cathólicæ fídei confessiónem, jubénte Maxéntio tyránno, primo cæsus est fústibus, deínde ad servítium animálium cum custódia pública deputátus, et ibídem, serviéndo indútus amíctu cilícino, defúnctus est.
       At Rome, on the Salarian Way, the birthday of Pope St. Marcellus I, a martyr for the confession of the Catholic faith.  By command of the tyrant Maxentius he was beaten with clubs, then sent to take care of animals, with a guard to watch him.  In this servile office, dressed in haircloth, he departed this life.

Popes mentioned in articles of Saints
Pope Innocent III : 1208 Bl. Peter of Castelnau  Martyred Cistercian papal legate and inquisitor
To him, aided by another of his religious brethren,
Pope Innocent III
in 1203 confided the mission of taking action as apostolic delegate and inquisi­tor against the Albigensian heretics, a duty which Peter discharged with much zeal, but little success.

Pope Sylvester I (r. 314-335) named St. Agrecius Bishop to this see of Treves (modern Trier), Germany Agrecius missionary trusted associate of St. Helena 

Pope Alexander VI.
Several times Christ gave to St. Martha, blessed Veronica of Binasco, virgin, of the Order of St. prayer important messages which she carried to influential persons such as the Duke of Milan and Pope Alexander VI.

Pope St. Innocent I  401-41 ;   Pope St. Celestine I  422-432;

 681  Pope St. Agath678-681 a holy death, concluded a life remarkable for sanctity and learning.

1276 Teobaldo Visconti Pope St. Gregory X 1210-1276; Arriving in Rome in March, he was first ordained priest, then consecrated bishop, and crowned on the 27th  of the same month, in 1272. He took the name of Gregory X, and to procure the most effectual succour for the Holy Land he called a general council to meet at Lyons. This fourteenth general council, the second of Lyons, was opened in May 1274. Among those assembled were St Albert the Great and St Philip Benizi; St Thomas Aquinas died on his way thither, and St Bonaventure died at the council. In the fourth session the Greek legates on behalf of the Eastern emperor and patriarch restored communion between the Byzantine church and the Holy See.;  miraculous cures performed by him

Saints of Previoius Days
St. Hyginus, Pope Greek 137-140 confront Gnostic heresy
 Romæ sancti Hygíni, Papæ et Mártyris; qui, in persecutióne Antoníni, glorióse martyrium consummávit.
       At Rome, St. Hyginus, pope, who suffered a glorious martyrdom in the persecution of Antoninus.
Pope from 137-140, successorto Pope St. Telesphorus. He was a Greek, and probably had a pontificate of four years. He had to confront the Gnostic heresy and Valentinus and Cerdo, leaders of the heresy, who were in Rome at the time. Some lists proclaim him a martyr. His cult was suppressed in 1969.

Quote: Pope Paul VI’s 1969 Instruction on the Contemplative Life includes this passage:  
 "To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

"Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person" -- Benedict XVI

"To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).
Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person -- Benedict XVI

Nazareth is the School of the Gospel (II)
It is first a lesson of silence.
May the esteem of silence be born in us anew, this admirable and indispensable condition of the spirit, in us who are assailed by so much clamor, noise and shouting in our modern life, so noisy and hyper sensitized. O silence of Nazareth, teach us recollection, interiority, disposition to listen to the good inspirations and words of the true masters; teach us the need and value of preparation, study, meditation, personal and interior life, and prayer that God alone sees in secret.

It is a lesson of family life.
May Nazareth teach us what a family is, with its communion of love, its austere and simple beauty, its sacred and inviolable character; let us learn from Nazareth how sweet and irreplaceable is the formation one receives within it; let us learn how primordial its role is on the social level.

It is a lesson of work. Nazareth, the house of the carpenter's son; it is there that we would like to understand and celebrate the severe and redeeming law of human labor; there, to reestablish the conscience of work's nobility; to remind people that working cannot be an end in itself, but that its freedom and nobility come, in addition to its economic value, from the value that finalize it; how we wish to salute here all the workers of the world and show them their great model, their divine brother, the prophet of all their just causes, Christ Our Lord.
Homily of Paul VI in Nazareth January 5, 1964

Pope Warns Against Domesticating Memory of Salvation
At Morning Mass, Says It's 'So Wonderful to Be Saved' That We Must Feast
- Pope Francis reflected today on the joy of the Christian life, specifically, the awareness that Christ came to save us.

He celebrated his habitual morning Mass in the Domus Sanctae Marthae with the eight cardinals who he has chosen to be his advisory council. The council is meeting these days at the Vatican.

Vatican Radio reported that the Holy Father's homily was drawn from the First Reading, from Chapter 8 of Nehemiah, which describes the people's rejoicing as Ezra read from the Book of the Law.

The People of God, he said, “had the memory of the Law, but it was a distant memory.” The recovery of the Law brought them "the experience of the closeness of salvation."
“This is important not only in the great moments in history, but also in the moments of our life: we all have the memory of salvation, everyone. I wonder, though: is this memory close to us, or is it a memory a bit far away, spread a little thin, a bit archaic, a little like a museum [piece]… it can get far away [from us]… and when the memory is not close, when we do not experience the closeness of memory, it enters into a process of transformation, and the memory becomes a mere recollection.”
When memory is distant, Francis added, “it is transformed into recollection, but when it comes near, it turns into joy, and this is the joy of the people.” This, he continued, constitutes “a principle of our Christian life.” When memory is close, said Pope Francis, “it warms the heart and gives us joy.”:

“This joy is our strength. The joy of the nearness of memory. Domesticated memory, on the other hand, which moves away and becomes a mere recollection, does not warm the heart. It gives us neither joy nor strength. This encounter with memory is an event of salvation, it is an encounter with the love of God that has made history with us and saved us. It is a meeting of salvation - and it is so wonderful to be saved, that we need to make feast.”

The Church, said Pope Francis, has “[Christ’s] memory”: the “memory of the Passion of the Lord.” We too, he said, run the risk of “pushing this memory away, turning it into a mere recollection, in a rote exercise."
“Every week we go to church, or perhaps when someone dies, we go to the funeral … and this memory often times bores us, because it is not near. It is sad, but the Mass is often turned into a social event and we are not close to the memory of the Church, which is the presence of the Lord before us. Imagine this beautiful scene in the Book of Nehemiah: Ezra who carries the Book of Israel’s memory and the people once again grow near to their memory and weep, the heart is warmed, is joyful, it feels that the joy of the Lord is its strength – and the people make a feast, without fear, simply.”

“Let us ask the Lord,” concluded Pope Francis, “for the grace to always have His memory close to us, a memory close
and not domesticated by habit, by so many things, and pushed away into mere recollection.”
Pope Francis VATICAN CITY, October 03, 2013 (

"Whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you shall receive it, and it shall come to you. St. Mark 11:24"

"Christianity is not a moral code or a philosophy, but an encounter with a person" -- Benedict XVI
"To withdraw into the desert is for Christians tantamount to associating themselves more intimately with Christ’s passion, and it enables them, in a very special way, to share in the paschal mystery and in the passage of Our Lord from this world to the heavenly homeland" (#1).

Pope Francis

The more "extravagant" graces are bestowed NOT for the benefit of the recipients so much as FOR benefit of others.   Non est inventus similis illis